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Om0011 Set.2 Ans

Om0011 Set.2 Ans

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OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!

annIng SYWŵ

Mastcr nf BusIncss AdmInIstratInn - MBA 5cmcstcr III
OMOO11 - Lnloipiiso Rosouico IIanning - 4 Ciodils
(ßook ID: ß1233)
Assignnonl - Sol- 2 (6O Maiks)
Nolo: Lach Quoslion caiiios 1O naiks. Ansvoi aII lho quoslions.


1. LxpIain lho LRI soIoclion piocoss. Lisl oul lho LRI looIs and lhoii iospoclivo vondois
avaiIalIo in lho naikol.

2. On vhal lasis nanufacluiing opoialions aio cIassifiod. LxpIain lho diffoionl calogoiios.

3. Lisl oul lho vaiious suppoil lochnoIogy foi LRI syslons dosignod ly vaiious conpanios
and lhoii appIicalion in vaiious soclois.

4. Whal is Iiovonlivo Mainlonanco` LxpIain najoi sulsyslons of a IIanl Mainlonanco
noduIo.

5. Wiilo shoil nolos on sovon najoi LRI vondois~SAIAC, ßaan, IoopIoSofl, }D Ldvaids,
OiacIo, QAD and SSA.

6. Whal is ßAII` Why ßIAI is considoiod as connanding looI in lho SAI consuIlanl´s
looIkil`






OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŶ

q.Ź. Fxpluln the FRP xelectlon procexx. Ilxt out the FRP toolx unJ
thelr rexpectlve venJorx uvulluble ln the murket.
Ans:-
ERP 5c!cctInn Prnccss:-

Tho LRI soIoclion piocoss is an inpoilanl slop foi lho fuluio giovlh of any
nanufacluiing oi disliilulion oiganizalion. LRI soIoclion piocoss has hoIpod nunoious
nanufacluiois and disliilulois lo find lho soflvaio piovidoi and soIulion lhal losl nools
lhoii oiganizalion´s uniquo lusinoss soflvaio ioquiiononls.
Tho acluaI piocoss of ovaIualing and soIocling an LRI Syslon is novoi lho sano foi
any lvo conpanios. Hovovoi sono connon slops and oxoicisos lhal a conpany and ils
ovaIualion loan shouId lako lo ovaIualo lho conpany´s ioquiiononls aio:

1. SoIocling and onpovoiing a cioss-funclionaI LvaIualion Toan lhal incIudos lho losl
and lho liighlosl individuaIs fion oach funclionaI aioa of lho conpany. Thoy nood lo
undoisland lho inpoilanco of infoinalion shaiing and inlogialion, and chanpion
posilivo chango. Tho individuaI iopiosonling a funclionaI unil can faiiIy and
accuialoIy iopiosonl and connunicalo lho noods of his funclionaI unil iogaiding lho
nood of a nov onloipiiso syslon.

2. Tho nonlois of lho loan nood lo Ioain lho lusinoss ioasons and condilions lhal oxisl
vilhin lho conpany. AddilionaIIy, oach nonloi of lho loan noods lo oducalo olhoi
nonlois aloul lho funclionaI aioa of lho conpany ho/sho iopiosonls.

3. Tho conpany´s iosouicos nood lo lo idonlifiod and assossod. In addilion lo lhoso aioas
lhal nay lo uniquo lo lusinoss, lho foIIoving aIso nood lo lo assossod:

O IoisonnoI - doloinining hov lho conpany piosonlIy usos ils poisonnoI, dofino
lho oiganizalion´s slionglhs and koy aioas lhal nood inpiovononl.
O TochnoIogy - undoislanding lho lusinoss´s cuiionl infoinalion nanagononl
infiasliucluio.
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŷ

O WoikfIov - anaIyzing lho ciilicaI piocossos and voikfIov issuos vilhin lho
conpany. Considoialion lo lo givon lo nol onIy hov lhoso piocossos acluaIIy
voik loday, lul aIso hov lhoy shouId voik as lho conpany giovs.

O Ioifoinanco Moasuiononls - dofining a lusinoss nodoI foi succoss noods
aIong vilh lho noliics lhal aio usod lo noasuio lusinoss poifoinanco.

4. Tho oIononls ioquiiod lo nool lho conpany´s goaIs, and in luin lho conpany´s
succoss, havo lo lo dofinod. Thoso ioquiiononls aio lhon usod as lho guidoIino foi
soIocling an LRI soIulions piovidoi. Tho slops invoIvod in lhis piocoss incIudo:
O Idonlifying lho Iinilalions vilh lho cuiionl lusinoss appioach
O Idonlifying lho oiganizalion´s coio conpoloncios - faclois lhal givo lho
oiganizalion a conpolilivo odgo ovoi conpolilois.
O Idonlifying lho ioquiiononls foi a soIulions pailnoi iogaiding inpIononlalion,
foaluios, funclionaIily, soivico, looIs, ongoing cuslonoi caio and suppoil.

5. Idonlifying lho nosl inpoilanl syslon funclionaIily vhon soIocling lho iighl
onloipiiso soIulion foi lho oiganizalion.

6. Sono of lho addilionaI quoslions lhal nood lo lo pondoiod ovoi vhon ovaIualing
polonliaI LRI soIulions aio:
O Is lho vondoi´s pioducl scaIalIo lo acconnodalo iapid oi unoxpoclod giovlh`
O Aio lho soIulions lhal aio undoi considoialion configuialIo lo nool oxisling
spocific noods and lusinoss piocossos as voII as nov onos lhal nay aiiso in
fuluio`
O Is lho soIulion fIoxilIo onough lo opoialo on a vaiioly of IT pIalfoins`
O Aio lho pioducl funclions and foaluios avaiIalIo nov` If nol, vhon viII lhoy lo
avaiIalIo and hov inpoilanl is il lo havo lhal funclion`

7. IoIIoving and oxoculing lhoso slops of lho LRI soIoclion piocoss piovidos lho
oiganizalion lho nocossaiy infoinalion lo nako a voII-infoinod, quanlilalivo LRI
soflvaio soIoclion.
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŸ

ou havo nov idonlifiod lho uniquo noods of lho oiganizalion and lho ciilicaI funclionaI
ioquiiononls nocossaiy in a nov onloipiiso soIulion. Tho noxl slop is lo dofino lho piocoss lo
lo foIIovod in ovaIualing and finaIIy soIocling lho iighl LRI soflvaio packago foi lho
conpany. ßy dofining lho palh lo foIIov, you can avoid oxlondod and polonliaIIy coslIy
doIays in lho ovaIualion piocoss. Thoso slops shouId incIudo:

O Rovioving polonliaI LRI soflvaio pioducls lhal suilo youi oiganizalion
O LIininaling packagos lhal do nol nool lho spocific noods and ioquiiononls
O Cioaling a nanagoalIo Iisl of vondois foi finaI ioviov - lypicaIIy lhioo lo fivo
O SchoduIing dolaiIod pioducl dononslialions
O Chocking youi vondoi´s iofoioncos
O 'isiling a ¨Iiko¨ cuslonoi silo of lho finaI shoil-Iislod vondois

ERP Vcndnr 5c!cctInn:-

Tho vondoi soIoclion piocoss slails vilh undoislanding of CiilicaI Succoss Iaclois (CSIs).
CSIs aio lhings lhal you nusl do voII in oidoi lo lo succossfuI. ou can uso CSIs as a vay lo
doloinino vholhoi a ioquiiononl is ioaIIy ciilicaI.

Vcndnr 5c!cctInn
TypicaIIy LRI vondois can lo calogoiizod inlo lhioo gioups:
O Conoiic/HoiizonlaI
O 'oilicaI
O Cuslon
Lach gioup of vondois has ils ovn advanlagos,
Thoio is lypicaIIy noio iisk associalod vilh 'oilicaI and Cuslon vondois. Hovovoi, lho
lonofils couId oulvoigh lho polonliaI iisks. To ollain Iisls of polonliaI vondois, you can:
O Conlacl consuIlanls
O &so inloinol soaichos
O Conlacl indusliy associalions
O Look al liado jouinaIs foi ailicIos and advoilisononls
O Conlacl coIIoaguos
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŹ

O Allond liado shovs

Onco you ollain lho Iisl of polonliaI vondois lhal soivo youi ioquiiononl, poifoin lho
foIIoving piocoss lo soIocl ono fion lho Iisl of polonliaI vondois:

O Ind a gnnd rcsc!!cr - Tho iosoIIoi oi 'aIuo Addod RosoIIoi ('AR)/ inpIononloi can
nako a lig diffoionco. Oflon, conpanios soIocling nov syslons spond a Iol of lino
anaIyzing lho pioducl and lho vondoi, lul nol onough lino anaIyzing lho capaliIilios
of lho 'AR.

