TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................1 Purpose......................................................................................................................................................................1 Competition summary.............................................................................................................................................1 Objective....................................................................................................................................................................1 Project abstract............................................................................................................................................1 Target...........................................................................................................................................................1 Expected features.........................................................................................................................................1 Team structures........................................................................................................................................................2 Total material specification and cost report..........................................................................................................3 Time plan(GRANT CHATT) ............................................................................................................................,....5 Assembly-manufacture layout...............................................................................................................,....6 Production time............................................................................................................................................7 Innovative or distinct features in our vehicle.........................................................................................................8 Frame............................................................................................................................................................8 Parallel and individual pedalling................................................................................................................9 Parallel derailleur’s.....................................................................................................................................10 Hub gears with electromagnetic clutch arrangement..............................................................................11 Kinetic energy storage devices...................................................................................................................12 Front and rear suspension.........................................................................................................................13 Design report............................................................................................................................................................14 Assumptions................................................................................................................................................14 Material 6061 aluminium assumption......................................................................................................14 Basic design procedure...............................................................................................................................14 Design calculation.......................................................................................................................................15 Chan drives....................................................................................................................................15 Kinetic energy storage devices......................................................................................................15 Steering calculation.......................................................................................................................16 Axle design.....................................................................................................................................16 Tyre and tube.................................................................................................................................16 Suspension ...............................................................................................................................16

Chassis............................................................................................................................................17 Additional ANSYS analysis (not to be calculated under design report)............................................................25

PROPOSED VEHICLE CAD DESIGN

INTRODUCTION
THE TEAM HAVE TO DESIGN AND FABRICATE ENERGY EFFICIENT ENTIRLY HUMAN POWERED THREE WHEEL VEHICLES. THE VEHICLE MUST BE AERODYNAMIC, HIGHLY ENGINEERED AND ERGONOMICALLY DESIGNED .THE DESIGN SHOULD BE COMMERCIALLY VIABLE AS APRODUCT AND SHOULD BE ATTRACTIVE TO THE CONSUMERS BECAUSE OF ITS VISUAL APPEARANCE, PERFORMANCE, AND RELIABILITYAND EASE OF OPERATION.

PURPOSE
PROVIDE AN OPPORTUNITY FOR ENGINEERING STUDENTS BY SETTING UP A TREND OF USING ECOFRIENDLY VEHICLE IN INDIA AND COME UP WITH SOME INNOVATIVE DESIGNS.STUDENTS HAVE TO TACKLE REAL WORLD ENGINEERING PROBLEMS, WORK IN MULTI DISCIPLINARY TEAMS, PRACTICE AND DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURABILITY AND MANAGE A FULL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE OF LIFE.

COMPETITION SUMMARY
THE COMPETITION INCLUDES DESIGNING, VALIDATING AND FABRICATING A THHREE WHEELED VEHICLE DRIVEN BY TWO DRIVERS.THE VEHICLE WOULD BE CAPABLE TO BE DRIVEN SIMULTANEOUSLY AS WELL AS ALTERNATIVELY BY TWO DRIVERS.

1. OBJECTIVE
• • • • HUMAN POWER VEHICLE. TOTALLY ENERGY EFFICIENT. GREEN CYCLE. BEST FIT FOR INDIAN ROADS AND INDIAN PEOPLE.

PROJECT ABSTRACT (SUMMARY)

TARGET • • • • • TOURISTS. LUGGAGE CARRIERS. FOOD STALLS. CAMPAIGNING. SELLS PERSONS

EXPECTED FEATURES • • • • • • • • THREE WHEELED CYCLE USE OF 2 PARRELLEL DERAILLEUR (BOTH OF THE DERAILLEUR CHANGES TO SAME GEAR WHEN APPLIED BY THE FRONT DRIVER) USE OF KINECTIC ENERGY RESTORING SYSTEM (KERS) USE OF 2 PLANETARY GEARS ALONG WITH PROPER CLUTCH ARRANGEMENT IN THE REAR WHEEL FRONT DOUBLE DAMPING SUPER SHOX TELESCOPIC SUSPENSION REAR MONO SUSPENSION ERGONOMICS SEATS AND HANDLE LIGHT WEIGHT 6061 AL ALLOY FRAME WITH SPORTY LOOK

• • • • • • • •

OVAL TUBING FOR UNMATCHED STREGNTH AND RIGIDITY SINGLE –PIECE DESIGN, MAINTANANCE FREE SYSTEM INDIVIDUAL PARALLEL PADELLING FRONT AND REAR DISK BRAKES STABLE LOGGAGE CARRIER DIFFERNTIAL IN THE REAR WHEEL 2 DYNAMOS IN THE REAR WHEEL ONE 12V CELL + ONE 10V CELL FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH

2. TEAM STRUCTURE

SL.NO 1. 2.

NAME S.MURUGAN PRADEEPTA KUMAR SAHOO DIBYENDU MOHANTA UMAKANTA BEHERA

3.

4.

DESIGNATION ASSOCIATE PROFFESOR B-TECH 3RD YEAR STUDENT B-TECH 3RD YEAR STUDENT B-TECH 3RD YEAR STUDENT B-TECH 3RD YEAR STUDENT

BRANCH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

RESPONSIBILITY GUIDANCE OFFICIAL HELP CAPTAIN-CATIA DESIGN OF FRAME

FRAME ANSYS ANALYSIS,DESIGN OF SUSPENSION ANALYSIS FOR BEST RECUMBENT POSITIONS FOR HPV DRIVE, MESUREMENT,SEARCHING FOR MATERIAL AVAILIBILITY. GEAR DESIGN, MEASURE MENT, AND ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS.

5.

