SATURN FLIGHT MANUAL

SA 5O7

V

THIS PUBLICATION REPLACES MSFC-MAN-607 DATED 16 AUGUST 1969 FOR VEHICLE SA-607; HOWEVER MEFC-MAN.607 DATED I5 AUGUST 19611 REMAINS THE BASE LINE MAN_:,_,_ FOR SA.61M ANO SA-rd)9.

15 AUGUST1969
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15 AU6UST1969
CHAHSED 50CTOItEI 1969

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Reproduction for Hn-gowrmwnt uoe of t_ inl_m_ti4m of lilust_iege mmtsl_d in this publication Is not permitted without s_ifi¢ _qn_nI! of the Jsoui_ service.

line TOT_J. NUMBEROF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 246,

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TABLE OFCONTENTS
--cTuoH
SECTION SECTION

i
General Del_flptteo ...........................

Page I-1

II III

Performance

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Emergeacy Detectiqm end Precedms

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SECTION

IV

S-IC Stoge

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SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION

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S-II Stage ..................................

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S-IVB Stage .................................

6-1

VII VIII

Instrument Unit

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7-1

Ground Support Interface .........................

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SECTION SECTION APPENDIX APPENDIX

IX
Mission Control Monitoring ....................... 9-1

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Mission Yorioblos end Constraints ...... • ---....... .10-1

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Abbreviations and Acronyms
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Btbliogr_y ................................ B-I

INDEX

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Index I

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Lloyd. minor rewrite to clarify meaning and correction of typographical errors ave not identified by change bars. Changed 5 October 1969 IIIi1_ . K. be Recommended changes or corrections to this manual should be forwarded. or the Crew Safety and Procedures Branch (CF-24). REVISION NOTE Manual MSFC-MAN-507. lind 8 general discussion of ground support facilities. P. the control document will rule. a description of each stage and the IU. These reference numbers refer to footnotes which are located at the end of each section.O &ATUItN | V FLIOHT MAIWtAL IIA. however manual serves as the baseline manual for these two vehicles.607 FOREWORD This manual was prepared to provide the astronaut with a sk_le mwce characteristics and functions of the SA-$07 bunch vehicle and AS-S07 flight SA-$08 and SA-509 launch vehicles and missions is included. incorporating the latest released data. A change to manual. SA-$08 and !i ( The manual provides general miss/on and performance d|ita.red. equipment. Data on the the 15 Aulpm 1969 the 15 August 1969 vehicle. Attention: Mr. If a conflict shoukl discovered between the manual and a control document. They are identified by reference numbers in the adjacent to the new information. Nontechnical changes such as recompt_ition of pages to accommodate new information. This manuat is for information only and is not a control document. A bibliography identifies edait_. reference as to the mission. approximately 30 days prior to their respective leunch dates. Major hardware associated differences between the Saturn V launch vehicles SA-506 through SA-$09 are annotated in the manual. D. Warren. dated 15 August 1_69. Attention: Mr. Changes of technical significance are identified on these pages by a black bar in the marBin opposite the change. was based on the G mimion. The information in this manual describes the vehicle configuration and mission characteristics as defined for the H-I nlission and was prepared from information available approximately thirty days prior to 5 October 1969. in writing. to the Saturn V Systems Engineering Management Office (PM-SAT-E) MSFC. and mimuon control.t_al references ff a more comprehensive study is de. w/ll be reJeued for etch SA-509. MSC. emergency detection system information. Each page changed to make this revision is identified by a change note at the bottom of the page. H.

.m_pe boost hunch of an Apollo Spacecraft.4verv . The Saturn launch vehicles are the product of a long evolutionary process stemming from initial studim in 1957 of the Redstone and Jupiter missiles... This minion ! :eludes a suborbital start of the third stage (S-IVB) engine for final boost into earth orbit and subsequent reignition to provide sufficient velocity for escape miuiom including the lunar missions.and location of ordnance.le.. assembly. Eady conceptual studies included outer proven missiles such as Thor and Titan. The primary mimlon of the Saturn V launch vehicle. which were limited somewhat by the propellant tanking..vi..e stage prior to engine ignitio|. Mercury.ocation of the tlmhili¢:|ls depended upon the location of the vehicle plates. and propvlsiun dynamicL Design trade-offs were made in certain areas to optimize the launch vehicle design.. I-I .. manufacture. conceptual design studies were made. IK I I I PERCEPTIBLE SATURN PRELA UNCH EVENTS DEI_RIPTION . which were applied in the final design. centered around the propulsion systems...i liimal 1 ETmI I II __ TAll. . Engine cutoff results from closing valves and terminating the flow of fuel and oxidizer... V IIYITEM 1-9 Safety criteria are identified by Air Force Eastern Test Range (AI_:_['R) SafeW Manual 1274 and AFETR Regnlatior... If an emergency condition is detected. performance and weight were among primary factors considered in optimizing the design.)ilical di_onnec! and retraction systems are redundant for reasons of reliability and mfety. Gemini.g_ into common umbilical carrie_. vehicle attitude.. o5"display critical data to the flight crew for tl_ir The Saturn V system in its broadest scope includes conceptual development. stalPng dynamics.thereby longitudinally opening the propellant tanks.. burning times.. A short crest mode is used to allow sep_r_.pli. A delayed dual plane separation is employed S-IC and S-II stages. test._leratlom requil_d the development of an EmerlKSIcy Detection System (EDS) with equipment located throughout (he I_unch vehicle to detect emergency conditions as they develop.the event of a launch abort after liftoff. plumbing. Reliability. and conddered payloads ranging from earth orbiting satellites to manned spacecraft such as Dynasoar._on of the spent stage. Structural rigidity requirements were dictated largely by two general considerations: flight control dynamics and propellant slceh problems. qnantity. and wiring runs inside the vehicle structure. The Saturn V launch vehicle evolved from the earlier Saturn vehicles as a result of the decision in 1961 to proceed with the Apollo manned hmar mission.irements were identified.. vehicle position... Each powelrecl stage is defined with dual redundant range safety equipment which will effect engtne cutoff and propeSant dispersion in . Gross dimensions (diameter & length) were dictated generally by propellant tankage size.. The beat combination of design parameters for liquid propellant vehicles resulted in low accelerations and low dynamic loads. three-stage-to. locations. The number of umbilicals is minimited hy the ¢ombining of electrical connecttws and pneumatic and propellant ¢o. based on minion requirements. while a *ingle plane adequate between the S-I! and S-IVB stages..| SATURN OF _ F SYS'I'£M DESCRIPTION . and launch. I-I VEHICLE DESIGN GROUND RULES LA vcHv mcL ossc irno . Um'. and the dealjn and development of the total launch vehicle continued.. 127-9. methods of attachment. 'singie or dual plane separation. From these data. Nae s. and eventually Apollo.. Some of the principal design ground rules developed during the conceptual phase.. and retraction. The launch vehicle stages separate in flight by explosively severing a circumferential separation joint and firing retrococket motors to decelerate the spent stage.. this system will either initiate an automatic abort sequeace. and the type. are discmsed in the following Peralraphs. establbhed the basic concept.. Electrical Systems An electrical load analysis of the launleh vehicl_ pr_.. LAUNCH VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT anab_ and reection. considering such parameters as structural dynamics. release. As the Apollo mission definition became clear. wstem characteristics emerged: thrmt levels.. design.I the between the separation is i As propulsion req. I. Structural daslgn carefully considered the weight factor... SuqwS_ration The separation of the launch vehkle stages in flight required desfljn studies Involving consideration of many parameters.. propellant types and quantities.. transportation. Crew safety coe. Stage separation is initiated when stage thrust decay_ to a vah0e equal to or less than 10% of rated thrust. OmbilicMs In the design and placement of vehicle plates. and to effect ullage settling of the _cces_. Propellant is disperaed by detonating linear-shaped charges.No NSTRUMelVr.. conskleration was given to such things as size. enline requiremente and characteristics were identified. such as time of separation...

Florida. Also included vehicl%dimensions and weights. The certificate originates at the manufacturing facility. However. the type of data generated. spaceflight-flight assessments of readiness. The MSFC countdown flight readiness demonstration test readiness launch vehicle. failures. a number of safety plans have been developed implemented in accordance with AFETR regulations. These transporters manufacturing requirements. and Seal Beach.in GENERAL DESCRIPTION incorporation of design features crew to detect and react circumstances. The encompass land. MTF. designed dock to be facility compatible with roll-on/roll-o ff requirements. ground Center To safety within will be managed the the confines by NASA. Michoud. wired in series through interstage electrical connectors. hazards of the Kennedy Space minimize inherent of the Saturn/Apollo and program. two general safety categories ground safety and flight safety. Docks are located at MSFC. determination changes. each major piece of flight hardware. These plans from design. various modes of transportation air routes. compatible A Saturn LAUNCH For ease in loading and unloading the ground support lift trailers are utilized. data processor. modifications. operation of the contributing most analyses have compromising. KSC. and from stages to the spacecraft. and stage contractors. and is shipped with the hardware wherever it goes to provide a time phased historical record of the item's test results. cover all phases of the Saturn/Apollo program through launch of the vehicle. the development and implementation of the and to satisfy stage protection range safety established: program. and system has been performed using check lists. in gross data. GENERALARRANGEMENT The figure Saturn V/Apollo general are configuration tables ullage of is illustrated engine data. These Air transportation is effected by use of a modified Boeing B-377 (Super Guppy) aircraft. Ocean vessels are capable of ballasting to mate with barges and dock facilities for roll-on/roll-off loading. TRANSPORTATION The Saturn stage transportation economical transportation for between manufacturing areas. its source and its flow. This permits the which will enable the flight effectively to abnormal flight crew to abort safely if the condition is dangerous or to continue the normal mission in an alternate mode if crew safety is not involved but equipment Failure The is not Effects of operating and Criticality failure properly. Analyses critical component of each Long distance water transportation for the Saturn V stages is by converted Navy barges and landing ship dock type ocean vessels. Design Reviews The effect of each failure mode on the system is analyzed. and Prime responsibility and authority for overall range safety is vested in the Commander. water. Each stage interface also includes a confidence loop. Data flow is in both directions: from spacecraft to stages. modes for every system are identified. comprehensive ratings. failure effects analysis. and enabled the design review of every part. and have aided in the of redundancy requirements and/or design in figure 1-2. under a joint agreement between DOD and NASA. To enhance Each stage in the Saturn V system requires a specially designed transporter for accomplishing short distance land moves at manufacturing. In the R & QA area. During when deployment should begin. AFETR. 6 represents specialized application of this discipline. nearly all data The IU serves as a central flows through the IU. and Principal milestones the Apollo program Certification Certificates certification in the hardware and are shown in figure lq. a continuous flow of data is necessary throughout the vehicle. review (CDDT) (MSFC-FRR). INTERSTAGE In order for DATA the FLOW Saturn V and retrorocket problems not uncovered in previous analyses. have been 1-3 . the prelimina_ design review (PDR) and critical design review (CDR) required by the Apollo Program Directive No. VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT FLOW mission phases of launch vehicle and Apollo spacecraft to accomplish their objectives. and those parts to unreliability are identified. Patrick AFB. These techniques have designer to review the design approach for 1-3. California (near Los Angeles). and Review of Flight and review (COFW) function as a A COFW is generated for Specific data has been categorized and tabulated to reflect. established Figure azimuth certain stringent safety requirements for the Air Force Eastern Test Range the final reviews. criticality reliability predictions. which assures the Launch Vehicle Digital Computer (LVDC) in the IU that these connectors SAFETY are mated AND satisfactorily. Schedules Worthiness instrument. the and the manned provide facility RANGE INSTRUMENTATION GENERAL In view of the hazards inherent in missile/space vehicle have been (AFETR). A systematic subsystem. resulted in the identification of mission single-point failures. component. review (MSF-FRR) spacecraft and launch programs. Tie-down systems provide restraint during transit. transportation VEHICLE summary DESCRIPTION is presented aircraft. test. and repairs. system provides reliable and stages and special payloads test areas and KSC. and launch facilities. the decision is made as to of the world wide mission support forces 1-5 illustrates the launch azimuth limits and destruct limits for the Atlantic Missile Range (AMR). in figure 1-4. have been areas. This system provides quick reaction time for suitable cargo requiring transcontinental shipments. into orbit.

will be The control center and checkout equipment located away from the launch area. The Apollo R & QA program is defined by the Apollo Program Development Plan. transported in the erect disconnecting the umbilicals. A gradual controlled release is accomplished during the first six inches of vertical motion. MANUFACTURE AND LAUNCH CONCEPTS equipment. 5. A final checkout prior to launch. The size and complexity of the vehicle resulted in the decision to have detail design and manufacture of each of the three stages.. vehicle must The launch The development of the vehicle concept required concurrent efforts in the areas of design. Some in subsequent paragraphs.'' batteries. . vehicle is designed to withstand 99. . only control signals are routed between stages. heat is removed from the coolant by a Ground Support Equipment (GSE) cooling system located on the ML. will be required. and characteristics are discussed in subsequent sections of this manual. restraining arms provide support and holddown at four points around the base of the S-IC stage. of handling the and the To more smoothly control engine ignition. hmltatlons. In the event of a nearby explosion of a facility or launch vehicle. or direct current with a higher voltage than the batteries is required. Some of the basic ground rules which resulted in the KSC complex described in Section VIII are: l. It is Apollo program policy methods to ensure the Apollo/Saturn systems. will be performed at the launch site 2.. and launch of the vehicle required the development of an extensive industrial complex at KSC. with the damper system attached. has the overall responsibility for development and implementation of the Apollo reliability and quality assurance (R & QA) program. The vehicle will be assembled and checked out 2n a protected environment before being moved to the launch site. transportation.-. However. .9% winds during the strongest wind month. required controls. types. and to minimize current transfer problems in the common side of the power systems.4 psi. AND QUALITY ASSURANCE RELIABILITY The assembly. and accomplished. . inverters and/or converters convert the battery power to the voltages and frequencies needed. The sizes. checkout. . withstand the assembled launch natural environment. the Saturn V will also withstand 4. T-50 vehicle is Such acto s as rehabdlty. at seconds. Where alternating current.. Once the assembly is complete. yet distribute the electrical loads and power sources throughout the launch vehicle. weight .. and launch. accomplished MSFC. Each stage of the vehicle has its own independent electrical system. Primary flight power is supplied by wet cell batteries in each stage." • approximately to the launch systems .. NASA Centers are responsible for identifying and establishing R & QA requirements and for implementing an R & QA program to the extent necessary to assure the satisfactory performance of the hardware for which they are responsible. thrust buildup and liftoff of the vehicle. assembly._. in which heat is removed by circulation of a methanol-water coolant. checkout. The primary criterion governing the design of the Apollo system is that of achieving mission success without unacceptable risk of life or permanent physical disablement of the crew.• . while either free standing or under transport. Automatic checkout equipment the vehicle will be position without around which the R & QA program is built. M-D MA 500 and Apollo R & QA Program Plan. \ . from The mission profile is analyzed to deternfine the type and scope of demands made on equipment and flight crew during the each phase of the mission. environmental control within the launch vehicle is provided by environmental control systems in the mobile launcher (ML) and on the pad. and weight distributions dictated the requirements to minimize electrical wiring. During flight. While area. MA. a peak overpressure of 0. in transit or while the between in the assembly launch area area and for launch launch preparations. power is transferred final vehicle monitoring While in the launch area. Several days prior to the actual launch time. Analysis of Mission Profiles to use all currently applicable reliability and quality of of these methods are discussed 4. No electrical power is transferred between stages.REQUI REMENTS LAUNCH Some of the launch requirements which have developed the application of these ground rules are: 1. This has resulted in the l-2 . All stages of the launch vehicle are electrically bonded together to provide a unipotential structure. • . The Apollo Program Office. NHB 5300-1A. During preflight. manufacture. and under the the engines direction of This design/manufacturing approach development of production plans and transportation and handling systems capable massive sections. . Crew safety and mission success are the main elements 3. the Instrument Unit by separate contractors (1U). 2. The IU also utilizes an equipment cooling system. 3. heat is removed from the coolant by a water sublimator system.

f mmutl.." Fi_u_ 1. i/ lum_ Q . .i ChRn|ed 5 October 1969 L I.4 I..at...

Propellants. The ground safety program includes a ground safety plan which calls for the development of safety packages._lenl_ "l'hi. The major catesories covered by these packages are: I. To further assist the RSO in monitoring launch _lety. _ky _.__I_I_I. hh:. dc_iJlt. This package includes descriptive information on chemical composition and characteristics.H_. Iligh Pressure Sy. installation.lt.m__r "1 azmut_t mat'mnmw 0 +i Figure 1-2 GROUND SAFETY 5. :lnt| _'Is.ttt5 lilt' Cl'lllt'._package of gase.'Ic attitude anti positk)n.plotting boards keep the range safety officer (RSO) informed of any intn_n into the launch danger zones by boats or aircraft.li(Is. t0VCltl lli:tl Ilk. covers pmsible umafe conditions fightning safeguards.. locations in the vehicle. 4.tt during the initial pha_ of the laun.Ir'llllelcr_.llt*+ *_r th+" l.llt_'t 2. specifications. and range security Personnel.itt_ch vt'h. and hazards. RF system description. I. This package includes descriptive data Special Preca_tionary Procedures. llt. and checkout procedures. a considerable amount of ground instrumentation i_ u. _hern_tics.ljeClory p.. Also included under ground safety arc provisions for launch area surveillance during launch: activities. Pulsed .rence._It.ind ('W traL'km_ r. Surveillance methods include helicoptef_.lli()n% ha/artl_..lllt| th".:h t(_ m_mlt(_r vehh.I lilt" I(_() rlltl_l Cttlnflt.tltlCl 1_+ li+t'. (luantilies of each lype. Vehicle Destruct System.. Ordnance Devices. ordnance system description.i pr(widc all t'h'ctrtml¢. _. on chemical con)position.Id_ir_ [intl rc:tl Imlc lelemetry dal. use of complex and radiological te_i_. Inch.:e tl_. handling pnx'edures.i_u._._' reft. circuit descriptions. Automatk.. and electrical hridgewtre data. This package includes a system description. In lh_.s lype_ I'tre_tlre_. Television systems phot(_raphmlz lilt' launch vehicle from dlfferen! angle_ _l_t_ pro)vide. vehicle _tl()ragt. search radars.l l]iglll Ir.e._d A vertical-wire sky _reen provides a visual rel_'ren. mechanical anti electrical specifications and drawings.= _h_ h di_ltl:ly_ ()n atlt()n)alic l_h_liillg h_).'rt. _llltl . This i_kage and includes test equipment.

_4 Fq_ure I.75 34..390 POIINCS z.050 261.7 FEET 59.6S0 AT LAUNCH S.s z S-Ira ULLAGE | sL_n:m POUI_S _ M.sT ENGINE DATA . PROPI_L_ NEIiIIT 278. THRUST MD INRATION 75.000 3.qo5 Mid-stage Stage 'S-IVB Stage Instrument Unit 80.220 .3 FEET 25.I ChMlled $October 1969 .150.800 0. s[___e___ S-IllS SIA6[ .348.000 I EUE THe.L..541 )._qCH VEHfCLE GROSSWEIGHT_ 6.7 FEET 3.022.OO_ FT AI_O 7O_'F _ AT .2 POUN05 i 1.DOUGLAS CORP.0 GIW# S-IC IETIDROCKET 8 Iq)UHOSSECmOS POUNDSt SECOUS POI/IOSt . AND 70"F N(1MTNAL VACUUMTHRUSTAT 60'F ** AT 17_..0 FEET FEET 81.262 S-lC STAGE 138 FEET POUNOS m.576 PLVj.0 33. _EIGF(TS. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS HACHINE CORP_ I " MINIMUM VACLAJM THRL_T AT l" _._EA LEVEL THRUST VALUES. .30K ' p111mr_ PRE-LNMCH LA'.415 POUNOS r_ 21.8 2 J 3.) F r .1 7.q)gllOS 5-11 ULLAGE R(TIIOROCKET 4 4 23..810 336.6S0._5q POUNOS FEF" SATURNV STAGE HANUFACTURERS STAGE S-IC S-11 S-IVB S-IU NOTE: ! V_UFACTURER THE BOEING COMPANY NORTHAHERICAN-ROCKWELL McDONNEI. .ST me '-TOTAL .4 DRY 288. STAGE S-IC S-II QTY 5 5 1 MODEL '--F'I J-2 J-2 1. AND BURN TIMES ARE ALL APPROXIMATIONS.000 207.0 FEET _i 4.5 FEET LENGTH 2Np s._ 21.(N_I_) 2._ 1ST 2.ommlu_ nmwnom SOLIDULI3tE ROCKET MO _TMOItOCXET SURNMY i STAGE _m TYPE QUANTITY NOMINN.000 230. 1.0¢_) 363 FEET I S-IVB i STAGE D_HENSIONS DIP/4ETER S-IC Base (including S-IC S-If 63.000.530.0 fins) 33.58.0 Iq)lJIg)S .8 6.000 207..O00 FT. AT 170..0(K).

:i:_IFY.GENERAL DESCRIPTION STAGE ELECTRICAL INTERFACE FLOW ZI] SPACECRAFT TO IU +28 VDC TO EDS LV ENGINES CUTOFF TO EDS IU TO SPACECRAFT EDS LIFTOFF LOS AUTO ABORT i_iiiill +28 VDC FOR EDS +28 VDC FOR Q BALL ::_:: S-[VB ULLAGE THRUST GUIDANCE REFERENCE AGC LIFTOFF OK RELEASE i!iiiii Q BALL TEMPERATURE SENSING S-II AND S-IV_ FUEL TANK PRESSURE ATTITUDE REFERENCE FAILURE LV RATE EXCESSIVE EDS ABORT REQUEST S-II START/SEPARATION STAGE ENGINES OUT DISPLAYED ATTITUDE ERROR SIGNAL Q-BALL PITCH AND YAW S-IVB ENGINE CUTOFF AGC COMMAND POWER S-IVB IGNITION SEQUENCE START ::.It TO S-IVB +28 VDC FOR RETRO-ROCKET PRESSURE TRANSDUCER S-[VB ENGINE START ENABLE SWITCH SELECTOR ADDRESS VERIFICATION ENGINE ACTUATOR POSITIONS ATTITUDE CONTROL RATE GYROS SIGNALS ATTITUDE CONTROL ACCELEROMETER S I GNAL S LOX TAHK PRESSURE FUEL TANK PRESSURE RSCR & PD EBW FIRING UNIT ARM AND ENGINE CUTOFF ON ENGINE THRUST OK TELEMETRY SIGNALS _ : _i i:: iiiiiiiiiii iii_.. RES ET._ii!!i!!iiiiii!i_iiiiiiii AUTO ABORT DEACTIVATE INITIATE S-II/S-[VB SEPARATION SPACECRAFT CONTROL DISCRETE TRANSLUNAR INJECTION INHIBIT !i!i J!iii! ® @ @ @ I i!iiiili (-_.:..qG [ :_ES OUT OUTBOARD ENGINE CUTOFF S-IT E:IGINES START ENABLE S'WITCH SELECTOR ADDRESS VERIFY S-[C THRUST OK ::k:::. i _ii!ii_:|STAGE iiiii!l VOLTAGES ENGINE ACTUATOR MEASURING _i::i#_ +28 VDC FOR SWITCHING AND _iii!J TIMING iii__WITCH 5ELECTOR SIGNALS _:_:_!.: ii::_ :i S-IC TO IU ATTITUDE CONTROL ACCELEROMETER S [ GNALS ATTITUDE CONTROL RATE GYRO S I GNALS *28 VDC FOR T[HIIIG E. ENABLE) !::i!i::_D COMMAND E NGI N ES O_ FF i_ii!i_mmlmUOE CONTROL SYSTEM COMMANDS " Figure 1-4 1-7 .::_i:ik_:i/¸ :. iiii i I :| a il S.i_.i=.i:_i S-IC STAGE SEPARATED Z::: AFT [NTERSTAGE SEPARATED S-IT STAGE SEPARATED S-IT ENGINE OUT :::i S-IT PROPELLANT DEPLETION LI SWITCH SELECTOR VERIFY FUEL TANK PRESSURE ENGINE THRUST OK LOX TANK PRESSURE .iiiii:iii S-II '::::: i i S-It TO IU ENGINE ACTUATOR POSITIONS '"iilllllfliUllll +28VDC FOR TIMING :. iiiiii!_. iii:_iii!ii:i_iiiiiiiiii g:_:iiiiiiiiiii!iiii_ii_:ii# :. COMMAND. ::i!_:i_ EAD. (_ _ _) [V_ -t SC _ !iiii iii ii iiiiii!i Ziii!i_: @ i:_:iii!iil !iiiii!i _ LV = MANUALLY INITIATED S-IVB +28 TO IU VDC FOR TIMING ili_i [V_ = VISUALLY S-IVB :z% . ADDRESS..

_ iS_ -_! ll'D • "0 . • I • • am sR ..e 0 4 ib _C . • eo • - 4 a • " m 4 C....o " =' W _ 4 \ "_ ! i { i- -i • II ! J r i r m _13.! _ it ! . I 0 • 4[ .W a_ if' _.l_f_ 41 ..

control pressure gas supplies. not shown.. the flight crew will initiate the abort sequence. As the program develops. T 3 START AUTOMATIC SEQUENCE _ T-2 . _HOURS r I MINUTES I_14 SECONDS _. .9 seconds all sounds are hidden by the ignition of the S-IC stage engines. This data defines the limits of normality..OX TANK LH2 TANK VEHIS-IC VEHIS-IC PREPRESSURIZATI_ PREPRESSURI_TION ARM RETRACT ARM RETRACT _0 LOCK _ID LOCK INTK SERVICE _D SERVICE S-ICIENGINE I_ITION THRUST CO_ND BUILDUP l THRUST OKA LIFOFF • HOLDDOWN RELEASE _D Figure I-6 l-9/1-t0 .. T-6 . T 7 . maximum turning capability of the vehicle velocity vector. These messages are transmitted to the launch vehicle over a UHF radio link. to astronaut may be felt or are identified in figure 1-6. prqoellant boiloff and low pressure. In the event the RSO is required to command destruct the launch vehicle. As the loss of thrust is monitored by the EDS. and which heard by the flight crew inside the spacrcraft. propellant replenishment. instant impact point data. To augment flight crew monitors critical flight parameters. and explosively opens all propellant tanks..GENERAL DESCRIPTION safety command system. Section more detailed discussion of the EDS. This background noise includes the sounds of environmental control. J T-4 i T-3 i T-2 i T-l i T-O T-4 VET- T-3 T-2 T-I T-5O .. FLIGHT SAFETY safety system is active orbit. basic flight plans be outlined and discussed and. combine to create a relatively low and constant background. T-5 . Other events. T-20 i T-IO Ti5 ASTRONAUT • I GIMBAL IU VEH CHECKS AND SPACECRAFT CLOSEOUT VEH • t J I COM/_ND t MODULE I ACCESS ARM REDUNDANT ECS COOLANT PUMP CHECK RETRACT _DILocK J s_IV° S-IVB1 AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC PUMP MOTOR RUN LOX/LH 2 CHILLDOWN PUMP RUN l . The second command from the RSO is for propellant dispersion. T 8 . and ordnance to ensure positive destruct commands. At approximately T-8. T-4 . One of the requirements of the range safety program is that. during these early phases. lO T-9 . Upon monitoring a second abort cue. In addition to the normal trajectory data given in the flight plan. a final flight plan be submitted and approved. he will do so by manually initiating two separate command messages. PERCEPTIBLE PRELAUNCH EVENTS Prelaunch events which occur subsequent loading (approximately T-3 hours). low volume purges.T-40 T-30 T-20 LOADING T . and location and dispersion characteristics of impacting stages.iv+ 1 s_iv+S-IVBI I J S-IVB I 1 t I J LH 2 RECIRC PUMP R_ R_I LOX CHILLDOWH PUMP . Each dual powered redundant stage of the command launch vehicle is equipped with destruct antennae. after which the by command from the turned on in the Command Module (CM). The range until the vehicle has achieved earth destruct system is deactivated (safed) ground. receivers. the ABORT light is decoders. Significant noises and vibrations may be caused by the starting or stopping of an operation or they may result from turbulent flow of gases or liquids.. the EDS II1 provides a Flight safety planning began during the conceptual phases of the program. the flight planning is modified to meet mission requirements. The flight plan is finalized as soon as mission requirements become firm. reaction to the safety.. Figure 1-6 illustrates those events most likely to be heard or felt above the background noise or vibration. The first message shuts off propellant flow and results in all engines off. prior to launch. other trajectory data is required by the AFETR. T-I T-50 POWER TRN4SFER I I T-_ T 30 . drag data for expended stages and for pieces resulting from destruct action.

. This early cutoff is designed to preclude the vehicle longitudinal oscillations (Pogo effect) which have occurred late in the S-II burn in previous missions. requirements and constraints are described in Section X.. If a translunar injection inhibit signal from the CM is not sensed.. ' PERFORMANCE operating thrust level... Mach 1 is achieved approximately 1 minute 7 seconds after first motion.... variables.....98 g.....5 seconds elapses between S-II cutoff and the time the S-IVB J-2 engine attains 90% operating thrust level (mainstage).. Tile pitch attitude remains constant until initiation of the Iterative Guidance Mode (IGM) which occurs during the S-II stage flight. Figure 2-2 shows the pitch attitude profile from first motion to earth parking orbit (EPO). The S-IC outboard engines are cut off by propellant-depletion sensors... the pitch program provides a near-zero-lift trajectory that satisfies vehicle performance. after assurance that S-II ignition and thrust buildup have occurred. flight azimuth may vary between 72 and 108 degrees....... FLIGHT SEQUENCE 39 of in are The space vehicle will be launched from Launch Complex (LC-39) at the Kennedy Space Center... An early S-II center engine cutoff is programmed for Time Base 3 + 299 seconds .. During the LH 2 tank continuous vent valves.. and retrorockets back the S-II stage away from the flight vehicle.. deviation from nominal fight and/or engine failure. INTRODUCTION Saturn V launch vehicle performance characteristics. From the end of the tilt maneuver to tilt-arrest.. Maxinmm dynamic pressure is encountered at approximately 1 minute 24 seconds after first motion... ullage rockets are fired to seat the S-II propellant.. (See figure 2-1 for start and stop times for this and other maneuvers and events)..... Tilt-arrest freezes the pitch attitude to dampen out pitch rates prior to S-IC/S-II separation. a yaw maneuver is executed to provide tower clearance in the event of adverse wind conditions. An interval of 6........... thrust from the continuous O2H 2 burner the burner to ]l A time interval of 4. IGM is initiated about 39 seconds after S-II ignition.SECTION...... to limit the yehicle acceleration to a nominal 3. IITABLE OF CONTENTS .. the S-IVB ullage rockets are fired to seat the stage propellant... for approximately 450 feet.. The S-II aft interstage is jettisoned 30. The major portion of the performance data presented herein was derived from the AS-507 flight simulations. approximately 87 seconds. close ullage engines. The actual flight azimuth within this range is computed just prior to launch from a launch-day-dependent polynomial of launch azimuth as a function of launch time.................. The time to initiate restart preparations for the S-IVB second burn is established by restart geometry criteria... The vehicle coasts in earth parking orbit for up to three revolutions while launch vehicle and spacecraft subsystems checkout is performed.7 seconds after S-IC cutoff............. under the constraints established by environment and mission requirements. The vent is then closed to enable pressurize both the lox and LH 2 propellant tanks. The S-IVB first burn inserts the vehicle into a 100-nautical CIRCULAR mile altitude EARTH circular parking ORBIT thrust auxiliary and operated for orbit.. low-level thrust to keep the S-IVB propellant seated against the aft bulkheads. A typical sequence critical launch events for a nominal mission is contained figure 2-1... engines. the 70-pound propulsion system (APS) engines are started The vehicle rises nearly vertically from the pad. Launch azimuth is 90 degrees........ TRANSLUNAR INJECTION BOOST The translunar injection boost is part of an ordered flight sequence that begins at initiation of the preignition sequence. Threshold for engine status light OFF is 65% thrust. INTRODUCTION 2-1 2-1 2-3 2-3 2-17 2-20 FLIGHT SEQUENCE ... After clearing the tower... are described in this section. to clear the tower............. the S-II/S-IVB separation occurs. a tilt and roll maneuver is initiated to achieve the flight attitude and proper orientation for the selected flight azimuth.4 seconds elapses between S-IC cutoff and the time the J-2 engines of the S-II stage reach the 90% LH 2 vent keeps the propellants seated until ignition... ignite APS restart S-IVB J-2 engine and cutoff ullage I preignition sequence.. LIFTOFF CLEARANCE ... and the LET is jettisoned by crew action approximately 6 seconds later. These signals include start helium heater (O2H 2 burner)...... During this period. This data is representative of corresponding data for the AS-508 and AS-509 missions.. Threshold for engine status light OFF is 65% thrust. FLIGHT LOADS . heating and loads requirements. Changed 5 October 1969 2-1 .. During this coast period..... the computer issues the signals that lead to S-IVB reignition. The flight computer signals the beginning of the preignition sequence when it determines that the vehicle position satisfies a predesignated geometrical relationship with the target vector. During this period... Launch vehicle flight described in the following paragraphs.. Mission profile... PROPULSION PERFORMANCE . The LH 2 propulsive vents open approximately 49 seconds after insertion and provide a continuous. LAUNCH AND BOOST TO EARTH sequence phases PARKING PARKING ORBIT At first S-IVB engine cutoff.. FLIGHT PERFORMANCE ... S-IC center engine cutoff is commanded at 2 minutes 15 seconds after first motion.... the S-IC/S-II separation occurs and the retrorockets back the S-IC stage away from the flight vehicle. At this time the computer resets to Time Base 6...... The outboard engines are cut off simultaneously when any two of five cutoff sensors in either tank are activated...

t ! S _m .

0 0:04:22.4 T7+1:14:59.7 0:09:17.7 0:09:14.8 T7+0:00:20.0 TIME FROM FIRST MOTION (HR:MIN:SEC Guidance Reference Release First Motion Liftoff BeginTower Clearance Yaw Maneuver End Yaw Maneuver Pitch and Roll Initiation Mach 1 Maximum Dynamic Pressure S-IC Center Engine Cutoff BeginTilt Arrest S-IC Outboard Engine Cutoff S-II Ullage Rocket Ignition Signal to Separation Devices and S-IC Retrorockets S-IC/S-II First Plane Separation Complete S-II Engine Start Sequence Initiated S-II Ignition (Start Tank DischargeValve Opens) S-II Enginesat 90% Thrust S-II Ullage Thrust Cutoff S-II Aft Interstage Drop (Second Plane Separation) LET Jettison (Crew Action) Initiate I GM S-II Lox Tank Pressurization Flow[ate Step S-II Center Engine Cutoff S-II Fuel Tank Pressurization Flow[ate Step 0:09:10.0 T3+0:00:30.0 T1+0:00:01.0 T7+0:25:00.7 0:02:42.4 T3+0:00:04.5 0:02:15.8 T4+0:00:00.9 0:13:18.1 1'5+0:01:48.3 1'6+0:08:16.3 2:49:02.3 T3+O:OO:00.2 0:09:19.4 0:00:09.0 3:18:05.0 0:00:00.1 0:11:39.8 3:08:04.0 TI+O:O0:Og.2 [6+0:08:16.0 T8+0:00:00.0 T4+0:00:01.6 2:47:11.8 3:08:05.8 T6+0:09:30.8 T4+0:02:12.0 T5+0:00:00.0 T8+1:10:00.6 T4+0:00:12.5 T1+0:01:23.0 _ 2-2 Changed 5 October 1969 .2 0:07:42.0 0:12:28.3 0:02:42.0 T7+O :02:30.0 2:45:58.2 0:02:42.7 T7+0:00:00.1 0:11:29.8 T7+0:00:03.7 0:09:11.6 0:02:44.9 0:02:43.5 T 7-0:00:00.9 0:01:23.0 T7+0:35:00.5 Begin Orbital Guidance Figure 2-1 2:55:35.0 4:21:05.7 T3+0:00:00.0 4:29:05.5 T3+0:00:00.2 TIME FROM REFERENCE (HR:MIN:SEC) T1-0:00:17.0 T8+0:00:01.2 T8+0:09:40.0 5:30:45.8 T2+0:01:40.0 T4+0:00:04.4 T5-0:00:00.3 0:09:23.1 2:45:58.0 5:25:45.8 T4+0:00:00.8 2:53:08.0 T8+1:01:40.0 T8+0:22:18.2 T7+O:O0:Q0.6 0:02:47.8 2:47:22.0 0:02:43.4 0:03:23.0 i T6+0:09:40.0 1"6+0:00:42.0 T4+0:00:00.0 T1+0:00:11.0 T7+0:14:59.0 3:28:05.3 0:01:06.3 2:53:04.9 T1+0:01:06.6 0:11:49.2 T8+0:23:25.4 T3+0:00:02.6 2:53:10.2 4:50:25.O .0 i T6+0:09:33.4 T3+0:00:05.8 0:12:56.5 i T6+0:11:20. 1969 WINDOW.PERFORMANCE / ( ( L ! TYPICAL CRITICAL EVENT SEQUENCE.3 T5+0:00:09.6 0:02:46.7 0:09:11.4 0:00:01.7 T1-0:00:00.8 T7+0:15:00.7 T3+0:00:36.2 T8+0:01:21.0 0:02:38.8 T3+0:00:01.5 T7+O:00:0O.0 S-II Outboard Engine Cutoff S-IVB Ullage Ignition Signal to Separation Devices and S-II Retrorocket_ S-II/S-IVB Separation S-IVB Engine Start Sequence.7 2:53:05.0 T7+1:25:00. 72.0 T8+0:23:20.9 T4+0:00:01.2 0:07:41.8 2:53:25.029 o F LIGHT AZIMUTH) TIME FROM FIRST MOTIOI_ (HR:MIN:SEC) -0:00:17.2 0:03:12.0 T2+0:00:23.5 0:11:23.8 2:38:24.5 0:09:11. FIRST OPPORTUNITY TLI (EVENT TIMES ARE.0 T6+0 :O0:OO.0 T8+0:56:40.0 T8+0:09:40.5 2:53:05.2 T8+0:21:20.2 T5+0:00:00.0 T3+0:05:00.6 T7+0:00:05.2 4:52:30. First Burn Set Time Base5 S-IVB APS Ullage Ignition Parking Orbit Insertion Initiate Maneuver to and Maintain Local Horizontal Alignment (CSM Forward.9 2:47:19.8 0:11:30.0 4:29:06.0 4:51:23.2 T3+0:00:40.0 1'5+0:01:27.0 T7+1:00:00.0 T7+0:00:09.6 0:11:29.8 2:47:14.9 0:03:18.5 T4+0:00:08.3 TIME FROM REFERENCE (HR:MIN:SEC) T5+0:00:59.0 T4+0:00:06.0 2:53:05.2 4:30:26.1 T6+0:09:38.4 0:00:12.0 T7+1:28:00.T7+0:00:00.0 2:53:14. First Burn S-IVB Ignition (Start Tank DischargeValve Opens) S-IVB Engine at 90% Thrust S-IV8 UllageThrust End S-IVB Ullage CaseJettison Begin Chi Freeze S-IVB Cutoff.BASED ON AS-5O7 SIMULATIONS FOR MISSION H-1 NOVEMBER 14. Second Burn Set Time Base7 LH2 Continuous Vent Open Lox Nonpropulsive Vent Open LH 2 Nonpropulsive Vent Open Flight Control Coast Mode On Enable SC Control of LV Translunar Injection Initiate Maneuver to and Maintain Local Horizontal Alignment (CSM Forward. Heads Down) Lox Nonpropulsive Vent Closed LH 2 Nonpropulsive Vent Closed LH2 Continuous Vent Closed Initiate Maneuver to and Maintain TD&E Attitude CSM Separation (Variable) CSM/LM Docking (Variable) LH 2 Nonpropulsive Vent Open LH 2 Nonpropulsive Vent Closed SC/LV Final Separation (Variable) Initiate Maneuver to and Maintain S-IVB Evasive Attitude (Variable) Set Time Base8 S-IVB APS Ullage Ignition S-IVB APS Ullage Cutoff Initiate Maneuver to and Maintain Slingshot Attitude LH2 Continuous Vent Open Start Lox Dump End Lox Dump Lox Nonpropulsive Vent Open LH2 Nonpropulsive Vent Open S-IVB APS Ullage Ignition S-IVB APS Ullage Cutoff Initiata Maneuverto and Maintain Communications Attitude EVENT EVENT 2:37:41.6 0:00:11.3 0:00:00.0 4:52:25. 4:38:45.0 T6+0 :O0:42.0 i '.2 4:38:45.0 4:18:05.5 LH2 Continuous Vent Open S-IVB APS Ullage Cutoff Begin Orbital Navigation Calculations Begin S-IVB Restart Preparations 02H 2 Burner (Helium Heater) On LH2 Continuous Vent Closed S-IVB APS Ullage Ignition Helium Heater Off S-IVB Engine Restart Sequence S-IV8 APS Ullage Cutoff S-IVB Reignition (Start Tank DischargeValve Opens) S-IVB Engineat 90% Thrust MR Shift (First Opportunity Only) S-IVB Engine Cutoff. HeadsDown) 0:11:50.O T3+0:00:00.0 5:39:05.8 2:38:23.8 2:53:05.0 3:53:05.7 3:08:04.4 4:08:04.1 T2+0:00:00.8 T5+0:00:20.0 T3+0:04:58.3 T5+0:00:20.4 TI+0:00:00.7 T7+0:14: 59.

for example. also varies with the launch date. The FGR is defined as the reserve propellant required to guarantee the launch vehicle capability to establish a lunar flyby trajectory at any earth-moon geometry. This variation in mass causes the slingshot differential to be variable. the vehicle maneuvers to the commanded transposition.ity occurs . aerodynamic pressure.042. Section X). inertial velocity. docking. The S-IVB varies from to field increases place it into the solar launch vehicle's orbit (see figure The typical propulsion performance based on flight simulations. trapped.G. (See figure 10-3. the yaw angle changes from -40 to +40 degrees. After spacecraft ejection from the launch vehicle S-IVB evasive maneuver are completed.120. respectively. Section X). The total reserves required to provide 99. is the same as the TD&E inertial except that the yaw attitude angle changes in sign but not in magnitude. the propellant S-IVB Stage is "safed" and high pressure gas The predicted thrust profile for the S-IC stage (figure 2-25) shows the thrust increase from approximately 7. longitudinal acceleration.000 feet. After the S-IVB/IU has achieved and is holding the evasive maneuver attitude. ENGINE PERFORMANCE for the three launch vehicle presented in figures 2-25 mass during the slingshot propulsive launch day to launch day and across operations each launch velocity which is system window. axial force. and 180 degrees. S-IVB EVASIVE the from MANEUVER separation the launch of the spacecraft vehicle (S-IVB/IU). lox and LH 2 nonpropulsive vents are also operative. pitch and roll angles remain the same.FORMANC revolutions COAST in parking orbit. stage and static test firing data. Parameters shown include pitch angle.000 pounds is R I -' Changed 5 October 1969 2-3 . An 80-second burn of the S-IVB APS ullage engines provides a velocity increment of 10 feet per second and propels the S-IVB/IU away from the spacecraft. inertial path angle and inertial azimuth.I 63.fter 25 FL. Section X). These parameters are shown for nominal cases for the earth parking orbit insertion and TLI phases. altitude. The slingshot procedure is designed to minimize the probability of spacecraft recontact with the launch vehicle. PROPULSION PERFORMANCE data presented herein are and engine configuration. mainstage. Time Base 8 is initiated by ground command. I throughout slingshot operations. ORBIT the translunar orbit is perturbed vent that lasts for 15 minutes. The typical flight performance data presented herein are based on launch vehicle operational trajectory studies. Propulsive hydrogen venting and an APS burn also contribute to the retrograde velocity increment. the propellant the remaining dump. The FPR is defined as the root-sum-square (RSS) combination of negative launch vehicle weight. At center engine cutoff vehicle thrust drops to approximately 7. yaw and roll are 191. PROPE LLANT LOADING A propellant weight summary for each stage is tabulated in figures 2-22 through 2-24. (combined a maneuver the S-IVB/IU The evasive attitude Flight performance parameters for the mission are presented graphically in figures 2-2 through 2-21. S-IVB earth impact. The moon's gravitational velocity sufficiently 10-1. A thrust level of approximately 1. FLIGHT PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS IN TRANSLUNAR Following the S-IVB cutoff. angle of attack. The tables break down propellant use into such categories as usable. FLIGHT PERFORMANCE PROPELLANT RESERVES AND FLIGHT GEOMETRY Following CSM/LM) inhibit is released maneuvers to the maneuver attitude by ground command and evasive maneuver attitude. 0. The slingshot mode is achieved by maneuvering the S-IVB stage to the slingshot attitude and performing a retrograde dump of the residual lox to decrease the velocity of the stage. These predicted reserves must equal or exceed the required reserves established for a mission. Predicted propellant reserves are determined from flight simulations and operational trajectory data. These studies were based on the requirements and constraints imposed by the mission. vehicle weight. (See figure 10-3. maintained relative to the local horizontal coordinate Stage thrust versus time history propulsive stages are graphically through 2-27. by a propulsive hydrogen During this period.000 pounds. thrust decay. buildup and holddown. and S-IVB lunar impact. +h°second oppo. the slingshot velocity increment is approximately 102 feet per second and the slingshot attitude angles in pitch. the slingshot initiated (T 8 +580 seconds). The decrease in velocity perturbs the trajectory so that the vehicle coasts past the trailing side of the moon and thus.tu. where the vehicle has attained an altitude of approximately 144. dispersions at TLI due to 3-sigma launch vehicle subsystems and environmental perturbations. range. 1969 launch day simulations. The slingshot attitude. and this fact is confirmed by the crew. SLINGSHOT MODE and the mode is Required propellant reserves are comprised of two components: Flight Performance Reserves (FPR) and Flight Geometry Reserves (FGR). Following by venting bottles.000 pounds at center engine cutoff.865% assurance that the launch vehicle will complete its primary mission objective is the algebraic sum of the FPR and the FGR. unusable. For the November 14. in that order of priority. and extraction (TD&E) attitude and this attitude is maintained inertially throughout TD&E operations. After the vents are closed. The S-II stage predicted thrust profile (figure 2-26) is slightly perturbed by the aft interstage drop and launch escape tower jettison.=+P:Jw ndow.000 pounds at one second after first motion to approximately 9. and fuel bias.693.TPE. is co-rotational with the moon.

!+. SEPACIATION--J -mS-I! AF'r'l _--'_L_ |_ / J INTERSTAGES-II CENTER-_'-...I / _NG'NF$ CUTOF. SON. (N_ZN_ CUTOFF 6 10 11 FROM fIRST NOTI_+ . S-IC OUTBOARD / / ...MI/gJTES 1 " ouumOtm _eo7 _qmu_ I I H.°.I .MINUTES Fro.I muaom FL. $EPARATZON-h. t lF 12 13 I r...4 Chlnllfd 50_loSer 1.-: p ._rr I I [ -- J_m m)V_M 14.+-..El'O INSERTION arTTtso_. _ _I---._ 2 3 4 TI_ ! I +-... IrS-ll "_l._.T. mW mmoow.6oI / ENG|NES CutOrr_ / F_ 9 7 8 .iC CENTER ENGINE CUTOFF L t I r-. +-..S...) 2. r._1 [ ._ + ' + 3 2 - \ \....+o 0 1 2 ! 3 4 5 6 FJlrul_ "t "9 i 7 8 1 9 10 11 12 13 TIME FROMFIRST NOTION .._ -.1 " I 5 I t jr'--S-IVB -+ I --S-lC/S-ti 0 0 1 : EJ I _t_ . re . _ s\ ____ __....TIO.-...S-._ o+._.'F_.-Im.)69 L I.

d 7 ipzlz_ I /' -NACH1-_ JE.__m..5 0:00 TIME FRONFIRST HOTION._'.5 / ! I • _-!C CENTER.ChanSed 50_lober 1969 .S / / / / \ I .-S-It/S- ' !! J I 1.-_C /-mllllLll 1._' ENGrNE CUTOFF 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 -0.OD}_.._NUTES:SE_NI_ F_ure 2-4 20O 100 0 0:00 0:30 TIME 1:00 FROH FIRST 1:30 NOTION - 2:00 NINUTES:SECONDS 2:30 3:00 FWre 2-S .0 0..

. 50 0..'-7 2-6 C'hanl_l $ O_lober 1969 .75 I .It r _aiAplc! 4 S-IC ENGIN(_ OUTBOARD ENGI_$ CUTOFF i $ | I S-If CENTER ENGIE CUTOFF 1 I_ITION O 0 ! 2 3 4 TI_ 5 5 7 8 9 .25 I RESTART 2:4g TIME _OM 2:50 2:5I -'5..MINUTES I0 11 12 13 FROMFIRST _TI_ Fisu_ 2-6 S_IV8 CUTOFF- ! ..' 2:53 FIRST MDTION ..HOURS:MINUTES .. | J r IL-MR SHIFT O. j I:ilrure .00 I 0......... 1...25 .

'1 t 1 24.000 30.e .000 .000 S-IC OUTaOARD | j.000 e_ I I I S-IVB CUTOFF.000 tkl aC • 11 }..1 MISSION ° FLIGHT SIMULATION 72.../ J 8.1 r-rLI t! 34. 1100 WZNDOW.000 J IGNITION I I I.000 2:47 _•I I. 24.. I I I S-IVB RESTAR1 I I 2:48 2:49 2:50 2:51 2:52 Z:53 2:54 TIME FROM FIRSI MOTION .000 I : J f 12.e ENGINiS CUTiFF] I/ 4.AZIMUTH FIRST ANO NOVEMBER OPPOHTUNITY TLI.000 I 20.000 I J 32.. 36.000 28.000 | LP 16. 5 6 7 8 9 TIME FROMFI_T PIOTION.0293 FLIGHT 14.MINUTES Filp_e 2-8 1 ! 1 I I l d l 10 11 12 13 1 I I BA_ED ON AS-607 FOR H../ I 0 0 J 2 4 I. __ 38._0 e.HOURS:MINUTES Figure 2-9 .

so 140 130 110 ["'S-IVB RESTART // 2:49 TIME FROM 2.r r PERIPOgtaIANCI_ Fi_ 2-10 t 16( .l I 2:51 .:50 FIRST MOTION l:igur_ _.HOURS:MINUTES 2:52 f 100 -2:48 2"47 2_ (l_lnlled 5 October 106q . / !.

___ I VB IGNITION 8O0 600 ILl v S..'F 4300 4000 4100 2:47 I I I TLI 2:48 2:49 2:50 2:51 2:52 TIME FROM FIRST MOTION .=LIGHT 14.i2..l __l .MINUTES Figure 2-12 570O ----q-----_ BASED :_lMULt-. ! INSERTION S IVB CUTOFF 1.0293 FLIGHT 14.000 I I L<1.PERFORMANCE TYPICAL / i RANtiE DURING BOOSTTO 1. AZIMUTH FIRST ON AS-507 run H-1 MISSION ° FLIGHT .200 . .IC OUTBOARD / I ENGINES CUTOFFl 4OO IS-IC CENTER 1 --I ENGINE CUTOFF.400 ct_ i... OPPORTUNITY 55OO 53o0 . I MISSION ° FLIGHT 72.J 1. 200 J J /I J i C_ L_.::C 51oo ' 4900 4700 4500 . 1969 WINDOW.HOURS:MINUTES Figure 2-13 2:53 z:54 Changed 5 October 1969 2-9 .c. t tun AND z.1969 WINDOW.u293 NOVEMBER TLI. BASED ON AS-F-F-F-r-'_07 H-1 FOR AND J LS-II 0 1 2 3 IGNITION 4 5 6 7 8 SIMULATION AZIMUTH NOVEMBER 9 I0 II 12 13 TIME FROM FIRST MOTION .

E A.lmmn)¢ amo mmVlmlOEj M.NAUTICAL Fisure 2-15 2-10 (.S-IVB RESTART / / 120 II0 lO0 6. i leo 1 70 / Y -S r D.-_oo _ 300 400 500 500 700 800 900 1.TO0 l . l O0 4. r / _/ / / 140 F- 130-- / / / . .[ UMc. 400 S..._3.200 3.500 MILES 4.. W mNOOW.300 l . o_ --T.F" mp.700 S...NAUTICAL IMILES F_ure 2-14 190 BASED ON A84_'/H-I Mt. FIl_rlr OPPOflTUNITY TLI.'l.'B CUTOFF- ) 1 a_ % ! 160 _ • I l / / [ 1SO ------- .200 l .400 SURFACE PJ&NG[ FROM CAPE KENNEDY . lf..psed 5 (_:tot)er 1969 .000 ! 5.IO_.0(0) l .90U SURFACE RANGE FROM CAP£ KENNEDY .800 4.FLIGHT SIMULATION FOR 72J:293 o FLI@HT AZtOmJTHAND NOVEMeEn 14. 100 00 50 40 20 0 0 100 200 I - - --" i4_ mn suwrar.

el z- .

xqo. w r_ ! w 6 / / 5 "%':.r I_ll FOIIMAIL..TLI f ! I t .lm m.O'_13 o FLIGHT TLI. 15 Fe. z M I0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TIME FROMFIRST MOTION .4 F_ur_ 2-19 2-12 ('hanl_ed 5 ()ctotw_r 1969 . _ IIq_r (_TUNITY I I-. 1 30 2S | .oow. / I -.S-IVB RESTART / 0 Z:47 2:48 2:49 TIME FROM 2:50 FIRST MOTION 2:5I ._. z..ovmaen 14.e a.uuT.HOURS:MINUTES 2:52 2 i :[. FG{ 4 3 / J / / J I--e.MINUTES Filpure2-18 10 11 12 13 IMULATION FOIq _.

TINE FROMFIRST MOTION .i J jJ 57 2:47 2:48 2:49 2:50 2:51 2:52 2:53 2:54 TIME FROM FIRST MOTION . S-IVB CUTOFF- NOVEMBER TLI.J /I RESTART / / 6O .HOURS :MINUTES Figure 2-21 Changed 5 October 1969 2-13 .PERFORMANCE TYPICAL INERTIAL AZIMUTH DURING BOOST TO EPO 95 ] BASED SIMULATION AZIMUTH l ON ASUS07 FOR AND 1 H-1 72.I t.I 62 I 61 N _. 1969 WINDOW._ 85 S F-" 8O 75 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0 II 12 13. OPPORTUNITY cz_ LI.MINUTES Figure 2-20 65 • 64 -- I BASED ON SIMULATION AZIMUTH FIRST I AS_-u07 FOR AND H-1 MISSION FLIGHT 72.0293 NOVEMBER I MISSION ° 14.0293 ° FLIGHT 14.I 1 I -r" t_ t.I 63 l. _T m_ EPO INSERT] I 9O L.Lt l.:C i. T FLIGHT FLIGHT 1969 I WINDOW.

882 2.635 NONE FUEL BIAS PRESSURIZATION 6.174 43. For the first opportunity TLI.766 38. Thrust 2-28.174 Figure 2-24 43.945 BUILDUP AND HOLDDOWN 67.000 pounds. For second opportunity TLI. The longer delay in MR shift for the first opportunity mission is designed to consume the fuel that would have boiled off during a third revolution in earth orbit.5 MR and shifted to 5.419.339 1.752 RESIDUAL PROPELLANT TANKS SUCTION LINES INTERCONNECTLINES ENGINES ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMS TOTAL 32. I The S-IVB stage predicted thrust prof'fles for first and second burns are shown in figure 2-27.0 occurs 2.500 190.585 298 S-II STAGE PROPELLANT WEIGHT SUMMARY L0X (POUNDS) 813.461 TOTAL 817.000 pounds attained with a 5. which occurs after center engine cutoff.000 and 178.5 mixture ratio are.605 807.0 and 4.303 9.440 151. The thrust level for first burn is approximately 207.275. The thrust levels for | the 5.625 338 1.709 37 5O I0 38 685 264 61 28 NONE 1.752 38. level during earth parking orbit is shown in figure I_! 'qv' I STAGE PROPELLANTWEIGHT SUMMARY L0X (POUNDS) RP-1 (POUNDS) I.500 2-14 Changed 5 October 1969 .002 225 4. the thrust level drops to 690.PERFORMANCE attained with a 5.3.195..308 STAGE PROPELLANT WEIGHT SUMMARY FIRST OPPORTUNITY TLI LOX LH2 (POUNDS) (POUNDS) 188.393 415 5.458 3.441 TAILOFF 1.449 NONE 6. the MR shift from 4.920 NONE 1.000 pounds.006 THRUST DECAY 5.368. LH2 (POUNDS) 155. At center engine cutoff the thrust level drops to 925.754 188.919 1.725 523 112 1.700 NONE 2"3.422 151 NONE 12 108 259 40 701 139 12 416 4.752 188.420 142 NONE 18 108 259 40 702 139 12 416 3. approximately 207.734 3.111 MAINSTAGE 3.350 BASED ON AS.265 330 2.S) 188.161 2.5 to 5.-507 PREDICTED DATA TOTAL USABLE PROPELLANT USABLE (INCLUDES MAINSTAGE FLIGHT PERFORMANCEANDFLIGHT GEOMETRYRESERVES-) RESIDUAL FUEL BIAS UNUSABLE PROPELLANT ORBITAL B01LOFF *FUEL LEAD MAINSTAGE BOILOFF ENGINE TRAPPED LINES TRAPPED TANK UNAVAILABLE *BUILDUP TRANSIENTS *DECAY TRANSIENTS REPRESSURIZATION (02H2 BURNER) * FOR FIRST AND SECONDBURNS TOTAL NONE 1.308.5 mixture ratio (MR). At the MR stfift to 4.563 37 48 I0 38 685 264 61 28 190.185 1.915 2_160 28.000 pounds.618 39. MAINSTAGE BIAS THRUST BUILDUP THRUST DECAY PRESSURIZATION GAS UNUSABLE PROPELLANT TRAPPED: ENGINE AND LINES INITIAL ULLAGE MASS TANK AND SUMP VENTED GAS CONSUMED PROPELLANT 3.222 348 .971 6. 396. respectively.311 3.661 231 75 2. the S-IVB burn is started at a 4.158 18.160 NONE 3.0 approximately 100 seconds after S-IC BASED DATA mainstage.533 3.860 Figure 2-22 S-IVB 1.868 2.0 MR.355 207 ON AS_07PREDICTED BASEDON AS_07PREDICTED DATA USABLE PROPELLANT.138 Figure 2-23 158.754 39.202 SECOND OPPORTUNITY TLI LOX LH2 (POUNDS) (POUND.5 seconds after mainstage.

7! 0:00 0:30 1:00 TIME 1:30 2:00 2:30 MINUTES :SECONOS FROM liOLOI)OW_ ARM RELEASE I 3:00 J t_Z.ll't" ' "_ ('|l_lirlK_. l'*r.o /'] $ 6.'d " (}_t{ih_.'_ .

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PERFORMANCE

FLIGHT LOADS Flight loads are dependent on the flight trajectory, associated flight parameters, and wind conditions. These factors are discussed in the following paragraphs. These loads based on AS-507 predictions, are representative of corresponding loads for the AS-508 and AS-509 missions. HIGH DYNAMIC PRESSURE/WIND LOADS

at CECO. 3.75 g's.