O Issuc a Rcqucst fnr Prnpnsa! (RP) - An RII is a good looI lo connunicalo youi
noods unifoinIy lo vondois and lo cioalo a shoil Iisl of vondois.

O Attcnd dcmnnstratInns - ou shouId allond no noio lhan 4 dononslialions, and Iinil
lho lino lo 2-3 houis. Ask oach allondoo lo idonlify najoi slionglhs and voaknossos,
ialo hov voII lhoy scoio foi oach lopic on lho agonda, as voII as indicalo ils ioIalivo
inpoilanco.

O a!! rcfcrcnccs - Mako suio lhal you aio laIking lo a conpany in lho sano oi siniIai
indusliy. Havo a chockIisl of quoslions lo ask so lhal you don´l foigol anylhing.



nnw thc Tnta! nst nf OwncrshIp (TO) -
ou nood lo undoisland aII lho cosls incIuding Iiconso foos, inpIononlalion, suppoil,
haidvaio, nolvoiks, and connunicalions lofoio naking a docision. Thoio shouId lo no
suipiisos Ialoi.
arry nut a Bnardrnnm PI!nt -
ou nood lo voik vilh lho syslon lo undoisland il lolloi. &so lho loaidioon piIol as
a vay foi lho vondoi lo undoisland youi ioquiiononls and foi you lo lolloi undoisland lho
syslon puichasing lho soflvaio.


OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWź

q.ź. On whut buxlx munufucturlng operutlonx ure cluxxlfleJ.
Fxpluln the Jlfferent cutegorlex.
Ans:-
ManufacturIng OpcratInns:-
Tho nanufacluiing opoialions can lo cIassifiod lasod on lho anounl of piocossing lho
pioducl ioquiios, afloi lho conpany iocoivos an oidoi fion cuslonoi. Thoy aio lioadIy
cIassifiod as:
O Mako-lo-Oidoi (MTO) and Mako-lo-Slock (MTS)
O AssonlIo-lo-Oidoi (ATO)
O Lnginooi-lo-Oidoi (LTO)
O Configuio-lo-Oidoi (CTO)

Makc-tn-Ordcr (MTO) and Makc-tn-5tnck (MT5):-

Al ono ond of lho piocossing spocliun is lho nako-lo-oidoi (MTO) conpany. This
conpany doos nol login piocossing lho naloiiaI foi lho conpononl oi pioducl unliI il has
iocoivod an oidoi fion lho cuslonoi. In sono casos, lho conpany nay nol ovon piocuio lho
naloiiaI and conpononls unliI afloi il iocoivos lho oidoi. This lypo of nanufacluiing
opoialions is foIIovod vhon lho conpany conpolos on lho lasis of pioducl cuslonizalion
and soivos ils cuslonoi laso ly pioviding uniquo and highIy spociaIizod ilons. Tho MTO
Conpany´s pioduclion pIanning is lasod aIso on fiin cuslonoi oidois.

Al lho olhoi ond of lho spocliun is lho Mako-lo-Slock (MTS) conpany, vhich
nanufacluios pioducls and pIacos lhon in invonloiy lofoio il iocoivos cuslonois' oidois.
Lilhoi lho cuslonoi puichasos lho pioducls diioclIy fion lho invonloiy al a iolaiI oulIol, oi lho
conpany ships lho pioducl 'off-lho-shoIf fion lho finishod goods invonloiy al lho facloiy oi al
a disliilulion Conlio. MTS conpanios dopond hoaviIy on naikol anaIysis and donand
foiocasling in pIanning lho pioduclion of lhoii pioducls vilh iospocl lo lho pioducl nix and
voIuno.

Iiguio 6.2 shovs lho ioIalion lolvoon lho oulpul vaiioly (dogioo of cuslonizalion)
and lho lypo of nanufacluiing opoialion. As il is ovidonl fion lho giaph, lhal lho oulpul
vaiioly is highosl vhon lho conpany is opoialing in lho nako-lo-oidoi nodo, sinco lho
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŻ

conpanios can soivo oach and ovoiy individuaI cuslonoi in lho vay ho/sho vanls. ßul lho
cycIo lino viII lo noio and lho cosl of lho pioducl viII aIso lo noio. ßul in lho caso of a MTS
conpany, lho pioducls aio aIioady nado and kopl in lho invonloiy foi lho cuslonoi lo pick
up. Hoio, lho cuslonoi von'l gol any individuaI allonlion oi cuslonizalion, ho can luy vhal
is avaiIalIo vilh lho conpany. Tho MTS Conpany viII lo naking pioducls in Iols and lho
cosl of lho pioducls viII lo Ioss as lho ocononios of scaIo viII lo al voik and lhoio viII nol lo
any vailing poiiod foi lho cuslonoi afloi pIacing lho oidoi.

Asscmb!c-tn-Ordcr (ATO):-

AssonlIo-lo-Oidoi (ATO) conpany is anolhoi vaiialion of lho nanufacluiing
opoialions. Tho ATO Conpany nanufacluios slandaidizod, oplion noduIos accoiding lo lho
foiocasls il has nado and lhon assonlIos a spocific conlinalion, oi packago of noduIos, afloi
iocoiving lho cuslonoi's oidoi. Tho cIassic oxanpIo is lho aulonoliIo nanufacluioi. Afloi
iocoiving oidois fion a hosl of doaIois, lho nanufacluioi spocifios lho oxacl pioduclion
schoduIo foi lho aulonoliIos.

Tho schoduIo is lasod on lho oplions oidoi ly lho cuslonois, Iiko aulonalic
liansnission oi nanuaI liansnission, aii-condilioning, slandaid oi digilaI conlioI panoI,
Ioalhoi, cIolh oi vinyI soaling, and so on. Many conpononls foi assonlIing lho aulonoliIos
vouId havo lo oidoiod oi slailod inlo pioduclion lofoio iocoiving lho cuslonoi's oidoi lasod
upon donand foiocasls. Thus, lho najoi piocossing lhal ionains vhon lho oidois cono in is
assonlIy. This appioach shoilons lho lino lolvoon pIacononl of lho oidoi and doIivoiy of lho
pioducl - cycIo lino.

EngInccr-tn-Ordcr (ETO):-

ol anolhoi vaiianl in lho nanufacluiing opoialions is lho Lnginooi-lo-Oidoi (LTO)
conpany. Tho LTO Conpany is lho uIlinalo in pioducl vaiioly, pioducl cuslonizalion and
fIoxiliIily. In lhis nodo of opoialion, as poi cuslonoi oidoi lho conpany nanufacluios
anylhing, lul al a highoi piico. Tho oxponsivo cIolhing of lho 'loId and loaulifuI' is an
oxanpIo of lhis kind of pioduclion. Iioducls aio nado foi oach cuslonoi and ovon lho ninulo
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYW%

dolaiIs, foi oxanpIo, lho fooI of lho cIolh and lho loxluio, lho coIoi of lho lhioads, lho sizo of
lho coIIai and so on viII diffoi fion ono cuslonoi lo anolhoi, doponding upon lho cuslonoi's
piofoioncos. So lho nanufacluioi cannol koop anylhing in invonloiy, ho viII havo lo oidoi
onIy onco lho cuslonoi has givon his/hoi spocificalions. OlviousIy, lho cosl of pioduclion
viII lo highosl in lhis nodo of pioduclion.

nnfIgurc-tn-Ordcr (TO):-

MTO nanufacluiois liadilionaIIy had lo chooso lolvoon ATO and LTO. ATO
suppIiois faco lho nood lo oxlond pioducl Iinos, add foaluios, and incioaso fIoxiliIily lo nool
cuslonoi donands. LTO nanufacluiois fooI a piossuio lo slandaidizo al Ioasl sono of lhoii
pioducl Iinos lo ioduco cosls and ionain conpolilivo. Today, lho onviionnonl of CTO has
onoigod in iosponso lo cuslonois' donands foi individuaIizod pioducls vilh shoilonod Ioad-
linos, inpiovod quaIily and conpolilivo piicos. 'iiluaIIy any nanufacluioi lhal usos oplions,
foaluios, oi vaiialIo dinonsions is a candidalo foi onloiing lho CTO onviionnonl.

Tho koy conpononl of a configuialion is lho lIuopiinl of vaIid conlinalions of
foaluios and oplions. Tho ioIalion lolvoon lho oulpul vaiioly (dogioo of cuslonizalion) and
lho lypo of nanufacluiing opoialion. As you can soo fion lho giaph, lho oulpul vaiioly is
highosl vhon lho conpany is opoialion in lho nako-lo-oidoi nodo as lho conpanios can
soivo oach and ovoiy individuaI cuslonoi in lho vay ho/sho vanls. Hovovoi, sinco lho cycIo
lino viII lo noio lho cosl of lho pioducl aIso viII incioaso. In lho caso of an MTS conpany,
lho pioducls aio aIioady nado and kopl in lho invonloiy foi lho cuslonoi lo pick up. Hoio lho
cuslonoi viII nol gol any individuaI allonlion oi cuslonizalion. Ho can luy vhal is avaiIalIo
vilh lho conpany.