SOURAV ANAND SETHI

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

3.TOTAL MATERIAL SPECIFICATION AND COST REPORT
SL.N O
1

VEHICLE PARTS

NO.OF REQUIRED PARTS
3+3=6

SPECIFICATIONS /DIMENSIONS

COST

TYRES AND TUBES(FRONT+REAR)

28*1.5

2

RIM(FRONT+REAR)

3

28*1.5

TYRE RS 140/- PER PIECE +TUBE RS 54/- PER PIECE. TOTAL COST=(3*140)+(3*54)=RS 582/RS 130/- PER PIECE TOTAL COST =(3*130)=RS 390/RS 35/- PER PIECE TOTAL COST=(3*35)=RS 105/RS 60/- PER PIECE TOTAL COST=(3*60)=RS 180/RS 450/-

3

4 5

HUB WITH BOTTOM BRACKET SHELL (FRONT +REAR) MURD GUARD (FRONT+REAR) FRONT SUSPENSION(FORK) REAR SUSPENSION(SINGLE PIVOTE)

3

LENGTH- 14CM

3 1

PLASTIC FIBRE DOUBLE SUPER SHOX SUSPENSION LENGTH- 42CM CLOSED COIL HELICAL TORSION BEAM SPRING LENGTH- 18.5CM

6

1

RS 300/-

7 8 9 10

HANDLE (FRONT+BACK) HANDLE (FRONT+BACK) BRAKE LEVER GREEP

2 4 2 3

STRAIGHT RUBBER COATING OVER PLASTIC PLASTIC

DISC BRAKE(REAR+FRONT) FRAME

RS 50/-(PER PIECE )TOTAL COST=(2*50)=RS 100/RS 4/- PER PIECE TOTAL COST=(4*4)=RS 16/RS 10/- PER PIECE TOTAL COST =(2*10)=RS 20/RS 600/- PER ASSEMBLY TOTAL COST =(3*600)= RS1800/TOTAL COST= (2*1250)= RS 2500/-

11

12 13

SEAT FRONT AND BACK SPROCKET+CRANK ARM

2 2+2 PAIRS

6061 ALLOY ALUMINIUM STEEL OUTER DIAMETER=4.128cm. INNER DIAMETER=3.833cm. WALL=0.147cm. LENGTH=300cm. RUBBER C-50 GRADE STEEL NO.OF TEETH IN SPROKET- 48

THE

RS 80/- PER PIECE TOTAL COST=(2*80)=RS 160/RS 150/-(PER SPROCKET AND PER PAIR OF CRANK ARM) TOTAL COST=(2*150)=RS 300/RS 400/- PER ASSEMBLY TOTAL COST=(2*400)=RS 800/-

14

DERAILLEURS SET+ SIFT CABLE+SHIFT HOUSING+CHAIN RING+COG SET

2

C-50 GRADE STEEL NO.OF TEETH FROM THE AXELST 1 GEAR- 28 ND 2 GEAR- 24 3RD GEAR- 21 4TH GEAR- 18 TH 5 GEAR- 15 TH 6 GEAR- 12

15 16 17 18

CHAIN PEDAL FLIP FLOP REAR AXEL

3 2 PAIR 1 1

AS PER THE REQUIRED LENGTH FIBER AS PER REQUIREMENT LENGTH- 1M C-45 GRADE STEEL WEIGHT=1Kg SPOKE HOLES=28, 36. AXEL LENGTH=16.3cm. STANDARD OVER LOCK NUT DIMENSION=11cm GEAR RATIO=1:-25% 2:-1:1 3:-33.3% ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH

RS 80 PER PIECE TOTAL COST =(3*80)= RS 240/RS 40/- PER PAIR TOTAL COST=(2*40)=RS 80/RS 60/RS 180/-

19

PLANETARY HUB(EPICYCLIC)

GEAR

2

TOTAL COST= (2*2750)= RS 5500/-

20

CLUTCH ARRANGEMENT

2

COST=(2*1000)=RS 2000/-

21 22 23 24 25 26

BATTERY HEAD LIGHT INDICATOR CARRIER BACK LIGHT FREE WHEEL BUSH+BEARING BUSH KERS

2 1 2 1 1 2+1 DIAMETER APPROX WEIGHT=4Kg THICKNESS=34mm. WIDTH=68mm 3.81CM METALLIC WIRE FRAME STRUCTURE

COST=(2*30)= RS 60/RS 50/RS 40/COST RS 500/RS 45/RS 30/- PER PIECE TOTAL COST =(3*30)=RS 90/TOTAL COST=RS 250/-

27

1

28 29 30 31 32 33

DYNAMO PAINT TOOLS AND SUPPLIES FINISHING MATERIAL VEHICLE ENTRY FEE TEAM REGISTRATION

2

COST=(2*1000)=RS 2000 RS 10000/RS 2000/-

TOTAL EXPENDITURE : 18798+10000+2000 = RS 30798/-

4. TIME PLAN-(GRANT CHART)
SL .NO ACTIVITY RESPONSIBILITY WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5

1. 2.

3. 4.

-GOT NEWS ABOUT EVENT EFFICYCLE -DOWNLOAD OF RULE BOOK AND OTHER MATERIALS PROVIDED BY EVENT ORGANISERS. -CONSULTING WITH THE SAE COLLEGIATE CLUB FACULTY ADVISOR. -PERMISSION -TEAM SELECTION AND DIVISION -REGISTRATION -NET SEARCH ON VARIOUS 3-WHEEL VEHICLES TO GET ROUGH IDEA. -REFERING THEORY AND SEARCH FOR VARIOUS AUTOMOBILE BOOKS. -VALIDATION OF DESIGN. -DETAIL HAND DRAWING OF THE DESIGN. -ROUGH CALCULATIONS. -FINALISATION OF FRAME DESIGN. -DECISION ON VARIOUS PARTS AND EQUIPMENTS TO BE ATTACHED IN THE CYCLE. LIST OUT OF ALL NECESSARY DEVICES AND HARDWARE MATERIALS TO BE USED ACCORDING TO BICYCLE SCIENCE -COLLECTION OF DETAILS REGARDING THE USE OF FINALISED MATERIALS. -MEASUREMENTS OF VARIOUS CYCLE PARTS ACCORDING TO HUMAN ERGONOMIC POINT OF VIEW CALCULATIONS AND ENQUIRY OF AVAILIBILITY OF ALL THOSE MATERIALS IN LOCAL MARKET. REDESIGNING OF THE NECESSARY CYCLE PARTS FOR BETTER PERFECTION WHEN EVER REQUIRED. DETAIL COMPUTER DESIGN (CATIA ANALYSIS) OF VARIOUS PARTS SEPARATELY. ASSEMBLY OF ALL PARTS TO FORM THE ENTIRE CYCLE. DETAIL ANSYS ANALYSIS OF THE ENTIRE FRAME UNDER VARIOUS LOADED CONDITIONS BOTH STATIC AND DYNAMIC. BRAIN STORMING ON POWER TRAIN. VALIDATION AND FINALISATION OF DESIGN FOR POWER TRAIN. DESIGN REPORT PREPARATION COST REPORT PREPARATION COST REDUCTION SUGGESTIONS AND NEGOTIATIONS. FACULTY ADVISOR CONSULTANCY AND DATA COLLECTION REGARDING THE VARIOUS WORKSHOP FACILITIES AVAILABLE FOR THE CYCLE FABRI CATION IF SELECTED. FINAL REPORT SUBMISSION WITH ALL DETAILS, NECESSARY CALCULATIONS AND ANALYSIS.