The nominal longitudinal

load factor

at CECO is

OUTBOARD

ENGINE CUTOFF LOADS

S-IC outboard engine cutoff (OBECO) occurs at approximately 162 seconds after first motion. Axial load at OBECO is shown in figure 2-33. The nominal longitudinal load factor at OBECO is 3.91 g's. ENGINE-OUT CONDITIONS Engine-out conditions, if they should occur, will affect the vehicle loads. The time at which the malfunction occurs, which engine malfunctions, peak wind speed and azimuth orientation of the wind, are all independent variables which combine to produce load conditions. Each combination of engine-out time, peak wind velocity, wind azimuth, and altitude at which the maximum wind shear occurs, produces a unique trajectory. Vehicle responses such as dynamic pressure, altitude, biach number, angle-of-attack, engine gimba_ angles, yaw and attitude angle time histories vary with the prime conditions. Structure test programs indicate a positive structural margin exists for this malfunction flight condition. Studies indicate that the immediate structural dymamic transients at engine-out will not cause structural failure. However, certain combinations of engine failure, wind direction and wind magnitude may result in a divergent control condition which could cause loss of the vehicle. The "Chi-Freeze" schedule is incorporated into the vehicle

The launch vehicle bending moments through the high q region are dependent on the shape of the wind profile and the orientation of the wind vector with respect to the trajectory plane. The variations of maximum launch vehicle bending moment with altitude of peak wind speed and wind azimuth have been evaluated based on the September through December 95 percentile directional winds. These variations are shown in figures 2-29 and 2-30. The critical wind azimuth for the directional synthetic profile was 300 degrees measured clockwise from true North. A gust thickness of 640 feet was superimposed on the synthetic wind profile that peaked at an altitude of 32,800 feet with a wind velocity of 174 feet per second. The maximum bending moment diagram due to flight through the above winds is shown in figure 2-31. A maximum bending moment of 149 million inch-pounds occurs at about station 1 I00 at 72.4 seconds after fLrst motion. CENTER ENGINE CUTOFF LOADS S-IC center engine cutoff seconds after first motion. (CECO) is programmed for 135 Figure 2-32 shows the axial load

TYPICAL ENVELOPE OFMAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT-WIND ALTITUD!
44
t"hl W

I I I FOR NOMINAL FLIGHT AT STATION 1156

,,
C2_ Z

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BASED ON AS-507 PREDICTED

I
DATA

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38

36

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28 I00 II0 120 130 140 150 160

BENDING MOMENT- MILLION INCH - POUNDS Figure 2-29

Changed

5 October

1969

2-17

PERFORMANCE

TYPICAL ENVELOPE OFMAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT-WIND AZIMUTH
180 1 I I
FOR NOMINAL FLIGHT AT STATION 1156
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120
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180

210

240

270

300

330

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WIND AZIMUTH-DEGREES

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Figure 2-30

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MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT OF 149 MILLION INCH-POUNDS OCCURS AT __ ABOUT STATION 1100 AT 72.4 SECONDS AFTER FIRST MOTION. BASIC CONDITIONS ARE: MACH NUMBER -DYNAMIC PRESSURE Q-BALL ANGLE-OF-ATTACK EQUIVALENT
i

--3,500
1.24 4.37 psi 6.7 ° 0.57 °

,3,000
Z

GIMBAL

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140

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Figure 2-31

2

2-18

Changed 5 October 1969

PERFORMANCE

I

I ON AS-507 NOMINAL

1 PREDICTION FLIGHT

I

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BASED FOR

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I

3,500

3,000
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1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

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AXIAL LOAD - MILLION POUNDS Figure 2-32

,,D TYPICALAXIAL LOAD AT S-IC OUTBOARD ENGINE CUTOFF
3_
t i 't I BASEDON AS-507PREDICTION FOR NOMINAL FLIGHT 3,500

3,000
C_ 'n=

2,500
I

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1,500
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1

2

3

, 4

5

6

7

8

9

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AXIAL LOAD - MILLION POUNDS Figure 2-33

Changed

5 October

1969

2-19

The poie_ bled in the filure are thr ml:C. Launch vehicleliftoff interfere.. ram 8yro enor and wind Ioediq. A sinsJe control enldne-out not produce Ioed conditions LIFTOFF CLEARANCE durin| S-II powered which are critical.O delrees per _cond _tarttnp ..25 _ at I_e =a_ of I. thereby providing a hJlher IdUtode tndectory. This yaw bias .Jftoff ¢k_ra_es •mr lqpMf'lcamly affected hy engm:le n_. Clearanceinterference at the.'-4 Holddo_n Swing Post Fln Tip Arms ® degree thrust vector mlsaltgnment O Q Q C0mbtned Varlable Switch 95 percentile wtnd and 0. (Frae_ inJtJ4mtJon and freeze duration are dependent upon the lime at whkh the Iota in thrust occurs.1 I 64. sl rmll_tiye bltedcqren¢4 point•.s ramped h) i ._ pl)mts pOintS ¢lealaa_ at all other po_nliaJ I ( in thrust from an S-IC online. The hJsher altitude tri_ectot_ minJmhms the payloed Iomes into orbit.cepoints and the Predicted A yaw bias at lifto_r u included in the flilht procram to n.F" r FIlIFOIIMANCll Prolpllm as all aitaillUlle to re(luee 11141 e_4¢t cm_ Join mJnJnwnl ¢l_m'mlCmnlf.5 10. fllSht does I.) This schedule holds the pitch aK_ude command constant. delre_ 9 Kcom_s la_.vc Um vddde away fromu the tower.t I J9 seconds from felt motion aM is ramped b_ck to /*'r.6 .actuat.34 arm roller remains on striker plate Figure 2-34 ql 2-20 Clumled S October 1969 Lmlk* .Jlr the AJ[-r07 mnmion are '_hown m I fJlPml 2-34. _ errors._r valve misal|gnmenr.62 Q Thrust Structure Insulation F-1 Engine (i) 44. It also improves the veldck enllJne-out dynamic response by Providinli • iowa-velocity entW into the maximum aerodynamic region. SIJIqVlARYOF LIFTOFF CLE_C[S (AS 507 PREDICTION) POTEffTIAL VEHICLE Thrust Structure INTERFERENCE POINTS GROUND EQUIPMENT Holddown Liftoff Post Swttch Arm AVAILABLE CLEARANCE (ZNCHES) PREDICTED MINIMUM CLEARANCE (INCHES) 1.

9. .. etc.g.. to preclude single point These lights are controlled by switching logic in the IU.... See also LAUNCH may blink ON and OFF during VEHICLE EDS CONTROLS switch...... attitude errors and angular rates. The EDS displays and controls are shown in figure 3-I. MONITORING AND CONTROL Excessive The spacecraft is equipped with a number of displays and controls which permit monitoring the launch vehicle conditions and controlling the launch vehicle under normal and emergency conditions. Manual been implemented with redundant •I 1 _ _ provide Automatic redundant. while needle type errors.. controls are related to the (EDS)... except that attitude errors are not displayed during S-II and S-IVB flight.. The Pitch and Yaw LV preset overrate settings are: Liftoff to S-II ignition S-II ignition to S-IVB cutoff Liftoff cutoff to S-IVB There are two Flight Director Attitude Indicators (FDAI's). This flexibility and redundancy provides the required attitude and error backup display capability... EDS CONTROLS .... (e. or S-II stage. IGM initiate will occur approximately five seconds after LET jettison during the S-II stage flight.. The displays implemented for EDS monitoring were selected to present as near as possible those parameters which represent the failures leading to vehicle abort. These displays are active at liftoff and remain active throughout the mission. or total Second cues will also be provided by the LV RATE (R-52). Additional abort cues will be by the FDAI combining rates... LV overrate condition or a LV platform failure (second cue). figure 3-1) is an abort cue indicator... parameters have been implemented triple two-out-of-three.. Whenever possible..0 (_+0. Q-45 and J-61. all lights are turned OFF momentarily to indicate that physical separation has occured.. ground information. light number two represents S-IC.'OLIMITS LAUNCH VEHICLE come from a number of different sources in the spacecraft.2 (+0.. After the automatic abort system is deactivated the LV RATE light is used only to indicate that preset LV overrate settings have been exceeded. :'IP LV ENGINES Each of the LIGHTS five LV ENGINES lights (S-51. roll.... be based on two separate but related abort cues. The light is a single cue for abort. onboard data will be used.. In the event of a discrepancy between onboard and ground based instrumentation. or any combination of two valid cues. 3-1 3-1 3-11 3-12 3-14 3-18 and triangular pointers display 'angular rates. The switching logic monitors thrust ok pressure switches on each engine of the operating stage and also staging discretes.. in all cases.. highly abort voted so that it would display abort parameters have sensing and display to Many of Emergency these displays and Detection System that an provided attitude. The roll and pitch programs are initiated simultaneously at+10 seconds. Secondary cues will be provided by the FDAI. light (R-50). LAUNCH VEHICLE MONITORING DISPLAYS F L IG HT D IR E CTO R ATTITU D E IN D ICATO R The LV RATE light (R-50. During staging. ]/ The FDAI ball displays the face Euler of the attitude.. physiological cues. LV GUIDlight and MCC ground reports. LV RATE LIGHT i " hardwareorsensingfailurescausinganinadvertentabort. During the time that the overrate portion of the automatic abort system is enabled (liftoff to approximately T + 2 minutes) the LV RATE light is time shared to indicate either an. As each is discussed it is identified by use of the grid designators listed on the border of the figure. S-II..... clockwise respectively.. reliable indications to the crewmen. Roll 20. _..... pitch.. ... for a pointers across ball indicate attitude discussion of EDS switch and LV RATES l Changed 5 October 1969 3-I . the parameter was selected total subsystem operation. Pilot to provide onboard for rapid rate malfunctions which may abort action must.8) degrees/sec. or S-IVB engine number two on the numbered engine on the operating one represents engine number one stage. Signal inputs to the around the periphery of the ball Attitude errors and angular rate from the top. error. Refer to figure 3-1. displays are.. The types of displays have been designed detection capability require abort... and the pitch program continues to tilt-arrest.. light number on the S-IC.The roll program is terminated when flight azimuth is reached. figure 3-I) represents the respective stage..5) degrees/sec. A lightONindicatesitscorrespondingengineisoperatingbelow a nominal thrust level (90% on F-1 engines and 65% on J-2 engines).SECTION III | EMERGENCY... FDAI's are switch selectable and can ! ABORT CONTROLS ABORTMODESA. each of which provides a display off Euler attitude. for locations of the FDAI's on the MDC and to figure 3-2 for details of the FDAI's.0 (+0.. physiological cues. These cues may be derived from the EDS displays.. or ground communications... physiological sensations .. NOTE The LV RATE light normal LV staging.).5)degrees/sec.. pitch and yaw... DETECTION ANDPROCEDURES TABLE LAUNCH LAUNCH LAUNCH LAUNCH | OF CONTENTS VEHICLE VEHICLE VEHICLE VEHICLE MONITORING AND CONTROL MONITORING DISPLAYS . NORMAL CONTROLS . roll... or yaw indications provide a single cue abort is required. The FDAI's are used to monitor normal launch vehicle guidance and control events..... 4. .

......-t r..... " ... (Sheet 1 of 7) 3-2 .... _"'°2.1 I'Xl It[d_lLg] i! I 2 _ A 1 3 4 5 6 1 7 I 8 I 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 I 14 I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 I 19 1 20 I 21 I 22 I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 1 27A_ _ ° /¥A.r I \LYf or_ _ I s- OF_ _ stlwlc(PRom=ate4 S_ -__) . *y _Er_/t_CrDIRECTUL_ _ CONTPJDIIIECT _ --¥ --_' ÷f +_I --Z/2I --Z/12 eZlZ2 --x/21 +X/13 ÷XP4 --X/24 --X/16 ÷X/25 +X/Z1 -X/16 m_¢_ _LUUU ..zA'r_co_t.--.....L_ B/DRC_L_ PITCH .EMERGENCY DETECTION _r:_ I:11 I]k t'.. ""' _A/_ R_..... ' _... .l_ _ -s t_-) _\ ..... "C_.....r_...1.. _ _.. ........._......... _o _...x_o _ \L Y f _/_ o_ I _wr \ __ / f e...s*s_..s. °" °- -: -o _(_ -"j / i_ 'i. r-_-n_ eA¢_-.---.. S......... . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I J _li_! ( Figure 3-1._......------... _SEO EVer_cc_r _ AA-AB'-" AC-AD-- AE-AF-- AG-- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 I r\....

EMERGENCY DETECTION .

I (Sheet I I 3 of 7) I 1 1 I I I I I O 3-4 .EMERGENCY DETECTION ! 55 _A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 $ _B --C --D --E _F --G --H --I --j --K --L --M --N --0 --p --Q --R --S --T --U --V OFF A _PLNTFUELPRES_ BcLos E C D --W --X @ @ --y --Z --AA --AB --AC --AD --AE --AF --AG 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 I . // I I I I I I I I Figure I 3-1.

I (Sheet I I 4 ofT) I I I I I I I I I 3-5 .EMERGENCY DETECTION i 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 A_ POST LOG VENT VALVE UNLOCK 2 B-- O ® ® ® @ C_ D_ E_ F-- G_ H_ I-- J-- K-L_ M_ N_ O-- p-- Q-R-- S- T- U_ V_ W_ X-- y_ Z-- AA_ AB-- AC_ AD-AE_ AF-AG-- 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 I I I I 1 1 I I I Figure I 3-I.

EMERGENCY DETECT1ON I 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 1 118 I 119 1 120 I 121 I 122 I 123 I 124 (_) DOCKING BRIGHT TARGET r=---UTILITyI-_ (_POWER COAS POWER ON @ \ 3 Figure 3-l. (Sheet 5 of 7) 3-6 .

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O-IIO PRPLNT DUMP SWITCH AA-56 RATE SWITCH T-39 REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM C/B U-IO ROLL STABILITY INDICATOR L-45 ROT CONTR PWR SWITCHES W-33 SC CONT SWITCH W-38 SCS ELECTRONICS POWERSWITCH AA-IO SCS TVC SERVO POWERSWITCHES AA-14 SCS TVC SWITCHES AC-39 SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM C/B W-IO SIG COND/DRIVER BIAS POWERSWITCHES AC-12 SPS THRUST LIGHT K-49 SPS THRUST SWITCH Z-36 SPS GIMBAL THUMBWHEELCONTROLS AA-46 SPS GIMBAL MOTORSSWITCHES AC-42 STABILITY CONTROL SYSTEM C/B P-5. . Q-45 R-37 AA-12 AC-36 AC-56 H-49 AE-36 AD-58 W-50 LIMIT CYCLE SWITCH T-37 LOGIC POWERSWITCH AB-13 LES MOTOR FIRE PUSHBUTTON X-49 LV ENGINE LIGHTS S-51 LV GUID LIGHT R-52 LV RATE LIGHT R-50 LV RATES SWITCH AA-59 LV/SPS IND SWITCHES AE-40 LV TANK PRESS GAUGES X-46 LVa/SPS Pc INDICATOR W-42 MAIN DEPLOY PUSHBUTTON Y-52 MAIN RELEASE SWITCH AG-56 MANUALATTITUDE SW_TCHES T-34 MASTERALARM LIGHT L-40.EMERGENCY DETECTION LEGEND / ABORT LIGHT ABORT SYSTEM SWITCHES ACCELEROMETER ALTIMETER APEX COVERJETT PUSHBUTTON ATTITUDE SET CONTROL PANEL ATT DEADBANDSWITCH ATT SET SWITCH AUTO RCS SELECT SWITCHES BMAGMODE SWITCHES BI_AGPWR SWITCHES CANARD DEPLOY PUSHBUTTON CMC ATT SWITCH CMC MODESWITCH CM PRPLNT SWITCHES CM RCS LOGIC SWITCH CM RCS He DUMP PUSHBUI-TON CM/SM SEP SWITCHES CSM/LM SWITCH CSM/LV SEP PUSHBUTTON CORRIDOR INDICATORS DIRECT 02 SWITCH DIRECT ULLAGE PUSHBUTTON DROGUEDEPLOY PUSHBUTTON DSKY PANEL EDS POWERSWITCH EDS AUTO SWITCH ELS BATTERY C/B ELS SWITCHES EMS FUNCTION SWITCH EMS MODE SWITCH ENTRY SWITCHES EDS BATTERY C/B EVENT TIMER INDICATOR EVENT TIMER SWITCHES FCSM SWITCHES FDAI FDAI CONTROLSWITCHES FDAI/GPI POWERSWITCH GDC ALIGN PUSHBUTTON GUIDANCE SWITCH G-V PLOTTER IMU CAGE SWITCH LAUNCH VEHICLE SWITCHES LIFTOFF/NO AUTO ABORT LIGHTS N-51 AA-59 0-40 C-50 W-52 AD-32 T-38 R-40 P-15 Z-32 AA-7 Y-49 0-37 W-39 AC-51 AC-50 Z-52 Y-61 Y-59 Z-49 K-45. REFER TO THE TEXT FOR DISCUSSION OF SWITCH AND INDICATOR FUNCTIONS. (Sheet 7 of 7) 3-_. Figure 3-1.S-9 S-II SEP LIGHT R-51 S-II/S-IVB LV STAGE SWITCH AD-58 S-IVB/LM SEP SWITCH Y-63 THRESHOLDINDICATOR (.M-45 AD-IO Z-38 X-52 R-60 Z-17 Y-57 X-9 AC-48 G-45 1-44 AE-38 X-5 P-51 AE-50 AE-47 J-60. R-12.05 G LIGHT) K-48 THRUST ON PUSHBUTTON AA-38 TRANS CONTR SWITCH T-40 TVC GI_AL DRIVE SWITCHES AE-42 TWR JETT SWITCHES AA-61 UP TLM SWITCHES 0-66 XLUNAR SWITCH AD-59 2 ENG OUT SWITCH AA-58 V CG SWITCH AC-46 V THRUST SWITCHES Z-41 V/EMS SET SWITCH K-52 V/RANGE COUNTER L-48 NOTE THE P_qEL INDICATORS _qD SWITCHES ASSOCIATED WITH THE EDS AND LAUNCH VEHICLE CONTROL ARE LISTED FOR EASE IN LOCATION.

OFF at S-IC CECO. ABORT LIGHTS lights (W-50. figure 3-1) indicates longitudinal acceleration/deceleration. figure 3-1) is time shared with service propulsion system (SPS) chamber pressure. the Complex 39 Launch Operations Manager (until tower clearance at +10 seconds). Expected values based on actual winds aloft will be provided by MCC prior to launch. and 3-9 . and/or MCC callout. It is a single cue for abort._UTO takeover. The angle of attack (Qa) meter (W-42. The NO AUTO ABORT light is also turned OFF at S-1C CECO. also provides a spacecraft digital event timer The LIFTOFF light is turned is Started by the same function. ABORT The LIGHT light (N-51. figure 3-1) will illuminate. ON one or both of the automatic abort If the light circuits failed to energize. It is turned OFF at T 6 + 41. angle of attack (Qa) meter (W-42) and/or ground information. It is turned ON again at T 6 + 8 minutes 40 seconds and OFF agam at T 6 + 9 minutes 20 seconds to indicate translunar injection (TLI) commit (engine start -10 seconds).1 seconds. will result. the Mission Control Center (MCC) Booster Systems Engineer. Confirmation from Mission Control of interstage failure to jettison serves as the second abort cue.) tf the coarse resolvers fail to control within 15 degrees per second rate of attitude change in any plane. A signal is sent from the LVDA to activate the LV GUID light (R-52. figure 3-1) can is depressed at a pad abort ABORT be illuminated by I WARNING a ground command from the Flight Director. The accelerometer of G-forces during reentry. has The The accelerometer (0-40. The Qa display is a pitch and yaw vector summed angle-of-attack/dynamic pressure product (Qa). the S-II SEP light (R-51. the Flight Dynamics Officer. Except as stated trend information above. fifteen additional checks will be performed on the coarse resolvers. cues. commands sent to the flight control system to change LV attitude will be inhibited and the flight control system will hold the last acceptable command. [WARNING I If the NO AUTO ABORT pushbutton T-0 and a pad shutdown occurs.. The crew must then be prepared to back up the automatic abort manually. figure contained in one provides a secondary cue for slow-rate guidance malfunctions.6 seconds to indicate O2H 2 burner ignition. After TLI commit (T 6 + 9 minutes 20 seconds) the only way remaining to effect a TLI inhibit is with the T-handle. The NO AUTO ABORT light ON indicates that one or both of the spacecraft sequencers did not enable automatic abort capability at liftoff. NOTE Pilot abort action is required prior to receipt of an a large vehicle staging. It is turned ON to indicate the beginning of restart preparations at T 6 + 0. (The LV can continue the mission on the coarse resolvers alone. figure 3-1) at the same time the flight control commands are inhibited. It is expressed in percentage of total pressure for predicted launch vehicle breakup (abort limit equals 100%). abort limits will be reached within 25 seconds from nominal jettison time. It provides a secondary cue for certain engine failures and is a gross indication of launch vehicle readout performance. enabled remains by pressing the switch/light pushbutton. during ascent. the Qa meter provides on launch vehicle flight performance and and control and control physiological The LV GUID light ON is a prerequisite to spacecraft takeover of the Saturn during launch vehicle burn phases. LV GUID LIGHT (ST-124M-3) is interrogated every 25 correct attitude. During the earth orbit phase of the mission the S-II SEP light is again used. An RF voice abort request constitutes one abort cue. See subsequent paragraph on GUIDANCE SWITCH for a further discussion LIFTOFF/NO The 3-1) of spacecraft . Automatic abort capability can be ALTIMETER Due to dynamic pressure. If an excessive attitude The LV platform milliseconds for the ABORT light or a voice percentage of the time malfunctions. particularly ANGLE OF ATTACK METER command for critical launch at liftoff and discrepancy is found during three consecutive checks on the fine resolvers. ACCELEROMETER LIFTOFF and NO are independent assembly. static source location. The light will go out approximately 30 seconds later when the interstage structure is jettisoned. Second cues will be provided by the LV RATE light (only when the automatic abort system is on) and by the FDAI (Q-45). or in cor_unction with range safety booster engine cutoff. It is effective as an abort parameter only during the high Q flight region from +50 seconds to +2 minutes. Primary cues for guidance malfunctions will be provided by the FDAI. A severe overheating problem will occur if the structure is not jettisoned at the nominal time. Nominal angle of attack meter indications should not exceed 25% to 50%.. Under the worst conditions.EMERGENCY DETECTION S-II SEP LIGHT With S-IC/S-II staging. AUTO ABORT indications switch/light The LIFTOFF been commanded light ON indicates that vehicle release and that the IU umbilical has ejected. The ABORT light ON constitutes one abort cue.

then an abort decision must be made based on other contingencies. If crew remedial action does not correct the affected subsystem. The primary function of the altimeter is to provide an adjustable reference (set for barometric pressure on launch date) for parachute deployment for pad/near pad LES aborts. Subsequent to S-II/S-IVB separation these same two pointers indicate S-IVB oxidizer pressure. but the lights can illuminate it is the primary cue for the transition of abort modes. to be an accurate instrument figure 3-1) during the is not launch 3-2 display panel 1 (L-41. manual sequenced events. figure 3-t) indicate ullage pressures in the S-II and S-IVB oxidizer tank. 3-10 .IVB separation the two left-hand pointers indicate the pressure in the S-II fuel tank. staging. After extinguishing the alarm lights. The three MASTER ALARM lights ON alert the flight crew to critical spacecraft failures or out-of-tolerance conditions identified in the caution and warning light array. ground verification. MASTER There are timer is reset to zero automatically with abort ALARM three LIGHT MASTER ALARM lights. NOTE The Commander's MASTER will not illuminate during the other two MASTER ALARM and the alarm tone will sound. The event initiation. The event timer is started by the liftoff command which enables automatic aborts. LV TANK PRESS GAUGES ALARM light (L-41) launch phase. The command pilot should be prepared to manually back up its start to ensure timer operation. action should be initiated to correct the failed or out-of-tolerance Subsystem. one on main The LV TANK PRESS gauges (X-46. However. EVENT The event TIMER timer (P-51. and S-IVB insertion cutoff. figure 3-1) is a critical display because error the altimeter (B-51. the aerodynamic shape of the CM coupled wi_ the static source location produces errors up to 1800 feet. Therefore. and physiological indications. monitoring roll and pitch program. Secondary abort cues will come from subsystem displays.EMERGENCY DETECTION (' ROLL +ANGULAR VELOCITY+AI-FITUDE ERROR - INDEX PITCH & YAW P ATTITUDE ERROR + I T C H ANGULAR VELOCITY + EULER PITCII YAW ROLL ATTITUDE 0 @ @ ON BALL = 014° = O34 ° = 330 ° TOTAL ATTITUDE SCALE NOTE: ALL YAW POLARITIES INDICATE DYNAMICS + ATTITUDE ERROR + ANGULAR VELOCITY- VEHICLE Figure instrument considered phase. Prior to S-II/S. The two right-hand pointers indicate S-IVB fuel tank pressure until LV/spacecraft separation. figure 3-1). one on main display panel 3 (O-110) and one in the lower equipment bay. the main parachutes must be deployed at an indicated 3800 feet (depends on launch day setting) to ensure deployment above 2000 feet true altitude.

when guidance reference failure and turns is under the GUIDANCE switch can be placed m the CMC position. LV control will automatically be returned to the LVDC at the start of T 6. During certain periods of time the switch can be placed in the SAFE position to inhibit restart of the S-IVB. Timing of these options control of the LVDC and is as follows: 1. in the IU after T 5 + 100 seconds will This signal must remain on for at least Translunar Injection Inhibit signal is Ignition Sequence Start signal for as present in the IU. In this position the LVDC will sequence the S-IVB systems through the steps necessary to accomplish a restart and inject the spacecraft into the mission trajectory.0 seconds. 1. but before TLI commit at T 6 + 9 minutes 20 seconds.EMERGENCY DETECTION LAUNCH VEHICLE SWITCH NORMAL CONTROLS XLUNAR SWITCH l: GUIDANCE The GUIDANCE switch is a two position guarded toggle switch with the two positions being IU and CMC (AD-57.0 Reference Failure the coast modes. automatic sequence Changed 5 October 1969 3-11 . With the GUIDANCE switch in the CMC position and no guidance reference failure. Timebase reference 6 will not initiate failure has occurred. Refer to OPERATION SEQUENCE for deFmition of time bases. position after T 6 is started. on past T 6 + 41. Also. the LVDC will accept the signal at T 6 + 41. but prior to T 6 + 41.being INJECT and SAFE (AD-59. automatically if In this circumstance. The RHC in this mode is not a proportional control. the astronaut can initiate time base 6 by insertion of a command through the DSKY which will supply an S-IVB Ignition Sequence Start signal to the IU.3 seconds and inhibit ambient repressurization.attitude orientation will be maintained with reference to local horizontal. If the XLUNAR switch position after TLI commit the signal and S-IVB restart is placed in the SAFE the LVDC will not accept will occur. Since the disabled by the S-IVB long as the discrete is not remain No Guidance During failure T 6 can Receipt be initiated following a of this S-IVB Ignition 4. 5 seconds. If the XLUNAR switch is placed in the SAFE =2. The switch. a guidance and only If the XLUNAR switch is placed in the SAFE position prior to the start of T 6 the LVDC will accept the signal upon starting T 6 and inhibit the restart sequence.0 seconds and inhibit O2H 2 burner ignition and the remainder of the restart sequence. This translunar injection (TLI) inhibit is a temporary action the first time it is used but if a second injection opportunity is inhibited it becomes final and no restart of the S-IVB can be subsequently accomplished. Condition position after ambient repressurization (T 6 + 8 minutes 17. 3. the guidance reference with the GUIDANCE switch and the spacecraft can assume control of the LV any time the switch is placed in the CMC position. If the XLUNAR switch is placed in the SAFE this circumstance. The switch controls a relay in the IU which selects either the IU or the CMC in the. NOTE If spacecraft takeover has been effected in T5. the discrete should seconds. 5. the LVDC will function in a follow-up mode. the LVDC will accept the signal within two seconds and inhibit S-IVB ignition. If the switch the is turned OFF before will automatic not be sequence. (The switch function is interlocked in the LVDC such that a guidance reference failure must be recognized before the CMC switch position will be honored. Sequence Start signal start T 6 immediately. Normal position of the switch is INJECT. This function has the following effect on the launch countdown. During S-II and S-IVB burn phases the rotational hand control (RHC) is used to generate the attitude error signals. this is the only way in which guidance reference failure. The amount of attitude error transmitted to the LVDC is a function of how long the RHC is out of detent. the LVDC will accept the signal at T 6 + 5 minutes 41. switch is IU. If the XLUNAR switch is placed in the SAFE position after O2H 2 burner ignition (T 6 + 41.3 seconds). is not interlocked T 5 and TT. Placing the spacecraft control of the The XLUNAR switch is a two position toggle switch with the. two positions. at which time the LVDC returns to its programmed attitude timeline. figure 3-1). After TLI commit (T 6 + 9 minutes 20 seconds) only way remaining to effect TLI inhibit is with T-handle. entered. When LV control is returned to the LVDC in TT. figure 3-1). if placed in the OFF position results in an "EDS Unsafe" function. The LVDC will maintain the attitude existing at the time control is returned from the spacecraft until the next programmed maneuver. attitude orientation will be maintained inertially.3 seconds. EDS POWER The EDS SWITCH switch should be in paragraph the the of section VII POWER the EDS POWER position during prelaunch and launch operations.spacecraft as the source of flight corttrol attitude error signals for the LV: The normal position of the GUIDANCE switch in the CMC position permits LV under certain conditions.) With the switch in the CMC position and LVDC recognition of a guidance reference failure. During the S-IC burn phase the CMC provides attitude error signals based on preprogrammed polynomial data. the LV will receive attitude error signals from the CMC via the LVDC. Guidance Reference Failure Condition the LVDC recognizes a on the LV GUID light.3 seconds). When LV control is returned to theLVDC during Ts. but before T 6 + 5 minutes 41. During the LV burn modes.

the switch will not stop launch. stage following The EDS displays The Auto-Abort however. switch is turned OFF after T-8. capability will not be enabled. liftoff the EDS switch is placed in the AUTO position an automatic 1. b. by the LV cutoff. Throughout LV burn phases the IU switch is flight program inhibited and has no effect if used. the two 3-1). disabled by the crew. This allows for sating of the S-IVB stage in earth orbit by ground command. If the switch is turned OFF during the automatic sequence (starting at T-187 seconds). both having ACCEPT and BLOCK positions (0-66. prior to separation to allow a ground command to lock the relay in the ACCEPT position. depending upon which relays in the EDS circuit activate first.9 seconds.0 seconds. but is for In T 5 and T 7.2 seconds and the countdown T-24 4. 3-12 Changed 5 October 1969 . abort can be initiated. Its purpose IWARNIN G] separation of the spacecraft CSM separation. 3. one for the CM and one for the IU. the countdown stopped immediately and the launch is scrubbed that day. When either of these time delays expires the LM tension tie firing circuit is deadfaced and a guillotine is fired severing the LV/SC umbilical. two or more S-IC engines drop below 90% of rated Base Update thrust. This leaves the spacecraft (CSM and LM) ready VEHICLE for extraction from the S-IVB/IU/SLA. transposition If the SC EDS POWER switch is returned to the ON When the switch is placed in the SEP position. a ground command can be sent which will lock the relay in the IU ACCEPT position. position after liftoff. At approximately T 7 + 20 minutes the flight program a switch selector command which locks the relay ACCEPT position.0 seconds and the countdown is recycled to T-24 minutes. portions of the auto abort in pitch or yaw Navigation Update Sector Dump and Single Memory Location Dump Generalized Switch Selector Command from T 5 + 100 seconds to T6-9 seconds and from T 7 + 20 seconds to end of S-IVB operations from T 5 + 0 to T 6 + 9 minutes 20 seconds and from T 7 + 0 to end of S-IVB operations The or 20 degrees two engine out per second and LV rate system can be manually disabled. abort will be initiated if: occurs between the a LV structuralfaflure theCSM.EMERGENCY DETECTION 2. " NOTE During switch T 5 if spacecraft separation should be placed in the is required. manual The S-IVB/LM switch. lU and COMMAND Maneuver Maneuver Time MESSAGE Update Inhibit TIME PERIOD from T 5 + 0 to T6-9 and from T7+0 to S-IVB operations seconds end of 2. will not be operative. However. LAUNCH EDS CONTROLS EDSSWITCH The EDS switch is a two position toggle switch with the two Prior to so that positions being AUTO and OFF (Y-58. Their function is to control relays in the CM and IU which either block or pass ground commands from the Command Communications System (CCS) to the CMC or LVDC. but prior to T-8. Two 30 millisecond parallel time delays are also started at the same time. After T-50 ms. but prior to T-30. Further discussion will be limited to the IU switch. figure is to provide a means of manually initiating from the S-IVB and docking. "6. however. an immediate abort may result. the S C EDS power off will have the following a. 3. The following table shows the time periods commands when the IU switch is effective for various ground if placed in the ACCEPT position. ordnance charges are ftred which separate the tension ties securing the LM legs to the spacecraft LM adapter (SLA). the countdown is stopped at T-8. is stopped is recycled but at to T 8 Enable maneuver Target Execute (S-IVB evasive & lox dump) from T 7 + 2 hours S-IVB operations from to end of Update Maneuver A Attitude) T 5 + 0 to T 6 -9 seconds of S-IVB (Communications from T 7 + 0 to end operations from prior to T-16. If the switch is turned OFF after T-30 seconds. the countdown is stopped at T-30. If the day). figure 3-1). LV rates exceed 4 degrees per second in roll. is turned OFF after T-16. S-IVB/LM SWITCH switch is a two position guarded toggle positions being OFF and SEP (Y-63. UP TLM SWITCHES The UP TLM switches are a pair of two position toggle switches. effect on the mission.9 seconds and the launch is recycled to T-24 minutes (or is scrubbed for that 5. figure 3-1).2 TD&E Enable (Alternate Mission in Earth Orbit) T 5 + 0 to T 6 -9 seconds If the switch seconds. the countdown T-16.9 seconds (ignition command). they are automatically sequencer prior to center engine individually. minutes. when the switch is in the IU ACCEPT position (command window open).2 seconds. the IU ACCEPT position will issue in the IU prior to T-50 ms (launch commit).

figure 3-1). figure 3-1). figure 3-1). With the switch in OFF the EDS automatic abort capability is disabled. the and not the LES sequence will occur.TWR JETT SWITCHES q There are two redundant TWR JETT guarded toggle switches (AA-62. the S-II/S-IVB separation by placing the S-II/S-IVB SPS abort sequence L i The CSM/LM FINAL SEP switches are a pair of two position guarded toggle switches (Y-60. figure 3-1) is a toggle down position.LV RATES SWITCH NOTE The ELS AUTO switch must be in the AUTO position before operate.000 sequence will commence.. from the S-II/S-IVB switch. the OFF position and should only be placed in the LOGIC position during normal reentry or following an SPS abort. figure 3-1). normal post-abort However. If the CANARD DEPLOY from that pushbutton is depressed. switch (AG-57. Their purpose is to provide a means of manually initiating ffmal separation of the LM docking ring.e. The purpose of this switch is to enable or disable EDS automatic abort capability for a two engine out condition. capability ABORT With the is disabled. SYSTEM switch in OFF the EDS automatic abort There figure are two ELS two position 3-1). the two positions being AUTO and OFF (AA-59. The switch in the RCS CMD position will inhibit propellant dump and PC motor fining at any time. The switch controls relays in the IU to accomplish these functions. S-I I/S-IV. to allow the MAIN the 14 second timer to expire CHUTE RELEASE switch will ELS SWITCHES The LV RATES switch is a two position toggle switch. These switches can also be used to initiate an LES abort in case of a failure in either the EDS or the translational controller. explosive bolts and the tower jettison motor are fftred to jettison the LET. The left hand switch toggle switches is guarded to (AC-48. and drogue deployment. They are normally used by the Command Pilot to accomplish CM/SM separation prior to the reentry phase. Appropriate relays are also de-energized ELS LOGIC is automatically or auto EDS initiated LES enabled following abort. in either fftrst burn or second burn. functions If the switch $o the OFF function. If the switch is activated at any time below 30. and the altitude).B SWITCH The S-II/S-IVB switch is a two position guarded toggle switch with positions of LV STAGE and OFF (AD-58. and titre the pitch control (PC) motor if an abort is initiated during the ftrst 42 seconds of the mission. guarded (Y-62. altitude. because canard deployment and subsequent events will not occur if the failure was in the EDS instead of the translational controller. the S-IVB cutoff sequence can be manually initiated by placing the S-II/S-IVB switch in the LV STAGE position. the two positions being AUTO and OFF (AA-58. the landing i. During a normal entry or an SPS abort. It is moved to the up release the main chutes after the backup is switch ON 10. and then only below 45. It should any manual be manually Changed 5 October 1969 3-13 . In the LV STAGE position it is used to manually initiate the staging sequence of the S-II from the S-IVB and/or manually initiate S-IVB engine cutoff. Normal position of the switch is AUTO.000 feet will also deploy. The propellant dump and PC motor are inhibited by the SC sequencer at 42 seconds. ABORT SYSTEM . ABORT SYSTEM . which enables the EDS automatic abort capability. The purpose of this switch is to enable or disable EDS automatic abort capability for excessive LV rates. Failure to jettison the ring could possibly hamper normal earth landing system (ELS) functions.EMERGENCYDETECTION CSM/LM FINAL SEP SWITCHES so that if an abort is commanded. No automatic This switch is armed by the ELS LOGIC 10K barometric switches closed (below The 2 ENG OUT switch is a two position toggle switch. figure 3-1) should be depressed 11 seconds after abort initiation.2 ENG OUT SWITCH Subsequent to S-IVB engine start. the docking ring must be jettisoned by actuation of the CSM/LM FINAL SEP switches. Normal position of the switch is AUTO.000 feet Module has landed. figure 3-1). spring loaded The two redundant. LES and apex cover jettison If activated below 10. which enables the EDS automatic abort capability. Subsequent to S-II engines start sequence can be manually initiated switch in the LV STAGE position. the events will CANARD WARNING ] DEPLOY pushbutton (Y-50. All then proceed automatically. figure 3-1) are switches. MAIN RELEASE SWITCH The MAIN RELEASE switch guarded to the position to manually Command provided. The switch is normally in the DUMP AUTO position prior to liftoff in order to automatically dump the CM reaction control system (RCS) propellants. CM/SM SEP SWITCHES CM/SM SEP switches momentary ON. When these switches are placed in AUTO. figure 3-1).000 feet altitude. the main chutes feet (pressure altitude). all automatic point on will proceed normally. is examined by the LVDC on a nominal computer cycle basis and there may be a delay of up to two seconds between switch positioning and initiation of the cutoff sequence. This switch performs a dual function. This signal. . is used for this purpose it must be reset position to enable its S-IVB cutoff PRPLNTSWlTCH The PRPLNT switch is a two position toggle switch with the two positions being DUMP AUTO and RCS CMD (AA-57. to the OFF position.

[ViAIN DEPLOY Switch switch is used to deploy main they fail to deploy automatically barometric pressure switches close. However. The CSM/LV SEP switch is also used as a backup to initiate separation of the SLA when an SPS abort cannot be initiated from the TRANSLATIONAL CONTROLLER. and then separate the CM/SM. figure 3-1). initiates CM/SM separation. the CM by the use of the CM RCS PRESS CONTROLS CONTROLLER CONTROLLER. of the CANARD DEPLOY Switch and has positions is AUTO to enable automatic sequencing of the ELS during a CM descent period.il These are a group of covered pushbuttons switches (X-51. Translation in the + X axis can also be accomplished by use of the direct ullage pushbutton. therefore. CSM/LV SEP Switch switch (0-68. The T-handle is mounted approximately parallel to the SC axis.000 foot barometric pressure switches close. The T-handle can also provide translation control of the CSM The MAIN DEPLOY parachutes in the event when the 10. It is also a backup switch to fire the LET jettison motor in the event the TWR JETT switches fail to ignite the motor. can be used to RCS switch. Returning the T-handle to neutral before seconds expires results only in an engines cutoff rather than a full abort sequence. The four panels are then rotated away from the LM by ordnance thrusters. CW rotation of the T-handle transfers control the 3 signal of the SC from the CMC to the SCS. When the switch is pressed it initiates ordnance devices which explosively sever the SLA. I LES MOTOR The LES FIRE Switch FIRE switch is used to fire the launch of manual backup for which are otherwise backed up if time permits.EMERGENCY DETECTION figure 3-1) which provide a means abort and normal reentry events sequenced automatically. fires the LES motors. and deployment and main chutes simultaneously. rate damping is not available when using this method. Upon reaching an angle of 45 degrees spring thrusters jettison the panels away from the SC. and longitudinally. circumferentially around the forward end. the CM RCS must be pressurized. the CCW rotation of the T-handle commands LV engine cutoff. however. SEQUENCER EVENTS-MANUALPUSHBUTTONS CM RCS He DUMP the CM He supply by purging the CM RCS manifolds through the RCS engines if depletion occur normally as an automatic function during reentry. into four panels. The SPS provides primary thrust for major velocity changes 3-14 Changed 5 October 1969 . which is mounted commanders couch. Its normal position causing LES of drogue MOTOR escape motor for an LES abort if the motor does not fire automatically. APEX COVER have to be manually initiated under these TRANSLATIONAL The TRANSLATIONAL on the left arm of the accomplish several functions. The right hand switch is not guarded AUTO and MAN. JETT Switch The APEX COVER JETT switch is used to jettison the APEX COVER in the event it fails to jettison automatically during an abort or a normal reentry. If the switch is placed in MAN it will inhibit al[ automatic sequencing of the ELS. T-handle movement will cause corresponding SC translation. CM RCS PRESS SWITCH The CM RCS PRESS switch is a two position guarded toggle The CANARD DEPLOY switch is used to deploy the canard in the event it does not d'_ploy automatically during an abort. used to manually deploy the main IA aborts. pressurize the CM RCS. SPS ullage and firing would circumstances. Activation of ELS LOGIC switch below 10. A manual LES abort sequence is initiated by rotating the T-handle fully CCW. Any time the CM is to be separated from the SM. The normal sequence of events for an abort or normal CM/SM SEP is to automatically deadface the umbilicals. DROGUE DEPLOY Switch The DROGUE DEPLOY switch is used to deploy the drogue parachutes in the event they fail to deploy automatically 2 seconds after the 24. resets the SC sequencer and initiates the CSM/LV NOTE separation sequence.000 feet altitude will initiate the landing sequence and apex cover jettison.000 foot This switch can also be parachutes during mode CM The RCS He DUMP Switch switch is used to initiate depletion of along one or more axes. if the automatic pressurized ABORT pressurization fails. For a manually initiated SPS abort. can be The CSM/LV SEP switch is used as the primary means of initiating CSM/LV separation after the ascent phase of the mission. The same ordnance train separates the CSM/LV mnbilical and the LM/GSE umbilical. SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM (SPS) CONTROL lines and does not abort or :. resets the SC sequencer and initiates the post abort sequence. IWARHING Do not use ELS LOGIC switch during normal launch. This sends redundant engine cutoff commands to the LV (engine cutoff from the SC is inhibited during the fLrst 30 seconds of flight).

. Gimbal trim thumbwheels fZ-46 ) can also be used to position the gimbals in the SCS AV mode. WARNING Both AV TIIRUST switches OFF position if they are used J must be placed in the to stop the engine: ATT SET Switch Tile ATT SET switch (R-tO. figure 3-1). The SPS TtlRUST light (K-49) will illuminate when the engine is firing. NOTE The automatic RCS ENABLE manually. _m_s_ll_v NOTE motors should be activated one at a time due to ldgh current drain during the start proceu. the SOl or manually. In the down position switch I receives nower from MNA and switch 2 receives power fro. The switches are normally m the AUTO position. (both) by: automatically if instability running down switches Two DIRECT switches (W-35. translation. lIPS llmlthm can be commanded CMC. In the SPS mode i. It does not provide rate damping. _u_df to SCILV J_watJon and prior to C_l/Skl The SIPS b abe used to accompYi_ mode !i. AUTO RCS SELECT Switches [WARNINGJ Power to the RCS control box assembly is controlled by 16 switches (0-14. SPS Engine Shutdown In the CMC mode normal engine shutdown the CMC as a result of internal computations.48). Prerequisites are +X translation (from TtIC or DIRECT ULLAGE pushbutton). figure 3-1) provide for manual control of the SM RCS engines._ mecm for p_ar_. fllNre 3-1}. Switches which affect the SCS are discussed in the following paragraphs. (Z-36) until is a The SCS is a backup system to the primary guidance navigation and control system (PGNCS). Ignition is maintained TIIRUST OFF command is generated. Maflual control positioning the rotational control hardover direct solenoids for the desired axis change. Engine Stm SPS _ =war position the xM . 2. Switch 1 controls power to the direct solenoid switches in rotational controller I and switch 2 controls power to the direct solenoid sw_tches m rotational controller 2. STAB I LITY CONTRO L SYSTEM (SCS} UIIqle must be provided prior to any SIS burn.. in "[hese ace acUvated by tiw _ GD4BAL MOTORS switches (AC-42. is to acltteved engage by the EMS &V counter placing tile AV TIlRUST to OFF In the manual mode the SPS TIIRUST switch must be placed to NORMAL or the _3V TllRUST switches (both) to OFF. Ulhqie Is normally provided by the TllC (+X trandaUon) and backup is by the DIRECT ULLAGE pushbutton (Z-$8. _ 3-1). 0 (L-. figure 3-1 ) selects the st)t rot. The direct solenoids are not affected as all SCS electronics are bypassed by activation of the DIRECT RCS switches.7 I! mbmqmmt wpumtJon. ill tual_ control 1_ Vecm¢ ConCol eamu_ tin th_IVaborts. It has the capability of controlling rotation. The TVC GIMBAL DRIVE switches (AE-42) are three position toggle switches. Individual engines may be enabled or disabled as required. in the SCS mode. _tion). SOS or the RHC. 3.. +X translation and TtlRUST ON commands can be removed and ignition Js maintained until a THRUST OFF command is generated. to O. or the TltC rotated CW. tile SC CONT switch must be in tile SCS position. Control _ to tile gimbal motors can come from the OAC. in the CMC mode TtlRUST ON is commanded as a result of internal computations. Power to the attitude control logic is also controlled in this manner. which thereby controls all attitude hold and/or maneuvering capability using SCS electronics (automatic coils). In the manual mode the Si'S TtiRUST switch placed in DIRECT ON. coils cannot be activated until the is activated either by the MESC or The SPS TtlRUST switch is a single-point when in tile DIRECT ON position with "IHRUST switches in the NORMAL position._1 ('hanged 7-" 5 October 1')69 : I'.. Their purpose is to select the source and routing of TVC "_signab. SPS thrust vector and associated displays. . SPS ignition is commanded by pressing the T|IRUSF ON pushbutton (AA-38). SC CONT switch (W-38) in CMC position and TliC in neutr'.) MNB. For all modes AV THRUST switches (Z-41) will be ia the NORMAL position and flight combustion stability monitor (FCSM) SPS A and SPS B switches (AE-47) will be in the RESET/OVERRIDE position.P_=_=. In the up position both s_itches receive power l rom both MNA and MNB. FCSM engine shutdown failure the AV is commanded by D I R ECT Switches can be commanded is detected.d (except for +X trans. Preraluisites are +X translation (from THC or DIRECT ULLAGE pushbutton) and EMS/AV counter :=. The DIRECT ULLAGE pushbutton is a momentary switch and must be held depressed until the ullage maneuver is complete. Once SPS ignition has occured in this mode.

cr _1 3-3 for _L_'.. .65°/sec 7.I (.0 °/see which would cause the pulse-width of the resulting output command to be of too short a duration to activate the RCS solenoids. a fumcltcm ¢4 llw IUEI"]E switclk The deadband 1T-39. Needles =re zeroed by maneuvering SC or by moving the AT[ SET dials.0 ° MAXIMUM +4. Instead of driving the SC from limit-to-limit with high rates by firing the RCS engines all the time.2 +_2... figure 3-1).total attitude Position UP for the ATr Function IMU SET resolwr_ as outlined below. MIN IMP LIMIT CYCLE with inputs in a rate Provides minimum impulse capability through the rotational controller._:-.k detlcct. Needles zeroed by moving SC or A]_I" SET dials.m (prolw_ional rate mode oIlly) is a functton of the RAIl Iwitci_ position. the engines are fired in spurts proportional in length and repetition rate to the switching amplifier outputs. The SCS system TVC. RATE and ATT DEADBAND The switching a.. hence. This is accomplished by pulse-width modulation of the switching amplifier outputs. SC CONT Sv_tch The SC CONT switch (W-38._ ()._tes. Figure Switch 3-3 The LIMIT CYCLE switch (T-37. FDAI error needles display difference= resolved into body coordinate=. figure 3-1) selects control a= Ihted below: Position CMS De=cription Select= the G&N system SC attitude and TVC auto-pilot.iUM +0.0 °/see L0tl HIGH 0. This will cause GDC to drive to null tile error.0 RATECMD from rotational controller from the BMAG's configuration. t.spla_ .5 degrees) to apply direct inputs to the solenoid driver amplifiers. the-GDC and ball go to All" SET dial value. inserts a psuedo-rate function which provides the capability of maintaining low SC rates while holding the SC attitude within the selected deadband limits (limit cycling). Changed . The rates commanded at maxnnun_ _tick deflection (soft stop) are shown in figure 34. Extremely small attitude ccrrections could be commanded MAXIMUM PROPORTIONAL RATE COMMAND RATE SWITCH POSITION MAXIMUM PROPORTIONAL RATE COMMAND PITCH AND YAW ROLL 0..uplifier Switch can he interpreted as a rate BMAG MODE Switches Figure 3-4 dcadband The BMAG MODI. for the FDAI using S('S inputs figure 3-1 } ". New attitude reference is established by de pressing GDC ALIGN button. Or m alti4_le (minimum) dudlmnd. figure lmuts arc 3-1) An Applies inertial memurement unit (IMU) gimbai reudver signal to ATI" SET re=olvert. figure 3-1) when the SC is in the SCS mode of The three MANUAL are only operative operation. when placed in the LIMIT CYCLE position.2 ° ' +2. additional dleadbend can be enabled in the attitude control _[ with _ ATT DEADBAND switch (T-38 fi&qJre ]1 ) _.65°/see 20. Position ACCEL CMD ATTITUDE Description Provides direct RCS firing as a result of moving the rotational controller out of detent (2. ..2 ° +8. The rate cofnmanded by a constant _tl_.:tober 19t_9 L. A one-shot multivibrator is connected in parallel to ensure a long enough pulse to fire the engines.0 ° LOW +_0. Provides proportional rate command HIGH RATE SWITCH POSITION DEADB/_qD SWITCH RATE DEADBAND °/SEC POSITION ATT DEADBANO SWITCH POSITION MINI. FDAI error needles display differences. An auto-pilot also applied to CMC. Applies GDC resolver signal to All" SET resolvers.elect d.switches (Y-33. controls computer through control controlled the difatal discrete is the spacecralt DOWN GDC SCS the SC attitude and MANUAL ATTITUDE Switches ATTITUDE switches (T-34.

There are five displays and/or indicators which monitdr automatic or manual entries and four switches to be used in conjunction with these displays.05 G). figure 3-1) is the cue for the crew to actuate the . During atmospheric reentry (after .05 G threshold comparator Tests lower trip point of corridor verification comparator No.EMERGENCY DETECTION EMS FUNCTION SWITCH OPERATION j| Operational Mode Swi tch Selection Switch AV Position _ Description AV mode Start rotate at AV and clockwise Operational mode for monitoring AV maneuvers Establish circuitry for slewing AV counter for self test or as operational Operational mode for self test of the A V subsystem A V set AV test Self test and entry mode Start at No. ATT 1 RATE 2 RATE 1 BMAG Set No. l Tests lower trip point of . 1 provides the rate displays on the FDAI. . and the rangeto-go subsys tern Tests higher trip point of corridor verification comparator Establish circuitry for slewing range-to-go counter for operational and test modes Establish circuitry for slewing G-V plotter scroll for operational mode 0perational mode for monitoring entry mode Turns OFF all power except to the SPS thrust light and switch Iigh ting. 2 provides the rate displays on the FDAI. I provides attitude on the FDAI. There is no Body Mounted Attitude Gyro (BMAG) attitude reference available.05 G switch (AE-38). 2 provides the rate display. 5 RNG set Vo set Entry OFF Figure 3-5 Position RATE 2 Description BMAG Set No. ENTRY EMS ROLL Switch The ENTRY EMS ROLL switch (AE-37. G-V plotter. ENTRY. reference primary guidence control system (PGNCS) entries and AV maneuvers and to permit manual entries in to event of a malfunction. figure 3-I) enables the EMS roll display for the earth reentry phase of the flight. while Set No.05 G light (K-48.05 G threshold comparator Tests higher trip point of . 1 and rotate counterclockwise No. MONITOR SYSTEM (EMS) displays and controls to show automatic _ENTRY The EMS provides Changed 5 October 1969 3-17 . There is no BMAG attitude reference available. 4 Tests velocity integration circuitry. the SC is maneuvered about the stability roll axis rather than the body roll axis. BMAG Set No. g-servo circuitry. NO.05 G Switch Illumination of the .

selected by the EMS STBY I. umed am outlined in figure 3-S. oeting on the beck of the mular _roli ts driven m the vertlc.05 G light ON). tape is driven from right to left by pulses which are proporhonal to the aoeeleration alOnl. Corridor Indicators buildup over a given period angle can be evaluatcd. The "'exit rays" are significant only between tt_ entry velocity and circular orbit velocity atgl are. By couplinl • component of the roll dlpud into h y•w channel.about the stabilit_ _1.05G light) (K-48. oaly di_layed on that portion of the pattern. EM8 FUNCTION Switch _8 Ika_ Indka_ The EMS FUNCTION switch (G-45.)l_¢l lilt' ( s. "ihis or not the entry "skipout. I. ABORT MODES AND LIMITS The abort modes and limits listed in figures 3.mous m _ d_. al direebon in proportion to the total acceleration.2 G at the end of a tell second period after threshold This indicates a shallow entry ang._. LAUNCH ESCAPE SYSTEM The Launch Escape System (LIiS) consists ol a solal propellant launch escape (LE) tnotor used It) pt.C9 r ILMIIIOP. i... If the trace becomes tangent to any of these rays. t i. the upper ligilt will be Illuminated. the undakable =ipal t= cancelled. The predicted range will be obtained from the PGNCS or ground stations and inserted into the range display during EMS range set prior to entry.ator rapre_nts 360 degrees of. The stylus which Ieribel a c.n safe distance front the._ity vector._ and that tile lift vector should be down for controlled entry.. figure 3-1 ) are located on the fact: of the roll stability indicator (L-45)." of the nussion will Escape System or can be obtaineti from current By sensing the total acceleration ol time. G.05 G and turns off when it falls below . The front surface of the mylar _roil is imprinted with patterns comg_ting of "'high G-rays" and "'exit rays. Id result in either atmospheric exits at supercircular speeds or exccuive load factors at any speed. and ""VC modes. film'• 3-1 ) provides a vnsual indl_lkm of iIw roll atblmlle of the CM .5 seconds after tile acceleration reaches . the vei. _ r_ of th. a lower lC|ll's()ll lilt)till 3"18 ('hanged 5 October 1'_69 g.ontmal launch phal_ voice callouts are listed in figure 3-8. MAN i. If the acceleration level is greater that 0. it indicates a guidance malfunction and the need for manual takeover &V/RANGE Display if EMS FUNCTION Position for manual entry entry backup display.. It remains ON until the G-level reaches 2 G's and then goes OFF.V Plottw The EMS MODE switch (!-44. Does not countdown permit negative circuits.. "Ihe im printed "high-G-rays" and "exit rays'" enable detection of primary guidance failures of the type that _o." The ''high-G-rays" must be menitored from initial entry velocity down to 4000 feet _ second.tor (pOSitive liffl and (h.. Tile pointer up position (0 dqpr•_) JmJicMes maxinlum "ft. therefore.l . The slope of the G-V trace is visually compared with these rays. The . 2. the yaw rate wjro pneratu eat undade_le m_nd. The range display will also indicate AV (ft/s¢c) during SPS thrusting. skipout will occur. NOTIMore specific times mission documentation.. EMERGENCY MOD _'. switch is OFF.2 G at the end of a ten second period after threshold (.05G. Acts as backup display Initiates tile fun. f_ure 3-1 ) consists of a IeroR of mylar tape and a G-indicating stylus lb. Accelerometer output is fed to a comparison network and will illuminate the .05 G. .b callable of conti.5 seconds or more than 1. laLlnch vehick'.I_/I)llrllclrlm Com0qnently.. Resets circuits Removes power following tests.45. figure 3-1) provides the first visual indication of total acceleration sensed at the reentry threshold (approximately 290.m_ (180 dqreu) indicatel maximum lift-down vectm (nqlati_ lift). steep enough to prevent superorbital The two corridor indicator lights (K-45 and M-45.02G (skipout). The light will come on not less than 0. 2. bKIhT.up _e_.alh data is essential to determine whether i_. The lower light illuminates if the acceleration is equal to or less thaa 0. for G&N entry.e.05 G Light) The threshold indicator (. Aborts performed during the ascent phase be performed by using either the Launch the Service Propulsion System. EMS MODE Switch roll _lall_llty imlicator (L. or auto acceleration spikes into Threshold Indicator (. veldcJe Irotation. figure 3-1) Is • 12 I_ition mode =elector switch. a.. figure 3-1) following functions in the positions indicated: NORMAL performs the G-V plotter amaembly (H-48. The _)$ G switch perform= thi= coupling function. Ihe reentry Ihgl.Tl_ display .6 and 3-7 arc based on a nominal launch trajectory.05 G lamp when the acceleration reaches .'" angle The &V/RANGE display provides a readout of inertnai flight path distance in nautical miles to predicted splashdown after .000 feet).:tion FUNCTION switch.

crew events if desired. With a failed platform the alternate method will be to introduce a five degree per second pitch rate into the system. The LES would likewise deploy the parachutes at the proper altitudes. Therefore. Upon closure of barometric switches. The canard subsystem was designed specifically for this altitude region to initiate a tunable in the Changed 5 October 1969 3-19 . Figure 3-6 and a canard subsystem. a pitch control (PC) motor is mounted normal to the LE motor to propel the vehicle downrange to ensure water landing and escape the "f£reball. The CM/tower combination will then stabilize BEF as in Mode lB. The SPS abort modes are: Mode II The SM RCS engines are used to propel the CSM away from the LV unless the vehicle is in danger of exploding or excessive tunable rates are present at LV/CSM separation. A complete description on use of the system can be found in the specific mission Abort Summary Document (ASD). or boost into a contingency orbit.000 feet (I LET Mode min 56 sec) Mode 16 sec) Mode min NM min 32 sec) 08 sec) Mode IB LET med alt LET high alt I00.4 00: t 6 00:18 00:28 The automatic sequence replaced by crew action. A brief description is as follows: Mode 1A Low Altitude Mode pitch plane. In these two cases the SPS engine would be used due to greater Mode IB is essentially the same as Mode IA with the exception of deleting the rapid propellant dump and PC motor features. interrupted. Mode IB Medium Altitude can Fuel rapid dump Canards deploy ELS arm Apex cover jett Drogue deploy He purge Main deploy be prevented. If the LV is stable at abort. the LET is manually jettisoned and the CM oriented to the reentry attitude. kick I (3) For positive _ and S-IVB cutoff maneuver would be recommended the 5 min Mode IV. the tower would be jettisoned and the parachutes automatically deployed. SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM 00:05 00:11 00:14 00:14. maneuver to a planned landing area. The automatic is as follows: sequence of major events from abort initiation As in Mode IA. The CM/tower combination CG is located such that the vehicle will stabilize (oscillations of:t: 30 degrees) in the blunt-end-forward (BEF) configuration. Mode IC High Altitude Time 00:00 Event Abort Ox rapid dump LE and PC motor fire During Mode IC the LV is above the atmosphere. the canard subsystem cannot be used to induce a pitch rate to the vehicle. This method provides a stable reentry but requires a functioning attitude reference." The CM RCS propellants are dumped through the aft heat shield during this mode to preclude damage to the main parachutes.EMERGENCYDETECTION APOLLO ABORT MODES PERIOD • MODE Mode IA DESCRIPTION LET low alt NOTE Pad to 42 sec 42 sec to I00. or The Service Propulsion System (SPS) aborts utilize the Service Module SPS engine to propel the CSM combination away from the LV. intervention can alter the sequence of In Mode IA.000 (I LET (3 min feet 56 to sec} to JETT (3 min NM (I0 IC JETT min 16 RFL:3200 II Full-lift (i) (2) sec) NM to RFL=3200 (I0 min RHL=3350 (I0 insertion III lofted Half-lift 08 sec) CSM NO GO/SLV Mode III RHL=3350 (I0 min NM to 32 sec) (II min to insertion (ll min 39 sec) CSM NO GO/SLV Mode IV CSM GO '_ lofted SPS retro Half-lift SPS to Orbit (3) COI capability (9 min O0 sec) NOTES I) 2) RFL = Full-lift RHL = Half-lift 39 sec) landing landing range range (DSKY: (DSKY: beyond over the _R _R = -400 NM) : 0 NM) to apogee line Single burn to (crew orbit chart) occurs an at apogee 10:16.

pitch.-.. During S-IC powered flight immediate switchover are: a. Pitch and yaw 4" CO per per secOt.. 2. 3... LV GUID LV RATE LT .ON LT . LT .ON cues are: secondary FDA[ attitude LV rates Ground confirmation # Figure 3-7 (Sheet I oF 2) 3.. cues and are restricted to tJ_e time Angle Note: nf Attack (Q a ) = 100% is valld only when preceeded by one of the The Qa abort cue fcllowing cues. . Attitude error (roll... Note: control engine failure occurring later than 50 seconds the Qa into For control engine limit Is not valid failures prior to 50 seconds.d second L/O to S-l_/S-II staging (Excluding staging) $-IC/S-I! staging to S-IVB Roll L/O to S-IVB CO . . 3. as an abort cue. • RAT(S 1.Imam i i AIIOk'TLIMITS J .20 ('hanged 5 October 1969 . b.. .nary cue is: LV GUID The a... ?0 ° p_r _econd MAX Q REGION The following period of 50 1.ON the two cues for platform failure requiring an 2. abort PLATFORM FAILURE I. After LV RATE switch deactivation the pri. or yaw) = 5° Single S-IC flight. limits seconds represent single to 2 minutes. c..

l ! MI_. Upstage immediately if the failures occur after S-IVB to orbit capability is achieved. 2. Stngle engine fatlure loss two or more engtnes Simultaneous ENGINE FAILURE (S-II) 1. Abort if prior to S-IVB to orbit cai_bility. } It"Jr. Ill.yaw 2.'. is lost (rates > 9-/sec) otherwise conttnue mission. do not upstage after level sense arm (approx. Three or more engine failures [ WARNING I Unless advised by ground. Stngle engine failure fatlures Continue rlssfon Double engt_e Abort If LV contrc.' _ ' (%)l*. 2. Any two engines CH to IU breakup ABORTLIMITS (L/O UNTIL DEACTIVATE AT 2 MIN) 4-04 + _. 3. 8:15 GET) Inhibit of S-IVB engine start may occur.t'l ' ") .S _ per second 29-0_ _ O-S ° _er second ENGINE FAILURE (S-IC) 1.d confirmdtion. or IV) Immediate abnrt on qrour. ENGINE FAILURE (S-IVB) S-II SECOND-_LANE SEPARATION FAILURE S-IVB DIFFERENTIAL TANX PRESSURE LIMITS P (ORBITAL COAST) LH2 > L02 = 26 psid L02 >LH 2 : 36 psld L02> 50 psia Abor_ (Mode II. 3. Rate pitch rol1 fatl .R_#('y DqRTIR_'TKaN ) AUTOMATICABORTLIMITS 1.