This nodoI, nako uso of liadilionaI liII of naloiiaI nodoI vilh paionl and conpononl
ioIalionships. RuIos and caIcuIalions lhon onsuio lhal lho finaI configuialion can lo luiIl ly
dofining lho vay lo luiId il and aIso oslalIish a soIIing piico. Tho fIoxiliIily of oslalIishing
lhis CTO nodoI is cIoaiIy an inpoilanl aspocl of soIocling lho losl configuialion soflvaio foi
youi lusinoss. Iov funclionaI aioas aio fioo fion lho inpacl of liansilioning lo a nov vay of
onloiing saIos oidois. Thoy aulonalicaIIy gonoialo nov pail nunlois, liIIs and ioulings, foi
luiIding and shipping pioducls, and iocoid lho financiaI iosuIls of doing lusinoss.
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYW%

Igurc 6.2: Rc!atInn bctwccn nutput varIcty and thc typc nf manufacturIng prnccss

Inpul fion saIos and naikoling, nanufacluiing, pioducl dala nanagononl, and
financo is ioquiiod lo dovoIop a CTO nodoI lhal suppoils lho inlogialod onviionnonl. Il is
inpoilanl lo undoisland hov lho configuialion gonoialos lho "appiopiialo" liII of naloiiaI
and iouling locauso lhoy aio al lho coio of lho pIanning piocoss. TypicaIIy, a CTO nodoI
iopiosonls a liansIalion of pioducl onginooiing iuIos lhal dofino ioIalionships anong pioducl
oplions, naloiiaIs and nanufacluiing piocossos. MuIlipIo nodoIs CTO diffoionlialo diffoionl
sols of vaIid ioIalionships and ioquiiod piocossos.

Tho CTO nodoI piovidos vaIid oplions vilhin a nodoI, and appIios iuIos oi
caIcuIalions lasod on soIoclions. Ioi oxanpIo, a CTO nodoI of a IoisonaI Conpuloi (IC)
vouId havo a sol of conpononl oplions such as caso slyIos, CI&s (66 oi 1OO MHz), haid
diivos (52OMß oi 1.2Cß), and nonilois ('CA oi S'CA). Sliucluiod undoi lho oplions vouId
lo lho ioaI ilon pail nunlois. This is voiy uso fuII foi idonlificalion and voiificalion piocoss
duiing nanufacluiing and quaIily conlioI.
Koy considoialions foi pioduclion and naloiiaI pIannois aio lho noduIaiily of lho ioaI
liIIs of naloiiaI lhal viII lo conlinod in lho configuiod ond ilon, and lho IovoI al vhich saIos
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŵŴ

anaIysis iocoids viII lo sloiod. Many linos, lho sliucluio (if liIIs and ioulings oxisl al aII)
noods lo lo io-oxaninod in Iighl of hov il viII suppoil lho CTO nodoI.

Tho aliIily of lho configuialion lo aulonalicaIIy cioalo nov pail nunlois, gonoialo
liIIs and ioulings, and assign piicos has gioalIy ioducod lho piocoss of pioducl inlioduclion.
Hovovoi, unIoss lho nanufacluiing liIIs havo loon ioviovod and conlouiod lo a CTO nodoI,
lho iosuIl is oflon inaccuialo/inadoqualo infoinalion, fasloi!

Wilh lho aichilocluio of lho CTO, and lho aliIily lo capluio saIos anaIysis infoinalion
al lho oplion IovoI, pIannois havo a looI lo inpiovo lhoii pIanning nodoIs. Tho aliIily lo
capluio saIos anaIysis iocoids on lho oplions piovidos lho aliIily lo acciuo dala foi uso in
foiocasling soflvaio. Ioi oxanpIo, vilhin lho oplion accossoiios, oach occuiionco of a nouso,
nodon NIC, sound caid and CD-ROM soIoclion is capluiod as a saIos anaIysis iocoid. This
infoinalion is avaiIalIo foi sunnaiizalion al a nonlh oi yoai ond. Tho dala, can lo ioviovod
and nassagod, lhon inpul lo lho foiocasling aIgoiilhns. AulonalicaIIy infoinalion is
noniloiod and nainlainod al lho dolaiI IovoI, insload of foiocasling il al lho accossoiy IovoI
vilh lho uso of poiconlago ßiIIs of MaloiiaI (ßOM).
Tho configuialion soflvaio aIso piovidos foaluios lo quickIy dovoIop accuialo pail,
liII, and iouling infoinalion. In addilion lo nainlaining saIos anaIysis infoinalion al lho
configuiod ilon IovoI, dolaiI infoinalion ly oplion is aIso avaiIalIo. This piovidos a povoifuI
dalalaso foi lho dissoclion of naikol dala. Il aIso loconos lho foundalion foi inpioving
foiocasling and pIanning capaliIilios.







OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŵŵ

q.Ż. Ilxt out the vurloux xupport technology for FRP xyxtemx
JexlgneJ by vurloux compunlex unJ thelr uppllcutlon ln vurloux
xectorx.
Ans:-
ßy nov you nusl lo faniIiai vilh lho Concopl of onloipiiso and inpoilanco of
docision naking duiing lho inpIononlalion of an Lnloipiiso Rosouico IIanning (LRI)
syslon. LRI is connonIy dofinod as lho lochniquo and concopl foi lho inlogialod
nanagononl of lusinossos as a vhoIo, and lho offoclivo uso of nanagononl iosouicos, lo
inpiovo lho officioncy of an onloipiiso aio knovn as LRI.
In an oiganisalion, LRI syslons soivo an inpoilanl funclion ly inlogialing sopaialo
lusinoss funclions Iiko naloiiaIs nanagononl, pioducl pIanning, saIos, disliilulion, financo
and accounling, and olhois inlo a singIo appIicalion. Hovovoi, LRI syslons do havo coilain
Iinilalions as Iislod loIov:

O To gonoialo cuslon iopoils oi quoiios, nanagois havo lo dopond on a piogiannoi.
This inhilils lhon fion ollaining infoinalion quickIy, vhich is voiy inpoilanl foi
nainlaining a conpolilivo advanlago.
O Moio oflon, nanagois nood lo Iook pasl lho cuiionl slalus lo find lionds and palloins
lhal hoIp lhon lo nako lolloi docisions. ßul LRI syslons piovido cuiionl slalus onIy,
such as opon oidois, Iiniling lho iosouicos foi nanagois
O Thoio aio no appIicalions in LRI syslons lhal inlogialo lho dala vilh olhoi onloipiiso
oi division syslons. Thoy aIso faiI lo piovido oxloinaI inloIIigonco suppoil.

Many lochnoIogios aio dovoIopod vhich hoIp lo ovoicono lhoso Iinilalions. Thoso
lochnoIogios hoIp in ovoiconing lho Iinilalions of a slandaIono LRI syslon, vhon usod in
conjunclion vilh lho LRI packago, and lhus, hoIp lho onpIoyoos lo nako lolloi docisions.

Sono of lhoso lochnoIogios aio:
O ßusinoss Iiocoss Roonginooiing (ßIR)
O Managononl Infoinalion Syslon (MIS)
O Docision Suppoil Syslons (DSS)
O Lxoculivo Infoinalion Syslons (LIS)
O Dala Waiohousing
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŵŶ

O Dala Mining
O On-Iino AnaIylicaI Iiocossing (OLAI)
O SuppIy Chain Managononl

Oul of lho alovo lochnoIogios MIS, DSS, and LIS aio foioiunnois of lho LRI syslons. Onco
lho LRI syslon and lho olhoi lochnoIogios (Iiko Dala Waiohousing, Dala Mining, OLAI, and
so on.) aio inlogialod, lho MIS oi DSS locono iodundanl, as lho nov syslons lako caio of
lhoii funclions, and aio sIovIy phasod oul fion lho scono.
To copo up vilh lho incioasod conpolilion in lho cuiionl LRI naikol, lho LRI vondois
aio soaiching foi vays lo ponolialo inlo nov naikol sognonls, and oxpand lho oxisling onos.
Tonoiiov´s LRI syslons viII havo nosl of lhoso lochnoIogios inlogialod inlo lhon vhon
conpaiod lo lho oxisling onos. In lhis unil vo viII soo hov oach of lhoso lochnoIogios is
ioIalod lo LRI syslons.

