Structural Investigation of the Relationship between Working Satisfaction and Employee Turnover

Chen, Ying-Chang, Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management Ching Kuo Institute of Management and Health, Taiwan Wang ,Wen Cheng, Department of Business Management, Hwa Hsia Institute of Technology, Taiwan Chu, Ying Chien, Department of Tourism and Leisure, National Penghu University, Taiwan

ABSTRACT In this paper, researchers evaluate a model of working satisfaction in employee turnover, survey data were collected from 100 hotel employees in XinHua hotel. The article proposes human resource management features based on the analysis of the reasons for the brain drain in the hotel, policies accordingly. There were several main findings from our empirical analyses. (1) Providing career advancement opportunities is critical for retention. (2) A mentoring program can help decrease the employee turnover of the small- and- medium –sized hotels. (3) High-quality communicating is valuable for hotel policy. (4) Pay and welfare also indicate significant position in Human Resource Management in the hospitality industry. The investigation of working satisfaction reflects the status of human resource in the hotels, through this, positive reactions can be made, and encouragement system can be adjusted, so that employees get more satisfaction, employee turnover is reduced and performance can be improved. Keywords: working satisfaction, hotel policy, employee turnover, XinHua hotel INTRODUCTION In face of an more and more competitive environment in the era of new knowledge economy, the role excellent employee play in an enterprise gains more weight and value than before and become the solution to a success of companies in today’s hospitality industry. Employees in hotels are significant because they are mostly important to the development of the hotels; employees' attitudes and behaviors play a vital role in the quality of work. In this regard, employees are primarily responsible for providing a sustainable competitive advantage for the s hotels. Therefore, success in the hotels depends on managing and retaining employees. The hotels are generally more frequent flows of human resources. The hotels access to the human resources of high frequency compared to the other enterprises. The possibility of a brain drain in hotels is more than for other enterprises. At present, the hotels have become an important force in China's national economic development, but compared with larger enterprises, the overall weaker competitiveness of the hotels, particularly the employee turnover problem is more serious than other enterprises, to a certain extent; it has had a serious impact on the healthy and stable development of the hotels. Service quality in the hospitality industry is essential than manufacturing industry enterprises. The intensity of a larger work, in particular, some of the key positions in management and technical personnel to conduct regular is higher intensity of the work. If without remuneration or individuals development opportunities that they expected the outflow

The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. 6, Num. 1, June 2010

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followed by affect. autonomy. June 2010 . adverse effects such as loss of trained employees. Num. It is unclear how strong the job satisfaction–turnover intention relationship should be given that it may depend on specific aspects of work in particular organizations. 6. In this paper. And this problem has many relationships with employees’ working satisfaction and corporation’s encouragement. 1974). 2002). avoiding wastage of human resources caused by excessive losses. These variables begin with work experiences. Because these people not only have the skills. Pay can be a factor in decisions to stay or leave. and level of support in the workplace. The hotels will suffer direct losses. in turn.from the enterprise is easy. 2004). unrealized productivity. The key management personnel of the hotels should be intensifies efforts and incentive. 1. Van Dick et al. The phenomena of employee turnover in the hotels are always being focused on by managers and the academics because employee’s attitudes and behaviors play a vital role in the development of hotels. affect the level of productivity efficiency. Employee turnover is particularly important in the hotels due to the high levels of productivity efficiency (Warren. and environmental conditions. and when people speak of an employee’s attitudes. researchers address this latter issue through empirical examination of the impact of turnover on operating performance. including levels of role ambiguity. They outflow from the enterprise. 1996). and can. quality of supervision. These results in the poor morale of employees who may be overworked. not only the commercial technological secrets away. therefore also affect the stability of the serving staff. 42 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. they are likely to be referring to his/her employee satisfaction. norm and cost related judgments. role states and psychological contracts. However. 2002). that is. LITERATURE REVIEW For decades. It will increase the replacement human resource cost and affect the continuity and quality of the work. Thus. personal characteristics. researcher and business people alike have realized that the first contact that employees have with an organization after being hired is crucial for their success in the workplace (Buchanan. but also management experience. and lowered morale often translate into lower financial gains than anticipated (Cascio. their openness to adapt to changing work requirements through flexible and broader skills and a readiness to change tasks and jobs (Van Dam. This research focus on how organizations can increase their workers' employability orientation. one of the most critical intangible costs is the loss of employee morale for those employees who choose to remain with the hotels. The satisfaction–turnover relationship may also be moderated by other variables such as gender or mood. it also can reduce the rate of accidents. Robbins and Coulter (1996) stated that employee satisfaction is an employee’s general attitude towards his/her work. management practices. Meyer and Allen (1997) suggest that the most variables include work experiences. quality of social relationships. such as hotel or food and beverage industry (George & Jones. In the hotels. Job satisfaction may arise from many different sources. Data suggest dissatisfaction with pay can be a key factor in turnovers. Locke (1969) point out the issue of employee satisfaction has been considered in numerous studies. but also customers being away. Working satisfaction can reduce absence and employee turnover. hotels’ managers should understand that the rational flow of talent is a basic characteristic of a market economy and does not fear the other talent flow. The present study addresses working satisfaction from all organizational perspective. socialization experiences. in the longer term. (2004) found evidence that organizational identification predicted turnover intention but the relationship was partially mediated by job satisfaction.

