SPECIAL COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE

"HAVE

THE COURAGE

TO FOLLOW

YOUR HEART AND INTUITION."

Newsweek Table of Contents

American Genius
6 Hi. It's Steve.
Aaron Sorkin on an unforgettable phone call.

Dream Factory
38 Garage Band
Steve Wozniak built a motherboard. Steve Jobs built a business. The seeds of Apple's triumph. By Dan Lyons

The Icon
56 Design Different
Jobs's true genius was in designreshaping our world with a cool, clean, and friendly look. By Steven Heller

8 Thanks for the Future
Steve Jobs's brilliance lay in making us all feel we were part of his world. By Alan Deutschman

60 Timeless Geek Chic
With his turtleneck and jeans, Jobs was the corporate dork his customers didn't have to be. By Robin Givhan

40 How 'Bout Them Apples?
The gadgets and toys we've used for work and play.

14The Tech Seer 16The First Love of Jobs's Life
Laurene Powell Jobs was the apple of the great genius's eye.

42 The Best of Frenemies
Jobs's and Bill Gates's complicated relationship. By Leander Kahney

62 Hollywood's 'Devilish Angel'
Ousted from Apple, he looked to moviemaking for salvation-and nearly bankrupted himself. By Nick Summers

18World Wide Jobs 20 The Wilderness Years
The bleakest time in Jobs's career would turn out to be his most productive. By Leander Kahney

44 Remembering Jobs
World and tech leaders pay tribute.

46 The Godfathers of His Genius
The inspired innovators before him who made Steve Jobs's triumph possible. By Harold Evans

68 Selling the Revolution 72 Steve Jobs, Cover Boy

26 Death Is 'Life's Change Agent'
An excerpt from his beloved 2005 Stanford commencement address.

50 Geniuses We'll Never Know
Talent doesn't cut it. Greatness requires freedom to be a weirdo. By Niall Ferguson
ON THE

27 Steve Jobs and the Value of Failure
By Sheena Chestnut Greitens

52 The Jobs Number
He changed more than the computer business. Jobs transformed every industry he touched. By Josh Dzieza

28 A Medical Gamble
How Jobs tried-but failed-to beat the odds on pancreatic cancer. By Sharon Begley

COVER: Photograph by Hiro for Newsweek, 1984

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© 2011 by The Newsweek! Daily Beast Company LLC. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

Copyright

SILICON VALLEY, CALIF., 1983 "It was one of those sort of apocalyptic moments ... Just knowing that every computer would work this way someday; it was so obvious once you saw it. It was so clear."

Aaron Sorkin onan unforgettable phone call.

"H- I. It'sSteve."

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"Why don't you come on up here and let me give you a tour of the place." I'd never met Steve Jobs but we'd begun a phone friendship. It began when I was quoted somewhere answering the question "Mac or PC?" and I said, "Everything I've ever written, I've written on a Mac." He called me to say he appreciated the quote and said if there was ever anything he could do for me I should give him a ring. Then he would call me from time to time to compliment me on an episode of television or a movie I'd written that he'd particularly liked. When someone's making a courtesy call I like not to make them stay on the phone very long. So I never got a chance to tell Steve that he was making truly great American products that people wanted to buy. I never got to tell him about the experience of "opening the box" that so many of us are talking about this week. Or about how my young daughter can't walk past an Apple store without going in. I never told him how I loved his sense of showmanship. There's a huge difference between a showman and huckster. A showman's got the goods. The second-to-Iast call I got from Steve came the day a television series of mine was canceled. "I just want to make sure you're not discouraged," he said. Why would an almost stranger take even 60 seconds out of his day to make that call? It had to have been because he was an awfully nice man. And that he knew what it felt like to blow it on a big stage. But it's his last call I'll always remember. He wanted me to write a Pixar movie. I told him I loved Pixar movies, I'd seen all of them at least twice and felt they were small miracles, but that I didn't think I'd be good at it. STEVE: Why not? ME: I just-I don't think I can make inanimate objects talk. STEVE: Once you make them talk they won't be inanimate. ME: The truth is I don't know how to tell those stories. I have a young kid who loves Pixar movies and she'll turn cartwheels if I tell her I'm writing one and I don't want to disappoint her by writing the only bad movie in the history of Pixar. (long silence) STEVE: Jeez ... write about THAT. ME: SteveSTEVE: Why don't you come up here and let me give you a tour of the place. I told him I'd take him up on it and I never did. But I still keep thinking about that Pixar movie. And for me, that's Steve's legacy. That, and the fact that I wrote this on a Mac that I loved taking out of the box.

Aaron Sorkin is a screenwriter and producer.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

How a college dropout trusted his gut, defied corporate America, and carried us into tomorrow. By Alan Deutschman Illustration by Sean McCabe
NEW YORK CITY, March 20,1983: Steve Jobs is gazing at ancient Greek sculptures in the Metropolitan Museum of Art as he spends the day with John Sculley, the head of Pepsi and the man he has been trying for months to lure from the East Coast to become his partner in running Apple. They leave the museum, walk through Central Park, and head to the San Remo apartment house, Jobs's future New York home. As they stand on the western balcony, peering across the Hudson River, Jobs pauses dramatically before delivering one of the most seductive recruiting pitches in history: "Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water, or do you want a chance to change the world?" That sentence would become one of Jobs's most famous formulations' along with "insanely great" and "think different." The basis of its power, the reason it was such an irresistible pitch, was this: Steve Jobs, then only 28 years old, had already changed the world, and would go on, over the next quarter century, to change it again and again. While Jobs surely ranks as one of the most important figures in business and technology, he's also one of the most influential cultural figures of our time, the motivating force behind the idea that business and work can be primary sources of creativity, fulfillment, and meaning in our lives; the belief that companies can foment cultural change; the notion that engineers and executives can think like artists; and the realization that good design and aesthetics matter in one of the world's most cutthroat industries. Jobs's relentless pursuit of perfection was also a key part of

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

In 1981, Jobs still looked like the hippie who cofounded Apple five years earlier.

his legend. In 1977,when Apple's first corporate headquarters was in the same building as a regional sales office for Sony, he would stop by and ogle Sony's marketing materials, admiring the graphics and logos, noticing the weight of the paper stock. For one of his public presentations, Jobs scrutinized 37 different color variations before picking the background for his projector slides. The perfectionism extended to his home life as well: the first two houses he owned, in Los Gatos and Woodside, Calif., remained nearly empty for years because he couldn't find the perfect furnishings. And rather than relying on market research or focus groups for guidance, Jobs followed his own gut about product design. When he was creating the iMac, which combined a monitor and computer in the same casing, industry research said consumers wouldn't buy this kind of so-called all- in -one design. But Jobs wasn't deterred, telling a colleague, "I know what I want and I know what they want." He, of course, was right. And that sense of leading public tastes, rather than following them, is as important as anything else in Jobs's genius. Perhaps equally astonishing is just how close he came to failing entirely. Sculley, who succumbed to that balcony pitch and joined Apple as CEO, soured on Jobs only two years later, forcing

him out of the company that Jobs saw as an extension of himself. Betrayed by the man he felt closest to in the world, Jobs seemed so depressed that one of his longtime friends, Apple executive Mike Murray, feared he was suicidal. Jobs considered any number of randomly different paths, from expatriating to France to staying home at his huge, unfurnished old mansion in Woodside and cultivating his garden. Ultimately, his escapist fantasies were just that, and instead he persisted-tenaciously, resiliently-on the path he had begun following at 21. For most of the next decade he struggled as his two new companies, NeXTand Pixar, were so financially ruinous that he came close to blowing the entire $100 million fortune he had amassed from selling Apple stock. But he didn't give up, and his astonishing comeback and eventual triumph are as much a part of the Jobs legacy as the iPads and iPhones and Macs that have shaped our daily lives. In 1995, only two years after his situation seemed hopeless, Pixar created Toy Story, the first full-length computeranimated feature film, and Jobs immediately took the company's stock public and became a billionaire at age 40. He sold what was left of NeXT to Apple for a $400 million windfall, then, in the most stunning reversal of all, returned to Apple after more than a decade-long exile. The company that once seemed destined to die would ultimately be worth more than

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In the early years, moments of leisure were possible. But Apple would later come to consume his life.

Jobs in 1985, shortly before being forced out of Apple. Bottom, displaying the hardware with cofounder Steve Wozniak.

Microsoft and Google and second only to ExxonMobil as the most valuable company on earth. For the past eight years, Jobs has repeated his signature tropes with his illness, coming perilously close to catastrophe only to rebound miraculously. He was diagnosed in 2003 with pancreatic cancer, but after nine months of hoping he could reverse the condition purely through diet, he underwent surgery that removed the tumor. A few years later he was in danger of starving to death because his body couldn't digest proteins-then was saved by a liver transplant. Throughout his illness, it always seemed as if Steve would triumph-that some combination of wealth and will and charmed luck would get him through. So it is that we try to come to terms with the fact that Steven Paul Jobs is dead at 56. He was born out of wedlock to two intellectuals, Abdulfattah Jandali and Joanne Simpson, graduate students at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, but he was adopted at birth by a working-class couple in San Francisco. Paul Jobs was a high-school dropout who worked as a machinist, usedcar salesman, repo man, and real-estate broker, and his wife, Clara, toiled part-time as a payroll clerk. The family's means were modest, but Paul and Clara loved children and adopted two: Steve and his sister Patti. Jobs's closest friends from high school and his brief time in

college remember him as a sweet and easygoing kid without the maniacal intensity and grandiose ambitions he would later be known for. His dealmaking skills were evident when he bought a stereo receiver at a yard sale, fixed it, and resold it at a profit. During 10th grade at Homestead High in Cupertino, Calif., he told his girlfriend, Chris-Ann Brennan, that he was going to be a millionaire. But his business instincts were seemingly contradicted by his avid interest in the counterculture: he idolized Bob Dylan and spent hours listening to Dylan tapes on a reel-to-reel player. (Years later, he would quote an entire Dylan verse at a shareholders' meeting.) During a pilgrimage to see a guru in India, he talked with college friend Dan Kottke about renouncing materialism. He considered entering a Zen Buddhist monastery in Japan instead of starting Apple. That dual interest-in business and counterculture-was a contradiction that he somehow kept suspended in his mind. Part of his genius, of course, would be to take the thesis of business and the antithesis of counterculture and create the synthesis of Apple: the idea that a company can promote revolutionary social change and that workers can be artists expressing their creativity. Cofounding Apple in 1976 at age 21, Jobs seemed to realize instinctively that the personal computer would herald a

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

Apple defined cool with marketing campaigns enlisting rock bands like U2.

revolution and he could be one of its leaders. And while friends were convinced that Brennan was still in love with him, it was clear then that his only emotional ties were to Apple. While the couple shared a shag-carpeted tract house together with Kottke that they dubbed "Rancho Suburbia," Jobs spent much of his time up in the foothills at the cottage of Barbara Jasinski, who worked for Apple's public-relations firm. Nonetheless, Brennan became pregnant, and Jobs later, infamously, denied his fatherhood even though Brennan and their daughter, Lisa, were subsisting on welfare. The county sued Steve-already a millionaire-for support. The incident cost Jobs an honor he coveted: Time magazine's editors had planned to make him their Man of the Year for 1982, but after Kottke talked about the episode with the magazine's Silicon Valley correspondent, Michael Moritz, the editors chose instead to make the personal computer the Machine of the Year-and to follow the cover story with Moritz's devastating expose of Jobs's dark side. From then until his final days, Jobs remained intensely guarded and controlling of media coverage of his private life. The code of silence spilled over to the professional realm as well, as he realized the value of secrecy in inspiring anticipation around new products. The media loved his story and his celebrity. By the end of his life, he would become

one of the most-used magazine-cover subjects in the world. After Joanne Simpson and Abdulfattah Jandali gave Steve up for adoption, they married and then kept their next child, Mona Simpson. Jobs was thrilled when he learned his sister was a novelist, a creative soul like himself. Simpson later published a novel, A Regular Guy, about a Jobs-like figure too busy to flush toilets (the opening line) and too narcissistic to be the caring man needed by his girlfriend, his young daughter, and his daughter's mother. Jobs's personal life finally stabilized after his marriage to Laurene Powell, a Stanford Business School student. Powell arranged to invite him to speak on campus, then walked into the auditorium in the middle of his talk and sat in the center of the front row. He asked her out afterward. Before long, Powell was pregnant, and Jobs, at 36, faced a similar situation to when he was 22. This time he married his partner, and Powell gave birth to Reed Paul in 1991. He proved a doting father. Reed was followed by two daughters, Erin Sienna in 1995 and Eve in 1998, and the family lived in the kind of charming but reasonably scaled home more fit for tenured professors than for billionaire CEOs of the new gilded age. Jobs always wanted to be known more as a visionary than a genius. In the '80s, he and Bill Gates went out together on