ALL TEAM MEMBERS

CAPTAIN PRADEEPTA KUMAR SAHOO

PRADEEPTA KUMAR SAHOO & SOURAV ANAND SETHI ALL TEAM MEMBERS.

5. 6. 7.

ALL TEAM MEMBERS GIVING THEIR VIEWS. ALL TEAM MEMBERS

8.

ALL TEAM MEMBERS

9.

UMAKANTA BEHERA, SOURAV ANAND SETHI

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

UMAKANTA BEHERA ALL TEAM MEMBERS PRADEEPTA KUMAR SAHOO AND DIBYENDU MOHANTA PRADEEPTA KUMAR SAHOO AND DIBYENDU MOHANTA DIBYENDU MOHANTA

ALL TEAM MEMBERS ALL TEAM MEMBERS SOURAV ANAND SETHI ALL TEAM MEMBERS ALL TEAM MEMBERS ALL TEAM MEMBERS

21.

ASSEMBLY- MANUFACTURE LAYOUTROUND PIPE PROCURED AND CUTTING. PRESSING OF ROUND PIPES INTO OVAL PIPES. WEILDING FIXTURES FRAME). ON (MAIN

WEILDING OF REAR FRAME.

ASSEMBLY OF MAIN AND REAR FRAME WITH SUSPENSIONS.

FRONT ASSEMBLY SUSPENSION.

FORK WITH

GEAR AND SPROCKET ASSEMBLY ON MAIN FRAME.

PEDAL FITTING.

REAR AXEL FITTING WITH KERS, GEARS, HUB GEARS, CLUTCH SYSTEM.

CHAIN FITTING.

BRAKE FITTING ALONG WITH FITTING OF BRAKE CABLES WITH BRAKE LEVERS.

MUD GAURDS, CHAIN FITTING AND COVERING OF OTHER MACHINE PARTS.

ERGONOMICS CHECKING.

WHEEL ASSEMBLY.

CARRIER ASSEMBLY ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENT.

HANDLE AND SEAT ASSEMBLY.

WHEEL, SEAT, HANDLE, BRAKE, BRAKE CABLE, GEAR ALLIGNMENT.

DRIVE TEST, BRAKE TEST, AND ELECTRONIC TEST.

PAINT, OILING, GREESING, AND FINAL TOUCH UP.

COMPLETE PRODUCT.

PRODUCTION TIME
ACTIVITY NO.OF PERSONS FOR A PARTICULAR JOB TIME PER JOB(SECS)

CUTTING OF TUBES PRESSING OF TUBES WEILDING FRONT FRAME+MAIN FRAME+REAR FRAME+SUSPENSION

2 1 4 2

30 1 30 30

REAR AXEL +SPROCKET+GEAR ASSEMBLY+PEDALS

2

30

WHEELS CHAIN ARRANGEMENT HANDLES AND SEAT BRAKE AND GEAR WIRING AND CABLE FITTING

3 3 1 3

40 45 40 45

ERGONOMICS CARRIER

1 2

20 20

TIME TAKEN BY 4 PERSONS TO PRODUCE A CYCLE=290 secs=4.833min.(approx.) MAXIMUM PRODUCTION TIME FOR EACH CYCLE =45 secs(approx.) SO MORE THAN 2000 CYCLES CAN BE MANUFACTURED IN 20 WORKING HOURS WITH PROPER RELAXTATION TO THE OPERATORS.

5. INNOVATIVE OR DISTINCT FEATURES OF OUR VEHICLE

1) FRAME-

DESCRIPTIONa) LIGHT WEIGHT b) HIGHLY ERGONOMIC c) LESS NO.OF MEMBERS d) OVAL TUBING FOR UNMATCHED STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY e) SPORTY LOOK f) RIDERS CAN RIDE THE VEHICLE g) ON A 6-10% SLOPE QUITE EASILY AND WITHOUT GETTING DOWN FROM THEIR SEATS. h) 6061 ALLOY ALUMINIUM TUBES. IMPLIMENTATIONAPPROPRIATE VEHICLE FOR CARRYING LOAD WITH LESS TIME AND CONSUMPTION OF LESS HUMAN POWER. ACTS AS A MAIN FRAME CARRING A LOAD OF ABOUT 205Kg (INCLUDING DRIVER PASSENGER AND LOAD). FEASIBILITYa) EASY TO PRODUCE DUE TO LESS NO.OF TUBES, MEMBERS. b) DESIGN NEED LESS BENDING, TURNIING AND CUTTING. c) CAN BE EASILY WEILDED BY “TIG”WEILDING. d) EASY AVAILIBILITY OF 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY IN INDIA. e) PRODUCTIONS TIME LESS. COST- TOTAL COST: RS 2500/-

2) PARALLEL WITH INDIVIDUAL PEDALING-

DESCRIPTION- TWO CYCLIST WILL HAVE INDIVIDUAL PADELING FACILITY, MEANS NO ONE IS DEPENDENT ON OTHERS PEDALING SEQUENCE OR TIMING.DIFFERENT CYCLISTS PEDAL IS CONNECTED TO SEPARATE FRONT SPROCKET WHICH ARE CONNECTED TO SEPARATE DERAILLEURES IN THE REAR AXEL THROUGH SEPARATE CHAINS.THIS RESULTS IN ROTATION OF THE REAR AXEL WITH THE ADDITION EFFORT OF THE TWO CYCLIST THUS REDUCING THE EFFORT ON THE INDIVIDUAL CYCLIST. GRADUAL INCREASE IN SPEED OF CYCLE BECAUSE OF SYNCHRONISATION OF EFFORT BY BOTH THE DRIVERS. IMPLIMENTATION-TWO DERAILLEURS SETSARE USED FOR PARALLEL PEDALING. A FLIP FLOP HUB IS USED TO DIVIDE THE LENGTH OF THE CHAIN BETWEEN 1ST FRONT SPROCKET AND THE REAR AXEL IN TO TWO SERIES CHAIN DRIVE WHICH IS INDEPENDENT OF 2ND DRIVER TO PREVENT POWER LOSS DURING TRANSMISSION DUE TO LONGER CHAIN AND TO AVOID VELOCITY FLUCTUCTION DUE TO SLACKING OF CHAIN.