and that. Feij. To study how the reduce turnover and increase employee retention in hotels. Moreover. such as they are not satisfied with their positions of salary. and Taris (2004) distinguished between two motives for turnover. 1977). The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. 1. Much of this attention has been focused on understanding its causes. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY The purpose of this study is to undertake an empirical approach to investigate the potential relationship between the working satisfaction structure and the organization employee turnover. whereas pull refer to available opportunities to improve one's career opportunities on the external labor market. Van Vianen. and the management complies with our requirements. respondent’s opinion about employee loyalty (3 items) and employee satisfaction (1 item). their likelihood to find another job and their confidence. The questions include items pertaining to the respondent’s personal information (5 items). Hotels have taken the employee satisfaction system in order to catch up with large scales. To predict retention. tasks. push and pull. Therefore. managers might reduce the occurrence of turnover in their respective organizations. the XinHua hotel is very cooperative with us. The research may point out that there are some problems in the hotels in recent years on the employee turnover. respondent’s employee tenure in the company (2 items). and markets. 6. rather than longer term variables such as turnover intention (Ajzen & Fishbein. generally speaking. In this study. METHODOLOGY This research adopted a questionnaire approach by collecting data from current employees in XinHua hotel in Guangdong.Employee turnover in hotels has received substantial attention from both academics and managers. The last set of questions asked respondents to assess employment features that would cause dissatisfaction. There is unsuitable for the promotion and management system in hotels. employees leave the hotels for some common reasons. Although the most significant reason is that they want to seize more space for position and trainings. June 2010 43 . To examine are what the consequences of the high employee turnover in hotels. or that satisfaction may relate more closely to immediate or short term variables such as daily effort. 3. by developing policies to address these characteristics. The primary objectives were defined as following: 1. China. Krausz. mainly in relation to the number of hours worked. Num. the job satisfaction–turnover relationship is not stable across different organizations. this research is for the management of the hotel to find out the problems and to solve the problem. 2. Other questions asked the respondents to evaluate their level of importance of employee characteristics (12 items) and their perceived manifestation of these characteristics (11 items). firms. While hotels are not marketable enough to compete with other larger scales because of some systematically reasons. To investigate what are the causes for the high employee turnover in the hotels. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that turnover is driven by certain identifiable characteristics of workers. Pavesic and Brymer (1990) confirmed dissatisfaction with income. Nevertheless. the effectiveness of company to remain good employee. Push motives are related to dissatisfaction with one's current work situation. respondents were also asked to indicate their level of satisfaction with their current supervisor. to be a primary reason for managers with hospitality administration degrees leaving the hospitality industry.