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With his daughter lisa in 1989. His wife. Laurene. brought them closer after a long estrangement.

double dates, and the women they were with-Silicon Valley venture capitalists Ann Winblad and Heidi Roizen-realized that the two men each secretly envied the other's reputation: Gates was heralded as a great businessman but wanted to be seen as a technical visionary; Jobs yearned for Gates's reputation as a legendary businessman. In Jobs's first time around at Apple, business decisions were controlled not by the cofounder but rather by older, more experienced executives. Jobs could buy a Bosendorfer grand piano for his team of "pirates" creating the Macintosh, or he could fill the fridge with fresh fruit juices, but he couldn't build a factory or launch a new computer on his own. So after he was kicked out of Apple, he longed to prove he could run great businesses on his own. After a full decade of failure, he learned from those experiences-and ultimately reemerged as the most admired businessperson of our age. Within hours of the news of Jobs's death on Oct. S, in a carefully crafted statement from Apple, a global, unexpected outpouring of grief began. Over the days that followed, flowers, Post-it notes, and bitten apples would appear at Apple stores around the world, as well as at the company's Cupertino headquarters and Jobs's home. It would become one of the largest such displays since the death of Princess Diana, and the first of the digital era. At one point on the

day after his death, a new tribute to Jobs was posted on Facebook every second. What was absolutely true about Jobs, what lived up to the legend, was his charisma. He could be utterly charming and seductive to both men and women-flirting outrageously, transfixing them with his laserlike stare, capturing them with the infectious rhythms of his speech, conveying a heady sense of enthusiasm as he explained technology more lucidly than anyone else in the Valley could. Before Pixar's executives went into meetings with Steve, they would agree to tug on their ears as a warning signal if they saw a colleague succumbing to his seductiveness, his infamous "reality-distortion field" that could make you believe just about anything. For the past eight years Jobs had us convinced that cancer and its aftershocks were just other obstacles he would brilliantly overcome. After his first medical leave from Apple, he persuaded us he was just fine after the tumor was removed. After the second medical leave, he reassured us again. The third medical leave was the last, and now even Steve can no longer pull off a comeback, though it's still hard to believe that such an irrepressible force could ever be vanquished. NW Alan Deutschman is the author of The Second Coming of Steve Jobs and the e-book How Steve Jobs Changed Our World.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN INNOVATOR

YOUTUBE MANIA WHEN HE CALLED IT: 2001

The Tech Seer
AN INTERNET WORLD WHEN HE CALLED IT: 19_

Steve Jobs wasn't always right, but his ability to foresee innovations was uncanny. Here are a few of his more remarkable predictions.

Bac when computers were just becoming personally affordable, Jobs pointed to a future in which each machine would be tied to a nationwide communications n twork. "We're just in the beginning stages of what will be a truly remarkable breakthrough for most people-as remarkable as the telephone," Jobs said. In the same interview, he seemed to predict his own exile from Apple, saying: "I'll always stay connected with Apple. There may be a few years when I'm not there, but I'll always come back."
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Four years before the invention of YouTube, Jobs pointed out that although many people consumed media online, they would soon start creating content, too. "One of our issues as a society going forward is to teach kids to express themselves in the medium of their generation," he said in an interview with Newsweek. "The medium of our times is video and photography, but most of us are still consumers as opposed to being authors."

STARTUP REVOLUTION WHEN HE CALLED IT: 1995

arly on in t e dot-com bubble of the late 1990s, Jobs foresaw a new economic order in which lean and hungry tech firms would challenge the established giants of the corp ra e world. "It is going to destroy vast layers of our economy and make available a presence in the marketplace for very small companies, one that is equal to very large companies," he told the Smithsonian Instit tion.
PERSONALIZED EVERYTHING WHEN HE CALLED IT: 1995

A DIGITAL HELPMATE WHEN HE CALLED IT: 1984

Long before e-commerce got off the ground, Jobs knew the Web was ripe for inno ative, personalized marketing. "The way to look at the Web is, it's the ultimate direct-tocustomer distribution channel," he tol Newsweek in 1995. "You won't be looking at a Web page that 3,000 other people are looking at. You're looking at one that's exactly what you want to see, whether it's information on that new Chrysler Neon that you want to buy or whether it's Merrill Lynch showing you your portfolio of stock."

Well over a decade before the first smartphones, Jobs foresaw computers that could help you make sense of your Ii e. "lt will be as if there's a little person inside that box who starts to anticipate what you want," he told Newsweek. "Rather than help you, it will start to guide you through large amounts of information. It will almost be like you have a little friend inside that box." Apple unvei ed Siri, a humanlike personal assistant that understands speech,on Oct. 4, 2011-just one day before Jobs died.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

Mr. and Mrs. Jobs share a moment after Steve's speech at a conference in 2011.

The First Love of

Laurene Powell Jobs is warm, funny, socially engaged, and intensely private. Meet the apple of the great genius's eye.

Jobs's Life

YOU'VE FALLEN IN love with the genius future billion-

aire and married him. How do you then live? You can devote yourself, like Mrs. Bill Gates, to being a partner in his global philanthropic problem-solving. You can abide quietly near Seattle, like Mrs. Jeff Bezos, and write novels to some critical acclaim. You can enjoy the high-profile life of alphatech glamour, like Mrs. Larry Page. Or you can choose the fiercely protective path of Laurene Powell Jobs. Keep Steve from being eaten alive. Nurture friends and family. And when the camera does happen to find you, always look carelessly beautiful. They met in a classroom at Stanford University in 1990, where he was lecturing and she was finishing an MBA.They exchanged phone numbers, but didn't make plans. Later, in the parking lot, he had a revelation. He was on his way to meet colleagues-even had his key in the car-but, as Jobs told a New York Times reporter, "I thought to myself, If this is my last day on earth, would 1rather spend it at a business meeting or with this woman?" He ran across the parking lot and asked her to dinner. They were married a year later, in Yosemite National Park, with a Zen Buddhist monk presiding. Early in their marriage, Laurene founded an organic- food company called Terravera, but pulled back when her family began to grow. Her activism has been quiet but insistent: passionate about education, she sits on the boards of several education nonprofits. She founded the Emerson Collective, which funds strategic education-reform efforts all over the world. Despite her abundant gifts, Laurene Powell Jobs has never flaunted them. She is the "home executive," which is what Mina Miller Edison called herself after she married the inventor of the incandescent lamp. Even as the end drew near, Laurene and Steve were making plans for a new home that reflected their values: spare, economical, utilitarian. Said an architect who reviewed the house plans for a tech web site: "Steve Jobs and his family are quite comfortable in their own skins, and not out to prove anything to anyone." NW

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IN HIS OWN WORDS

"Have the courage to follow your heart and intuition, They somehow already know what you truly want to become,"

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

SYRIA
EARLY 19505

SAN FRANCISCO
FEB. 24. 1955 Jobs is born to Jandali and Joanne Carole Simpson, who put him up for adoption. They have another child, Mona Simpson, who becomes a well-known author.

CUPERTINO, CALIF.
1970 Jobs meets Steve Wozniak in an introductory electronics class at Homestead High. The two start building and selling devices to make free, illegal long-distance phone calls.

1970

ROME
Using this new technology, Jobs's buddy Wozniak calls the pope and pretends to be Henry Kissinger.

Abdulfattah Jandali, Jobs's father, leaves Syria to study at the University of Wisconsin, where he meets his future wife.

iiitl"ISi

World WideJobs

From tripping on LSD in India to discovering a mouse in Palo Alto, a global timeline of an inventor's life. By Josh Dzieza

TAMPA
1984 Apple airs a Super Bowl ad directed by Ridley Scott featuring an Orwellian dystopia shattered by the arrival of the Mac.

1985

BERLIN

1995

HAWAII

TYSONS CORNER, VA.
MAY 19. 2001

Jobs says in an interview he was disturbed to learn that U.S. nuclear weapons in Europe are controlled by Apple computers.

Exiled from Apple, Jobs walks the beach with Oracle's Larry Ellison and mulls a takeover bid for Apple. He decides against it.

The first Apple retail store, meticulously designed by Jobs, opens at a shopping center to a crowd of about 500 people.

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PORTLAND, 1972

ORE.

INDIA 1974 Experiments with LSD, which he later calls "one of the two or three most important things I have done in my life."

PALO ALTO, CALIF. 1979 Visits the Xerox research center and sees the company's graphical video display and mouse. Jobs, who would later brag about stealing ideas, uses this one to power the personal computer.

1982

NEW YORK
Buys an apartment in New York City and has it renovated by I. M. Pei. He never moves in and eventually sells it to Bono.

Jobs attends Reed College for one semester. He hangs around campus for another 18 months, sleeping on friends' floors and sitting in on classes, including one on calligraphy.

---

MEMPHIS 2009 Jobs enters Methodist University Hospital to get a liver transplant. His health becomes a central issue for Apple employees and investors.

SHENZHEN,
MAY 2010

CHINA

LONDON
AUGUST 2010

The plant where iPhones are made sees nine suicides in three months. This makes for one of the darker episodes in Jobs's bright career.

Apple opens its largest store yet. It is the company's 300th brick-and-mortar retail operation.

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INNOVATOR

Jobs near his nadir. at a NeXT offsite in Palo Alto in 1987.

"II{%; .'

The bleakest time in Jobs's career would turn out to be his most productive. By Leander Kahney

Wilderness Years

The

THE DECADE THAT Steve Jobs spent away from Apple is often seen as his "wilderness" years. a time when he came close to fading forever from public life. He was forced out of the company he founded. His new company, NeXT, was struggling to say afloat. His other company, Pixar, lurched from business plan to business plan. Yet that decade would become one of the most productive periods of Jobs's amazing life, laying the foundation for the personal, technological, and financial success that would follow. "The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything," he said at a famous Stanford commencement speech in 2005. "It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life."

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In 1985, Steve Jobs wasn't so much fired from Apple as he was chased out. He lost a power struggle with then-CEO John Sculley, whom Jobs had recruited from Pepsi. Sculley was brought into Apple as the grown-up, the "adult supervision." Jobs, just 29, wanted Sculley to run the fast-growing and often chaotic company while Jobs obsessed about new products. He hoped that Sculley would teach him how to eventually take the reins. Things went swimmingly at first, but Jobs's penchant for meddling put him at odds with Sculley and many others. The crunch came when Jobs's Macintosh division failed to upgrade the original Mac, leading to a deep slide in sales. Consumers viewed it as an expensive toy. There was no killer app to drive sales (desktop publishing wouldn't take off until after Jobs left). Sculley removed Jobs as head of the Mac division, leading Jobs to retaliate by trying to have him kicked out. Jobs lost. He quickly set up a rival company in hopes of driving Apple out of business. Called NeXT (of course), the company began work on a high-end workstation aimed at colleges and universities. Jobs took some of the key Macintosh personnel with him, and was immediately sued by Apple for "nefarious schemes." He persuaded Texas millionaire Ross Perot to invest (Perot was impressed by Jobs after seeing him on a CBS news show) and, later, Japan's Canon. Jobs spent lavishly at his new company. He splurged $100,000 on a cubist logo designed by the famous graphic designer Paul Rand and built a headquarters office with hardwood floors and a floating glass staircase designed by architect I. M. Pei. He experimented with new management ideas, like letting his staff see all the company's financials, including payroll. Predictably, that turned out to be a mistake. Yet Jobs nevertheless was able to recruit stellar talent to work at the company, including Jon Rubinstein and Avie Tevanian, who would later take on key roles at Apple.