FEASIBILITYFLIP FLOP CAN BE EASILY MADE IN WORKSHOP. DESIRED CHAIN LENGTH IS POSSIBLE. COST- RS 150/-(PER SPROCKET AND PER PAIR OF CRANK ARM) TOTAL COST= (2*150) =RS 300/-

3) PARALLEL DERAILLLEURS-

DESCRIPTION-TWO REAR AXEL DERAILLEURS WERE CONNECTED IN THE SAME SHAFT.FRONT RIDER DRIVES ONE DERAILLEUR VIA A FLIP FLOP AND THE BACK RIDER DRIVES THE ANOTHER DERAILLEUR. BUT BOTH THE DERAILLEURS WERE CONTROLLED BY THE FRONT RIDER THROUGH A PARALLE CONNECTION OF THE DERAILLEURS CABLE. IMPLIMENTATION-DUE TO COMMON, PARALLEL CONTROL AND SINGLE CONTROL OF BOTH THE DERAILLEURS THERE IS NO PROBABILITY OF MISMATCH IN POWER TRANSMISSION. FEASIBILITYa) EASY AVAILIBILITY OF DERAILLEURS b) CAN BE EASILY FITTED IN A SINGLE SHAFT(REAR AXEL) c) BETTER SPEED AND TORQUE CONTROL COST- RS 400/- PER ASSEMBLY TOTAL COST= (2*400) =RS 800/-

4) HUB GEARS WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH ARRENGEMENT-

DESCRIPTION-TWO HUB GEARS (EPICYCLIC GEAR ARRANGEMENTS)WILL BE ATTACHED IN THE REAE WHEEL HUB WHICH WILL HELP IN 3 SPEED GEAR VARIATION.GENERALLY THESE ARE CONTROLLED WITH A CLUTCH ARRANGEMENT AND GEAR ACTUATION IS CONTROLLED BY THE RIDER WITH THE HELP OF A SPEED CONTROLLER.THESE GEAR HUB COMES WITH A GEAR RATIO AS THE FOLLOWING 1ST GEAR - -25% 2ND GEAR- 1:1 3RD GEAR- +33.3% OUR AIM IS TO MAKE THE ASSEMBLY TOTALLY AUTOMATIC WHICH WOULD BE GOVERNED BY THE VARIATION OF SPEED.FOR THIS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH IS PROPOSED TO BE USED IN PLACE OF MANUAL CLUTCH.. IMPLIMENTATIONELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH IS COUPLED WITH THE HUB GEAR IN PLACE OF MANUAL CLUTCH.LET THE VOLTAGE REQUIRED FOR THE EM CLUTCH TO GET ACTUATED BE 12V,2 DYNAMO OF 5V RATING ARE CONNECTED IN SERIES WITH THE EM CLUTCH WHICH DERIVES THE POWER FROM BOTH THE REAR WHEELS AND ABETTERY IS CONNECTED TO 2 EM CLUTCH WITH HELP OF A RESISTER WHICH DEVELOPS A VOLTAGE DROP OF 2V. WHEN DYNAMO ARE WORKING AT RATED PARAMETER (i.e VEHICLE SPEED 30Km/hr) IT WILL A GENERATE A VOLTAGE DROP OF 5V EACH, WHICH WILL ADD OF WITH THE 2V EXTRA GIVEN BY BATTERY AND ACTIVATES THE CLUTCH. WHEN THE VEHICLE IS RUNNING AT LESS THAN 30Km/hr VOLTAGE DROP ACROSS EACH DYNAMO IS LESS THAN 5 V AND HENCE THE CLUTCH REMAINS DEACTIVATED IN THE HIGHER GEAR RATIO FOR HIGH TORQUE DRIVE. FEASIBILITYa) IT IS FULLY FEASIBLE, AND WILL SURELY HELP IN AUTOMATIC SIFTING OF GEARS AND CHANGE IN SPEED. b) LESS COMPLEXITY IN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT. COST- TOTAL COST: RS 5500/-

ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH SET-UP

GEAR HUB WITH MANUAL CLUTCH ARRANGEMENT

5) KINECTIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM (KERS)DESCRIPTION- IT IS ALSO CALLED FLYWHEEL ENENRGY STORAGE (FES) WORKS BY ACCELERATING A FLYWHEEL TO A VERY HIGH SPEED AND MAINTAINING THE ENERGY IN THE SYSTEM AS ROTATIONAL ENERGY.WHEN ENERGY IA EXTRACTED FROM THE SYSTEM, THE FLYWHEELS ROTATIONAL SPEED IS AS A CONSEQUENCE OF PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY; ADDING ENERGY TO THE SYSTEM CORRESPONDINGLY RESULTS IN AN INCREASE IN THE SPEED OF THE FLYWHEEL. IMPLIMENTATION- MAINLY USED IN TRAINS TO STORE ENERGY WHILE BREAKING BUT NOW IT IS BEING USED IN MANY COMMERCILA VEHICLES AND MAINLY IN F1 TO RECOVER KINECTIC ENERGY AND TO MINIMIZE THE ENERGY FLUCTUATION CREATED DURING SYNCHRONISATION OF BOTH DRIVE CHAIN.THE FOLLOWING TABLE SHOWS THE VARITION.

FEASIBILITY- EXACT KERS MAY NOT BE AVAILABLE AND AFFORDABLE BUT WE CAN USE FES OR WE CAN DESIDN AND FABRICATE A FLYWHEEL THAT WILL ACT IN THE SAME WAY AS KERS FUNCTIONS. COST- RS 250/-(WHEN FLYWHEEL IS MADE IN WORKSHOP) TABLE SHOWING ENERGY FLUCTUATION SL.NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. STATUS 1ST RIDER 0 dW W/2 W W+dW W+dW CONTINUES TILLFINAL SPEED IS 2W
W=ANGULAR VELOCITY OF REAR AXLE dW= INFINITESIMALY SMALL CHANGE IN ANGULAR VELOCITY OF REAR AXLE.

2ND RIDER W W W W W W+dW

FINAL SPEED W W W W W+dW W+dW

SYNCHRONOUS CONDITION FLUCTUATION PART SYNCHRONOUS CONDITION

6) FRONT AND REAR SUSPENSION (FORK)DESCRIPTIONFRONT DOUBLE DAMPING SUPER SUX SUSPENSION REAR SINGLE PIVOTE SUSPENSION a) THESE FORKS HELP IN BETTER HANDLING b) LIGHT WEIGHT FRONT SUSPENSION DUE TO AIR INSIDE THE SYSTEM.