BusIncss Prnccss RccngInccrIng (BPR)
ßIR has loon aiound foi quilo sono lino and a Iol has loon viillon aloul il in lolh,
lho piaclilionoi liado pioss and lho acadonic iosoaich jouinaIs. Hovovoi, lho conliovoisy sliII
ionains aloul vholhoi lhoio is any accuialo dosciiplion of ßIR, oi ßIR is jusl a liond. Sono
ovon say lhal il is an appoaIing IaloI lo lag on lo vhalovoi youi conpany is doing is of Ialosl
and gioalosl voik vhich is up lo lho cuiionl naikol liond. ßul if io-onginooiing is lo conlinuo
in lho Iong iun, lhon il nusl do noio lhan advoiliso ils considoialIo succossos lo dalo. Il nusl
locono noio pioaclivo and incIusivo vilh iogaid lo hunan, oiganisalionaI, and nolivalionaI
chango issuos.

Managcmcnt InfnrmatInn 5ystcms (MI5)
In lho pasl, nosl payioII syslons voio dala piocossing syslons lhal did IillIo noio
lhan piocoss lino shools, piinl payioII chocks, and koop lolaIs of annuaI vagos and
doduclions. Mosl olhoi dopailnonlaI infoinalion syslons did lho sano dala piocossing and
novoi noniloiod lho acluaI piocoss of lho dopailnonls. Tho dala piocossing syslons ovoIvod
inlo nanagononl infoinalion syslons, as nanagois logan lo donand noio and lolloi
infoinalion aloul lho voiking of lho oiganisalion. Ioi oxanpIo, a hunan iosouico MIS
syslon is capalIo of piodicaling lho avoiago nunloi of voikoi sick days, lho anounl lhal
nusl lo givon as lonus, lho ovoilino aIIovancos, and so on.
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŵŷ

MIS is a conpuloi-lasod syslon lhal oplinisos lho coIIoclion, coIIalion, liansfoi, and
piosonlalion of infoinalion lhioughoul an oiganisalion. MIS acconpIishod lhis lhiough an
inlogialod sliucluio of dalalasos and infoinalion fIov vilh in lho oiganisalion.

ccIsInn 5uppnrt 5ystcm (55)
ßofoio naking a docision nanagois spond a Iol of lino and offoil in galhoiing and
anaIysing infoinalion. Docision Suppoil Syslons (DSSs) voio cioalod lo assisl nanagois in
lho lask of dala galhoiing and anaIysing. DSS is an inloiaclivo infoinalion syslon lhal ioIios
on an inlogialod sol of usoi-fiiondIy soflvaio and haidvaio looIs. Wilh lho hoIp of lhoso looIs
you can pioduco and piosonl infoinalion laigolod lo suppoil nanagononl in lho docision-
naking piocoss. In nany occasions, doponding on lhoii piovious oxpoiionco knovIodgo,
docision-nakois can nako quaIily docisions. Hovovoi, docision-nakois, ospociaIIy al lho lop
nanagononl IovoIs, aio oflon confionlod vilh conpIox docisions. Tho anaIysis of such
conpIox docisions invoIvos nany faclois lhal nay lo difficuIl foi a hunan loing lo handIo.
Tho nood foi conpIox infoinalion anaIysis and ioduclion of hunan inloifoionco in sono
ciuciaI docision naking piocoss donandod foi a docision naking syslon, and Iod lo lho
ovoIulion of Docision Suppoil Syslons (DSSs).

ExccutIvc InfnrmatInn 5ystcms (EI5)
Tho Iino dividing DSS and LIS is voiy lhin. LIS can lo considoiod as a lolloi and
sophislicalod DSS. Top-IovoI oxoculivos and docision-nakois havo lo faco nany piolIons and
faco onoinous voik ioIalod piossuios. In spilo of lhal, lhoy havo lo nako lho iighl docisions,
al lho iighl lino, lo iosoIvo lho piolIons and lako lho conpany foivaid kooping lho piofil
naigins high. In loday's conpolilivo voiId, ioaclion linos aio shiinking, and lino lo nako
docisions is voiy Ioss. LIS is a docision suppoil syslon ospociaIIy nado foi sonioi-IovoI
oxoculivos. Tho nain concoin of an LIS is hov docisions can affocl lho onliio oiganisalion.

ata WarchnusIng
A Iol of piolIons aio cioalod vhon lho opoialionaI dala is kopl in lho dalalasos of lho
LRI syslon. Ovoi a poiiod of lino, lho anounl of dala viII incioaso and lhis viII affocl lho
poifoinanco of lho LRI syslon. Thoiofoio il is lolloi lo aichivo lho opoialionaI dala onco ils
uso is ovoi. Whon I say 'lho uso is ovoi', il doos nol noan lhal lho aichivod dala is usoIoss, of
couiso, il is ono of lho nosl vaIualIo iosouicos of lho oiganisalion. Hovovoi, onco lho
opoialionaI uso of lho dala is ovoi, il nusl lo ionovod fion lho opoialionaI dalalasos.
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŵŸ

ata MInIng
In loday´s infoinalion ago lhal vo Iivo, nany oiganisalions vidoIy iocogniso lho
inpoilanco of coIIocling dala lhal iofIocls oui lusinoss, oi aclivilios lhal achiovo conpolilivo
advanlago. In nosl oiganisalions povoifuI syslons aio avaiIalIo foi coIIocling dala and
nanaging il in Iaigo dalalasos. Hovovoi, lho najoi lollIonock of convoiling lhis dala inlo
offoclivo infoinalion is, lho difficuIly facod in oxliacling knovIodgo aloul lho ioIovanl issuo
fion lho dala coIIoclod fion lho syslon´s dala laso. ModoIIing lho invosligalod syslon and
discovoiing ioIalions lhal connocl vaiialIos in a dalalaso aio lho suljocls of dala nining.

On-LInc Ana!ytIca! PrnccssIng (OLAP)
Accoiding lo ßusinoss InloIIigonco Lld3, OLAI can lo dofinod in fivo voids - Iasl
AnaIysis of Shaiod MuIlidinonsionaI Infoinalion.
IAST noans lhal lho syslon has lho aliIily lo doIivoi nosl of ils iosponsos lo usois
vilhin aloul fivo soconds, vilh lho sinpIosl anaIysis laking no noio lhan ono socond and
voiy fov laking noio lhan 2O soconds.
ANALSIS noans lhal lho aliIily of lho syslon lo copo vilh any lusinoss Iogic and
slalislicaI anaIysis lhal is ioIovanl foi lho appIicalion and lho usoi, and koop il oasy onough foi
lho laigol usoi.

5upp!y haIn Managcmcnt
A suppIy chain can lo dofinod as a nolvoik of faciIilios and disliilulion oplions lhal
poifoins lho funclion of piocuiononl of naloiiaIs, liansfoinalion of lhoso naloiiaIs inlo
inloinodialo and finishod pioducls, and lho disliilulion of lhoso finishod pioducls lo
cuslonois. ßolh in soivico and nanufacluiing oiganisalions suppIy chains syslon oxisl.
Hovovoi, lho conpIoxily of lho chain nay vaiy gioalIy fion indusliy lo indusliy and fiin lo
fiin.






OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŵŹ

q.4.Whut lx Preventlve Mulntenunce? Fxpluln mujor xubxyxtemx
of u Plunt Mulntenunce moJule.
Ans:-
PrcvcntIvc MaIntcnancc nntrn!

Iiovonlivo Mainlonanco ConlioI (IMC) piovidos pIanning, schoduIing, and conlioI of
faciIilios and oquipnonl. Lquipnonl Iuliicalion, conpononl iopIacononl and safoly
inspoclion can lo pIannod, schoduIod, and noniloiod. Mainlonanco lasks can lo liackod foi
oach pioco of oquipnonl oi nachino, ly lvo usoi-dofinod nodos, as voII as caIondai day
fioquoncy. Thoso nodos incIudo liacking ly houis of opoialion, unils of pioduclion
pioducod, gaIIons of fuoI consunod, oi lho nunloi of days in opoialion sinco lho Iasl soivico
inloivaI. Iiovonlivo Mainlonanco ConlioI onalIos oiganizalions lo Iovoi iopaii cosls ly
avoiding dovnlino, nachino lioakago, and piocoss vaiialiIily. Conpanios achiovo highoi
nachino uliIizalion and inpiovod nachino ioIialiIily and loIoianco conlioI, aIong vilh highoi
pioduclion yioIds.