In 1989, after three years in development, Jobs introduced the NeXTcube at a press event in San Francisco. Plagued by delays, the machine was months behind schedule. Asked about being late, Jobs responded, "Late? This computer is five years ahead of its time!" The NeXTcube sported a distinctive case made of pricey black magnesium. It ran proprietary software that was developed at great expense, and Jobs built a robot factory to churn out 150,000 machines a year. But the $6,500 workstation was too expensive for schools, its initial target market. Only government agencies like the CIA could afford it. In the end, only 50,000 were ever sold. Meanwhile, Jobs had picked up his other company, Pixar, from George Lucas for $10 million shortly after leaving Apple. Lucas unloaded what was then a fledgling computer-graphics division after being cleaned out in an expensive divorce. At the time, Pixar was little more than a group of academics who had created an advanced computer-graphics package called RenderMan. Jobs tried to market it as the Pixar Image Computer, a high-end graphics workstation, but only Disney bit. Then the company tried to sell RenderMan as a stand-alone animation package. That too failed. Having spent more than $50 million of his own money to keep it afloat, Jobs tried several times to sell Pixar. He came very close to passing it off to Apple's archenemy, Microsoft. "IfI knew in 1986 how much it was going to cost to keep Pixar going, I doubt if I would've bought the company," Jobs later said. He was forced to layoff most of Pixar's staff in 1991. But he kept a handful of key players, including Ed Catmull, the firm's technical genius, and John Lasseter, who was garnering rave reviews for short films he made as demos for RenderMan. One of Lasseter's shorts won an Academy Award. Throughout this period, Jobs was excoriated in the press.

tJ He stopped going to work,
spending his days at home with his young son.

Pixar and NeXT were high-profile failures. Jobs was portrayed not as a technologist but as a slick marketer, a fast talker whose early success came from riding Steve Wozniak's coattails. Maybe Sculley was right. In 1993, Jobs reached his nadir. To keep NeXT afloat, he folded the company's hardware operation and laid off most of the rest of the staff. He was in "ankle-deep shit," as he would later put it. He stopped going to work, spending his days at home with his young son. Pixar was also limping on, making animated shorts and special effects for TV commercials. Then the company-and Jobs-got a key break. Disney tried to hire Lasseter away. He rebuffed it, but not before Disney agreed to finance three of Pixar's feature-length movies. The deal was lop-

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Jobs's Biggest Flops
Steve Jobs wasn't perfect. Yet some of his missteps also led to some of his biggest successes. By Leander Kahney

NEXTCUBE1989
No one wanted the workstations, priced at $6,500 a pop. Yet the company was sold to Apple, bringing Jobs back and giving him the software foundation for todav's Mac operating system.

ITUNES ROKR PHONE 2005
Two years before the iPhone, Apple teamed with Motorola on an iTunes-enabled cell phone. But it held just 100 songs and was slow to sync. Jobs hated it.

IMAC PUCK MOUSE 1998
The first brightly colored iMac came with a dinky, round mouse shaped like a hockey puck. It was an ergonomic nightmare that ultimately was ditched entirely.

APPLE TV 2007
Apple TV seemed like a great idea. Trouble is, back then there was nothing to watch and it didn't support movie downloads or rentals.

THE LISA 1983
Named after Jobs's daughter, the Usa cost tens of millions of dollars to develop and nearly $10,000 to buy. Consumers stayed away.

G3 IMAC CDS 2000
Jobs nixed CD players in G3 iMacs because he wanted them to be used as video-editing machines. Sales collapsed. "I felt like a dope," Jobs would later say.

APPSTORE
Jobs was initially dead set against an App Store on the iPhone. He wanted to protect the sanctity of the iPhone. Luckily, developers protested and Jobs relented.

THE ORIGINAL MAC 1984
Although a huge technological breakthrough, it was pricey, slow, and buggy. Improved versions, though, would ultimately usher in the desktop revolution.

THE CUBE 2000
The PowerMac Cube was a beautiful failure. It was too expensive for consumers and too slow for pros. But it inspired the Mac Mini.

MOBILE ME
The Internet revamp, dubbed "MobileMess," prompted a rare apology from Jobs.

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Hoping for the best. at a NeXT product introduction in 1988.

sided (Disney got most of the money), but what emerged was a deal to back a buddy movie featuring a pair of mismatched toys. Lasseter flew to Hollywood to take a crash course in screenwriting. After several restarts, including one that almost killed the film entirely, Toy Story was released in 1995 to huge critical acclaim. The first fully computer-made movie, Toy Story won an Oscar and went on to become the highest -grossing movie of the year. It was the first win in an unprecedented Pixar run: 12blockbuster hits that have earned on average $602 million apieceby far the best run of any studio in Hollywood. Plus six Oscars. In 1996, a year after Toy Story, Apple's then-CEO, Gil Amelio, approached Jobs about buying NeXT's operating system. For years, Apple had been trying to develop a successor to its aging Macintosh operating system, which was creaking under the weight of all the extra features that had been added since 1984. That effort was failing, and now Apple was hoping to buy the NeXTStep OS to replace the Mac OS. In December 1996, Apple announced that Apple had indeed bought NeXT for $430 million. Jobs was brought back to the company as a special adviser to Amelio, paving the way for his later return as CEO. It wasn't exactly a prime perch. Apple at the time was struggling financially. For the first time, Windows comput-

ers were as good as the Mac, if not better, and certainly a lot cheaper. By comparison, Apple's computers were slow, expensive, and lackluster. The only successful companies in the Mac ecosystem were the clone makers, which were further eroding Apple's market share. In the first quarter of 1997, Apple announced a quarterly loss of $700 million, one of the largest in Silicon Valley history. Apple's board fired Amelio and, in desperation, asked Jobs to take over. At first he balked. He was already running Pixar, which was finally a success, and Apple was nearly bankrupt. He didn't want to oversee its demise. Yet Apple was under his skin. He'd cofounded it, and couldn't stand by and watch it die. He took the title of iCEOinterim CEO-and got to work while the board looked for a permanent CEO. So ended Jobs's lost decade. His time in the wilderness taught him how to be a better manager and delegator. He discovered creative processes at Pixar that later worked well at Apple. He recruited staff and developed technologies that would underpin Apple's success. And he helped create an entire genre of computer-animated movies, which would make him a multibillionaire when Disney bought Pixar. He also got married and raised a family. It turned out the decade wasn't lost, after all. NW Leander Kahney runs the website cUltofmac.com.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

"Your time is limited," Jobs said, "so don't waste it living someone else's life."

Death Is ·Life's Change Agent'
Live every day as if it's your last. An excerpt from Steve Jobs's memorable address to Stanford's class of 2005.

WHENI WAS17, I read a quote that went something like: "If you live each day as ifit was your last, someday you'll most certainly be right." It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: "Iftoday were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?" And whenever the answer has been "no" for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something. Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything-all external expectations, aU pride, aU fear of embarrassment or failure-these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart. About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn't even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor's code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you'd have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.

I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I'm fine now. This was the closest I've been to facing death, and I hope it's the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept: No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true. Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. Don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.

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Newsweek

• i,k' iii;!:.

What Jobs Taught Value of Failure
Stay hungry. Stay foolish. Take risks. And whatever you do, don't be afraid to fall. By Sheena Chestnut Greitens
ON A SUNNY California morning in June 200S, my friends and I ran into the Stanford stadium for graduation. As part of the university's irreverent "wacky walk," we'd decorated our regalia with green inner tubes, floppy sombreros, and Mardi Gras beads. On the grass, we waved to our parents, brandished squirt guns, and batted beach balls around. We were ready to be proud of finishing college and stepping out into adulthood. We were ready to celebrate our accomplishment-the first, we believed, of many to come. We were ready to hear about the great future that lay ahead. We were not ready for Steve Jobs's speech. Jobs was not a rousing orator. He looked nervous as he approached the podium. As he spoke, though, his voice gained the strength of someone who knows that what he's saying is both true and very important. And something unusual happened: we all started paying attention. We still are. Six years later, those of us in the stadium that morning still talk about what he said. Jobs, who stepped down as Apple's CEO in August, passed away Oct. s. Within minutes of both announcements, my Facebook newsfeed lit up with videos of the speech and comments posted by fellow alums. Until recently, I thought that his speech resonated uniquely with my class. But when I reread it, I realized that it might have even more to say to students today, and to their families. What made Jobs's speech so unusual, and so lasting, is that at a moment when everyone wanted to talk about success, he told us about failure. Or at least he told us about experiences we'd normally call failures. He failed an awful lot, and not in small ways. But what's interesting is what Jobs did with those failures. He learned from them, and he used them to make himself better. He audited calligraphy classes that became the basis of Apple's fonts. After getting fired from Apple, he tried again-and changed animation history with a company called Pixar. And he returned to lead Apple to enough successes that he's honored among the most innovative leaders of our time. Days after his death, perhaps the most poignant passage to hear again is about his cancer diagnosis: "Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything-all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failurethese things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking

Me About the

B I'll always be grateful to Steve Jobs for pointing out that we shouldn't necessarily aspire to constant success.
you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart." What I learned that day, and in the years after graduation, is that contrary to what we're often told, it's not just OK to fail. It's essential. If we're too risk-averse on the early, little things, we won't get better. And not learning those lessons-about what we love, and about how to do it well-can keep us from succeeding on big things later. I never met Steve Jobs. He didn't know who I was. But I'll always be grateful to him for pointing out that we shouldn't necessarily aspire to constant success. Failure can be an opportunity in disguise, freeing us to pursue what really matters. It teaches us how to follow what we love, and how to do it better. As Jobs told us, stay hungry. Stay foolish. Take risks. Fail often. If we do that, we'll live meaningful lives. And like Jobs, we might change the world-one failure at a time. NW Sheena Chestnut Greitens graduated from Stanford in 2005. She is a doctoral candidate at Harvard and a predoctoral fellow at the University of Virginia's Miller Center.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

Jobs appeared at a conference in June 2004, a month before his first surgery.