1 VI>23.ON S-II SEP LIGHT .OFF EDS RATES .OFF* EDS ENG .ON CHECK GPI (MOMENTARILY) OMNI ANT-D (AZ <96 °) REPORTSTATUS*_ INBOARD OFF REPORTSTATUS* GO/NO GO FOR STAGING* GO/NO GO FOR STAGING MODE IV (2 BURN) S-II OFF S-II/S-IVB STAGING S-IVB IGNITION S-IVB 65% REPORTSTATUS* MODEIV* (I BURN) MODEI V* REPORTSTATUS SECO* INSURE ORBIT KEY V82E INSERTION* 03:21 04:00 05:00 05:20 06:00 CDR CDR CMP CMP MCC CDR CMP CDR CDR MCC CDR MCC CDR SYSTEMS STATUS ENGINE LIGHT NO.OUT S-II SEP LIGHT .OUT NO AUTO ABORT LIGHT .RCS CMD MONITORa TO T + 2:00 MONITOR CABIN PRESSUREDECREASING MODE IC* (BASED ON I00. 1 .EMERGENCY DETECTION BOOST TO ORBIT PROGTIME // STA LCC LCC IGNITION* LIFTOFF* ACTION/ENTRY *REPORT OPTION/EVENT UMBILICAL DISCONNECT CMC TO PII DET & MET START ABOVE LAUNCH TOWER ROLL AND PITCH PROGRAMSTART ROLL PROGRAMCOMPLETE _ -00:09 +00:01 00:I0 00:12 O0: 30 O0:42 00:50 00:55 01:56 02:00 CDR LCC CDR CDR MCC CMP CDR CMP MCC CMP CLOCK START* CLEAR TOWER* ROLL & PITCH START* ROLLCOMPLETE MODEIB* PRPLNT DUMP .ON ENG LIGHT NO.OFF .START . 1 ENG LIGHT NO.OFF a/PC .800 FPS ENG LIGHTS .000') EDS AUTO .OUT* TOWERJETTISON O_ IGM START INSURE ANGLES CORRECT 06:15 07:00 07:40 08:00 08:30 09 :O0 09:11 09:12 09:15 09:17 10:16 I0:00 II :39 LMP CDR CDR CDR MCC CDR MCC CDR CDR CDR CDR CDR MCC CDR MCC CDR SYSTEMS STATUS VI_21.-lO0 NM NM ENG LIGHT NO.OFF h-.OUT ENG LIGHTS . 1 ENG LIGHT NO.ON* (IF TFF>I+20) MODE I I* MAN ATT (PITCH) .ON .OUT ENG LIGHTS 1THRU 4 .ON ENG LIGHTS .ON ENG LIGHTS .RATE CMD KEY PROCEED GUIDANCE INITIATE* REPORTSTATUS* TRAJECTORYSTATUS* REPORTSTATUS* UPSTAGECAPABILITY TO COl* REPORTSTATUS* GMBLMOT (4) .PC GO/NO GO FOR STAGING* GO/NO GO FOR STAGING* INBOARD OFF IF NO DECREASE BY 17K' DUMP MANUALLY NO AUTO ABORT LIGHT-ON 02:10 02:15 CMP MCC CDR CDR 02:40 02:41 02:42 02 : 44 03:11 03:16 CDR CDR OUTBOARDOFF S-IC/S-II STAGING S-II IGNITION COMMAND S-II 65%* INTERSTAGE JET* KEY V82E TWRJETT (2) .ON MOMENTARILY 11:49 { MCC Figure 3-8 3-22 Changed 5 October 1969 .400 FPS h_lO0 .ON LIFTOFF LIGHT . 5 .

_l i Ind l olh. The length of the SIS burn k dependent upon the time of abort initiation. Upon completion of the retro maneuver. Mode III 1he SIS _ is uml to sJuw the CSM combination • :_l. atmume Cbe reentry attitude._plablle orbitalvelo_. the _lw _ take o_r manual control attitude.7 ! EMI_IIGILFJCy I_TRC'I'ION AV and attitude control authority. When the CSM is a Jal'e distance and stable. A normal entry procedur.al _I_ lad _ the needed AV with the $PS to acquire the _.n vello_ly up to alPpmaimately 3000 feetper second ThlTII is llf¢OlJll1_l_hla I by _ the CSM in an inert. the CM is separated from the $M and maneuvered to a reentry is followed from there. plr_dl_d Ur:. the CM will NptmtN from .ency . If the inertial attntude hold ilJnol_ral_e.el_ elm be ueed to make up for a def_c._ MOdl IV the SM.w n_)rm_l ¢yl(r_ (reteOplde maneuver) so u to land at a predetermined point in the Atlantic Ocean.

..000 gallon fuel tank (figure 4-1) provides the load carrying structural link between the thrust structure and intertank structure......... and certain electronic systems by antennae. environmental control...F TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION IV S-IC STAGE 4-1 4-1 4-3 4-3 4-7 4-7 4-11 4-13 4..... The skin thickness is decreased in eight steps from ....193 inches to .. Aluminum alloy is the primary structural material.... shown in figure 4-1.... The lower thrust ring has four holddown points which support the fully loaded Saturn/Apollo (over 6. The S-IC stage provides first stage boost of the Saturn V launch vehicle to an altitude of about 200..... and ordnance. forward of the engine gimbal plane. ELECTRICAL ... Antislosh ring baffles are located on the inside wall of the tank and antivortex cruciform baffles are located in the lower bulkhead area. Each outboard F-1 engine is protected from aerodynamic loading by a conically shaped engine fairing (figure 4-1).. The S-IC stage (Figure 4-1) is a cylindrical booster.. and thrust structure... The major components. propulsion. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL .. through the RP-I tank...... base heat shield............ electrical. The skin panels.. FUEL TANK the fuel tank................... PNEUMATIC CONTROLS .... and the venting of the lox tank and interstage cavity.. FLIGHT CONTROL .... PROPELLAN7S ...... A lightweight foam filler. It then separates from the S-I1 stage and falls to earth about 360 nautical miles downrange.... FORWARD SKIRT The thrust structure assembly (figure 4-1) redistributes locally applied loads of the five F-I engines into uniform loading about the periphery of the fuel tank.. engine accessories. The tank is cylindrical.. fuel tank.. are stiffened and strengthened by ring frames and stringers. .... and terminate at the F-1 engines. ring frames The corrugated are fabricated skin panels and from 7075-T6 The 216....... Support for four helium bottles is provided by the ring baffles..... The stage interfaces structurally and electrically with the S-II stage.190 inches at the forward section. oxidizer tank............... This structure provides a lox fill and drain interface to the intertank umbilical. propellants... One opening vents circumferential aluminum... are the forward skirt...00-inch thick... INS TR UMENTA TION .. It also provides support for the five F-I engines... as necessary.... The skin segments aluminum alloy........ powered by five F-1 rocket engines.000 TANK gallon lox tank is the structural link between at the base of the S-IC stage... The heat shield panels are constructed of 15-7 PH stainless steel honeycomb.. OXIDIZER The 345....000 feet (approximately 36 miles)......... The cylindrical tank skin is stiffened by "integrally machined" T stiffeners...... The base heat shield is located from lifting are fabricated off at full F-I from 7075-T6 The aft end of the forward skirt (figure 4-1) is attached to the oxidizer (lox) tank and the forward end interfaces with the S-II stage. acts as an exclusion riser to minimize unusable residual fuel.. pneumatic controls... and provides acceleration to increase the vehicle inertial velocity to 9.l 8 4-23 INTERTANK SECTION I INTRODUCTION . The heat shield provides thermal shielding for critical engine components and base region structural components for the duration of the flight..... The tank is a 2219-T87 aluminum alloy cylinder with ellipsoidal upper and lower bulkheads. The fairings also house the retrorockets and the engine actuator . the forward skirt and the intertank section.. and pneumatically with two umbilical service arms.......... The forward skirt has accomodations for the forward umbilical plate.... which is bonded to the bottom of the tank. Five lox ducts run from the lox tank.... and environmental control ducts... fabricated from 7075-T6 aluminum..000.. brazed to . A cruciform baffle at the base of the tank serves to reduce both slosh and vortex action..... The 2219-T87 aluminum skin thickness the aft section THRUST is decreased in four steps from .... restrain the vehicle engine thrust.. ORDNANCE INTRODUCTION .... three tail service masts.....170 inches at the forward section. propellant lines... The engines use liquid oxygen as the oxidizer and RP-1 as the fuel. retrorockets........ Stage and engine characteristics are listed in Figure 1-3..........000 pounds) and also.. The center engine is fixed and the four outboard engines are gimbaled for vehicle attitude control... STRUCTURE .. propellants..... 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter............029 feet per second. It also interfaces structurally.....010 inch steel face sheets. The major systems of the stage are: structures..254 inches at the aft section to .... intertank section... engine fairings and fins..... with ellipsoidal upper and lower bulkheads. STRUCTURE The intertank structure provides structural continuity ffetween the lox and fuel tanks... Ring baffles (figure 4-1) attached to the skin stiffeners stabilize the tank wall and serve to reduce lox sloshing....... at STRUCTURE Tile S-IC structure design reflects the requirements of F-1 engines. flight control. 1.... instrumentation. control... PROPULSION ....... The structure maintains an ultimate factor of safety of at least 1. electrically...10 on limit load.. instrumentation and interfacing systems..... electrical and electronic canisters....40 applied to limit load and a yield factor of safety of 1..

- *_ _m_l_ _'_r ! This Space Intentionally Left Blank . _- ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ I .

: : . LOWER THRUST FIN C F-I ENGINES (5) INSTRUMENTATION RETRORO CKETS FLIGHT CONTROL SERVOACTUATOR FAI RI NG AND FIN Figure 4-1 4-2 .S-IC STAG E f ! FLIGHT TERMINATION RECEIVERS (2) GOX DI STRI BUTOR ANNULAR BAFFLES / ) CENTER ENGINE CABLE TUNNEL FUEL SUCTION UPPER THRUST RING HEAT SHI THRUST STRUCTURE .:..

Onboard probes control the temperature of the flow medium to maintain canister temperature at 80 (_20) degrees F.._.........i:'. _. conical nozzle extension which increases the thrust chamber expansion ratio to 16:1...._.:::::::: The hazardous gas detection system monitors the atmosphere in the forward skirt and the thrust structure compartment of the S-IC (figures 4-2 and 4-3)........'. L ORIFICE l _: '_. " /_#"'...... however. . ...:i{-.....< STA l l 6. ' .::_{-!t![" ii " PLATE '::'.. conditioned air at two umbilical preparations. conditioned air to the canisters when onboard systems are energized before cryogenic loading.. '....... ...'........"'. .:> " ORI FI CE_II ......._> ..'. NO.. :"_.... temperature temperature compensates air change..... _:.. . first phase - ._... "_ .... -%.. and inter-connect ducts........::'...... ... and detachable.. ...::":'-:'::':'.. .. The i supplies electrical for the air changes..._.FORWARD /UMBILICAL /PLATE PUS i i J..... 0 . The fairing components are primarily titanium alloy below station 115. '""t!" .. Three phases of the conditioning/purge medium flow are provided to compensate environmental imbalances generated by ambient internal heat and lox load chill effects... calibrated..L. cool.'.. P0S III I+" At 15 minutes before cryogenic loading the flow medium is switched to GN 2 and the varied as necessary to maintain the compartment at 80 (+20) degrees F.....75 .. . The temperature control for temperature variations caused by ambient and chill effects from lox in the suction ducts... COMPARTMENT ..'i+' : .D':. is forced into the forward skirt and thrust structure where it is used as a temperature and humidity control two hours before the two upper cryogenic conditioned conditioning disconnect FORWARD medium... HAZARDOUS GAS DETECTION POS 'I ".. PROPULSION The F-1 engine is a single start....::'_e_IL.... gaseous nitrogen air and is introduced into medium. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ......_'. stabilizing fins augment the stability of the Saturn CONTROL V vehicle.... Four fixed." .X "._ : "_'_ ..i -'!". t' ..'i . { i... indications large leaks displayed may be detected by propellant in the Launch Control Center. A by-product of the inert GN 2 is the reduction of gaseous oxygen concentrations...'. excessive humidity..' _'.-. commences......000 pound fixed thrust.Z_I ._.....':"........ The third phase uses a warmer temperature decreases caused by second thrust chamber chilldown......<: . The occurs when air to offset relatively warm GN 2 is substituted temperature differences caused by GN 2 stage Figure 4-2 POS III POS IV second phase for the cool the cryogenic flow to offset J-2 engine vented from openings in of the use hydrogen or THRUST loading...:""::.?7_.. _ .-.'.. The since the system SKIRT GN 2 flow terminates at umbilical is not needed in flight... pressure Figure 4-3 4-3 .._..'" " _ ... This system is not redundant...... PUS I COMPARTMENT- The environmental control system distributes air or GN 2 to 4 electrical/electronic equipment module canisters located in the forward skirt.::.'........_._'_ii:l" _ _<:.. Approximately stages are loaded with (GN2) replaces the S-IC as the fluids.. directly into the upper The GSE-ECU supplies couplings during launch P0S IV -... ECS /--. ......5 and aluminum alloy above this station.....'::..... The oxygen concentration in the compartment percent... ..:!::-..:.. from the ground support equipment environmental control unit (GSE-ECU).". :.. i : prevalves....... :.._ _)v'< .. GN 2 prevents the from exceeding 6 ..... 7 ::'<POS II : ...._:_.530.:S......-" OPEN _ "_ii.. '. _%"' i' . 1......:"_.'. Conditioned air._ :::: I'..+_... titanium covered..S-1C STAGE supports.._:. The thrust chamber is cooled regeneratively by fuel.". and hazardous gases. Engine features include a bell-shaped thrust chamber with a 10:1 expansion ratio.. The air or GN 2 is the canisters and overboard through vent the forward skirt of the S-IC stage.. :':_::-_"... .. .ECS STRUCTURE The environmental control system discharges air or GN2 through 22 orificed duct outlets thrust structure compartment....... i.... ..... " "._ ...':':.'. and the nozzle extension is ENVI RONMENTAL During launch preparations the environmental control systems (ECS) protect the S-IC stage and stage equipment from temperature extremes. .:........ . >"/.'-.Y :::'": i 3 ."?:::::..". ...._ :I!...._ .......'b_:<L_.. -.. bipropellant engine which uses liquid oxygen as the oxidizer and RP-1 as the fuel.... ... '.

gas generator igniters. existing thermal The subsystems of the F-1 engine shown in figure 4-5 are the turbopump. The gas generator system consists of a dual ball valve. The GHe ground fill continues umbilical disconnect. These pressure readings are transmitted via telemetry to ground 'monitors. signal from an observer at the engines. In any case. Flow smooth out is terminated the by a The purge system is and is continued until ignition monitor valve (IMV). An instrumentation system monitors engine performance and operation.42:1. a start and stop solenoid valve. Liquid to the thrust chamber oxygen and by a single suppression control valves. and a combustor. Total propellant flow rate is approximately of 0. The dual loading and must requirement for engine 170 lb/sec at a lox/RP-1 mixture ratio ball valve must be closed prior to fuel remain closed to meet an interlock start. lox. A ground hydraulic pressure source. an injector. The hypergol solution is forced into the thrust chamber by the fuel where combustion is initiated upon mixing with the lox. 4-way control valve. and hypergolic fluid are required during the engine start sequence. hours. AND THERMAL CONDITIONING conditioning each engine (colder than -165 degrees centigrade) and a "dry" than -165 degrees centigrade) reading to ground A gaseous nitrogen purge is applied for thermal and elimination of explosive hazard under cocoon. an _] Because of the possibility of low temperatures in the space between the engine and its cocoon of insulation. Subsystems not shown are the gas generator. During the initial fill period (T-11 to T-9 minutes). ENGINE SUBSYSTEMS monitored by in each prevalve. on system operation is monitored through two pressure transducers and four liquid level resistance thermometers. POGO SUPPRESSION The POGO suppression SYSTEM system (figure 4-4) approximately off the system during engine Gas Generator The gas generator (GG) provides the gases for driving the turbopump. It consists of a filter valves. Turbopump The turbopump a common is a combined shaft lox and fuel pump driven manifold. The IFV prevents thrust chamber ignition until the turbopump pressure has reached 375 psi. Combustion is initiated by two pyrotechnic igniters. main fuel valve and main lox valve. whenever there is with lox onboard at the discretion of launch a prolonged hold of the and with an ambient This purge operations. an inert thrust chamber prefill solution. four liquid level These thermometers resistance transmit ENGI NE OPERATI The engine requires power. and two check From T-15 hours to T-13 fills the thrust chamber engines. gaseous nitrogen purge is required to expel A continuous propellant leakage from the turbopump lox seal housing and I_ the gas generator actuator housing. and gas generator valves. electrical pressure is maintained in the lox tank. countdown temperature the purge command hypergol below approximately 55 degrees F. utilizes the lox prevalve chambers prevalve cavities of the four outboard engines to suppress the POGO phenomenon._IC STAGE T-11 minutes from ground supply by opening the POGO i' cooled by gas generator RP-1 fuel are supplied exhaust gases. utilizing measurements supplied by the liquid level resistance thermometers R3 (primary) and R 2 (backup). cavity located Status to maintain Following by the cavity pressure umbilical disconnect the cold helium until the spheres turbopump powered by a gas generator which uses the same propellant combination. RP-1 fuel is also used as the turbopump lubricant and as the working fluid for the engine fluid power system. PREFI kk. The pressure transducer (0-800 psia) monitors system input pressure. The liquid level within the prevalves is thermometers a "wet" (warmer monitors. gas generator exhaust igniters. The IMV prevents opening of the main fuel valves prior to hypergolic ignition. is manually operated. heated nitrogen is applied to this area. This inert combustion sequence solution at engine through by a single gas turbine. tubes an ethylene glycol solution and manifolds of all five serves to start. heat exchanger. A positive hypergol cartridge installed indication is provided by sensors and is a prerequisite to the firing command. and pyrotechnic Hypergol The igniters. hypergol manifold. 50 gallons are supplied to top to compensate for liquid loss that occurred gimbaling. A second pressure transducer (0-150 psia) monitors the pressure inside the No. prior to engine operation disconnect. and propellants for sustained operation. NG {REQUI REMENTS a source of pneumatic pressure. 1 engine lox prevalve cavity. At T-I1 minutes. Manifold manifold consists of a hypergol container. The engine is started by ground support equipment (GSE) and is capable of only one start before reservicing. The engine contains a heat exchanger system to condition engine supplied liquid oxygen and externally supplied helium for stage propellant tank pressurization. A gaseous nitrogen purge is required to prevent contaminants from entering the lox system through the engine fox injector or the activated umbilical gas generator lox injector. checkout valve. and an igniter fuel valve (IFV). The four outboard engines are capable of gimbaling and have provisions for supply and return of RP-I fuel as the working fluid for a thrust vector control system. Control Valve . The purge pressure also improves the sealing characteristic of the lox seal: The purge is required from the time propellants are loaded and is continuous throughout flight.4-Way The 4-way control valve directs hydraulic fluid to open and close the fuel. the filling of the valves is closely monitored. External thermal insulation provides an allowable engine environment during flight operation. Its power output is controlled by orifices in its propellant feed lines. PURGE. will be turned on five minutes prior to ignition and continue until umbilical disconnect. cavities are pressurized with gaseous helium as surge The lox (GHe) at 4-4 Changed 5 October 1969 .

AFT _#/'NO.. hydraulically operated valves. at rated engine pressures and flowrates. . I LOX TANK Ne _ FILL t_j-----r-__ : : STORAGE TANKS COLD HELIUM TO FUEL'qP" PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM " PRESSURE TRANSDUCER i_ 0-800 PSl RANGE i I ! r I PRESSURE TRANSDUCER I CONTROL POGO SUPPRESSION VALVES = n l lil I i I I I I I l I U l I I liB I I II I I I I II I I I I III -' I l I1_1111 I I I I I II I I II I I I II I I l I I I I I II II I I IJ I IIII l O-ISO PSl RANGE I II I I l I I II I I I I l l I l I I LIQUID LEVEL RESISTANCE (TYPICAL-4 TOTLM _ [_I PLACES)_ : . 5 (CENTER ENGINE) ENGINE NO. el . 2 turbopump inlet..I.. Movement of the poppet actuates a switch which furnishes valve position signals to the telemetry system. High. pressure Four high /--. An ENGINE POSITION indication is required from this valve prior to. 4 ENGINE NO.. 2 ENGINE NO. 1 """'" __ii tO GASEOUS HELIUM LOX SENSE LINE . This valve is designed to remain open.S-1C STAGE Heat Exchanger Tile heat exchanger expands lox and cold helium for propellant tank pressurization. the forward umbilic.'k ) Figure 4-4 4-5 .. These on each valves enNne control flow to the are fast acting. Main Lox Valve checkout valve directs ground supplied control fluid the engine back to ground during engine checkout. are heated by the turbopump exhaust. Main Fuel Valve balanced. This valve is designed to remain open. disconnect continue. Approximately 30 seconds prior to the firing command the valve is actuated to the engine position.. In this position it directs control fluid to tile No.. _ tL__] _=_ THERMOMETERS _TuV%_IC'a'I LOX LOX [i] • • LOx P. Checkout There are two main fuel valves of fuel to the thrust chamber. if the opening control pressure is lost.d command in order for the terminal countdown to Igniters voltage igniters. A sequence valve operated by the poppet allows opening pressure to be applied to the GG valve only after both main lox valve poppets have moved to a partially open position. hydraulically operated valve. at rated engine pressures and flowrates. two in the gas generator (GG) The two main lox valves thrust chamber. The warm expanded gases are then routed from the heating coils to the propellant tanks. poppet type.. The cold fluids. poppet type..Voltage and interlocked with.. _ =_" FROM LOX FROM LOX TANK . if the opening control pressure is lost. pressure balanced. FROM " TANK. per engine.. Both main lox valves must be in the closed position prior to lox loading Valve or engine start. REVALVES____ (5 EACH) / --_I __ _ _ _ ENGINE _---V I SOR _!_] (TYPI CAL)_ NO 3 ENGINE NO. flowing through separate heating coils..... FROM LOX TANK FROM TANK _ . Both valves must be in the closed position prior to fuel loading or engine start. The main They control flow fuel valve is a fast The from acting.. UMBILICAL 2 I.

the center engine is programmed by the LVDC for cutoff. through and prevalve the close aft initiating engine cutoff Separate command umbilicals to the anytime lines are cutoff Engine Cutoff The normal inflight cutoff sequence is center engine first.S-1C STAGE body ignite They and two in the engine thrust chamber nozzle extension the GG and tile fuel rich turbopump exlaaust gases. The sensors start a timer which. 2 (To + 0. Engine Cutoff engine Figure 4-6 for a typical In an emergency. The starting and cutoff phases are periods of transition in which a sequence of activities occurs. These phases are developed in detail in the following paragraphs.0). are ignited during the F-I engine start sequence by of a nominal OPERATION 500 volts to the igniter squibs. mainstagc and cutoff.0) is initiated at this point. 15 seconds. At approximately 2 minutes. Thrust Not OK Cutoff. The LVI)C provides a backup center engine shutoff signal. This command "also initiates time base No. has the capability of umbilical disconnect. supplied engine relays. energizes the 4-way control valve stop solenoid on each outboard engine. (Lox depletion sensors is most application ENGINE Engine operation includes starting. followed by the four outboard engines. Outboard engine cutoff is enabled by a signal from the LVDC which permits cutoff to be initiated upon energization of two out of four optical type depletion in either the fox or the fuel tank. is illustrated in probable). INTERFACE PANE :UEL INLETS LOX INL[ MAIN LOX VALVL GIMBAL BLOCK LOX VALVE HYPERGOL MN_] CHECKOUT IRBOPUMP MAIN FUEL VALVE HEAT EXCHANGER THRUST TURBOPUMP EXHAUST MANIFOLD THRUST CHAMBER NOZZLE EXTENSION Figure 4-5 4-6 m . Engine The Start start and transition single to mainstage engine. Outboard Cutoff GSE until relays System. Time base No. the engine will be cut off by any of the following methods: Ground Support Equipment (GSE) Command Cutoff. The remaining shutdown sequence of the outboard engines is the same as for the center engines as explained Emergency in Figure 4-7. 3 (T 3 + 0. Emergency Detection System. upon expiration. Range Safety Command Cutoff.

Ithl IOX fill alld drain valves and tile No. h) O.tl bv _rilicc_ m Ih¢. built-in potentiometer senses the servoactuator position and transmits this information to tilt._+5. RP-I is the fuel used in the S-It' stage and as hydraulic fluid. 0. one system for each engine.Wstems. Automatlt.aftd to tailing engine o. Drilled passages in the hydraulic components (valves and servoactuators) permit a flow of fluid t(_ thermally condition the units and to bleed gases from tile fluid power system. a tim_...t! ttll)_.lrtl pnctnt|aitc _yMt'lll The pneumatic control _y... a thrust not OK signal from two or more engines will cause the EDS to initiate an ENGINES OFF command width will shut down all engines on 'he stage.. t_u elllergency CllgttD..v ]'lie system storage bottle is charged Ihr()ttgh onboard tt)ttlrol valves :tnd filter_. wtdt.NI h_ the prevalve _)letlttitl valve.hlll0OWll prior h_ hl'l.ice. prt's.n (.0 seconds to take advantage of any thrust a Failing engine miglnt produce until the tower has been cleared.. FLIGHT The CONTROL S-IF" Ilighl coutrol system gimbals the I'(mr outboard to provide atlilude control during tile S-It" brant phase.ihc is provided directly fro. [iowever.i h_ l)r. This signal is inhibited until T I + 14.SI!.(1 degrees _luare pattern. Subsequent to T ! + 30.O bcfinc _x'.'lfOltlldt. prelaunch checkout and engine start the hydraulic pressure is supplied from a GSE premare source.. source).._v Ill.itr. A prt's_ltrt' regttl.pressure. The outboard engine cutoff system is activated 0.0 enlel0e _('t" to normal &UlOIIli||C t'uIoff coml. is pressurized by the engine turbopump..Sl: cutoff command Any time If tel liftoff Range Safely Officer cu loft command The servoactuators are mottnted 90 degrees apart on tacit outboard engine and pr_wide for eugine gimbaling at a rate el 5 degrees per _cond and a maximmn angle of. 2 Iox tnl_._ lilt' .'t)llt. After .t3 posilio:l hard-over _0 ('ONDI (ION COMMAND l Before umbilical di_'onnect (. with a .ec.llor rctlttt-t._e _ulh)u VII for a detailed di..tir_. .e_ne start..8 . The flight control computer (IU) receives inputs from the guidance system in the IU and sends signals to the servoactuators to gimbal the outboard engines in the direction and magnitude required.3 and 4 are controlled by the onbo.r in the IU inldbits EDS multiple engine cutoff commands until T I + 30. Io_ and fuel yea! valves) is charged by a (.. IU for further transmi.0 seconds. which ttittsl bc controlled during flight (filel and Iox prevalves. The fluid power system uses both rocket propellant as the hydraulic RJ-I ramjet fucl and RP-I fluid The RJ-I is used b_ the Hydraulic Supply and Checkout Unit (GSI. ()n vehicles SA-508 and on. There are tlirecl iiHc.' ".u Ihe (. A. This system n|onitors only the outboard engines and sends cutoff siguals to the rein aining engines if shutdown of two adjatent engines is detected. The system precludes a stage breakup in the event two adjacent outboard engines fail following CI-CO. the actuators are equipped degree position indicator to provide actuator information to ESE fi)r detection of an actuator failure prior to launch commit. FLUID POWER There are Five fluid power ..Itrt)l engiues . asd to enl_nel all e_me_ fail. Three thrust OK pressure switches are located on each F-I engine thrust clmmber fuel manifold and sense main fuel injection pressure.nlcct _alvc_ \._ pressurized tlilrogen supply for COltllllattd Ol)t'r. HYD RAU LIC SE R VOACTUATO The servoactuator (figure 4-9) R is the power control unit for ( t In summary. Lox tntcret.0 . The signal is also transmitted to the IU where it is monitored by the EDS to detect multiple engine failures.SF nitn_gen Soltrcc ._ fr. If the pressure level drops below the deactivation level of two of the three pressure switches.) cutoff adlacvnl command oulbo.ly cutoff I I *3(t. I _ before ('ECO Io OBI(('O Aut. Tlnis allows the launch vehicle time to clear the launch area and proceed far enough down..._ussion of Ihe Sahtrti V flig?.tll_pIit. sucll a_ the main fuel and Iox valves and the igniter fuel valve /hesc valves are sequenced and controlled by the terminal countdown sequencer. Pressure from either source is made available to the engine valves.It . If it is determined during flight that the vehicle has gone outside the establislied corridor. emergency following couditions: engine cutoff is possible under the converting electrical command signals and hydraulic power into mechanical outputs to gimbal the engines on the S-It' stage. Subsequent to tower clearance.l _. the EDS multiple engine cutoff circuitry is enabled until 0._ I. t'Ulot more f command fail to all engines if two of engineer ('l.rt_lh. PNEUMATIC CONTROLS Lifluff to T I * 14.8 seconds before CECO.1 the prevalves is t.ff ( h-. EDS multiple engine cutoff can be manually inhibited by crew action at any time. an engine cutoff signal is initiated. These two hydraulic fluids are separated by check valves and their return flow is directed to GSE or stage by the ground checkout valve.1 second beet)re center engine cutoff. Pneumatic ctmtrol t)l the htt'l . ('O file pneunlati¢ control system Ifigurc 4-10) pro_Jdc. the Range Safety Officer will send commands to effect engine cutoff and propellant dispersion.miatic if tv. the hydraulic prtqmure-is gen_ated bY-the engine turbopump.t pressure no 750 psi.i _."3 } O ! $4C Irf_ The Range Safety Command Cutoff provides the capability of enEine cutoff any time after liftoff. the thrust not OK signal will initiate shutdown of the failing engine. stage switch selector and by mechanical or fluid pressure means as described in tttc paragraphs on Propulsion and Electrical The Iw() flighl control servoactuators on each outboard engine are als_ powered by this system as shown in figure 4-8. .item for tho_e valve.12OO W. on the S-IC stage.range to ensure a water landing of the aborted spacecraft. An integral mechanical feedback varied by piston position modifies the effect of the. IU control signal. During test.0 seconds.._ton via telemetry to the ground. While this EDS circuitry is enabled.tllO n t)l various ptleunlatic vah'es. Automatic cutoff inhibited "l I t 14. and is sintilar in function to tile EDS.f'.

. .° "_!!ii:.':__..::!ii_ .i"'" .:F" _': MONITOR_. ." TO ENGINE .._" d':':':" .:-::" . :': VALVE . HYPERGOLIC / Figure 4-6 (Sheet 1 of 2) 4-8 .:S '4:" ._ FROM GAS LOX TANK _ENERATOR FROM FROM FUEL FUEL TANK TANK I-IGNITION ... _... ..."':_ HAl FUEL N |ili _i:i VALVE'!:! -:..'-..:" MAIN FUEL VALVE ."'_ ." ".S-I C STAGE _-.L-:..'..:::+" .:_ _ _--_.r":.......#:" VALVE_ ': :!: MANIFOLD i:_ i::i !:i • ..K. :': • .. HAl N j':':' :i: LOX ._.o .._..::....._i: ..#" d...:.':::!_!::" i#:::: _...''"" ":::" ii_" >.." THRUST O..d'." "':" "L .'.°.:...'-'-" STAGE FUEL _////////////_LOX .. SENSE LINE •.."" d.. \ \. * >.:d_'iMklN LOX.:".::..'.#-_!_ ./::" _'-__" ..:'"_i •. i_i _:i ...:... PRESSURE SWITCH (3) @@@ QQ !i IGNITER ELECTRI CAL _COMBUSTIONGASES .--IGNITION _ START SOLENOID SEQUENCER ....'.

a) Ignition firing of this gas and burping. the ignition sequencer con[ngtne start is part of the temtnal counttrols starting of all ftve engines.000°F) Is the coolant for the nozzle extension. stgnal fires a) Gas generator combustor and turbine exhaust igniters burn igniter ltnks to trigger electrical signal to start solenoid of 4-way control valve. (%ht't'l _ q. When this point tn the countdownts |. TO HAINSTAOE combustion zone presare forced I they mix with I I I I )Start solenoid of 4-way control valve directs GSE hydraulic pressure to main fox val yes. increases the transition to accomplished._11ants igniters. monitor valve directs flutd the matn fuel valves. pressure. the turbopump.IC Irr_ downsequence. As pressure matnstage is Combustion gas heat exchanger. the lox to cause TRANSITION Agntttor. Combustion gas accelerates causing the pump discharge t ncrees e. it ruptures the ridge. exhaust manifold and nozzle The thrust OK pressure switch (whtch sense! fuel injection pressure) picks up at approximately 1060 psi and provides a THRUST OK signal to the IU. sure to causes increase. )Pro_. As pressure reaches 20 psig. Fuel rtch turbine combustton by fl_e fr_ igniters. pressure to As fuel pressure increases 375 pstg.7 l. the I Haln 1ox valves allow 1ox to flow to thrust chamber and GSE hydraulic pressure to flow _reugh sequence valve to open gas generator ball valve. to approximately hype_ol cart- b) Igniters seconds. are ignited by flame of Fuel enters thrust chamber. extension. _Electrtcal engtne). ga$ is ignited prevents back- "T Checkout valvemoves to position.a_ed. gas generator under tank combustor. flow tnto FIutU pressure opens main fuel valves. burn approximately slx The hypergoltc into the thrust fluid and fuel chamber where ignition. the ignition pressure to Propellants._# _) . b) engine igniters return (4 each Thts relatively cool gas (approx!mately 1. passes through turbopump. I-il_tlrv 4-q_.

. Gas Generator Ball Valve closes. which routes closing pressure to tile following valves.i rl_ II L'/ I. I # ELECTRICAL ."_t)tjt Chamber pressure decay cau.STIIGE PROGRAMME F THRUSTO. _'r-----__ 1<'/" .. Valve I... I Fuel _ Main Lox Valves (2 ea) close.'t_urc 4.._" ... Thrust (3 Iqni'_ion OK pressure switch to dro... The 4-Way Control Valve Stop Solenold is energized.. PRESSURESWITCH OUT OF 3) SNITCH CHECKOUT VALVE FROM FUEL TANK FROM LOX T/ENK FROM FUEL TANK .7 closed.K. 14_ "V' Main Fuel Valves (2 ea) close._e_ Valve and lqnitT()n Mm_t(_. r_ the thrust The ea)...._ . j 4-10 .._x#_ LOX "--.. SENSE LINE ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: STAGE FUEL _///////////...

Ground supplied helinm for prepressurization is introduced into the cold helium line downstream from the flow controller resulting in. This initiates a limited drain. and delivery of propellants to the engines... gravity but must RP-1 Pressurization Fuel tank pressurization (figure 4-11 ) is required from engine starting through stage flight to establish and maintain a net positive suction head at the fuel inlet to the engine turbopumps..1 RETURN FLOW Figure PROPELLANTS Propellants for the S-IC stage are RP-I (fuel) and liquid oxygen (lox).. The fuel loading probe (figure 4-11 ). FUEL LOADING AND DELIVERY 4-8 senses during the mass level. The system is divided into two systems... Figures 4-11 through 4-13 illustrate the system operation. Fuel tank pressure is maintained by an over-pressure switch which controls the fuel vent and relict" valve. RP. The drain fuel vent and relief wdve is opened be closed for pressurized drain. Fuel loading starts approximately thirty days before launch (figure 4-12) and continues at a rate of 2000 gpm until 99% full and then uses a 200 gpm rate until the total mass load reaches 102% of the desired load. helium flow through the engine heat exchanger and the hot helium line to the fuel tank distributor. During flight. At T-60 minutes the _ _ I propellant management GSE gives the command to begin fuel level adjustment to the prescribed flight load level. a preprcssurization switch which controls GSE pressure supply 4-11 I ! I i . tank 'pressurization prior to and during flight. the fuel system and the lox system.S-IC STAGE FROM FROM FROM FUEL LOX FUEL TANK TANK TANK RETURN TO GROUND GROUND CHECKOUT VALVE \ I RETURN DUCT qGINE OUTRIGGER SERVOACTUATOR SUPPLY DUCT CHECK VALVE FLIGHT SUPPLY DUCT FILTER MANIFOLD FILTER GROUND SUPPLY DUCT CHECK VALVE _RJ-I _Zi'_ _LOX . the source of fuel tank pressurization is laelitnn from storage bottles mounted inside the lox tank.. The propellant system includes hardware for fuel fill and drain operations.

The prevalves also house flowmeters which provide flowrate data via telemetry to GSE. LOX LOADING AND DELIVERY L I As the oxidizer in the bi-propellant propulsion system. and high lox temperatures near the engine inlets may prevenl normal engine start. initiates engine shutdown when fuel is depleted if the lox sensors have failed to cut off the engines. lox is contained and delivered through a separate tank and delivery system (figure 4-13). The onboard helium storagc bottles arc filled through a filtered fill and drain line upstream from the flow controller. It closes at 21. a 300 gpm for tank chilldown. boil off in the lox tank may be harmlessly vented overboard. provides valve is plumbed to exhaust into positive the fuel O ENGINE ATTACH END . 1 is opened first before liftoff. to maintain tank pressure as the helium bottle pressure decreases. During lox drain. Fill is completed to 3150 psi after lox loading when the bottles are cold. Shortly after T-6 hours lox loading begins. O TYPICAL SERVOACTUATOR STAGE LENGTH 5 FEET WEIGHT 300 STROKE II ATTACH EN__ POUNDS INCHES 0 Figure 4-9 4-12 . The lox bubbling system (figure 4-13) eliminates geysering and maintains low pump inlet temperatures.STAGE tYDRAULIC SERVOACTUATOR t during filling and prcpressurization. and a fast fill rate of 10. Once established. 3 and 4 are sequenced open by the I. positive ullage pressure is maintained by a GSE pressure source and two vent valves which are kept closed except when overpressure occurs. The 345. a 1500 gpm slow fill rate to stabilize the liquid level and thus prevent structural damage.5% load is reached. Lox Drain The lox is drained through the two fill and drain intertank lines (figure 4-13) and an aft fill and drain line in the thrust structure. During flight.000 gpm. one in each fuel line.5 psia. However. thermal pumping is self sustaining and continues until the interconnect valves are closed just prior to launch. in the bottom of the fuel tank. 2. serve as an emergency backup to the main engine fuel shutoff valves. The helium induced convection currents circulate lox through the suction ducts and back into the tank. Prevalves.5 psia. During flight the fuel tank pressure is maintained by five solenoid vatvcs located in the helium flow controller.SAC.ERVOVALVE Fuel feed (figure 4-11) is accomplished through two 12-inch ducts which connect the fuel tank to each F-I engine. 5 is opened by the flight pressurization switch if the tank pressure falls below 19. Valve No. A mechanical relief valve. Three fill rates are used sequentially. RP-1 Delivery psig The and close at 3600 psig. The ducts are equipped with gimbaling and sliding joints to compensate for motions from engine gimbaling and stage stresses. A fuel level engine cutoff sensor. At approximately 95% full. and a flight pressurization switch. tank. excessive geysering from boiling in the lox suction ducts can cause structural damage.000 gallon tank is filled through two 6-inch fill and drain lines.U. Lox boiloff is replenished at a maximum rate of 500 gpm until prepressurization occurs. valve Nos. Valve No. The storage bottles are filled to a pressure of 1400 psi prior to lox loading. the rate is reduced to 1500 gpm and ceases when the lox loading level sensor automatically stops the fill mode. Prior to launch. set to open at 4300 pressure relief. The aft fill and drain line is not used until 6.

Battery characteristics are listed in figure 4-15. LOX tank pressure is monitored by a prepressurization switch. The ducts are equipped with gimbals and sliding joints to compensate for motions from engine gimbaling and stage stresses. In figure operational 4-16. At about this time the 30 psia limit and the 25 psig limit become equal. I CONTROL VALVE LOX INTERCONNECT VALVES No. Each suction line has a lox prevalve which is a backup to the engine lox valve. Onboard power is supplied by two 28-volt batteries located as shown in figure 4-14. The gage pressure switch limit is 25 psig. The preval_/e cavity is charged with helium and functions as an accumulator to absorb engine induced pulses (figure 4-4). ELECTRICAL The electrical power system of the S-IC stage is made up of two basic subsystems: the operational power subsystem and the measurements power subsystem. and mainstage. The prepressurization switch maintains the ullage pressure between 24.5 psia until launch commit by controlling tile GSE pneumatic supply. Beyond this point pressure switch controls to limit the tank differential to 25 psi. 1 AND FILTER I LOX INTERCONTROL VALVE I I CONNECT VALVE . thrust buildup. 1 is identified as It supplies power the to The pressurization gas used during prepressurization is helium.Z J S-IC STAGE LOX VENT REGULATOR AND PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE VALVE 750 PSI CONTROL VALVE PSI AFT UMBILICAL 3200 { _ PLATE NO. battery number power system battery. A sensing line provides pressure feedback to the flow control valve to regulate the gox flow rate and maintain the ullage pressure between 18 and 20 psia. an absolute pressure switch and a gage pressure switch. 1. The absolute pressure switch controls for about the first 80 seconds of flight. Tile heated gox is delivered through the gox pressurization line 4-13 . Pressure volume compensating ducts ensure constant lox flowrate regardless of the gimbaled position of the engine. A portion of the lox supplied to each engine is diverted from the lox dome into the engine heat exchanger where the llot turbine exhaust transforms lox into gox.3&4 FUEL PREVALVES CONTROL VALVE LOX VENT AND I I I TYPICAL ONE ENGINE I ] RELIEF VALVE CONTROL VALVE CONTROL VALVE _ LOX PREVALVE VALVE CONTROL FUEL VENT I VALVE PREVALVE GROUND CONTROL __JLOX AFT [ _ FILL AND "TO TURBOPUMP INTERMEDIATE SEAL DRAIN VALVES I--I DRAIN VALVE Figure Lox Pressurization System 4-10 and flow control valve to the lox tank. The absolute pressure switch and gage pressure switch limit the maximum tank pressure during flight by controlling the Iox vent and relief and the lox vent valve respectively. the gage pressure Lox is delivered to the engines through five suction lines (figure 4-13).2 and 26. The absolute pressure switch linfit in 30 psia. Gox is used for pressurizing the lox tank during flight. Lox Delivery LOX tank prepressurization (Figures 4-12 and 4-13) is required to ensure proper engine turbopump net positive suction head during start.

awl r • ..... • I .

power for engine ignition and for equipment heaters (turbopump and lox valves) continues to come t'rom the GSE until terminated at umbilical disconnect. It supplies power to measurements loads such as telemetry systems.75 T-0 _MINUTES RP-I SYSTEM IREPLENISH START RP-I IiLOADING (APPROX. transducers. However. 30 DAYS BEFORE LAUNCH) LOX BUBBLING II START LOX LOADING ADJUST TO I00% INFLIGHT PRESSURIZATION LOX SYSTEM LOX BUBBLING'I LOX REPLENISH INFLIGHT PRESSURIZATION I _ 60 LBS/MIN Figure 4-12 120 LBS/MIN operational loads such as valve controls.--6. contacts.RP-I _. Battery number 2 is identified as the measurement power system battery. Operation of the switch several times during countdown verifies performance of the brake. However.000 GAL/MIN LIFTOFF ! 20- j _. At T-50 seconds a ground command causes the power transfer switch to transfer the S-IC electrical loads to onboard battery power.o r-_.• I T-4. diodes. and the electrical distribution busses. They facilitate the routing and distribution of power and also serve as junction boxes and housing for relays. DISTRIBUTORS There are no provisions for switching or transferring power between the operational power distribution system and the measurement power system. except range safety receivers.--r200 --0- lJl i Is l r43._ GAL/MIN I i js 15oo GALIMIN r-8. During the prelaunch checkout period power for all electrical loads. motor.9 T-60 T-35 T-10.5 .5% l . Inflight operation of the multicontact make-before-break power transfer switch is prevented by a brake. Main Power Distributor The main power distributor contains a 26-pole power transfer switch. each of these systems is completely independent of the other. _.98% I START AUTOMATIC SEQUENCE IGNITION COMMAND I I I I L 600 A D 40- . and mechanical compo_lents. switches and other electrical equipment.1i00 GAL/MIN -. relays. Sequence and Control Distributor The sequence and control distributor accepts command signals from the switch selector and through a series of i There are six power distributors on the S-IC stage. I T-1. pressurization systems. The range safety receivers are hardwired to batteries I and 2 in order to enhance the safety and reliability of the range safety system. The power load is transferred from the ground source to the flight batteries at T-50 seconds. Because of this isolation. no failure of any kind in one system can cause equipment failure in the other system.S-IC STAGE S-IC PROPELLANT LOAD ANDOPERATIONAL SEQUENCE 102% I00l I 80- I I I . It serves as a common distributor for both operational and measurement power subsystems. i i J 4-15 . and sequencing and flight control. multiplexers.75 . by mechanical construction.0 T-4. purge and venting systems. Both batteries supply power to their loads through a common main power distributor but each system is completely isolated from the other. is supplied from GSE.7 T-2.-I /-r I 2000 10% GAL/MIN "--I0. and by electrical circuitry.s HOURS T-6. and transmitters.

_ COX LEGENO . 1 GOX FLOM CONTROL VALVE I_IN LOX GOX INPUTS (TYPICAL 6 E_INES) HEAT EXCHANGER VALVE (2) F-1 ENGINE 1t0.4mm__ _J_ _ LOX _ MD RELIEF OXIDIZER TMK VALVE LOX FILL AND DRAIN INTERTANK LINE /10. PRESSUIE SE/ISING LINE SHUTOFF VALI ZATION LOX BUBBLING AFT UMBILICAL NO._ I_ O_ .II. 1 DUCT NO. 110.5 (TYPICAL S PLACES SENSE L[NL LOX HELIUN :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: FUEL Le_qZ_j_......._¢w. 2 PREVALVE INTERCONNECT VALVE PREPRESSURE LOX AFT FILL AND DRAIN LINE AFT UMBILICAL NO. 1 & 3 INDUCES CIRCULATION BY CAUSING THE LOX IN THESE DUCTS TO RISE THEREBY DRANING LOX DOWN THROUGH THE OTHER THREE DUCTS.. lUlluee 4-13 4-16 LD .lc IllrAGiz OISTRIBUTOR PRESSURE SWITCHES _ LOX VENT VkLVE-..... 3 LINE SUCTION LINE DUCT NO.3 LOX CUTOFF SENSORS (TYPICAL 5 DUCTS) DUCT gO..4 5 FUEL TANK HELIUM BUBBLING IN NO.

LBS. LOADS = 1250 1 . Measuring the operation of relays. This output activates a 0. Figure 4-15 Circuits to time electromechanical distributor. may be unlatched by a signal from GSE.MEASUREMENT AMPERE/MINUTE 1 = 22 2 = 55 LBS. one for each command function.044 second timer. Signals from two of the three thrust OK pressure switches on a particular engine will result in an output from a two-out-of-three voting network. 4-17 . LOADS = 640 BATTERY NO.OPERATIONAL AMPERE/MINUTE 2 . If the thrust OK condition is missing longer than 0.S-IC STAGE S-IC ELECTRICAL POWER EQUIPMENT LOCATIONS MAIN PWRDIST SEQUENCE & CONT DIST MEASURINGPWRDIST THRUSTOK DIST7 FIN A THRUSTOK DISTPOS I PROPULSION FIN D MEASUREMENT F NA/ / 8ATTERIESA II\ i OIST / SWITC. Propulsion Distributor distributor contains relays. in and the other timer magnetically latching relays provides a 28-volt dc command to initiate or terminate the appropriate stage function. A 28-volt dc signal is routed through the series connected relay contacts to indicate to GSE when all sequence and control relays are in the reset state. Power Distributor Each regulated 5-volt dc output from the seven measuring power supplies is brought to an individuai bus in the measuring power distributor and then routed to the measuring and telemetry systems. A 28-volt dc signal is routed through the closed contacts of the relay to the stage components being commanded.044 seconds the timer output sends a signal to initiate engine shutdown. The input from the switch selector latches a relay corresponding to the particular command. devices are mounted valves. CURRENT RATINGS The thrust OK distributor contains relays and printed circuit assemblies which make up the thrust OK logic networks and timers required to monitor engine thrust OK pressure switches and initiate engine shutdown. diodes.5 VDC PER CELL: 28 + 2 VDC PER 18 TO 20 CELL GROUP BATTERY NO. NO. and boards for switching and distributing during launch preparation and flight. SELECTOR osI y / TIMER DIST MAIN PWR DIST SEQUENCE & CONT#RO L DIST MEASURING PWR DIST' SWITCH SELECTOR 7 STA 184 --STA 152 --STA 112 FIN C Figure 4-14 S-IC TYPE MATERIAL ELECTROLYTE BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS DRY CHARGE ZINC-SILVER OXIDE (KOH) IN The normally closed contacts of the relays are connected in series. The relays. Timer Distributor GROSS WEIGHT BATTERY BATTERY NO. POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE PURE WATER CELLS 20 WITH TAPS FOR SELECTING 18 OR 19 TO REDUCE OUTPUT VOLTAGE AS REQUIRED The propulsion printed circuit propulsion signals Thrust OK Distributor NOMINAL VOLTAGE 1.

retrorockets. in the IU can shut all S-IC stage INSTRUMENTATION The S-IC stage instrumentation system monitors functional IB . Measurement addition. 4. Open Open Open Enable Enable helium helium helium center outboard firing flow flow flow control control control cutoff. 7. A coded word. retrorocket initiation. 8. is accepted and stored in a register by means of magnetically latching relays. 6. and separation 10. Computer selected switch selector operational circuit. detection command system LVDC commands activate. measurements are telemetered by coaxial cable to ground support 4-18 .S-1C STAGE -II RANGE SAFETY SYSTEM OPERATIONAL POWER SYSTEM I BATTERY NO. The coded transmission is verified by sending the complement of the stored word back to the LVDC in the IU. a switchover. 1 I MEASUREMENT POWER SYSTEM d r[ TIMER DISTRIBUTOR I I PROPULSION PREVALVES SYSTEM 1TO PROPULSION DISTRIBUTOR FLIGHT COMBUSTION MONITOR IlL _L .I -f BATTERY NO. At the proper time an output channel switch signal to the selector is initiated via the stage 1 12 In or switch stage electrical flight time. Its function is to sequence and control various flight activities such as TM calibration. 3. when addressed to the S-IC switch selector. Arm EBW system. Telemetry Remove calibration._l I THRUST-OK v DISTRIBUTOR 1 --H DDAS SYSTEM --H I i _'H PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM (He) IUMBILICALI I ENGINE SYSTEM 115 VAC 400 CPS 3 PHASE POWER r I NSTRUMENTATI ON SYSTEMS II PRESSURE SWITCHES EDS SYSTEM TELEMETRY SYSTEMS I Figure SWITCH SELECTOR 4-16 3. 4. from down the emergency engines. 9. operations of stage systems and provides signals for vehicle tracking during the S-IC burn. and pressurization as shown in figure 4-17. 2. firing unit. valve No. retrorockets. Fire EBW system. enable. The circuits. cutoff. appropriate can control engine engine unit. valve No. and separation valve No. 2. circuits as a function of elapsed commands include: 1. The S-IC stage switch selector is the interface between the LVDC in the IU and the S-IC stage electrical circuits. 5. telemetry calibration. Prior to liftoff. A switch selector is basically a series of low power transistor switches individually selected and controlled by an eight-bit binary coded signal from the LVDC in the IU. 2 1 ENGINE CUTOFF T 28@ GSE SUPPLY 5 VOLT PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM (GN2) I MAIN POWER DI STRI BUTOR k--" AND CONTROL _____SEQUENCE DISTRIBUTOR ID28 DDAS SYSTEM SEPARATION SYSTEM MEASURING VOLTAGE SUPPLIES MEASURING POWER DISTRIBUTOR SWITCH SELECTOR ENGINE IGNITIONI SYSTEM AND HEATERS I I .

It includes transducers. Distribution of the data telemetry system. The inputs and outputs are set voltage levels that represent liquid level measurements and The measurement system senses performance parameters and feeds signals to the telemetry system. Process and condition the measured proper form for telemetering. TELEMETRY SYSTEM to ground a detailed MEASUREMENT SYSTEM The telemetry system accepts the signals produced by the measuring portion of the instrumentation system and transmits them to ground stations. transnutters. The telemetry system uses multiplex techniques (time sharing) to transmit large quantities of measurement data over a relatively small number of basic RF links.voc ]IU COMMAND RECEIVER __ L IDA v m . at 20 percent of the maximum range (low level). modulators. FUEL CONTAINER PRESSURIZATION 1 equipment. Measurement operation is verified at 80 percent of the maximum transducer range (high level). ORDNANCE The S-IC ordnance systems (flight termination) system system (figure 4-20). Section VII provides discussion of the telemetry system. and distribution equipment necessary to provide the required measurement ranges and suitably scaled voltage signals to the inputs of the telemetry system. The telemetry equipment includes multiplexers. The S-IC measuring 1. phenomena to be of these phenomena 2.! S-1C STAGE Y INSTRUMENT UNIT -"s-T_B "TTAG-'E -S-II STAGE SEPARATION INITIATION S-IC STAGE GSE CONTROL AND MONITOR STAGE . channel of the Remote System (RACS) The RACS is used to verify measurement circuit operation and continuity by stimulating the transducer directly. During flight. provides a hardwire link for obtaining PCM data and PAM time multiplexed data during test and checkout and permits the redundant monitoring of PAM data during flight. and at the normal run level. It can accept a maximum of 100 inputs which are sampled sequentially in _oups of ten. One pulse amplitude modulated/frequency modulated (PAM/FM/FM) link is used for telemetering low-to-medium frequency data such as pressure or temperature.[-_STAGE SELECT _ ENGINE IGNITION [ DISTRIBUTOR PROPULSION THRUST OK _--_ DISTRIBUTOR _ I [AND MEASUREMENT TM CALIBRATION ISWITCHOVE R RETRO ROCKET INITIATION I LOADING PROPELLANT CUTOFF ENGINE T ___ Figure • TIMER DISTRIBUTOR 4-17 discrete data from other sources. subcarrier oscillators._D . The Remote Digital Submultiplexer (RDSM) provides additional data-handling capability to the PCM telemetry system. The assembly handles only digital information. Automatic Calibration to the proper signals into the 3. or by inserting a simulated transducer signal in the signal conditioner circuit. system performs three main functions: Detection of the physical measured and transformation into electrical signals. data is transmitted stations over RF links. signal conditioning. and a two-element antenna system. A pulse code modulated/digital data acquisition system (PCM/DDAS) link provides for acquisition of analog and digital flight data. amplifiers. The PCM/DDAS system assembles and formats PCM/FM time shared data so it can be sent over coaxial cables for automatic ground checkout or over an RF link during flight. Time multiplexed data from the PAM links are also routed through the PCM links at one third sampling rate for DDAS transmission during preflight testing and for redundant RF transmission during flight. There are two basic types of telemetry systems in the S-IC stage (figure 4-18). include the propellant dispersion (figure 4-19) and the retrorocket 4-19 ._CODE AND CONTROL SEQUENCE DISTRIBUTOR SELECTOR SWITCH INPUT (8 BIT WORD) WORD CODE VERIF_ (8 BIT READ COMMA.

2 MHz F1 TRANSMITTER I 244.3 ] P] TRANSMITTER MHz I DIGITAL DATATO GROUNOFACILITY VIA COAXIAL CABLE (DOAS) POWER DIGITAL DATA PREFLIGNT/INFLIGHT CONTROL DATA POWER PCM/DDAS ASSEMBLY MOOEL 301 4l CALIBRATION COMI_ND TELEMETRY CALIBRATOR. MODEL II HUX 270 SYNC TO PAM MULTIPLEXER 2ALIBRAT ION CONTROL -" •RELAYS DC POWER ISOLATOR I ' _L_o DISCONNECI PANEL TRANSPOSER MEASURING DISIRI@UTORS P POWER I SUBMULTIPLEXER REMOTEDIGITAL f DIGITAL DATA POWER F LIQUID LEVEL MEASURING SYSTEM SYNC SIGNALS TO UNITSYNC BUFFER 1 Filtur.I M 4-20 ! L .: 4.7 ANTENNAE RF POWERDIVIDER COAXIAL SWITCH TO GSE RF MULTICOUPLER f 256.

