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Congress of Vienna - Winning and Losing Nations

Congress of Vienna - Winning and Losing Nations

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An outline for the essay question: "Who were the winning and losing nations as a result of the Vienna Settlement?"
An outline for the essay question: "Who were the winning and losing nations as a result of the Vienna Settlement?"

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Published by: soadquake981 on Oct 24, 2008
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06/16/2009

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Who were the winning and losing nations as a result of the Vienna Settlement? I. Introduction a.

The purpose of the Vienna Settlement was to establish an international framework for continental cooperation and maintaining a balance of power b. Each nation participating had its own goals and aims (Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, Russia) c. According to these goals, all nations except France “won” overall in the Final Act of June 1815 i. All nations (except France) also conceded something, but mostly won Britain a. Represented at first by Viscount Castlereagh, and later by duke of Wellington b. Goals – to secure Britain’s maritime and commercial interests on the continent (no interest in territory – too hard to manage), prevent resurgence of France, make Prussia a formidable power in central Europe c. Served as disinterested mediator between other countries d. Results – abandoned many colonial conquests, France withdrew from Belgium, trade officially restored Russia a. Represented personally by tsar Alexander I b. Goals – dominance in drawing up peace, Polish kingdom under Russian protection, keep monarchy alive in Europe c. Results – Polish independent kingdom under Alexander’s rule, restoration of monarchy in Spain, keep Finland Austria a. Represented by Prince Klemens von Metternich b. Goals – preserve dominance over central Europe, prevent resurgence of France c. Results – received Galicia (Poland), lost Netherlands, gained Lombardy/Venetia (Italian), Illyrian provinces, Salzburg/Tyrol, Germanic Confederation under Austrian rule Prussia a. Represented by Prince Karl August von Hardenberg (deaf, subservient to Russia) b. Goals – gain land c. Results – received two-fifths of Saxony, territories in Germany, Posen (Poland) Other Nations a. Germanic Confederation – formed, contains 39 states including 4 free cities b. Sardinia – received Piedmont, Genoa, Nice, part of Savoy c. All Nations – security because France was weakened and placement of defensive barriers: i. First – Netherlands, Low Countries, German states, Switzerland, Sardinia, Spain ii. Second – Prussia, Austria, remaining German states France

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a. Represented by Prince Talleyrand b. Goals – retain as much land and power as possible c. Results – borders moved back to 1790 lines, monarchy is restored (Louis VIII), loss of Napoleon’s military genius Opposing Arguments a. Some might say that all of the nations were in chaos in the years after the Vienna Settlement (revolts against monarchs around Europe), and so they were not winners i. The main shared goal between all nations (except France) was to reestablish international stability and to prevent the rise of a new Napoleon ii. All of the acts of the Vienna Settlement helped to gently push France back to a normal state, so that it would not rise again iii. Europe was successful in preventing another major war for 40 years after, and no continent-wide war until 1914, so they were indeed winners Conclusion a. When one asks for a list of the “winners” and “losers” as a result of the Vienna Settlement, it is a subjective matter because one must consider many different goals and results b. Overall, the nations of the Quadruple Alliance fared well in both their land gains and measures taken for the most important goal – peace across Europe

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