marital status and educational background of the respondents. but also how important the aspects is for them. The anonymity of the employees must be guaranteed in the questionnaire. June 2010 . This phase consists of the way of distributing the questionnaires and the reporting of the results. After the results are analyzed you know how satisfied the employees are. Many aspects have to be taken into account during preparation. One factor that influences the response is the anonymity. the respondents participating in the study represented the age groups which between 18 – 48 years old and had a median of 28 – 38 years. There was nobody under 18 or elder than 48. two aspects should be taken into account: the XinHua hotel should be in a stable situation and everyone accepts that there will be an investigation. DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION The outcome of the statistical analysis of the questionnaire which is for further research of job satisfaction. The table 1 below points out that the structure of age. (3) Follow-up. private talking and questionnaire are carried through in the company—XinHua hotel---male and female (100 respondents).medium –sized enterprises. And the motivation will be varied with specific circumstance. Differences between the personal backgrounds and the organization and the result areas are made by analyzing the results to get more precise information. From table 3-1. Because the respondents need not to sign their names in the paper. The questionnaires were distributed through managers of the small. the process of continually improving and changing begins. certain level of response is needed. (2) Implementation. 6. The respondents of this research were employees of XinHua hotel. Num. it will show to the hotel that the management should treat employees with different methods in order to attract them in the hotel. so in my opinion the questionnaires is mainly their actual own ideas about their job.The study introduces employee’s working satisfaction and external. In the following I will present some data. The questionnaires were distributed through managers of XinHua hotel. A total of 100questionnairs were distributed. The reason that employee turnover in the company is to be found based on the analysis of these investigation. and those data provide more detail information of some reasons and facts of employee turnover. Encouragement is managers’ key function. The participants returned 40 questionnaires to yield a response rate of 40%. The most prevailing age groups represented in the sample were: between 18 – 44 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. this part will connect the facts with the academic theory before-mentioned and find out the practical actions for XinHua hotel on this problem. 1.and.medium –sized enterprise. At that time of the study. Before doing employee satisfaction investigation. The participants returned 40 questionnaires to yield a response rate of 40%. By analyzing those aspects and reasons. gender. internal encouragement. A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed. approximately 100 of total employees worked in the small.and. To get valuable and reliable results. By analyzing those factors of impact on job satisfaction. author gives some suggestions to the high layer managers in XinHua hotel---how to encourage people and hopefully the advice can be useful sometimes in other corporation also. In the investigation it is not only important to know how the people feel about a specific aspect or if the score is high or low. The importance of an aspect for the people can be measured with two different methods: the direct method (asking with every question in the questionnaire how important this is for them) and the indirect method. which is a statistical method (correlation analysis) The employee satisfaction investigation consists of three phases as following: (1) Preparation.

June 2010 45 .5 Total: 100 N = 40 Married: 45 Mean = 1.5 Std.28 years (47. cleaners. the results of the structure of XinHua hotel are well-balanced. which means lower than high school diploma. I introduce the demographic characteristics of the respondents.72 as average score of job satisfaction and male employees had 3.65 Std. Generally speaking. Why do I list those characteristics in the questionnaire? The answer is that mine main object of this report is for study of job satisfaction of those employees. Table 2 shows that female employees had 3. The group of employees who were between 18 – 28 years old had 3. the single is over half of the total. 1. it is important that hotel managers know how their employees feel at work and what they want.05 as mean of job satisfaction. the respondents with a The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. because hospitality is the service industry and require less professors or experts but need more ―common‖ people who are willing to provide service to others. There were six respondents chose other. and the married is not fewer.809 38-48: 22. The respondents with a high school diploma had 3. etc.5 Std. bachelor degree (7. they are not the majority.dev.5%). So in this part we will discuss the job satisfaction in the questionnaire.5%). between 38 – 48 years (22. a few got College degree.5% Elder: 0% Single: 52. The amount of effort that an employee expends toward accomplishing the hotel’s goals depends on whether the employee believes that this effort will lead to the satisfaction of his or her own needs and desires.423 Master degree: 0 Other: 15 Gender Age marital status Education background The main respondents are common staff in the hotel. To be successful in a competitive market.65 Bachelor degree: 7. such as the waiter or waitress.14.555 High school: 55 Total: 100 N = 40 College degree:22.=0.65 Divorced /separated: 2. As for the marital status of the respondents. but less got Bachelor degree. And the further information we get from the data is that more than half of them had high school diploma.5 Mean = 1. college degree (22. married employees had 3. 6. Consequently.dev. 28 – 38 years old had 3.25 and employees who divorced had 3. and their job is mostly for front service. connecters. between 28 – 38 years (30%). Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the respondents Male: 65 Total: 100 N = 40 Female:35 Mean = 1.58 and 38 – 48 years old had 3. Most of the respondents had a high school diploma (55%). The hotel industry is a service and people-oriented business.5%).5%) and no one had master degree.dev. those distributions comply with the general industry of hospitality.dev.=1.=0.483 Under 18 : 0% Total: 100 N = 40 18-28: 47.75 28-38: 30% Std. The gender distribution between males and females is 65% and 35%.90 on their job satisfaction. A large proportion of the respondents were single (52. Though there are few ―white collars‖ in the respondents.94 as mean of job satisfaction. Only one person was divorced (2. there is nobody who had master degree or doctor degree.5%). only several persons are divorced. The single employees had 4. So in the first part.58. It can call those people ―blue collars‖.5% Mean = 2.=0.5%) and the rest were married (45%).00. Num. which will compare to the impact on the job satisfaction.