AkGE SAFETY .K FLSC ASSEMBLY CONFINED DETONATING CONTAINER __ ).IPI6 FOR RP-1 TANK FLSC POS IV P..._I'rENNA CDF ASSEMBLY (Z REOUI RED) ) _CDF/FLSC CONNECTOR I' .__ "-'"0/_ .CDF/FLSC CONNECTOR RP-1 TANK FLSC ASSEMBLY Fil_ure 4-1 9 4-21 .J_i "-'---'U.7 1141C _rA_l II SAFETY mO AlmlPl6 DEVICE DESTRUCT TEES IX CONI"AXER % ASSEMBLY _ (z eEQUXeEO) POS Ill COMLIN6 FOR LOX TNIK FLSC COM._..___. I I CDF TEES COMMAND DESTRUCT ) [ LOX T . \ II I I : FUSE ASSEMBLIES W / ..

) OF RETROROCKET (TYPICAL 8 PLACES) CDF CROSSOVER EBWFIRING UNIT CDF ASSEMBLIES TO TELEMETRY SYSTEM NOTE: AVERAGEEFFECTIVE TRANSDUCER THRUST 75. 11 L ...EBW DETONATOR ) s-i: t .m... PANELSARE SHOCK MOUNTED AND GROUNDED EBWFIRING I CROSSOVER NANIFOLD CDF MANI EBN DETONATOR .r I-IC Ill M_I_. i TO OTHER SEVEN RETROROCKETS EBW DETONATOR ASSEMBLIES j "Eft FI RING c_ D f't_N I FOLD i iI_Url.i. EFFECTIVE 8UI_I ING TIME 0. ..800 LBS.'1) ..541 SEC.. 4-.

two CDF/flexible linear shaped charge (FLSC) connectors. the ODOP system is' not 4-23/4-24 . The PDS is a dual channel. propellant cast directly into the case and with a case composite cured. and two FLSC assemblies. The radio frequency segment receives. one safety and arming (S&A) device (shared by both channels). The thrust level developed seven retrorockets (one retrorocket out) is adequate separate the S-IC stage a mininmm of six feet from vehicle in less than one second. The igniter assembly located within the base of each retrorocket is then ignited.5 degrees from center line. mixing of the Each retrorocket is a solid propellant rocket bonded. which is delayed to permit charging of the EBW firing units. check of the system through the firing through use of pulse sensors which impulse from the firing unit The and pulse system. Each retrorocket is pinned securely the vehicle support and pivot support fittings at an angle 7. either of two CDF initiators Operational ground unit is accomplished absorb the high Each retrorocket is ignited by mounted on its aft structure. The motor is 86 inches long by 15-1/4 inches diameter and weights 504 pounds. Additional redundancy is provided by interconnection of the two confined detonating fuse (CDF) manifolds with CDF assemblies. provide position indications to remote monitoring equipment. The signals cause the detonator bridgewires to explode. The propellant is basically ammonium perchlorate oxidizer in a polystdfide fuel binder. thus forming a barrier to the explosive train. in the by to of by to the on the propellant tanks to minimize after the tanks arc severed. The FLSC's provide the explosive force to longitudinally sever the propellant tanks and disperse the propellants. provide separation DETONATORS i thrust after S-IC burnout. voltage transmit a signal through the telemetry sensors are removed prior to launch. Should emergency flight termination become necessary. two CDF tees. (figure 4-20) the fairings of the F-I engine.5g. S-If. the shaft is rotated 90 degrees to align the inserts between the EBW detonators and tile CDF train. High voltage electrical signals are released from the two EBW firing units to the EBW detonators upon vehicle deceleration to 0. MAJOR [l_ DIFFERENCES On vehicles SA-508 and on. The explosion then propagates through the CDF manifold explosive and CDF assemblies into the igniter assembly. six confined detonating fuse (CDF) assemblies. SA-507 and ml. The S&A device consists of a rotary solenoid assembly. There are six 88-inch FLSC sections mounted on the lox tank and three 88-inch sections on the fuel tank. It also has a manual operation capability. discharges the EBW firing units across the exploding bridgewire in the EBW detonators mounted on the S&A device (see figure 4-21). nominal. In the safe mode. and controls the propellant dispersion commands. thereby detonating the surrounding explosives. th S-IC actuators are to oJ" I equipped with a +3 degree position indicator provide position inJ6rmation to ESE for detection actuator hard-ore t"faihtre prior to launch commit. two coded radio frequency commands are transmitted to the launch vehicle by the range safety officer. _'_ On vehicles installed. two EBW detonators. At retrorocket ignition forward end of the fairing is burned and blown through the exhausting gases. twelve-point star. These sections are positioned propellants i RETROROCKETS The S-IC retrorockets are mounted. The CDF tees propagate the wave through the FLSC assemblies mounted insulated CDF assemblies to on the lox and RP-1 tanks. in pairs.1. and S-IVB stage PDS's. parallel redundant system composed of two segments. the longitudinal axis of the explosive inserts are perpendicular to the detonating wave path.) The second command. and position sensing and command switches that operate from a rotor shaft cam. EXPLOSIVE INSERTS EBW The S&A device (figure 4-21) is a remotely controlled electro-mechanical ordnance device that is used to make safe and to arm the SAC. To arm the device. (See figure 4-19 for block diagram of the PDS and location of PDS components. The ordnance train segment consists of two exploding bridgewire (EBW) firing units. internal burning.fl rotor shaft with two explosive inserts.S-IC STAGE PROPELLANT DISPERSION SYSTEM % /: j The S-IC propellant dispersion system (PDS) provides tile means of terminating the flight of the Saturn V if it varies beyond the prescribed limits of its flight path or if it becomes a safety hazard during the S-IC boost phase. adapters to form the initial part of the explosive Figure The eight retrorockets (figure 4-21 4-20).9 and AFETR Safety Manual 127. and provide a visual position indication. a met'. The device can complete and interrupt the explosive train by remote control. decodes. of which 278 pounds is propellant. The exploding bridgewire (EBW) firing unit circuits are grounded by a normally closed relay until the firing command is initiated by the Instrument Unit. The first command arms the EBW firing units and initiates S-IC engine cutoff. The firing command originates in the Instrument Unit and activates redundant firing systems. The system is installed on the stage in compliance with Air Force Eastern Test Range (AFETR) Regulation 127. causing a buildup and release of the gases into the main grain of the retrorocket. The resulting explosive wave propagates through the S&A device inserts to the CDF assemblies and to the CDF tees. CDF ASSEMBLIES VISUAL INDICATOR L SOLEN_.

reenters the atmosphere where it disintegrates due to reentry loads...... 33 feet in diameter. shear.... Wall sections and bulkheads are all fabricated from 2014 aluminum alloy and are joined together by fusion welding..... a propellant tank structure (liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks)......080 inch at the outer extremity..... INSTR UMENTA TION . The thrust structure transmits the thrust of the five J-2 engines to the body shell structure... The body shell structure transmits f'trst and second stage boost loads (axial. valves.... PROPULSION ..... The LH 2 tank wall is composed of six cylindrical sections which incorporate stiffening members in both the longitudinal and circumferential directions.. The conical shell also serves to support the major portion of systems components carried on the S-II.... supported from the lower portion of the thrust structure.. The aft bulkhead is common to the tox tank....... STRUCTURE The S-II airframe (figure 5-1) consists of a body shell The LH 2 tank consists of modified ellipsoidal bulkhead a long cylinder with a concave forward and a convex modified ellipsoidal bulkhead aft. compression loads from engine thrust.. sandwich adhesive-bonded structure (forward and aft skirts and interstage)... ELECTRICAL ....... and the thrust structure.. instrumentation.. Stage and engine characteristics are listed in figure 1-3.000 pounds each for a total of 1.. and electrical.. Fiberglass core insulation thickness varies from approximately 5 inches at the apex to 0..... The stage has structural and electrical interfaces with the S-IC and S-IVB stages.0 degree pattern for thrust vector control.. has a 36 inch diameter access manhole The common bulkhead is an The forward bulkhead built into its center.. The liquid oxygen tank (figure 5-3) consists of ellipsoidal fore and aft halves with waffle-stiffened gore segments..... flight control.......... assembly employing facing sheets of 2014 aluminum alloy and fiberglass/phenolic honeycomb core to prevent heat transfer and retain the cryogenic properties of the two fluids to which it is exposed....... wiring..... and cantilever loads from engine weight during S-II boost. The forward skirt has a basic skin thickness of 0. stiffened by external hat-section stringers and stabilized internally by circumferential ring frames. ORDNANCE .000 pounds. propulsion. is of semimonocoque cone increasing diameter to the stiffened stringers.040 inch and the aft skirt and interstage both have basic skin thicknesses of 0.............. and four solid propellant ullage rockets... The stage consists of the structural airframe. and bending moment) and stage body bending and longitudinal forces between the adjacent stages.. PROPELLANT TANK STRUCTU RE At engine cutoff the S-II stage separates from the S-IVB and.......... and fluid interfaces with ground support equipment through its umbilicals and antennae....5 feet long. The stage (figure 5-1) is 81.. outboard cruciform construction but in the form of a truncated in size from approximately 18 feet in 33 foot outside diameter of the airframe. like the body shell structure. STRUCTURE . electrical and electronic equipment.. The 't_trust STRUCTURE structure......071 inch.....V TABLE OFCONTENTS SECTION V S-II STAGE BODY 5-1 5-1 5-4 5-5 5-11 5-15 5-15 5-20 5-22 5-22 SHELL STRUCTURE The body shell structure units..... PNEUMATIC CONTROLS . ordnance devices.... following a suborbital path............ The four outer J-2 engines are equally spaced on a 17...... The forward skinhas a "J" section return at the outer edge to permit peripheral attachment to the LH 2 tank while the lower facing is carried through to provide structural continuity with the lox tank aft bulkhead..... and a thrust structure...150.... Each unit is a cylindrical shell of semimonocoque construction. protects the stage base area from excessive temperatures during S-II boost... INTRODUCTION THRUST The S-II stage provides second stage boost for the Saturn V launch vehicle.... ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ...... The tank is fitted with three ring-type slosh baffles to control 5-1 .... PROPELLANTS . aft skirt.......... propellant..... A fiberglass honeycomb heat shield........... either mounted in environmentally controlled equipment containers or directly to the airframe structure (See figure 5-2)... The propellant tank structure holds the propellants........... instrumentation...... It is by circumferential ring frames and hat-section Four pairs of thrust longerons (two at each engine location) and a center engine support beam assembly accept and distribute the thrust loads of the J-2 engines. and ordnance.... pneumatic.......... and is powered by five liquid propellant J-2 rocket engines which develop a nominal vacuum thrust of 230. electrical............ pneumatic control.... The fifth engine is mounted on the stage centerline and is f'txed. The shell structure is of 7075 aluminum alloy... tension loads from idle engine weight... liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (lox).... the J-2 engines... the forward skirt... No connections or lines pass through the common bulkhead......5 foot diameter circle and are capable of being gimbaled through a plus or minus 7. the propellant tank structure.. These are collected into the following major systems: structural. FLIGHT CONTROL . and interstage are of the same basic design except that the aft skirt and interstage are of generally heavier construction because of higher structural loads..... built of 7075 aluminum alloy material.. INTRODUCTION .. and provides structural support between the aft and forward skirts.......... environmental control.... piping........

i i i i g O I-- m .

......J_) • _...V ll-II IT_..E FORWARD SKIRT SYSTEHS TUNNEL VEHICLE STATION 2519 11-1/2 FEET LIQUID TANK (37.t...737 56 FEET HYDROGEN CU FT) 81-1/2 FEET LHz/LOX COMMDN 8ULKHF.. .. LIQUID OXYGEN I TMK 22 FEET (12.....745...........5 CU FT) 14-I/2 FEET AFT SKIRT THRUST STRUCTURE INTERSTAGE VEHICLE STATION 1541 l_ 33 IFEET 18-I/4 FEET I....

3. 30. 31. 5. 22. ll. SIGNAL CONDITIONER CONTAINER I' II_l:rt' 4. 29. 8. 7. 15. 18. 33. 34. 11. 4. 10. 28. 2.4 PLACES J-2 ENGINE (NO. 2) HEATSHIELD ACCESS DOOR -12 ELECTRICAL POWER AND CONTROL SYSTEM FLIGHT CONTROL CONTAINER INTERSTAGE LOX FEEDLINE SIGNAL CONDITIONER CONTAINER AFT SKIRT INSTRUMENTATIONCONTAINER SIGNAL CONDITIONER CONTAINER INSTRUMENTATION CONTAINER SYSTEMSTUNNEL PROPELLMT DISPERSION SYSTEM LH2 VENTLINE AND VALVES PROPELLANT MANAGEMENT ELECTRICAL CONTAINER POS I -171 -1_ -161 -14 -13 -2 31 35 \ TELEMETRYEQUIPMENTCONTAINER TELEMETRY EQUIPMENT CONTAINER 21 20 POS II "_7. . 6. 26. 19. 36. 25. 12. 23.i • 11 IIl'JlIGl_ 1.. 9. 32. 24.4 PLACES UMBILICAL AND SERVICE CONNECTIONS THRUST STRUCTURE INSTRUMENTATIONCONTAINER INSTRUMENTATION CONTAINER INSTRUMENTATION CONTAINER PROPELLANT MANAGEMENT PACKAGE ELECTRICAL ASSY (TIMING AND STAGING CENTER) SERVOACTUATOR (TYPICAL) ULLAGE ROCKET . 35. 20. 13. RANGE SAFETY COI_IANDCONTAINER THERHRLCONTROLMANIFOLD LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK BULKHEAD INSTRUMENTATIONCONTAINER INSTRUMENTATIONCONTAINER FORWARD SKIRT MANHOLECOVER RADIO COMMAND ANTENNA . 27.4 PLACES TELEMETRYANTENNA . 16. 21. 14.

_ the compartment is ._ . b atlZlr_d externally lYom the S-II slap aft lkirl area to the forward aildft. thern_i1_ittoned air and rdtroiwn from • p'ound aous'ce for temperMufe control and purging of the comper_nta dud_ preElunch operations c_ly. It has • semicircular ahape 22 inchu wide and about 60 I'MI Ionl.OX FILL AND DRAIN LINE ACCESS PANEL CRUCIFORM BAFFLES ENGINE SUPPLY LINE CONNECTION ENGINE CUTOFF SENSORS FOOT L'X]LLAR SECTION LOX RECIRC_.re ¢onllrol to folmeamlJ _ lilt sldrt mounted equipment CmllL_mel_ The mylHlau ie _ into operation shortly after the El mmfed In _ illcillbeL Air is used aa the ¢_NIE_ _ _ a_olbnete_ two hours prior tO cryopm_ k_ At ntis _kne Ime_ue ndtro_n ((IN2) is _ umli_ik_l _ to plmcEnde the potability of m mcpkmi_ in the event mr LH 2 led(alp..N 2 k made IN_ol_ IROlpellmt _ to (mlure that Ill oxy3en ns expeaed and d_ before • hazard can arise. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL to the s.AT[Ofl RETURN LINES AFT LOX BULKHEAD SUHP l:ilure +'.-. The chanse to (. dnce *he equ_mem ¢om_nef inmlatio. m_c_. SYSTEMS TUNNEL THERMAL CONTROL Ihellnml eoMml _/sSem (fllPme 5-2) provides temperat.n n_. and no flow is provided du_ bo0a.? FrnqlmllaM idknehinll and minimize surface dimludmncm aind cnl¢fform laillrln Io ivevenl the Ilneratlon of lqmrtks0 mi tank outkt ducts and to minimize residuals. premrtatim k and the tank propellant diaperdon ordnan_. CaSlinl whi_ con_ctLi the S-IC Ilalle the bwlmnwnt unit aim runs throuilh this ttmMI (we ri_ S-I and 5-2). The Illow JsIqnllinMed M Biltoff.R CI :ITANCE PRQOE GAS DISTRIBI LOX TANK VENT LIN EQUITORIAL HELD LOX RECIRCULATION RETURN LINE LOX VENT \ PROPELLANT LEVEL HONITORING STILL_(LL AND ULLAGE SENSE LINE )SH BAFFLES . is allmbk oil' _ eq_ lelnFe_tulr_ throulhout A Wateme tunnel. ¢omlPmlmewe o0mdilb_x_ system purses the lind _ m Of ez_ mixtures and a pn_ef hmqxm_e. houdnl electftcM aeblea. ENGINE The mabel acc_ _ COMPARTMENT CONDITIONING The ezwmntal control a/stem is supplied dehmidlll_._or to plopellm_ tmikml and whenever LH2/LOX COrgi BULKHEAD 36" DOLL_. A *lx-pm_ romp ammmbly k_ated at the Iowe_ point of the k)x _nk FovMm • flH and d_n ow_n| and openinp for five an#no k_d Unto.

the LII 2 tank require inmdation to Immmt. o. sy. A foam-rifled honeycomb matelrbd ._ALYZER CCE PURGE CONTROL CONSOLE GHe LOX TANK VACUUM PUMP lIt_Ul'V G G . m the core of the LJ42/lox tank common Ilmelm. In addition._ _ me compartment rmuntaim dared tempcratul_ while the dallier of fire or explallon relulting from propellant leaklle is minimized.. Ell 2 Fdl and drain fairinl_. A_mwnha_ amauyxar the helium oulflow fm the purp°_monttom _ "xciudinl lumudou+ --. TANK INSULATION All e !enud .em PROPUI._.Ij•cent Jsrinllm.5-11stile engine system consists of five dngle-mlartJ-2 _cket en_. Thee engm_ :ire hy Iliml_ll hearings In allcyw lhnlll veclnr rt)ntr+)i 11111_neM fhled _ 1tl _lnlled o_ the centerline s.lium Im i. FAIRINGS /_lO SYSTEMSTUNNEL PURGED UNINSULATED AREA 1 1 LH2 TANK I GAS .'n_l ul.dizinl_l liquid oxylen and liquid hydrolen or propellants.H 2 tank lldewalb and mrwmd bulkhead. _ . rtlht up to umbilk:ad . I.com]enm. I ne boltin I ring. PURGE AND LEAK DETECTION From initiation of propellant loading. nenum mroulh the noneycomb core of the LIl2/Iox umic common bulkhead and tluroulh the -._ll'e _4)_Js.) _. If h_uudous quantities of detec.7 1411T4_I par•gel to the _+ C_lerlilM. recirculation return line fairinp.he_. tmn and.used. t.the stage.o. 11111 honeycolnb Jn41uleticm"his • network of p__. flSum 5-S.r_++lh whlch . s of ._m. qtagt'. The lmu. qusrter-mch thk:k cork sheet is bonded over the polyurethane foam in certain areas. Also • protectiwe cork strip is installed on the ramp 04" the forward skirt fcmmmsuJatiun. .sl_+n<lccl . the tour outer J-2 engines are mounted FIIp_ 5-4 1 GHe CONqONBULXHEAO HONEYC(3q9 SPRAY-ON I_LYURETHAt4E FOAM SHEET CORK OV(R RAMP AREAS. These are the multiple protuberance wake effect m around the IJI 2 fcedline fairinp.ce temperlttme rise dm'Jng clyolenlc opel•flOral._e.81ON t The .mrf. and the forward skirt are ell covered with • apt•y-on polyurethane foam. and systems tunnel.maaaaaaaq__. forced for pmldnl and _cmx ucmczm. _t_ i area.atitm materiid varJel from ares I he flflh +)f rht.

12. PACKAGE | I_tlrL" _" l.-_ _. ENGINE OPE RAT ION EnlP m_ olPer4tiem mc. fhe Iox tank is pressurized hv Iox Ihroulh i/_ heat exchanl_. twbopumps for liquid oxyllen and liquid hydtollen. I he ifartJnl and cutoff _ an piikids of transition in which . . ANTI-FLOOD CHECK VALVE HEAT EXC}_ANGER PROPELLANT UTILIZATION VAIV_ PNEUMATIC CONFR(.)xnlizer exhamt duct. hillh altitude._t(_redin a sphere inside the start tank. by means of eloctrk:al _qmal. START TANK DISCHARGE VALVE FUEL TURBOPUMP FUEL BLFED VALVE GAS GENER_=. oxyllen from the dizcharlp_ to the inlet side through a causinl it to npvnd._rt include a_ce_aming the positions and stalin of wa__=z engine and _t_le . 9. GIMBAL FUEL INLET DUCT OXIDIZER INLET DUCT OXIDIZER TURBOPUMP START TANK AUXILIARY FLIGHT INSTRUMENTATION PACKAGE 7. which uses solid state logic elements. The enldne features a mntde tubular-walled. Pmw::k)n. VIEW ROTATED 180 ° _i 6. The ratio of fuel to oxidizer is controlled by bypassing liquid side of the oxidizer turhopump servovalve._J_ a_l_ting. The J-2 engine etectrh:aJ contro! _y_tem controls engine ope_tio¢.. Thrust vectog control is achieved by II_rnhaling each of the t outboard engines with hydgatdic actuatol. 2... 16. The_ phese_ are deveh)ped in detail in the following pmralgraphs. 10. 14. [he heart of the engine eJectrk:aI control system n the electncal ! 3 13 '4 10 9 I POS I LEGEND 1. whic. 2G. 11. IB.lr in the . Scar._R ELECTRICAL CONTROL PACKAGE PRIMARY FLIGIfT 19.. l-lectrical power is stag supplied. 11.q. hell-shaped thrust chamber and two independently driven. 15. The heat exchanl_r heats the h)x The J-2 rocket engine (filmre 5-6) is a high performance. I INSTR.. is used to _quence the "start and shutdown operations of the enlpne. 3. The engine valves am controlled hy z pneumatic system powered by pseous helium which i.I PACKAGE I . a powered hy engine mounted hydraulic _. mainstaRe and cutoff. An electrical control system.HI IrrAGE J-2 ROCKET ENGINE budnl flowlnll luri_ne Ihe hum permd.i lequellge of activities occm._. engine blillzlnll liquid oxylen and liquid hydrolen as propellants.. The only substances used in the engine are the propellants and helium ps. Both lurt_pumps are powered in _'ries by a single ps Ilenerilot.W_tem_ and components. 21. 8. utilizes the same propellants as the thrust chamber. Preparations for an _ine s'. EXHAUST MANIFOLD THRUST CHAMBER OXIDIZER TURBINE BYPASS VALVE TURBINE BYPASS DUCT MAIN HIGH FUEL FUEL VALVE PRESSURE DUCT 13. The ma'_n hydraulic pump is driven by the oxidizer lurlx)pump turbine. The LH 2 lank is preuurize:! durin¢ the bum period by GH 2 from the thrust chamfer fuel manifi)hl. 22. The extremely low olperatinll lemp_ratm'e of the engine prohibits the use of lubricants m' other fluids. direct drive.

A sequence permits GHe to close the the oxidizer through an this valve. Engine Start Sequence of the start command When engine start is initiated (3. The helium is routed through the internal check valve in the pneumatic control package (1) to ensure continued pressure to the engine valves in the event of helium supply failure. Fuel is tapped from downstream of the main fuel valve for use in the ASI (4). figure 5-7) the spark exciters in the electrical control package provide energy for the gas generator (GG) and augmented spark igniter (ASI) spark plugs (4). the STDV control valve and ignition phase timer are energized. allowing pressurized GH 2 to flow through the series turbine drive system. Absence of a start tank depressurized signal will cause cutoff at the expiration of the ignition phase timer. The LVDC issues an engine ready bypass .S-ll STAGE control package the engine start Engine cutoff (17. opens when the fuel valve reaches approximately 90% open and routes helium to the start tank discharge valve (STDV) (11) control valve. Combustion of the propellants cause the hot gases to drive the turbopumps (12). Transition into mainstage occurs as the turbopumps(12) accelerate to steadystate speeds. Nominal engine specific impulse as a function of mixture ratio for are shown in figure 5-8. Propellant paragraph thrust and the engines utilization is discussed under a subsequent heading of PROPELLANTS. As oxidizer pump output pressure increases a thrust OK signal is generated by either of the two thrust OK pressure switches (17). are simultaneously energized allowing helium from the helium tank (2) to flow through the pneumatic regulator to the pneumatic control system. An ignition phase control valve. This early shutdown is programmed to preclude longitudinal oscillations which have occurred late in the S-II burn on previous missions. signals the electrical control package. The lox tank is pressurized by lox heated by the heat exchanger in the turbine exhaust duct. Both the stationary propellants. This accelerates both turbopumps (12) to the proper operating levels to allow subsequent ignition and power build up of the gas generator (16). valve operated by the main oxidizer valve (14) to open the gas generator control valve (4) and oxidizer turbine bypass valve (13). the sparks de_nergize timer is energized and the STDV control valve is deenergized. During this period. automatically causes sequences and times the electrical Control the mainstage control valve. flow through Propellants flowing into the gas generator.p signal is received before expiration of the sparks deenergized timer.ignal just prior to an engine start attempt. Each of these sources signal the LVDC in the IU. Helium pressure is vented from the main oxidizer valve (14) and from the purge control valve through The engine cutoff sequence is shown graphically in figure 5-9. As the STDV control valve energizes. During the start sequence the normally open oxidizer bypass valve (13) permits a percentage of the gas to bypass the oxidizer turbine. turbopumps under (12). Simultaneously. The relationship of fuel to lox turbopump speed buildup is controlled by an orifice in the oxidizer turbine bypass valve (13). The mainstage control valve also supplies opening control pressure to the oxidizer turbine bypass valve (13). Flow to close turbine bypass valve (13) is restricted as it passes orifice. The helium control and ignition phase control valves. (5) and purges (6) the oxidizer dome and gas generator oxidizer injector manifold. The fast shutdown valve now rapidly vents the return flow from the GG control valve. The purge control valve closes. Engine Cutoff The S-II J-2 engine may receive cutoff signals from several different sources. figure 5-6)which or cutoff functions. causing the STDV to close. This bypass signal acts in the same manner as a cutoff would act. the discharge valve opens. (Cutoff occurs if no. Cutoff occurs if both pressure switch actuated signals (thrust OK) are lost during mainstage operation. Presence of the start tank depressurized signal allows the mainstage control valve to energize. Pressure from the mainstage control valve is routed to open the main oxidizer valve (14). terminating the oxidizer injector manifold purges (6). tank pressure. The electrical control package receives the cutoff signal (1). During this period. The propellant flow increases and is ignited in the thrust chamber by the torch from the ASI. The ignition phase control valve closes the ASI oxidizer valve (4) and the main fuel valve (5) while opening the fast shutdown valve. The regulated helium fills a pneumatic accumulator. EDS automatic and manual abort cutoffs and propellant depletion cutoff. The switch selector. The mainstage control valve closes the main oxidizer valve (3) and opens the purge control valve and the oxidizer turbine bypass valve (5). when actuated. opens the main fuel valve (7) and the ASI oxidizer valve (8) and supplies pressure to the sequence valve located within the main oxidizer valve (14). These sources include engine interlock deviations. The purge control valve directs a helium purge (11) to the oxidizer dome and GG oxidizer injector. and the receipt of a stage supplied mainstage enable signal. in the main fuel valve (12). (16) are ignited by the sparkplugs (4). while energizing the helium control deenergize timer. and deenergizes the mainstage and ignition phase control valves in the pneumatic control package (2). Upon expiration of the STDV timer. The orifice controls the closing speed of package circuitry to reset itself ready for start. Cutoff Sequence The sequence valve. the STDV delay timer is energized. Steadystate operation is maintained until a cutoff signal is initiated. All valves except the ASI oxidizer valve (4) 5-7 . in turn. ASI combustion occurs. GH 2 is tapped from the fuel injection manifold to pressurize the LH 2 tank. The mainstage control valve holds the main oxidizer valve closed and opens the purge control valve which allows the oxidizer dome and gas generator oxidizer injector to be purged (6). closes the propellant bleed valves. in the pneumatic control package (1). The electrical control package controls all the local signals for the cutoff sequence. Receipt initiates the engine start sequence. Center engine cutoff (CECO) will occur approximately 70 seconds ahead of outboard engines cutoff. Simultaneously with engine start. The turbopumps rotation causes propellant pressure to build up. The oxidizer turbopump (12) intermediate seal cavity is continuously purged. The reset signals engine ready and this allows the LVDC to send its start command. providing all reset conditions are met.) The ASI and GG sparks exciters are deenergized at expiration of the sparks deenergized timer. The LVDC sends the engine cutoff signal to the S-II switch selector.

_IK TART COHHAND FROM I U FROM LOX TNIK ELECTRICAL CONTROL STPSE SUPPLIED PLAIN STAGE ENABLE SIC44N. .... SENSE LINE HELI IJN FUEL COMBUSTION GAS[_ LOX MMINI GASEOUS HYDROGEN |"l_urL. _.-'/(_hect ! of ...-_:_ To LOX TAN_" ? O0 LEGEND .r: fg-II fl"_...]) .. _ _-:..

m• Bleed valves stop return propellant tanks. m Sparks ignite the propellants in the ASI. Main fuel valve a11ows LH2 to flow into engine thrust chamber apa into _I. I |:ilZUrv 5 7 IShevl Z of . IS HELIUM FOR THE PNEUMATICSYSTEM IS SUPPLIED BY THE CONTROL SPHEREINSIDE THE GH 2 START TANK Seart Command (Occurs at T3 + 1. m m ASI oxidizer valve allows fox to flow to _I._j V .0 .7 i o slm n_ SEQUENCE PRE-IGNITION NOTE EVENT TIME IN SECONDS 1. flow to Oxidizer oxidizer dome and gas generator injector are purged.0 I I 3.4) Engine Ready _ Sequence Englne Start mmm I I Augumented Spark and Gas Generator Igniter (ASI) spark plugs (GG) spark plugs fire. ALL PNEUMATICVALVES ARE CONTROLLED BY THE PNEUMATICCONTROLPACKAGE[_XHICH LDE_TEDON THE ENGINE. Stage supplied mainstage enable signal.

) MAINSTAGE OK pressure switches stgnal to CH.'urt" 5 7 ().F il 141 Irf_ SEQUENCE EVENT . and lox turbopumps turbines bufldu_ propellant pressure. Lox turbopump bypass valve opens to.ht. valve controls mass r_. (Spark ignites propellants causing pressure build up.control lox pump speed.U.io by returning lox from pump dtscha_e to pump inlet. Main o_cidlzer valve opens allowing lox to be injected into thrust chamben i i i G G valves achit propellants. and maintains 90_ thrust i| i P.0 TIME IN SECONDS ! Start tank dtscharqes GH 2 causing the LH. L'! . send mainstage OK Engine out lights go out. Engine reaches or more. |"ll. tit zj filO .

Each outboard engine is equipped with a separate. furnishes demands and smooths out Figure and oxidizer turbine bypass valve (8). The accumulator/reservoir manifold assembly consists of a high pressure (3500 psig) accumulator which receives high pressure fluid from the pumps and a low pressure (88 psig) reservoir which receives return fluid from the servoactuators. The primary components of the hydraulic control system are an auxiliary pump. a main pump. the hydraulic system fluid is intermittently recirculated by the electrically driven auxiliary pump in order to prevent the fluid from freezing. roll and yaw axes. Expiration of the helium control deenergize timer causes the helium control valve to close. The auxiliary pump is used prior to launch to maintain the hydraulic fluid temperature between 65 and 105 degrees F. electrically controlled. Command signals received from the guidance system are interpreted as linear variations from a known piston position. in turn. it causes the oxidizer dome and GG oxidizer injector purges (11) to stop. The developed force. CONTROL OK -10% 430 SPECIFIC IMPULSE. LBS X 10 3 200 The main pump is mounted to. servoactuators. 5-11 .S-II STAGE mainstage operation. are spring loaded closed. Actuator hydraulic pressure return fluid is routed to the reservoir to supply which stores fluid at sufficient pressure at the main pump inlet. This causes the valves to start moving dosed as soon as the pressure to open them is released.0 ENGINE MIXTURE RATIO 5. It is used during stage powered flight and delivers hydraulic fluid at 8 gallons per minute at 3500 psig. SEC 425 +10% 420 4. the engine lox turbopump. Hydraulic fluid.0 MIXTURE RATIO I 5. allowing propellants to flow back to the propellant tanks. The servoactuator is a power control unit that converts electrical command signals and hydraulic power into mechanical outputs that gimbal the engine. The servoactuators are capable of deflecting the engine _i: 7 degrees in the pitch and yaw planes. Hydraulic fluid is then directed to either side of the actuator piston as required to satisfy the guidance command. hydraulic fluid is routed under from the main pump to the pressure manifold accumulat0r/reservoir. at the rate of 8 degrees per second. OPERATION a positive PREFLIGHT ) Each engine is provided with a system to detect malfunctions and to effect a safe shutdown. in the accumulator. and velocity are determined by an electro-hydraulic servovalve. MALFUNCTION DETECTION pump pulsations. The system includes two servoactuators mounted perpendicular to each other that provide control over the vehicle pitch. Once an engine attains During and following propellant loading. and driven by. hydraulically powered. 230 220 210 THRUST. The reservoir is. closed-loop. due to the short duration of the burn. it is shut down if both mainstage pressure switches deactuate due to low level thrust. Recirculation is not necessary during S-IC burn. and two servoactuators (figures 5-10 and 5-11).5 ENGINE 5. Recirculation is terminated just prior to S-IC ignition command. direction. During engine firing. independent. FLIGHT 434. This pressurized hydraulic fluid is directed to the two identical. GG combustion aids closing of the GG control valve. pressurized by the accumulator through a piston-type linkage. When the helium control valve closes. The servoactuators have a nominal operating pressure of 3500 psig and provide the necessary forces and support to accurately position the engine in response to flight control system signals.5 pressure of the 190 180 / -10% 5-8 17O 4. the accumulator is pressurized with GN 2 and filled with hydraulic fluid from the pressurized auxiliary pump flow. Prior to launch. a shutdown of the particular engine is initiated. under pressure high pressure fluid for sudden 5. hydraulic control system (figure 5-10). an accumulator/reservoir manifold assembly. The pump delivers two gallons per minute at 3650 psig. This loss of pressure allows springs to open the propellant bleed valves. and • driven by a 400-cycle motor on GSE power. An orifice in the locked up lines bleeds off pressure from the propellant bleed valves (13). If neither mainstage OK pressure switch has indicated sufficient thrust for mainstage operation of the ignition phase timer.5 The center engine is fixed in place while the four outer engines are gimbaled in accordance with electrical signals from the flight control computer in the IU for thrust vector control.

...• tP I---.. .. I L. 1- _A ti I#1_ _._-_j _ .

.

jLATOP LOCKUP VALVES GN2 FILL ACCU_L. YA$q ERROR PRESF.: S-IU =.'(_ _R r'_ANI FOLi) ASSE"_flLY J !: q_u r. IJRE RETURN SUPPLY GASEOIJS f'IITROGLN IIYD ALTERNATING PRESSURE AND RETURN RESERVOIR _ ACCUM. e. ROLL ERROR # PITCII FRROR ¢.LATO{-_ I I I I I r I i i I I i __ i. UNIT INSTRUMENT S-If STAGE ._eo_J [IFII'_ I I I L ACCUI'41JL A.S ¢.1 '¢ GUIDANCE I SYSTE.PR-_[ SL R'._ j I _ COMMANDS TO ENGINE ACTUATOR UNITS SERVOV/W.I. / L T DIGITAL COMPUTE9 • 0 i1' I I (LVDC) _ DATA ADAPTER LAUNCH (LVDA) VIEHI CLE PLATFORM _ ST-124-M STMILIZED I . SE P. VO V AL VE I _J i L LEG[?I[) ELECTRI C.allllr AW. Y.-14 .VIS _"_ '- SERVOACTUATOI_ ATTACHES STRUCTURE r 3 L I I I I I I I I I ATTACHES TO ENGINE I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I m I I I II I HYDPAULIC LOCK VALVE i I ! I I I I I I _'_AINPLP.IP_ I AUXILIARY PUMP] II I L I i I_._C S IGNAI.

S-IISTAGE AUXILIARY MOTOR PUM_ ACCUMULATOR RESERVOIR MANIFOLD ASSEMBLY SERVOACTUATORS _GIMBAL BEARING ASSEMBLY MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMP ERVOACTU OR BEARING _ Q_a_=_ ASSEMBLY--____ SERVOACTUATOR ATTACH POINTS (d-2 ENGINE) ___ //f _b Figure INFLIGHT OPERATION 5-1 1 is supplied from tile helium receiver. It is pressurized to 3000 psig at approximatelyT-34 minutes. and during l'he pneumatic control system ground pneumatic control pneumatic control system.n the tanks. PNEUMATICS pneumatic control systems 'dnd Ltn consist of a stage Pr. and the onboard system utilizes helium from onboard storage spheres. as required Ground supplied helium controls and actuates various valves during preflight operations.ground system utilizes helium supplied directly from a ground source. This is accomplished by the propellant management components and the servicing. Refer to figure 5-13 for propethmt loadiag datzL The tanks are vented by opening the tank vent valves. two per propellant tank. One system actuates the lox tank vent wflves. Actuation pressure for the propellant tanks vent wdves is provided by two separate 750-psig ground-supplied helium systems. GROUND PNEUMATICS purging launch of propellant preparations. fill and drain valves. and 5-15 . discussed in the paragraph on J-2 prevalves control ROCKET After S-IC/S-I1 stage separation. The . PROPELLANT Pad servicing SERVICING operations SYSTEM include tanks and the lines filling. stopping at the closed main valves. During S-II mainstage operation the main hydraulic pump supplies high pressure fluid to the servoactuators for gimbaling. The engine pneumatic system is ENGINE. and main propellant ONBOARD Ihc onboard valve system. to the fill and drain wflves. and delivery subsystems. l'hcse inchtde the vent valves. draining. recirculation return line valves. The accumulator stored fluid provides gimbaling power prior to main hydraulic pump operation. an S-II switch selector command unlocks tile accumulator lockup valves. line prevalvcs. releasing high pressure fluid to each of the two servoactuators. and into the propellant tanks. conditioning._pellanl control control l'he stage system onboard engine control pneunmtic system pneumatic Ground interface is through tim umbilicals. PNEUMATIC CONTROLS (figure system 5-12) anti consists of the the onboard PROPELLANTS The propellant systems supply fuel and oxidizer to the five J-2 rocket engines. Pneumatic pressure from the helium receiver is regulated to 750 psig by the control regulator and is used during flight to actuate tile and recirculation valves. Propellants then enter the engine feed lines. to allow ullage gas to escape fro.

000 10..re $-12 TYPICAL PROPELLANTLOADING DATA APPROXIMATEFILL PATE (GALLONS/HINUTE) 500 5. to 6:27:00 to 0:03:06 .I F 1411TAGI HELIUM RECEIVER 3000 SURGE o PREVALVES (s m.IF- 750 PSIG l h "l-r .o6:54:00.-D i....000 1._.000 0 to 480 Fig._s) 750 PSIG REGULATOR _E DISCONNE_S . to 6:30:0(..a FILL AND LH2 ! ['_ DRAIN VALVE FILL LOX ANO DRAIN VALVE Flip..+ . LOX PRECOOL FAST SLOW REPLENISH PRECOOL FAST SLOW REPLENISH LH2 Oto5 5 to 98 98 to iO0 T-4:54:00 to 4:Jt$:O0 T-4:1(_:00 T-4:3IG:O0 to to 4ll:tJO 4:ltJ:O0 T-3:33:00 to _J:t)J:()t_ _mli.- PREVALVES _l JVALVE (S PLACES) ...] cx SURGE --II LH2 RECIREULATION RETURNVALVES (5 PLACES) ECIm:ULATIOml I -.000 0 to 100 1.000 I.re 5 13 516 PROPELLANT TYPE FILL LEVEL (TANK % LEVEL) Oto5 5 to 98 98 to 100 t APPROXIMATE COUNT TIME (HR:FIIN :SEC) T-7:04:0C T-6:54:00 T-6:30:00 T-5:45:00 ' I t.

and back into the lox tank. providing a redundant shutoff for the lox feed system. DELIVERY a fill overpressure switch for sends a signal to the GSE and is SUBSYSTEMS feed systems is to transfer the of the engine liquid propellants from their tanks to the J-2 rocket engines. through the LH 2 turbopump. through the engine bleed valves. lox prevalves and recirculation return valves remain open. RECI RCULATION SYSTEM maintain preclude gas could start. slow thrust buildup surges. and shortly before liftoff. During recirculation. The prevalves are normally open. This cause cavitation in the turbopumps during J-2 engine result in a slow engine start. The LH 2 tank has dual setting vent valves. Each propellant tank is provided with five prevalves which provide open/close control of the flow of propellants through separate feedlines to each engine.5 psig and during Propellant recirculation is accomplished in order to uniform cryogenic density and temperature and to the formation of gas in propellant plumbing. LH 2 conditioning is accomplished by pumping the fuel through the recirculation bypass valve. Lox conditioning is accomplished by recirculating the lox down the engine feed ducts through the prevalves. into the return lines. Approximately 300 milliseconds after main valve closure. Forced recirculation during launch and S-IC boost consists of closing the LH 2 feed line prevalves and starting the LH 2 recirculation pumps. At engine start. Lox tank pressurization (figure 5-14) is initiated at S-II ignition and continues until engine cutoff. After launch helium is supplied from a pressurized sphere. the lox turbopump. LOX FEED SYSTEM The lox feed system furnishes lox to the five engines. to each engine. through the prevatves and feed lines. It is accomplished from a ground regulated helium source. and back into the fuel tank. LH 2 flows from the tank. Each propellant personnel safety. pneumatically actuated.S41 STAGE the other system valves are open closed tbr tank actuates during the LH 2 tank vent valves. This system includes four 8-inch. opening the fill valves. Built-in four-way pneumatic control solenoids permit 750 + 50 psig helium pressure to actuate the prevalves. This system includes five 8-inch vacuum-jacketed feed ducts and five normally open prevalves. to each engine. The vent propellant loading operations and pressurization. Pressurization of the propellant tanks is required prior to liftoff to provide the required net positive suction head (NPSH) "at the turbopump inlets for engine start. LH 2 FEED SYSTEM The LH 2 feed system furnishes LH 2 to the five engines. A separate recirculation pump is provided for each of the five feed ducts. At engine start. vacuum-jacketed feed ducts. and dosing opening the prevalves. is terminated by pumps. the recirculation return valve. the prevalves are closed. through the LH 2 bleed valve. and reversing the fill operation. Should a loss of pneumatic or electrical power occur. At that time. draining of the propellant tanks can be accomplished by pressurizing the tanks. Helium boost is continuous until just prior to S-II ignition. Pressurization is accomplished with gaseous oxygen obtained by heating lox bled from the lox turbopump outlet. used only during PROPEF_LANT The function is limited to 29. lox flows from the tank.0 psig. one uninsulated feed duct. Recirculation stopping the valves. the lox prevalves are closed. The prevalves remain open during S-II powered flight unless a signal is received from the engine shutdown system. the tank vent valves are closed and the disconnect valve and ground prepressurization valves are opened to 'allow GHe at cryogenic temperatures to flow from the ground source through the prepressurization solenoid valve into the tank pressurization line. Pressurization tank and the T-I minute and 37 seconds for the LH 2 is terminated at T-30 seconds tbr the lox LH 2 tank. helium is injected into the lox recirculation return line to boost recirculation. The lox tank vent valves limit ullage pressure to 42 psia in the lox tank. butterfly-gate type valves. The prevalves are closed following tank loading and remain closed until just prior to S-II ignition command. LOX Recirculation Lox conditioning by natural convection (figure 5-14) is initiated shortly after start of lox fill and continues until approximately T-33 minutes. If the launch is aborted. into the LH 2 feed ducts downstream of the prevalves. and five normally open prevalves. Approximately 425 milliseconds after main valve closure. During the S-IC burn. LOX TANK PRESSURIZATION PREPRESSURIZATION After loading has been completed. LH 2 tank ullage pressure the S-II burn to 33. through the prevalves and feed lines. Pressurization is initiated by the terminal countdown sequencer at approximately T-3 minutes and 7 seconds for the lox tank and tank. the prevalves are spring actuated to the open position. The vent valves act as relief valves allowing ullage gas to be vented directly overboard during flight. electrically controlled. the vent valves are closed and the propellant tanks are pressurized to their required levels by helium from ground supplies. or or power Both propellant tanks are pressurized in the same manner by separate systems (figures 5-t4 and 5-15). the recirculation return tank has The switch loading. This line carries helium into the propellant tank through the tank gas distributor. 5-17 . Return line valves are closed at termination of recirculation. li " t_1 LH 2 Recirculation LH 2 recirculation (figure 5-15) is initiated at approximately T-30 minutes and is terminated just prior to S-II ignition. providing a redundant shutoff for the LH 2 feed system. At initiation of prepressurization.

....I_.vALvt I | GSE FROM IU FROM GSE LOX PREPRESSURwZAT I ON VALVE t LVOC PU PROPELLANT UTILIZATION ELECTRONICS LOX BLEED VAI VE HELIUM INJECTION SUPPLY BOTTLE NAI. ...N LOX vE REGULATGR DRIVE GASSES FROM PUMP LrGEND COX lie LOX ELECTRICAL CUMBUSTION CASES ULLAGE PRESSURE FROM OTHER 4 E_GINES LH 2 / / / "-" -.14 S. _. :-... _Itlllllk- ..........-_ _:_--__:___-- / I l:il_urc s.I: F gagIR_W}E OVERFILL DISTRIBUTOR FAST FILL CUTOFF _STILLWELL CAPACITANCE LOX FILL AND BRAIN LINE 5 ENGINE CUTOFF SENSORS MOUNTED /IBOVE SUMP VENT/ RELIEF VALVES SUl_ RJECIRCULATION nLrruim V/U...WE I SIGNAL CONDITIONING LOX PREVALVE TO TELEMETRY _.

. . FUEL (LH2) COMBUSTION GASES GASEOUS HYDROGEN HELIUM (He) ULLAGE PRESSURE Figure 5-15 5-19 m ...... 5-14) LH2 FILL AND DRAIN VALVE LH2 PREPRESSURIZATION VALVE FROM GSE PRESSURE REGULATOR RECIRCULATION RETURNVALVE LH2 PREVALVE RECIRCULATION BYPASS VALVE PURGE GSE PURGE CHECK r VALVES L LH2 BLEED VALVE THRUST CHAMBER INJECTOR MANIFOLD REClRCULATION PUMP ENGINE CUTOFFSENSORS AT EACH OF 5 OUTLETS z TO GSE TURBO PUMP MAIN FUEL VALVE LEGEND ENG I NE # _::_:i:_: i_E_t_ .....S-IISTAGE LH2 SYSTEM PRESSURIZATION FLOWANDCONDITIONING VENT/RELIEF VALVES DISTRIBUTOR 'ERFILL SENSOR FAST FILL CUTOFF SENSOR LWELL LH2 TANKI CAPACITANCE PROBE JPPLIES AN ELECTRICAL INPUT TO PROPELLANT UTILIZATION ELECTRONICS (FIG.

and into the tank through the gas distributor. The electrical control system interfaces with the IU to accomplish the mission requirements of the stage. of five engine outboard engines. basically a network of low power transistorized switches that can be controlled individually and. LH 2 TANK PRESSURIZATION flight gaseous hydrogen (GH2) for LH 2 (figure 5-15) is bled from the thrust injector manifold of each of the four approximately engine start the 5. This step pressurization compensates for the loss of head pressure caused by the lowering of the fuel level in the tank. The flowrate is varied according to the LH 2 tank ullage pressure. Maximum pressure is reached approximately six minutes after S-II ignition. The PU subsystem consists of a rotary valve which controls the amount of lox flowing to the engine. between the primary 5-20 . level sensors in mass. Stage-mounted motor driven power transfer switches are employed to remotely disconnect all batteries from busses until just before launch. electrical These sequence outputs are routed controller or the At approximately 5 minutes after S-II engine ignition a step pressurization command from the stage switch selector activates the regulator to a fully open position. the means of phases of and point propellant point level ¢. LH 2 tank pressure increases to a nominal 33 psia. For a representative block diagram of the PU subsystem see figure 6-21. The LVDC in the IU controls inflight sequencing of stage functions through the stage switch selector. Figure 2-26 illustrates the times of MR shifts on a thrust versus time curve. Approximately three minutes after S-If ignition the pressurization regulator is commanded to a full open position where it remains for the rest of the S-I1 burn. Ullage pressure is allowed to rise to a maximum of approximately 42 psia where the tank relief valves open preventing a further rise. valve control circuitry when the LV has attained a preprogrammed velocity increase. Figure 5-14 and 5-15 illustrate the components of the systems.5:1. upon command from the switch selector. liquid hydrogen is preheated in the regenerative cooling tubes of the engine and tapped off from the thrust chamber injector manifold in the form of GH 2 to serve as a pressurizing medium.)) Each power source has There are no provisions an independant for switching distribution system. During the prelaunch checkout period all electrical power is supplied from GSE. Pressure in excess of 33 psia is prevented by the LH 2 tank vent valves. and electrical controls for the valve. During the sensors are used to indicate to GSE the level of propellants in the tanks. This will occur approximately 5 minutes 25 seconds after J-2 engine start and will provide a MR of approximately 4. PROPELLANT MANAGEMENT management systems provide a controlling propellants during all Continuous capacitance probes the LH 2 and lox tanks monitor propellant loading sequence. An integral heater and temperature probe are included in each battery. The cutoff sensors will initiate a signal cutoff to shutdown signals from the engines when two out the same tank are received. Approximately 50 seconds prior to liftoff.5 LVDC in the IU commands will the provide a MR IU will again seconds after the PU valve PU J-2 to a position which The LVDC in of approximately command tl'e 5. through the pressurization line and tank pressurization regulator. provide properly sequenced electrical signals to control the stage functions.3:1 for the remainder of the burn. a portion of the lox supplied to the engine is diverted into the heat exchanger where it is turned into gox. See figure 5-16 for battery characteristics. separation controller These units are to accomplish the directed operation. The capacitance probes provide outputs which are telemetered to ground stations so that propellant consumption can be monitored and recorded. When the regulator is in the full open position. . The stage switch selector can provide up to 112 individual outputs in response to the through appropriate the stage commands. which is sensed by the reference pressure line connecting the LH 2 tank and the tank pressurization regulator. s j ELECTRICAL The electrical system is comprised of the electrical power and electrical control subsystems. PROPELLANT UTI LIZATION SUBSYSTEM The electrical power system consists of six dc bus systems and a ground supplied ac bus system. The LH 2 tank sensors are located above each feedline outlet while the lox tank sensors are located directly above the sump. action to prevent power from ground power to onboard ). The GH 2 passes from each injector manifold into a stage manifold. Propellant Depletion During S-II powered tank pressurization chamber hydrogen Five discrete liquid level sensors in each propellant tank provide initiation of engine cutoff upon detection of propellant depletion. The electrical power system provides the S-II stage with the electrical power source and distribution. Power for battery heaters and for auxiliary hydraulic pump motors is supplied by GSE and is available only during prelaunch operations. In flight. a power transfer sequence is initiated which changes the source power over to the stage mounted batteries. After S-II engine ignition.S-If STAGE / / When tne turbine discharge pressure reaches a pressure differential of 100 psi. and into the tank through the LH 2 tank gas distributor. Approximately 5. At the time of J-2 engine start signal the PU valve is in a neutral position which provides a MR of make-before-break interruption during battery power. where it remains the rest of S-II boost. In flight the electrical power system busses are energized by four zinc-silver oxide batteries. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM The propellant monitoring and stage operation. The motorized power (MBB) transfer transfer switches have a The propellant utilization (PU) subsystem provides the capability to control the mixture ratio (MR) of lox to LH 2. the level sensors provide signals to the LVDC in order to accomplish a smooth engine cutoff at propellant depletion. Step pressurization of the lox tank increases the NPSH to reduce pump induced engine thrust oscillations.0:1. The excursion effect caused by varying the MR is illustrated in figure 5-8. The gox flows from each heat exchanger into a common pressurization duct through the tank pressurization regulator.

Nominal Current Gross voltage rating weight 28 35 165 + 2 vdc " amp hours The pounds division between the main dc bus and the E Figure 5-16 instrumentation dc bus leads to several advantages: closer voltage regulation and freedom from voltage variations is obtained.J-2 ENGIN E IGNITION O[-'LH 2 |RECIRCULATION INVERTERS PUMP MOTOR I I I I DISPERSION I EOS O I-"J-2 ENGIN E CONTROL I O I--PROPELLANT DISPERSION SYSTEM 2 II I ] II SWITCHING INE SYSTEM INE ACTUATION O [-SEPARATION I [ I li I I O I--PLIGHT CONTROL OI-ELECTRICAL SEQUENCE CONTROLLEI I 0 F-SWITCH SELECTOR = I I l PRELAUNCH ONLY I I I I "l _ l 0 I. emergency detection systems and separation systems. critical to mission without performance degradation. Two independent power sources supply the propellant dispersion. The loads have been distributed between the various busses in accordance with the following criteria: continuance supplied by S-ll BAITERY CHARACTERISTICS 1.. Type Material Electrolyte Dry charge silver-zinc 3. PROPELLANT LOAOIN(_ VALVE AND RELAY "POSITION POWER INDICATIONS SYSTEM ATTERY HEATERS HEATERS I I I I . Distribution Figure 5-17 illustrates the electrical system distribution.PRESSU RIZATION 0 l. INSTRUMENTATION BUS MAIN BUS IGNITION BUS RECIRCULATION BUS I IGROUNO BUS HEATER BUS l I II 0 F INSTRUMENTATION (3 I-. the number of loads on the main de bus may be minimized and thus potential failure modes for the bus system minimized. No electrical failure of any type in one system can cause a failure in the other systems. All instrumentation loads instrumentation dc bus.PROPELLANT O I.. Y TRANSFER _J /_ L TRANSFER SWITCH )--- 1 o-i 3SAMPERENOUN..TELEMETRY O _ I I .PROPELLANT --|SYSTEM 1 OF.. supplied by the Alkaline All loads operational only on the ground are isolated from flight loads and supplied from ground power.S-If STAGE power sources or their associated distribution systems... are 2. Inflight loads.EDS _1 SWITCH SWITCH //(. The recirculation from a 56 volt series)... are the main dc bus.PEREROUR 2B-VOC BATTERY I I 2&VOC BATTERY I EREHOUR BATTERY HYDRAULIC AUXILIARY PUMP MOTORS i 28-VOC 35-AMPERE-HOUR RETURN BUS BATTERY COM _ REMOTE POWER DISTRIBUTION PANEL I I I GROUND DC RECTIFIER I 11_200 voc I 400 HZ I ALTERNATOR Figure 5-17 5-21 ..INSTRUMENT 0 I-'. of loads pump motor dc system (two system 28 volt is supplied batteries in Potassium hydroxide (KOH) in demineralized water 20 with voltage taps as to reduce 4..SEPARATION SYSTEM . instrumentation of most stage systems is ..-. Cells required 5.....

vibration. In flight data frequency-modulated band. in the and for high power power distributor. 7. The electrical control system contains most of the electrical and electronic components that are installed on the stage and required by the various mechanical systems for normal stage operation. The Emergency Detection System. SYSTEM vehicle system provides for separation from the remainder of the vehicle. a large number of engine and environmental control measurements are required. pressures. which includes the LSC (containing 25 grains per foot of RDX) with a detonator block on each end (figures 5-19 and 5-20). a number of basic categories of measured variable. flowrates. two EBW detonators. etc. SEPARATION systems and include the separation. Because I'_ CONTROL SYSTEM The electrical control system provides electrical control for the various stage-mounted systems to implement normal flight operations. inflight pressurization valves. The S-II/S-IVB separation occurs at a single plane (figure 5-19). liquid levels. signal conditioners. frequency. The antennae are linear. modulators. cavity-backed. propellant dispersion ullage (flight 3° 4° 5. temperature. The EBW firing units are installed on the S-1C/S-II interstage slightly below the S-II first separation plane. Measurements fall into depending upon the type rate of change with time. The measurement system monitors and while the telemetry ground stations. A sequence of events block diagram of the 5-20. Through the switch selector and sequence controller. Measurement parameters monitored include acceleration. The primary stimuli for the electrical control system are provided by the [U and/or the GSE. a dual plane separation technique is used wherein the structure between the two stages is severed at two different planes (figure 5-19). The pressurization system which controls the tank prepressurization valves. ELECTRICAL supplied directly from the main Tile measurenaent systenl monitors numerous stage conditions and characteristics. the variable and other considerations. subcarrier oscillators. or prelaunch operations and checkout functions. The separation system which provides for S-IC/S-II separation. 2. system which controls and the recirculation the fill and The telemetry system accepts the signals produced by the measuring portion of the instrumentation system and transmits them to the ground stations. Power is then routed to auxiliary control distributors. transmitters. This data is processed and conditioned into a form acceptable to the telemetry systems. acoustics.. The telemetry subsystem uses multiplex techniques (signal mixing and time sharing) to transmit large quantities of measurement data over a relatively small number of basic RF links (figure 5-18). positions. S-II ullage rocket ignition. RF multiplexers and an omnidirectional system of four antennae. They include: l° the stage engines are ignited in flight. and one linear shaped charge (LSC) assembly. are employed to provide omnidirectional coverage. for S-IC/S-II/S-IVB separation systems separations and a is shown in figure SYSTEM Ordnance for first plane separation consists of two exploding bridgewire (EBW) firing units. discretes. installed at 90 degree intervals (see figure 5-2). S-II skirt separation. strain. The propellant management system which helps control the fill operation and the propellant utilization system during flight. INSTRUMENTATION The S-II instrumentation system consists of an operational measurements and telemetry system. The leads of the EBW firing The measurement system consists of transducers. voltage. The Saturn V launch of an expended stage 8. The starting and cutoff of the J-2 engine and monitoring of certain engine system conditions. amplifiers. TELEMETRY SYSTEM The propellant feed and drain valves conditioning valves. Primary power is fed to high current capacity busses dc suitably scaled signals to the telemetry system.S-ll STAGE still maintained after partial or total failure of the main bus system so that failure analysis capability is maintained. Components which require current levels are distributor busses. retrorocket. and the vent/relief valves. slot antennae which are fed from a hybrid junction ring and power dividers. Telemetry equipment includes signal multiplexers. termination) systems. or to measuring distributors instrumentation power. The propellant dispersion system which provides thrust termination through engine cutoff and explosively rupturing the propellant tanks. _the for for to common omnidirectional antenna ANTENNAE Four antennae. MEASUREMENT measures conditions on the S-II stage system transmits this information to S-IC/S-II separation. various subsystems and functions are controlled. The operation of the propellant prevalves. For 6. S-II/S-IVB separation. and S-II retrorocket ignition. through the is transmitted RF carriers in in the the 230 form of 250-MHz system. All separations are controlled by the launch vehicle digital computer (LVDC) located in the IU. and distribution equipment necessary to provide the required measurement ranges and to present Q9 5-22 . RPM. RF power amplifiers. ORDNANCE The S-II ordnance rocket. current.

A spark gap in one pin of the firing circuitry prevents burnout of the bridgewire if power is accidentally applied.0 MHz MODEL270 MULTIPLEXER F-I PAM/FM/FM ASSEMBLY T' I PAM/FM/FM ASSEMBLY 1 TELEMETRY CALIBRATOR ASSEMBLY INPUTS Figure 5-18 5-23 . The two EBW firing units provide redundant signal paths for initiation of the LSC assembly. The LSC is routed from the detonator blocks around the periphery of the interstage.5 MHz F-2 TRANSMITTER 234. No heat-sensitive primary explosives are used and the detonators are not sensitive to accidental application of vehicle or gound power. The second plane separation ordnance is similar in composition and function to that of the first plane separation.# MODULATIONTECHNIQUE AND FREQUENCY LINK NO.5 234.0 248. The LSC is held in place by retaining clips and encased by covers which are secured by clips and sealed to environmentally protect the LSC. Detonation of the LSC assembly severs the tension members attaching the S-IC/S-II interstage at station 1564. INSTRUMENTATION AND TELEMETRY SYSTEMS -. static discharge. The storage capacitor in each of the EBW firing units is charged by 28 vdc power during the latter part of S-IC boost. The LSC detonator blocks are installed on adjustable mounts to provide for length variations of the LSC assembly and the circumference tolerances of the interstage. Detonation of the LSC assembly severs the tension members attaching the S-IC/S-II interstage at station 1760. The trigger signal causes the storage capacitor to discharge into an EBW detonator which explodes the bridgewire to release energy to detonate the explosive charge in the detonator. or RF energy.6 MHz PCM/DDAS MODEL 301 ASSEMBLY MODEL210 SUB-_ MULTIPLEXER INPUTS MULTICOUPLER L 1 q MODEL 270 MULTIPLEXER ANALOG INPUTS F-I TRANSMITTER 241. BF-I BF-2 MODULATION PAM/FM/FM PAM/FM/FM PCM/FM FREQUENCY MHz 241. The EBW firing units are installed on the S-IC/S-II interstage slightly below the separation plane. S-II/S-IVB third plane separation is discussed in Section VI.6 I DIVIDER POWER BP-I MULTIPLEXER MODEL210 SUB-_ DISCRETE GSE TO _ SWITCH COAXIAL k q P-I TRANSMITTER 248.Sql STAGE units are attached to the EBW detonators which are installed in the detonator blocks of the LSC assembly. The output of the detonators initiates each end of the LSC assembly.