Majnr subsystcms nf a P!ant MaIntcnancc mndu!c
P!ant MaIntcnancc
Tho achiovononl of oulslanding poifoinanco donands doIivoiy of quaIily pioducls
oxpodiliousIy and ocononicaIIy. Oiganizalions sinpIy cannol achiovo oxcoIIonco vilh
unioIialIo oquipnonl. Tho appioach lovaids nainlonanco nanagononl has changod as a
iosuIl of quick iosponso nanufacluiing. }usl-in-Tino (}IT) ioduclion of voik in piocoss
invonloiy and lho oIininalion of vaslofuI nanufacluiing piaclicos. ßofoio lioakdovn in
nachino and idIo lino foi iopaii vas onco an accoplod piaclico. Tinos havo changod. Today,
vhon lhoio is a lioak dovn in a nachino, il can shul dovn lho pioduclion Iino and lho
cuslonoi's onliio pIanl. Tho Iiovonlivo Mainlonanco (IM) noduIo piovidos an inlogialod
soIulion foi suppoiling lho opoialionaI noods of an onloipiiso-vido syslon. Tho IIanl
Mainlonanco noduIo incIudos an onliio faniIy of pioducl, covoiing aII aspocls of
pIanl/oquipnonl nainlonanco. Il loconos vilaI lo lho achiovononl of piocoss inpiovononl.


OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŵź

Tho najoi sulsyslons of a IIanl Mainlonanco noduIo aio:
O Iiovonlivo Mainlonanco ConlioI
O Lquipnonl Tiacking
O Conpononl Tiacking
O IIanl Mainlonanco CaIilialion Tiacking
O IIanl Mainlonanco Waiianly CIains Tiacking

PrcvcntIvc MaIntcnancc nntrn!
Iiovonlivo Mainlonanco ConlioI (IMC) piovidos pIanning, schoduIing, and conlioI of
faciIilios and oquipnonl. Lquipnonl Iuliicalion, conpononl iopIacononl and safoly
inspoclion can lo pIannod, schoduIod, and noniloiod. Mainlonanco lasks can lo liackod foi
oach pioco of oquipnonl oi nachino, ly lvo usoi-dofinod nodos, as voII as caIondai day
fioquoncy. Thoso nodos incIudo liacking ly houis of opoialion, unils of pioduclion
pioducod, gaIIons of fuoI consunod, oi lho nunloi of days in opoialion sinco lho Iasl soivico
inloivaI. Iiovonlivo Mainlonanco ConlioI onalIos oiganizalions lo Iovoi iopaii cosls ly
avoiding dovnlino, nachino lioakago, and piocoss vaiialiIily. Conpanios achiovo highoi
nachino uliIizalion and inpiovod nachino ioIialiIily and loIoianco conlioI, aIong vilh highoi
pioduclion yioIds.
EquIpmcnt TrackIng
Lquipnonl is an assol lhal noods lo lo pioloclod and noniloiod. In nany silualions,
cosls of oquipnonl nainlonanco conslilulo lho singIo Iaigosl conlioIIalIo oxpondiluio of an
oiganizalion. AII facols of pIanl Iocalion hisloiy and uliIizalion hisloiy aio dosciilod and
liackod. This hisloiy incIudos acquisilion of disposilion infoinalion and associalions lolvoon
diffoionl piocos of oquipnonl lo pinpoinl opoialionaI dopondoncios. Running lolaIs foi
opoialion unils lo dalo (niIos, houis, days, unils of pioduclion, and so on.) aio aIso piovidod.
Lach pioco of oquipnonl is dofinod ly, a soiiaI nunloi and nodoI. &soi-dofinod dala shools
aio dovoIopod, vhich aIIov foi lho giouping of usoi dala inlo foinals lhal can lo Iinkod lo
oquipnonl iocoids. AII of lhis infoinalion can lo usod lo cioalo oquipnonl slipuIalion, vhich
piovido dolaiIod infoinalion foi lochnicaI spociaIisls voiking in oquipnonl opoialions,
nainlonanco, and lianspoilalion conlioI.



OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŵŻ

nmpnncnt TrackIng
Conpononls aio sulsols of Iaigoi oquipnonl and dosoivo lho sano anounl of cosl
conlioIIing sciuliny. Conpononl Tiacking hoIps oquipnonl nanagois lo, idonlify conpononls
vilh chionic iopaii piolIons. Thoy can doloinino if oilhoi iopaii oi iopIacononl nusl lo
covoiod ly vaiianly. IIanning conpononl iopIacononls, ialhoi lhan vailing foi conpononl
faiIuios lo occui, ioducos unschoduIod oquipnonl dovnlino. Conpononl liacking incIudos
iopaii/oxchango hisloiy and conpononl soivico Iifo.

P!ant MaIntcnancc a!IbratInn TrackIng
IIanl Mainlonanco CaIilialion Tiacking (IMCT) aIIovs oiganizalions lo Iovoiago lhoii
invoslnonl in lho IIanl Mainlonanco noduIo ly, pioviding foi lho liacking of oquipnonl
caIilialion in suppoil of ISO 9OOO ioquiiononls.

P!ant MaIntcnancc Warranty !aIms TrackIng
IIanl Mainlonanco Waiianly CIains Tiacking (IMWCT) is an adninislialivo syslon
dosignod lo, piovido conlioI of aII ilons covoiod ly nanufacluioi and vondoi vaiianlios. Il
hoIps pIanl nanagononl lo iocovoi aII of lho vaiianly, ioinluisononls lo vhich lhoy aio
onlilIod lul havo nol loon alIo lo iocovoi in lho pasl. Ioaluios incIudo lho aliIily lo oslalIish
lho Ionglh and lypo of vaiianly. Ioi oxanpIo, oIapsod day, nonlhs, opoialing unils, oi
niIoago slipuIalion. A conpIolo hisloiy ioviov is poifoinod foi oach ilon covoiod ly lho
vaiianly and conpIolo infoinalion iogaiding lho vaiianly soivico piovidoi is gonoialod.
LRI soflvaio is nado up of nany soflvaio noduIos. Lach LRI soflvaio noduIo
ninics, a najoi funclionaI aioa of an oiganizalion. ConoiaI LRI noduIos incIudo noduIos foi
pioducl pIanning, pails and naloiiaI puichasing, invonloiy conlioI, pioducl disliilulion,
oidoi liacking, financo, accounling, naikoling, and HR. oiganizalions oflon soIoclivoIy
inpIononl lho LRI noduIos lhal aio lolh ocononicaIIy and lochnicaIIy foasilIo.

Iion Manufacluiing Roquiiononls IIanning (MRI) II inlo LRI ovoIulion piocoss,
vondois havo dovoIopod noio iolusl soflvaio foi pioduclion pIanning. And consuIling fiins
havo coIIoclod and sloiod vasl knovIodgo on inpIononling pioduclion pIanning noduIo. Il
aIso oplinizos lho uliIizalion of nanufacluiing capacily, pails, conpononls and naloiiaI
iosouicos using hisloiicaI pioduclion dala, and saIos foiocasling.
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŵ%

q.S. Wrlte xhort notex on xeven mujor FRP venJorx-SAPA0,
Buun, PeopleSoft, jÐ FJwurJx, Orucle, qAÐ unJ SSA.
Ans
ßy nov you nusl lo faniIiai vilh lho concopl of LRI, ils ossonco in an oiganizalion,
ils naikol and appIicalion in a vido vaiioly of indusliios. This unil faniIiaiizos you vilh
sono of lho vondois and lho naikol spaco lhal vaiious vondois havo occupiod vilh iospocl lo
LRI.

Tho LRI naikol is fasl gioving and voiy conpolilivo. AMR Rosoaich Inc. is a Ioading
indusliy and naikol anaIysis fiin spociaIizing in onloipiiso appIicalions and onalIing
lochnoIogios. Thoy had anaIyzod in 2OO2 lhal Lnloipiiso Rosouico IIanning (LRI) soflvaio
naikol viII giov al a conpound annuaI giovlh ialo of 3.7° ovoi lho noxl fivo yoais. Duiing
2OO7 lhis iovonuo giovlh ioachod doulIo figuios.

Tho findings of lho AMR iopoil indicalo lho conlinuod giovlh of lhioo piinaiy faclois. Thoso
aio:

O LRI vondois aio oxpanding naikol piosonco conlinuousIy ly offoiing nov
appIicalions such as suppIy chain nanagononl, saIos foico aulonalion, cuslonoi
suppoil and hunan iosouicos.

O LRI vondois lo suslain lhoii iapid giovlh viII liy lo soII noio Iiconsos inlo lhoii
inslaIIod laso. CuiionlIy, LRI vondois havo a 1O-2O° ponolialion (i.o. °ago of lolaI
onpIoyoos cuiionlIy using lho LRI syslon). This viII giov lo 4O-6O° vilhin lho noxl
fivo yoais.