A Medical Gamble
Cancer in the pancreas doesn't have to be a death sentence. How Steve Jobs tried-but failed-to beat the odds. By Sharon Begley

iii #:h i: i

STEVE JOBS WAS right to be optimistic when, in 2004, he announced that he had cancer in his pancreas: for although cancer of the pancreas has a terrible prognosis (half of all patients die within 10 months of the diagnosis), cancer in the pancreas is not necessarily a death sentence. The difference is that pancreatic cancers arise from the pancreatic cells themselves; this is the kind that killed actor Patrick Swayze in 2009. But cancers in the pancreas, called neuroendocrine tumors, arise from islands of hormone-producing cells that happen to be in that organ. Jobs learned in 2003 that he had an extremely rare form of this cancer, an islet -cell neuroendocrine tumor. As the name implies, it arises from islet cells, the specialized factories within the pancreas that produce and secrete insulin, which cells need in order to take in glucose from the food we eat. Unlike pancreatic cancer itself, with neuroendocrine cancer "if you catch it early, there is a real potential for cure," says cancer surgeon Joseph Kim of City of Hope, a comprehensive cancer center in Duarte, Calif. But although neither Apple nor those close to Jobs were willing to discuss the treatments he elected or the course of his disease, interviews with experts on neuroendocrine tumors suggest that some of the choices he made did not extend his life, and may have shortened it. The cancer was detected during an abdominal scan in October 2003. He reportedly had the scan-which is seldom done, much less advised, as a routine part of a physicalbecause he had a history of gastrointestinal problems, but he may have also been experiencing symptoms, most likely gastrointestinal ones. Those tend to arise from the hormone that the particular neuroendocrine tumor produces, explains medical oncologist Matthew Kulke of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston. In Jobs's case, that was insulin. The main effect of high insulin levels is very low blood sugar,

which can lead to shakiness, cold sweats, nausea, vomiting, and neurological changes, such as impaired judgment, moodiness, irritability, apathy, and confusion. There is virtually no debate about the best treatment. "It has long been held that surgery can lead to very long-term survival," says Kim. In a 2010 analysis of cancer registries, he and colleagues found that patients with neuroendocrine cancer who were eligible for surgery (those whose cancer has not spread beyond the pancreas) "can have outstanding outcomes," living for many more years. In part, that is because neuroendocrine cancers tend to be quite slow-growing: even those that have been present for years, and in some cases decades, often stay safely confined to the pancreas. In fact, this kind of cancer can be so indolent that patients often die with it than from it. Although an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed every year with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas, autopsies find the disease in hundreds more-people who were apparently not harmed by the cancer. Despite the expert consensus on the value of surgery, Jobs did not have surgery right away He spent nine months on "alternative therapies," including what Fortune called "a special diet." But when a scan showed that the original tumor had grown, he finally had it removed on July 31, 2004, at Stanford University Medical Clinic. In an email to Apple employees, Jobs said his form of cancer "can be cured by surgical removal if diagnosed in time (mine was)," and told his colleagues, "I will be recuperating during the month of August, and expect to return to work in September." Jobs's upbeat report was not unrealistic: most patients diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumors in the pancreas live at least another 10 years. Not that the surgery was a walk in the woods. In many cases, says Kim, "you can just remove the tumor with a little of the surrounding [pancreatic] tissue." But Jobs's was not

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

such a simple case. He underwent an operation called a modified Whipple procedure, or a pancreatoduodenectomy, Fortune reported. The surgery removes the right side of the pancreas, the gallbladder, and parts of the stomach, bile duct, and small intestine. It is "one of the most complicated and risky surgeries known to man," says radiation oncologist David Cho of Roswell Park Cancer Institute, "more complicated than brain surgery." The fact that so much more than the pancreas itself had to be removed might suggest that Jobs's cancer had spread beyond that organ, but in many cases that reflects what Cho calls "the very fancy plumbing work in and around the pancreas." Although the cancer might have already spread by the time it was discovered in 2003, Jobs's sanguine description of his prognosis suggests that if that were the case then the metastasis might have been so small-"micrometastases"-as to be undetectable. Within five years it was clear that Jobs was not cured. He underwent a liver transplant at Methodist University Hospital in Memphis in 2009. That strongly suggests the cancer had spread beyond the digestive system that was the focus of the surgery and into the organ that is one of the most common sites of metastasis. Liver transplants are a well-established treatment for tumors that originate in that organ, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, says Kim. But removing the liver because it has become riddled with tumors that originated elsewhere is rare. For one thing, liver metastases probably mean the cancer is elsewhere, too, such as in the bones or brain. Swapping out a cancer-ridden liver for a new one may therefore buy some time, but not much. It can even be counterproductive. Transplant patients need massive doses of immune-suppressing drugs to keep their bodies from rejecting the foreign organ. Although experts differ on how big a role the immune system plays in keeping cancer, especially micrometastases, in check, there is a consensus that it provides some benefit. "Immune-suppressing drugs after a liver transplant for hepatocellular cancer is therefore a major concern," says Kim. A more standard treatment is to remove only those parts of the liver that contain malignant cells.

"If there are a limited number of such spots, we recommend surgeons go in and take them out," says Kulke, especially since the liver regenerates. Presumably, Jobs was being monitored by his physicians, so it is odd that the liver would suddenly be so riddled with metastases-especially given that neuroendocrine tumors are usually indolent-that more limited, targeted surgery was rejected in favor of a full, and risky, transplant. Fewer than two dozen cases of a liver transplant after metastatic neuroendocrine cancer have been reported. The first such studies were done in France, with surgeons reporting the first results in 1997. Based on 31 cases, including three patients who had a Whipple procedure similar to Jobs's, they calculated that S9 percent of patients survived at least one year, 47 percent were alive at three years, and 36 percent survived five years or more. The rates were better for the kind of neuroendocrine cancer Jobs had: 69 percent of patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors were alive at five years. But less extreme surgery arguably offers more hope. In a 2003 study, surgeons at the Mayo Clinic found that when only those parts of the liver that are riddled with neuroendocrine metastases

a Some of the choices Jobs

made did not extend his life, and may have shortened it.

(which Jobs apparently had) are removed, half of patients live 4S months or more. In contrast, with a liver transplant "the overall costs and complications ... override its benefits, especially when compared with partial [removal of the liver]." Once news of Jobs's liver transplant leaked, there was speculation that he had used his billions to jump to the head of the organ-transplant waiting list. Methodist University Hospital denied that Jobs had done so, and indeed cheating the system so directly is just about impossible. Transplant centers rank potential organ recipients on waiting lists, with those who are sickest and who have been waiting the longest

A Chief's Gradual Decline
Though he repeatedly asserted he was in good health, Jobs's physical deterioration was increasingly evident.
During an abdominal scan, Jobs is diagnosed with pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer.

He has surgery, called pancreatoduodenectomy,

at

Stanford University Medical Center to remove
his gallbladder plus part of the pancreas, stomach, and bile duct.

AUGUST 2004
Jobs emails Apple employees, saying he had surgery and expects to "return to work in September." He appears thin and gaunt at a conference. An Apple spokesperson says "Steve's health is robust." Jobs again looks seriously ill, and Apple says he has "a common bug." The New York TImes reports that his health issues were more serious but "weren't life-threatening. "

30
Newsweek

At a 2010 ceremony to create the country's first living-donor registry.

closest to the top of the list. Jobs therefore could not have taken a liver that might have gone to someone sicker than he. But each transplant center maintains its own waiting list; to get on it, a patient must have been examined by a surgeon there and deemed medically eligible. Patients can shop around for centers with the shortest waiting times, and also get on more than one list. It is unknown whether Jobs did that. But because he had the means to fly on a moment's notice anywhere in the country, rather than wait for a liver to become available in California, he would have been able to receive a new liver sooner than other patients in his situation. There is also some question of whether Jobs might have benefited from chemotherapy before the cancer had a chance to spread. Jobs was relieved that, as he put it in that 2004 email, he did "not require any chemotherapy or radiation treat-

ments." He took that as a sign that the surgery "got it all." In fact, any surgeons who say they "got it all" should be slapped: no existing technology can detect micrometastases, let alone a few million rogue malignant cells. One of the few bright spots when it comes to neuroendocrine cancer was the Food and Drug Administration's decision, in May 2011, to approve two new drugs against the disease. Sutent is an angiogenesis inhibitor, targeting the blood vessels that tumors require. Afinitor is what's called an mTOR inhibitor: it blocks Signals involved in both cell proliferation and angiogenesis. According to research in The New England Iournal of Medicine, both drugs roughly double progression-free survival from five months to 11. Why do neuroendocrine tumors kill? Not because they destroy the insulin-producing cells. As Kulke points out, "you can take insulin injections. But what happens is that if the cancer metastasizes, you can get wasting and weakness." Indeed, some 90 percent of cancer fatalities are the result of the metastasis rather than the primary tumor. And a large fraction of deaths from metastasis are in fact deaths that have other immediate causes, such as wasting and weakness. Jobs began looking thin and gaunt as early as 2006, and by 2009 his weight loss was so severe he had to take a medical leave from Apple. At that point, tragically, it was only a matter of time. NW Sharon Begley writes about science and health for Newsweek.

SEPTEMBER 2008
He quotes Mark Twain: "Reports of my death are greatly exaggerated."

EARLY 2009
He travels to SWitzerland, Fortune later reports, for an experimental radiation treatment unavailable in the U.S.

SEPTEMBER 2009
Jobs issues a statement saying, "I now have the liver of a mid-20s person who died in a car crash and was generous enough to donate their organs, and I wouldn't be here without such generosity."

JANUARY 2009
After missing a Macworld event, Jobs blames his severe weight loss on a "hormone imbalance." He takes a medical leave of absence from Apple.

JULY 2009
Travels to Memphis for a liver transplant, performed by Dr. James Eason at Methodist University Hospital. He soon returns to Apple.

JANUARY 2011
Jobs announces he is taking medical leave. Citing his poor health, Jobs steps down as CEO of Apple. Jobs dies at age 56.

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Special Commemorative Issue

The intensely private Jobs kept hidden during his final weeks.
Those who knew Steve Jobs-and even some who didn't-wanted to see him one last time before his death on Oct. 5. With his health declining daily, Jobs's wife, Laurene, monitored the number of people visiting their home in Palo Alto, Calif. Friends and colleagues-including Disney CEO Robert A. lger, Apple board member Bill Campbell, and the venture capitalist John Doerr-all paid their respects. Jobs spent most of his time with his wife and four children, yet work was never far from his mind. He weighed in on the unveiling of the iPhone 4S, released just one day before his death.

Out of Sight

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Commemorative Issue

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D

STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

It started in a garage, grew into one of the world's largest companiesand changed the way we live. How Steve Jobs built Apple.

36
Newsweek

From Shanghai to Frankfurt. Apple stores are as modern as their products.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

Jobs sold his VW bus to help launch Apple. "We were penniless," Woz says.

BEGINNINGS

Garage

Band

Steve Wozniak built a motherboard. Steve Jobs built a business. The seeds of Apple's triumph. By Dan Lyons

THEY BEGAN AS outlaws. In 1971,16-year-old Steve Jobs and

his 20-year-old pal Steve Wozniak were a pair of longhaired hackers making devices that let people crack the phone system and make free long-distance calls. It was dangerous business: one customer robbed them at gunpoint. They'd met in the garage of a mutual friend and struck up a friendship based on their shared interest in prank playing, electronics, and Bob Dylan. Over the next few years they developed a videogame for Atari, where Jobs had landed a job, and designed a low-cost computer terminal that they sold to a local company. Jobs sometimes lived in the Bay Area but at other times drifted off to a commune in Oregon. Wozniak went to work at HP as an engineer, designing calculators. In 1976, in his spare time, he designed a circuit board that hobbyists could use to build a primitive personal computer. He offered the schematic at no cost to anyone who

wanted to build a computer. Jobs recognized it could be a business. To scrape up some working capital, Jobs sold his Volkswagen bus and Wozniak sold an HP calculator. On this shoestring budget, Apple Computer sprang to life in 1976 in the garage of the modest ranch house in Los Altos, Calif., where Jobs lived with his parents. "We just figured we could have a business of our own and make a living, have a little income," recalls Wozniak. "We were penniless." They called the circuit board the Apple I; in their first year they sold 150 of them. Their first hire was a 14-year-old kid named Randy Wigginton who earned $2.50 an hour writing software. "I was there in the couch days-before we were even big enough for a garage," says Wigginton, who left Apple in 1985 but still works in Silicon Valley. The success of the Apple I was enough to encourage them to start designing an Apple II, and to attract an investor. Mike Markkula, a former Intel engineer, paid $250,000 for a onethird stake in the fledgling company. (That stake would be worth $120 billion today.) The little band moved into a real office, a tiny rented space in Cupertino. In those days it was Woz, not Jobs, who was seen as the big shot. "He was the most brilliant engineer I'd ever met," Wigginton recalls. As for Jobs, "in the early days it was more a case of putting up with Steve than doing what Steve said." Woz says he too failed to recognize Jobs's genius, though he always knew Jobs had a better mind for business than he did. "I never would have been able to run a company," Woz says. "I just wanted to be a great engineer." Apple's next machine, the Apple II, sold 6 million total units in various forms developed between 1977 and 1993. But the more revolutionary device was the original Macintosh. Introduced in 1984, the Mac was the first commercial computer to employ a mouse and a graphical user interface. Jobs and Wozniak began to drift apart. In 1981, Wozniak was injured in a small plane crash. He returned to work in 1983 but left in 1985 to create a new company that never really took off. That same year, Jobs was fired from Apple. Twelve years later, Jobs returned and orchestrated an amazing corporate turnaround. Wozniak, today chief scientist at a data-storage company; says he and Jobs stayed in touch, mostly by phone. "I haven't seen him in person for many years," he says. "But we had an unbelievably important relationship." NW Dan Lyons writes about technology for Newsweek.