I AFT SKIRT COMPRESSION PLATE 141IT. 2746.qG! | AFT SKIRT ASSEMBLY :J TENSION STRAP MILD DETONATING FUSE (PETN) 10 GPF DETONATOR BLOCK EBM FIRING UNITS S-IVB ULLAGE ROCKETS EBM FIR'NG UNITS CDF IqqNI FOLDS AFT INTERSTAGE ASSEMBLY S-II/S-IVB SEPARATION STATION NO. 1760 PLANE S-If RETROROCKETS[ NED DETONATING[ FUSE (RETROROCKETS) [ FIRST SEPARATION PL_ NO.5 S-IC/S-II STMION S-IC/S-II STATION PLANE SECOND SEPARATION NO. 1564 / DETONATING I l"illiile 5 -I q _-24 .

the remaining rockets are capable of maintaining a minimum vehicle acceleration necessary for proper S-II engine ignition. two CDF manifolds. The retrorockets are canted out from the vehicle centerline approximately three degrees with the nozzles canted out nine and one-half degrees from the centerline.000 pounds of thrust in a burn time of 3. to dampen out. Ammonium perchlorate composes 82 percent of the propellant weight. in a 336 pounds of four point star detonators. two EBW detonators. contains approximately cast-in-place. Figure 5-20 (Sheet Four solid propellant S-II retrockets. The interlock is released with umbilical disconnect during liftoff. and to the S-II stage electrical circuitry to supply 28 vdc to the EBW units for ullage rocket ignition and second-plane separati on. eight pyrogen initiators. and the subsystem ditions. Each solid ullage rocket propellant. _ _ i _ This delay permits the transient vehicle motion. single-grain. (figure 5-21) are mounted at equal intervals on the periphery of the S-II/S-IVB interstage structure and are used to retard the S-II stage after separation. associated with first-plane separation. The case is 4130 steel. S-IC S-II outboard engine cutoff ullage rocket ignition separati on is enabled interlock by the during followed by following shutdown of the five J-2 engines. 1 of 2) 5-25 . nine assemblies. nine CDF assemblies. The components are connected to each other in a manner similar to that of the ullage rocket system (see block diagram on figure 5-20). Second-plane separation through the S-II switch selector to both the S-II and S-IVB stage electrical circuitry and carries 28 vdc to the EBW firing units for S-II/S-IVB separation and re trorock et i gn it ion. The combined effect of vehicle acceleration and the reaction caused by the J-2 engine retards S-II/S-IVB exhaust plume • impingement the interstage separation by the phase _> EBW firing units enabled S-IC/S-I I separation A ground-latched interlock renders all the EBW firing units on the Saturn V inoperative while the vehicle is on the launch pad. 90 degrees apart on the periphery of the S-IC/S-II interstage at its aft end (figure 5-19). S-I I/S-IVB separation The second-plane separation command is generated by the IU approximately thirty seconds after first -plane separation. approximately solid propellant 268. With any one ullage rocket inoperative. The retrorockets are mounted 90 degrees apart in the aft end of S-II/S-IVB interstage between stations 2519 and 2633 (figure 5-21). ullage rockets (figures 5-19 configuration. Each retrorocket contains case-bonded. a to settle the is provided by To ensure stable small forward flow of propellants into acceleration is required This acceleration and 5-21). The ullage rockets are mounted parallel to vehicle centerline. The rocket is approximately 89 inches long by 12-1/2 inches in diameter and develops 23. S-IC/S-II The is reset to flight con- separation ordnance command arm is routed Physical separation is initiated IU at the end of the S-II boost ordnance-arm through the S-II switch selector to both the S-IC stage electrical circuitry to supply 28 vdc to the EBW units for firstplane separation and retrorocket ignition. two EBW diagram on figure 5-20). RETROROCKET SYSTEM the S-II system.2 with pounds of a tapered. propellants in their tanks. and four retrorockets (figure 5-21). assemblies connect the two CDF manifolds together and manifolds to each of the four Ullage rockets (see fining CDF CDF both block To separate and retard provided by the retrorocket The system consists of fining units.75 seconds. . two EBW stage. eight CDF initiators and four ullage rockets. Separation requires the performance of the following major functions in the sequence S-II/S-IVB The described: separation ordnance command arm is routed ordnance-arm Firs t-pl ane Second-plane separation removal of an electrical first-plane separation.S4ISTAGE ULLAGE ROCKET SYSTEM the J-2 engines. a deceleration is The S-II ullage rocket system consists of two EBW units. The separation command is routed to the S-II switch selector tO trigger the ordnance train and ignite the LSC for secondplane separation. severing the S-II interstage from the S-II stage. two CDF manifolds._1 v. The rocket nozzles are just above the first separation plane and are canted outward 10 degrees to reduce the moment that would result from one or more rockets malfunctioning and to reduce exhaust plume impingement. The LSC detonates.

The appro_Jmale lenMh of' the rocket me 104. The S-II PDS may he ailed after the launch escape tower isjettisoned. The 41JO steel cwe b 9 i_ehes " in diameter and weil_t and 90. pounds.l. two CDF lees.68 inches and 377. one safety and 2rmmR (_IEA) de_tce (slmred _ both channels). and cemfrols lhe propellant dimpei'. ..810 .5 thrust of 34.rsion system (PDS) provides for termJuation of vehicle flil_ht dufln| the S-II boost phase if the vehicle Ililiht path varies beyond its prm:rihed limits or if continuation of vehicle Rillht creates a safety hazard.52 seconds of buminl time.._ S-If STAGE SWITCH SELECTOR SECOND SEPARATI RIGGER PLANE SEPARATION ULLAGE TRIGGER MAN I FOLD ASSEMBLY LINEAR SHAPED CHARGE ASSEMBLY (SECOND-PLANE SEPARATION) CDF MAN IFOL D ASSEMBLY PYROGEN INITIATOR ULLAGE ROCKET PYROOEN INITIATOR ! TYPICAL 4 PLACES I I I ORDNANCE ARM L I FTOFF • ( INTERLOCK RELEASE) ORDNANCE ARM _J . six CDF a. respectively. two Iox tank destruct chaqle adaptelrs and one Iox lank destruct charl_e auaembly. Each produces i pounds in 1. one Ltl 2 lank LRC anmembly.. FROM LAUNCH VEHICLE DIGITN._ul'ely Manual 137-1o The S-II i_DS k a dual ¢hanmel. COMPUTER IN IU S-II/S-lVB SEPARAT ION TRIGGER _ CHARGE ASSEI_LY LINEAR (S-II/S-IVBSidled SEPARATION) S-IIIS-IVB RETRO TRIGGER r CDF MANIFOLD ASSEMBLY CDF MAN IFOLD ASSEMBLY PYROGEN INITIATOR RETRO ROCKET PYROGEN INITIATOR ORDNANCE ARM [ .4 TThme alfl_ b _mlalled in e_mplim with Air Fnrce Fastern I Illa_ (AFETR) Rqublkgn 127-Q and AFEFR ...I]W flltnl units..J SEPARATION CONTROLLER TYPICAL 4 PLACES 4k.ed of two sqplNnts (figure 2-22). redlundont system comp. The ordna_ train selp_nt ¢omi_ts of twn I.. PROPELLANT DISPERSION SYSTEM The S-II propellant diq_.C> IRST SEPARATION rRIGGER LINEAR SHAPED CHARGE ASSEMBLY (rII_T-PLM( SEPARATION) Firure 5-20 (Sheet 2 of 2) 2-26 k. decode..n('m commlnds.NI Iff'Aoml five-point mw oonflgumtton._lemhlie_.68 inches Ionl. lwo EBIlV detonvtm_.. The radio _equency _eI_nent receives.

.. _ .ICE ADJUSTABLE RO0 FIRST SEPARATION PLANE CDF INITIATORS __ FAIRING--_ CDF ASSEMBLILS TYPICAL ROCKET S-II ULLAGE (4 REQUIRED) TYPICAL S-If (4 REQUIRED) R[TROROCKET _. l:iRure 5 +21 .G ASSEMBLY ED FAIRING INTERSTAGE ASSEMBLY ."I MA(}I _ILE FAIRIP..d S-II INTERSTAGE ASSEMBI IIS-IVB FIELD SPI.. ...

ll41IrrA_E PAOPELLMT OISPENSIGN CONTAINER (BN FIRING POS UNITS & SAFETY II & ARMING iMVIC£ i Fiilure 5-22 9-28 .

The CDF tees. The assembly consists of two linear explosive charges of I exploding bridgewire in the EBW detonators mounted on the S&A device. SA-507. A description of the S&A discussion in Section IV. The the lox lox tank destruct charges cut 13-foot lateral openings in tank and the S-II aft skirt simultaneously. The destruct assemblies are connected by a CDF assembly to provide redundancy to the system. device is included in the PDS destruct RDX loaded at 800 grains per foot.S-tl STAGE Should emergency flight termination become necessary. S-1I stages on There are no major differences vehicles SA-506.0. installed on the S-II forward skirt. The second command. SA-508 ! Changed 5 October 1969 5-29/5-30 . when detonated. discharges in the EBW firing units across the the The LH 2 tank linear shaped charge. The first command arras the EBW firing units (figure 5-22) and initiates S-II stage engine cutoff. two coded radio frequency commands are transmitted to the launch vehicle by the range safety officer. The resulting explosive wave propagates through the S&A device inserts to the CDF assemblies and to the CDF tees. cuts a 30-foot vertical opening in the tank. propagate the wave to two CDF assemblies which detonate to their respective destruct assemblies. The LSC assembly consists of two 15-foot sections of RDX loaded at 600 grains per foot. MAJOR DIFFERENCES between the and SA-509. which is delayed to permit storage charging capacitors of the EBW firing units. The destruct charges are installed in a figure-eight tube mounted on the inside of the aft skirt structure near station number 183.

. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL The propellant t:.................. are all of a skin/stringer type aluminum alloy airframe construction...... AFT The SKIRT cylindrical ASSEMBLY shaped aft skirt assembly is the load bearing ambient burner.. brackets with temperature and level sensors.. Attached externally to the propellant tank are helium pipes. PROPULSION . The forward umbilical plate.... a chilldown pump........ pressurization lines. Attached to the inside of the LH 2 tank are... a slosh deflector... INSTR UMENTA TION AND TELEMETRY . These act only structures as fairings.. a chilldown pump. STRUCTURE The basic S-IVB stage airframe......... there are two longitudinal tunnels which house wiring...... Attached to the inside of the lox tank are. Its single J-2 engine is designed to boost the payload into a circular orbit on the first burn.. a 13... polyurethane insulation blocks.. are attached to the inside of this skirt....... eight helium spheres....... The stage and engine characteristics are listed in figure 1-3.nk assembly (figure 6-1) consists of a cylindrical tank with a hemispherical shaped dome at each end. The S-I1 retrorocket motors are attached to this interstage and at separation the interstage remains attached to the S-If stage... the forward skirt (figure 6-1) extends structure between the LH 2 tank and aft interstage. and wiring which passes through two tunnel fairings. auxiliary propulsion system. The major systems of the stage are: structures..... and fill. then boost the payload to a proper position and velocity for lunar intercept with a second burn....a 34 foot continuous capacitance probe.... The first is associated with ground checkout and prelaunch operations and involves thermal conditioning of the environment around the propulsion system (APS).. propellants.... consists of the following structural assemblies: the forward skirt.5 foot continuous capacit_ance probe..... LI-t.. ORDNANCE .. These assemblies.. TH RUST STRUCTU RE The thrust structure assembly (figure 6-1) is an inverted........ oxygen/hydrogen and some of the engine and lox tank instrumentation..... It is the load supporting member between the LH 2 tank and the tU... ELECTRICAL .. propellant dispersion components.. The walls of the tank support forward skirt attach point and all loads forward transmit the thrust of the to the Tile Saturn S-IVB (figure 6-1) is the third booster stage. pressurization and vent pipes.. thrust structure. . FLIGHT CONTROL . ..... This bulkhead is of sandwich type construction consisting of two parallel.... The forward edge of the thrust structure is attached to the lox tank portion of the propellant tank. hydraulic system... and aft interstage.. It provides the attach point for the J-2 engine and distributes the engine thrust over the entire tank circumference. An access door in the IU allows servicing of the equipment in the forward skirt.. slosh baffles... wiring and interface panels.. instrumentation and ordnance.. covered with a fiberglass sheet and coated with a sealant... auxiliary and hydraulic accunmtator Changed 5 October 1969 6-1 ........... illustrated in figure 6-1..................... PROPELLANTS .. hemispherical shaped.... Attached external to the thrust structure are the engine piping. antennae. The interstage also provides the focal point for the required electrical and mechanical interface between the S-I1 and S-IVB stages......... aluminum There are three general requirenlents for environmental control during checkout and flight operations of the S-IVB stage. The internal surface of the LH'_ tank is machine milled in a waffle pattern to obtain requ]'red tank stiffness with mininmm structural weight.. temperature and level sensors.... In addition.."'"' SECTION Vl TABLE OFCONTENTS 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-4 6-11 6-17 6-18 6-19 6-21 6-26 6-2 7 1NTR OD UCTION .. and propellant dispersion systems... pneumatic control... are bonded into the milled areas of the waffle patterns. flight control..._ tank flight vents and the tunnel fairings are attached exterTaally to this skirt... PROPELLANT TANK ASSEMBLY INTE RSTAGE The aft interstage is a truncated cone that provides the load supporting structure between the S-IVB stage and the S-I1 stage (figure 6-1).. The five environmental plates which support and therlnally condition various electronic components.. To minimize LH 2 boil off....... payload... a slosh baffle.. INTRODUCTION alloy (2014-T6) domes bonded to a fiberglass-phenolic honeycomb core... propellant tanks... The aft skirt assembly is bolted to the tam< assembly at its forward edge and connected to the aft interstage. such as the transmitters and signal conditioning modules.. forward from the intersection of the liquid hydrogen (LH 2) tank sidewall and the forward dome...... ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ...... truncated cone attached at its large end to the aft dome of the lox tank and attached at its small end to the engine mount.......... The tunnel covers are made of aluminum do not transmit stiffened primary by internal snell loads but ribs. providing a hard attacl] point for the Instrument Unit (IU).. STRUCTURE . and fill... electrical equipment............... FORWARD Cylindrical SKI RT ASSEMBLY in shape........... and a common bulkhead to separate the Iox from the LH 2.... pressurization and vent pipes...4 UXIL1AR Y PROPULSION SYSTEM ....... aft skirt....... nine cold helimn spheres... environmental control. propulsion.. with the exception of the propellant tanks.. electrical.. A frangible tension tie separates AFT it from the aft interstage ASSEMBLY at S-II separation. PNEUMATIC CONTROL ......

This SPace Intentieeelly Leh Blink .

41E CUFT j 44.6 FEET L.0 FEET -- curr" ii qU 7. 5. -i PEIN_ t I ".2 FEET t 33.C' r IklVI Irr_ t T _IRT 10. LH2 TMK 10.re 6-I 6-2 .0 FEET F THRUSTSTRUCTURE (MITH EKGINE ATTACHED) t.0 FEET LOX TANK 59.2 FEET 13 21.NTERSTAGE _///_j//_/ \i'\ I {!_ i F_u.0 FEET AFT .

located in the S-IVB stage forward skirt area. and the forward aft interstage skirt of the gases. GN 2 flow is initiated approximately two hours prior to cryogenic loading and continued until liftoff. Purging structure. AFT SKIRT AND INTERSTAGE THE RMOCON DITION I NG During control | countdown. Thermal accumulator sphere. interstage In addition. The second ixwolves forward skirt area inflight heat dissipation for The subsystem consists of a temperature-controlled air or GN 2 distribution system (figure 6-2). and thrust S-II stage of conditioning equipment conditioning reservoir. FORWARD SKIRT THERMOCONDITIONING 2. During periods of hold. of the aft skirt. a to a shroud covering the purging. The aft skirt and interstage thermoconditioning and+ purge subsystem provides the following: 1. air/GN 2 is supplied system. The elements are wired such that each single element in one thermistor assembly is wired in series with a single element in the other thermistor assembly in order to provide two sets of average temperature indications. Another duct directs the the control system helium sphere the lox and LH 2 pump shaft seal structure manifold supply duct. GN 2 purge is continued. One set is used for temperature control. oxygen. Principal components of the system. the other for temperature recording.S4VB STAGE reservoir. Air or GN 2 is supplied at the rate of approximately 3600 scfm. are a fluid distribution subsystem and cold plates. the control APS. there is a requirement for aft skirt and purging. while the third concerns the electrical/electronic equipment. of the in the aft of and atmosphere skirt _uring around ground Temperature control is accomplished by two dual element thermistor assemblies located in the gaseous exhaust stream of each of the APS modules. From by the environmental switching from air to structure covering to purge the thrust manifold. The coolant is supplied to the S-IVB by the IU thermoconditioning system starting when electrical power moisture and combustible ELECTRICAL LEGEND _AIR FLOW KIRT MANIFOLD EQUIPMENT (TYPICAL) APS MODULE RING FRAME HELIUM APS MODULE FAIRING BOTTLE \ \ \\' THRUST STRUCTURE MANIFOLD Figure 6-2 Changed 5 October 1969 6-3 . GN 2 purge. Thermal electrical operations. The air purge is initiated when electrical power is applied to the vehicle. A duct from the skirt manifold directs air or GN 2 to a thrust gas to a shroud which is used cavities. hydraulic system helium The electrical/electronic equipment in the S-IVB forward skirt area is thermally conditioned by a heat transfer subsystem using a circulating coolant for the medium. The purging gas passes over electrical equipment below the ring frame and flows into the interstage. which is capable of portion of air or GN 2 is directed hydraulic accumulator reservoir.

The reset signals engine ready and this allows the LVDC to send its start command. The helium control and ignition phase control valves. providing that all reset conditions are met. These phases are developed in detail in the following paragraphs. The LH 2 tank is pressurized during burn periods by GH 2 from the thrust chamber fuel manifold. During burn periods. Hydraulic pressure for gimbal actuation is provided by the main hydraulic pump. is achieved by gimbaling the main engine. The S-IVB stage is then placed into solar orbit by dumping residual propellants through the engine. causing it to expand. Roll control during both the burn periods and the coast modes is achieved by firing the APS engines. which uses solid state logic elements. and ambient repressurization is started. It sequences and times the functions required during engine start or cutoff. in the pneumatic control package (1). figure 5-6). is used to sequence the start and shutdown operations of the engine: Electrical power is supplied from aft battery No. closes the propellant bleed valves (5). Approximately five minutes before restart. the spark exciters in the electrical control package provide energy for the gas generator (GG) and augmented spark igniter (ASI) spark plugs (4). The engine features a single. the systems are again readied for an engine start. The regulated helium fills a pneumatic accumulator. Prior to second burn.S-IVB STAGE is applied to the vehicle and continuing throughout mission. or during other hazardous conditions. mainstage and cutoff. The total flow rate into this area is approximately 3500 scfm. During flowing oxidizer the burn periods. The purge is supplied by the IU purge system which purges the entire forward skirt/IU/adapter area. control in the pitch and yaw planes. are simultaneously energized. The first burn occurs immediately after S-11/S-IVB separation and lasts long enough to insert the vehicle into earth orbit. The extremely low operating temperature of the engine prohibits the use of lubricants or other fluids. and engine restart is initiated. The helium is routed through the internal check valve in the pneumatic control package (1)to ensure continued pressure to the engine valves in the event of helium supply failure. direct drive. the lox tank is pressurized cold helium through the heat exchanger in turbine exhaust duct. Each cutoff automatically causes the electrical control package circuitry to reset itself. 1. At APS engine ignition. the transportation and docking maneuver and final separation of the spacecraft from the launch vehicle are accomplished. tubular-walled. The J-2 engine electrical control system controls engine operation by means of electrical signals. figure 6-3). from the discharge side of the inlet side through a servovalve. LH 2 continuous venting is activated about one minute after first burn cutoff and continues until oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) burner start for second burn. when the APS ullage engines are fired. the APS yaw and pitch control modes are enabled (roll already active) for the required attitude control of the stage during coast. The heart of the engine electrical control system is the electrical control package (17. The only substances used in the engine are the propellants and helium gas. Engine Start Sequence When engine start is initiated (3. The O2/H 2 burner is started approximately nine minutes prior to second burn and operates to settle the propellants and pressurize the propellant tanks until approximately one minute before engine start. The main hydraulic pump is driven by the oxidizer turbopump turbine. The LVDC issues an engine ready bypass signal just prior to each engine start attempt. which utilizes the same propellants as the thrust chamber. the chilldown systems are reactivated to condition the lines by removing gases collected in the propellant supply system. The heat exchanger heats by the the cold helium. Receipt of the start command initiates the engine start sequence. multiple restart engine utilizing liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants. During coast mode the APS engines give the pitch and yaw thrust vector control. ons Preparations for an engine start include ascertaining the positions and status of various engine and stage systems and components. At J-2 engine first burn cutoff the auxiliary propulsion The engine valves are controlled by a pneumatic system _. J-2 ROCKET ENGINE Engine operation includes starting. For a description of this system refer to Section FORWARD SKIRT AREA PURGE the VII. Both turbopumps are powered in series by a single gas generator. turbopumps for liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. oxidizer turbopump to the The forward skirt area is purged with GN 2 lo minimize the danger of fire and explosion while propellants are being loaded or stored in the stage. The engine attains a thrust of 204. bell-shaped thrust chamber and two independently driven. Then the chilldown systems are deactivated. PROPULSION This stage provides vehicle propulsion twice during the mission. The second burn injects the S-lVB/IU/spacecraft into a translunar trajectory. Start Preparati. Following tl_e second burn. The APS ullage engines are shut off and ambient repressurization is stopped as the engine reaches full thrust.:! powered by gaseous helium which is stored in a sphere inside the start bottle. ENGINE OPERATION system (APS) ullage engines are ignited and burn about one and one half minutes providing stabilization and settling of the propellants. The APS yaw and pitch control modes are deenergized (roll control mode remains active) during the second burn. and purges (6) the oxidizer dome and gas generator oxidizer injector manifold. The oxidizer turbopump (I 2) intermediate The J-2 rocket engine (figure 5-6) is a high performance. The starting and cutoff phases are periods of transition in which a sequence of activities occur. ready for restart. The ratio of fuel to oxidizer is controlled by bypassing liquid oxygen 6-4 . allowing helium from tl_e helium tank (2) to flow through the pneumatic regulator to the pneumatic control system. the O2/H 2 burner is shut down. An electrical control system.000 pounds during both burns. This bypass signal acts in the same manner as a cutoff would act.

_tor assembly in order to provide two sets of aver. alr/GN 2 is supplied by the environmental control system. One set is used for temperature control. . _mmm md . The aft skirt and interstaje thermoconditionJng and purge subsystem provides the following: Tlw _ ON 2 dkgdlmtkm _lt _-'_ mnmu of a mup_mmt.. to • MItood covering the Tempmltmr¢ control is accomplished by two dual elemc.)perations.lator I 2. there is a requirement for aft skirt mid interstal_ petites. we almmda_.m_ws into the O mm _cutgal eq_gmem ImSow tke.t thet. GN_ flow is initiated approximately two hours prior to cryogenic IomdJng and continued until liftoff. moLcture and combustible gases.. Air or GN 2 is supplied at the rote of approximately 3600 scfm._.an_qmemnemi_ . conditioning reservoir. which is capable of switching from air to GN 2 purge.. are a fluid distribution subsystem and cold plates.mmmm am. The elements are wired _uch that each ingk element in one thermistor assembly is wired in wries with a singk element _. the other for temperature recording.a BOTTLE \ \ \ a THRUST STRUCTURE MANI FOLD Figure 6-2 Changed 5 October lqfiq .n the other therm. . During periods of hold. The coolant is supplied to the S-IVB by the IU thermoconditioning system starting when electrical power LEGEND SKIRT NANIFOLD ICAL EQUIPglENT (TYPICAL) I APS HODULE FRAHE -HELIUH APS HODULE FAIRING. or ¢JIq2 m omeglmd hel_m sphere hYdm_ accumeJmor mmvoir... GN 2 purge is continued... hydraulic and control system helium Purging of the aft skirt aft interstate and thrust structure. located in the S-IVB stage forward skirt area. AFT SKI RT AND INTERSTAGG THE RMOCONDITIONING DurJnll countdown. The air purge is initiated when electrical power is applied to the vehicle.mistor amemlMJes located in the gaseous exhaust _rream of each of the APS modules. The electrical/electronic equipment in the 5-1VB forward skirt area is thermally conditioned by a heat transfer subsystem using a circulating coolant for the medium Principal components of the system. "_ w" unnn lllUcllie nii61kL Anolhw duct dilu:ta ira. The _ ----m lu pamm A .ge temperature indications.com_ei_i mr or Wmmm (flpmg 6-2). while the tldrd concerns Infliilht hat diuipalion for the electdcal/Mectronic equipment. of the APS.. In addition. and the forward skirt of the S-|I stage of oxygen. 3.7 S4YBIrr_ul reservoir. The second involves forward skirt mm purging. Thermal accumt. Thermal conditioning of the atmosphere around electrical equipment in the aft skirt during ground . FORWARD SKIRT THERMOCONDITIONING I..... sphere.

L'J_ahlbVr drive.irl Is Initiated (3. Following the second burq. The O2/!12 burner is started approximately nine minutes prior to second burn and operates to settle the propellants and pressurize tile propelhmt tanks until approximately one minute heft)re engine start.'{I _park I t'lllh'r f .' ' IlK' i'_'l_tllJl.HH¢ hL'hLIItl t_._"L II_hiI/l'l i h. dlh)_._k.ervovalve.. The APS ullage engines are shut off and ambient repressurization is stopped as the en:ine reaches full thrust. 1"he second burn in)cots the S-IVB/IU/6pacecraft into . control in the pitch and yaw plane.hv. po_elcd '_llppl'. p.t. ht'htHt] fro)ill i![_.. .u' %V%1_._ I11 hk' c'_CHI lih' I ) I_..'. when the APS ullage engines are tired.._ idl/cI Iiill_lll. dirccl Ii I_.lt_H h_ Ih_ vxc'iter_ IIIIt-'LU|ILIDIII. the O2/112 burner is shut clown.II.llllJIl.. ri_'l|r¢ (_-tl llh' '_P..i. ENGINE OPERATION frmn the discharge side of the oxidizer mitt side Ihrrmgh a . drive|l.IIIC _. 1'hen the chilldown systems are deactivated. The starting and cutoff phases are periods of transition in which a sequence of act/vities occur.ll'. _:ausing it to expand.ll II'l_'lllal pll_'l.llll • _llflll_ll hlC '.'d _IDe11 engine st.0 MIII_]L._._ltlr_.tart is initiated.ff tide start o_mrnand initiates the engine start sequence.l_'_'d 1%1% t.rhoplmlp h) tlw The forward skirt area ts purged with GN 2 to minimize tile danger of fire and explosion while propellants are being loaded or stored in the _tage._. The LII_ tank is pressurized during burn periods by GII_ from l'lle thrus! chamber fuel manifold._lh _ " I _ -hllf_ .tl IIII"_-I. _" the stm'l l_ttl¢.H IIl.J. or durihg other hazardous conditions.ll'. During burn periods.%IVB stage is then placed into solar orbit by dumping residual propellants through tile eJlgme.. h 'llllltl laflk (_D |o t'h_w {:i..kllllltll._ .".'OllIl()lh.l_ •l_.ls or ottles lluids Ihe cngi_le features a single. IC. At APS engine pitch control mo_!es are enabled stabilization and settling of ignition.h..ll._'n !'.tly (l_.'.lh]' I.tdlll ttlrllllle. and engine re. An eieclrk:al control system.dtpcmh'. The J-2 engine electrical _:ontrol system controls engine operation by means of electrical signals.r . the APS yaw and (roll already active) for the required attitude control of tide st.lll dll!llC IIh I. Roll control durin_ l_)th the I_urn periods and the coast modes is achieved by firin_ tile APS engines.lt_e Pr()_lde e11¢rt..llltll_ Llill. Ilolh ttarl}optmlps Iiirbol}llllll) WlDl_'h lilt' I. s tllill/¢s Ilydr.oviding that all reset conditions are met..l alDd II_l}lll_)l ph. llydraulic prewtre for gimbal actuation is provided by the main hydraulic p:Dmp.000 pounds during both bnrns I'he only sub. IlqJ._tll...tUglllt'll|*.. which u_..r .:ralure of Ihe ¢ngnl¢ prohibits the use of lubrica.ln_.. The . multiple restart engine utilizing liquid oxygen and hquDd Ilydrogen as propellants.tt. tile systen)s are again readied for an L'.4¥1lYACA_. trittllL'l IIllllltt. At J-2 en!ine fi. tile transportation aud docking maneuver and final separatio.)anti ." ptlCIIIII.r IS i. ill the pI|L'LIIli. is applied to the vehicle and continuing Ihroutlhout the miJmton. For a description of this system refer to Section VII..Ire for Ih¢ liquid i'll%life _.lld .III_ r..qlh_ Iht.:onlrol p.lllll ('d I'Ll_..11_ SlnDIlltanct)llSl_. bell.tJ Jllll)_t' Illl |he iJIhlrp _ h.'_.(.st burn cutoff the auxiliary propulsion system tAPS) ullage engines are ignited and burn about one and one half minutes providing the propellants.¢.]lhl hlrboptHllp I}_ .'111 I1| lilt ih_. Durinl the burn I_riods.y_l'n iii M'ilL'S 'Hid by a_ hV I)_. Receipt . The total flow sate into this area is approxinlately 3500 scfm.IIH) _. Ilk.'k ciIIIIIiil_c-el _. The first burn occurs immediately after S-ll/S-IVB _paration and lasts hmg enough to insert the vehicle into earth orbit.lCk.'IICI. The reset signals engine rcadv arid this allows the I VIX to send its start con_man(I. The purge is supplied by the IU purge system which purges Ihe entire forward _irt/IU/adapter area.liJtlt. and ambient repressurization is started. I. . PROPULSION This stage provides vehicle propulsion twice during the ndssion.IS _¢lk'ral=}r. J-2 ROCKET ENGINE Engine operation includes starting mainstage and cutoff.H i I l ii. the line tank is pressL|r|zed by flowing cold helium thr(mgh the heal exchanger =n the oxidizer turbine exhausl duct.. cutoff automatically causes the electrical control package circuitry to reset itself..sllll... . .-ed in detail in the following paral¢'aphs.[ ... h iI . The beat exchanger heats the cold helium.ine start. is used to sequence tilt: st:Jr! and shutdown operations of the engine..._.es s*_hd stale Iogk" ele.L.. I)ylla..lanccs used ii1 Ihe Cllgiqe aft the propellants ami helium gas ille extremely h_w oper:Dlmg lenli_.ldl/¢f hqllld .11'. ulHllrol valves.F0.'. i_. l' h'_H.' hCill. figure 5-6L It sequences and times the functions required during engine start or cutoff.shaped H_rust chamber arid two n. Approximately five minutes before restart..Dtranslunar trajectory..i of tide spacecraft frond tile launch _¢hicle are accomplished. plm'. • (11 . :s achieved by gimbaling the main engine.llL_h Ih_. I_r(_pL'llanls i% JilL'] dllVell h. LII 2 continuous venting is activated about one minute after first burn cutoff and c-ntinues nntil oxygen/hydrogen (O2/i!2) burner start for second burn. ready for restart..llllhll. 1"he APS yaw and pitch control modes are deenergizcd (roll control mode remains active l during tile second burn.'LHDIIOI _.ge during coast. Prior to second burn. tubular-walled. L'¢h Engine Start Sequence Ihe J-'_ ro_:ket ¢ID[. During coast rrodc the APS engines Im'e the pitch and w_w thrust vecto_ control. FORWARD SKIRT AREA PURGE The engine v_Jvc_ arc controlled hy a pneumal=c _vslem _" powered by gaseous helium which is sh_red iil a sphere m_.Irk ill Ihe eleCtrICal .IL%1) spark plugs (41 Ih¢ heliLml c....llr_ hyl|reQlL. Start Preparations Preparations for an engine start include ascertaining the positions and status of various engDne and stage systems and components. L'llelL_l/. l'lectrlcal l-)wcr _s supplied from aft battery No. tilL" IhrDisl It_.|| pJ_.. These phases are develol.:llc (figure b-o) is a high perfornlance.ttempt 1his bypass signal ads iu ihe same manner us a CtDt(llf w¢_uld act. ..'d Ilrl)llCIl._ 1(11 the g's gener:_h_r 1(. the chilldown systems are reactivated to condition the lines by removing gases collected in the propellant supply system. Fhe heart of the engine electrical control sTstem is the electrical control package (17. The engine attains a thrtD:q of _04. Ihc Clll.dhtllll Idl'. The LVLK" issues an eugme ready bypass s=gna: just prior to each engine start -.

]) .. {_ SENSE LINE HELIUM FUEL COMBUSTION LOX mini GASEOUS HY[)R()GIN GASES Figure 0-3 (Sheet I of ... LEGEND ..I 0 FROM LOX TANK START COMMAND FROM XU FUEL INJECTION TEMPERATURE OK SIGNAL \ SEQUENCE CONTROLLER TO LOX TANK ."1 f I41YI IlrM..¢b FROM LH2 TANK ®®@ ®0 TO LH 2 TANK ?.. ..

. and gas generator (GG) spark plugs fire.0 e_Engtne Start ---__ I m_l_m I | [_ _n.0 1_1.0 T]I_ 7. :-------_---------_-_-_--:----_-:_--_-_: Matn fuel engine valve allows LH2 to flow ASI.0 15..l . / • I " I l ' mjeccor are purgeo.-_ (Occurs. into llm __ Ill _ _ I/R thrust chamber and Into ASI oxidizer valve allows lox flow to ASI._ugmented spark igniter (KSI) spark plugs.6 ¸ .t_rt Command --.0 5.at T4^+ 1. MILCH ]S I m milm II_m ll_ EGENDI _..0 PRE-IGIqTION NOTE ALL PNEUNAT]CVALVES ARE CONTROLLED BY THE PNEUMATXCCONTROL PACKAGE [_ LOCATEDON THE ENGINE.SEQUENC_ _i i EVENT T4 ÷ 1STBUI_I... Figure 6-3 (Sheet 2 of 3) i / _# 6. O_x!dtzer dome and gas generator oxtdizer Ill _ I t r ..0 'N SECONDS 9....t r_ Re:.0 11._" u I ------_ _ _"" Sequence ' : I ' / • L [_ . T r r I ] _' " / Fuel injection recetved temperature OK stgnal _I' causing the • L . _ I I I__R I Sparks tgntte the propellants tn the ASI. Bleed valves stop return flow to propellant_ tanks.-]VB _IST BURN S-IVB 2ND BURN I r / / I ' " HELILIM FORTHE PNEUNAT]C SYSTEH IS SUPPLIED BY THE CONTROLi SPHERE ]NS]DE THE GH2STARTTANK[_" [_ S.O 3..

. (Spark ignites propellants causing pressure build up.7 II. valve open to control Matn oxtd_zer valve opens a11owtng A 41 lox i o be injected tnto thrust chamber. (Remaining 4 ltghts not operative).0 9. . •it Engine reaches and mtntatns _re.0 584.) MAIN STAGE OK pressure swttches stgnal to CH._ mn Figure 6-3 (Sheet 3 of 3) ._ irrAat SEQUENCE EVENT 1ST BURN 3. GH2 spins LH 2 and lox turbopumpscausing propellant pressure to buildup.0 TIHE IN SECONDS 7.0 1_. m mmmm i SlRR Lox turbopump bypass lox pump speed.0 57e.0 15. 1 engine out light goes out. -.0 11.0 start tank discharge valve to open..mat G G valves admit propellants..0 582.0 2N0 BURN 5.0 572.0 576. send malnstage OK [] V No.0 574.0 580. 90_ thrust or InK P• valve tn null position (5:1 MR) in m oH i GH2 Start tank ts Peftlled wtth GH2 and LH2.

(.y_'." hol '_. This accelerates both turbopumps (12) to the proper operating levels to allow subsequent ignition and power buildup of the gas generator (16). when actuated. The mainstage control valve holds the main oxidizer valve ckqed. (Cutoff occurs if no signal is received before expiration of the sparks deenerg.i)lrlHirlg Iox pump turbines. thrust OK presslLw¢. and supplies prenure to the sequence valve located within the main oxidizer valve (14). permits gaseous helium to open the gas generator control valve (4) and to close the oxidizer turbine bypass valve (13). opens the main fuel valve (7) and the ASI oxidizer valve (8). This loss of pressure allows springs to open the valves. terminating the oxidizer dome and gas generator oxidizer injector manifold purges (6). During this period. As the oxidizer pressure increases. and liquid hydrogen is bled from the ASI fuel lint' to ref'dl start tank for en_ne restart. The mainstage control valve closes the main oxidizer valve (3). under tank pressure. The sequence valve. I and range safety system No. in the main fuel valve (7).'lll 4t. This causes *. Engine Cutoff The J-2 engine may receive cutoff signals from the followm_ _rces: EDS No. it causes the oxidizer dome and GG oxidizer injector purges (Ill tn _*op..F 3 _l.IVllIT.II . it deenergizes the mainstage and ignition phase control valves in the pneumatic control package (2).' I'he (tIll)lIlt" h_'_'_ _l n. and routes helium to the start tank discharge valve (STDV) (! I) control valve.4_. Combustion of the eropellants causes the hot gases to drive the turbopumps (12). The relationslfip of fuel-to-lox turbopump speed buildup is controlled by an orifice in the oxidizer turbine bypass valve (13).lt. and opens the purge control valve and the oxidizer turbine bypass valve (8).tlltl I.d allows the mainstage control valve to energize.) The ASI and (. Flow to close the oxidizer turbine bypa. range safety systems No.. When the electrical control package receives the cutoff signal (I). causing the engine to shut down due to power loss. EDS No. The ignition phase control valve. Pressure from the mainstage control valve is routed to open the maJn oxidizer valve (14). propellant depletion _nsors._ valve (. which allows the oxidizer dome and rat generator oxidizer injector to be purged (6). When open. tank.I Ihe slilrl I_lllk h)s.w propellants to flow back to the propellant tanks. the STDV control valve and ignition phase timer are energized._llrt. while opening the fast shutdown valve. the propellant bleed valves alh. EDS No. except the ASI oxidizer valve (4) and oxidizer turbine bypass valve (8). The turbopumps force propellant into the thrust chambers where it is ignited by the torch from the ASI. The dropout of the thrust OK pressure switches removes a cutoff inhibit function in the electrical control package cutoff circuit.milled. The Iox tank is pre_mriTed by pseous helium heated'by the heat exchanger in the turbine exhaust duct.!. The mainstage control valve also supplies opening control pressure to tl. gaseous hydrogen is lapped _ u_'t!. causing the STDV to close. range safety wstem No. a thrust OK signal is generated by either of the two thrust OK pressure switches (17). When the helium control valve closes.tll II|L':III_ g..k.'_[I.a. Steadyslate initialed signals (thrust OK) are lost during from tins fuel injection manifold to pretcurize the IH.'t'll lilt. _IIL- ._ oxidizer turbine bypan valve (13).'s I and 2. I'he _t:lr! |al|k is filled with Lth To ensure that the Lll 2 and approxmlately IlllltilnUlll time wanllillg Iltc iN also Io Cool. All valves. flow through the stationary turbopumps t i 2).'_ 1() t) hour_ t_ pc. Expiration of the helium control deenergize timer causes the helium control valve to close. and the propellant depletion sensors cutoff commands are tied together (but diode isolated) and sent to the electrical control package cut--_'f ch'cuit.eous hydrogen is bled from the thrust chamber fuel in lectu)n manifold._ition. combustion pressure aids closing of the GG control valve.I operation is maiutaiued until .r.'d I)r(lll)lll.. Presence of the start tank depressurized si? . ()_. while energizing the helium control deenergize timer. I cutoff commands will indirectly transfer the engine control power switch to the OFF p. 2. opens when the fuel valve reaches approximately 90% open. The purge control valve closes. lhe is required to build Stli|iclen[ l)rt.!.. Cutoff Seq..ence The engine cutoff sequence is shown graphically in figure 6-4.. As the STDV control valve energizes.'s I and 2. Transition into mainstage occurs as tile turbopumps (12) accelerate to steadystate speeds. sl:trl ItCCOl.u|uluui_ . the sparks deenergize timer is energized and the STDV control valve is deenergJzed.¢d I[ll_W_Ill '. the discharge valve opens allowing gaseous hydrogen under pressure to flow through the series turbine drive system.. and opens the purge control valve.zed timer. Propellants flowing into the gas generator (16) are ignited by the spark plugs (4). the STDV delay timer is energized. Fuel is tapped from downstream of the main fuel valve for use in the AS! (4). Simultaneously. Simultaneously with engine start. the normally open oxidizer bypass valve (13) permits a percentage of the gas to bypass the oxidizer turbine. The fast shutdown valve now rapidly vents the return flow from the GG control valve.G spark exciters :. II_.3) is restricted as it passes through an orifice. A sequence valve. During the start sequence. Helium pressure is vented from the main oxidizer valve (14) and from the p:lrge control valve through the mainstage control valve.re deenergized at expiration of the sparks deenergized timer. _witches. operated by the main oxidizer valve (14). Cutoff occurs if both pressure switch actuated mainstage operation._d .. Restart The restart of tile J-2 engine is identi.dve (5).'l cutoff sig|t. AS! combustion occurs.ls .tlr _. I. and (. The purge control valve directs a helium purge (I I) to the oxidizer dome and GG oxidizer injector. 2. and an IU programmed command via the switch selector The switch selector. An orifice in the locked tip lines bleeds off pressure from the propellant bleed valves (13).'_I 80 Illllltltt.':ltt-. G(. The ignition phase control valve closes the ASI oxidizer valve (4) and the main fuel v.he valves to start moving closed as soon as the pressure to open them is released.iI i_ During this period. Upon expiration of the STDV timer and the receipt of a fuel injectiot) temperature OK signal. are spring loaded closed._. wl.:al to the initial start except for the fill procedure of the start la.L.dz wal cavity is continuously purged. a _aitmg i)t. Both propellants. by I_lnk Itt (hrough _li_(_ II¢:lli:lg Ilatllr:ll l[l_. I I!a .il 2 during the pr"vums hurl| period sufficient energy will he available fi)r . Absence of a start tank depressurized signal will cause cutoff at the expiration of the ignition phase timer.

... FROM LVDC FROM LOX TANK TO LH2 TANK FROM LH2 TANK TO LOX TANK PNEUMATIC CONTROL PACKAGE TO LH2 TANK \ LEGEND .."I $ I JITAw_ Z ELECTRICAL PACKAGE CONTROL CUTOFF S IGN/_I. _"_"_ _LOX SENSE LINE HELIUM FUEL ELECTRICAL l"i_ure ()-4 (..._hevl I of 2) .... .

1 engine out ltght illuminates.4 O. bypass valve. . dome and Helium :ol_trol deenergize timer stops oxidize.) SEQUENCE Cutoff signal from LVDC triggers _P valves in pneumati c control package.) Thrust OK pressure loss of thrust.2 TllqE IN SECONDSFROMCUTOFFSIGNAL 0. GG oxidizer valve.6 0. Helium flow GG oxidizer purges oxidizer injector.0 I.3 0.B O. I_! oxidizer valve.o 0.. Pneumatic pressure oxidizer valve.7 O. m GG fuel valve and opens oxidizer turbine (Within 10 seconds.+i 11'111111i11111|11 EVENTS Lo.I | . Propellant allowing bleed valves open P mm propel 1ant flow mmm Fil_ure6-4(Shcet 2 of 2) 6-10 t.S 0.F IN_ll IlrA4IE 44+ w I|I'I. dome and GG oxidizer purge.! . closes main m m immmm ! main fuel valve. . switches sense NOTE Loss of thrust could have been the_cause of the cutoff signal ][_ and have preceded previous events: No.g 1.1 0.

This prior to • restart etlempt to 6 hours. . PROPELLANTS The propellants are LII Z and Iox... If the total peflod PROPE LLANT CONDITIONING _ are _lowed t. BURNER (O2/H2) burner (figure 6-6) uses stage as an energy _urce to heat cold helium. ._m_rization. . _tlon has neglig. Gaseous helium the Ltlz/Iox tank repres_urization Propellants from each tank are recirculated through the feed systems and return bleed lines by chilldown pumps. II . The purpo_ of the chilldown ts to cov_ition the ductin_ and enlbne to the proper temperature level. _tay in a deadhead type chilldown of Presange I_bili_tkm teed duct and engmc o4' this hardware chilldown _stt. L0X TANK PR|Pn_SSUP_ZATfOH . .PR| TAN_ SSURIZATIOH iiii I I A[PR|_UHITATIOh r . . LH_ PA. proper t burner use spark in its combustion sets coils surrounded by three through one set of of coils. inlet ductin_ and the engine hardware for all engine _t_rls is accomplished by separate Iox and LH 2 chilldown systems.hle effect on the flowrate.? ?. becomes a subcooled liquid at Preprel_rizatlon (elin. .ire by for the valves). C'hcck valves. .. causing controlled by module (dual thrust through energy . is supplied PH_U_IZATIOItl I_N|_ULE t. shutoff valves. and ducts control and route the fluids to perform the chilldown. Pneumatic Free. Since Ioa is _lre_ly a suheooled liquid (no two. ( ) stored enefiW will be depleted. F . until J-2 engine pratart. . and to eliminat_ bubbles ttwo-phase flow) prior to pr-". The LH2. plugs to ignite onboard chamber. . The preuurizing system uses helium to pressurize the Iox tank and helium or GH 2 pressurizing and venting OXYGEN/HYDROGEN The oxyge. resulting in ipcremed LH 2 flow. pre_alves..1 i i Figure 0-5 Changed 5 October l_g _./hydrogen onboard propellants The O2/H propellants 2 to pressurize the LH 2 tank. however. Chilldown of the enlPne pumps. _ _ lempe_tm_ of the minutes (Iow propellant minimum tanks under controlled pressure to provide a net positive suction head (NPSIi) of 42 feet for the pricW tO Igtheation Approximately fwe _kln before liftoff.7 l141m WA_I WaRm and adam the san proasure to the mltef valve this venting continues over a prolon/ed period.s where they are vaporizeu The other injected into the combustion chamber. It continues for about 14 minu_es. Tank pressures are maintained by a syltem of tank vents and relief valves and a pressurizing system. combustion heats the cold helium in the coils. along with the net positive premtre suction head le'vels. operating the stage pneumatic shutoff valves and prevalves helium control bottle.? ? .. The chamber is flow and The clotd and recirculating chilklown flow is initiated (figttrL 6-7). The chilldown. They ire stored in the lindts aetl/nll. schedule is shown in figure 6-5.ff two sets of flow is contzol it to vaporize. phi_ flow ip I1_ letum line). the the open pl_tlon to plrovide the (0_1 Wtllmn pump). provides which is obtained by the the proper starting conditions.m the prevalves are 7 the walling During fimig opaatlom. . The burner produces 15 to 20 pounds the center of gravity as shown in figure 6-6... lax turfn_pump and I$0 feet for the LIJ 2 tudpopump during engine burn..pna_c flow in :_'_ return line).:natmg two. Tank propellan'.

._ I I LH2 IN SECONDARY HELIUM OUTLET (LOX TANK) SECONDARY HELIUM OUTLET (LH2 TANY) INLET 3ASEOUS OXYGEN OUTLETS SHUTDOWN VALVE HELIUM SECONDARY COILS SECONDAKY HELIUM INLET (U12 TANK) SECONDARY HELIUM INLET (LOX TANK) NOZZLE DIRECTION ADJUSTABLE +5 ° w STA. C l.IVll Irlr_ PRESSURE r' J I INJECTOR NO.. G.2 PRESSURE J OUTLET " PRIMARY HELIUM COIL I (LH2 TANK)I OXYGENT['MPERATURE I PROBEPORT_1. 1 _= I OX!G_EN PRESSURE f PORT_ I L.F r C .09 C.re 6-() 6-1 2 (:hanged 50ct_)be_ it... 100 518... t) .90 (NOZZLE EXIT S-IVB STAGE 10° STA. AT START OF SECOND BURN Fi_._. 143.. 2 _ IGNITER RECEPTACLE PTACI NO.

6-9). the vent relief valves provide vents. together as shown ambient helium LEGEND LOX RECIRCULATION RECIRCULATION PUMP LH2 LH2 LOX _LH2 TANK: RECIRCULATION FLOW FLOW RCULATION CONTROL VALVE LOX TANK LH2 PREVALVE BLEED VALVE RECIRCULATION PUMP LH2 TURBOPUMP RECI RCULAT I ON CONTROL VALVELOX PREVALVE BLEED VALVE TURBOPUMP Figure 6-7 6-13 . The engine control helium sphere provides The '1' aft skirt. The lox located in the venting is vapors are command by flight LH 2 tank. two provide an alternate source of helium for repressurization of the lox tank and one provides pressure for operation of the stage pneumatic controls. The nine cold helium spheres supply cold helium for pressurization and repressurization of the lox tank and repressurization of the LH 2 tank. Specific relief non-propulsive venting is accomplished progranl or by ground routed through ground T-40 seconds. The LH 2 tank command. At closed and the non-propulsive through the pressure for operation spheres of the engine are plumbed controls. Five of the eight ambient helium spheres provide an alternate source of helium for repressurization of the LH 2 tank. 2-1 and Figure SYSTEM is stored in nine D protect the propellant tanks against overpressurization and enable command venting at any time that controlled venting of tank pressure is required. During flight. Specific venting sequences are noted 6-5.S4VB STAGE PROPELLANT The vent-relief VENTING subsystems (Figures 6-8 and 6-9) on the stage propulsive vents first and second in Figure HELIUM Helium to provide propellant settling between the burns. Both lox and LH 2 tank venting sequences provide for cold helium spheres located in the propulsive and non-propulsive venting (Figure tank is vented through its propulsive vent duct. vent lines to the GH 2 valves are commanded venting through the is command vented LH 2 venting is burn pond. eight ambient helium spheres mounted on the thrust structure and one sphere located inside the start bottle on the engine. The lox and LH 2 tanks each have a command relief zmd venting subsystem. during loading. lox normally a relief valve function and escaping routed through the non-propulsive vents. During fill.

located in the LH 2 tank. manufacturing tolerances. through the LH 2 tank. the lox tank is pressurized (figure 6-9) by ground support equipment. figure 6-9) is routed through the lox tank pressure control module (5) to the J-2 engine heat exchanger (7). This ground source of cold charge the nine cold helium storage lox tank pressurization helium from a ground the prepressurization helium is also used to spheres (2). and repressurization. Slow Fill is terminated at the 100% load level and this level is @) helium storage spheres. and lastly. as required. fast ffdl stops and a slow Fill at 300 gpm begins. During tank fill. and at a transfer pressure above 25 psia. At the 98% load level. NPV VALVE Lox Engine Supply A six-inch low pressure supply duct supplies lox from the tank to the engine. and thermal movement of structural connections. Gaseous helium is used as the pressurizing agent. Lox Fill and Drain The lox fill and drain valve is capable of allowing flow in either direction for frill or drain operations. figure 6-9) is used during period. are the alternate source of helium for use during repressurization prior to the first and second burns. The arrangement also permits venting of the two lox tank helium spheres. The tank is prepressurized between 38 and 41 psia and is maintained at that pressure during boost and engine operation. This arrangement provides an in-flight reserve for the stage pneumatic controls helium sphere from the lox tank helium spheres and an in-flight reserve for the engine control helium sphere from the LH 2 tank helium spheres. fast fill (1000 gpm) is initiated. When the 10x tank pressure increases to 41 psia. the valve is capable of flowing 1000 gpm of lox at -297 degrees F at an inlet pressure of 51 psia. The term pressurization is used to indicate pressurization during engine burn periods. Liquid level during fill is monitored by means of the lox mass probes. Pressure sensing switches are used to control the tank pressure during fill. Pneumatic pressure for operating the Fall and drain valve is supplied by the stage pneumatic control bottle. The ambient helium storage spheres (3). A fast fill emergency cutoff sensor has been provided to compensate for a primary control cutoff failure. Loading begins with a precooling flowrate of 500 gpm. LOX FILL AND DRAIN RELIEF RELIEF VALVE AND LOX TANK PRESSURIZATION LOX FILL AND DRAIN iRE INLET NON-PROPULSIVE VENT PREVALVE LOW PRESSURE DUCT ASSEMBLY Lox tank pressurization is divided into three basic procedures. the lox tank flight pressure system is activated. Pressure regulated cold helium (1) passes through the lox tank pressure control module (5) and flows (6) into the lox tank. When the cold helium passes through the lox tank pressure control module (5). The lox tank pressure is controlled by the flight control pressure switch (4) regardless of the pressurization procedure used. supply cold helium for both the pressurization and repressurization periods. In the event of tank overpressurization (41 psia) the pressure switch sends a signal to close the lox ground fill valve. The term prepressurization is used for that portion of the pressurization performed on the ground prior to liftoff. filled by ground support equipment (26). pressurization. the pressurization is completed and the flight control pressure switch shuts off the ground supply of cold helium. Total volume of the tank is approximately 2830 cubic feet with an_ullage volume of approximately 108 cubic feet. its r Q/ 6-14 . Cold source (1. repressurization indicates pressurization just before a burn period. Prepressurization At T-167 seconds.8. The cold Figure 6-8 in Figure 6-9. These procedures are called prepressurization. lox is supplied at a nominal flowrate of 430 pounds per second. i . along with the five LH 2 tank helium spheres. These switches control solenoid shutoff valves in each of the supply subsystems. cold helium from cold helium storage spheres (2.S-IVB STAGE ( VENT FFUSER ASSEMBLY FILL DISCONNECT then maintained by a replenish flowrate of 0 to 30 gpm. During engine burn. When this system is activated. LOX SYSTEM Lox is stored in the aft tank of the propellant tank structure (figure 6-8) at a temperature of-297 degrees F. The pressurant used during the three procedures is gaseous helium. Pressurization After S-II/S-IVB separation at T 4 + 0. The replenish flow is maintained through the complete lox tank prepressurization operation and the I00 % lox load operation. When the 5% load level is reached. The supply duct is equipped with bellows to provide compensating flexibility for engine gimbaling.

_!-...._l I I 1 f _2_ LH i TANK '_A2 I 128. L_CONTROL..O._I_i1_ PRESSURE _ TRANSDUCER/I r .Itu......=-.._(I. L I ..d _iiliiiiilii Z_ ILIIIITIIIII I _ " -...0 iIll SSiO-3 I 'ol l .1 i! I S-IVB STAGE I./I T'--n JlI [PRESSURE BACKUP ............_. J ISWITCH l URIZATION "'-' CONTROL REPRESSiiiiiiii W f I I I jI ii v _ I I I -# _'% •III• II_ I I l I I I I_l_ . _% I _':" _ !_..' II.. IPSIA I II I }PRESSURE I I I ll • "-_'_ _'. l ..... JL \ v SPHERES )I_-:.'-'_ _ : LOX • _. FROM GSE _ iIIIIIIIIII_IIIII_IIIIIIIII 4--_I SENSE LINE GH2 I • I LHp TANK " WIIIIII_FROM J-2 F . _ 1 _ ._ PSI_ LOX PROPULSIVE VENT LOX NON-PROPULSIVE VENTS I_1 ENGINE HELIUM CONTROL SPHERE i!¸ Figure 6-9 6-15 ._ LH_ TANK _I REPRESSII URIZATION I TLM_ PRESSUREI _W]{_H J _ PSIA I _ _ I_'_ '_ /I CONTROL .. ..._ PSi_ _o.'-_ _ ill _ i I I 118_ PRESSURIZATION I _ _ _rIENGINE FROM GSE ! DIFFUSER_)/ _ h/I MODULE WIm(_. ...JPSiA I IE/ISTORAGE j jr:-_ --I COLD _7" LOX TANK BACKUP PRESSURE PRESSURE CONTROL SWITCH MODULE .__.PEN_ _ JVEN_T_AND_ I LIQUID OXYGEN - |[] I iII IIIC I ..0 I 28. __..>:. _-. 350-465 :. :_fY I_[ IV'l..T.i_i_:::_'_ii_::::_::ii::i LIQUID HYDROGEN Illllllll' _iliIi. r-i '"." I I "''_'-'-"1 F . ... i_ : !_ I 1 I LOX TANK AMBIENT HELIUM REPRESSURIZATION CONTROL MODULE I LOX TANK AMBIENT HELIUM SPHERES IIIII "i"----" 1 ':2 I r I ...._-_. _ . i_)_i." LOX TANK _ _L 8 _._ REPRES_ _1 ' JFLIGHT i RES CONTROL l'_I___/I I I I CONTROL P SURE I SWITCH SWITCH I \ .! i_ _ _I :.0-3].. :_ T ..... I ] .. .I _../ 135o-465 I I • {_ :: ......__:::__:_ L_______'] ":::':..0-31...C_H....----GASEOUS HELIUM i_i_::_:::.._ ....l J _ _lllllJllllll_ / I F_ ] L_A. .'*i._ j _ I.. .'"__ SWITCH I I ! 135o-4651 i [PSIA J_I Ill PRESSURE ITRANSDUCER Ii_ 1 _IGHT CONTROL I\ I \ _ I I TANK I I_ _ II Ii "_...I / *:12.r'T_'...... . < li FROM GSE I I I | (2) 4VENT & RELIEF J VALVE I LATCH OPEN NPV VALVE 1 I AMBIENT HELIUM REPRESSURIZATION LH2 TANK I CONTROLMODULE II il'l_ll--'''' (5) I PNEUMATIC CONTROLS HELIUM SPHERE 4 HELIUM SPHERES LH2 TANK AMBIENT _.__.':" ...JEXCHmANGERJI_.. _ II 021H2 KUP B"RN_OIPRESSUREI I ....[ __._E i _ _ e'-'_ ..... IL.... .]'___:_[l_ ...-- I ii._-_. :: / / I PSIA \ I ! __ _. I I ... I I I DIFFUSERI I " r_x-- " _...ililIiI... _ _ II _ _ I LEGEND I I GASEOUS HYDROGEN H2 NON-PROPULSIVE VENTS...