IMPLIMENTATION- IMPLIMENTED TO PROVIDE BETTER COMFORT TO THE RIDERS IN ROUGH ROUDS AND TO ABSORBE BUMPS WHILE BRAKING. FEASIBILITYa) EASY AVAILIBILITY OF THE FRONT FORKS. b) THE REAR SUSPENSION HAS ASIMPLE PIVOTE NEAR THE BOTTOM BRACKET AND A SINGLE SWING ARM TO THE REAR AXEL. c) DESIGN SIMPLICITY. d) LESS NO.OF MOVING PARTS IN THE REAR SINGLE PIVOTE SYSTEM. COST- FRONT SUSPENSION (FORK)-RS 450/-, REAR SINGLE PIVOTE SUSPENSION- RS 300/-TOTAL COST =RS 750/-

FRONT SUPER SHOX SUSPENSION (FORK)

6. DESIGN REPORT(TEAM -IGNITERKL)

ASSUMPTION1. MAXIMUM SPEED = 50Km/hr. 2. MAXIMUM WEIGHT OF RIDERS = 2*75=150Kg. 3. MAXIMUM WEIGHT OF THE LOAD = 55Kg. 4. SPRING TRAVEL = 5.08cm. 5. FORCE APPLIED BY EACH RIDER ON PEDAL = 300 N. 6. SERVICE FACTOR FOR CHAIN-LOAD FACTOR=1.25 -LUBRICATION FACTOR=1 -RATING FACTOR=1.2 8. ACCORDING TO HUMAN ERGONOMICS, DISTANCE BETWEEN CENTER OF HANDLE AND SEAT =74cm. 9. MATERIAL BEHAVIOR ASSUMPTIONS APPLIED TO THE ANALYSIS-LINEAR- STRESS IS DIRECTILY PROPORTIONAL TO STRAIN. -CONSTANT-ALL PROPERTIES TEMPERATURE-INDEPENDENT. -HOMOGENEOUS-PROPERTIES DO NOT CHANGE THROUGH OUT THE VOLUME OF THE PART. -ISOTROPIC-MATERIAL PROPERTIES ARE IDENTICAL IN ALL DIRECTIONS. 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY FRICTION WEILDED METAL IN FULLY ALLOYED(O) AND HEAT TREATED(T6)CONDITION. 1. TENSILE STRENGTH (MPa) - 303-307. 2. YEILD STRENGTH (MPa) – 269-272. 3. HARDNESS (HB) - 96-100. 4. %ELONGATION – 17.8-18.3. 5. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (GPa) - 68.9. 6. ULTIMATE BEARING STRENGTH (MPa)-607. 7. BEARING YEILD STRENGTH (MPa)-386. 8. POISSON’S RATIO-0.33. 9. FATIGUE STRENGTH (MPa)-96.5. 10. FACTURE TOUGHNESS (MPa-m½)-29. 11. SHEAR MODULUS (GPa)-26. 12. SHEAR STRENGTH (MPa)-207. 13. DENSITY (g/cc)-2.7. BASIC DESIGN PROCEDURE1. THE RIDER OF A CYCLE APPLIES FORCE ON THE PEDAL AS A RESULT THE SPROKET ATTACHED TO THE PEDAL CRANK ARM ROTATES. 2. THAT ROTATING SPROKET TRANSMIT ITS ENERGY TO COMPARETIVILY SMALLER GEARS THROUGH CHAINS, WHICH IS FIXED TO THE REAR AXEL CONTAINING THE WHEELS. 3. THUS THE HUMAN POWER IS TRANSMITTED TO THE WHEEL. 4. DERAILLEUR’S ARE USED FOR VARIABLE RATIO TRANSMISSION. 5. FRONT AND REAR SUSPENSIONS ARE DESIGNED AND USED FOR SMOOTH DRIVE AND TO ABSORB BUMPS WHILE BRAKING. 6. KERS (FLYWHEEL)-IT IS ALSO CALLED FLYWHEEL ENENRGY STORAGE (FES) WORKS BY ACCELERATING A FLYWHEEL TO A VERY HIGH SPEED AND MAINTAINING THE

ENERGY IN THE SYSTEM AS ROTATIONAL ENERGY.WHEN ENERGY IS EXTRACTED FROM THE SYSTEM, THE FLYWHEELS ROTATIONAL SPEED IS AS A CONSEQUENCE OF PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY, ADDING ENERGY TO THE SYSTEM CORRESPONDINGLY RESULTS IN AN INCREASE IN THE SPEED OF THE FLYWHEEL. 7. EPICYCLIC GEAR HUBS ARE USE ALONG WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTC TO INCREASE SPEED. • DESIGN CALCULATIONSCHAIN DRIVE REPORT -FRONT DRIVE SPROCKET: DIAMETER=20.5cm, TEETH=48 -REAR DERAILLEURS: GEAR NUMBER DIAMETER(cm) 1st 10.5 2nd 9.5 3rd 8.5 4th 7.5 5th 6.5 6th 5.5

NO.OF TEETH 28 24 21 18 15 12

-PITCH OF THE CHAIN=1.27cm. -VELOCITY RATIO=V.R=N1/N2=T2/T1=2.66 (ASSUMED AT 4th GEAR) ALL CALCULATIONS DONE ON 4th GEAR AS MEAN GEAR. -LOAD=850Kg. -SERVICE FACTOR=Ks=1.562. -AVERAGE VELOCITY OF CHAIN= (p*T*N)/60= (0.0127*48*1240.6)/60=12.6m/sec. -PERMISSIBLE SPEED OF SMALLER SPROCKET ASSUMED=N1= 3300rpm. -SPEED OF LARGER SPROCKET=N2=1240.6rpm. -BREAKING STRENGTH =Wb=106*12.7*(PER mm WIDTH OF CHAIN) =106*12.7*7.75=10433.05N. -FACTOR OF SAFETY=Wb/W=10433.05/850=12.27. -POWER TRANSMITTED=P= (Wb*V)/ (n*Ks) = (10433.05*12.6)/ (12.27*1.562) =6KW (APPROX). CHAIN SPECIFICATION CENTER DISTANCE NO.OF LINKS=K=(T1+T2)/(2)+(2*x)/(p)+(T2T1)2/(2*3.14)*(p)/x LENGTH OF CHAIN(Kp) WEIGHT OF CHAIN 1st PERSON(DRIVER) 87.5cm 172 2nd PERSON(PASSENGER) 33.5cm 87

217.33cm 1.3671Kg

110.5cm 0.69Kg

FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE POWER TRANSMITTED =6KW. (FROM CHAIN DRIVE REPORT) REAR SPROCKET=3300 rpm. ENERGY REVOLUTION PER REVOLUTION=E= (P*60)/N= (6*1000*60)/3300=109.09N-m. COEFFICIENT OF FLUCTUATION OF SPEED=Cs=0.04(assumed) ENERGY FLUCTUTION: 30% OF ENERGY = E=0.3*109.09=32.727N-m. 1. MASS OF THE FLYWHEEL= VELOCITY OF FLYWHEEL=V=14m/sec (ASSUMED.) DIAMETER OF THE FLYWHEEL=D= (V*60)/( ∗ )= (14*60)/ (3.14*3300) =0.08m. WE KNOW THAT THE MAXIMUM FLUCTUATION OF ENERGY= E=32.727N-m. E=M*V2*Cs, M=4.175Kg.