38
Newsweek

IN HIS OWN WORDS

"I'm convinced that about half of what separates the successful entrepreneurs from the nonsuccessful ones is pure perseverance. You put so much of your life into this thing."

Ihl:iib)
They say he was one of a kind. But someone has to fill Jobs's sneakers. By Nick Summers

The Next Tech Guru?
LARRY PAGE
GOOGLE

JACK DORSEY
SQUARE

A computational geniusGoogle's crucial "PageRank" technology is named after his graduate work at StanfordPage and partner Sergey Brin built their company into an Internet juggernaut, and kept pace with Apple into the mobile revolution. Unlike Jobs, Pageis considered by some to be unconcerned with details and not averse to releasing unfinished products.

Having created both Twitter (a social network) and Square (a revolutionary payment system), Dorsey, perhaps more than any other entrepreneur, has shown vision across multiple fields. But Twitter is struggling as a business, and Dorsey must prove that he is as adept as the Apple CEO at dazzling Wall Street.

MARK ZUCKERBERG
FACEBOOK

JEFFBEZOS
AMAZON

In the months after the iPad's release, it seemed like every computer company on earth released a competing gadget. But Amazon's Kindle Fire, unveiled this month, may be the first entrant to rival the iPad in joy of use. Bezos may lack Jobs's sense of drama-but his own track record as a visionary is undeniable.

The tech star most often mentioned in the same breath asJobs,Zuckerberglaunched Facebook from his Harvard dorm room at age 19. Brushing off billion-dollar acquisition offers, he saw what his social network could become when no one else did. But with Google increasingly gunning for Facebook, his biggest test may be yet to come.

TIM COOK
APPLE

Jobs's successor as CEO is a logistical mastermind who made Apple's supply chain mirror the rigor and simplicity of its products, larding tens of billions onto the company's bottom line. The question is whether this longtime No.2 can not only run the company but also maintain the almostmystical aura that draws Apple devotees.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

1976
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak cofound Apple on April Fools' Day and begin building the first Apple computer in Jobs's garage.

1977
The Apple II launches, giving the Silicon Valley startup its first mainstream success and driving it toward an initial stock offering.

1993
Apple's first personal digital assistant, the Newton, is roundly mocked. Jobs discontinues it after returning to Apple.

1991
New models such as the Macintosh Quadra target high-end users, but as the 1990s wear on, Apple's fortunes begin to slide.

<...::::::i.

...::::::::-__,. ______

1998-99
Now Apple's "interim" CEO, Jobs begins putting the company back on the map with candy-coated computers like the iMac.

2006
The MacBook Pro replaces the PowerBook as Apple moves to Intel microprocessors, ending a long alliance with IBM and Motorola.

2005

-=

Apple eyes budget buyers with the two-inch-tall Mac mini. At $499, it is the most affordable Mac yet.

2007
As the company's aesthetic evolves, Apple redesigns the iMac with a glassand-aluminum enclosure.

2007
Apple Inc. drops "Computer" from its name and unveils the iPhone, beginning its transformation into the world's largest phone maker.

40
Newsweek

With a price of nearly $10,000, the Apple Lisa is a flop, but it pioneers a graphical interface that will later find a home in the Mac.

Jobs unveils the Macintosh, his "insanely great" project. With its mouse and user interface, the Mac redefines computing.

1987
The Mac II debuts with a color screen. Jobs is out of the company, but he's working on the technologies that will lead Apple's rebirth.

2001
An enthusiast of the Beatles, Jobs moves into the music business with the iPod, which delivers "1,000 songs in your pocket."

2002
Jobs declares the end of CRT displays as Apple's designers reimagine the iMac around a flat-panel screen.

2005
Apple discontinues its iPod mini product line, introducing the iPod Nano. It goes on to become the most popular music player ever.

2010
The Nano goes touchscreen in its sixth iteration, prompting fans (and at least one Apple board member) to fashion it into a wristwatch.

2010
Not since the TenCommandments was there such hype over a tablet, one critic says. The iPad sells millions and ushers in a new era.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

RIVALRIES

The Best of Frenemies
The relationship between Gates and Jobs was always complicated, sometimes nasty, and, in the end, surprisingly tender. By Leander Kahney

Bill Gates and Steve Jobs in a rare joint photo session in 1991.

IN 1997, STEVE Jobs took the stage at Macworld in Boston.

It was one of his first public appearances after returning to the ailing company he'd left more than a decade earlier. Halfway through his presentation, he dropped a bombshell: Apple was teaming up with Microsoft. The audience of Apple fans jeered and booed. Microsoft was Apple's archenemy; Bill Gates was evil incarnate. There wasn't a worse partner for Apple. Gates appeared at the event via satellite, his face looming high over Jobs like Big Brother in Apple's iconic 1984 TV ad. It seemed an unlikely match, but in fact Jobs and Gates went way back. They met in the early '80s, when Gates was one of the first software developers for the Macintosh. As Gates noted while paying tribute to Jobs after his death, they would go on to spend half their professional lives in each other's orbit. They even went on double dates together. Gates was an early evangelist of the Mac and enthusiastically boosted the platform. Jobs was so pleased, he lent Gates a prototype machine to work on. Gates called it SAND (Steve's Amazing New Device). Soon, though, both companies were suing each other over copyright issues. The lawsuits led to nearly a decade of acrimony, insults, and taunts. "The only problem with Microsoft is they just have no taste," Jobs once said. "I don't mean that in a small way, I mean that in a big way." Jobs noted that Gates would "be a broader guy if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger." Asked about Microsoft's success, Jobs said: "I have no problem with their success. They've earned their success for the most part. I have a problem with the fact that they just make really third-rate products." Gates returned the insults. Responding to Jobs's return to Apple, he said: "What I can't figure out is why he is even trying. He knows he can't win." But contrary to his reputation, Gates was mostly an allyand sometimes a savior-to his long-running rival. Macworld Boston wasn't the only time he bailed Jobs out. In 2001, when Jobs desperately needed developers to support OS X, Gates agreed to create a version of Office for it. If he hadn't, OS X could have been dead in the water. The two tech titans were classic frenemies: joined at the hip, but often hacking at each other. Close but adversarial. Supportive and competitive. In 2007, Jobs and Gates shared the stage at a tech conference to reminisce. Jobs joked that they had been secretly married for 10 years, and praised Gates's philanthropy. "I think the world's a better place because Bill realized that his goal isn't to be the richest guy in the cemetery, right?" After Jobs died, Gates was one of the first to eulogize him. "Steve and I first met nearly 30 years ago and have been colleagues, competitors, and friends over the course of more than half our lives," he said in a statement. "For those of us lucky enough to get to work with him, it's been an insanely great honor." NW

WAR OF THE WORDS

Gates on Apple ads "I don't think the over 90 percent of the [population] who use Windows pes think of themselves as dullards, or the kind of klutzes that somebody is trying to say they are ... And I don't know why [Apple is] acting like it's superior. I don't even get it. What are they trying to say? Does honesty matter in these things, or if you're really cool, that means you get to be a lying person whenever you feel like it? There's not even the slightest shred of truth to it." Jobs on Microsoft's spending spree "Our friends up north spend over $5 billion on research and development, and all they seem to do is copy Google and Apple." "I wish developing great products was as easy as writing a check. If that was the case, Microsoft would have great products."

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Remembering Jobs
Within minutes of his death, tributes flooded in, including millions on Facebook and Twitter.
President Barack Obama
"Steve was among the greatest of American innovators-brave enough to think differently, bold enough to believe he could change the world, and talented enough to do it ... Steve was fond of saying that he lived every day like it was his last. Because he did, he transformed our lives, redefined entire industries, and achieved one of the rarest feats in human history: he changed the way each of us sees the world."

Blake Seelv, Apple employee
"His legacy wasn't any specific product. It's Apple. That's a lot of pressure. We have to rise to it and make all his work worth it (and that's a crushing thought right now)."

Carol Bartz, former CEO of Yahoo
"It's the ultimate sadness. First of all, it's a young person who was revered, sometimes feared, but always revered. He was a very special person, and he didn't get to where he was by having people like him all the time. He got to where he was because he had a vision."

Bill Gates, Microsoft cofounder
"The world rarely sees someone who has had the profound impact Steve has had, the effects of which will be felt for many generations to come. For those of us lucky enough to get to work with him, it's been an insanely great honor. I will miss Steve immensely."

Randv Wigginton, early Apple developer
"I won't remember Steve as a technologist, because that wasn't his forte. Nor willi remember him as a CEO, because his goal wasn't fame or power. I'll remember him as an exceptional human being, who understood the needs of ordinary humans and inspired them to superhuman accomplishments."

Nicolas Sarkozv, president of France
"His capacity to revolutionize entire economic fields though the power of his imagination and technology is a source of inspiration for millions of engineers and businesspeople around the world. Inspired and inspiring, Steve Jobs will remain as one of the greatest characters of our time."

Marc Andreessen,

Netscape cofounder

"Steve is the best our industry ever produced-I don't think anyone will ever match his accomplishments."

Jimmv Fallon
"Thank you, Steve Jobs, for all of the fun and amazing ways you made our lives better ... Sent from my iPhone."

Arnold Schwarzenegger
"Steve lived the California Dream every day of his life and he changed the world and inspired all of us."

Michael Bloomberg, New York mayor
"America lost a genius who will be remembered with Edison and Einstein, and whose ideas will shape the world for generations to come."

Jerry Yang, cofounder of Yahoo
"Steve was my hero growing up. He not only gave me a lot of personal advice and encouragement, he showed all of us how innovation can change lives. I will miss him dearly, as will the world."

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Newsweek

Tim Cook, Apple CEO
"No words can adequately express our sadness at Steve's death or our gratitude for the oppor-

Joey Balinski, Apple employee
"I'm glad you're no longer suffering. RIP Steve."

Kevin Smith, director
"Steve Jobs! Thanks for never settling for the way things were during a life you spent showing us how things could be. 0 Captain! My Captain!"

tunity to work with him. We will honor his memory by dedicating to continuing ourselves the work he

loved so much."

Howard Stringer, Sony CEO
"The digital age has lost its leading light, but Steve's innovation and

Robert Iger, Disney CEO
"Steve Jobs was a great friend as well as a trusted adviser. His legacy will extend far beyond the products he created businesses or the he built.

Mindy Kaling, actress
"Hard not to think how much Steve Jobs could've done with more years. So sad. You're the best, Steve."

creativity

will inspire dreamers

and thinkers

for generations."

Andy Hertzfeld, early Apple designer
"Steve was my friend and hero for over 30 years. Steve was more than the greatest businessperson his generation, a passionate into his work." of he was artist

Meg Whitman, CEOofHP
"Steve Jobs was an iconic entrepreneur businessman whose impact on technology was felt beyond Silicon Valley. He will be remembered for the innovation he brought to market and the inspiration he brought to the world." and

It will be the millions of people he inspired, culture the lives and the he defined." he changed,

who poured his soul

Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook founder and CEO
"Steve, thank you for being a mentor and a friend. Thanks for showing that what you build can change the world. I will miss you."

Rupert Murdoch, News Corp. chairman and CEO
"We lost one of the most influential thinkers, creators, and entrepreneurs of all time. Steve Jobs was simply the greatest CEO of his generation."