Num.690 / 1.22. It may be that conscientious and satisfied employees are more likely to be married or that marriage changes employee’s 46 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. Someone is satisfied about something because it is what they expected from it.900 / 1.173 which is the highest one of all. the older people are easier satisfied than younger people. Job dissatisfaction was more prevalent among single workers. June 2010 .college degree had 3. there is a long distance between their score of job satisfaction. increasing maturity and work experience finally cause the employee to adjust his or her work expectations to more realistic level.833 1.00 3.dev. Through the Std. and duration of absence. The higher Std. cognitive structures are different from those of younger people.33 / 4. 1. Employee satisfaction deals not only with value addition but also with their expectations.05 3.155 / 0. There was a positive relationship between overall job satisfaction and age .72 3.25 3. the Std.050 1. dev 1. 6.000 / 1.173 0. in respect that younger people are apt to seize new things and they are not experienced so they will have higher expectation.dev is the longer distance exists between each person’s score and the average score.33. It will account for the relationship between characteristics and job satisfaction.40 Std. However. that is to say. According to the anterior academician’s investigation. older people have higher needs to be directed and to accept orders. job satisfaction begins to rise. Table 2: Analysis of demographic effects on job satisfaction Mean Gender Female Male Age Under 18 18-28 28-38 38-48 Elder 48 Marital status Single Married Divorced /separated Education background High school College degree Bachelor degree Master degree Other 3. When the new adjusted expectations are met.14 / 4.548 Employee satisfaction is the effect of how people feel about their job. the three reasons for the positive relationship are also examined.94 3. There is some research showed that married employees are more satisfied with their job than their unmarried employees.58 3.90 3. we can see how much distance among these 40 persons’ scores. From our study.dev of female is 1. Satisfaction dropped when job expectations are not met. and the respondents with a bachelor degree had 2. Through the table 2. when actuality is not the same with their expectation they will not be satisfied with their jobs.071 0.22 2. older people seem to have a different relationship to authority than younger people. degree of job satisfaction is measured in terms of frequency.240 0. It means when those 35 women conducted the survey. As to our questionnaires.056 1. Some samples states that overall job satisfaction is related to age with a U-shaped relationship.58 / 3. and explained that this relationship is due to the newness of the job. The results indicate that age among blue-collar workers was positively related to both of the variables.