2. CROSS – SECTIONAL DIMENSION OF THE FLYWHEEL RIM. = t=THICKNESS OF THE RIM IN METERS. b=WIDTH OF THE FLYWHEEL RIM IN METERS=2*t. CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF THE FLYWHEEL RIM=A=b*t=2*t2. NOW MASS =M=A* ∗ ∗DENSITY=2*t2*3.14*0.08*7200 t=0.0339m=3.4cm (approx.) STEERING CALCULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS USED BY US: FORK LENGTH – 45cm OFFSET– 4cm HEAD ANGLE – 70 degree MECHANICAL TRAIL- 6.45cm (CALCULATED BELOW) WHEEL FLOP FACTOR=2.073(CALCULATED BELOW) RADIUS OF THE WHEEL- 32cm (INCLUDING TYRE) RAKE ANGLE USED IN BICYCLE=15-20 degree. TRAIL CALCULATION:

USING THE EQUQTION: TRAIL = (32*cos (70) – 4)/ sin (70) = 6.45 cm WHERE, Rw WHEEL RADIUS Ah IS THE HEAD ANGLE MEASURED CLOCK WISE FROM THE HORIZONTAL Of IS THE OFFSET OR RAKE. WHEEL FLOP CALCULATION: USING THE EQUATION: f = b sin ∂ cos ∂ = (b sin2∂)/2 f = (6.45*sin140)/2 = 2.073cm. WHERE: f = "WHEEL FLOP FACTOR," THE DISTANCE THAT THE CENTREOF THE FRONT WHEEL AXLE WHEN THE HANDLE BARS AREROTATED FROM THE STRAIGHTAHEAD POSITION TO APOSITION 90 DEGREE AWAY FROM THE STRAIGHT HEAD. b = TRAIL ∂ = HEAD ANGLE

AXLE MAXIMUM FORCE BY DRIVER=F=300N (GRAPH SEE BELOW). FRONT SPROCKET DIAMETER= 20.5cm, NO.OF TEETH= 48. AVERAGE AXLE DIAMETER OF REAR SPROCKET=7.5cm, NO.OF TEETH=18. CRANK LENGTH=20cm (DESIGNED). RADIUS OF WHEEL= 32cm. MAXIMUM VELOCITY OF VEHICLE, V=50Km/hr.(assumed.) Wrear=V/r=43.375 rad/sec. Wfront= (Nrear/Nfront)*W rear= (18/48)*43.375=16.26 rad/sec. Pfront=Tfront*Wfront=975.6W. TENSION IN THE CHAIN (P)=Tfront/r=60/0.205=292.68. Trear=292.688*0.075=21.95N-m. SO, DIAMETER OF REAR AXLE REQUIRED, D = (16/ (3.14*τ allowed)*(M2 +T2)1/2)1/3. T=Trear=21.95N-m M=391.29N- M (FROM BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM) SAFETY FACTOR=10.08=10(CALCULATED) THEREFORE D=35.48mm =1.39”.

USING FACTOR OF SAFETY=15(BY ANSYS) THEREFORE D=40.62mm=1.59” SO, DIAMETER OF REAR AXLE=1.5” TYRE AND TUBE DIAMETER - 28” WIDTH - 1.5” WHEEL STATIC CAMBER – 2 DEGREE (NEGATIVE) ON BOTH THE REAR WHEELS SUSPENSION SPRING TRAVEL = 5.08cm. SPRING RATE = 64.8 N/mm. (calculated)

GRAPH USED TO DETREMINE MAXIMUM FORCE APPLIED BY HUMAN ON PEDAL

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CHASSIS: STRUCTURAL PARTS ANALYSIS USING ANSYS 12.0
LOAD SET UP

The above loads were applied on the chassis at required points in order to analyze the load bearing capabilities of the frame.

Von-Mises Stress

Information Extracted : Max Stress – 44.008 MPa. The chassis was found to be stable under static loading condition.

Maximum Principal Stress

REAR AXLE ANALYSIS

Von-Mises Stress

SAFETY FACTOR

A safety factor (F.S) – 15 is found out and is utilized while designing the rear axle.

Maximum Principal Stress

CHANGES IMPLEMENTED IN DESIGN AFTER ANALYSIS

The previously designed chassis had a stress concentration zone i.e it had greater chances of failure after analyzed in Ansys, as shown in the first diagram below. To overcome the same, we made modifications to it by introducing stiffners at the places previously affected by it and it was found out that the problem was resolved by doing so

Stress Concentration

AFTER USING STIFFNERS

Stiffners

Comments

PRADEEPTA KUMAR SAHOO (CAPTAIN)

ADDITIONAL ANSYS ANALYSIS (NOT TO BE CALCULATED UNDER MAIN DESIGN REPORT)

Project
First Saved Wednesday, June 30, 2010 Last Saved Wednesday, June 30, 2010 Product Version 12.0.1 Release

Contents
• • Units Model (A4) o Geometry § Parts o Coordinate Systems o Connections § Contact Regions § Fixed - Part 1 To Part 4 o Mesh o Static Structural (A5) § Analysis Settings § Loads § Solution (A6) § Solution Information § Results § Stress Tool § Safety Factor Material Data o Structural Steel o Aluminum Alloy

Units
TABLE 1 Unit System Metric (mm, kg, N, s, mV, mA) Degrees rad/s Celsius Angle Degrees Rotational Velocity rad/s Temperature Celsius