Jerry Brown, California governor
"Steve Jobs was a great California innovator who demonstrated independent accomplish. powerful and creative what a totally mind can

Few people have made such a

Sergey Brin, Google cofounder
"From the earliest days of Google, whenever Larry for [Page] and I sought inspiration vision and leadership, we needed to look no farther than Cupertino. Steve, your passion for excellence is felt by anyone who has ever touched an Apple product (including the MacBook I am writing this on right now)."

and elegant imprint on our lives."

David Cameron,

U.K. P.M.

@dflsaacs, Apple employee
"Come on ... one more thing ... "

"Steve Jobs transformed the way we work and play; a creative genius

John Lasseter and Ed Catmull, Pixar and Walt Disney Animation Studios executives
"Steve Jobs was an extraordinary very dear friend, visionary, our and the guiding light of the Pixar

who will be sorely missed. Our thoughts are with his family."

family. He saw the potential of what Pixar could be before the rest of us, and beyond what anyone ever imagined. He will forever be a part of Plxar's DNA."

Cary Sherman, RIAA chairman and CEO
"Steve was a larger-than-life personalitywho passionate about music and one of its biggest He was a true visionary how fans access and enjoy of the iTunes software to pay for music." Steve and Apple made it

Dianna Agron, actress
"We never met, yet I stand beside members of this giant playground that you discovered for us. We use it every day, never tiring of the sand."

fans and advocates. forever transformed and other platforms,

music. With the introduction

once again easy and accepted

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iiitl"lSi

The Godfathers of His Genius
The inspired innovators before him who made Steve Jobs's triumphs possible. By Harold Evans

IN THE PANTHEON of American innovators, nobody comes close to the defining legacy of Steve Jobs. It is commonly misrepresented. He was not an Edison. He was not equipped to make a breakthrough in pure technology in the sense of circuits and frequencies. That is not what makes Apple unique. His gift to humanity was an imaginative apogee of form and function. He had the vision of a seer. He took the technology as it was and imposed on it his sublime taste, which millions joyously embraced as their own in personal computers, the iPod, iPhone, and iPad. Fully to appreciate the crowning nature of his "insanely great" creations, one has to look back at the jagged routes to his summits of beautiful utility. The iPhone owes little to the man routinely described as the father of the telephone. Alexander Graham Bell went off on a prolonged honeymoon once he'd proved that sound waves could be converted into undulating electric current. He did nothing more after the marvelous moment on the evening of March, 10, 1876, when his young assistant, Thomas Watson, heard Bell's voice come down the wire. "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you!" but as Watson later remarked, the Bell phone was calculated more to develop the voice and lung than to enable conversation. The eureka moment of folklore overshadows what must follow if the brain wave is to reach the bustle of the marketplace. It was left to Thomas Edison and his associate

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Young Thomas Edison (center, hands on knees) in his invention factory in Menlo Park, N.J., 1880.

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Charles Batchelor to make the Bell phone audible by inventing a carbon-button transmitter for the rival Western Union. But then the world had to wait for someone to tackle the myriad obstacles to a national long-distance system. An Ohioan who started as a railway mail clerk did that. Theodore Vail merged Western Union and Bell, pooled patents, and founded the American Telegraph and Telegraph Co., the company Jobs chose for his launch partner in 2007. And Apple's products depend on the microchip, whose origins lie in the transistor invented in 1947 at the Bell labs founded by Vail. An American innovator whom Jobs admired, and in many ways resembled, was Edwin Land (1909-91), the willful optimist and brilliant scientist, best known for his instant selfdeveloping Polaroid camera, though he had 533 patents. He preceded Jobs in giving to the public what they didn't know they wanted. Both men insisted on the impossible. Both were secretive. Both drove their teams ferociously; Land's associates were forbidden ever to utter the word "problem." Land inspired, but it was another (and sorely neglected) innovator whose inventions made Jobs's dreams practicable. Edwin Howard Armstrong (1890-1954), was an enabler. As a boy radio ham recovering in Yonkers from S1. Vitus's dance (chorea), he built a wooden tower to fix an antenna 125 feet above the ground so he could pick up signals on his headphones. All his life he was intoxicated by height

and speed. He rode a red Indian motorcycle to his studies at Columbia University. Then, step by inspired step, he revolutionized communication. He taught the world how to amplify signals, advancing the form of radio known as amplitude modulation (AM). He had some of Jobs's theatrical flair. On the night of Nov. 5, 1935, in the clubhouse of the Institute of Radio Engineers on 39th Street, New York, he stood on the stage, a tall, phlegmatic man with a highdomed head, and presented what he called "a little demonstration." He turned on a radio receiver. The listeners' ears were attuned for the crackle of static. There was none. They heard, crystal clear, a pal of Armstrong's announcing he was speaking from W2AG in Yonkers, which was just a name for his parlor and backyard antenna. The audience suspected a trick. It was merely a prelude to the drama conceived by Armstrong: Hear water poured into a glass!

How sound was made to travel across distance, without crackle and with 'lambent clarity.'

Path to the iPhone

THOMAS EDISON 1847-1931
Light, music, sound! Edison, inventor of the first long-lasting incandescent bulb, seated center, displays his wax-recording phonograph. With Charles Batchelor, third from left, he fixed Alexander Graham Bell's first phone so its transmissions were audible.

EDWIN HOWARD ARMSTRONG 1890-1954
Told it was "impossible" to rid radio of static, he proved everyone wrong in 1936 with a demonstration of frequency modulation (FM). His portable radio, the world's first, was bulky, but his technology was an essential step to the iPod.

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Newsweek

IN HIS OWN WORDS

"Innovation comes from saying no to 1,000 things to make sure we don't get on the wrong track or try to do too much."

Listen to the crumpling of a piece of paper! Hear the striking of a match! There followed a Mozart piano piece, then a tap on an Oriental gong with rapid dissonance in the upper registers. "The shimmering afterglow, a listener said, "hangs in the room with an uncanny lambent clarity" It was the first public demonstration of transmission on a broadband carrier wave by the modulation of very high frequencies-frequency modulation, or FM as we know it today. All the experts had said it was impossible. David Sarnoff, head of RCA,colluded with FCC officials to block and cripple FM for years because he sold AM radios, then simply stole Armstrong's patented FM ideas for RCA. When Armstrong sued, Sarnoff drove him to despair and near bankruptcy by dragging out litigation for years. Armstrong's wife, Marion, urged him to give up. They had such a furious row that she

left him to stay with her sister. Armstrong was alone over the weekend in their grand apartment in the River House on 52nd Street. To go to court on Monday, he put on his overcoat, with scarf and gloves, climbed outside his 13th-floor bedroom, and jumped to his death. Armstrong extended the potential of human communication to the ends of the earth and beyond the planet. Innovators build on the achievements of others; that is the commonplace of uncommon achievement. The shade of Armstrong's genius prevails whenever we summon up a song from iTunes, but the tactile and visual appeal of the iPhone and iPod were beyond Armstrong's vision. And the possibilities of digital transmission of any kind of messagemusic, words, images-were divined first not by Jobs but by a mathematician from the little town of Gaylord, Mich., one Claude Shannon (1916-2001), who liked to juggle beanbags while riding a unicycle of his invention. We mourn Steve Jobs, but we can be sure his brave questing spirit will inspire others to push beyond the eureka moment to realize the ultimate expression of the magic inherent in the physics. When it happens we might call it the Jobs Effect. NW
Sir Harold Evans, editor at large of Thomson Reuters, is the

author of They Made America: From the Steam Engine to the Search Engine: Two Centuries of Innovators.

EDWIN LAND 1909-1991
American physicist and inventor most well known as the cofounder of Polaroid Corp. During his freshman year at Harvard, he developed a type of filter that could polarize light, which he called Polaroid film.

JOHN BARDEEN 1908-1991 WILLIAM SHOCKLEY 1910-1989 WALTER BRATTAIN 1902-1987
The Bell lab trio invented the transistor so electronic devices could be small and fast.

JACK KILBY 1923-2005
Won the Nobel Prize in physics for his part in inventing the integrated circuit (microchip). He also invented the handheld calculator.

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VISIONARY

The Geniuses We'll Never Know
Talent doesn't cut it. Greatness needs to be cultivated-and that requires freedom to be a weirdo. By Niall Ferguson
Photograph

by Bartholomew Cooke

THIS ESSAY IS not about Steve Jobs. It is about the countless individuals with roughly the same combination of talents of whom we've never heard and never will. Most of the 106 billion people who've ever lived are deadaround 94 percent of them. And most of those dead people were Asian-probably more than 60 percent. And most of those dead Asians were dirt poor. Born into illiterate peasant families enslaved by subsistence agriculture under some or other form of hierarchical government, the Steves of the past never stood a chance. Chances are, those other Steves didn't make it into their 30s, never mind their mid-50s. An appalling number died in childhood, killed off by afflictions far easier to treat than pancreatic cancer. The ones who made it to adulthood didn't have the option to drop out of college because they never went to college. Even the tiny number of Steves who had the good fortune to rise to the top of premodern societies wasted their entire lives doing calligraphy (which he briefly dabbled in at Reed College). Those who sought to innovate were more likely to be punished than rewarded. Today, according to estimates by Credit Suisse, there is approximately $195 trillion of wealth in the world. Most of it was made quite recently, in the wake of those great political and economic revolutions of the late 18th century, which, for the first time in human history, put a real premium on innovation. And most of it is owned by Westerners-Europeans and inhabitants of the New World and Antipodes inhabited by their descendants. We may account for less than a fifth of humanity, but we Westerners still own two thirds of global wealth. A nontrivial portion of that wealth ($6.7 billion) belonged to Steve Jobs and now belongs to his heirs. In that respect, Jobs personified the rising inequality that is one of the striking characteristics of his lifetime. Back in 1955 the top 1 percent of Americans earned 9 per-

cent of income. Today the figure is above 14 percent. Yet there is no crowd of young people rampaging through Palo Alto threatening to "Occupy Silicon Valley." The huge amounts of money made by Jobs and his fellow pioneers of personal computing are not resented the way the vampire squids of Wall Street are. On the contrary, Jobs is revered. One eminent hedge-fund manager (who probably holds a healthy slice of Apple stock as well as the full array of iGadgets) recently likened him to Leonardo da Vinci. So the question is not, how do we produce more Steves? The normal process of human reproduction will ensure a steady supply of what Malcolm Gladwell has called "outliers." The question should be, how do we ensure that the next Steve Jobs fulfills his potential? An adopted child, the biological son of a Syrian Muslim immigrant, a college dropout, a hippie who briefly converted to Buddhism and experimented with LSD-Jobs was the type of guy no sane human resources department would have hired. I doubt that Apple itself would hire someone with his resume at age 20. The only chance he ever had to become a chief executive officer was by founding his own company. And that -China, please note- is why capitalism needs to be embedded in a truly free society in order to flourish. In a free society a weirdo can do his own thing. In a free society he can even fail at his own thing, as Jobs undoubtedly did in his first stint in charge of Apple. And in a free society he can bounce back and revolutionize all our lives. Somewhere in his father's native Syria another Steve Jobs has just died. But this other Steve was gunned down by a tyrannical government. And what wonders his genius might have produced we shall never know. NW
Niall Ferguson is a Newsweek columnist tory at Harvard University. and a professor of his-

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Newsweek

IN HIS OWN WORDS

''I'm a very big believer in equal opportunity, I don't believe in equal outcome because unfortunately life's not like that. It would be a pretty boring place if it was."

tJ No sane company would

have hired Jobs. His only chance was to found his own.

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The Jobs Number
He changed more than the computer business. Jobs transformed every industry he touched. By Josh Dzieza

(< I»)
MOVIES
Jobs bought the computer division of George Lucas's company, initially for its software. After a rough beginning, which included Jobs's peddling the company to potential buyers, the division forged ahead with animated movies, eventually becoming Pixar and creating Toy Story, Finding Nemo, and Wall-E. The company has won 26 Academy Awards and has grossed more, per movie, than any other studio in Hollywood. In 2006, Disney bought Pixar from Jobs for $7.4 billion, making Jobs the largest shareholder in Disney. Jobs also democratized moviemaking, via the Mac, and changed the way movies are rented, bought, and watched via the iTunes store.

