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SOME ASPECTS OF CONNECTED SPEECH
ELISION: When a sound is elided it is omitted When they are at the end of a word (in the last 1.Elision of /t/ and /d/ syllable) and between two other consonants. 2. Elision of identical sounds 3. Elision of similar sounds 4. Elision of initial sounds in pronouns When a word ending in a consonant sound is followed by another word starting with that sound. Similar place of articulation Weak pronouns She wants ten pounds of butter lamp post six students lettuce salad fried chicken I saw him half an hour ago.
ASSIMILATION: This means… a)… that a sound changes to be more like the following sound. b)… that two sounds join together to become another sound. This makes articulation easier. But notice that the change from one consonant sound to another should not interfere seriously with comprehension because the resulting sounds are quite similar to the original ones. a) Anticipatory assimilation of place of articulation The alveolar consonants /n/ /t/ /d/ /s/ and /z/ can change to become more like the following sound. It is a question of making things easier for the speaker. For instance, if you are going to close your lips for /p/, then it is easier to close them for the preceding nasal /n/, so /n/ assimilates into / m/. Assimilation of before bilabial becomes bilabial Examples /n/ /m/ Susan played tennis last Monday /t/ /p/ That boy /p/ or /b/ /d/ /b/ Third person
Assimilation of /n/ /t/ /d/ before velar /k/ or /g/ becomes velar / / / k/ /g/ becomes palato alveolar / / / / Examples Ten girls That girl Third girl Examples This shop; this chapter; this judge Cheese shop; those churches; has she?
Assimilation of /s/ /z/ before palatoalveolar
/ / / / / /
b) Coalescent assimilation 1. If a word ends in /t/ and the following word begins with /j/, both sounds may coalesce to become / 2. /d/ + /j/ = / 3. /s/ + /j/ = / / 4. /z/ + /j/ = / / ELISION GIVING RISE TO ASSIMILATION In certain utterances, assimilation takes place because elision has already occurred. Example : Tim and Patricia; I can’t pay s LIASION is the insertion of an extra phoneme in order to facilitate articulation. 1. Linking / r/ The /r/ sound is heard connecting two words when there is an R in the spelling and there is a following vowel sound. Examples: Peter and Tom; far away, more ice 2. Intrusive /r/ In many words ending with the written consonant R, the final vowel sound is one of the following: / / teacher, harbour, actor / / four, door / / car, far No doubt, as a result of this, there is a tendency to insert an intrusive / r / when a word ends in one of these vowels, even when no written R exists. Many people consider that intrusive / r / is substandard, and certainly not to be imitated. Examples: America and Asia; Asia and America; law and order; vainilla icecream; I saw it
Bibliography: Gimson, A.C. and Alan Cruttenden. Gimson’s Pronunciation of English. Humphries, Shellene. Connected Speech. http://www.britishcouncil.org/vietnamenglishselectionof4thworkshoppapers.htm Kelly, Gerald. How to Teach Pronunciation. Longman. 2000. Rhymes and Rhythm. Roach, Peter. English Phonetics and Phonology. CUP. 1993
Examples Can’t you Could you Is this yours? He’s your brother