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AC Lab Manual for Ece

AC Lab Manual for Ece

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Published by V SATYA KISHORE

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Published by: V SATYA KISHORE on Dec 08, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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1. PWM, PPM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit.
2. Dual channel C.R.O. (30MHz)
3. Function generator (1MHz, 2no’s).
4. Connecting wires.



In Amplitude and angle modulation, some characteristics of the carrier amplitude,
frequency, or phase is continuously varied in accordance with the modulating information.
However, in pulse modulation, a small sample is made of the modulating signal and then a
pulse is transmitted. In this case, some characteristics of the pulse is varied in accordance with
the sample of the modulating signal. The sample is actually a measure of the modulating
signal at a specific time.

In PWM, the samples of message signal are used to vary the duration of the individual
pulses. So this type of modulation is referred to as pulse duration modulation or pulse length
modulation. The pulse width is proportional to the amplitude of the analog signal. The
modulating wave may vary the time of occurrence of leading edge, or both edges of pulse.

A typical PWM waveform can be generated using a 555 timer. When the timer is
connected in the monostable mode and triggered with a continuous pulse train, the output
pulse width can be modulated by a signal applied to pin no.5, .i.e. modulating signal.


Pulse position modulation may be obtained very simply from pulse width modulation.
The trailing edges of PWM pulses are, in fact, position modulated. The method of obtaining
PPM from PWM is thus accomplished by getting rid of the leading edges and bodies of the
PWM pulses. This is surprisingly easy to achieve the train of pulses obtained in PWM are
differentiated and another pulse train results. This has positive going narrow pulses
corresponding to leading edges and negative going pulses corresponding to trailing edges. If
the position corresponding to the trailing edge of an un modulated pulse is counted as zero
displacement, then the other trailing edges will arrive earlier or later.

The time displacement is proportional to the instantaneous value of the signal voltage.
The leading edges are removed with a diode clipper or rectifier and the remaining pulses are

inverted These pulses are now given to a filter to broaden the width of the unmodulated
pulses. This is the required PPM wave.

When PPM is demodulated in the receiver, it is again converted into PWM .This is
done with a flip-flop bistable multivibrator. One input of the multivibrator receives trigger
pulses from a local generator which is synchronized by trigger pulses in the transmitter. The
PPM pulses to other base of the flip-flop and switch that stage ON. The resulting PWM pulse
train is then demodulated.


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