Just before second burn. At 500 gpm provided Slow fill the 98% load level. the LH 2 tank is purged with helium gas. and into the 02/H 2 burner. pressurization. and this level is then maintained by a replenish flowrate of 0 to 300 gpm. The pressure switch (4) controls lox tank pressure by opening or closing the control valves in. repressurization control module (14) to the lox tank. See figures 2-1 and 6-5 for sequence of operation LH 2 SYSTEM The LH 2 is stored in an insulated tank at less degrees F. A backup overfill sensor is provided to terminate flow in the event of a 100% load cutoff failure.3 seconds.6 seconds and turned on at T 6 + 500. The term prepressurization is used for that portion of the pressurization performed on the ground prior to liftoff. this switch (9) will control lox tank pressure through operation of solenoid valves in the lox tank pressure control module (5). figure 6-9).5 psia and a minimum of 43. The vent and relief valve is pneumatically operated upon receipt of a ground command. vent and relief valve and a non-propulsive venting. and the directional control valve is positioned to route GH 2 overboard to the burn pond. the backup pressure switch (11) will maintain a pressure of 350-465 psia at the 02/H 2 burner.5 psia. fast fill stops and a slow fill at begins. ambient repressurization is stopped (T 6 + 577. Should the regulator in the lox tank pressure control module (5) fail.400 300 cubic and to 28 psia minimum storage spheres (2. and therrnal for engine motion. The backup pressure switch controls the pressure by opening or closing valves in the lox tank repressurization control (10). is prepressurized than -423 10. An S-IVB lox tank pressure reading becomes available in the command module (CM) at S-II/S-IVB separation. A fast fill emergency cutoff sensor has been to compensate for a primary control cutoff failure. The duct is located in the aft tank side wall above the common bulkhead joint. gimbaiing. to the ground. This duct is capable of flowing 80-pounds per second at -423 degrees F and at a transfer pressure of 28 psia. The latch open non-propulsive vent valve is also operated by ground command. non-propulsive vent valve. is terminated at the 100% load level. Here the pressure is sensed by the flight control pressure switch (4). Ambient repressurization is enabled at T 6 + 497. both valves act as relief valves. When in the closed position. As the cold helium and is routed to is heated in the 02/H 2 burner it expands the lox tank. latch open. as required. Loading begins with precool at a flow of 500 gpm. The pressure switch (4) maintains lox tank pressure between 38-41 psia by opening and closing solenoid shutoff valves in the lox tank repressurization control (10). The flight control pressure switch (4) controls the operation of a solenoid valve in the lox tank pressure control module (5) to control lox tank pressure to 38-41 psia. Total volume of the tank is approximately cubic feet with an ullage vohime of approximately feet. If normal pressure regulation fails. and lastly. ambient helium. Tile flow (8) of the helium to tile lox tank is monitored by a backup pressure switch (9). Ambient helium from the ambient helium storage spheres (3) flows through the lox tank.5 psia. Pressure sensing switches control the tank pressure during fill. A small portion of cold helium bypasses the heat exchanger through a control orifice. The lox tank venting subsystem includes a propulsive venting. the ground controlled combination vent and relief valve is opened. Pressure in the lox tank LH 2 Low Pressure Fuel Duct LH 2 from the tank is supplied to the J-2 engine turbopump through a vacuum jacketed low pressure 10-inch duct. As it passes through the heat exchanger it is expanded and routed to the lox tank. In the event of tank over pressurization (31 psia) the pressure switch sends a signal to close the LH 2 ground fill valve. These procedures are called prepressurization. When lox tank prepressurization commences. At the initiation of loading. When it is commanded open. This arrangement assures that relief venting will normally occur as a non-propulsive function. via telemetry. It next flows through the lox tank repressurization control (10).6 seconds. The replenish flow is maintained through the LH 2 tank prepressurization operation. Liquid level during fill is monitored by means of the LH 2 mass probes. Repressurization The normal repressurization 48. LH 2 TANK PRESSURIZATION LH 2 tank pressurization is divided into three basic procedures. The cold helium pressure is reduced to approximately 385 psia as it flows through the lox tank pressure control module (5). venting occurs through two non-propulsive vents placed 180 degrees apart (figure 6-8). The term pressurization is used to indicate pressurization engine burn periods.S-IVB STAGE ( pressure is reduced to approximately 385 psia. repressurization pressurization just before the second burn period. The non-propulsive vent valve is set to open at a maximum pressure of 43. ambient helium. This pressure is sensed by the pressure transducer (12) and is relayed to the S-II FUEL/S-IVB OXID gauges (13) in the CM and. At T 6 + 496.0 seconds. When the 5% load level is reached fast fill is initiated at a flow of 3000 gpm. The vent and relief valve is set to open at a maximum of 45. NOTE The ambient repressurization initiated prior to second burn is a back up procedure to ensure tank pressure in case of O2/H 2 burner failure.2 seconds). and mixes with the hot gas prior to entering the lox tank. The LH 2 tank 31 psia maximum. the valve is closed and placed in the relief position. cryogenic repressurization is switched off. Bellows manufacturing in this duct compensate tolerances. Prior to loading. Lox Venting The lox tank vent subsystem provides for controlled lox tank venting during normal stage operation and for pressure relief venting when tank overpressures occur. during indicates 6-16 . The pressure transducer (12) transmits a continuous pressure reading to telemetry and to the LV TANK PRESS gauges (13) in the CM. and repressurization. the lox tank. It uses cold procedure is initiated at T 6 + helium from the cold helium loading is directed through the propulsive vent in the aft skirt of the stage (figure 6-8). it is placed in the open position and the boiloff of lox during LH 2 Fill and Drain Prior to loading. increases and is sensed by the flight control pressure switch (4) and the pressure transducer (12). repressurization control module (14).

Gaseous hydrogen (19) bled from the J-2 engine flows through the LH 2 tank pressurization module (18) to the LH 2 tank. thereby applying a delta retro-grade velocity to the S-IVB/IU which places it in solar orbit. in case of O2/H 2 burner provide either propulsive or non-propulsive Non-propulsive venting is the normal mode used. psia the flight ground supply is prepressurized (figure Cold helium (25) flows module (18)and into function is performed through the use of combination vent and relief valve which When the LH 2 tank pressure increases to 31 control pressure switch (17) shuts off the of helium (25) to complete prepressurization. Backup to the control provided by connection throngh Iox system ambient helium spheres. pneumatic power control system helimn sphere is check valves with the two pressure switch (17). supply cold helium for use during the repressurization period. As pressure in the LH 2 tank increases to 31 psia. and to the LV TANK PRESS gauges (21) cryogenic repressurization reprcssurization on at T 6 + 520 helium storage ambient helium LH-_ tank. At T40 seconds the directional control valve is positioned nonpropulsive vents. PROPELLANT for flight venting of GH 2 through the DUMP storage spheres (2. the LH 2 tank 6-9) by ground support equipment. the flight control pressure switch (17) closes valves in the LH 2 tank pressurization module to maintain tank pressure at 28-31 psia. At T 6 + 496._ tank reprcssurization control module (24)"to the the pressure is sensed by the flight control engine start tank vent valve on the J-2 engine. The five ambient helium storage spheres (15). The cold helium pressure is 385 psia as it flows through the module (5). in the ground vent line open position until T-40 which time it is positioned to the in-flight relief function. NOTE The ambient second burn pressure LH 2 Venting Tile LH 2 pressure procedure in each of tank pressure is controlled switch (17) regardless used. via telemetry. The pressure switch (17) and the pressure switch (17) maintains LH'_ A propellant dump is initiated in T 8 once the S-IVB/IU has completed an evasive maneuver to safely clear the CSM/LM following separation. Tile pneumatic control system is filled with gaseous helium front ground support equipment to 3200 . This sequence dumps the lox remaining in the lox tank through the engine.6 seconds and turned seconds. Pressure in the LI_I-_ tank increa_s and is sensed by the flight control pressure transducer (20). This mode vents the GH 2 through two propulsive vents located axial to the stage. Figure 2-1 and Figure 6-5 illustrate the sequential operation of the venting subsystems.+__ 100 psig. stopped (T 6 + 577. The cold helium storage spheres (2). and into the O9/H9 burner. prior to the second J-2 engine burn. This pressure is sensed by the pressure transducer (20) and is relayed to the S-1VB fuel gauges (21) in the CM and. the valve is positioned to vent GH 2 through-the ground line to the hydrogen burn pond. During pressurization the repressurization switch (16) operates in series with the flight control pressure switch to prevent operation of the cryogenic or ambient repressuization systems. The non-propulsive vents are degrees apart to cancel the thrust. Tile onboard pneumatic control system consists an ambient helium sphere and a module. Cold helium from a ground source (25. figure is used during the _6-9) prepressurization period. of the helium fill module. is figure controlled by the flight control pressure 6-9) which opens or closes solenoid valves propulsive in the LH 2 tank pressurization module (18). As a part of the propellant dump the tanks and helium bottles are vented as shown in figure 6-5 to passivate the stage. The non-propulsive a ground controlled Prepressurization At T 1 -97 seconds. permits the ground vent The valve is seconds at non-propulsive located_180 The option of routing the GH 2 through either the lines or through non-propulsive relief venting. Here in the CM. It uses cold procedure is initiated at T 6 + helium from the cold helium which operates through two control valves upstream of the non-propulsive directional control valve. Ambient The pneumatic control system for all pneumatically operated is enabled at T 6 + 497.7 is switched off. PNEUMATIC CONTROL (figure 6-I0) provides pressure valves on the stage and for the ! tank pressure between 28-31 psia by opening and closing solenoid shutoff valves in the LH-_• tank repressurization control module (22). figure reduced to approximately lox tank pressure control 6-9). it expands and is routed to the LH 2 tank. _conds. Just before second burn. Repressurization The 48. The cold helium next flows through the LH 2 tank repressurization control (22). the flight control of the pressurization solenoid shutoff valves by The LH 2 tank vent subsystem (Figure 6-9) is equipped venting. venting function is a command function Pressurization Pressurization switch (17. for propellant settling. to repressurization initiated prior to is a back up procedure to ensure tank failure. supply an alternate source of helium lbr use during the repressurization period. During LH9 loading. to the ground.1 normal repressurization seconds. The pressure transducer (20) transmits a continuous pressure reading to telemetry. located in the LH 2 tank. Directional Control Valve The directional control valve is a two position valve provided to enable command routing of gaseous hydrogen (GH-_) through the ground vent line or through the flig_at nonpropulsive vents. ambient repressurization is pressurization procedures are gaseous hydrogen (Glq2) and gaseous helium. through the LH 2 tank pressurization the LH 2 tank.S4VB STAGE The pressurants used during the three LH'_ tank (24). The pressure switch (17) controls LH 2 tank pressure by opening or closing the control valves in the LH 2 tank ambient helium repressurization control module Changed 5 October 1969 6-17 . This switch controls the supply subsystems. filled by ground support equipment (26). Ambient helium from the ambient spheres (151 flows through the LI-I. Propulsive venting provides a small additional thrust.4 seconds).

: i L_.. FLIGHT The flight CONTROL control system uses two systems for flight and protected from switch controlled.. Each pneumatically operated component is attached to a separate actuation control module containing dual solenoids. REGULATOR i DRAIN VALVE r r I k l . After propellant loading has begun. The pneumatic control system is over-pressure by a normally open. The pneumatic power control module is set at 475 psig which is equivalent to 490 psia on the ground and 475 psia in orbit..J -_ %2vE. I l I ..l 0 c4-2 'vALVE turbopump turbine purge module.. PLENUM LH2 PREVALVE LOX PREVALVE 'I I _ _[ _-_ i l i LATCH OPEN LOX VENT &RELIEF VALVE (LOX NPV) M_J ! Ill _II _ _ PNEUMATIC POWER CONTROL MODULE ..600 psia. [ ..---. and the cold helium bottles are chilled down.#. 1 i_.... the lox chilldown pump purge control. the lox and LH 2 prevalvesand chilldown and shutoff valves.. the LH 2 propulsive vent valve. l . the lox and LHv fill and drain valves. +I00 PSIG i 70 ° F I 3 TO d-2 ENGINE START TANK VENT & RELIEF VALVE I I t I FILL MODULE I l . which provide on-off control.. i (02/H2 BURNER) LOX PROPELLANT VALVE [--.. the lox and LH 2 6.. i 7 I . the propulsion vent shutoff valve. The ambient helium storage spheres are initially pressurized to 950 psia. This switch maintains between 490 .. the pressure is raised to 3100 psia and both the ambient and cold helium bottles are then completely pressurized to their flight pressure of 3200 psia by the time the LH 2 tank reaches a 92_ percent load level. These pressure levels are essential to the operation of the LH 2 directional control w_lve.. the lox tank vent/relief valves. and are capable of supplying operating pressure to stage control valves at that pressure.. pressure solenoid valve.T.S-IVB STAGE PNEUMATIC CONTROL SUBSYSTEM I :ii f CONTROL SYSTEM HELIUM SPHERE I I L _ I F'---'I I AMB I ENT DISCONNECT HE FILL l_r___ i_ HELIUM I _ LOX SYSTEM HELIUM I (_'_ SPHERES (" LH 2 CHILLDOWN SHUTOFF VALVE LOX CHILLDOWN SHUTOFF VALVE "i ' 'l 3200 PSiG . and the ]-2 engine GH 2 start system vent/relief valve.... ZZ_ I RELIEF (NONPROPULSIVE) VALV ] i-T_--I _ _ DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE LH2 t r ENGINE PURGE PUMP I_ _ ___i r . I t_ _ CHILLDOWN PUMP PURGE LOX ]Z]_ i LH2 CONTINUOUS VENT. _OX -I VENT & t J i _]Z_ (PROPULSIVE RELIEF VALVE I_(02/H2 i_ _---_L I_LH2 I BURNER) LOX SHUTDOWN VALVE PROPELLANT T Figure The helium fill module regulates and reduces the incoming supply to 490 _+_ 25 psia for operation of control valves during preflight activities.. system pressure r' i 6-18 .

Each module contains four engines: three 150-pound thrust control engines (figure 6-15) and one 70-pound thrust ullage engine'S(figure 6-16). Valve assembly failure cannot occur unless two valves fail open in series (propellant drain). The reservoir section is a storage area tbr hydraulic fluid and has a maximum volume ot" 167 cubic inches. the system accumulator supplies peak system demands and dampens high pressure surging. The modules are detachable and are easily checked or replaced. The 70-pound thrust engine in each module is used to settle the propellants in the propellant tanks. The engine is also nulled before engine restart to minimize the possibility of contact between the engine bell and the interstage at S-II/S-IVB separation. The body mounted control EDS rate gyros. located in the II. This pump supplies_ pressure for preflight checkout. to lock the J-2 engine in the null position during boost and separation phase. 180 degrees apart on the aft skirt of the S-IVB stage (see figure 6-14). Just prior to J-2 engine restart. The deflection rates are to the pitch and yaw steering signals from the computer. and an accumulator/reservoir assembly. The minimum engine firing pulse duration is approximately 70 milliseconds. series parallel arrangement. between 60 and 170 psig is maintained in the reservoir (figure 6-12) by two pressure operated pistons contained in the accumulator section. Each module contains its own oxidizer. pitch. circulates tile hydraulic fluid to maintain it between +10 degrees F and +40 degrees F. During system operation. When a steering command is received from the flight control The S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system provides stage attitude control (figure 6-13) and main stage control during coast flight.0 degrees square pattern by a closed loop hydraulic system. APS CONSTRUCTION computer. and pressurization systems. four for oxidizer) in a fall safe. In addition to maintaining pressure in the reservoir. A positive expulsion. During orbit. while one controls pitch. The engine is gimbaled (figure 6-11) in a 7. SYSTEM ) Major components of the hydraulic system (figure 6-12) are an engine driven hydraulic pump. fuel. the pump delivers up to 8 gpm under continuous working pressure. is used as an oxidizer and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH). the auxiliary pump. The auxiliary hydraulic pump is an electrically driven pump which is capable of supplying a minimum of 1. The attitude control engines are fired for attitude correction. each containing a bladder for propellant expulsion. Single valve failures do not affect engine efficiency or performance. Two actuators vector forces proportional flight control HYDRAULIC are used to translate the steering signals into to position the engine. The auxiliary pump is enabled before liftoff and during coast periods. or two valves fail closed in parallel (oxidizer or fuel starvation). controlled by a thermal switch. Nitrogen tetroxide (N204).J. and a propellant manifold for distribution of propellants to the engines. and as emergency backup.ENGINE GIMBALING yaw control is provided by gimbaling the main engine. a torque motor in the servovalve shifts a control flapper to direct the fluid flow through one of two nozzles. Attitude error information may come from two sources. ports for subsystem servicing operations. quad-redundant propellant valves (4 oxidizer. is used as fuel for these engines. the direction being dependent upon signal polarity. Typical operation (figure 6-18) involves a signal from the Instrument Unit (IU) to energize the pitch control relays which open the eight normally-closed. 4 fuel) arranged in two series parallel circuits. The 150-pound thrust engines utilize eight control valves (four for fuel. propellant feed subsystem is used to ensure that hypergolic propellants are supplied to the engine under zero or random gravity conditions. an electrically driven auxiliary hydraulic pump. and to minimize inertial effects at ignition. In normal operation. propellant control is accomplished by firing the 70-pound thrust engines. the two actuator assemblies providing deflection rates proportional to pitch and yaw steering signals from the flight control computer.5 gpm of fluid to the system. Accumulator/ Reservoir Assembly The accumulator/reservoir assembly (figure 6-12) is an integral unit mounted on the thrust structure. the J-2 engine is commanded to the null position to prevent damage by shifting. supply the vehicle turning ratc information. Hydraulic Pumps The APS engines are located in two modules. I " I 6-19 . The attitude deviation dead band for roll. AUXILIARY PROPULSION SYSTEM three axis propellant During the boost and separation phase. The attitude engine control signal is composed of an attitude error signal and a vehicle turning rate signal. and yaw is +_ 1 degree. two _ydraulic actuator assemblies. Mechanical feedback from the actuator to the servovalve completes the closed engine position loop. When the IU is iI The engine driven hydraulic pump is a variable displacement type driven directly from the engine oxidizer turbopump. individual propellant control modules that filter the propellants and provide auxiliary. APS OPERATION Two of the three 150-pound thrust engines in each module control roll and yaw. This subsystem consists of separate fuel and oxidizer propellant tank assemblies (figure 6-17). The 70-pound ullage engine uses only single valves on both the fuel and oxidizer lines.

14Vll IT&Ol_ ACCUMULATOR/RESERVOI R SERVOACTUATOR (PITCH) SERVOACTUATOR (YAM) | ENGINE DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMP LEGEND PRESSURE SUPPLY RETURN AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC PUMP (_-20 L: .

the power is distributed as shown m figure 6-20. Heaters and imtrumentation probes are an integral part of each battery. See fggure 6-19 for a table of battery characteristics. solid state power conversion devices. 1500 volt-amp. The purpose of the chilldown inverters is to provide electrical power to the motor driven pumps for circulation of the iox and LH 2.5 degrees in roll are imposed on the attitude error signals. guidance and control system or may be generated by the astronaut through manual control._aes to maintain a particular attitude orientation._ommanded and actual glmbal angles. These limits prevent excessive propellant usage which would result from large angular rate commands. BATTERIES On board power is supplied by four zinc silver-oxide batteries. it should be noted that attitude error limits of + 2. The attitude error signals from the spacecraft may originate in the Apollo navigation. The S-IVB attitude control system then operates in the limit cycle mode about this command attitude. Umits are impmed by the LVDC for IU generated attitude error signals.7 S/Vl ffgk_lt controlling the vehicle attitude. CHILLDOWN INVERTERS The chilldown inverters are three-phase. POWER DISTRIBUTION Two main forward busses and two main aft busses supply electrical power to all stage systems. When the spacecraft is controlling the vehicle. ELECTRICAL The electrical system of the S-IVB stale is comprised of two mq)or mbwztems: the electrical power mbsystem which conshttz of all power sources on the stage. Busses are electrically isolated from each other with each main bus utilizing a power transfer switch to switch from GSE power to stage mounted batteries. to ensure propellant temperature stabilization at the J-2 engine inlets. This is ac. The difference between the commanded and actual gimbal angles results in an error signal which is resolved into vehicle coordinates and is given to the IU flight control computer as an attitude error signal. The Apollo spacecraft attitude reference system can follow the instantaneous vehicle attitude. Two are located in the forward equipment area and two in the aft equipment area. error information is supplied by the LVDC through the flight control computer. and by the IU flight control computer for spacecraft generated attitude error signals. the limiters in the IU flight control computer will limit the angular rate. attitude error information is obtained from the spacecraft. and the electrical contxol subzystem which dizlxibut_ power and control dlpuds to various loads throughout the mqle. \ ENGINE -AUX PUHP ACCle4ULATOR/RESERVOI R ASSEHBLY ( ! Figure 6-12 HAIN LOX TURBOPUHP PLIMP t_-?l .:omplished by driving the command display unit servomotor with an error signal which is formed by differencing the . These error signals are used only by the auxiliary propulsion system.5 degrees in pitch and yaw and i3. while driving the vehicle to the desired attitude. These batteries are activated and installed in the stage during the final prelaunch preparations. he can us_ the computer to set the commanu display unit commr. nd resolver to the desired gimbal value. When the astronaut wi. In any case.

S-IVB STAGE ?'!! APSFUNCTIONS -YAW+ -ROLL+ __ -PITCH+ Figure 6-13 6-22 .

The switch selector provides electrical isolation between the IU and the S-IVB stage systems and decodes digital information from the IU into discrete output Colnn_atlds. and low-power transistor switches used as relay drivers controlled by binary-coded signals from the LVD(" in the IU. wave required error signal to to to drive propellant motors and bridge converts a 28 vdc input into the ! 17. Capability exists stage _quencer. The function of the switch selector is to operate magnetically latching relays in the sequencer and power distribution assemblies. square propellant utilization current. The electrical control subsystem function is to distribute the command signals required to control the electrical components of the stage. rqlMated 21 vde requind for wopel_ant utilization which provides all the regulated ac and dc voltages necesQry to operate the S-IVB stage propellant utilization electronics assembly. SEQUENCER ASSEMBLIES The two major elements in the stage sequencing system are the switch selector and the stage sequencer. A switch selector is utilized in each stage of the launch vehicle. and the pressure sensing and control devices.5 vac. The commands are interpreted by the S-IVB stage at the switch selector. Sequence i:ircuits perform lo_istlCal pting of inputs necessary for sequencing control with as few timed commands from the ILl as possible. OUTER MODULE FAIRI The switch selector consists of relays. ELECTRICAL CONTROL SUBSYSTEM 3. MODULES and 20-volt excitation modules are transistorized excitation 6o EXCITATION The 5-volt power conversion devices which are used to convert the 28-vdc to the various regulated voltages required by the instrumentation. signal conditioning. Each command is in digital form and consists of an 8-bit word accompanied by a "read" pulse. During flight. Stage Sequencer The stage sequencer operates upon receipt of discrete inputs from the switch selector (and other S-IVB stage subsystems) and initiates S-IVB flight functlonsby supplying or removing power from the appropriate equipment. $ vdc required to provide excitation for propellant utilization fine and coarse mass potentiometers.7 64NB gfa PROPELLANT CONVERTER The static inverter-converter is a solid state power supply S. the sequencer assemblies. a diode matrix. The static following !. sequencing commands are received from the IU._3 J . to provide !!2 discrete r(_mmands t(_ lhe ! Figure 6-14 h. It controls only those function_ established as sequencing events. lnverter-ounverter outputs: 115 vac utilization rebalancing 2. Switch Selector The switch selector is an electronic assembly utilized as the primary device for controlling the inflight sequencing of the stage. 2. and emergency detection system transducers. ('peak-to-peak). UTILIZATION (PU) STATIC INVERTER- .5 vdc floating supply used to provide propellant utilization summing potentiometer excitation. The major components of the electrical control subsystem are the power and control distributors. convert alternating 400 Hz required valve positioning servomotors. 49 vdc floating supply required to provide for valve feedback potentiometen.

l..• iVRnAGE ! ABLATIVE EXIT CONE LINER 5.-J _ _ L_ CERAMIC INSERT PARAL LEL_PENAgo ..Ib _).w ..BL:T_VLEA_ F _ F_gure6.24 L.750 INCHES CE RAMIC ABLATIVF LINER COATEDMOLY THROAT INSERT QUAD REDUNDANT VALVE ASSEMBLY HEM SINK INJECTOR FIBERGLASS FLAT WRAP RADIATION SHIELD (LOWER) RADIATION SHIELD (UPPER) Figure 6-15 70-POUNDTHRUSTAPS ENGINE PROPELLANTVALVES-'Ik MOUNTING CAN_ ELECTRI CAL CONNECTOR --_ \_ _ / / F GLASS WRAP /-" ASBESTOSWRAP / FPAR_ CERAMIC LINER .

Level sensors signal the LVDC during flight so that engine cutoff can be accomplished smoothly at propellant depletion. This response provides switching of 28 vdc power to relays in the stage sequencer for operation and control of propulsion system solenoid valves. valve control.second start the PU valve is commanded to its full open position to obtain 6-25 . Continuous capacitance probes and point level sensors in both the LH 2 and lox tanks monitor propellant mass. Ground Lox tank System fill. backup. Prior to the . 3. The calips pressure switch employs isolated from the other. PROPELLANT UTILIZATION SUBSYSTEM Pneumatic a. valve control. LH 2 Tank a. b. MANAGEMENT The propellant management systems illustrated in figure 6-21 provide a means of monitoring and controlling propellants during all phases of stage operation. pressure control system in which the depending upon switch is used. The test checkout without disconnecting two pressure ports. Pressurization. backup. System ground frill. Point level sensors are used during the propellant loading sequence to indicate to the GSE the level of propellants in the tanks. LH 2 tank Calips pressure switches utilize a single Belleville spring which provides "snap" response to actuation or deactuation pressures. The PU valve is a rotary type valve which controls the quantity of lox flowing to the engine. c. The test pressure settings manufacture of the switch to provide of the system pressure settings. Power System Regulator Engine backup. pump container purge. b. pressure control PROPELLANT Lox Tank a. b. 2. Calibratable pressure switches (calips) are used on the S-IVB stage to perform various control functions. For example: 1. each port provides for remote or contaminating the Prior to S-IVB ignition for first burn. purge. Lox chiUdown These (thrust pressure switches structure) or the are located in either the aft section the forward section (interstage). pressure control pressurization. The capacitance probes provide outputs which are used to operate a propellant utilization (PU) control valve. the PU valve is commanded to its null position to obtain an engine mixture ratio (MR) of approximately 5 : 1 for start and remains at this value for the remainder of the burn.S-IVB STAGE QUAD REDUNDANT ENGINE CONTROL VALVES (TYPICAL) FUEL FILL FUEL TANK BOTTLE FILTER FILTER QUAD CHECK VALVE HELIUM CONTROL MODULE 1 LEGEND DI ZER FUEL SENSE LINI are an ENGINE VALVES CONTROL (TYPICAL) QUAD CHECK VALVE FILTER FILTER C_HELIUM _"_OXI OXIDIZER OXIDIZER FILL TANK Figure PRESSURE SWITCHES 6-17 primary pressure calibrated during accurate indication system.

I_wI IffA_gz

ATTITUDE AND ULLAGEENGINE CONTROL
r--e

1
LVDC .

I I
I

INSTRUMENT UNIT S-IVB 28 vdc S-IVB SWITCH I
t

SELECTOR
i

28 VDC K8 SET

K2

K4

IK6

COM

COM

FUEL

tOM

COH OX DIZER

ASSEMBLY

ASSEMBLY

TYPICAL FOR PITCH, YAM AND ROLL ENGINES

70# ULLAGE

Figure 6-18 a MR of approximately 4.5:1 during the start sequence. Approximately 100 seconds after 90% thrust is attained in the rust opportunity mission the PU valve is commanded back to its null position for a MR of approximately 5:1 where it remains for the rest of the burn. in the second opportunity mission the PU valve is commanded back to its null position at approximately 2.5 _conds after 90% thrust is attained. Operation of the entwine in the 4.5:1 MR results in a proportionally larger consumption of fuel than operation in the 5: I MR. The longer operation in the 4.5: i MR during the f'wst opport,,nity mission consumes the fuel which is carried to compensate for boiloff during orbit if the second opportunity mi_iot, is flown. The excursion L fleet caused by varying the MR is ill.stratcd m figure 5-8. INSTRUMENTATION AND TELEMETRY

The S-IVB stage instrumentation and telemetry system monitors functional operation of stage systems and transmits these data to GSE. Prior to liftoff, telemetry data is transmitted over coaxial cables to the GSE. During flight RF antennae convey the data to ground stations. for a block diagram of the instrumentation system. MEASUREMENT SYSTEM See figure 6-22 and telemetry

The measurement _stem monitors stage system5 par;lll|etcr'_ and discretes, Tttese data signals are conditioned to make them compatible and are Uzen fed It, the telemetry %ySlCl_l for tra.sn, i_,_ion to the grozind

h- ?I_

S-IVB

STAGE

transmits them to the ground stations. On vehicles SA-507 and SA-508 both a SS/FM link (S1) and a PCM/DDAS link (P1) are used. (P1) is used. On vehicle SA-509 only the PCM/DDAS link

'_il

The SS/FM link includes a single sideband telemetry assembly with fifteen input data channels which are frequency-division multiplexed over a spectrum of 70 KHz. Each channel has a frequency response suitable for vibration and acoustic type measurements. An isolation amplifier accepts the signal from the single sideband assembly and provides two isolated outputs. One output is supplied to a Model 11 RF assembly and the other output is used for ground checkout. The PCM/DDAS link incorporates a Model 301 PCM/DDAS

assembly which accePtS both analog and digital data. The analog data is received from a MUX-270 located in the S-IVB and a MUX-270 located in the IU. The digital data is received from digital transducers and from the Model ID remote digital sub-multiplexer assembly (RDSM). The PCM/DDAS assembly converts the analog data into binary code and arra.t_ges the data along with the digital input into the desired format for transmittal by a Model II RF assembly. In addition, there is one MUX-270 on the S-IVB stage which supplies analog data to the PCM/DDAS link (P1) in the Instrument Unit. This MUX-270 receives inputs directly from transducers and from a low-level remote analog submultiplexer, Model 102 (RASM- 102). The Model II RF assembly provides a carrier which is frequency-modulated by the composite output signal of the single sideband assembly or the PCM/DDAS assembly. Tile transmitter provides a 20-watt nominal output to the vehicle antenna system. The antenna system includes RF power dividers, switches, couplers and detectors. The RF detectors monitor transmitter power and reflected power to check the RF transmission efficiency. The antennae are two folded dipoles located on opposite sides of the forward skirt. They have a radiation pattern such that two ground stations can see the stage simultaneously. ORDNANCE _URRENT 228 RATING NOMINAL 28 VOLTAGE (2 AH 25 AH 228 AH 67 AH The S-IVB ordnance systems include rocket, ullage rocket jettison, and (flight termination) systems. SEPARATION SYSTEM the separation, ullage propellant dispersion

CHARACTERISTICS

TYPE MATERIAL ELECTROLYTE

Dry

Charge oxide Hydroxide (KOH) in pure

Zinc-silver Potassium water,

FORWARD NO. 1

FORWARD AFT NO. 2 NO. 1

AFT NO. 2

vdc UNITS

28 vdc

28 (2

vdc UNITS)

56 (2 IN

vdc UNITS SERIES

Figure

6-19

Numerous measuring devices (transducers), of a wide variety, are used to monitor stage systems. Conditions monitored include such things as temperature, pressure, flowrate, position, discretes, liquid levels, voltages, current, frequency and RPM. TELEMETRY SYSTEM

The third plane separation system for S-II/S-IVB is located at the top of the S-II/S-IVB interstage (figure 5-20). The separation plane is at station 2746.5. Ordnance for the third plane separation consists of two exploding bridgewire (EBW) firing units, two EBW detonators, one detonator block assembly and a detonating fuse assembly (figure 6-23). The EBW firing units are on the S-II/S-IVB interstage slightly below the third separation plane. The leads of the EBW firing units are attached to the EBW detonators which are installed in the detonator block assembly. The detonator block assembly is mounted just inside the skin of the vehicle, and the ends of the detonating fuse assembly are installed within the detonator block assembly. The detonating fuse assembly is mounted around the periphery of the vehicle beneath the tension strap.

The telemetry system accepts the signals measuring portion of the instrumentation

produced by the system and

6-27

F
IAWII STAGE

I

Pom.,_o Bus i .o31 2.v=
SWITCH '1 SELECTOR i

,i

I

"'_

" "®" "_

1
i

-! -I
m

SlntOlES
i

!

LEVEL¸

fi

BATTERY FWOl& 2 '] HEATERS

.__

4031IU TO
J i

]

BUS SEQUENCER I

fi

BATTERY AFT 1&2/ HEA1TRS

flv.w
i
UHBILICAL _

POSITION I INDICATIONS I

ELECTRONIC BURNER ! PACKAGE

,I

,_

VALVE HELIUM

"i

/
_._RS ENGINE NO. C/O 1 ]

56 VOLT

I

o

.

q

BATTERY I NO. 2 1

FOWARO "1
POWER TRANSFE,

[RANGESAFETY_ ISYSTEHNO.

__

START S-II F.N61NE INTERLOCK ]

2J
BATTERY NO. 2

(E_ __,u

NO. 1)

I

SWITCH FORWARD BUS 2 +4021 28 VDC j

UMBILICAL

TRANSFER SWITCH AFT BUS 2 +4041

J

56 Vl_

J

EXCITATION MODULE2 PU COHWUtDS

INVERTER-

_:_LOX

'! CHILLCgWN I

I

MOTOR o STARTER

:LECTRONIC ASSEMBLY

_CH_LLDOWN I INVERTERL.I I t /INVERTER I SWITCH HYDRAULIC AUXILIARY i PUMPHOTOR

RS NO. 2 ENGINE C/O

Fllure 6-20

6-28

that described in the separation system discussion in Section V. Detonation of the detonating fuse assembly severs the tension strap attaching the S-II/S-IVB interstage at station 2746.5 (figure 5-19). A sequence of events for S-IC/S-II/S-IVB separations and a block diagram of the separation systems is contained in figure 5-20. At the time of separation, four retrorocket motors mounted on the interstage structure below the separation plane fire to decelerate the S-II stage. For information on the S-II retrorocket system, refer to Section V. ULLAGE ROCKET SYSTEM

separation blocks, four CDF initiators, and two ullage rockets. The EBW firing units, EBW detonators, and CDF manifolds are mounted on the S-IVB aft skirt. The CDF assemblies connect the manifolds to the separation blocks and then to the CDF initiators. The rockets are within fairings mounted diametricaUy opposite each other on the S-IVB aft skirt. The rockets are canted outward from the vehicle to reduce effects of exhaust impingement, and to reduce the resulting moment if one rocket fails. A separation block is used between the stage and each ullage rocket to allow jettison and maintain CDF continuity. The separation block, an inert item, is located on the skin of the S-IVB aft skirt under the ullage rocket fairing. Each block consists of two machined pieces of aluminum. The upper piece holds the ends of the CDF assemblies to the initiators, while the lower piece holds the CDF assemblies from the manifolds. The separation block forms a housing or connector that holds the CDF assembly ends together to ---j_ I I I I I I
I

To provide propellant settling and thus ensure stable flow of lox and LH 2 during J-2 engine start, the S-IVB stage requires a small acceleration. This acceleration is provided by two ullage rockets.

LOX MASS LOADING & TM

LH2 TANK 104O0 CU F-F

POINT LEVEL SENSORS

T

-:

15 X LH2 MASS

MASS PROBE (CYLINDRICAL CAPACITOR)

_ SLOSH BAFFLE MASS PROBE (CYLINDRICAL CAPACITOR)

ILOX MASS I I

I
l POINT LEVEL I
I

r NETWORK

POINT LEVEL SENSORS

I LOX TANK 2830 CU FT LOX DEPLETION POINT LEVEL SENSORS RELAY LOGIC CASE RELAY A _-CLOSEDLOOP* X .STEP 4.5** _TEP 5.0 _STEP 5.5
,i

T I
I

I I
_> _LH2 "l MASS LOADING & TM

GINE MIXTURERATIO VALVE

B X X

C X

D

---_ --_MOOULATOR__-_A C____ 4.S

X

i

5.5 D

AIB

j T

_ @ (_)

= SERVO AMPLIFIE = SERVO MOTOR = SUI_VIINGNETWORK

* Not programmed ** 4.2 for S-II Figure 6-21

6-29

ASSEMB LY l R. ASSEMBLY MOOELII(PCM] P1 T ASSEMBLY.5 MHz) 7 I MODEL $1 II (ANALOG) FORWARDPOWER DETECTOR BI-DIRECTIONAL COUPLER ? _J _J GSE_I l SINGLE ISOLATION SIDEBAND AMPLIFIER _f_ CONVERTER OC TO DC TELEMETRY R.F. / REFLECTED DETECTOR POWER < TELEMETRY > "I INSTRUMENT UNIT PCM/DDAS ] I I T f VIBRATION ACOUSTIC AND DATA MODE L 301 PCM/DDAS ASSEMBLY Z r " I MOO270 MULTIPLEXER 3 I tl ASSEMBLY | I .F.17/o NOTE: ON THE ON VEHICLES TELEMETRY VEHICLE IS AS SA-509 SHOWN SA-507 AND SA-508 IS AS SHOWN. i_ I I 1 r_ GSE I I • i SYNC. REMOTE MULT PLEXER ASSEMBLY REMOTE DIGITAL ANALOG SYSTEM THE FOR _'L%YER A=EMBLYL_____ _U_WY'%X%_ 102 TELEMETRY LINK P-1 ANALOG DATA DIGITAL DATA ANALOG SYSTEM ONLY. f DATA I I ANALOG DATA .F. MULTIPLEXER I l LINK P1 (258. MODEL SINGLE SIDEBAND 601 i ASSEMBLY TELEMETRY MODEL II CALIBRATOR SYNC.T BI-DIRECTiONAL COUPLER R._J O ANTENNA1T TELEMETRY DIVIDER POWER TELEMETRY TELEMETRY 1 COAXIAL SWITCH C/O MODULE _t DUMMY LOAD L----_ GSE I I FORWARD DETECTOR POWER I POWER I REFLECTED I I DETECTOR .

nfs (fllpWe 6-23). The resulting detonations propagate throuah the CI)F manifolds. the EBW units rv. two a)F tees. The radio tnqumcy eelpmm_ receives. de_lopJn8 • thrust of 3390 pounds (175. the block dips apert with the lower po_ion remain(n8 on the stage and the upper poytJon faJJJ_J • way with the rocket and fahina.elee_n8 high eueray pubes to the EBW detonators. INIraOd redundant system ¢ompomd o( two wlpnc. Jeperation Mocks and to the cJunlp (LSC) mmmblks. and thereby expJodin8 the bftdgewires. The S-IVB _ b • tidal chamM¢'l. C1)F amembllas. internal burn(n•.Rm_ PROPELLANT DISPERSION SYSTEM LH2 TMK LINEAR SHAPED I mA_ (LSC) UNITS o I LOX TANK LINEAR SHAPED CHARGE (LSC) FIRING UNITS THIRD PLANE SEPARATION SYSTEM DETONATOR BL CK BLOCK DUAL MDF TRAIN (SEPARATION SYSTEM) CDF ASSEMBLIES ULLAGE ROCKET (TYP 2 PLACES) S-IT RETROROCKETS (TYP 4 PLACrS) Fiaure 6-23 (Sheet I *_l" . The propellant wealds 8pp_ximateiy 58. and burns for 3.BW detonaton. 4ee_ and controls the PrCqpeB_ dJlpeelkm ¢ommunds. I_Jch uJlqe rocket has a sin•It Iprain.d • tier the Immch escape Iowey is jeltbmuM. At S-II • name shutdown. The Nrin8 sequence beljns with the Jnninl of the EBW fldn8 units by char•ins the storage cupactton to 2300 volts. {I ._) t. two F. Nven CDJ: ummblies. At jettison.IVll frf4_ • •mare propqptiun and to contaun the detonalkm of the connection. Tke 5-JVB PD5 may he _fe.8"7 seconds. one mfety and nJa8 (SdkA) devim (dund by both channels).:eive a trqaar _aml which dJscJuu'ges the s4ornje capKit.n.OOING BRIDGE COF ASSEMBLIES ULLAGE ROCKET SYSTEM EBW FIRING CDF MANIFOLDS EBW FIRING ULLAGE ROCKET JETTISON SYSTEM UNITS--_---_ J V I mR((Enw) UNITS F. two coded vehicle by the rant• ( I I SAFETY & MHING DEVICE EXPt. The olduemce Ilrain seamen! comlats of' two EBW fT_ mWts.000 feet. five point conflguratkm. polymefized solid propellant that Js case bonded in a 4135 steel case. and three Jmear •haled 0 F). . Should emeqlee_y teem_bIMJom become meunges am• tmmnJtUd to the _ mm:u88_.8 pounds. 70 dear•e• tennlnotlon of vehicle rdl_ dufi_ the _klVB rim en_nc fldn8 boom bum period i( _ 1Nd_icle flight path var:e_ beyond its p_taibed Iu_its or jf contJmtmtion ()f vehicle J_J_t creM4s a rarely hazard. The system is blstaJJed M comp4isJ_e with _ir Foyce ]E&stern Test Ran_ (AFETR) Reatdaflon 127-9 and AFETR Safely Manual 127-1.J.

12 .PETN CHARGE ASSEMBLIES THIRD PLANE SEPARATION SYSTEM F'llum 6-23 (Slicer 2 of 2) T 6-.LER BW INITIATOR SAFETY AND RIflING .BLY-----I ! C_F ASSEMBLY LOX TANK _ LSC ASS E4BLY PROPELLANT DISPERSION ELECTRICAl. EBW FIRING UNIT ASSEMBLY _ CDF L----'C]0"'-'" i e ASSE. FORS_ EBW FIRING EBW DETONATORS I FIRING SYSTEM DETONATOR BLOCK-'"-" _CDF ASSEMBLIES J ETONATOR BLOCK J TONATING FUSE ASSEMBLY ROCKETS F.F I.LAGE ROCKET ULLAGE ROCKET SYSTEM COF ASSEMBLY_ DEVICE LSC _----ELECTRICAL----_ INPUTS -'EBW FIRING UNIT EBW DETOt .LANGIBLE NUTS ULLAGE ROCKET JETTISON SYSTEM .IVl: ITJMgl HYBRID POWER OIVIOER INPUTS Egg FI RING CDF I_MIIFOLD CDF ASSEMBLIES SEPARATION CDF NANI FOLD RNI6E SNFIETY DECOOER _ SAFETY DECOOER CONTROI.

TA-508 _ o_ .rn_ll command am the EBW firin_ units and Initialel S-IVll Ilage engine cutoff. ULLAGE ROCKET JETTISON SYSTEM To reduce weight. r. DIFFERENCES propellant dispersion system (PDS) The teleewwy J_tem for flee ..[ eekWbs 5. One allmbly is u_d to cut a 47. PROPELLANT The S-IVB DISPERSION SYSTEM provides for The linemr duq_ clmrll_ for the LH 2 and Io_ tanks are KI)X Ioeded at I_tO lirailm pelt fool.'les 5. h the CDF assemblies to detonate and fracture the fran_ble nuts.T_SIFM f_nk e_! eme PCM/DDA$ link. The spring loaded jettison assemblies propel the spent rocket and fairing mscmblies away from the vehicle. The EBW I'irbill units are armed hy charging their storlie capacitors to 2300 volts about live .. Following ek_ricaHy MAJOR _ S-IVB engine cutoff mfed by Irmmd at orbit imerlmn.. devi_ k included in the PI)S 7 CDF initi. The detonation propaptcs throuf. dli:hiWliiS I11¢ IIoralii capacitors acr. The q_. Either detoemtor will detonate both (_)F amemblie_ (filmre 6-231 through the deto._h diameter hole Jn I1_ bollom of Ihe los lank. The I_mltinll explosive wave propul_atc_ thrmigh Ihe SAA deTice miells and through the remainder of the ordmlnce _ to lrvelr the LIt 2 arid _ tanks. two CDF as_:mblies.)sx the exploding bridlleWWes in the EBW tk_lomlton mnunt_d on the _ device.2-foo4 Ioeql I_k4 openinlp in the side of the LH limE.4.%4o309 torero! of o_r P_M/DOA$ link while Ike tek.\ 7 S4V| IrrA4Z _mfety officer. the PI)S r_ command. which is delayed In permit ¢harlilng of the t.iecmlds alter the S-IVB uliqle rockets have stopped firing. uses two EBW firing units.ator block. two F. one delonalm hh_ck.BW delomlloll. four frullible nuts.)nd command... A crmwver CDF amembly between CDF manifolds provides 0 redundancy and edded system reliabili'y. and two _pring-lemded jeUtson mmmblies (figure 6-23). Two zMembties _re u_ed to cut two 20. located on the S-IVB an dcirt. The .4-307 _ .HW firi_l units.$06 and . The system. meny _:t¢. A triller signal releases the high voltal_ pulse to explode the bridllewire in the EBW detonalor. the ulhqle rockets and their fairinlp are jettilemed ariel' J-2 engine start. This frees the bolts tl_t secure the ullage rocket and fairing assemblies to the aft skirt. _ "| .m of the S-IVB :tm_'s . A descrip4ion of the S&A dilclmk)n in _keclkm IV.qcws which cause the ullulle reekers to il_ite.T4VB sM_rJ ol v_k.

..... and control equipment which will guide the vehicle through its earth orbits and subsequently into its mission trajectory....... communications.... MODE AND SEQUENCE CONTROL .. MEASUREMENTS AND TELEMETRY ...... STRUCTURE ......... The IU contains the guidance.... and crew safety systems..... SA TURN TRA CKIN G INSTR UMENTA TION ... it contains telemetry...... tracking..................... EMERGENCY DETECTION SYSTEM ... IU/SLA INTERFACE .. This section the physical equipment of the Flight characteristics installed in the Manual contains a description of and functional operation for the IU............... FLIGHT PROGRAM ................ navigation....... GUIDANCE AND CONTROL ....... ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM ........... GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT ............ Figure 7-1 . RADIO COMMAND SYSTEM . ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ..... on top of the S-IVB stage (see figure 7-1).... along with their supporting electrical power and environmental control systems...... In addition.................. ..... NAVIGATION.........................................SECTION VII TABLE OFCONTENTS 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-10 7-13 7-13 7-20 7-21 7-25 7-27 7-27 7-28 7-29 INTRODUCTION The Instrument Unit (IU) is a cylindrical structure installed INTRODUCTION ....................

.ll Ii m in .I r" "6 i = Ill Ill II I- ..

and it employs demineralized water and the principle of sublimation to effect the cooling. The accumulators serve as dampers to absorb pressure fluctuations and thermal expansion. operation of backed by low pressure GN 2. sampling equipment forward interstage area vapors. gas bearing heat exchanger. The bolts are inserted through the honeycomb core. There are flexible diaphragms in each During accumulator. through a temperature sensor to an orifice assembly. which are joined by splice plates into an integral structure. as well as an equipment/personnel access door. Tile gas-bearing supply system which furnishes to the ST-124-M3 inertial platform gas bearings.INSTRUMENT UNIT STRUCTURE ! . Cross section "A" of figure 7-3 shows equipment mounting pads bolted and bonded to the honeycomb structure. coolant is the TCS. and still be removable at any time prior to flight. The orifice assembly diverts part of the coolant to the cold plates in the S-IVB stage and part to the cold plates. the methanol-water circulated through a closed loop by electrically driven. Mounting the electrical/electronic equipment around the inner circumference of the IU leaves the center of the unit open to accommodate the convex upper the S-IVB stage and the landing gear of (LM). The hazardous which monitors for the presence gas detection the IU/S-IVB of hazardous 4. This method is used when equipment is not mounted on thermal conditioning cold plates. Each cold plate contains tapped bolt holes in a grid pattern which provides flexibility of component mounting. is ambient 7-2 . methanol-water solution as the heat exchanging medium. the flight control computer segment. which to the The preflight purging supply of temperature air/GN 2 in the IU/S-IVB system which maintains a and pressure regulated equipment area. The bolts go through the honeycomb core with the bolt heads protruding through the outer surface. The manifold. Each cold plate is capable of dissipating at least 420 watts. and also as reservoirs to replace lost or expended fluids. in turn. The basic IU structure is a short cylinder fabricated of an aluminum alloy honeycomb sandwich material (see figure 7-2). The three segments are the access door segment. One. for the IU equipment The ECS is composed The thermal conditioning system (TCS) maintains a circulating coolant temperature electronic equipment of 59 (_+ 1) degrees F. there are up to sixteen in each. During Figure %2 inactive the due preflight to the mode. GN 2 3. circulating. The access door segment has an umbilical door. are bolted on the honeycomb structure. at the upper and Thermal conditioning panels. 2. LVDC/LVDA and flight control computer in the IU. The cooling fluid circulated through the TCS is a mixture of _. acoustical insulation. The mixture. Cross section"B" shows a thermal conditioning cold plate mounting panel bolted to brackets which. The flow is from the heat exchanger past the accumulator. The access door has the requirement to carry flight loads. The structure is fabricated from three honeycomb sandwich segments of equal length. inertial platform. The cylinder is manufactured in three 120 degree segments (figure 7-4). and both accumulators are manually t'flled during the prelaunch preparations. The top and bottom edges are made from extruded aluminum channels bonded to the honeycomb sandwich. are located in both the IU and S-IVB stage. A functional coolant loop flow diagram is shown is the methanol-water in figure 7-5. tank bulkhead of the Lunar Module THERMAL CONDITIONING SYSTEM Figure installed 7-4 shows in the IU. also called cold plates. 60% methanol and 40% demineralized water. Two main heat exchangers are employed in the system. Return flow is through a modulating flow control assembly which regulates the amount of coolant flowing into the heat exchangers or around them.s used during the preflight mode and employs a GSE supplied. Operation of this valve is based on fluid temperature. and the ST-124-M3 segment. high the sublimator pressure heat (one exchanger atmosphere). redundant pumps. Cross section "C" shows the cable tray supports which are potted in the honeycomb core lower edges of the structure. and the bolt ends and nuts protrude through the outside surface. through the pumps. The other is the flight mode unit. bolted to inserts. plumbing.and thermal conductivity properties. Attached to the inner surface of the cylinder are cold plates which serve both as mounting structure and thermal conditioning units for the electrical/electronic equipment. the relative locations of all equipment ENVIRONMENTAL The environmental CONTROL control SYSTEM system (ECS) maintains an 6"_" _ acceptable operating during preflight and of the following: environment flight operations.. This type of construction was selected for its high strength-to-weight ratio. by weight.

.°.'_"i INNER 7075-T6SKIN WER MOUNT ING RING S-IVB INTERFA_. 0..125 IN..I h HORIZONTAL / d_. . ° t_ . p.l II_RI_II_ u1mrlr 0 CABLE TRAY EQUIPMENT MOUNTING PADS L m ( COLD PLATE m SLA INTERFACE II! f -T- F _O_I_ING RING _2 _[4---- 0.:::: ... m. :._ j" _--.i TYPICAL SECl IOtIAL VIEW ALUM 0.95 IN.. ].L TYPICAL SPLICE ATTACHMENT PLATE "" It4.H FULLWALL THICKNESS lCl)_ DENSITY 36 IN.020 ALUM AkLOY _. _.030 7075-T6 OUTER SKIN 0.25 ttgure 7-. .--.

_E.-. under control of the IU pneumttc comoie. the ST424-M3 stable platform is shut down to preclude damage to the ps heering. Dwin| fuelins. it The vapor is vented ice I)luBs m formed Thus.N 2 through Ol_minl_ in the _ During imeflight phases. A solenoid valve controls the flow int. As the heat flow decreases. in the pores.tad | 8elmokJ vdvo which blocks th. tim ambient temperature and IneSsore outside the p_rom platee are quite low. DOOR II PCM/CCS ANTENNA VHF TLM ANTENNA Figure 7-4 (Sheet I of 5) 7. cubic inch sphere in the IU. Spent gas is then vented into the IU. This provides for a con_ant pressure across the ps bearing. end a pressure transducer indicates to tlt. f. The sphere is filled by applying high pressure GI% through the umbilical. overboard. the water freeee8 when it meets the low tempentture of the space mviroument.'r where its temperature is stabilized. Pressure at the gas beefing is sampled and applied. PREFLIGHT The prefltl_ AIR/GN 2 PURGE ih'/GN 2 perle SYSTEM to 5 i_a. The sphere is filled by applying high premme GN 2 through the umbilical._ flow. This heat is tramfen'ed within the 8ublimator to the demineralized water. the I m/llem (_ee filtm_ 7-7) conqists _erflgePtJlaleraY. Dudes the period between GSE disconnect and mblJmator activation. From the main regulator. The mblimatar dement is a porous plate. ventilatb_ 8it J. GAS BEARING SUPPLY Gemom nttrol_. the temperature in the methanokwater solution rises. the sublimator methanol-watn and causes the ice in the pores to sublime.000 psil. demealin| the water flow. is a seif-re_lating system. ' 19 SEGMENT ASSEMBLY SPLICE CCS & PCM DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA I3 ACCESS DOOR "C" III SPLICE "B' CONTROL COMPUTER SEGMENT ASSEMBLY SPLICE "A" CCS REC ANTENNA FIN A "FIN C-BAND ANTENNA ! 8 ACCESS DOOR SEGMENT ASSEMBLY UMSILI_M._r the ST424-M3 stable platform.4 L:. f_. . As the water temperature rises. GN 2 for the water accumulators is stored in a 16S _ Imllr Jgchlc_ the pmmunat the a cc.000 _ (see figmre 7-5). as a control pressure to the regulator.000 psig to 15 psia. of The lle'Jdbte ducting distributes located above the IU supplied. at a pressure of 3. which reduces the 3. and mob tim closed loop fluid. if the pressure falls below 1. The regulator reduces the sphere pressure to a level suitable for _ bearing lubrication.amu/Mor differentfd of J0 pub beth8 vented Jnm the IU.sted until approximately 180 seconds sftw Immdt.' GSE when the sphere is pressurized..a_hed. is stored Jn a two cubic foot sphere in the IU. mm The profUjht hat excJumf_r is operated from the G.:. _/bb _j 180 after Iiftoff. and the resedfln8 ice blocks the pores (see figure 7-6). The output of the sphere is applied to zhe accumulators through a fdter and a pressure regulator. the rmiduM cooling in the system la to preclude equipment overheating. Water flows readily into the porous plates and attempts to flow through the pores. at a pressure of 3. w|t_. A Jow premme switch monitors the sphere and.) the sphere. inert GN 2 i_ to prevent a_tinn of a hezerdous and corrodve armor.000 pstg. Output of the sphere is tlmmgh a filter and a premure regulator. Howovw. tree. the water becomes solenoid and wcoods the sublimator heat exchenpr active. the I_ flows through a heat exchanl_. As heat is lenerated by equipment. then through another fdter and on to the lm hearing. filtered air or (. payload system ground temperalme and I_i_ure m/related.S REC ANTENNA FIN C-BAND ANTENNA IV VHF TLM ANTENNA FIN : 20 . Since the mblinmtar is not actJ. An orifice regulator PCH/CCS ANTENNA Ct.

COND & MOUNTING PANEL (TYP) COAXIAL SWITCH (S_-S09) • • • ° ..mm tmllr $ FLEX TUBING ASSEMBLY AUXILIARY (ENVI RONHENTAL POWERI CONTROLDUCTS) RACK :USrS OER CABLE CCS POMER AMPLIFIER • • ° THERPW.. 24 $6 VOLT POllER SUI_Y COAXIAL SU1TC_ ELECTRONIC CONTROL ASSEMBLY POWER D! STRIBUTOR RACK SELECTOR (SA-So7MD SA-SOe) POSITION I DIO ER ACCUMULATOR ASSF.HBLY 3 I)40 BATTERY COAXIAL. o . . SWIT_ RF OUIeIY LOAD EMETRY POMERDIVIDER 4_ Figure7-4 (Sheet 2 _)I:5 ) . . • ..

ATOR PUMP ASSEMBLY CUBIC INCH SPHERE . ._rrRLflWEPfI' . PLATE l i I POWER DISTRIRUTOR MUX-2/O i" I 10 Pl RF ASSEMBLY CALIBRATION POWER AND CONTROL ASSEMBLY TELEMETRY DIRECTIO_tAL COUPLER TELEMETRY RF COUPLER TELEMETRY CALIBRATION ASSEMBLY Figure 7-4 (.F t. GN & _ENT VALVE ACCUHIA.ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRNISDUCER (2 PLACES) PlE_SlgltE SMITCH MANUAL BALL SHUTOFF VALVE MOOULATING FLOWCONTROL VALVE MEASURING RA( MEASURING DISTRIBUTOR REMOTE DIGITAL MULTIPLEXER MODEL 410 POSITION II _V SHUTOFF ACCESS DOOR 8 QUICK DISCONNECT COUPLING EXCHANGER ASSEMBLY UMBILICAL._hcct-_ ol _) 74.

. I .'1_ ugr/ ....../ RF ASSEMBLY EDS DIST PCM/ODAS TELEMETRY ASSEMBLY C-BAND TRANSPONDER NO 2 13 14 GAS TEMP SENSING PROBE MASTER MEASURING VOLTAGE SUPPLY F1 TELEI_TRV ASSEMBLY ) MEASUR RACK POSITION III I SIGNAL PROCESSOR MEASURI NG RACK 15 16 CCS POWER DIVIDERS PCMICIU MODEL 501 FLIGHT CONTROL COMPUTER CONTROL EDS RATE GYROS 17 l'igur_" 74 (SheL'l 4 _I" ... ! .':... -I iNg'irgl. ) =.

Ilk imrlmm um'r :I ST-124-M3---'_ ELECTRONIC ASSEHBLY DISTRIBUTOR GAS TEHP---_ SENSING PROBE REMOTE DIGITAL MULTIPLEXER MODEL410 VEHICLE DATA JEMPTER 20 ACCE SIGNAL CONDITIONER PLATFORM AC POWER SUPPLY VEHICLE DI61TAL CO_UTER GAS BEARING SOLENOID VALVE -_ _ GAS BEARING PRESSURE REGULATOR POSITION IV I _ELEROHETER ASSEHBLY GAS BEARING HEAT EXCHANGER C-BAND TRANSPONDER NO 1 21 ST-124-M3 PLATFORM ASSEMBLY GN2 1000 PSI SW ITCH GN2 BEARING SUPPLY (2 CU FT ) 11 Figure ?-4 (._of 5) It ._heet .

=---wPLATES VAPOR FACILITIES AVAILABLE FOR 16 COLD (REMOVED PRIOR TO FLIGHT) "ii_CALIBRATE .. FACILITIES AVAILABLE 16 COLD GAS BEARING FOR HEAT EXCHANGER COOLANT TEMPERATURE iHT ROL i/l'E P _ FILTER C llllll_llll REDUNDANT COOLANT PUMPS METHANOL-WATER ACCUMULATOR T EXPANSION CHAMBER FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE FILTER B LOW PRESSURE SWITCH J 2 FT 3 SPHERE GN2 SOLENOID VALVE FIL_ER A A I GSE SUPPLZ COOLAI OUT I I VAPOR J PREFLIGHT HEAT EXCHANGER GN2 STORAGE BLEEDER ASSEMBLY FLIGHT HEAT EXCHANGER (SUBLIMATOR) WATER SOLENOID VALVE C FILL PORT VEN --T I I UMBILICAL WATER ACCUMULATOR BYPASS ELECTRONIC CONTROLLER ASSEMBLY MODULATING FLOW CONTROL VALVE . 3 SPHERES • I I I I CALIBRATE GN2 SUPPLy & .llll.[_I_ VENT i GN 2 STORAGE I EMERGENCY ___ LEGEND INSTRUMENT UNIT _ RETURN DISCONNECT FLOW _ _.ll_!lll (GN2) .. s.... ."UT-.LLTLII J ORIFICE ASSEMBLY Illllllll SUPPLY ORIFICE I I..__°FZ _E I _ S-IVB STAGE ' III l_" SUPPLY J-')f|llllllllllllJJlllllllllllllllll METHANOL-WATER METHANOL-WATER GASEOUS WATER I _ NITROGEN AND WATER LINE COOLANT (GSE SUPPLIED) j L RETURN - QUICK (TYP) .----mFLEXIBLE MEMBRANE GN2 VENT ORIFICE REGULATOR FIRST STAGE PRESSURE REGULATOR 165 IN.