Model (A4)
Geometry
TABLE 2 Model (A4) > Geometry Object Name Geometry State Fully Defined Definition Source C:\Users\pop5du\Desktop\chassis_assembled_final.igs Type Iges Length Unit Meters Element Control Program Controlled Display Style Part Color Bounding Box Length X 724.04 mm Length Y 1346.6 mm Length Z 555.77 mm Properties Volume 5.077e+006 mm³ Mass 21.895 kg Scale Factor Value 1. Statistics Bodies 7 Active Bodies 7

Nodes Elements Mesh Metric Preferences Import Solid Bodies Parameter Processing Personal Parameter Key CAD Associativity Import Using Instances Attach File Via Temp File Temporary Directory Analysis Type Enclosure and Symmetry Processing

26894 13228 None Yes Yes DS Yes Yes Yes C:\Users\pop5du\AppData\Local\Temp 3-D Yes

Object Name State Visible Transparency Suppressed Stiffness Behavior Coordinate System Reference Temperature

spring

TABLE 3 Model (A4) > Geometry > Parts Part 2 Part 3 rear_axle_holder Meshed Graphics Properties Yes 1 Definition No Flexible Default Coordinate System By Environment Material Aluminum Alloy Yes Yes Bounding Box 277.46 mm 104.22 mm 213.63 mm Properties 2.8653e+005 2.8652e+005 mm³ mm³ 0.7937 kg 0.79366 kg 192.98 mm -194.37 mm 724.04 mm 249.2 mm 285. mm 1.3884e+006 mm³ 10.899 kg -1.4507 mm 1225.6 mm -272.85 mm 1.0312e+005 kg·mm² 5.6418e+005 kg·mm² 4.7044e+005 kg·mm² 4213 2058 Structural Steel

Part 5

Assignment Structural Steel Nonlinear Effects Thermal Strain Effects Length X Length Y Length Z Volume Mass Centroid X Centroid Y Centroid Z 67.293 mm 125.34 mm 213.8 mm 1.533e+005 mm³ 1.2034 kg 4.4174e-002 mm 1168.4 mm -62.461 mm

Aluminum Alloy

38. mm 448.09 mm 242.64 mm 5.3937e+005 mm³ 1.4941 kg 4.3733e-005 mm 249.79 mm -55.764 mm 28121 kg·mm² 267.18 kg·mm² 28123 kg·mm² 633 110

1233.6 mm -279.3 mm -279.29 mm 118.45 kg·mm² 6765.1 kg·mm² 6766.9 kg·mm² 379 152 118.47 kg·mm² 6764.9 kg·mm² 6766.7 kg·mm² 415 178 None

Moment of Inertia Ip1 3816.8 kg·mm² Moment of Inertia Ip2 3822.1 kg·mm² Moment of Inertia Ip3 Nodes Elements Mesh Metric 502. kg·mm² 4643 2195

Statistics

TABLE 4 Model (A4) > Geometry > Parts Object Name Part 6 chassis State Meshed Graphics Properties

Visible Transparency Definition Suppressed Stiffness Behavior Coordinate System Reference Temperature Assignment Nonlinear Effects Thermal Strain Effects Length X Length Y Length Z Volume Mass Centroid X Centroid Y Centroid Z Moment of Inertia Ip1 Moment of Inertia Ip2 Moment of Inertia Ip3 Nodes Elements

Yes 1 No Flexible Default Coordinate System By Environment Material Aluminum Alloy Yes Yes Bounding Box 38. mm 80. mm 447.67 mm 1196.7 mm 249.25 mm 545.77 mm Properties 5.3554e+005 mm³ 1.8873e+006 mm³ 1.4834 kg 5.2277 kg -7.1344e-004 mm -2.0958e-003 mm 708.6 mm 581.86 mm -280.26 mm -138.82 mm 27787 kg·mm² 7.0403e+005 kg·mm² 263.51 kg·mm² 85608 kg·mm² 27792 kg·mm² 6.2003e+005 kg·mm² Statistics 633 15978 280 8255

Coordinate Systems
TABLE 5 Model (A4) > Coordinate Systems > Coordinate System Object Name Global Coordinate System State Fully Defined Definition Type Cartesian Ansys System Number 0. Origin Origin X 0. mm Origin Y 0. mm Origin Z 0. mm Directional Vectors X Axis Data [ 1. 0. 0. ] Y Axis Data [ 0. 1. 0. ] Z Axis Data [ 0. 0. 1. ]

Connections
TABLE 6 Model (A4) > Connections Object Name Connections State Fully Defined Auto Detection

Generate Contact On Update Yes Tolerance Type Slider Tolerance Value 4.0669 mm Face/Face Yes Priority Include All Group By Bodies Revolute Joints Yes Fixed Joints Yes TABLE 7 Model (A4) > Connections > Contact Regions Object Name Bonded - Part 1 To Part 7 Bonded - Part 4 To Part 7 State Fully Defined Scope Scoping Method Geometry Selection Contact 1 Face 2 Faces Target 2 Faces Contact Bodies spring rear_axle_holder Target Bodies chassis Definition Type Bonded Scope Mode Manual Behavior Symmetric Suppressed No TABLE 8 Model (A4) > Connections > Joints Object Name Fixed - Part 1 To Part 4 State Fully Defined Definition Connection Type Body-Body Type Fixed Suppressed No Reference Scoping Method Geometry Selection Scope 2 Faces Body spring Coordinate System Reference Coordinate System Behavior Rigid Pinball Region All Mobile Scoping Method Geometry Selection Scope 2 Faces Body rear_axle_holder Initial Position Unchanged Behavior Rigid Pinball Region All

Mesh
TABLE 9 Model (A4) > Mesh Object Name Mesh State Solved Defaults Physics Preference Mechanical

Relevance 0 Sizing Use Advanced Size Function Off Relevance Center Coarse Element Size Default Initial Size Seed Active Assembly Smoothing Medium Transition Fast Span Angle Center Coarse Minimum Edge Length 3.0654e-003 mm Inflation Use Automatic Tet Inflation None Inflation Option Smooth Transition Transition Ratio 0.272 Maximum Layers 5 Growth Rate 1.2 Inflation Algorithm Pre Statistics Nodes 26894 Elements 13228 Mesh Metric None

Static Structural (A5)
TABLE 10 Model (A4) > Analysis Object Name Static Structural (A5) State Solved Definition Physics Type Structural Analysis Type Static Structural Solver Target ANSYS Mechanical Options Environment Temperature 22. °C Generate Input Only No TABLE 11 Model (A4) > Static Structural (A5) > Analysis Settings Object Name Analysis Settings State Fully Defined Step Controls Number Of Steps 1. Current Step Number 1. Step End Time 1. s Auto Time Stepping Program Controlled Solver Controls Solver Type Program Controlled Weak Springs Program Controlled Nonlinear Controls Force Convergence Program Controlled Moment Convergence Program Controlled Displacement Convergence Program Controlled Rotation Convergence Program Controlled Line Search Program Controlled Output Controls Calculate Stress Yes Calculate Strain Yes