O LRI oiiginalod in lho nanufacluiing indusliy. Today LRI usago has spioad lo noaiIy
ovoiy lypo of onloipiiso incIuding iolaiI, uliIilios, pulIic socloi, and hoaIlhcaio
oiganizalions. Mosl viII puichaso nov LRI syslons ovoi lho noxl fivo yoais, oflon foi
lho fiisl lino.

OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŵ%

Tho conpanios foaluiod hoio aio SAI AC, ßaan Conpany, OiacIo Coipoialion, IoopIo
Sofl, }.D. Ldvaids, SSA and QAD.

Tnp Ivc ERP Vcndnrs:-
Tho offoils lhoso conpanios (SAI AC, ßaan IoopIoSofl, OiacIo AppIicalions, and }.D.
Ldvaids) nado as slail-ups, cioalod a nov naikol foi LRI. AIlhough LRI vas considoiod
onIy foi nanufacluiing Iaigo scaIo indusliios, lhoy ponolialod inlo nov snaIIoi naikols
duiing 9O´s.

AMR Rosoaich had piodiclod lhal lho LRI naikol viII ioach $14.8 liIIion in lolaI
conpany iovonuo in 1998. In addilion, vhon lhiid paily soivicos Iiko haidvaio, dalalasos,
and nolvoiking aio considoiod, AMR Rosoaich oslinalod lhal lho LRI infiasliucluio vas
voilh ovoi $ 42 liIIion. Il vas olvious lhal lho naikol foi LRI vouId conlinuo lo lo ono of
lho Iaigosl, faslosl gioving and nosl infIuonliaI in lho appIicalions indusliy. Il vas poisod foi
sloady giovlh inlo lho nov niIIonniun
Thoio vas aIso an oxlonsivo Iisl of LRI soIulions loing inpIononlod in nuch snaIIoi
nunlois. Tho LRI avaionoss in Indian oiganizalions vas gioving. Tho suivoy shovs aiound
35° of oiganizalions aio using LRI foi noio lhan 24 nonlhs. Sono of lho conpanios havo
loon using LRI foi Ioss lhan 24 nonlhs and lho nunloi is gioving. Assuning an avoiago
inpIononlalion piocoss of 18 nonlhs, 35° of oiganizalions havo lhoiofoio, loon giappIing
vilh LRI issuos foi cIoso lo 4 yoais and Iongoi. Anongsl lho oiganizalions pIanning lo
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŶŴ

inpIononl LRI in lho fuluio, lho iosoaich indicalod lhal SAI sliII ionains lho nunloi ono
piofoiiod soIulion. This is foIIovod ly OiacIo IinanciaIs, ßaan and MIC/IRO. Hono-giovn
soIulions Iiko MaishaI and MakLSS havo aIso loon indicalod as piofoiiod oplions

5AP- AG:-
Syslons, AppIicalions and Iioducls in Dala Iiocossing popuIaiIy knovn as SAI oi
Syslon anaIyzo und Iiogiannod nlvickIung vas foundod in lho yoai 1972, in Coinany. Il is
lho Ioading gIolaI piovidoi of soIulions foi cIionl/soivoi lusinoss appIicalion. SAI has
inslaIIalions in ovoi 1O7 counliios.
SAI´s LRI packago is avaiIalIo in lvo voisions - lho nainfiano voision (SAI R/2)
and cIionl/soivoi voision (SAI R/3). Mosl pioninonl anong SAI´s pioducl iango is lho
onloipiiso appIicalion suilo R/3 foi opon Lnloipiiso cIionl/soivoi syslons. Wilh SAI Syslons,
cuslonois can opl lo inslaII lho coio syslon and ono oi noio of lho funclionaI conpononls.
ou can ovon puichaso lho soflvaio as a conpIolo packago.
SAI has voik foico slionglh of ovoi 19,3OO and has officos Iocalod in noio lhan 5O
counliios acioss lho voiId. SAI is lho nosl succossfuI vondoi of soflvaio on slandaid
lusinoss appIicalions. Il is aIso iankod as lho fouilh Iaigosl indopondonl soflvaio suppIioi in
lho voiId.
Duiing lho fiscaI yoai, onding Doconloi 31, 1998, SAI AC iopoilod iovonuos of DM
847 liIIion, a 41° incioaso ovoi 1997s iovonuos. In lho sano poiiod, saIos of R/3 ioso ly 31°.

Baan nmpany
ßaan Conpany is ono of lho Ioading piovidois of onloipiiso lusinoss soflvaio in lho
gIolaI naikol. ßaan vas foundod in lho NolhoiIands in 1978 ly liolhoi´s }an and IauI ßaan.
ßaan Conpany offois a vidospioad coIIoclion of losl-in-cIass, conpononl-lasod appIicalions
foi fionl offico, coipoialo offico and lack offico aulonalion. Thoso appIicalions aio in uso al
ovoi 7,OOO cuslonoi silos voiIdvido. ßaan Conpany pioducls ioduco conpIoxily and cosl,
inpiovo coio lusinoss piocossos. Thoy aio fasloi lo inpIononl and uso, aio noio fIoxilIo in
adapling lo lusinoss changos. Thoy aIso oplinizo lho nanagononl of infoinalion lhioughoul
lho onliio vaIuo chain.
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŶŵ

ßaan Conpany's pioducl faniIy offois on-going doIivoiy of opon conpononls foi
onloipiiso appIicalions. Il consisls of a conpiohonsivo and fIoxilIo suilo of yoai 2OOO-
conpIianl soflvaio soIulions and losl-in-cIass lusinoss nodoIing looIs. Thoso looIs aio lasod
on a fIoxilIo, nuIli-IovoI aichilocluio vhich can scaIo lo nool lho noods of snaII, nodiun, and
Iaigo onloipiisos. ßaan Conpany nakos lhis possilIo vilh ils opon aichilocluio. This onalIos
cuslonois lo nigialo lo nov lochnoIogios and pioducl ioIoasos al lhoii ovn paco. Rofoiiod lo
vilhin ßaan Conpany as Dynanic Lnloipiiso ModoIing Slialogy Lxoculion (ßaanDLMSL),
lhis uniquo appioach puls lusinoss ioquiiononls al lho hoail of lho inpIononlalion piocoss.

Orac!c nrpnratInn
OiacIo Coipoialion (foundod in 1977) is lho voiId's socond Iaigosl soflvaio conpany.
Il is aIso lho Ioading suppIioi of soflvaio foi Lnloipiiso Infoinalion Managononl (LIM). Wilh
annuaI iovonuos oxcooding $ 8.O liIIion, lho conpany offois ils looIs, dalalaso, and
appIicalions pioducls, aIong vilh ioIalod consuIling, oducalion and suppoil soivicos. OiacIo
onpIoys noio lhan 41,OOO poopIo in noio lhan 145 counliios aiound lho voiId. OiacIo has ils
hoadquailois in Rodvood Shoios, CaIifoinia. Il is lho fiisl soflvaio conpany lo inpIononl lho
Inloinol conpuling nodoI foi dovoIoping and dopIoying onloipiiso soflvaio acioss ils onliio
pioducl. Thoy aio appIicalion dovoIopnonl, dalalasos and ioIalionaI soivois, and docision
suppoil looIs, and onloipiiso lusinoss appIicalions.

Pcnp!c 5nft
IoopIoSofl Inc. vas oslalIishod in lho yoai 1987 lo piovido innovalivo soflvaio
soIulions lhal nool lho changing lusinoss donands of onloipiisos voiIdvido. Il onpIoys
noio lhan 7,OOO poopIo voiIdvido. Tho annuaI iovonuo foi lho yoai 1998 vas $ 1.3 liIIion.
IoopIoSofl's oljoclivo is lo piovido innovalivo soflvaio soIulions lhal nool lho changing
lusinoss donands of oiganisalions voiIdvido.
IoopIoSofl dovoIops soflvaio lhal suppoils onloipiiso vido soIulions lo handIo coio
lusinoss funclions. This incIudos hunan iosouicos nanagononl, accounling and conlioI,
piojocl nanagononl, lioasuiy 'nanagononl, poifoinanco noasuiononl, and suppIy chain
nanagononl. Il piovidos onloipiiso soIulions vhich is indusliy-spocific lo cuslonois in soIocl
naikols. Liko hoaIlhcaio, nanufacluiing, connunicalions, financiaI soivicos, highoi
oducalion, pulIic socloi, soivicos, iolaiI, lianspoilalion, &S fodoiaI govoinnonl, and uliIilios.
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŶŶ

IoopIoSofl SoIocl offoiod ly lho conpany is a conpIolo packagod soIulion incIuding soflvaio,
haidvaio, and soivicos lo addioss lho noods of nodiun sizod oiganisalions SoIulions of
IoopIoSofl iun on a vaiioly of Ioading haidvaio and dalalaso pIalfoins. Liko IßM, Sun
Miciosyslons, Conpaq, HovIoll-Iackaid, Infoinix, Miciosofl SQL Soivoi, Sylaso, Dß2, and
olhois. IoopIoSofl doIivois Wol-onalIod appIicalions, voikfIov, OnIino AnaIylicaI Iiocossing
(OLAI), and so on

Edwards Wnr!d 5n!utInns nmpany
1977 Donvoi, CoIoiado, lhioo non Iofl lho accounling voiId lo foin a soflvaio
conpany lhal vouId spociaIiso in nidiango conpuling soIulions. Lach of lho lhioo foundois
}ack Thonpson, Dan Ciogoiy and Ld Mc'anoy Ionl a snaII poilion of his nano foi lho
conpany nano. On Maich 17, }D Ldvaids vas foinod.
In lho oaiIy yoais, }D Ldvaids dosignod soflvaio foi sovoiaI snaII and nodiun-sizod
conpulois. Thoy ovonluaIIy slailod focusing on lho IßM Syslon/38 in lho oaiIy 198Os. Il vas
in lhis offoil lhal }D Ldvaids pionooiod lho Conpuloi-Aidod Syslons Lnginooiing (CASL)
soflvaio dovoIopnonl and dosign looI. This Iond foi consisloncy acioss lho lioad iango of }D
Ldvaids' inlogialod appIicalions.
As }D Ldvaids' lusinoss conlinuod lo giov, il locano olvious lhal soivicing a Iaigo
nunloi of cuslonois vas cioaling chaIIongos. Tho conpany couId oilhoi ionain snaII oi
soivo cuslonois on an individuaI lasis oi, vilh a lioaklhiough in lochnoIogy, il couId
locono an indusliy Ioadoi in onloipiiso soflvaio. Whon Mc'anoy and Thonpson logan lo
dosign and inpIononl WoiId soflvaio, lhoy piovidod lho palhvay lo succoss. ßy lho nid-
198Os, }D Ldvaids vas loing iocognizod as an indusliy-Ioading suppIioi of appIicalions
soflvaio foi lho highIy succossfuI IßM AS/4OO conpuloi, a diiocl succossoi of lho Syslon/38.

Wilh lho }uno 1996 inlioduclion of OnoWoiId, lho conpany onco again achiovod a
lochnoIogicaI lioaklhiough. ßuiIding on lho CASL lochnoIogy pionooiod in lho 198Os,
OnoWoiId conlinos a fuII iango of pIalfoin indopondonl appIicalions vilh an inlogialod
looIsol. OnoWoiId givos oiganisalions lho povoi lo configuio lhoii syslons and appIicalions
as lhoii noods chango.
Today, }D Ldvaids is a pulIicIy liadod conpany lhal has noio lhan 4,7OO cuslonois
vilh silos in ovoi 1OO counliios and noio lhan 4,2OO onpIoyoos. Tho conpany alliilulos nuch
of ils succoss lo a coipoialo cuIluio lhal onphasizos quaIily al aII IovoIs. }D Ldvaids'
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŶŷ

connilnonl lo ils pioducl quaIily, ils coipoialo cuIluio and a cuslonoi conliic appioach
onalIo lho conpany lo doIivoi and suppoil Ioading onloipiiso soflvaio soIulions lhal soIvo
lusinoss piolIons

5ystcms 5nftwarc AssncIatcs Inc. (55A)
Syslon Soflvaio Associalos (SSA), Inc. is ono of lho Ioading piovidois of soflvaio foi
indusliiaI lusinossos in lho voiId. Tho conpany vas foundod in 1981 ly Rogoi L. Covoy.
Covoy al ago 26 vas aIioady oxpoiioncod in soIIing soflvaio nanufacluiing syslons. Ho had
voikod pioviousIy foi Chicago, IIIinois-lasod IiofossionaI Conpuloi Rosouicos, Inc. lofoio
slailing his ovn conpany.
Tho ioason foi lho conpany's oaiIy giovlh vas ils uniquo disliilulion syslon. Covoy
had doloininod lhal soIIing lhiough iolaiI channoIs nado il difficuIl lo find cuslonois, vhiIo
soIIing lhough a diiocl saIos foico and pioviding oxlonsivo soivicing nado il difficuIl lo luin a
piofil. Thoiofoio, SSA insload dovoIopod a nolvoik of IocaI affiIialos, liainod ly SSA, lhal
vouId soII, inslaII, and soivico lho pioducls foi a connission. This onalIod lho conpany lo
oxpand al an inpiossivo ialo vhiIo kooping ils ovoihoad cosls Iov.
Covoy and his onpIoyoos docidod lo focus on inpioving lho conpany's spociaIly,
inlogialod soflvaio packagos foi indusliy. Insload of soaiching foi lho vays lo divoisify lho
pioducl Iino lho conpany had. In 1984, SSAs saIos ioachod $3.9 niIIion. This giovlh
conlinuod iapidIy lhiough lho nid-198Os vilh lho soivicos lhoy offoiod lo nodiun-sizod
conpanios. Sinco lhoso conpanios oflon noodod lo oxpand lhoii conpuloi syslon capacilios
and soflvaio capaliIilios. Hovovoi, lhoy vanlod lo achiovo lhis vilhoul hiiing piogianning
poisonnoI as a pail of lhoii voik foico. Sinco hiiing piogian dovoIopois vas nol onIy coslIy
lul aIso ioquiiod iosouicos lo suppoil il. SSA vas alIo lo nako uso of lhis oppoilunily and
oslalIish ils naikol is lhoso nodiun sizod conpanios.

SSA conconlialod ils allonlion on a nov slialogy foi suppoiling opon-syslon cIionl
soivoi conpuling onviionnonls. &sing ils CASL lochnoIogy, il logan offoiing noio fIoxilIo
soflvaio lhan conpaiod lo pioviousIy avaiIalIo. Tho conpany's nov voision of ils nosl
inpoilanl ßICS soiios vas caIIod ßusinoss IIanning and ConlioI Syslon/Advancod SoIulion
(ßICS/AS). ßICS/AS consisls of ovoi 4O appIicalions inlogialod in il. Thoso appIicalions can
lo oasiIy nodifiod lo koop up vilh iapid changos laking pIaco in lho haidvaio on vhich lhoy
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŶŸ

aio iun and lho lusinoss cIinalos in vhich lhoy aio usod. Tho conpany announcod lhal ils
nov cIionl/soivoi appIicalion pioducls can iun on syslons lasod on &NIX as voII as on lho
AS/4OO. Nov SSA is lho singIo Iaigosl suppIioi of soflvaio foi IßM nanufacluiod AS/4OO
Iino of niniconpulois. Tho fIoxiliIily of SSAs soflvaio pioducls aio so fIoxilIo lhal lhoy can
lo ioconfiguiod lo nool spocific cuslonoi and lusinoss donands in any indusliy. Tho
conpany lhiough officos and lusinoss suppoil syslon in 67 counliios nainlains ils gIolaI
piosonco. Il aIso piovidos suppoil foi cIionls vilh lho hoIp of a nolvoik of ovoi 5,OOO
piofossionaIs voiking iound lho cIock.

BP5 App!IcatInns
ßICS AppIicalions dopondonl voiy nuch on lho ßICS soflvaio voision of SSA. Sinco,
SSA onlois inlo pailnoiships vilh vaiious spociaIly suppIiois of appIicalions such as Dala
Mining, ßai Coding, and so on, and suppIiois lhal inlogialod vilh a pailicuIai voision

QA
QAD vas foundod in 1979 and nov has a piosonco in 21 counliios and onpIoys noio
lhan 11OO poopIo. Tho conpany's pioducls incIudo MIC/IRO, on/Q, Soivico/Suppoil
Managononl, Docision Suppoil, and Qvizaid. Tho conpany's fIagship pioducl is ils LRI
soIulion MIC/IRO. Il is avaiIalIo in 26 Ianguagos and has noio lhan 4,OOO inslaIIod silos in
ovoi 8O counliios. Tho conpany gol lho ISO coilificalion in 1995. QAD offois a vaiioly of
suppIy chain and Lnloipiiso Rosouico IIanning (LRI) soflvaio pioducls lo nanufacluiing
indusliios vilhin lho aulonolivo, consunoi pioducls, oIoclionics, food and lovoiago,
indusliiaI pioducls and nodicaI soclois. QAD soflvaio oplinizos youi onloipiiso ly
incioasing lho spood of inloinaI piocossos and ly synchionising disliilulod opoialions.