productive employees.and. In a word. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. The single and the married have not great difference about this because of the nature of hospitality industry. Policies to prevent discussion of wages simply do not work. principles. A study commissioned by a consulting firm among executives at the nation's 100 small.expectations of work. job applicants inquire just as frequently about corporate culture as they do other benefits. this present work was attempt to study current employees’ perception regarding to their employment experiences. That is why many companies of our country prefer to employ those people with lower educational background. Attempt to avoid bringing new people on board at a higher rate than current employees. while. Hiring the people that are a good "fit" with the culture of the hotel—meaning that their values. so there are less people with master degree or doctor degree diploma. Promote from within if possible. Num. employees are going to becoming to stockholders which is really involved in the organization. those problems will be solved. satisfaction is the happiness of mental needs. XinHua hotel may also build up a benefit-share program which the employees could purchase the stock of company. the XinHua hotel must evaluate the costs of current turnover. there is no exception. and goals clearly match those of the hotel—and then training as necessary will go a long way toward ensuring employee loyalty and retention. the more likely these were to be dissatisfaction. benefits. So the divorced have less job satisfaction compared to others. And as for the hospitality. status other than single or married have rarely been studied. Just a word of caution: Be fair and consistent in establishing compensation. This was explained on the basis that employees with a higher educational background would expect more in terms of financial compensation. However. June 2010 47 . motivated workforce and keeping employee turnover rate at a minimum. Other factors. the difference is not obvious. the study could highlight some findings. RESULTS In order to indicate potential strategies for reducing turnover and increasing satisfaction in the XinHua hotel. as well they may be. such policies are in complete opposition of "open-door" communications. aside from salary. I think with those actions to be taken. According to the research result. the employees of XinHua hotel were not satisfied with their monetary rewards according to the gap between their level of importance and actual experiences. Degree of satisfaction depends on people’s mental status. the female and male has great difference in job satisfaction. Hiring smart is the first step to developing a loyal. In certain sense. XinHua hotel may set up clear standards and criteria to offer the employees monetary rewards according to their work performance and contribution. Although many costs associated with these suggestions may seem prohibitive. Therefore. Furthermore. the female are easier to meet than the male. 6. Maybe the divorced get less satisfaction with life so there is no exception for job. The implication is clear: The more enriching your work environment. Maybe somebody will say that the first step is to hire smart persons. But in our study. 1. and supervision than the ones with a lower educational background. generally speaking. The higher an employee’s educational level.medium –sized hotels found that. Payments and benefits were considered as the most important category attributing to job satisfaction. such as competitive compensation and creating an employee-friendly work environment also play a role. Some of these suggestions may not be so costly in comparison. However. analyze the reasons for the individual organization. the more likely you are to retain a staff of satisfied. and develop strategies that in the long term are less costly than continued turnover.

a mentoring program can help decrease the employee turnover of the small. because no matter how bad it is. etc. As we know that employee turnover is a significant cost to organizations. Recognize and acknowledge the skills and abilities that the employee has gained since joining the organization which may make them eligible for the next advancement.). If the employer's business situation is perceived to be unstable (relatively speaking . Layoffs are costly in terms of employee morale (voluntary turnover usually increases sharply after a layoff because employees' sense of security is undermined or they may be angry at the organization for having a layoff. It gives employees a sense of stability of the organization because the employees can see that someone is in charge and worrying about the big picture.RECOMMENDATION The relationship between job satisfaction and job turnover has been considered. are increasingly offering benefits. Pay attention to employee ideas and complaints is another important aspect of communication. more and more hotels are using temporary employees. the availability and quality of temporary employees is increasing. but this can be mitigated by rigorous and objective layoff selection process and severance packages. There's also an increased risk of wrongful termination lawsuits. major business events. With the growing volatility of the business environment. Temporary employment agencies.and. June 2010 . but written communication can work too. plus the time it takes to train the new employee in their new job. Avoid the tendency to view the employee as only having those skills and abilities that they had when they were hired. In addition to the regularly scheduled employee communications. both good and bad. A personal presentation from the head of the small. employees may seek other employment opportunities that appear to offer more stability. even a simple one. Several strategies for controlling employee turnover in the hotel are shown below.medium –sized enterprise is best. So 48 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. Productivity is lost during the 45 to 60 days it takes to refill the position. the more pressure placed on recruiting. 1. It's best to communicate the state of the business on a regular basis such as quarterly or semi annually.medium –sized enterprises. 2. or choosing the wrong people to be laid off. A career ladder chart. I don't believe that a reliable staffing planning system exists. high-quality communicating can assist provide a link between the employees' job and the success of the small. Other key factor is communicating for the company condition of the XinHua hotel to the workers and several aspects in the following parts: 1.and. The higher the turnover. Don't be afraid to communicate bad news. 6. Firstly. in an effort to attract the best candidates. Likewise.no company is perfectly stable anymore). it is still going to be better than the rumor mill.medium –sized enterprise. Layoffs are also costly in terms of actual costs (the hotels typically provide severance pay and benefits after termination for a period of time equal to one week for each year of service). as we all know if we try to increasing job satisfaction. Employees who do not feel be listened to will be de-motivated. should be communicated to employees as they occur. then we will reduce job turnover somehow partly. Num. In the past benefits have only been offered to employees in "regular" positions. So in this part I will bring forward some strategies for increasing job satisfaction and I hope that will operate in reducing job turnover. can also help facilitate the career development discussion. Another way is to employ temporary or contract employees. Staffing planning is one way to reduce the need for layoffs. A system of regularly scheduled one-on-one meetings between the employee and manager can help fill the need to be listened to.and.