Calculate Results At

All Time Points

TABLE 12 Model (A4) > Static Structural (A5) > Loads Object Name Fixed Support Force Force 2 Force 3 State Fully Defined Scope Scoping Method Geometry Selection Geometry 17 Faces 1 Face 2 Faces Definition Type Fixed Support Force Suppressed No Define By Vector Magnitude 750. N (ramped) 550. N (ramped) Direction Defined FIGURE 1 Model (A4) > Static Structural (A5) > Force

FIGURE 2 Model (A4) > Static Structural (A5) > Force 2

FIGURE 3 Model (A4) > Static Structural (A5) > Force 3

Solution (A6)
TABLE 13 Model (A4) > Static Structural (A5) > Solution Object Name Solution (A6) State Solved Adaptive Mesh Refinement Max Refinement Loops 1. Refinement Depth 2. TABLE 14 Model (A4) > Static Structural (A5) > Solution (A6) > Solution Information Object Name Solution Information State Solved Solution Information Solution Output Solver Output Newton-Raphson Residuals 0 Update Interval 2.5 s Display Points All TABLE 15 Model (A4) > Static Structural (A5) > Solution (A6) > Results Total Maximum Principal Minimum Principal Equivalent Stress Deformation Stress Stress Solved Scope Geometry Selection All Bodies Definition Total Equivalent (vonMaximum Principal Minimum Principal Deformation Mises) Stress Stress Stress Results 0. mm 0. MPa -8.7599 MPa -46.471 MPa 0.99403 mm 44.008 MPa 45.883 MPa 8.315 MPa Part 2 chassis chassis rear_axle_holder

Object Name State Scoping Method Geometry Type Minimum Maximum Minimum Occurs On Maximum Occurs On

Maximum Shear Stress

Maximum Shear Stress 0. MPa 23.986 MPa Part 2

rear_axle_holder

TABLE 16 Model (A4) > Static Structural (A5) > Solution (A6) > Stress Safety Tools

Object Name Stress Tool State Solved Definition Theory Max Equivalent Stress Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material TABLE 17 Model (A4) > Static Structural (A5) > Solution (A6) > Stress Tool > Results Object Name Safety Factor State Solved Scope Scoping Method Geometry Selection Geometry All Bodies Definition Type Safety Factor By Time Display Time Last Calculate Time History Yes Use Average Yes Identifier Results Minimum 7.2446 Minimum Occurs On chassis

Material Data
Structural Steel
TABLE 18 Structural Steel > Constants Density 7.85e-006 kg mm^-3 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 1.2e-005 C^-1 Specific Heat 4.34e+005 mJ kg^-1 C^-1 Thermal Conductivity 6.05e-002 W mm^-1 C^-1 Resistivity 1.7e-004 ohm mm TABLE 19 Structural Steel > Compressive Ultimate Strength Compressive Ultimate Strength MPa 0 TABLE 20 Structural Steel > Compressive Yield Strength Compressive Yield Strength MPa 377 TABLE 21 Structural Steel > Tensile Yield Strength Tensile Yield Strength MPa 377 TABLE 22 Structural Steel > Tensile Ultimate Strength Tensile Ultimate Strength MPa 583 TABLE 23 Structural Steel > Alternating Stress

Alternating Stress MPa 3999 2827 1896 1413 1069 441 262 214 138 114 86.2

Cycles Mean Stress MPa 10 0 20 0 50 0 100 0 200 0 2000 0 10000 0 20000 0 1.e+005 0 2.e+005 0 1.e+006 0

Strength Coefficient MPa 920

TABLE 24 Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters Strength Ductility Ductility Cyclic Strength Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent Coefficient Exponent Coefficient MPa Exponent -0.106 0.213 -0.47 1000 0.2 TABLE 25 Structural Steel > Relative Permeability Relative Permeability 10000 TABLE 26 Structural Steel > Isotropic Elasticity Temperature C Young's Modulus MPa Poisson's Ratio 2.e+005 0.3

Aluminum Alloy
TABLE 27 Aluminum Alloy > Constants Density 2.77e-006 kg mm^-3 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 2.3e-005 C^-1 Specific Heat 8.75e+005 mJ kg^-1 C^-1 TABLE 28 Aluminum Alloy > Compressive Ultimate Strength Compressive Ultimate Strength MPa 0 TABLE 29 Aluminum Alloy > Compressive Yield Strength Compressive Yield Strength MPa 280 TABLE 30 Aluminum Alloy > Tensile Yield Strength Tensile Yield Strength MPa 280 TABLE 31 Aluminum Alloy > Tensile Ultimate Strength Tensile Ultimate Strength MPa 310 TABLE 32 Aluminum Alloy > Thermal Conductivity

Thermal Conductivity W mm^-1 C^-1 Temperature C 0.114 -100 0.144 0 0.165 100 0.175 200 TABLE 33 Aluminum Alloy > Alternating Stress Alternating Stress MPa Cycles R-Ratio 275.8 1700 -1 241.3 5000 -1 206.8 34000 -1 172.4 1.4e+005 -1 137.9 8.e+005 -1 117.2 2.4e+006 -1 89.63 5.5e+007 -1 82.74 1.e+008 -1 170.6 50000 -0.5 139.6 3.5e+005 -0.5 108.6 3.7e+006 -0.5 87.91 1.4e+007 -0.5 77.57 5.e+007 -0.5 72.39 1.e+008 -0.5 144.8 50000 0 120.7 1.9e+005 0 103.4 1.3e+006 0 93.08 4.4e+006 0 86.18 1.2e+007 0 72.39 1.e+008 0 74.12 3.e+005 0.5 70.67 1.5e+006 0.5 66.36 1.2e+007 0.5 62.05 1.e+008 0.5 TABLE 34 Aluminum Alloy > Relative Permeability Relative Permeability 1 TABLE 35 Aluminum Alloy > Resistivity Resistivity ohm mm Temperature C 2.43e-005 0 2.67e-005 20 3.63e-005 100 TABLE 36 Aluminum Alloy > Isotropic Elasticity Temperature C Young's Modulus MPa Poisson's Ratio 71000 0.33

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