COMPUTERS
The Macintosh debuted in 1984 and created the model for every personal computer that would follow. It popularized the graphical user interfacewindows, icons, and menusand the mouse. So determined was Jobs that the mouse was the future that he refused to put arrow keys on the computer, frustrating established DOS users, but ensuring that novices understood immediately how the computer should be used.

RADIO
The iPod and iPhone opened up new revenue for music just as CD sales were fading. The weekly online radio audience has doubled every five years since 2001, to 57 million Americans in 2011. One in four Americans has listened to a podcast, transforming radio networks like National Public Radio. Of NPR's 27 million podcast downloads each month, 55 percent are delivered through iTunes. Finally, a single, scary fact: the percentage of people who use their cell phones to listen to online radio in their cars has doubled in the last year, to 11 percent.

VIDEOGAMES
The iPhone and iPad have eaten into the market for handheld videogame consoles even as they expanded the market for handheld games. Suddenly millions of people found they already had a handheld device that could play games-and the games were far cheaper than what Nintendo and PlayStation were charging. Nintendo saw its share of the handheld game market drop from 70 percent in 2009 to 57 percent in 2010, while Sony's PlayStation Portable went from 11 percent to 9 percent. Games for the iPhone and Android grew from 19 percent to 34 percent. Even though the games are cheap, they can be tremendously profitable. Angry Birds, for instance, sells for a dollar, but its developer, Rovio, is reportedly seeking a $1.2 billion valuation.

MUSIC
The sleek, simple iPod and the straightforward iTunes helped push music into the digital era. Released in 2001, the iPod Quickly grew to dominate the market for portable MP3 players. It later was bumped from its perch-by the iPhone. This year, according to Nielsen, more digital music was sold than CDs, and iTunes controls the lion's share of that market. According to market researcher NPD, iTunes sold 31 percent of all music in the U.S. in the third Quarter of 2010, the last Quarter NPD has data for. When it comes to digital music, iTunes accounts for two thirds of all sales.

PHONES
The phone business is an entirely different place four years after the release of the iPhone. Now most phones, no matter their manufacturer, have an all-touchscreen interface, use app stores, and have Internet browsers. Most of the phone makers that dominated the business before Apple's arrival have stumbled, including Nokio and LG. In 2010, RIM, the maker of BlackBerry, bought a new operating system in an attempt to catch up to Apple. But Wall Street seems to think the move came too late, and RIM's stock price has continued to plummet. Before the iPhone, phone companies dictated how devices were designed, how much they cost, and what features they had. The balance of power has now shifted, to the advantage of Apple and its competitors as well.

DESIGN
Apple's sleek, minimalist aesthetic-the result of Jobs's passion for simplicity and of Jonathan lve's engineering genius-has been copied throughout the tech world. Apple has sued Samsung and other companies for making products that look suspiciously like Apple's. The Jobs look appears in other products as well, from the furniture of Muji and Interstuhl to the inside of Virgin America's planes, described by Wired as "multimillion-dollar iPods that fly." In retailing, window displays and floor layouts have become more minimalist, displaying only two or three products, in an attempt to copy Apple's style.

TABLET
For decades the tech industry kept coming back to the tablet computer, and for decades every attempt failed. Until the iPad. Jobs succeeded-seemingly overnight-in creating a mass-market tablet device. Now others are racing in. Though Apple still holds 68 percent of the market in tablet computers, Sam sung, LG, and others are making inroads with Android-powered devices, and Microsoft recently overhauled Windows to make it more tablet-friendly.

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INNOVATOR

With the Mac, Steve Jobs took the common computer and made an object of beauty. Since then Apple's aesthetic has shaped everything from shopping to show business.

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Newsweek

The first Macintosh, built in 1984, was dubbed "the computer for the rest of us,"

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INNOVATOR

Design Different
Steve Jobs's true genius was in design-from phones to retail, he reshaped our world with a look that was cool, clean, and friendly. By Steven Heller
Photographs

by Tom Schierlitz

WHEN IT CAME to design, Steve Jobs lived Apple's "Think

Different" mantra. Many major corporations use design to benefit their bottom lines, but Apple's entire ethos was design. And it was hardwired in Jobs. Even when he was heading NeXT, the educational-computer company he founded, product and graphic design drove his strategy. He went so far as to get special dispensation from IBM to commission the NeXT logo from Paul Rand, designer of the IBM, ABC, and Westinghouse logos. When Jobs returned to Apple, he took its design to new levels, profoundly influencing the look of 21st-century computer technology. Apple products became designers' best friends, forever altering the practice of everything from graphic design to architecture by placing production power in the hands of creators. Jobs realized that creative people were not simply his primary customers, they were the willing propagandists of the brand. He so keenly understood his end users, and treated them with respect, that they went forth and exponentially multiplied. Jobs integrated a range of designers into all aspects of the company-from hard- to software, from product to package, from corporate identity to advertising. He found roles for graphic, industrial, interior, and user-experience designers. But not as stylists. Jobs never slavishly reacted to the market's fickle whims or wants; he accepted that his role was to educate people to the potential of personal technology and enhance their appreciation of design. He used design to alter behavior and consequently altered his users' behavior through innovative design. Unlike many other tech companies, design was the engine in Jobs's world. Designers were not injected as foreign organisms into the middle or end of the conceptual and engineering process, after the engineers and marketers did the meaningful work. Rather, designers were involved at the outset as equal creative partners. Form did not follow function; it was an integral part of the functional calculus. Jonathan Ive, Apple's visionary product designer, didn't just make boxes in which circuit boards and chips were tucked

Everywhere you look, they're hanging around someone's neck.

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Newsweek

IN HIS OWN WORDS

"Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works."

The iMac revived Apple's fortunes with its easy-onthe-eyes style. Mac Book Air: it's thin, it's light, and it can fit in an interoffice envelope.

With its touchscreen and iconic design, the iPhone led the smartphone revolution.

J

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INNOVATOR

(

The Nano: now Apple's most popular iPod-the object that shook the music world.

D Design was

not used to mask shoddy goods or inflate prices.

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Newsweek

Apple's senior management team with Jobs and design guru Ive (arms crossed).

Starting in 1984, Apple broke ground with innovative and stylish ads.

out of sight. He designed machines that were gateways to satisfying, and often ecstatic, user experiences. Some Apple designs either fell short or were ahead of the times. The Macintosh G4 Cube was sexy in a futuristic way but not as practical as it might have been. The Newton was a portent of things that had not yet come. Yet the ratio of misstepping to sure-footing was remarkably low. No Edsels or New Coke at Apple. Design rarely outran the technology but rather helped frame and, more important, define Apple as accessible for us all. Jobs was an equal-opportunity design patron. He never distinguished, as many brand conglomerates do, between high and low design for high-end and low-end markets. One brand fit all. Apple did not hide a discount sub-brand behind tasteless graphics-although fair discounts offered to educators and some professions were routinely available. Every customer got the same logo, package, and product. Design was not used to mask shoddy goods or inflate prices. Jobs's sense of quality was legend. He instilled his designers with extra pride. Likewise it was expected that every Apple customer would experience pride of ownership. From the boxes in which adapters and earbuds were sold to the look of the apps that are now so ubiquitous, the end user expected the best, the clearest, the cleanest. And what about those Apple stores? Part museum, part retail mall-with great shopping bags, too. Even Jobs's personal brand-his mock black turtleneck and faded blue jeans-was by no means ad hoc. He looked as he wanted his customers to feel-comfortable! If one is intimidated by the CEO, then what does that say about the product? Even on that fundamental level, designing an experience was paramount. Rarely has design been so valued by a corporate CEO, and rarely is design's value so inextricably tied to the reputation of a corporation. Jobs was a holistic designereverything, everywhere, was designed well. And that is the essence of thinking different. NW
Steven Heller is the co-chair of the SVA MFA design program.

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i#&1: 1I'l: I

He Made Geek Chic
PLAYBOY'70S-'80S
Didn't every young guy in the 1970s have too-long hair and a mustache? Jobs is the boy wonder making a splash in big business.

Suits are for suckers. With his turtleneck-and-jeans uniform, Jobs was the real nerdy deal, the corporate dork his customers didn't have to be. By Robin Givhan
CORPORATE PLAYER 1980S
Clean shaven and wearing a suit and tie, Jobs looks the part of a traditional corporate executive, but it's a fac;:adethat soon crumbles.

HAVE LONG struggled with a confusing abundance of fashion choices, but mostly they've been able to use that bounty to their advantage. The most skillful have managed to assemble a personal signature-a particular frock or embellishment with which they're instantly associated and that accurately reflects some characteristic of their public persona. Think, for instance, of Anna Wintour and the shrewd protectiveness of her Chanel sunglasses, or Madeleine Albright and her quietly political brooches. Men, by contrast, have relied on the anonymous power suit. It is a universal form of public camouflage-blandly appropriate and never distracting. So pervasive is the reliance on the business suit that men who shun it often are defined by the sheer audacity of their refusal rather than by their chosen alternative-be it Dockers and a T-shirt, or the generic rock-star costume of tight jeans and a dandified shirt. This reality makes the sartorial distinction of Steve Jobs all the more astounding. He made the kind of personal style WOMEN

statement that eludes most men. His clothes-neither disconcertingly flashy, nor self-consciously dowdy-came to be uniquely associated with him, indicative of the streamlined ease of his technical wizardry, but wholly accessible, uncomplicated, and welcoming. Jobs was supremely committed to his chosen uniform: faded, relaxed-fit jeans and a black mock turtleneck. While he might occasionally have worn a black button-down shirt rather than his beloved turtleneck, or he might have gotten a little fancy with a pair of leather lace-ups instead of sneakers, mostly Jobs held firm to a look that became both recognizable and reassuring. Even as he became wealthier and more powerful, Jobs never appeared to have upgraded his uniform. The mock turtleneck never took on a noticeably luxurious sheen or an especially precise fit-as if a Gap pullover had been exchanged for one from Hermes. One can't even give Jobs the moniker "sneaker-head." There's little that was rarefied and

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ZEN MASTER 2000S He shuns buttons, keeps things
simple, and aims for pure efficiency. Jobs dresses like he designs: the literate computer geek makes nerdy gizmos surprisingly elegant.

RUMPLED WIZARD 1990S
Jobs adopts the informal, slacker style of Hollywood whiz kids with his success at Pixar and his return to Apple on his own terms.

hip about his gray New Balance sneakers, unless one counts the patriotic thrill of buying from a company that prominently markets itself as the only major athletic shoe brand that's made in America. (Yet even that is shaky braggadocio, as there's been some debate about whether that's wholly accurate based on FTC standards.) But no matter. Jobs's uniform was the closest to geek chic that anyone had ever come. His wasn't a fashion-world interpretation of nerdy style, which would inevitably have involved expensive eyewear and some achingly self-conscious mix of Thorn Browne, Band of Outsiders, and the spoils of a vintage store or a back-alley Dumpster. Jobs's clothes were the real nerdy deal. His attire was efficient and banal, with the tiniest hint of Steve McQueen cool. It stood in contrast to the technological world he created, one renowned for its elegance and sophistication. Perhaps that was a good thing. Jobs was the literate geek his customers didn't have to be. As the technologically illiterate masses embraced his iPods

and iPhones, iMacs and iPads, they did so confident that the supergeeks in Cupertino had figured out all the details. The lure of Apple for the common man was that he didn't have to know anything about microprocessors to enjoy the benefits of them. Straight from the box. Plug it in. Maaa-gic. There was reassurance built into Jobs's reliable, smart-guy attire with its whiff of nonchalance. He didn't come across as the buttoned-up businessman who was interested only in the bottom line. He didn't reek of hipster attitude, the kind of intimidating insider bravura that leaves outsiders unnerved. But he wasn't so aggressively dorky that he overwhelmed the room with his awkwardness. His style was that of the supersmart guy who tutors you through calculus with his brain power, but ultimately makes you love math because of his simple charm. In both his attire and his company, Jobs proved that simplicity is both powerful and elegant. NW Robin Givhan writes about fashion for Newsweek.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

Jobs brought Pixar back from the brink with Toy Story-and a billion-dollar IPO.

