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Power Factor Correction

# Power Factor Correction

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power factor is a very important parametre talking about the power supply and consumption...high power factor causes high utility bills...so be aware of what powere factor is!
power factor is a very important parametre talking about the power supply and consumption...high power factor causes high utility bills...so be aware of what powere factor is!

Published by: Syed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain on Oct 24, 2008

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11/17/2012

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# Power Factor Correction

Syed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain
B. SC. Electrical Engineering Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan.

WHAT IS POWER FACTOR?
 The ratio of the real power (P) to apparent power (S).
power factor = active power (W)/ apparent power (VA)

OR  The cosine that represents the phase angle between the current and voltage waveforms.
power factor = cos ø

Contd..

W = Active Power VA = Apparent Power VAr = Reactive Power

Contd..

CAUSES OF LOW POWER FACTOR
 Low power factor is caused by inductive loads (such as transformers, electric motors, and high-intensity discharge lighting).  The total or apparent power required by an inductive device is a composite of the following:
1. Real power (measured in kilowatts, kW) 2. Reactive power, the nonworking power caused by the magnetizing current, required to operate the device (measured in kVAR)

WHY TO IMPROVE POWER FACTOR?
 Utility bill will be smaller  Branch capacity of the electrical system increases (i.e. power losses due to voltage drop decreases)  Most of the Utilities impose low power factor penalties. By correcting the power factor, this penalty can be avoided.  High power factor reduces the load currents. Therefore, a considerable saving is made in the hardware cost, such as cables, switchgear, substation transformers, etc.

CORRECTING POWER FACTOR
Some strategies for correcting power factor are as follows:  Minimize operation of idling or lightly loaded motors.  Avoid operation of equipment above its rated voltage.  Install capacitors in your AC circuit to decrease the magnitude of reactive power.

Contd..

Calculation for Power Factor Improvement
Existing power factor=0.723 Desired power factor=0.85 Maximum demand University=1800Kw

of

Contd..
KVAR = Kw * (tanФ2 – tanФ1)
Where Ф2 = existing load angle Ф1 = required load angle

KVAR = 1800 * (0.955 – 0.6197) = 605 KVAR (capacitive)

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