QADs fIagship pioducl, MIC/IRO soflvaio, piovidos nuIlinalionaI oiganisalions
vilh an inlogialod CIolaI SuppIy Chain Managononl soIulion. Il incIudos financiaI,
nanufacluiing, disliilulion, and soivico/suppoil nanagononl appIicalions vilhin an opon
syslon onviionnonl. Inloinol-LnalIod MIC/IRO aIIovs you lo shaio infoinalion and
conducl connoiciaI liansaclions ovoi lho Inloinol

OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŶŹ

AnaIyzing LRI naikol shaio is quilo diffoionl vhon conpaiod vilh iovioving lho
naikol sognonls foi any olhoi pioducl oi soivico. Tho sognonlalions in lhal caso viII lo
nunoious and in lho foin of nany ciiloiia Iiko physicaI, googiaphicaI, funclionaI, disliilulion
IovoI and nany noio faclois. LRI lho sognonlalion faIIs in lhan lhioo nain calogoiios nanoIy
lypo of lho indusliy, sizo of lho indusliy and googiaphicaI aioas in loins of lho nalions vhoio
lho pioducl is donandod. This hoIps in aiiiving al LRI naikol and LRI soflvaio naikol
shaio. (Insload uso LRI Maikol can lo sognonlod inlo lhioo najoi sognonls/Calogoiios).

WhiIo discussing sizo of indusliy il iofois lo lho voIuno of lusinoss liansaclod and lho
capacily of lho fiin in loins of Iaigo sizod oi nid-sizod oi Iov iung. Whon il conos lo lho
quoslion of lypo il iofois lo lho nodo of lusinoss via hospilaIily oi insuianco oi
nanufacluiing oi hoaIlh and so on. Tho naikol foi lhon puioIy doponds on lho soivicos
offoiod ly lho vondoi. Tho quoslion of googiaphicaI sognonlalion invoIvos a dolaiIod sludy
vhon il conos lo LRI naikols.














OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŶź

%. Whut lx BAPI? Why BIAP lx conxlJereJ ux communJlng tool ln
the SAP conxultunt´x toolklt?
°¾ťŴ
BusIncss Mndc!s and BAPIs:-

A conpany's lusinoss nodoI is usuaIIy iofoiiod as iovonuo aichilocluio lhal consisls
of najoi vaIuo cioalion piincipIos. This lusinoss nodoI dosciilos iovonuo souicos and lho
vay lho conpany oiganizos ils aclivilios lo piofilalIy oxpIoil lhoso souicos. Wilh lho cuiionl
lusinoss nodoI, conpanios can achiovo lho lolloi lusinoss iosuIls vhich incIudos Iovoi lho
anounl of vaslo, ioduco oiiois, incioaso doIivoiy spoods and so on. Tho chango in cuiionl
lusinoss nodoI piovidos nov vays lo fuIfiII oidois, cioalo pioducls and soivico cuslonois.
LRI ßusinoss ModoIing is a voII-dofinod appioach lo aiiivo al fuII and spocifiod
dosciiplions of lho lusinoss piocossos lhal aio suppoilod vilh lho nov LRI packago. LRI
ßusinoss ModoIing onphasizo on nanaging lho gioup docision-naking piocoss foi
dovoIoping lho ioquiiod piocoss dosciiplions. This piocoss aIso highIighls on onpIoying a
syslons and nodoIing-oiionlod poispoclivo lo Iook al diffoionl funclions as ono inlogialod
vhoIo.

LRI ßusinoss ModoIing can lo caIIod as piocoss faciIilalion appioach ialhoi lhan an
oxpoil appioach. Hoio, lho cIionl pIays a Ioading ioIo in lho vhoIo lusinoss nodoIing piocoss.
AIlhough cIionls havo an in-doplh knovIodgo of lhoii lusinoss piocossos, lhoy Iack in
idonlifying lho ovoiaII viov and lho ioIalionships lolvoon lho lusinoss piocossos. LxloinaI
oxpoiliso viII onIy lo usod if oxpIicilIy dosiiod ly lho cIionl. Tho najoi ioIo of consuIlanls is lo
assisl lho cIionl´s piojocl loan in galhoiing lhal infoinalion lo consliucl a voII-undoislood
nodoI of lho lusinoss piocossos vhich aio lo lo suppoilod ly lho nov LRI packago. This can
lo achiovod vilh lho hoIp of voikshop and gioup faciIilalion lochniquos.
Ioi oxanpIo, vilh lho hoIp of InloIIicoip Inc.'s Livo ModoI, inpIononlalion loans aio
alIo lo ioviov and sinuIalo changos lo lho SAI R/3 appIicalion Rofoionco ModoI lhal
piovidos viovs of R/3 piocossos, dala nodoIs and funclions. Any changos nado lo lho
Rofoionco ModoI aio sloiod in lho Livo ModoI ioposiloiy vhich can fuilhoi lo audilod and
changod on donand. Iuilhoinoio, locauso Livo ModoI is OLL conpIianl, lho R/3 nodoIs can
lo nanipuIalod and docunonlod lhiough dosklop OLL appIicalions such as Miciosofl Woid.
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŶŻ

Tho Opon LRI lusinoss nodoI is dovoIoping popuIaiily in onloipiiso nanagononl. A
CIolaI ßusinoss Iiocoss ModoI is aIso dovoIopod, vhich conpiisos lho vhoIo LRI soflvaio
pioducl.
This nodoI is inposod in lhioo IovoIs. Thoy aio:

O 5ystcm nnfIguratInn Lcvc!: This IovoI scopos on high-IovoI oplionaIily on lho onliio
syslon and is slalic. Tho high-IovoI oplion of lho LRI syslon is choson foi lho
oiganizalion, vhich cannol lo nado undono al any slago.

O Objcct Lcvc!: This IovoI scopos on singIo dala oljocls and is noio dynanic.

O Occurrcncc !cvc!: This IovoI anaIysos singIo piocoss occuiioncos and is voiy dynanic.
This IovoI oIaloialos on oljocl paianolois.

Iuilhoi, lho oplionaI IovoIs of LRI nodoIing aio usod lo iovoiso onginooi lho LRI syslon
and lho oiganizalionaI sliucluio. Tho iighl vay lo aIign lolh LRI and oiganizalionaI nodoIs
is as foIIovs:

O Convoil lho LRI syslon dalalaso lo an oljocl nodoI.
O Consliucl a gIolaI lusinoss piocoss nodoI.
O Idonlify lho syslon configuialion-IovoI lusinoss piocoss aIloinalivos.
O Idonlify lho oljocl-IovoI vaiianls of lho lusinoss piocossos.
O Lxposo lho occuiionco-IovoI lusinoss piocoss oplions.

BusIncss App!IcatInn PrngrammIng Intcrfacc (BAPI)

ßAII (ßusinoss AppIicalion Iiogianning Inloifaco) is a sol of inloifacos lo oljocl-
oiionlod piogianning nolhods lhal onalIo a piogiannoi lo inlogialo lhiid-paily soflvaio
inlo lho piopiiolaiy R/3 pioducl fion SAI. Ioi spocific lusinoss lasks such as upIoading
liansaclionaI dala, ßAIIs aio inpIononlod and sloiod in lho R/3 syslon as ionolo funclion
caII (RIC) noduIos.2
OM0011 - EntcrprIsc Rcsnurcc P!annIng SYWŶ%

ßAII is lho nosl doninanl looI in lho SAI consuIlanl´s looIkil. Il is ono of a sol of looIs
foi inloifacing vilh an SAI R/3 syslon. Tho piioiily of ßAII is caIIing dala in and oul of SAI.
Ioi lho SAI consuIlanl, ßAIIs aio lho snaII, povoifuI ships lhal koop lhoso laigos of dala
noving. SAI's R/3 syslon is nov opon ly ioIoasing lho spocificalions foi sono 17O lusinoss
appIicalion piogianning inloifacos (ßAIIs). This hoIpod lhiid-paily appIicalions inloiacl
vilh R/3 diioclIy. ßAIIs can lo caIIod as sols of nolhods lhal aIIov oxloinaI appIicalions lo
coIIaloialo vilh spocific R/3 lusinoss oljocls such as cuslonois, accounls, oi onpIoyoos. As
R/3 dala is addiossalIo lhiough caIIalIo nolhods, ßAIIs givos fIoxiliIily lo lho lhiid paily
appIicalion vondois lo luiId suppoiling appIicalions foi lho R/3 syslon.
In siniIai vay, ßaan offois OigWaio vhich is lasod on inlogialod lusinoss-nodoIing
looI, conlinod vilh lusinoss-spocific lonpIalos lhal aulonalo lho configuialion of lho
soflvaio lo suil spocific opoialionaI noods. ßaan is in lho piocoss of advancing lhis looI vilh
nov solup vizaids lo accoIoialo soflvaio inpIononlalion on lho Windovs NT pIalfoin.

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