These batteries are physically to a separate are connected the electrical The hazardous gas detection system is used to monitor for the presence of hazardous gases in the IU and S-IVB stage forward compartment during vehicle fueling. The hazardous gas detection sampling equipment consists of four tubes which are open ended between panels 1 and 2. CONVERTERS power The IU electrical power systems contain a 56-volt supply and a 5-volt measuring voltage supply. The monitoring operation is continuous from the start of vehicle fueling to umbilical disconnect at liftoff. The battery POWER characteristics are listed in figure 7-9. 56-Volt The Power Supply power supply furnishes the power Primary flight power for the IU equipment is supplied by silver-zinc batteries at a nominal voltage level of 28 (+_ 2) vdc. it is developed by solid state dc to ac inverters. Flight components to these busses in such a manner as to distribute load evenly between the batteries. primary power is supplied by the GSE.INSTRUMENTUNIT HAZARDOUS / GAS DETECTION during prelaunch operations. It is basically adc to dc converter that uses a magnetic amplifier as a control unit. and monitors the presence of hazardous gases. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (GSE) extracts the samples for and electrically identical. Power distribution within which the IU is accomplished are. essentially. junction through power distributors boxes and switching circuits. Where ac power is required within the IU. The tubes are connected to a quick disconect coupling on a single tube (see figure 7-8). The low temperature performance of the silver-zinc batteries is also substantially better than the others. It converts the unregulated 28 vdc from the batteries to a regulated 56 vdc. but each is connected bus in a power distributor. An attractive feature of the silver-zinc batteries is their high efficiency. The 56-volt power supply is connected to the platform electronic assembly through the power and control distributors. The hazardous gas detection equipment samples through the four tubes. 7 and 8. Their ampere-hour rating is about four times as great as that of a lead-acid or nickle-cadmium battery of the same weight. 13 and 14. 56-volt required by BATT E R I ES Silver-zinc primary flight batteries are installed in the IU the ST-12_M3 platform electronic assembly and the accelerometer signal conditioner. PASSAGE WATER ICE VAPOR SURFACE TENSION [] WATER PASSAGE POROUS PLATE Figure 7-6 7-10 . and 19 and 20. During prelaunch operations.

Figure Control The Distributor distributor 7-9 control provides distribution of 28-volt power to small current loads. and as a reference voltage for calibration of certain telemetry channels. and distributes 56 vdc from the 56-volt power supply to the ST-124-M3 inertial platform assembly. and various signal and control lines. The switching function transfers certain measurements to channels which had been allotted to expended channels functions. These measurements are obtained from instrumentation transducers. the measuring distributor can change the selection of measurements monitored by the telemetry system. DISTRIBUTORS The distribution following: system within the IU is comprised of the inflight 56-volt Type Material Cells Dry Alkaline 20 (with 18 or 19 to reduce voltage 1.005) vdc for use throughout the IU measuring system. 7-11 . and to direct them to their proper telemetry channels. FLARED TUBE-- Figure 7-7 Figure 7-8 5-Volt Measuring Voltage Supply IU BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS charge silver-zinc taps for selecting cells if required high voltage) cell (KOH) in The 5-volt measuring voltage supply converts unregulated 28 vdc to a closely regulated 5 (+ . requested by the launch vehicle data adapter through the switch selector.5 per Nominal Electrolyte Potassium hydroxide demineralized water voltage current +28 +2 vdc 1 Measuring distributor 1 Control distributor 1 Emergency Detection 1 Power distributor 2 Auxiliary Measuring The power System (EDS) distributor Output Output distributors. The measuring distributor also distributes the output of the 5-volt measuring voltage supply throughout the measuring system. functional components. and EDS functions. Through switching capabilities. control. The control distributor provides power and signal switching during prelaunch checkout for testing various guidance.INSTRUMENT UNIT ) CAP PANEL ® CROSS. This regulated voltage is used primarily as excitation for measurement sensors (transducers). 35 amperes for a I0 hour load period (if used within 120 hours of activation) 165 pounds each Distributor Gross weight function of the measuring distributor is to primary collect all measurements that are transmitted by the IU telemetry system. it is basically adc to dc converter. these would be wasted for the remainder of the flight. Like the supply. If it were not for this switching.

through one of the other distributors. distributor connects the IU component power siBMI return lines to the IU single point Wound umbilical mpply return hue. The flight components are connected to the busses in such a manner as to distribute the load evenly across the batteries. aM SIC I ImmnMwDllrlbutor The power dhttdbutor prmides prtmry distrJbutkm for aft 28-volt power required by IU components.. Rday_ Jn the amdlbury power dMdbuten imm_t. 8o thlit cu_snl k_de on ench o_ the bMterk_ may be eq_ndy dialltmm_d. The prom. Auxiliary Two Power Distributors power distributors supply 28 vdc power to auxiliary Durinl prelaunch operations. Equipment _:-. ifldirectly. eq_t ho_es. All EI_ _ from tM LV am routed to the Iolk cWcuits in the EDS distributor.UToR ] _] r j p MEASURING SYSTEm Lp-_c_ I r PUt PS ] EC_" .. Thee8 relbys Ire cmNre4Jed by the F.& TYPICALIU POWER DISTRIBUTION J BATTERY ] POKIER DISTRIBUTOR _.STRIB. Each battery is connected to a separate bus in the distributor. EDS dlpmls from are routed beck tl_roulh the IU EDS beinS rant to the S-IVB. grounded. This wmtdes for a _ point I_und. Alto. Infltliht 28-volt tmttery power. The power n_am_. the IU and GSE COM busses are referenced to emlh 8round.olt power.xl beck to the COM bus _ the power dbtdbutor. Nil IU imundiq b mremu:ed to the outer dr_ of the LY. To ensure the earth wound reference until 8fter all umbilkaJs are ejected. and not of the shield would he one end Silver-zinc batteries supply the inflight 28wdc power. or prelannch ESE4upplied 28.. These return lines are to the common hue in the power distributor. is distributed by the power distributor. system is Irounded by mum uir luwdwWes routed the power dis_hutor COM bus to a I_undins stud |ttlched to the LV ddn. two smlde-wire groundinl cables 8re oonnected to the IU bek_ the umbilical plates..mtmlmlr _. S-II.] _POUER _Y POWER I D.=s an grounded contact with cold Is41_esor _ Ire common to the LV dkht woanded to a COM bus in one of where lddelded cables run between tlu_ush t dism'lbutor..TOR 1 _STRIBUTOR L OlST . However.q.f SUPPLIES POWFR I ECS I I EDS ELECTRONICS) I D[STRIBUTOR DISTRIBUTOR MEASURING RACK ' LE TRV I FLIG"' CONTROL COMPUTER Ftlure 7-10 7-12 . See figure ?-I0 for a typical power distribution Mock dialpmm.lT gruel1 (_n'lmt _ Bolh auxiliary Imqvet' dtJUibuto_z receive 28 vd¢ f_m each of IIw _ _ in the pow_ d_irJbu_or.:-. EI)S output dqlNIs _eom_rnft and the qm_cmft cimdts before from IhRe _ cbcults are then fed to the to the IU tdemetry. Theme m the find conductan to be disconnected from tl_ IU. only by din_t metal-to-me_al i_tl_nl surfaces which Moe_ cM_linl _lds are the db_Jbutm.qE and hy the mJt_ JdecU_. An COM _ _ the vsurk_s other dtstflbutm m . . power ONIOFF conm)i for IU compommis beqik _ the _ checkowt and while in fUSht. IU GROUNDING Ernerlm_V Deteetl0n Symm Dietrltxna The ED8 di_itmt_ prmrides the only dectrical link between the qpwoauft and the LV.ment The power return and and to the connected directly or distributor aho provides paths for command and dlmels between the ES_ and IU components.

are In the combined to obtain LVDC. This comparison is performed in the LVDC. This inhibiting is required prior to normal S-IC engine cutoff and other normal LV sequencing. these attitude correction signals are combined with signals from control sensors to generate the control commands for the engine actuators. For alftitude control. either automatically and runs to completion. The IU command capability of changing or the LVDC. In the S-IC and S-ll. using a space stabilized platform for acceleration and attitude measurements. design is a coordinated effort of crew safety personnel several NASA centers. The three-gimbal stabilized platform (ST-124-M3) provides a space-fixed coordinate reference frame for attitude control and for navigation (acceleration) accelerometers. "control" are the used terms "navigation. velocity) can be updated data transmission from system inserting provides information the the IU command system by stations. The EDS senses initial development could cause vehicle failure. an auxiliary propulsion system (APS) is used for roll control during powered flight. all located in various places on the flight vehicle. acceleration The LVDA is the input/output performs the necessary processing signals acceptable to the LVDC. mounted of the platform. A launch vehicle digital computer (LVDC) is used to solve guidance equations and a flight control computer (analog) is used for the flight control functions. device for the LVDC. the maneuvers required to achieve the desired end conditions are determined by the LVDC. Control of the launch vehicle can be divided into attitude control and discrete control functions. There are nine EDS rate gyros installed in the IU. The accelerometer through the launch vehicle data LVDC. if an angular-overrate or two-engine-out condition arises. t 7-13 . EDS controls and abort modes and limits. The emergency situations vehicle is imminent. If.In The EDS is one element of several crew safety systems. This output energizes relays in the EDS distributor which allows multiple engine shutdown. The result is the required thrust direction (guidance Command) and the time of engine cutoff. enough.g. While the automatic abort capability is inhibited. is utilized. measure resulting from vehicle measurements are sent measurements. Three integrating on the gyro-stabilized inner gimbal the three components of velocity propulsion." to these "guidance. however. the four outboard engines are gimbaled to control roll. An all inertial system. Since the S-IVB stage has only one engine. relay and diode logic circuitry. it is irrevocable maneuver by provided to the flight crew. ! device to emergency contains sequence. The EDS distributor furnish signals and serves as a junction box and switching panels It with exist. initiated. and yaw. roll. electronic timers and display equipment. Section III includes launch vehicle monitoring and control. See Section III for a more complete discussion of emergency detection and procedures. Only that . the instantaneous attitude of the vehicle is compared with the desired vehicle attitude (computed according to the guidance scheme). If breakup of the an automatic abort sequence is initiated. Three gyros monitor each of the three axes (pitch.part of the EDS equipment located in the IU will be discussed here. Attitude correction signals are derived from the difference between the existing attitude angles (platform gimbal angles) and the desired attitude angles. The EDS is comprised of sensing elements. Guidance is the computation of maneuvers achieve the desired flight path. The instantaneous position and velocity of the vehicle are used as inputs. the flight crew must initiate a manual abort. which produces an output 30 seconds later. In the flight control computer. such as signal processing and switching circuitry. or evaluate it of EDS EDS from the following and discussions. Control controlling is the execution of the guidance necessary to the emergency condition is developing slowly is of such a nature that the flight crew can and take action." definitions: according conditions which reacts to these Navigation is the determination of the flight vehicle's present position and velocity from measurements made on board the vehicle. with velocity the the and adapter (LVDA) to the accelerometer measurements computed gravitational position of the vehicle. Inhibiting of automatic abort circuitry is also provided by the LV flight sequencing circuits through the IU switch selector. guidance equipment located in the IU. also abort Consider the block diagram of the overall Saturn V guidance and control subsystem shown in figure 7-11. as well as receiving inputs from them. There spacecraft conditions display if the emergency diode logic for the relay automatic is an electronic timer which is activated at liftoff. The control signal processor provides power to the nine EDS rate gyros. Guidance information stored through ground general into in the LVDC (e. the proper hardware. in either of two ways. position. This function is inhibited during the first 30 seconds of launch. The required thrust direction is obtained by gimbaling the engines in the propelling stage to change the thrust direction of the vehicle. only visual indications are Once an abort sequence has been or manually. These inputs are processed and sent to the EDS distributor and to the flight control computer. The into Saturn earth GUIDANCE AND CONTROL its launch pad and control V launch vehicle is guided from orbit by navigation. The APS provides complete attitude control during coast flight of the S-IVB/IU/spacecraft. pitch. and yaw) thus providing triple redundancy. It of signals to make these iJ .. NAVIGATION. and According to the guidance scheme (programmed into the computer).

After the desired attitude has been determined by the "best path" program. Guidance computations are performed within the LVDC by programmed guidance equations. Velocity is the integral of acceleration. desired end conditions of the flight (e. and mechanically integrate them into velocity.) where: ' Orbital Flight During orbital coast flight. and the platform velocities are algebraically summed together. × is the desired attitude is the vehicle attitude is the attitude error command 7-14 . Platform integrating accelerometers sense acceleration components. the navigational program continually computes the vehicle position. This vehicle velocity is integrated by the LVDC to determine vehicle position.SYSTEM-BLOCK. position is obtained by integrating acceleration twice. GUIDANCE &-CONTROL. velocity. in the through LVDC can be the command The basic navigation scheme is shown in figure 7-12. These computations establish a local vertical which is used as a reference for attitude control. Within the LVDC. Gimbal resolvers supply platform position in analog form to the LVDA. inserting the spacecraft into the desired trajectory). LVDA TO ENGINES ATTITUDE CORRECTION COMMAND _ CONTROL COMPUTERICOMMAND" S-II ENGINE STAGE ACTUATORS ___ STABILIZED PLATFORM -'I I I l SENSORS CONTROL I ___ S-IVB ENGINE STAGE ACTUATORS ___S-IVB AUXILIARY PROPULSION SYSTEM_ -_ TO NOZZLES I I ACCELEROMETERS INTEGRATING I 'l i I d S-IC SWITCH STAGE SELECTOR ___ _S-II FLIGHT SEQUENCE STAGE . and position is the integral of velocity._. An analog-to-digital converter in the LVDA converts the signal to the digital format required by the LVDC.SWITCH SELECTOR_ -_ TO STAGE CIRCUITRY S-IVB SWITCH STAGE SELECTOR] - T RECEIVER & I IU COMMAND DECODER UP-DATING INFORMATION NAVI GATION Powered Flight SCHEME COMMANDS SWITCH SELECTOR Figure 7-11 navigation and guidance information updated by digital data transmission and communications system. the guidance computations might be reduced into the following equation: X -¢ = q/(See figure 7-13. initial velocity imparted by the spinning earth. In orbit._.g. Therefore. and acceleration from equations of motion which are based on vehicle conditions at the time of orbital insertion. which use navigation data and mission requirements as their inputs..INSTRUMENT UNIT NAVIGATION. These computations are actually a logical progression of computed formulas which have a guidance command as their solution. The attitude of the vehicle roll axis will be maintained at 90 degrees with respect to the local vertical. GUIDANCE COMPUTATIONS The guidance by computing function of the the necessary launch flight vehicle is accomplished maneuvers to meet the Acceleration can be defined as the rate-of-change (derivative) of velocity... The LVDA provides signal conditioning. gravitational velocity. Velocity is the rate-of-change of position ¢distance).DIAGRAM LVDC ATTITUDE ANGLES ATTITUDE CONTROL SIGNAL FROM SPACECRAFT ___S-IC ENGINE STAGE ACTUATORS 9: VELOCITY. Additional navigational computations are used in maintaining vehicle attitude during orbit.

yaw. from the I. (analog) This are performed computer is also within the the control central switching point for command signals. The control siL_lal processor compares tile output signals I'n_m tile triple redtuldant gyros_ and selects one eoch of the pitch.N no/lies. roll control by tile AI'.7 lm ST-124-K) LVDA ATTITUDE LVDC FRAME_ RESOLpVERs _LOCI_ GUIOANCE PROGRAM _'_[INTEGRATION _lP Figure 7-12 GUIDANCEEQUATION i i I_ x FOUND A.15). appropriate attitude control devices. ave then combined Ihe various control sen_)rs.S (see figure of the $-IVR 7._ I)S rale I_'ro output is tile comnland and AI). B. TIHE TILT* (. These commands.:ontrol rate gyl monitorm_ _illnal pr. and roll signals for the flight control computer The control _ignal pr(_. four outboard engines of the final computations computer. or the single engine of the S-IVB stalle.VIX'/LVI)A cuida'nce system. required l_) the flight control computer. Roll attitude control on the S-IVB stare cannot. for the [. the four outboard S-II stare. FI)S signals also originate _ithin accounting Ii. * TERHS DEFINED IN SUBSEQUENT PARAGRAPHS .'essor %uppik. The signal to the various enlpne anti Ill)AS Ill(" . From this signals are routed to their associated _ctive stales.FLIGHT PROGRAM . I)S p_:rlion of the conlrol-I . which are actually atilt. The_e engines are lzimhaled by hydraulic actuators. Ill. CONTROL Control The SYSTEM Signal COMPONENTS point. of course.gdIDANCE* m _l ! -_ HITH DUAL SPEED ON ST-124-M3 RESOLVERS / ITERATIVE I / __ J 1 25 TIHES/SEC I BY GUIDANCE . the and to the attitude is achieved by gimbalin8 the of the S-IC staRe.POWERED FLIGHT Figure CONTROL The control SUBSYSTEM ml_ystem (figure 7-14) is designed to control 7-13 The flight and maintain vehicle attitude by commands used to control the engines Vehicle enBines forming the steering of the active stage.s the controI. During will be lined Procesmr processor demodulates the ac sqmals t'ronl control signal tile coast to control 'llle ccmtrol period or tile mission. be controlled with stake a single enKine. tile S-IVI! APS tile vehicle attitude ill all . system accepts guidance computations guidance the controI-EI)S rate gyros into dc analog signals. is accomplished Therefore.ces_r.EI)S rate gyro package with the necessary control and reference voltuges.three axes.ilne.de with measured dala I'rom resultant actuators error signals.

lnd funclh)ns. but is limited to :1:45 degrees iii about its Z ax_ (v¢_.lll(_rlll. and Z I .ervo electrouics which terminate in the gimlml pivot set_otorque motors. YI. the shaft position (with respect to a zero reference) is proportional to velocity. tingle.Ire . Durinl_ prelaunch.r change rotes (@')into APS thnlster nozzle and/or engine actttalot positioning commands..lnclioll _. Platform Electronic Assembly l'he S'I'-124-M3 the electronics.nals to the APS thruster outputs . II ! Figure 7-14 Ihe flight control computer is an analog computer which converts attitude correction commands (_0) and anguh'. oriented along the inertial coordinates X I .ititms the fiigilt control signals to the engine sig.5 arc seconds. Command ('ommand Telemetry oper. Input I. signals to tile flight control computer include: (@) from the Attitude correction commands tVD('/LVI)A or spacecraft 2. Ve_icle attitude is measured with re _ect to the inerlial platform. via the control signal processor. the LVI)(' bcgius navigation. gyroscopic accclcrometers. 2. The _ generator.nsmitted to the ground equipment alignment amplifier. The pendulum output is amplified in the platform. the ST-124-M3 platform is held aligned to W the local vertical by a set of gas hearing leveling pendulums.llcd tll lilt' .'_) CqmtaHl_ !()czltetl It1 th d l)l. rote Since one of the inputs to the flight contr.degree-of-freedom gyro.PROCESSOR . The rotation of the measuring head is a measure of acceleration along the input axis of the accelerometer. Since acceleration causes the accelerometef shaft to be displaced as a function of time.dlorHI Switchin l.llSl_.. which nozzles (_c) internal monitor required for the inertial ginibal _tnd tht" . ] The limbal configuration of the .nit a_scmh!_ 7-16 t_ .ict'cIt. using velocity accumulations derived frtml Ihv S'I'-124-M3 inertial platform. See figure 7-16.INITRUMIENTIUNrlr ST-124-M3 Imwliai Pllfform A_m_bly INSTRUMENT UNIT RATE GYROS CONTROL-EDS ' iCONTROL SIGNAL l _-=. Angular change rates (¢') from the controI-EDS gyro package. integrating. The azimuth alignment is accompdshed by means of a theodolite on the ground and two prisms on the platform. . : ae alignment amplifier provides a signal to the torque drive amplifier. generates dectrieal _ Woportional to torque dis_rbanceL These dgnals ale trmmnitted throulh the .¢IT-124-M3 often unlimited freedom about the X & Y axe. l"hlree sinll_-freedom gyro_copen have their input axes altglzed along an olll_al inertial coordinatlm system: X I . an excessive attitude correction command from the LVDC is limited within the flight control computer to protect the vehicle structure. The theodolite maintains the azimuth orientation of the movable prism. YI. electronics svslenl power :lnd checkout l'l. Each accelerometer measuring head contains a pendulous. and Z I of the inertial gimbal. I'-I 24-M3 phltlt_nn electra. wLich Is fixed to the output axis of each gym. and the accelerometer is referred to as an integrating accelerometer. 3. and then to the platform gyro torque generator.". 1i)r c()nlrt)lling pI. The vertical alignment system levels the platlorm to an accuracy of:J:2. hw._cle yaw at launch). platform electronic other than those assembly IPI' .)i computer is from tile controI-EDS rate gyros. and programs the inner gimb:ll to that azimuth.lt_lll¢lt'l stabilization. The outputs of these angle encoders are converted into a digital count in the LVDA. the platform is relea_d to maintain an inertial reference initiated at the launch point. one fixed and one servo driven. The laying system has an accuracy of i5 arc seconds. The sezvo loops maintain the inner gimbal rotationaily S-IVB ] ACTUATORS fbted in inertial spece LVDC/LVDA_--_ FLIGHT CONTROL COMPUTER _- L F F i I S-IVB STAGE IAUXILIARY / IPROPULSION_I-----d ISYSTEM S-It STAGE mci ACTUATORS IS-It S-IC STAGE ] c I Flight Control Computer ACTUATORS } The inner gimbal has three. using dual speed (32:!) resolvers located at the gimhal pivot points. At this time. and the computer computes a mission azimuth. computer acluators include: (I[_) Out put signals. from I. At approximately liftoff minus seventeen seconds. and then tw . The glmtml m/ztem allows the inertial glm_l rotational freedom. pendulous.

DIRECTIONS AND POLARITIES SHOWNARE TYPICAL FOR ALL STAGES. S-IVB ATTITUDE CONTROL NOZZLES_ STAGE !S-IC III & S-II POLARITY TABLE ACTOATORMOVEMENT _ RET EXT EXT RET RET EXT! EXT RET EXT RET EXT EXT RET EXT S-IC NO. 5. +# INDICATES ENGINE DEFLECTION REQUIRED TO CORRECT FOR POSITIVE VEHICLE MOVEMENT CG = CENTER OF GRAVITY F = NOZZLES ON EXT = ACTUATOR EXTENDED RET = ACTUATOR RETRACTED = THRUST VECTORANGULAR DEFLECTION & S-II ACTUATOR LAYOUTS SC/LV COORDINATE RELATIONSHIPS POS I POS II POS III POS IV SC LV -Z +Z +Y +Z -Y -Y -Z +Y PAYLOP INSTRUMENT 4. 3. ENGINE ACTUATOR LAYOUTS SHOWN AS VIEWED FROMAFT END OF VEHICLE. ALL SIGNAL ARROWSINDICATE POSITIVE VEHICLE MOVEMENTS. I-Y 1-P ENGINE I iV NO. 2. ACTUATOR 1-Y 1-P 2-Y 2-P 3-Y 3-P 4_Y 4-P +_y! +_ P RET RET \ YAWOR Z AXI S I S-IVB ACTUATOR NO. 6. POLARITY TABLE SIGNAL & ACTION EXT RET F PITCH AXIS III OR Y Ip Ill III II III III p IV F F F I IC STAGE I IV i CONDITIONS DURING COAST IV I p III IIIii Ill Ill p IV F F Figure 7-15 7-17 ._ NOTES: I.INSTRUMENT UNIT . VEHICLE PITCHES AROUNDTHE "Y" AXIS.

Automatic checkout servo loops Control circuitry selection and test circuitry for Accelerometer 5. circuitry: Amplifiers. furnishes the and provides The ST-124-M3 power required 7-18 .8 kHz. Three single-phase. The accelerometer signal conditioner accepts the velocity signals from the accelerometer optical encoders and shapes them before they are passed on to the LVDA/LVDC.SERVOED PRISM FIXED PRISM SERVOTORQUE MOTOR SERVOTORQUE MOTOR Figure . and a sine shaper cosine shaper for the redundant channels. and stabilization networks for the platform gimbal and accelerometer servo loops Relay logic for signal and power the gyro and control pick-off and accelerometer 2.6 kHz are also provided. 3. The PEA includes the following 1.01) Hertz.INERTIAL GIMBAL VEHICLE FRAME MIDDLE RESO / s. Each accelerometer requires four shapers: a sine shaper cosine shaper for the active channel.92 kHz. The supply produces a three-phase.g 7-16 excitation frequency gyro for the platform gimbat synchros. Also included and dlt i and IU are ST-124-M3 AC Power Supply platform to run ac the power gyro supply rotors. and 1. is capable With a normal input voltage of 28 vdc. 20-volt reference outputs (square wave) of 4. 1. Signal Conditioner Amplifiers for coil excitation accelerometer 4. sine wave output which is fixed at 26 volts (rms) line-to-line at a frequency of 400 (+ 0. the supply of producing a continuous 250 va output.INSTRUMENT UNIT PLATFORM GIMBAL CONFIGURATION L iS ROLL +X I RESOLVER _CH VERTI CAL PITCH +y OUTER GIMBAI xALIGNMENT _PENDULUMS I" 7 RESOLVER IA JOTORQUE OA MOTOR . J +Z YAW INTEGRATING ACCELEROMETERS . It is also the source for the resolver chain references and for servo systems carrier. modulators. for the heaters and gas supply.

because the ability to correct readout errors is sacrificed.49 p _ # sec. addressing. Output tO launch computer Input from RCA-IIO GCC 3 four-channel delay for normal operation 1 four-channel delay for telemetry and operations identification 41 data bits plus discrete outputs Input/Output controlled 14 bits interrupt for data plus Figure 7-18 7-19 . In simplex operation. one for each "_ Accelerometer ground checkout LV Digital outputs are provided for telemetry and in addition to the outputs to the LVDA. operate concurrently. and logical extractions are performed in one arithmetic section. and LV Data Adapter Computer The LVDC is a general purpose computer which processes data under control of a stored program. while multiplication and division are performed in the other. Data is processed serially in two arithmetic sections which can. simplex operation decreases the reliability of the LVDC. and LVDC are involved in four main operations: Prelaunch Navigation Vehicle Orbital checkout and guidance computations -p sequencing checkout. 2. Figure program 7-17 = 82. LAUNCH VEHICLE DIGITAL CHARACTERISTICS =. The LVDA serves as central equipment for interconnection and signal flow between the various systems in the IU. However.000 Memory Random (torodial) capacity 28 bits access. The LVDC is a relatively high-speed computer with the LVDA serving as its input/output device. The LVDA 1. which doubles the capacity of the memory. subtraction. The memory can be operated in either a simplex or duplex mode. Computer reliability is increased within the logic sections by the use of triple modular redundancy.95 = 0. Any signal to or from the computer is routed through the LVDA. if so programmed. Addition.768 words each. In duplex operation. The memory operation mode is program controlled. and by shift registers. for each accelerometer. Readout errors in one module are corrected by using data from its mate to restore the defective location. COMPUTER LAUNCH VEHICLE DATA ADAPTER CHARACTERISTICS ITEM DESCRIPTION ITEM Type DESCRIPTION General stored purpose. memory with separate controls for data and ferrite-core instruction The LVDC and LVDA comprise a modern electronic digital computer system. composed of delay lines and latches. at 14 bits 38 data for and input data Speed Serial bits processing per seconds 512. Within this redundancy scheme. sec. each module contains different data. composed of latches. Input/Output rate Switch selector of Telemetry Command receiver Data transmitter Serial processing bits per second 8 bit 15 bit input output at 512.03 = 1. with a of 32. 3.000 identification bit and bits plus validity parity bit 15 bits request I0 bits bit for Word make-up Memory Data Instruction = = = 28 bits plus bits plus bit 2 1 26 bits parity 13 bits pari ty Computer interface unit address plus 1 data bit for input data plus data ready interrupt lines line 1 Programming 18 instruction I0 arithmetic codes Delay lines 6 program control 1 input/output 1 store Timing Computer cycle Bit time Clock time External. 4. three separate logic paths are voted upon to correct any errors which develop. Temporary storage is provided by static registers. See figure 7-17 and 7-18 for LVDC and LVDA characteristics. program digital. The principal storage device is a random access. sec.INSTRUMENT UNIT four buffer amplifiers sine and cosine output. ferrite core. memory modules are operated in pairs with the same data being stored in each module.

IGM is used again during S-IVB second httrn I(. or "'path adaptive" guidance. objectives: _t accumulates velocities as measured by the platform.. Monito_ accelerometer inputs. since vehicle dynamics do not affect or influence the guidance commands.ms the minor loops. roli and yaw commands remain at zero. timekecping. mmram. timekeeping. is that lYart of the flight program which performs from GRR until the end of the SIC burn. commences after second stage ignition. pound command proceminl. These functions include navilation. and detects velocity measurement errors through **reau_ablene_" testq.s sigual. (. Lie launch seque.). At T-O. and other repetitive operations of the flight prelpram. At "f. its various routines are subdivided t. Mifl_li_d 3. the LVD(" to petfon. data menasement. the GCC issues a prepare-to-launch (PTL) command to the LVDC. the LVDC is under control . and prote_. angles. all navigation. POWERED FLIGHT MAJOR LOOP The major loop contains the nevilplfiOn and guidance calculations. The PTL routine performs the following I. the flight Wotpmm is dh'ided into f_re subelements: the powered flight major loop.t to the I. For pu_ of diJg. This phase of the program is referred to as open loop guidance.'mviption_ calculations..VIX' to the lligl_t program. $. 4.VIX. Interrogates register outputs position Keeps all flight control system ladder z_erced. The flight progntm performs many functions durin| the bunch vehicle mission. (utoff occurs when the velocity required for earth orhtt has been reached.cer issues a (.RR interrupt signal is se.¢. The guidance commamh issued during the time-tilt phase are functions of time only.('C Wqh the receipt of tn. Depending upon mode :_f operation and time of flight.17 seconds a (. functions: Executes telemeters an LVDC/LVDA the results self-test program and and velocity. the time i. platform-off-level indicators. These instnttlons are stored within the LVDC memory. or "time-tilt" guidance program. At approximately 1"-20 minutes. In addition._ed loop gllitlance 6. The orbital flight program consists of in executt_ routine concerned with iU equipment evaluation during orbit. and telemetry.wneter values are _ampled md stored for me by flight program routines Time and accelerometer nntdinllS are telemetered AB flj_t _I_ st. and hardware evaluation.. After this command. engine ignition command is imued. usi. ltfloff o¢cml. which keeps the engines in a neutral for launch Processes the GRR interrupt control to the flight program Samples platform timbal and transfers The "pre4terative" guidance mode. The accelerometer procemdng routine accomplishes two mai. the time-tilt program first initiates a roll maneuver :o alitm the vehicle with the proper azimuth. _ time bm by the I.FLIGHT PMOOMAM When _ folk3 _nll I.('('. LVDC 7. However. in the orbital flight proIwam..efened to as ch. The minor loop contains the p|atfonn gJmbal angle and acgelerometer sampling routines and control system computations. The powered flight major loop contains lmidance end navlption calculations. and continues until the end of S-IVB first burn. keyed to the minor loop. Since the minor loop is involved with vehicle control. guidance. The iterative guidance mode (IGM) routine. of the i. PRELAUNCH AND INITIALIZATION i_ zno (T O I | Gimbel angles and accele. and the vehicle is gradually pitched '. .bout the vehicle's Y axis to its predetermined boost heading.M ts based on optimizing techniques.llctiht_ ()11 vnriations to determine a minimum propellant flight path which satisfies mission reouireme nts Si nee the I(..mion. a¢celerometer outputs and time Performs discrete reasonableness inputs and alerts the LVDC error monitor checks calculates the Ind telemeter_ 3._zedbetween GRR and lifloff. the minor loop. minor loop computations are executed at the rate of 25 times per second during the powered phase of flight. and • new time base (T I ) is initialed. it i3 . thr A Ilighl prolPlm im defined is a set of tnstrucUons which controls the LVDC operation from seconds before iiftoff until the end of the launch vehicle marion. Rate limiting of the output commands prevents the flight control system from m_neu-'ering the LV at rates which exceed _1\" limits. in earth orbit. 7-_. . a rate of only ten executions per _cond is required for satisfactory vehicle control. At '!'-72 seconds.. routme tru rlsfers contr. the IVl'l. interrupts.9 seccnda. event sequencinl. guidance.0 L I..KR alert signal to the I. The boost acceleration position navigation routine combines with measured platform data gravitational to compute 4" Until just minutes before launch. the orbital flight prolPvm.. end timekeeping compu*ations are carried out on an interrupt Utsts. on particular 4. 2. the _ will follow the appropriate sequence of routine*. 2.M Vt)ltsitler_ vehicle dynamics. When the launch vehicle has cleared the mobile launcher.VIX: and (. to be employed while the vehicle is over receiving stations.VI)C and (. and ill repetitive functions which do not occur on an interrupt basis. attitude control.g the c.y function. 5.f the ground control computer (GCC). The GC_ M%kpsaled that the LVDC is under control of the fl_t. At T4_.RP lnlerTUpt b received events tell¢ place: T_c LVI_. and • telemetry time-sharing routine.

ever. in both cas_. The execution time for any given ntajor Its)p. either in the units affected or in the stage sequencer. SWITCH SELECTOR A proffammed telemetry felture is die provided es • method of monilorinl LVIX: and LVDA operations. in orbit.544 it/see'2 f(w four computation _)'_. The switch selector decodes digital flight sequence commands from the LVI)A/LVIX'. If th.O. induce portions of the lamn_ vehk'te _dectmeic _tems to operate in a _. The average execution time for any given major hw)p tn potvred I]ighI. velocity u. Each mode comics of a I_redetermined lequen_ of e_nts. The telen_tlr7 routine transmits Sl_Cified information and data to the ground via IU telemetry equipment. performs the _ry subroutines. This operation is fefened to as data compression. since which is the significant time TI T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Lifloff (LO) S-IC center engine cutoff (CECO) S-I(" outboard engine cutoff(OECO) _11 culoff S-IVB cutoff(end boost phase) S-IVB restart preparations & second S-IVB cutoff _IVB propellant dump sequence bum Since switch selector outputs are a function of time (relative to one of the time bases).kNl) SFOUI'N('I_ ('()NTROI. or by the flight crew in the spacecraft. The outputs of the switch selector drive relays. special routines are established as a double safety check.ong the downrange axis is te_ted for a n)inimum of 500 msec. For ('ECO. The discrete backup routine simulates these critical signals if they do not occur when expected. the _k's of di_rete and interrupt pr(_ce_smng. en_ne cutoff. 9 10 11 12 ! l'l_tlrf '.vertical acceleration exceeds 6. in this lectiem the dmon wig deal mainly with the switch idector and _ cm'_try. fixL'd compmatm cyck lentO. is called Ihe normal computation cycle for that Itlotlt'.VIX' memory.'onlpulillJ_. Before T'. lecond. m a _:ven Ili_hl mode. the intemtpt transfas LVIX: control to at spatial subroutine which identifies the interrupt mm_. the backup routine is entered 17. Refer to MOI)I! . However. motion as well as time are confirmed before a backup discrete is used. l_e stored data is transmitted on • tlme-shared basis with real-time telemetry when range condi!ions are favorable.VIX" fm priority work. INTERRUPTS . A backup routine ts provided to circumvent such a failure. an external command from ipround checkout equipment or IU command system. the variety of possil_e paths m the h_)p preclude _."1 ncgfltuNItwg trait Fint. Decreasing P rt 0 rt ty 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fun cti on Minor loop Interrupt Swttch selector interrupt Computer interface unit interrupt Temporary loss of control Command receiver interrupt Guidance reference release S-II propellant depletion/engine cutoff S-IC propellant depletion/enqine cutoff "A" S-IVB engine out "B" Program re-cycle (RCA-IIOA interrupt) S-IC inboard engine out "A" Command LVDA/RCA-] IOA !nteFrul)t. the _ flight model of the pmo_ram have different INTERRUPTS 0 An interrupt routine permi:s intcffuption of the normal prolpram operation to free the I. Section VII.rod interrupts. Mode selection and initiation can be accomplished by :in automatic LVDC internal command. an assurance ts made th'At an on-the-pad firing of the S-II stage cannot occur if T I is accidentally set. tdemetry data must he stored at times when the vehicle is not within flnlle of a ilround receiving station. and stage separation. The changes are accomplished hy changing the instructions and programs in the I. In the cases of the backup routines for LO and CECO. For 1. and then return to the point in the prosram where the interrupt oCCmTed.n (ycle ts not fixed for Iw() ten.5 secondq after GRR. DISCRETE BACKUPS events are particularly important to the flight they periodically reset the computer time base reference for all sequential events.ivs. l*) . no switch selector output could be generated if one of the discrete _gnals were missed. 'l'hv t. M(X_ AM) SEOUENCE CONTROL Mode and J_quence control involves mo_t of the dectrical/eleetnmic systems in the launch vehicle. The LVDC m4mmfy contalns a predetermined number of sets of instngtions _llich. for a discussion ol !lie discrete time bases "rI through T 8. can be initiated. When am interrupt occurs. These base events are: Certain discrete program.. complete with Inillor loop computation anti interrupt processing. and may occur •t any time within the INoMam. complete with minor I(_Ip conlputations . The flexibility of the mode and sequence control scheme is such that no hardware modification is required For mode anti flight sequence changes. FilPme 7-19 is a ltM of interrupts in the order of decreadns priority.illS Many of the sequential operations in the launch vehicle that are controlled by the LVDC are performed through a switch selector located in each stage. when inlt_ed. the vehicle is assumed to be airborne anti the I ftoff discrete is issued. TELEMETRY ROUTINE o0elputatm cycle lengths. is not fixed. and activates the proper stage circuits to execute the commands. The LVDC =lie Igenerates appropr:ate dhlc_te sigmds such as gngJne il_ition.

tlw [. All connecllons between the LVI)A _. the launch vehicle could safely complete T I on the pad without catastrophic results. or switch selector relays. A backup method for starting T I is provided should the LVIX" fail to receive or recognize the liftoff signal.VI)(' switch sq.6 seconds. If a significant positive acceleration (in exces of I g) exists. In the launch vehicle. Time Base No. The Saturn V OlPeraticm sequence ilarts durinll the prelaunch phase at apl_reeximately T-24 hours. the LVDC mu_t arm outboard engines propellant depletton cutoff prior to _:_:. Bits 9 through 13 select the switch selector to be activated.VIX'/LVI)A reissues the 8-bit command in complement form. Time Base No. At T I + 2 minutes 14. and compared with the original code in the LVDC.at and automatic control to check out the functions of the entin launch vehicle After the umbilicals are disa:cmncctcd.. no subsequent time bases can be started. and activates a transistorized output driver. This ensures a safe vehicle.O seconds. Time Base No. requiring at least one additional unsafe on the pad. wilh Ihe excepfion of. Each switch selector also provides three outputs to the telemetry system within its stage. as indicated by faulty verification information received by the LVDA.ng depletion cutoff is armed outhoard engines cutoff. All switch selector control lines are connected through the conlrol distributor in the IU to the I. Figure 7-20 illustrates the Saturn V switch selector functional configuration.e. I I 2 different circuits in its stage. Bit 14 resets all the relays in the switch selectors in the event data transfer is incorrect. Coding of flight sequence commands and decoding by the stage switch selectors reduce_ the number of interface lines between stages._lector. The feedback (verification reformation) is returned to the LVI)A. the LVIX" loads the 15-bit switch selector register with the computer data. Outboard several se. when the electrzcal power rrom the ground. with the exception of the 8-bit command. 448 different functions can he controlled. the switch selectors are divided into sections. the LVIX'/LVDA sends a read comnland to the switch selector. and are issued according to the flight program. The switch selector is designed to execute flight sequence commands given by the 8-bit code or by its complement. the LVDC wil! not recognize the liftoff signal and start T I prior to rct'¢iving guidance reference release (GRR) plus 16. The output signals of the LVI)A switch selector register. depending on the feedback code. The switch selector register is loaded in two passes by the LVD(': bits i through 13 on the first pass.. are connected in parallel. These lime bases are defined in the following paragraphs. should T I be started without liftoff. despite certain failures in the LVDA switch selector register. if T 2 is not established.lhe slal_ slice! mpul_._ I_¢h switch sel_lor can KlJvale. the LVDC will start T 2. Flillht sequence commands may be iuued at time intervals of 100 milliseconds. the LVDC assumes liftoff has occurred and begins ment is made hy the LVDC. 4_ No "negative backup" (i.7 seconds.'rconnvclion di:*gram _sshown I Q 7-22 Changed 5 October 1969 .NT in fillUre 7-21. at T I + 2 minutes 14. one at a lime. The output sections (decoding circuitry and driven) receive their power from the stage in which the .VIX" and the electrical stl pport equipment. she LVD(" will monitor the vertical accelerometer. 1 (T I) T i is initiated by a lifloff sit(hal. the sequencinlz operation is divided into e_ht primary time bases. provisions for the LVD(" to return to prelaunch conditions) is provided because. the sequencing is primarily controlled by the flight program within the LVLg'. thus producing a switch selector output. switch sele¢lors. The input g. the seq.'h)r mh.:onds engmes propellant prior to calcuhltcd failure to render the vehicle • The switch selector register.switch selector is located. throush the SAC switch selector. 3 (T 3) T 3 is initiated at S-IC outboard engine cutoff by either of two redundant outboard engines cutoff signals. provided by dea¢luation of the liftoff relay in the IU at umbilical disconnect.. line drivers. and either bit 14 or bit 15 on the second pass. the LVDC monito_ the downrange accelerometer. ctions (relay circuits) of each switch selector receive their power from the ILl.nd the. To maintain power isolation between vehicle stages. The LVDA/LVLK" receives the complement of the code after the flight sequence command (bits I through 8) has been picked up by the input relays of the switch . Bit 15 activates the addressed switch selector for execution of the command. The inputs and outputs are coupled together through a diode matrix. If T I is not initiated within 17. 'llw I.F PlSlrliUMF.:cP prov|ded for.VI)( T 3. If the feedback agrees. interface cabling. as a safety measure. If the verification is not correct. Time Base No. utilizing both man. Each lime base is related to a particular flight event. OPERATION SEQUENCE . bits I through 8. which contains four switch selectors. A compenuting tbne adjust- 41. a reset command is given (forced reset).5 seconds after GRR. usinll only 28 lines from the LVI)A.. The selection of a particular stale switch selector b accomplished through the command code. in the event T I began hy error. 4 (T 4) After arming S-II fox depletion _utoff _nsors. tlowever. represents the flight sequence command. (T 2) The $-!C center enlpin¢ is cut off by the LVDC. th)wevcr. Four alternate tame bases have also b. The flight sequence commands are stored in the LVDC memory. if mfficient downrtn_ velocity exists.'le.ppon _luipment is applied _o all stales of the launch _ehicle. and the I. Durinl_ this time. TI. Furthermore. Use of the downrange velocity reading wovides a safeguard apinst starting T 2 on the pad. are sampled at the control distributor in the IU and sent to IU PCM telemetry. This feature increases reliability and permits operation or the system. and increases the flexibility of the system with respect to timing and sequence. When a programmed input/output instruction is given.. This matrix decodes the 8-bit input code. Since flight seqtlencill_ is time phased.encme is controlled from the launch control center/mobile launcher complex.

#---_ CONTROL I STAGE CIRCUITRY 112 OUTPUT LINES SWITCH SELECTOR C I11 S-IC STAGE Figure 7-20 7-23 . THROUGH THE CONTROL DISTRIBUTOR.INSTRUMENT UNIT NOTES: SIGNAL RETURN LINES FROM THE SWITCH SELECTORS. _c SWITCH SELECTOR 112 OUTPUT LINES IU STAGE TELEMETRY AND DDAS STAGE +28 vdc/"---_ CONTROL I STAGE CIRCUITRY 112 OUTPUT LINES SWITCH SELECTOR S. AND h TO IU TELEMETRY k = REGISTER TEST_ ZERO INDICATE_ TO STAGE TELEMETRY SW SEL OUTPUT) (I LINE EACH) m = +28 VDC FROM THE INSTRUMENT UNIT e S_ SE ELECTRICAL SUPPORT EQUIPMENT TELEMETRY AND DDAS 'l i IU LVDC COMMAND RECEIVER CONTROL DISTRIBUTOR IU +28 vdc lk. g. TO THE LVDA ARE NOT SHOWN IN THIS FIGURE. e. THE LETTER CODE IS DENOTED BELOW: a b c d = = = : 8-DIGIT COMMAND(8 LINES) FORCE RESET (REGISTER) (I LINE + 1 REDUNDANT LINE) REGISTER VERIFICATION (8 LINES) READ COMMAND (I LINE + 1 REDUNDANT LINE) COMPUTER GROUND J IIAlllll abcdefgh f : STAGE SELECT LINES g = (I LINE + 1 REDUNDANT LINE) h = = b. c. d. THE LETTERS USED TO LABEL INTERSTAGE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN UNITS ARE NOT ACTUAL PIN OR CABLE CONNECTORS.IVB STAGE STAGE TELEMETRY AND DDAS STAGE +28 vdcF'----_ CONTROL I STAGE CIRCUITRY 112 OUTPUT LINES SWITCH SELECTOR S-II STAGE STAGE TELEMETRY AND DDAS STAGE +28 vdc. f.

IVB engine out "A".¢r. determined by [NIX' using accelerometer readings. or S-ll engines out. ! %24 OumIed $ October 1969 tmr . the starting of T O is permanently inhibited. following: I. Starting of T4a is inhibited seconds. 3. S.Wing the restart equation.O seconds by the S-IVB Ignition Sequence Start signal from the St' rhis logic it inhibited only by the DCS command for TD&E enable.T 6 is initiated LVDC upon s . "Ibis time base is initiated by the LVLK' either of two signals: spacecraft initiation separation "A". However. B-BIT SERIAL LVDA . 6 (T 6) having started present.5 IT 5) T 5 is initiated by the deactuation of the S-IVB thrust OK pressure switches at S-IVB cutoff.g to _parate the S-II stage with the thrust of the engines present.4 for T6 is inhibited by the Trandunat Guidance Injection Failure signal from the S C "A'" or "B" signals Time Base No. the above starting Ioi_ by the T6 by use of a of the restart of the S-LVB upon receiving of S-II/S-IVB of S-II/Yv-IVB until T 3 + 1. if the DCS commanded for TD&E enable is received the I_VDC. re and S(" Control of Saturn. solving equation is inhibited.. after T 5 + IOO. I STAGE SELECT I FLIGHT CO. In the event of G-idance Faih.t cutoff.IVB veha:it. which is issue(I by tile LVIX'. DC Command for "ID_. As a safeguard against tryi.ll engines cutoff command is issued by the LVIX' at the start oft 4. Alternate Time Base No. S. .IVB engine out "li". T 6 is ir. The functions are: . The LVDC also has the capability to initiate target update. When this is used.E enable by Also.imnttatnmT t_rt le LVDC 15-BIT $ERbh. and/or loss of thrust. The S-II engines cutoff signal is the primary signal for starting T 4.itiated by the LVLK. or spacecraft initiation separation "B". 2.TIPL[XER SIGNAL RETURN TROL DISTRIBUTOR IU SWITCH SELECTOR S-IVB SklTCH SELECTOR S-II SWITCH SELECTOR S-IC SWITCH SELECTOR 4 Figure initiates 1'4 upon receiving either of two signals: S-II engines cutoff.N_O I_StTI_ DIGITAL INPUT RIi. 4a (T4a) T4a is programmed for use in early staging stage. abe LVIX' starts "[5 after receiving any two of four functions monitored by the LVIX'. a redundant S. After a predetermined time in T S. The S-li engines out signal from the thrust OK circuitry is a backup. 7-21 A redundant S-IVB cutoff command is issued at the start of time base 5 with the T 5 as a safeguard apinst thrust of the S-IVB en_ne Time Base No.

S-IVB engine cutoff. These switching functions. controlled from the ground through the umbilical. The MUX-270 is a time sharing Changed 5 October 1969 7-25 . Modulation/Frequency Modulation The start of T 8 is program inhibited within the LVDC. a redundant S-IVB engine command is issued at the start of T 7. a discussion of each transducer Base No. inhibit Conditioning signals is accomplished by will be initiated is also if the TLI programmed to look for the TLI am_plifiers or converters located in measuring racks. of the launch vehicle During vehicle fright. Refer to figure 7-22 for a block diagram of the IU telemetry system. MEASUREMENTS AND TELEMETRY The PCM/FM data the CCS transponder.7 seconds. sufficient to allow the S-IVB engine to establish thrust OK. The LVDC is Injection (TLI) time The T6c LVDC programmed Inhibit signal to look for the Translunar at T 6 + 41 seconds. Time Base No. The parameters measured include such things as acceleration. 8 (T 8) of the cutoff The approximately 200 measurements transmitted via two telemetry links. However. determined by LVDC using accelerometer readings. for checkout data is used on the i T6a is programmed for use should the oxygen-hydrogen burner malfunction between the times T 6 + 48 seconds and T 6 +5 minutes 41.3 seconds. current. 6b (T6b) 3. and for verification received by the IU command system analysis of the mission. The LVDC will not accept the DCS evasive maneuver command until T 7 + 2 hours. Switching functions connect different sets of measurements to the same telemetry channels during different flight periods. is transmitted The FM/FM over a VHF link and over data is transmitted over a Mu Itiplexing In order for the two IU telemetry links to handle The instrumentation within the IU consists of a measuring subsystem. are used for prelaunch calibration of the signal conditioners. As a safeguard against starting T 7 with the thrust S-IVB engine present. and for transmitting monitored signals to approximately 200 measurements. This program inhibit must be removed by DCS command. the LVDC starts T 7 after receiving any two of four functions monitored by the LVDC. By proper multiplexing. and 20 signal conditioning modules in each. This alternate time base is initiated by the LVDC upon receiving an oxygen-hydrogen burner malfunction signal from the S-IVB stage. and return the channels to flight measurements after checkout. frequency. connect measurements not required during flight to digital data acquisition system channels for ground checkout. S-IVB engine out "B". at which inhibit signal is present. and/or loss of thrust. separate VHF link. Alternate Time an O2/H 2 burner malfunction signal MEASUREMENTS The requirement dictated the use different locations. angular velocity. and an antenna subsystem. techniques used are: 1. Upon completion Alternate of T6a. These relays. If the TLI inhibit signal is present the LVDC will initiate T6c.3 seconds and T 6 + 9 minutes 20 seconds.INSTRUMENT UNIT Alternate Time Base No 6 a (T6a) ground ground 1. This instrumentation is for the purpose of monitoring certain conditions and events which take place within the IU. voltage. Base No. The functions are: S-IVB engine out "A". telemetry system is to format and signals received from the measuring signal at T 6 + 8 minutes 17. receiving stations. two relays and circuitry to simulate its transducers at both their high range and low range extremities.3 seconds and then once per computer cycle (once per second) between T 6 + 8 minutes 17. and transducer simulation circuitry. a telemetry subsystem. for immediate determination of vehicle condition. Pulse Code (PCM/FM) Frequency (FM/FM) made on the IU are The two modulation Modulation/Frequency Modulation 2. Both frequency sharing and time sharing multiplexing techniques are used to accomplish this. 2. Time the LVDC returns to T 6. This alternate time base is initiated by the LVDC upon receiving from the S-IVB. 7 (T 7) the LVDC will in T 6 and T6c. return to T5 After a predetermined time.3 seconds and T 6 + 8 minutes 16. Telemetry for the following purposes: Before launch. Two Model telemetry 270 multiplexers (MUX-270) are used in the IU system. etc. There are fotir measuring racks in the IU. /t Upon completion of T6c updated by the time elapsed Time Base No. these links must be "shared". which is issued by the LVDC. of measured pressure. T6c is programmed for use should a failure occur which would require a delay in the S-IVB restart attempt. the LVDC will not accept the DCS command to remove the inhibit (S-IVB propellant dump inhibit) until 8 minutes after the DCS evasive maneuver command has been received. for measurements of a wide variety has of many types of transducers at many However. flow rate. The LVDC will start T 8 subsequent to T 7 + 2 hours if the program inhibit is removed. 6c (T6c) type is beyond the scope of this manual. The TRANSLUNAR INJECTION INHIBIT signal from the spacecraft will be required by the LVDC before this alternate time base will be initiated. TELEMETRY The function of the transmit measurement distributor. position. in addition to its conditioning circuitry. temperature. Postflight scientific T6b is programmed for use if the O2/H 2 burner malfunctions between T 6 + 5 minutes 41. it is possible to transmit several different signals simultaneously from one telemetry system. Conditioned signals are routed to their assigned telemetry channel by the measuring distributors. Each signal conditioning module contains.

During flight.mbly. Twenty.s. Ten-channel submultiplexer modules. and applies a sequence of five calibration voltages to all data channels. each x 120 (30 priq. it serves as a telemetry link. The PCM-301 unit accept_ analog inputs from MUX-270 or RDM-4|0 units. it serves as an IU interface with the digital GSE. [ XPONDER CCS [ FM VHF XM'rR [ PCM VHF XMTR [ _ BI I [ CALIBRATOR TLM _.ty of 2_ continuous data cha_-*-i inputs. Each input i._pj second) multiplexer individual primary sampled at 12 times per second. fh¢ . The PC'M/FM system p_rforms I dual function. and the composite signal is used to frequency modulate an FM-RF as_mw._ MUX 270 _ MUX 270 . can be used to mhmulliplex any primary data channel.Model BI . 3OI P('M/I)I)AS accofdir. or direct inputs in digital form. These OUll_i fre.. while the remaining three are used for references. multiplexer and transfers cRDM-410) this data to Low level cond. and each channel pr()duce_ a different output frequency. Any proportion of the 23 data channels can he _bmulliplexed or sampled at the 120 per second rate._ applied to a separate channel within the SCO.-_01 unit is a serial train of digital data which mod_niates the PCM-RF transmitter.3 AMP l 250.seven of the 30 primary channels are used for analot_ data.._. and approximately 400 milliseconds are required for the full sequence.z MHz _i T . in exchan_ for a I0 to I decrease in sampling riles.bly praducmp the FM/FM telemetry silp_ls.. Each level is sustained for one master frame._gr_ of accuracy req uired for telemetering certain signal ty.luencie_ :Jr. All of the RF assemblies are essentially the same. Upon command. Output of . each sampled 12g times per with provisions for zubmultip|exing channels to form ten subelmnnels.tioned analog signals are fed to suhcarner oscillators (_C'O). which plug into the MUX-270. P( M techniques provide the high d. All .4.._ combine_ within the SCO as_.01 II.|purc 7-__ _ _ .. All use :t accepts IO-bit parallel i VV '-_I-TO GSE T T T y MULTICOUPLER J POWER CCS ILINK F1 I 0_" _0_'_" ] _ LINK Pl 245.'he PCM. Each one operatn as a 30 channels.g to a pro_amnled mulliplexer.°. the calibration generator seeks the next available master frame. and during prelaunch checkout. providing a I0 to I increase in the quantity of channels.-.o. The MUX-270 also his an integral calibration generator for inflight calibration capabihty._('O has a capac. The Model ten 410 remnte distal words.INllllUM[_ the Model format.inputs are digitized and encoded.4 1 F' TMoi s°ll I.

The LVDC can different mode be programmed to recognize as many as 26 command words. data entry. power. orbital flight. where demodulation is accomplished. into mission trajectory. and is sent to remote stations of the MSFN for transmission to the launch vehicle. input PRF. and will also be involved in tracking after injection. to facilitate IU/S-IVB tracking. i 7-27 . C-band radar stations at the Kennedy Space Center. can track the Apollo spacecraft to the moon. S-band transponder: a phase coherent receiver-transmitter Command command decoder. Tracking information collected during orbital flight may be used to update the Saturn guidance before injection into mission trajectory. the end of the powered flight phase cannot be covered sufficiently from land-based tracking stations. and reply PRF. The resulting digital message is passed on to the command decoder. an IF amplifier. they can simultaneously track the two S-band transponders on the vehicle. Because of the long burning time (approximately I 1 minutes) of the three-stage launch vehicle. overinterrogation protection circuitry. and transducers for telemetry channels. The transponder consists of a single. vehicle may be divided into The four update guidance information. Command messages are transmitted from the unified S-band ground stations on a carrier frequency of 2101. a magnetron. including the Deep Space Instrumentation Facility. This arrangement is more reliable than the antenna switching circuits necessary if only one transponder were used. 5. Data words. This two C-band radar transponders. located in the IU consists of: powered flight into earth orbit. to provide for pseudo-random noise (PRN) turnaround ranging. Command data originates in the Mission Control Center. After adequate separation of the spacecraft and IU/S-IVB. Figure 7-23 is a block diagram of the overall CCS. 4. tracking ships will be located in the Atlantic to obtain the tracking data. The CCS equipment 1. and AN/FPQ-6 radar systems. which is required for orbit determination. Tracking data is used for mission range safety. RADIO COMMAND SYSTEM SYSTEM data transmission communications (CCS) from ground link is used to SATURN TRACKING INSTRUMENTATION of the control.e. hybrid power rings divider 2. Refer to Radio Command Systems for additional information on the S-band equipment. during insertion.capabilities independent of the vehicle attitude. and postflight evaluation of performance. tracking is accomplished by S-band stations of the MSFN and by C-band radar stations. or to command certain other functions through the LVDC. which is modulated by a digital message. contain data to supplement mode commands. The LVDC is programmed to receive two types of command messages from the command decoder: command words and data words. the IU CCS transmitter will be commanded off for a short period of time. as the name implies. directional and omni Antenna switching elements a. Frequency outputs of each unit are. modulated by a subcarrier of 70 kltz. c. The S-band station on Bermuda has only a single capability.8 MHz. the IU CCS transmitter will be commanded on again. Major elements include an integrated RF head. These stations have dual tracking capability: i. which precludes unauthorized 4. The S-band stations. are provided: input signal incident power. Therefore. At the time of spacecraft separation from the IU/S-IVB. a fast recovery solid-state modulator. and at many other locations around the world. along the Atlantic Missile Range. a time base update requires only one data word while a navigation update requires more than thirty data words. temperature.5 pounds. one in the IU and the other in the Apollo spacecraft. of course.. The IU PCM telemetry system verifies receipt of the message. C-BAND RADAR Antenna systems a. The number of data words varies with the mode command involved. to preclude interference with the spacecraft S-band transponder. transmitting and receiving b. and has a volume of only 100 cubic inches. and will track the Apollo spacecraft transponder. The Saturn V IU carries tracking of the launch phases: injection injection. and transmits a single-pulse reply in the same frequency band. COMMAND COMMUNICATIONS The CCS provides for digital stations to the LVDC. For example. The number of stations which can "see" the vehicle depends on the launch azimuth. where it is checked for authenticity before being passed to the LVDC. and coast flight after Continuous tracking is required during powered flight into earth orbit. During orbital flight. 3. provide global tracking capabilities.INSTRUMENT UNIT ) combinations of solid state and vacuum tube electronics. 2. and are applied to the antenna subsystem. Two C-band radar transponders are carried in the 1U to provide radar tracking . 3. coaxial switches b. compact package. The transmitted message is received by the airborne transponder. while others are programmed Common mode commands The function of the C-band radar transponder is to increase the range and accuracy of the radar ground stations equipped with AN/FPS-I 6. In ad_tion. The transponder receives coded or single-pulse interrogation from ground stations. reflected words are common only for particular include: 1. time base update navigational update execute switch selector telemeter terminate routine memory contents command routine. Many of these command to 'all flights missions. a decoder. vehicle The purpose of radio tracking is the determination vehicle's trajectory. different. Six conditioned telemetry outputs level. a secondary power supply. the launch vehicle will be tracked from S-band stations at Cape Kennedy and on the Atlantic tracking ships. The complete unit weighs 5.

equipment is The IU. IU ACCESS DOOR The structure of the IU consists of three 12_degree segments LVDA IZ-. _lmml. . are activated in the battery shop . pneudraulic. and hardwire links wtth electrical/elect ronic checkout equipment... servicing IU eqdipment. Work pl-'. After auernhly of the IU. Approximately 20 hours before launch. This acceu door has been designed to act as a h)ad supporting part of . The second interface is the umbilical.D j STATION COMPU1 ER ] i -_ L I"mgur¢ _ _ -_ _). through which tile IU is furnished with Wound power..qide the structure. RECEIVER _ 70kHz ' . _1 LVDC I I I r I I c_'s . This section of the manual is limited to a very brief description of the IU GSE. lights.comh _zndwich. The third interface is the optical window. the IU flight batteries.n in figure ?-24.mzd installed in the IU through the access door.. _ SWITCHINGi ! . GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT of aluminum Im. There are three primary interfaces between the IU and its GSE. and air-conditioning are used inside the IU to facilitate _'.S F iNlrrlt UHENT uYrg The characteristics of the C-band radar transponder ore r. When the spacecraft is being fueled through the IU acceu door. str-cture in flight. purging air/GN 2 me_hanol-water for environmental control.. through which the guidance system $T-124-M3 stable platform is aligned. used during prelaunch preparations for battery installation.. cylindrical ring. S-BAND TRANSPONDER SM' ERI ANTENNAi . a special protective cover is installed inskle the IU to protect components from any pomible volatile fuel spillage.rvicing operations. S-IVB forward dome and LEM servicing. One is the IU access door. ordnance servicing. joined to form :. IU UMBILICAL The physical link between the IU and the GSE is through the umbilical connection.tforms. located adjacent to the access door The umbilical is made up of numerous electrical connectors. At approximately T-6 ho_gs. ULATOR DEMODI VEHICLE SYSTEM (IU) 1 I I GROUND STATION MAP RECEIVER MONITOR ___ TELEMETRY GROUND P_ STATION F TO MCC (HOUSTONI I S-BAND XMTR LLJ _ I 70 kHz SUBCARRIER I ROU. each weighing |65 pounds. electrical._. requires the services of many types of GSE (mechanical. because of its complex nature.iv--. electronic) and personnel.:. the service removed _nd the access door is secured. a door a_embly provides acceu to the electronic equipment in.