Hollywood's ~Devilish Angel'
Ousted from Apple, Jobs looked to moviemaking for salvation-and nearly bankrupted himself in the process. By Nick Summers

Im:I

did. On Nov. 22, 1995, Toy Story-the world's first fully computer-animated film-opened to critical acclaim and $29 million in box-office receipts. One week later, Pixar, the studio that created the movie and that many had written off just months before, went public. It was the biggest IPO of the year and meant a billion-dollar windfall for Jobs. More than that, it gave Jobs back his mojo. A decade earlier, he had been ousted from Apple. Wounded and restless, he paid $5 million to filmmaker George Lucas for the rights to his small but intriguing animation division and put up another $5 million for capital. Jobs took a 70 percent stake. The new company was called Pixar-and it would take another nine years before it came into its own, in the process reconfirming Jobs's genius and turning the prince of Silicon Valley into a Hollywood hero. While most of Jobs's products and businesses-Apple and the Macintosh, NeXT Inc.; the iPod, iPhone, and iPad-bore their father's DNA, Pixar was always different. Like Jobs himself, Pixar was adopted; he bought the company when it was seven years old, when its own culture had already begun to jell. Over the years, Jobs would infuse Pixar with many qualities, but the company was never quite his, culturally, making his influence there a sort ofnature-vs.-nurture case study of what it means to be a Steve Jobs project. Pixar was born in 1979 as Graphics Group, a division of

COMPUTERS DIDN'T MAKE Steve Jobs a billionaire-toys

Lucasfilm, after Lucas sensed the potential of 3-D computer animation and lured several of the new medium's visionaries from the New York Institute of Technology. In Lucas, the group found a colorful but patient sponsor, one who prepared them well for the arrival of Jobs in 1986. But trouble began immediately. Because the computational horsepower necessary to create a feature-length animated movie was still years away, Pixar needed to find other reasons for existing. Jobs felt the answer lay in hardware manufacturing. That, too, was a fraught business, with high overhead and complex supply chains. And graphical supercomputers were not exactly a mass product. Pixar quickly bled through Jobs's initial financing. "We started out as a hardware company and, frankly, should have failed!" says Alvy Ray Smith, who, with Edwin Catmull, cofounded Pixar. "But Steve, who'd been kicked out of Apple, could not sustain the embarrassment. Whenever we got into trouble, Steve would write another check and get more equity. Over the next few years he bought the entire company. " Jobs would eventually sink $50 million into Pixar, as his attention was monopolized by his other startup, the foundering NeXT Inc. computer company. It was hard to tell which was the larger boondoggle. Pixar's finances, says Pamela Kerwin, an early employee, began to resemble "an extremely overdrawn checking account." "Atthat point, [Jobs] didn't have any support from his Valley

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INNOVATOR

peers; they all thought he was crazy," says Kerwin. December, the fiscal year-end for Pixar, was often a bleak month. "He would get emotional. Frankly, anybody would. This word is never used about Steve, but I'm sure he was frightened, like anyone would be." Too far ahead of its time, the Pixar Image Computer had few customers. To attract more of them, a Pixar employee named John Lasseter created a short film, Luxo Jr., to show off the technology. Astonishingly, it was nominated for a 1987 Academy Award as best animated short film. More acclaim for Lasseter's shorts followed, as did some revenue for commercial work. But Jobs was hemorrhaging cash, and he gutted Pixar with a series oflayoffs and retrenchments. The tough love kept the company alive. Of Jobs's two ventures, NeXT was the favored son. Part of that was because Pixar's core animation geniuses, having more or less invented the field years before Jobs became involved, were determined to remain aloof to his charms. "What frustrated Steve at times was we were not part of the 'cult of

Steve.' We valued him as a peer, not as a godhead figure," says Ralph Guggenheim, one of Pixar's earliest employees. "It was reassuring for him, in a way. It gets to be daunting after a while; people stop disagreeing with you." Pixar's executives took monthly trips to NeXT's offices in Redwood City, Calif., to brief Jobs and soak up his spellbinding strategy riffs-to an extent. "He's such an articulate person that he just grabs people-just by walking into a room. So we adapted to that," says Pixar cofounder Smith. Like Odysseus's sailors plugging their ears with beeswax as they neared the island of the Sirens, the Pixar delegation prepared secret signals to better resist his charms. "If we saw the other person becoming mesmerized, we'd scratch our nose or pull our earlobe. The message was: get back on the agenda!" Jobs's patience and line of credit were not bottomless, and in the early 1990s he repeatedly shopped Pixar to potential buyers, including his old archrival Microsoft. Then-a breakthrough. Some of Pixar's hardware sales had been to Disney,

The Pixar Touch

Other studios caught up to the 3-~ tech-but never the storytelling.

TOY STORY 1995
The world's first computer-generated feature film became the highest-grossing movie of the year. Digital animation was here to stay.

A BUG'S LIFE 1998 Proving Toy Story was no fluke, A Bug's Life
was another all-digital movie with heart and wit. Kevin Spacey voiced the villain.

TOY STORY 21999
As a rule, most sequels drag. Not this one, which was torn up and reimagined by director John Lasseter at the last minute.

MONSTERS, INC. 2001
With each Pixar release raking in more than the last at the box office, this was the first to break the half-billion-dollar mark.

FINDING NEMO 2003
The story of a lost clownflsh and pals, with voice acting by Ellen DeGeneres, brought Pixar its first best-animated-feature Oscar.

THE INCREDIBLES 2004
Everyone is special, a boy is told. "Which is another way of saying no one is," he mutters. Pixar's superhero fable was smart stuff.

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for automating the creation of two-dimensional animated films, and the studio began to show interest in a full-length feature film. Jobs proved he was more than a checkbook, scoring a three-picture deal, starting with Toy Story. Parts of Pixar remained beyond his control; one night he called Guggenheim, the producer of Toy Story, at home to argue, unsuccessfully, that the film's soundtrack should be written and performed by Bob Dylan. In January 1995, Jobs joined Lasseter and Guggenheim on a trip to New York for a Toy Story screening. For Jobs, the audience response-the adulation-was electrifying. "He came back from that trip saying, 'We're going to change the way we work here,'" says Guggenheim. Jobs stepped in as CEOand made plans to take the company public by the end of the year. "I saw the lightbulb go off over his head. " When the film premiered that November, Woody and Buzz Light year were a smash. Pixar's next two movies, A Bug's Life and Toy Story 2, proved the studio's success was no fluke, and Jobs went back to the negotiating table, extracting lucrative terms from Disney that astonished Hol-

lywood. "He's frightening in the negotiating room. Just insane," says Smith. Pixar was flush. Critical and commercial hits like Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, Wall-E, and Up followed, a run of uninterrupted excellence never rivaled in moviemaking. In 2006, Disney acquired Pixar for $7.4 billion. The transaction made Jobs the corporation's largest shareholder. Culturally, Pixar and Jobs's other properties could hardly have been more different. Pixar was Hawaiian shirts and hugs; Apple was stark minimalism and screaming at underlings. As a business, though, Pixar was all Jobs. "Steve, especially the more mature Steve, values having put Buzz and Woody and Nemo into American culture as much as the hardware stuff," said Kerwin two weeks before his death. "Nobody would ever call Steve an angel in the usual sense of the word. But somebody willing to go to bat for you-that's what he was for Pixar. A devilish angel." NW Nick Summers is a senior writer for Newsweek covering media.

CARS 2006
Owen Wilson and Larry the Cable Guy supplied the voices behind this comedy-the first Pixar release to receive limp reviews.

RATATOUILLE 2007
How confident was Pixar in its storytelling? Enough to make a movie about a restaurant kitchen full of rats. The result: brilliance.

WALL-E2008
Again pushing the envelope. Pixar made the first 40 minutes of Wall-E nearly silent-and sublime. A cockroach and fatsos also star.

UP 2009
A comedy that opens with heartbreak. this was Plxar's first movie to be released in 3-D. and the first to be nominated for best picture.

TOY STORY 3 2010
The studio's signature franchise showed no signs of fatigue in this third installment. New characters helped net $1 billion in ticket sales.

CARS 22011
Like its predecessor. this Cars drew pans from critics. The studio's pipeline of upcoming releases reportedly steers clear of sequels.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

Think

different.

Selli~the Revolution
The easy way.

Lovable Muppets. Feel-good colors. Hipster credo Apple's ad campaigns make us want to be part of the club.

EARLY 19905: DISTINGUISH THE BRAND
After Microsoft launched Windows 3.0, bringing a graphical user interface to the masses, Apple fought back, touting the Mac's simplicity, ease of use, and built-in trackballs.

Do more.

Workless.

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Newsweek

IN HIS OWN WORDS
\lIe're talkiJlggiga1~
G

~meW!i1ertz.

"It's not about pop culture, and it's not about fooling people ... We figure out what we want."

LATE 1990S:
RELAUNCH WITH

A SPLASH
Technicolor iMacs were everything that PCs of the day weren't: eye-catching, simple, colorful, fun to use. Technical distinctions (no floppy drive) combined with the alluring notion of bringing beauty to the mundane computer.

LATE 1990S:
INVOKE YOUR HEROES By the time Jobs returned to Apple in 1997, the company had lost its way, with a confusing lineup of undistinguished products. Jobs knew ads touting them would ring false. His answer: the "Think Different" campaign.

..

{/uu,oN'/cwmr

Say hello iM to

Yum.
Think diffufl!Jll.
2000S: DEFINE THE LIFESTYLE Apple's first successful foray into consumer electronics promised not just a tricked-out music player but also entry into the cool-kids' club, where everyone listens to good music and pays only 99 cents per song.

BROADCAST: COOLER THAN THE COMPETITION Apple's "1984" ad, aired that year and directed by Ridley Scott, famously showed a grim future ruled by unfriendly PC technology. Some two decades later the ''I'm a Mac; I'm a PC" campaign painted non-Apple users as clueless dorks compared with tech-savvy hipsters.

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STEVE JOBS AMERICAN

INNOVATOR

Reliving History
November/ December 1984

Cover Boy

happenswhenyoJdesign a nmpoter everyone

Afmlnytbin

can use.

-

INC. 1981

FORTUNE 1983

Buying Out Newsweek
To promote its new Macintosh computer, Apple purchased every advertising page in Newsweek's 1984 special-election edition. The cover-to-cover ads served as a guidebook for potential users. "If you can point, you can use Macintosh, too," the company claimed. The ads also teased rival IBM.
FORTUNE 1998

FORBES 2000

They included some glowing fan mail. "My thanks for a really nice unit," gushed one newly converted user. WIRED 1996

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Newsweek

IN HIS OWN WORDS

"I believe Apple's brightest and most innovative days are ahead of it." (Aug. 24, 2011)

Few could compete with Jobs when it came to starring on the cover of magazines.

BUSINESSWEEK 1987

NEWSWEEK 1988

PUBLISH! 1988

STEVE

JOBS

HowHe

Defiedthe

Downturn,

and Changed

Oheated'Deeth, Our World

FORTUNE 2009

FORTUNE 2003

NEWSWEEK 2004

BUSINESSWEEK 2005

iCREATE 2005

NEW YORK 2007

FAST COMPANY 2007

ESQUIRE ESPANOLA 2008

FORTUNE 2008

Inside Steve's Pad

1.
'fI,
'~ "'~; , " "

",'"

' '"''''l'''''''''

MACWORLD 2009

BUSINESSWEEK 2010

TIME 2010

THE ECONOMIST 2010

FAST COMPANY 2010

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Special Commemorative Issue

"PEOPLE DON'T KNOW WHAT THEY WANT UNTIL YOU SHOW IT TO THEM." STEVE JOBS 1955-2011