to financial incentives. but the small. ―Building organizational commitment: The socialization of managers Administrative Science Quarterly. and public recognition can send strong messages to the public regarding company culture and values. which will create a very comfortable work environment. 81. To be competitive in today's labor market. In addition. In hotel policy pay is overstated as a retention tool. Recognitions mean what employ do will be recognized by others especially the supervisors. R. considering other options—such as alternative work schedules or flextime. providing career advancement opportunities is critical for retention.can the Performance Management process. June 2010 49 . (1974). An employee has to take the initiative and own their career development plan. 19(4). Num. 84. Types of recognition can range from a simple "thank you for a job well done. what about child care? How much employee absenteeism is attributable to not having a dependable babysitter? Although the costs and liabilities involved in providing onsite day care can be prohibitive. Service recognition. or perhaps preventative health care and wellness programs such as fitness centre memberships—as possible cost-effective benefits. W. trips.. 6. and non-cash rewards and perks as well. Listening to employees gives them a message that they are valued and provides them with a sense of control over their work situation. dental. 888–918. (1977). J. in work organizations‖. and every one will be phrased when they contribute to their work. ―Responsible Restructuring: Creative and Profitable Alternatives to Layoffs‖. 318–325. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. B. & Fishbein. and investment and retirement plans.medium –sized enterprise should encourage its development. Don't forget that perks or non-cash rewards to recognize exceptional performance can be critical. 1. Buchanan. Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. but long-term incentive compensation. M. That includes not only base and variable pay scales. Furthermore. I. job satisfaction and positive mood. & Jones. Household chore assistance is another possibility that is being used by some hotels. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. perhaps a company could subsidize childcare in some manner. or unwillingness to release an employee from a particular project). George. The experience of work and turnover intentions: Interactive effects of value attainment. and life insurance. most of the hotels find it necessary to offer a standard benefit package. 533-546. Ensure that job openings are posted and that there are no barriers to transferring to new positions (such as inter-organizational rivalries." to a plaque. including health. REFERENCES Ajzen. M. The areas mentioned above are more important for retention than pay. But what more could be done that would be cost effective toward creating an employee-oriented work environment? Creativity in compensation and benefits can make quite a difference to the welfare of the employee. Career development discussions should be held at least annually as part of the performance management process or whenever the employee requests it.and. Sometimes. Psychological Bulletin. just negotiating rates for your employees with area childcare providers could be very helpful. bonus and gain-sharing plans. Journal of Applied Psychology. vacation and leave policies. 3. Cascio. Simply examine the issues and needs of your employees and try to develop creative programs to address these needs. benefit plans to address the health and welfare issues of the employees. Providing recognition to employees is a third aspect of communication. G. especially for those employees who are career oriented and are in the early or middle stages of their careers. event tickets. the hotels should assess overall employee needs when addressing retention issues. If employee welfare is a genuine concern.. (1996). (2002).

p. S. E. Feij.. Antecedents and consequences of employability-orientation. Krausz.. Personality factors and adult attachment affecting job employability. & Brymer. WA: Prentice Hall College Division. 50 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. E. Bellingham. Van Vianen. 86. Meyer. J. June 2010 . Commitment in the workplace: Theory. (2004). & Hart. (2004). Pavesic. 29-51. M. R. 2002. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. Job satisfaction: What’s happening to the young managers? Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. (1969). P. 4. & Allen. J. Van Dam. A.. (1997). 13. A. C.. What is job satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance.. 1. A. 309-336. 90-96. Social identity as social glue: The origins of group loyalty. R. (2002). S.R4. 6.. (1996). Robbins. M. & Coulter. 253-264. February. M. research and application. Num. D. Find management. N. 585–598. ―The Transient Workers. V. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. A. K. (1990). J.. & Taris. M.Locke. New York: Sage Publications. October 28. Van Vugt. P. 11. Warren. M. The Wall Street Journal”. (2004). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

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