0 level 0. 700 watts nominal l.020psec maximum O.A INTERFACE 0 MECHP :_IICAL INTERFACE The IU _ q_lcecgaft-LM _lapter (SLA) are mechanically aliIned with three guide _ and brackeU m thq_. Six bolts Jure _ around the cifcumferen_ of the inte_gzcg and Igqlle_ti=Ily torqued. using • _ MSFC de.2_) .O_sec (double pulse) Continuously settab]_ between 5 and 12 _sec _set to 8 _0. iffn_.0#sec (single pulse). 80 db mtni=um. replies during overlnterrogation meet all requirements Transponder Recover characteristics time 50 # sec single pulse. C-BAND Receiver characterl sti cs TRANSPONDER CHARACTERISTICS iii Frequency (tunable externally) Frequency stabi li ty Bandwidth (3 db) Off-frequency rejection Sensitivity (99% reply) Maximum input signal Interrogati on code Pulse width Pulse spacing Decoder Transmitter limits characteristics 5400 to 5900 MHz (set to 5690 +2 MHz) _2. 0. overinterrogation p_otection allows interrogation at much higher rates wlth count-down.I loaded on the IU dozes to cover tl_.) ELECTRICAL INTERFACE The IU contains a window through whictl ihe ST-124-M3 stable platform has its alignment checked and c('Tr_cted by a theodolite located in a hut on tl._ to l.nd spacecraft consists of threx 61 pin connectors. updated and verified to a high d_wee of accuracy.:hamc_l interfm. The_e sax bolts t_cum the IUISLA me. '_ pim facilitate the MiIXun¢_ oY the clo_ tolerance Intafgce bolt holes.. and a sprin.5:1 maximum for signals above -55 dbm lO to 2000 pps.2 to 5.85_sec reject (5 te 12_sec) Frequency (tunable externally) Peak power output Pulse width Pulse jitter Pulse rise time (10% to 90%) Duty cycle VSWR of load Pulse repetition ra_e 5400 to 5900 MHz (set to 5765 +-2 MHz) 400 watts minimum.05 sec) 0.7 ampere stapd_y. I _ sec maximu_ 0.000 MHz -65 dbm over entire frequency range and all environments +20 dbm Single or double pulse 0. th_ launch azimuth can be monitored. wrench azIembly.l and 3. The electrical connectors provide ground power and the electrical/electronic sipls necer..conditioninl_ duct.nt (l?ain W_ight FIgu r_' 7-24 . The pneudraudc couplings provide for circulation of GSE supplied methanol-water coolant fluid for the IU/S-IVB ECS.O _-O. OPTICAL ALIGNMENT door uNrr IU/81. The electrical interface between the gU .IN_U_ two pneudraulic coup|ings and an air. O. The air conditioning duct provides for compartment co( lnI air or purldngGN 2.0 to O.25_sec accept. _ 0._ry for prelaunch checkout of the IU equipment.002 maximz_n 1.9 _rnpere at I000 pp_ 5.5 lbs Fixed delay Delay variation with signal Powpr requirements Pri.l#sec O. (See fir_re 7-26. fSce fqgure 7-27.d and a computer feedback loop.01 _ sec) 50 nanoseconds maximum from -65 db_ to 0 dl_n 24 to 30 volts 0. connectors. as the two units are joined during vehicle zi_mbly. By means of this loop.Jry curr(. 0.) The definition and function of each connector b pt_zented in the following paragraphs.0 MHz 10 MHz 50 do image.15 to 10. 62 # sec double pulse n_aximum for input signal levels differing by up to 65 db (recovers to full sensitivity with no change _ transmitter reply po_er or frequency with multiple radars interr_3atinq simultaneously) Settable 2 z O. The umbilical is retracted at iiftoff.e grou.n m fiIUre 7-25.Ol_sec (set te 3.

MAJOR DIFFERENCES and I_ between Saturn V 1U-6. _.II//II////// [ _ ----_. . 1U-8.INSTRUMENT UNIT IU/Spacecraft Interface Connector J-1 This connector provides lines for power. NUT 6 PLACES SLA . IU/SLAALIGNMENT TYPICAL 3 PLACES _BOLT._'--_ I _-_ . control.50 BELOW INTERFACE PLANE k c--¢---t-_ r--F _ ..50 MIN.400 DIA. ] IIl_lll'//lllld/I/ m' 258.026 DIA 1..---. 3 REQD. circuitry and EDS circuitry. IU/Spacecraft Interface Connector J-3 power. control indications for the Q-ball circuitry and the EDS circuitry.Ol! : !J3: _ _--:_--# L____LL _ / INSTRUMENT . This connector provides lines for indication circuitry and EDS circuitry... _-_ ! /_z i_.. £_I_TYPICAL Figure 7-26 WASHERS. _----/_------7"-CONNECTORS _L SLA REF . and IU-9._ I" |l :I /]l'*r'BRACKET _N. OF ./I/_. I/_ There are no major differences IU-7. 32! II{ I 1. _ _UNIT PLUGS lU (REF) ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES Figure 7-25 Figure 7-27 7-. IU/Spacecraft Interface Connector J-2 and ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES indication This connector pnwides lines for power. control.3 INSTRUMENTUNIT ---._0 .010 GUIDE PIN _GUIDE PIN._ UNTAPEREDPORTION OF PIN MUST E×TEND A MIN. /_.

Hollow seals on the floor and roof of the section provide an environmental seal between the vehicle and the platform. Work ... Access to the vehicle at various levels is provided from air conditioned work platforms that extend from either side of the bay to completely surround the launch vehicle.SUPPORT GROUND INTERFACE High Bay Area 8-1 8-1 8-16 The high bay area provides the facilities I LAUNCH COMPLEX 39 .!bout platforms. and surveillance of space vehicle checkout and launch. S-IVB stage. 442 feet wide.. An enclosed personnel and cabling bridge connects the VAB and LCC at tl!e third floor level. is approximately 525 feet high. water It provides air conditioning. 518 feet wide. and 716 feet long. The vehicle assembly building (VAB) provides a controlled environment in which the vehicle is assembled and checked out on a mobile launcher (ML). hot water.. LAUNCH CONTROLCENTER The LCC (figure 8-4) serves as the focal point for overall direction.. control. as shown in figure 8-2 is a totally enclosed structure covering eight acres of ground. Florida.. the crawlertransporter (C-T). and emergency electrical power. Its purpose is to provide a protected environment for receipt and checkout of the propulsion stages and instrument unit (IU). The siding is insulated aluminum except where translucent fiberNass sandwich panels are used in part of the north and south walls... checkout.. air..... .. The LCC is located adjacent to the VAB and at a sufficient distance from the launch pad (three miles) to permit the sate viewing of liftoff without requiring site hardening. compressed for fire protection. The principal operational elements of the VAB are the low bay area and high bay area.. LC-39 FACILITIES VEHICLE _The VAB ASSEMBLY is located AND EQUIPMENT checkout of the S-IC stage. mating and erection operations of the S-II stage.. The VAB. the launch control center (LCC).. It is located east of the VAB and south of the crawlerway. A 92-foot wide transfer aisle extends through the length of the VAB and divides the low and high bay areas into Low Bay Area The low bay area provides the facilities for receiving.000 psig gaseous nitrogen line. LC-39 FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT VEHICLE ASSEMBL Y AND CHECKOUT LAUNCH Launch COMPLEX Complex 39 39 (LC-39). .... The floor and roof of each section conform to and surround the vehicle..... and integrated checkout of the assembled space vehicle. The LCC is a four-story structure approximately 380 by 180 olted. Helium/Nitrogen The gas storage gaseous helium Storage-VAB Area facility at the VAB provides high pressure and nitrogen. and the launch pad. is approximately 210 feet high.. and the IU. Each platform is composed of two biparting sections which can be positioned in the vertical plane. 8-1 . where vehicle launch is accomplished after propellant loading and final checkout.... The low bay area. to permit vertical repositioning.. The 456 high bay doors provide an inverted T-shaped feet in height. Utility Annex horizontally on tracks. checkout... made up the various sections of fixed and as required. IU. and spacecraft. the mobile launcher (ML). located on the west side of the VAB.ii. folded sections. and launch of the Apollo/Saturn space vehicle.000 psig gaseous helium line and a 6. the mobile service structure (MSS). each capable of accommodating a fully assembled. The platforms fit are equal segments (See figure 8-3). erection of the vehicle stages and spacecraft in a vertical position on the ML. 518 feet wide. and integrated checkout of the assembled space vehicle. Access from fixed floor levels to the work platforms is provided by stairs. The major elements of the launch complex shown in figure 8-1. The roof deck of the building is removable to permit installation and removal of pressure vessels through the roof. The wall framing between the bays and the transfer aisle is open above the 190-foot elevation to permit movement of components from the transfer aisle to their assembly position in the checkout bay. It is a structural steel building approximately 525 feet high... The high bay area which is located in the northern section of the building. located in the southern section of the VAB.. uncrating. supports the VAB. the crawlerway. The space vehicle and the launch structure are then moved as a unit by the crawler-transporter to the launch site. This facility is serviced from the converter/compressor facility by a 6... and 274 feet long. There are eight stage preparation and checkout cells.. to the low bay _tructure.. for erection and Kennedy Space Center. and preparation of the S-II and S-IVB stages. Saturn V space vehicle. It contains four Checkout bays.. Each pair of opposite checkout bays is served by a 250-ton BUILDING to Kennedy Parkway. The lower portion of the opening opening is closed adjacent .. provides all the facilities necessary to the assembly. and 442 feet long... four of which are equipped with systems to simulate interface operations between the stages and the IU. The upper is closed by seven vertically moving The utility annex._miles north of the KSC industrial area. by doors which move portion of the opening doors.... about five bridge crane with a hook height of 462 feet. !) TABLE I OF CONTENTS SECTION VIII . LCC and other facilities in the VAB area. are the vehicle assembly building (VAB)..

ERWAY MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE PARK AREA CONVERTER/ ORDNANCE ST( MOBILE LAUNCHER REFURBISH /NITROGEN STORAGE IRNING BASIN VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING CANAL CONTROLCENTER Figure 8-1 8-2 .GROUND SUPPORT --LAUNCH / AREA B ( --LAUNCH AREA A .

GROUND SUPPORT VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING LAUNCH CONTROL CENTER Figure 8-2 VAB INTERIOR / Figure 8-3 8-3 .

in addition to the umbilical tower. the 8-4 provide KSC. /. Each of the power demands in this area are large and are supplied by separate systems. The power system use receptacles. MOBILE an RF link to the launch pads and other facilities at room. and related checkout equipment. supplies electric and industrial power units for lighting. The electronic equipment have raised false floors cables and air conditioning The two information equipment exchange are located The mobile launcher (figure 8-5) is a transportable steel structure which. The ground floor is devoted functions such as cafeteria. . Launcher Base areas of the second to accommodate ducts. and mechanical on the fourth floor. The tower.. There is a 45-foot square opening through the ML base for first stage exhaust. and tinted glass windows. and intermittent motor starting loads. -= Figure feet. The second floor equipment. laminated.. Level A. checkout. provides the capability to move the erected vehicle to the launch pad. The instrumentation power system supplies power to the electronic equipment. The base has provisions for attachment to the crawler-transporter. and 135 feet wide. in addition reduction facilities. The display rooms.:. laboratories. transported to a launch site. contains 21 compartments and level B has 22 compartments. is the umbilical 6] means of _}) ready access to all important levels of the vehicle during the assembly. and launched. Electrically controlled sun louvers are positioned outside the windows. and the complex control houses telemetry. The upper deck. offices. The equipment used in the servicing. and third floors interconnecting The launcher 25 feet high._!:. :. pumps and compressors. computers..: //i:iie:i_F!:. The launcher base is the platform on which a Saturn V vehicle is assembled in the vertical position.. elevators. six mechanisms. mount interfaces between vehicle systems launch site are located through or 8-4 .000 square feet of floor space.: ::. the four holddown arms and the three tail service masts. .i_@e_=. Access to the base interior is provided by personnel/equipment access doors opening into levels A and B and equipment access hatches located on levels O and A. offices and frame rooms. to service and support shops. launch facility (LIEF) rooms. The ML is divided into two functional areas.:..GROUND SUPPORT I .e ... industrial and instrumentation. This division between power systems is designed to protect the instrumentation power system from the adverse effects of switching transients. the launcher base and the umbilical tower. checkout..:. and moved undisturbed aboard the ML to the pad. Direct viewing of the firing rooms and the launch area is possible from the mezzanine level through specially designed. permanently erected on the base. test conductor platform area.. with the crawler-transporter. such as air industrial general k conditioning.. The LCC is also connected by buried cableways to the ML refurbishing area and to the pad terminal connection room (PTCR) at the launch pad. offices. visitor gallery. base (figure 8-6) is a two story steel structure 160 feet long. the upper of the two internal levels. designated level 0.: :. and four extensible All electrical/mechanical and the VAB or the launcher-to-ground support columns. monitoring and display equipment for automatic vehicle checkout and launch..iii:ii[:I} '- . and launch is installed throughout both the base and tower sections of the ML. mission control room. contains. The intricate vehicle-to-ground interfaces are established and debugged in the convenient and protected environment of the VAB. each containing into four separate but a firing room. large cycling loads.:: !_iqi!!iii!!!!_!i! ¸ : ::•'+:.. Cable troughs extend from the LCC via the enclosed bridge to each ML location in the VAB high bay area. and servicing periods prior to launch.: >x. Three of the four firing rooms contain control. Communication and signal cable provisions have been incorporated into the design of the facility.'. RF and tracking to instrnmentation and data LAUNCHER The third floor is divided control areas.. communications control center. computer similar room. Antennas on the roof three levels provides approxhnately 12.

GROUND SUPPORT GSCU FLOW CONTROLVALVE BOX 18_ l 11.. :!i! S-IVB PNEUMATIC CONSOLEA 8 S-IVB PNEUMATIC CONSOLE B • i::H ...' GROUNDSUPPORT COOLING UNIT (2 UNITS) IU PNEUMATIC CONSOLE |4 :.iiiiiii_:_:_i_:_i_ii::_ ..+ S-IVB APS PNEUMATIC CONSOLE S-II PNEUMATIC CONSOLE A&D S-II LH2 HEAT EXCHANGER S-II PNEUMATIC CONSOLE B S-IC FWD UMBILICAL SERVICE CONSOLE S-II PNEUMATIC CONSOLEC Figure 8-5 (Sheet 1 of 2) 8-5 . S-IVB GAS HEAT EXCHANGER %iii?_:::::_ : :.. .:.:.....

Lox and Fuel Tank ti on 2. >S-IC Forward Umbilical Service Console Supplies nitrogen from three regulation modules to S-IC stage pneumatic systems through the forward umbilical plate. one access arm. Ground Support Cooling Unit Supplies water-methanol to the heat exchanger in the IU thermal conditioning system to absorb heat in the IU generated by electroni c equipment. A number support of 8-5 (Sheet 2 of 2) facilities. prelaunch. instrumentation subsystems. air conditioning and ventilating systems. elevator. computer air conditioning. the load capacity is 10 tons. Fuel tank pressurization 2. emergency lighting. industrial at the refurbishment area as the computer systems test sets. S-II LH2 Heat Exchanger A7-71 Provides gases to the S-IC stage for fol lowing : I. propellant and pneumatic lines. & C Regulate. power from the crawler-transporter is used for the water/glycol systems. The load capacity of the crane is 25 tons with the hook extended up to 50 feet from the tower centerline. The hook can be raised or lowered at 30 feet per minute for a distance of 468 feet. Umbilical Tower It is used one tower and and for obstruction lights. The distance from the vertical tower to the vertical centefline of approximately 80 feet. Selects either unit while the GSCU for operation other recirculates. electrical power systems. 18 work and access platforms. threshold lighting. B. pneumatic.5 g mechanically-induced vibrations. distribution equipment for the propellant. Water is supplied to the ML at and for domestic domestic permanent pedestals at the launch site provide plates and servicing lines. and nitropropellant IU Pneumatic Console Regulates. and controls pneumatic pressure to pressurize. industrial. checkout. LOX tank pre-pressurization 3. The crane can rotate 360 degrees in either direction at one revolution per minute. and test the air bearing spheres and reI ated pneumatic and electro-mechani cal circuitry. and propellant unloading. Instrumentation and industrial power systems are separate and distinct. digital propellant loading equipment. in-transit and emergency. and water systems. hydrogen for the Pre-Pressuriza- S-IVB Pneumatic Console A&B Regulates and controls helium and nitrogen gases for leak testing. Remote control of the crane from the ground and from portable each landing type between control levels units. The base houses such items for the interface at the pad for fire. Two high landings. and launch. 0 and 360 is provided by plug-in 8-6 . During transit. • Thrust chamber jacket chilldown Pressurize engine turbine start bottl S-IVB APS Pneumatic Console Regulate and distribute helium gen gases during checkout and 1 oadi ng. hydraulic test sets. Emergency power for the ML is supplied by a diesel-driven generator located in the ground from the nearest vertical centerline of the vehicle speed elevators service 18 the 340-foot tower level. 3. and monitor gases for S-II stage during standby. and obstruction lights. With the hook extended between 50 and 85 feet from the tower centerline. and for the VAB purposes purposes. The primary electrical power supplied to the ML is divided into four separate services: instrumentation. and other equipment. from level A of the base to electrical and ground support centerline of the the vehicle is provides environmental protection for the equipment during operations and standby.GROUND SUPPORT M [II'. The hammerhead crane is located on top of the umbilical tower. Thrust Chamber jacket chilldown the Figure adjacent to the base structure. The air conditioning and ventilating system for the base The umbilical tower is an open steel structure 380 feet high which provides the support for eight umbilical service arms. functional checkout. The distance column of the tower to the vertical is approximately 60 feet. S-IVB Gas Heat Exchanger Supplies cold helium or fol 1 owing : I. purge. propellant loading. Shock-mounted floors and spring supports are provided so that critical equipment receives less than + 0. within the ML base are provided with acoustical isolation to reduce the overall rocket engine noise level.II (' I I F_GSCU _Iz Flow Control Valve Box of one S-II Pneumatic Consoles $7-41A. Electronic compartments. One packaged air conditioner provides minimal environmental conditioning and humidity control during transit. control. Fueling operations at the launch area require that the compartments within the structure be pressurized to a pressure of three inches of water above atmospheric pressure and that the air supply originate from a remote area free from contamination. monitors. The trolley speed is 110 feet per minute.

]_D RACKS MON ITORS l _ ' .i_-.j 1SB 9B 11AB 1 22BI " 3AB F-I > 4 "_ S-IC PNEU_TIC REGULATES CHECKOUT CONTROLS.AB '" 16 _ EXHAUST / / D-w or) _ _ __J")r_ ] CHAMBER 6"_..__= _ S-IC INERT PREFILL UNIT SUPPLIES ETHYLENE GLYCOL TO F-I ENGINE FUEL JACKETS TO ELIMINATE ENTRAPPED AIR.r__._ SIDE 3 7A 0 : 8A lA -. | 6AB F * SIDE l LEVEL B (LOWER) _ IJ [_.'.GROUND SUPPORT _._ I 5AB SIDE l LEVEL A (UPPER) HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT ! t S-IC PNEUMATIC CONSOLE REGULATES FACILITY GASES SUPPLIES OPERATING PRESSURES TO S-IC STAGE AND S-IC PNEUMATIC CHECKOUT RACKS S-IC HYDRAULIC SUPPLY AND CHECKOUTUNIT GIMBALS FOUR OUTBOARDF-I ENGINES KEEPS MAIN LOX VALVES FROM FREEZING CONTROLSF-I ENGINE VALVES Figure 8-6 8-7 .J .___. .. NITROGEN FOR TEST AND CHECKOUT OF PRESSURE SWITCHES IN STAGE PROPULSION SYSTEM._"_#_=_ ..4AB T t _._ 17A '_ 5 t SYSTEM CHECKOUT CONSOLE o..

There are provisions for as many as 16 mechanisms per vehicle. flame deflector is An escape chute is provided to connect the ML to an underground. The arm bases have sufficient strength to support the vehicle before launch and to withstand the dynamic loads caused by engine cutoff in an abort situation. the C-T to position the ML/Saturn V and This is used by the MSS on the support pedestals. hardened room. LAUNCH The launch PAD pad. Line handling devices on the S-IVB forward The pad terminal connection room (PTCR) (figure 8-10) provides the terminals for communication and data link transmission connections between the ML or MSS and the launch area facilities and between the ML or MSS and the LCC. Each controlled release mechanism consists of a bracket bolted to the holddown arm base. Controlled release mechanisms are used to provide a gradual release of the stage at launch.GROUND SUPPORT Holddown Arms and aft arms are also activated on carrier is accomplished ejection. The force required to draw the pins through the die decreases linearly from maximum restraint at holddown release to zero restraint when the pins are free of the dies.000 systems. support service lines to the S-IC stage and provide a means for rapid retraction at vehicle liftoff. is a one-story concrete building to house the high pressure gas storage battery. This reduces the diameter of the pin from its maximum to the diameter of the die.000 pounds at each arm. Each TSM is a structure which is controlled and hydraulically the umbilical carrier and vertical the of rotation of the mast is accomplished simultaneously to ensure no physical contact between the vehicle and mast. within the fill. The unlatching interval for the four arms should not exceed 0.180 seconds. liftoff. after receiving a command signal from the service arm control switches located in holddown arms 2 and 4 (see figure 8-7). Service Arms The nine service arms provide access to the launch vehicle and support the service lines that are required to sustain the vehicle as described in figure 8-8. After retraction.000-pound mobile wedge-type mounted on rails in the trench. each tapered pin is drawn through a die as the vehicle rises through the first six inches. reinforced concrete structure with a top elevation of 48 feet above sea level (42 feet above grade elevation). The inflight arms retract at vehicle. a double activates both the carrier withdrawal and arm withdrawal and arm retraction and/or hydraulic systems. thereby keeping the dynamic loads at launch within the design capability of the vehicle. axis of the pad is oriented and ramp approach from Located within the fill under the west side of the structure (figure 8-10) is a two-story concrete building to house environmental control and pad terminal connection equipment. the secondary mechanical release mechanism will be actuated when the vehicle rises the carrier approximately pole switch approximately two inches. bisects the pad. This trench opens to grade at the north end. They position and hold the vehicle on the ML during the VAB checkout. If any of the separators fail to operate in 0. with a five percent grade. the primary liftoff switches on the holddown arms activate a pneumatic system which unlocks the umbilical carriers and pushes each carrier from the vehicle.restrained until proper engine thrust is achieved. and arm retraction and latchback. This is used by astronauts and service crews in the event of a malfunction during the final phase of the countdown. Each launch 3. The azimuth alignment building is located on the approach ramp in the crawlerway median strip. umbilical carrier release. The longitudinal north-south. movement to the pad and pad checkout. the carrier rotates into a hood assembly which protects it from the exhaust plume. If this system fails. At engine ignition. and a die linked to the vehicle. provides access from the crawlerway. Launch Pad Structure approximately The launch pad is a cellular. The service arms are designated as either preflight or inflight arms. a tapered pin fastened to the bracket. When the vehicle rises 3/4-inch. Upon holddown arm release. Eight mechanisms will normally be used for manned lunar missions. The prefight arms are retracted and locked against the umbilical tower prior to liftoff. figure 8-9. figure 8-7. The vehicle base is held with a preloaded force of 700. Tail Service Masts by pneumatic The t_ee tail service mast (TSM) assemblies. it will be by-passed by a signal from the secondary liftoff switches when the vehicle rises 18 inches. If this switch fails. staircases and interface structures to provide service to the ML and the mobile service structure (MSS). At T-15 seconds the service arms are unlocked by a signal from the terminal countdown sequencer. If both systems fail is caromed from the vehicle when it rises 15 inches. The vehicle is then free with the pins remaining in the brackets and the dies traveling with the vehicle. A ramp. On the pad surface are elevators. There are approximately three site is an eight-sided feet across. release is effected by detonating an explosive nut link. The TSM assemblies are located on level 0 counter-balanced penumatically/electrically operated. Pad Terminal Connection Room ( retraction systems. Carrier //" The four holddown arms (figure 8-7) are mounted on the ML deck 90 degrees apart around the vehicle base. The controlled release mechanisms (figure 8-7) restrain the vehicle during the first few inches of travel. Retraction of ML base. On the east side of the structure. This room is located in the fill area west of the support structure. provides a stable foundation for the ML operations during Apollo/Saturn V launch and prelaunch and an interface to the ML for ML and vehicle presently two pads miles from the VAB polygon measuring at LC-39 located area. carrier withdrawal. A flame trench 58 feet wide by 450 feet long. The 700. at which time a signal from the countdown sequencer causes each of two identical pneumatic systems to release high pressure helium to a separator mechanism in each holddown arm. This facility 'also accommodates the electronic equipment that simulates the vehicle and the functions for 8-8 . with the crawlerway the south. The inflight service arm launch retract sequence typically consists of the four following operations: arm unlock. the vehicle is . Upon carrier ejection.050 seconds.

I/TAIL SERVICE MAST ORIENTATION VEH iCLE DIE STA 113. ENGINE/HOLDDOWN AIU.7 Mm -I O . 3 I ENGIN'. 1 I L SERVICE MAST 1-2 TAIL SERVICE MAST 3-4 ENGINE NO. NO.31 TAPERED PIN CONTROLLED RELEASE MECHANISMS \ i \ \ C) \ \ CONTROL ARM SWITCH TAIL HOLDDOWN ARM SERVICE MAST I"tl_t|rc X-7 . 4 HOLDDOWN ARM (TYP 4 PLACES). 2 TAIL SERVICE HAST 3-2 q ENGINE NO.TOWER ENGINE NO.

electrical. Provides alrconditioning. electrical. Arm may be retracted or extended from LCC. Umbilical withdrawal by pneumatic disconnect in conjunction with pneumatlc/hydraulic redundant dual cylinder system. )(etract time is 7. and pneumatic interS-II Forward (inflight). and alr-conditioning interfaces.1 . pneumatic. vent 11no. instrument cooling.4 secunds (max).P c. electrical. and air-condltioning . provides pneumatic. At. Extend time is 12 seconds from this position. and pneumatic interfaces. Provides access to spacecraft through environmental chamber. pneumatic. Reconnect tt_e is approximately 5 minutes. Retracted at T-16. Secondary mechanical system. vent line. Umbilical wlthdrawal systems same as S-IVB Forwacd.nterfaces. and alr-conditioning interfaces. Arm may be reconrected to vehicle fro_ LCC. Secondary mechanical system. Umbilical withdrawal by pneumatlc disconnect In conjunction wlth pneumatlcally driven block and tackle/lanyard device.k Command Module Access Arm (preflight). Umbilical wtthdr_al by pneumattc/mchantcal lanyard system with secondary machanical system. Retract time is 6 seconds.7 seconds (max). Provides access to vehicle. . Arm retracted prior to llftoff as required. Fixture 8-8 _-I.ItO_l) T withdrawal by pneumatically driven compound parallel ltnkage device. electrical. and preflight conditioning interfaces. Retract time is 6. GH2 faces. air-conditioning. Retract time is 7. Umbillcal withdrawal systems same as S-IVB Forward with addition of a pneumatic cylinder actuated lanyard system. Provides LH2 and fox transfer. Also equipped with line handling device.4 seconds (max). coolant.o -econds (max'. Retract time is g. S-IVB Forward/IU Umbilical (Inflight). pneumatic. and air-conditloning interfaces. Service Mobil* (Infllght). Retracted at T-30 seconds. For IU. For S-IVB stage. S-II Aft (preflight). Retract tmme is 8. electrical. ates if primary withdrawal system fails. electrlcal. electrical. provides fuel tank vent. t I_ vent. Retracted to 12 ° park position during period T-43 to T-5 minutes. also equipped with Jlne handling device to protect lines during withdrawal. S-IC Forward (pr_f. Provides pneumatic. S-ll Intermediate (Inflight). S-IVB Aft (Infllght).2 seconds.Ight). Provides LHp and lox transfer. Retract time is 33 seconds. This system oper.4 seconds (max). Umbilical withdrawalProvides systems same as S-IVB Forward.

. k....... _ _ _. ._....... "7 _. ._L.. _- _ ... .._q_. II i j i i ? \ \ \ \ \.

Industrial and instrumentation nearby substation. Instrumentation cablin8 from the PTCR extends to the ML. l_e launch pedestal and the deflector area are located immediately adjacent to this structure. and support structures for fueling. LH 2 facility. It is entered from _ouod elevation on the east side of the pad. and azimuth dipment building. LAUNCHPAD INTERFACE SYSTEM ENGINE mUNT MECHANISM (6 PLACES) SIDE LH2 GH2 4 SIDE POWER . The equipment areas of this building have elevated false floor" to accommodate the instrumentation _md communication cables used for interconnecting instrumentation racks and terminal distributors.000 psig) facilities at the pad are provided for high pressure storage of 3. The ECS room is 96 feet wide by I 12 feet long and h(_qes sir and nitrogen handling units. The air conditioning system is controlled remotely from the LCC when personnel are evacuated for launch. High Prwe Gas System The high pressure gas storage facility at the pad provi.GROUND|UP1N)ltT Environmon_l Control Systwn w_t of the pad 9. Launch Pad lntm'fece Structure The launch pad interface structure (figure 8-11) provides mounting support pedestals for the ML and MSS. / / / / / / / Figure R-I I H-.q the checkout of the facilities during the absence of the launcher and vehicle. located on the PTCR ground floor. liquid chillen. The air conditioning system. The PTCR is a two-story hardened structure within the rdl on the west side of the launch support structure.ILITIES ACCESS STAIRWAY • EC. air compressors. provides a controlled environment for personnel and equipment..000 cubic feet of gaseous helium.2 .-I0) hou_...le_ the launch vehicle with high pressure helium and nitrogen.Jcal equipment. a 3000-gallon water/glycol storage tank and other auxiliary electrk:al and mecha. The high preumre (6. electric power and environmental control interfaces. high pressure gas storage battery area. This system provides chilled water for the air handling uni. A hydraulic elevator serves the two floors and the pad level. MSS. Iox facility. Entry is made from the west side of the launch support structure at Ipround kvel into the first floor area.000 cubic feet of gaseous nitrogen and 9. RP-I facility. power is supplied from a The F_N room located in the pad fill s_ructure and north of the PTCR (figure t equipment which furoir._ LOX N4.'.s located in the equipment compartments of the ML. This facility is _ integral part of the east portion of the launch support structure. Each of the floors of this structure measures approximately 136 feet by 56 feet. an en_ne access platform. pneumatic. h_ temperature and/or humidity controlled a/r or nitru_n for space vehicle cooling at the pad.

2 which takes them down to the bottom of the pad. Electrical Power The electrical power for launch pad A is fed from the 69 kv main subatation to switching station No. Liquid hydrogen boiloff from the storage and ML areas _s directed through vent piping to bubblecapped headers submerged in the burn pond. The secondary escape and normal egress means are the tower high speed elevators. a drain basin for venting and dumping of Iox. and follow a catwalk along the east and north sides of the ML to the egress platform at the 320-foot level. The MSS is supported on the launch pad by four mounting mechanisms similar to those used to support the ML. The LH 2 facility consists of one 850. I-ntrance to the doors controllable mounted blast room is gained through blast-proof front either side. and controls. are located north of the launch pad. LOX System Facility The Iox facility is located in the northwest quadrant of tile pad area. It rides the slide wire down to the landing area where it is decelerated and stopped by an arresting gear assembly. Twenty people may be accommodated for 24 _l _j]_ facilities are I_osdded in the r(_m including an emergency RF link in which the rccezvmv antenna il built into the ceiling. 150 feet by 250 feet with a water depth of two feet.000-galh)n spherical storage tank. pneumatic. the tower high speed -" . cross the access ann. Astronauts and technicians evacuate the white room.450 feet from the center of the pad. These move between the 340 foot level of the tower and level A at 600 feet per minute. located near each comer of the launcher base exhaust chamber. The engine servicing structure provides access m the ML deck for servicing of the S-IC engines and M L deck equipment.l the pad pcrHueler r. RP-I foam generating building and necessary valves. Gaseous Hydrogen Facility This facility is h_. IO-inch. Interface structures are provided on the east and west portions of the pad structure (figure 8-1 I) for propellant. approximately 1. 48 feet.000-gallon spherical storage tank. 2 from where it is distributed to the various substations in the pad area.450 feet from pad center. The escape tube consists of a short section which extends from the elevator vestibule at ML level A to side 3 of the ML base where it interfaces with a fixed portion that penetrates the pad at an elevation o.000-gallon (577. I. a deceleration ramp is provided to reduce exit velocity.8 kv. Both means utilize the CM access arm as a component. also support the ML at the launch site. egressing personnel move through a vestibule to elevator No. lnvar transfer line and a burn pond venting system. The hydrogen is bubbled to the surface of the 100-foot square _ond where a hot wire ignition system maintains the burning process. the system provides escape by either slide wire or elevator.8 kv power ts fed to switching station No.72 . Armored personnel carriers are available at this point to remove them from the pad area. aml two transfer lines. In the event that e_ape via the bla|t_roof doon is not pomible. The cab is released by levers in the cab. Four _. At the lower extremity of tile illuminated escape tube. isms which am designed to carry vertical and horizontal loading. one on each side of the north-south axis. Emergency ingres to the CM utilizes elevators and the CM access ann. An underground air duct from the _qcinity of the blast room to the remote air intake facility permits egre_s from the pad s_re to the pad perimeter. two filter-separators. a Iox vaporizer to pressurize tile storage tank. control and instrumentation systems. a pump house. i: ? on coil springs _ I_ . Provialon is made to decrease air velocity in the duct to allow personnel movement through the duct.:.000-pound) steel storage tanks. When the state of the emergency allows no time for retreat by motor vehicle. environmental control. Two RP-I holding ponds. they board the 9-man cab transporter suspended from the cable and snubbed against the egress platform.200 feet west of the ML.. A I l/8-inch diameter steel cable extends from the 341. located in the northeast quadrant of the pad approximately 1. an 8-inch stainless steel transfer line._ ) extenslble columns.l wl_. piping.'ated (. store RP-I and liquid hydrogen. Fuel System Facilities The fuel facilities. permitting safe exit for the user. power."3 GItOUNDgmqqJT The ML at the launch pad (as well as the VAB and refurbish area) is supported by six mount mechar. These columns are designed to prevent exce_ive deflections of the launcher base when the vehicle is fueled and from load reversal in case of an abort between engine ignition and vehicle Ifftoff.system (figure 8-12) provides access to and from the Command Module (CM) plus an escape route and safe quarters for the astronauts and service personnel in the event of a serious malfunction prior to launch. At level A. The blast room floor is to reduce outside acceleration fi)rces The RP-! facility consists of three 86. where it is stepped down to 13. a circulating pump.foot level of the ML to a tail tower approximately 2. The ponds retain spilled RP-I and discharge water to drainage ditches. facilities. a vacuum-jacketed.rthwt'_l to 3 to $ l'S. The 13. a hatch in the top of the blast room is accetmble to rescue crews. main fill and replenish pm_lps. The internal tank pressure. egressing personnel upon reaching level A of the ML slide down the escape tube into the rubber-fined blast room vestibule (figure 8-12). The output of each of the substations is 480 volts with the exception of the 4160-volt substations supplying power to the fire protection water bomter pump motors and the Iox pump motors. a transfer pump. communications. Depending upon the time available. maintained by circulating LLi'_ from the tank through the vaporizer and back into the tank_ is sufficient to provide the proper flow of LH 2 from the storage tank to the vehicle without using a transfer pump. a vaporizer/heat exchanger which is used to pressurize the storage tank to 65 psig. The facility consists of one O00. Here. The slide wire egress system (figure 8-12) provides the primary means of escape. Apollo Emergency Ingress/Egress and Escape System The Apollo emergency ingress/egress and escape .

--_ .... _ _ __..__'_._TAILT_ER ( II Figure 8-12 8-14 .r" Gl_zne R ROOMm SY_II_ I BLAST EGRESSTUNNEL_% (AIR__INTAKE DUCT)_ ECS ESCAPETUBE R INTAKE BUILDING eGRESS _ STATI_''_ _"_V_IN _IDEMRE CABLE EGRESS_STEM 4 - --_ _'_ ST_IgN _L...._ ___.--._ B'KER ''J" _--_'_'_._-__-_----__-_ 0_--"--_-._ ''--" _.._ !_ / I' /\ ST_I_ 1675 _/_ _.-..__ "_"_.__ _DINGA_A _.

At the top. The three upper platforms are fixed but can be relocated as a unit to meet changing vehicle configurations. high speed.O00-gallon reservoir. potable water a.. each 275 feet deep. five concrete camera pads. The Flame deflector protects the boattail _ction of the Saturn V launch vehicle and the launch stand from hot gases. There are six camera sites in the launch pad area.000 i_i| to the launch vehicle. During nonlaunch periods. These sites cover prelaunch activities and launch operations from six different angles at a radial distance of approximately 1. Photographic Facilities These facilities support photographic camera and closed circuit television equipment to provide real-time viewing and photographic documentation coverage. ML and MSS fire protection and all fire hydrants in the pad area. measured from ground level. high pressures and flame generated by the launch vehicle during the period of engine ignition and liftoff. Their normal parking position is north of the launch support structure within the launch pad area. Specifically. and quenching. MOBI LE SERVICE STRUCTURE The MSS is equipped with systems for air conditioning. with a spread footing isolated from the building. The facility providH GH2 st 6. the MSS is located in a parked position along side of the crawlerway. fire protection. 7. Firex water system. nitrogen pressurization. each site containing an access road. Building a transfer line and neeemmry 0 1he azimuth alignment building is located in the approach ramp to the launch structure in the median of the crawlerway about 700 feet from the ML positioning pedestals. sewage treatment plan:. The facility consists of four StOIIlN tanks havJn8 a total capacity of 800 cubic feet.7 mf of the liquid hydrogen facility.300 feet from the launch vehicle.. The outboard sections of the platforms are actuated by hydraulic cylinders to open and accept the vehicle and to close around it to provide access to the launch vehicle and spacecraft. The building houJes the auto-_llimator theodolite which genies. with a chain-link fence for safety. pad cellular structure and the ML base. "rbe two platforms innnediatelv The MSS is approximately 402 feet high. The top of the MSS base is 47 feet above grade. ML deck cooling and quench.. The building is located west of the pad. cooling. Figure 8-13 those portions of the space vehicle which cannot be serviced from the ML while at the launch pad. The MSS is transported to the launch site by the ('-T. provides the mounting surface for the theodolite. the rotational output of the stable platform. i The mobile service structure (figure 8-13 ) provides access to . The water is supplied from three (. Pad Water System Facilities The pad water system facilities supply water to the launch pad area for Iire protection. T. Flame Deflector "lhere are two flame deflectors provided at each pad. ML tower fogging and service arm quench. flame deflector cooling and quench. electrical power. adjacent to the perimeter road. Air Intake Building This building houses fans and filters for the air supply to the IrI'CR. metric camera (CZR).d spacecraft fueling. The water is pumped from the wells through a desanding filter and into a I. The tower structure rests on a base 135 feet by 135 feet. the tower is 87 feet by ! 13 feet.: structure contains five work platforms which provide access to the space vehicle. one for use and the other held in reserve. a target pole communication boxes and a power transformer with a distribution panel and power boxes. and weighs 12 million pounds. the system furnishes water for the industrial water system.-inch wells. A target pole for optical alignment of the CZR camera is located approximately 225 feet from the CZR pad and is approximately 86 feet high. Fach site has four engineering sequential cameras and one fixed.000 feet from the nearest launch pad. The uppermost platform is open. by a light source. communications networks. It is removed from the pad a few hours prior to launch and returned to its pa_king area. A short pedestal.O00.. hydraulic pressure. | flatbed trailer on which are mounted liquid hydrogen tanks and • liquid-to-lies valves and pJpin& Azimuth Alignment converter. Iox and fuel facilities.

have override controls for the rear trucks only. Ti_e unit weighs approximately 6 million pounds. The helium passes through the CCF helium compressors which boost its p-essure from the tube-bank storage pressure to 6. and lowering the ML or the MSS without the aid of auxiliary equipment. Electric motor-driven pumps provide hydraulic power for steering and suspension control. This and compresses ipmeous helium to 6. bay 8-1¢.serves LC-39 in laboratory test area and storage are a for This facility is located on the north side of and approximately 2. is transported from the vehicle assembly building to the launch pad.000 pair) and the pad (150 psig and 6.src delivered to preparation and chc_-kout cells tn the h. will have complete control of the vehicle.F GROUND|UI_OIIT below are enclosed to provide environmental control to the spacecraft. ta. is comprised of three archtype magazines. It has a 500-foot minimum turning radius and can position the ML or the MSS on the facility support pedestals within + two inches.'tcd on a previously pc_sittoned I. These buildings. The CCF is located on the north side of the cnwlerway.OOO-gallon storage tank fc_rliquid nitrogen. explosive separation devices. The C-T is powered by self-contained. launcller (ML) in one of the checkout hays _n tht' high bay area. one ready-storage building. with the space vehicle. The facility includes a 500. uptm arrival at KS('. It also includes an area to test the electro-explosive devices that are used to initiate or detonate ordnance items. d. The liquid nitrogen storage tank is located adjacent to the equipment building that houses the evaporators for conversion of the liquid nitrogen to high pressure gas. A mrvice road from this facility connects to Saturn ('auseway. The C-T supplies limited electric power to the ML and the MSS during transit. It provides for storage and maintenance of retrorockets.. LCC and launch pad. approximately at the mid-point between the VAB and the main crawlenvay junction to launch pads A and B.electdc generator units.'2k vaporizers.a)r unit_. I mph with full load on level grade. CRAWLER-TRANSPORTeR The crawler-transporter (figure 8-14) is used to transport the mobile launcher and the mobile service structure. high pressure liquid nitrogen pump and vaporizer units. After vaporizing and compressing to 150 psig or 6. however. The gaseous helium is stored in tube-bank rail cars which are connected to the facility via a common manifold and a flexible one-inch inside diameter high pressure line. enclosed by a perimeter fence. the crawlerway the TAB. are over-burdened where required. The two lowest platforms can be adjusted vertically to serve different parts of the vehicle.000 psig.5 mph with full load on a five percent grade. transporting. The C-T can be operated with equal facility in either direction. in tL direction of travel. high pressure nitrogen. The leading cab.500 feet northeast of remote site was selected for maximum safety.000 psig). they are open with a chain-link fence for safety. two storage buildings. and 0. constructed of reinforced concrete and concrete blocks. and low pressure nitrogen gases leaving the CCF are monitored on panels located in the CCF via cableway ducts running between the CCF and the TAB. ullage rockets. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY AND CHECKOUT The converter/con)pressorfacility (C('F) converts liquid nitrogen to low pressure _snd high pressure gaseous nitrogen The vehicle stages and the instrument unit (Ill) art'. Maximum C-T unloaded speed is 2 mph. The ML. CONVERTER/COMPRESSOR FACILITY The ordnance storage area . The liquid nitrogen is transferred to the vaponzors and compressors by pressurizing the storage tank. Controls and displays are located in the CCF. The rear cab will. the gaseous nitrogen is piped to the distribution lines supplying the VAB area (6._.000 square feet of environmentally controlled space.ohik.000 psig after which it is piped to the TAB and pad high pressure storage batteries. fhe gaseous nitrogen and helium are then supplied to the storage facilities at the launch pad and at the TAB. Electric motors in the crawler-trucks propel the vehicle. the ML is taken to the refurbishment area and subsequently back to the TAB.esel. Air conditioning and ventilation are provided where required._es and the It' . ORDNANCE Figure ihe C-T consists 8-14 chassis which is supported STORAGEAREA the capacity of ordnance items. After launch. escape rockets and destruct packages. -1 CRAWLER TRANSPORTER 4' of a rectangular through a sus_nsion system by four dual-tread crawler-trucks. the S-II and S-IVB st_. rail and truck transfer facilities and a data link transmission cable tunnel. transported to the VAIl by special carrters The S-l(' stage is crc. an ordnance test building and a guard service building. The ordnance storage installation.000 psig. ('oncurreiiily. The C-T is capable of lifting. The MSS is transported from its parking area to and from the launch pad. The facility contains approximately 10. The overall length is 131 feet and the overall width is 114 feet. . high pressure helium compres. Like the uppermost platform. helium and nitrogen gas driver/purifiers. Control cabs are located at each end and their control function depends on the direction of travel. Mass flow rates of high pressure helium.

The response signal is sent from the vehicle.es into the computer memory and as an output device to record processed data. The digital data acquisition s)stem (DDAS) collects the vehicle and support equipment responses to test commands.('(' computer complex. The DEE-3 is located the LCC. it monitors loading. and the result is monitored on the display console.. data transmimaon equipment and ground receiving stations to perform data commutahon. and moves it to the lauqch site over the crawlerway. During prelaunch operations. card punch. The mobile service structure (MSS) is transported from its parking area by the C-T and positioned on the side of the vehicle opposite the ML. The remit is then sent to the LCC computer complex which routes the resu. interruptions and requests for displays are entered into the System by keying in proper commands at the console keyboards. and for c_. acts as an input device for loading test routi. Following assembly.per.. Manual controi of vehicle functions is provided at the control consoles. paper tape reader and magnetic tape transports. The basic elements of the test system and their functional relationship are shown in figure 8-17. The computcrs operate in tandem through a data link with the computer in the ML receiving commands from and transmitting data to the computer in the LCC. It monitors up to 4320 discrete signals from the vehicle stage umbilicals. Also an RCA-IIOA computer and the display and control equipment necessary to monitor and control the service and checkout operations are installed in the LCC. formats the test data for transmix_ion to the ML and L('C and decommutates the data for display in the ML and L(('. During the prelaunch checkout. the Apollo the telt routine. Two systems (DEE-3 and DEE-6) are used to monitor discrete events. -1 of the launch launch system. data r. The signal is sent to the patch distributor located in the LCC and is routed to the appropriate signal conditioniflg equipment where the signal us prepared For acceptance by tile I. High speed printers in the LCC are connected to each DEE to provide a means for real time or post-test evaluation of discrete data. pad and tower ground support equipment and the DDAS. The computer co_. One computer is located in the ML base and the other in the LCC. This control bypames the computers and is sent to the vehicle by means of hardwire. The DDAS consists of telemetry equipment.mputer control of vehicle checkout. and is sent to the vehicle._rt'tl on the I"I('S control panel. each stage is checked out utilizing the stage control and display console. The t_gnaJ is then routed to the terminal distribution equipment and through the crossover distributor to interrogate the vehicle sensors. water control and DDAS. operation of a system component or call up a complete test routine from the computer. the cmwler-tmn_purter (C-T) picks up the ML. is a tCClt!ired precaution against improper program callup. the MSS is removed to the parking area. The result Ls also sent back to the display console by hardwire. All components spacecraft L? and checkout. the" countdown.itntm ts xl_llil. The propelhunt tanking . envh'onmental in the PTCR with a printer located in 768 inputs amociated with propellant control. various items of support equipment are removed from the ML and the vehicle is readied for launch. A flame deflector is moved on its track to its position beneath the blast opening of the ML to deflect the blast From the S-IC stage engines.ll" are replenished as boihfft" occurs dutm_. This equipment includes a line printer. An RCA-II0A computer and the equipment necessary to service and check out the launch vehicle are installed on the ML. card reader. When checkout is completed. The peripheral equipment provides additional bulk storage for the computer. Optimum propellant levels are maintained and Iox anti l. The insertion of a plastic coded card key. The physical arrangement of the LCC and the ML are illustrated irt figures 8-15 and °-6 respectively. the ML is emplaced and connected to system interfaces for final vehicle checkout and launch monitoring. computer to call tip '. data transmission and data decommutation.7 GItOUN_|_T area for inspection. A switch on the control console can initiate individual the ML to The DEE-6 is located in the ML base with a printer and remote control panel in the LCC. Each test signal is processed through the computer complex. propellants are loaded. At the launch site. The ML computer has the test routines stored itl its memory banks. =cape and pro-erection vehicle. The sensor outputs ate tent back to the ML computer complex for evaluation. TEST SYSTEM A computer controlled automatic checkout system is used to accomplish the VAB (high bay) and pad testing. The propellant tanking computer system (PT('S) dett'rmines and controls the quantities of fuel and oxidizer tm b_ard each stage. are then ueembled vertically on the ML in the high bay area. Test System Operation Test system operation for Saturn V launch vehicle checkout is conducted from the firing room (see figure 8-16). through the computer complex. The LCC computer. It is threugh this link that the control equipment and personnel in the firing room are informed of the test progress. The computers are connected by underground hardwire. prior to console operation. These routines are called into working memory and sent as discrete signals to the launch vehicle m response to the commands received from the LC(' counputer The ML computer reports test routine status. with the assembled space vehicle.'t to the stage console for display. I .'sponsc_ and results of test to the LC(" computer. the mare control for the system accepts control inputs fr :l test personnel at the consoles in the firing room as well as inputs from tape storage and transmits them as test commands to the MI computer. The ML computer complex _ends the signal to the ML signal conditioning equipment and then to the stage relay rack equipment.plex consists of two RCA-IlOA general purpose computers and peripheral equipment. The digital event evaluatovs are used to monitor the status of input lines and generate a time tagged printout for each detected change in input status. the C-T transports the parking area near the VAB for refurbishment. the space vehicle is connected to the LCC via a Idgh speed data link for integrated checkout and a timulated "light test. Decommutated test data is also fed to the ML and L('(" computer_ for processing and display. including preparations. "l'hc L('C computer conmmlunicates with the MI. instructions. the final system checks are completed. A complete test routine is called up by initiating a signal at the control panel. After vehicle launch.

CAFETERIA AND DISPENSARY Figure 8-15 8-18 .F GIIOUND m LCC FACILITY LAYOUT II COMPUTER DISPLAY ROOM DISPLAY SCREENS LAUNCHMANAG_HENT TEAM 3AD FLOOR FIRING ROOM 2ND FLOOR TELEMETRYAND RF -1 1ST FLOOR OFFICES.

.. lu t .. : llllliilll k.-GUI OABCE_. 1 I _---SIO CO._ MECHAN I CAL _E-------------_ NOTES I. Z. B. 3.-I MEAS & RF I'I i I I i i i i I i i I I t I I t i i I I i I I i-I-I-I PROPELLAHT$ I i I [] ---i i I Ililillillllliil 16.I iililtl I I lllllllll'Itl'll l.L | I CONFERENCE ROOM _ _ _ I'_"-"--":EE NOTES-'-_ / / I VISITORS GALLERY I _ f. 7.III GROUND SUPPORT f AUXTER.__TECH /SUPPORT/ -------i./"_OR'_-----" I 1111tlltltililll lliillllllllll t I I I t I I I I [ I DOD "'I i"-'--LVO_FACILITIES_ I l RANGE SAFETY _ / r'-. i LVD DOCUMENTATION CENTER li)lltl I lll I ltl tll I"ti I IIIlllllllll F"PATCH PACKS I ltll i I l llli r----MEAS REC_ i"ililliilill i'_---MEAS REC-_----_ i--------NETWORKS-------. S... PUBLIC AFFAIRS OFFICER _ J _ LOBBY _ s-Ic PROPOLSIO.°---_ I [NTEGRATEO I IIIIIIlitlll _-_PATCH 01ST----_ tiit)ltiil MEAS REC _ Illllilill _._.I lilllltili s Iii111111111 _OEE_ FT-F_ __lilt IH_A_OLI IiIiit Iiti GROUHoFFTFFFFFFF_ i._S-I. il I I I ]- _OWI t' IIIItl p"-'_PATCH DIST"_ 00_ llllll_OUNTiilllillllil CLOCK_DoAS-J.------MEAS REC_"O IO_MEA lllitillilll FFFT3__ _--_-MEAS REC-_ l illltlllllll MEAS REC--_.--. ilIl I J SHAFT i i I I I illl lil! IIIIIII _ STABILIZATION -_-. I _'_-'--I i TEST :_ i i I OPERATIONS-_ sc------_ I I I _/ r--T-l- I\ \ \ t"m_Lv _i" sc-"t / I . I _OTS-----_ _ F-F'F] T_!-FFFFF[-F[] _--AIR COND EQUIP--" I i'----PATCH PACKS---'_ I ilillllllli) (. g..I--_SPACECRAFTi. \ _ \ _ _._ PROPULSIO"/N_O_--'--" I Ill ll'lllltlIll /_ OIR TECH SUPPORT O/OIR LVO MSFC PROG MGR OIR LVO O/LAUNCH OIR LAUNCH DIR KSC OIR BIR SCO APOLLO/SATURN PROGRAM OFFICER 10._ FL I GHT CONTROL .s.I--.[i PROPULSIO./NE_ORKS-----_ r__._.-.{ ]_ CURITY PAD SAFETY _ SE I 1 '--'--' t I I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I [ I } SYSTEMS ENGINEERS _ I I Ili I I I1 I I I__ J _. 6._-_ _.-I 2 ELEC I I.i ¸.IN_RO0. 4. I O_E_ioNs MANAGEMENT -_ / ROOM Figure 8-16 8-19 .----Lv.

I .

fuel. space vehicle overall tests. The launch escape system. High bay activities include S-IC stage checkout. guidance and control. S-IVB stage and IU. pressurization and auxiliary propulsion system leak checks are made. The low bay activities include receipt and inspection of the S-II stage. and a simulated flight test. Test number 1 is performed to verify RF. assembly take place in the transported to the VAB Activities The VAB activities the spacecraft stages at KSC. Certain major events may be observed by members of the launch management team who occupy the first four rows in the firing room. A normal mission profile is followed during this time. MSO Building Activities engine leak safety system checks checks are made. Prepower and power-on checks are made to ensure electrical continuity. The S-IVB and IU umbilicals are secured are the in two assembly major and checkout activities high which are completed bay and the low bay. The spacecraft is then mated to the launch vehicle. Pre-power and power-on checks are made to ensure electrical continuity._ Low Bay Activities. IU S-band. This includes a simulated holddown arm release. A fuel tank inspection. An insulation leak check. The ML and space vehicle are now ready for transport to the pad. pressurization. stage mating. launch on the checkout leak check and made. are made. Any camera may be requested for viewing on the 10 x 10 foot screens in the firing room. the computer complex. Instrumentation. 27 of which are located on the ML. and integrated checkout of the spacecraft MSO building. hydraulic system leak check and propellant level sensor electrical checks are made. Following completion of the stage system tests. inspection. Pre-power and power-on checks are made to ensure electrical continuity. lox and F-I OPERATIONS place in the the VAB and The prelaunch operatinns (figure 8-19) take Manned Spacecraft Operations (MSO) Building. The S-IC stage is positioned and secured to the ML and access platforms are installed. propulsion. High bay checkout activities are accomplished using the consoles in the firing room. two space vehicle overall tests are made. propulsion. and range I After receipt of testing. and the assembly and checkout of the S-II and S-IVB stages. is installed on the command module of the spacecraft.GROUND SUPPORT Visual surveillance of launch vehicle checkout is provided to the launch management team and for distribution to MSC and MSFC through the operational television system (OTV). pressurization and range safety system checks are made. the launch pad. areas of the VAB:the . S-IVB engine hydraulic. S-IVB propellant. dolly. flight control. Sixty cameras provide this capability. launch vehicle integrated tests. The simulated flight test ensures that the space vehicle is ready for transfer to the pad. The umbilicals are secured to the vehicle plates. Test number 2 is performed to verify proper operation of all systems during an automatic firing sequence and flight sequence. ordnance. High Bay Activities. Vehicle separation. sequence malfunction and emergency detection system checks are made. stage systems tests. propellant level probes electrical vehicle integrated checks are accomplished. The S-II stage is mated to the S-IC stage. The umbilicals are secured to the vehicle plates. Engine hydraulic and S-II pressurization system checks are made. electrical umbilical ejection. 12 on the MSS and 6 in the LCC. A simulated flight test is run when the overall tests are completed. C-band and guidance and navigation system checks are made. the M L transports Changed 5 October 1969 8-21 . propulsion. propellant and range safety system checks are made. propellant and emergency detection system operation. The assembled spacecraft is VAB and mated to the launch vehicle. swing arm retraction and firing of live ordnance in test chambers. The significant launch vehicle events which are displayed 8-18. The S-II stage is brought into the low bay area and positioned J-2 engine checks are to the vehicle plates. and display equipment. Flight type batteries are used to check out internal power. Vehicle Transfer and Pad Mating Activities Figure 8-18 After completion of the VAB activities. Pneumatic. PRELAUNCH on the 10 x 10 foot screen are shown in figure The S-tVB stage is brought into the low bay area and positioned on the checkout dolly. The S-1VB stage is mated to the S-II stage and the IU is mated to the S-IVB. 15 in the pad area. After the spacecraft is mated. J-2 engine leak test. Instrumentation. The simulated flight test verifies proper operation of the space vehicle during a normal minus count and an accelerated plus count.

safe and arm devices.clOak GROUNDfJ_TPORT SCHEDULED DATES FOR SPACE VEHICLE PRELAUNCH OPkRATIONS AS_07 EVENT LM Operations Final Mute. The CDDT is performed t:l two phases. ]'he Countdown Demonstration Test (CDDT) verifies that the launch vehicle and the gr. 2. and exploding bridgewire detonators are inert 4. initiators. Approximately eight hours are required for this operation.)und s_pport vehicle are in launch slatus. once the vehicle and ML have been mated to the pad facility. two major operations must be performed. Aecent/desceot Stages SimulatedAltitude Run MannedAltitude Run LM/SLA Mate CSM Operations Docking Test Combined SystemTests Unmanned Altitude Run CSM/SLA Mate LV VAB Low Bay Operations IU Low Bay Checkout S-IVB Low Bay Checkout S-II Low Bay Checkout LV VAB High Bey Operations S-IC Erection LV Erection StagePower ON LV Malfunction Overall Test LV Se_ica Arm Overall Test Spac_raft Erection Space Vehicle VAB Operations Transfer to Pad Pad Operations LV Power ON ServiceArm Pressure Test LV Flight SystemsRedundancyTest SpaceVehicle Flight Electrical Mating SpaceVehicle Back-upGuidanceTest SpaceVehicle Flight Readiness Test SpaceVehicle Hypergolic Loading S-IC RP-1 Loading CDDT.Wet]Dry SpaceVehicle Inspection and Workoff Countdown START 24 Mar 69 COMPLETE 23 Jun69 28 Apr 69 6JunrO 16 Jun69 23 Jan 69 27 Jun 69 18 Apr 69 30 Apr 69 2 Jun 69 27 Jun 69 20 May 69 15 May 69 15 May 69 20 May 69 1 Jul 69 7 May 69 22 May 69 28 May 69 12 Jun 69 19 Jan 69 1Jul 69 8 SOp69 8 SOp69 14 Nov 69 10 SOp69 16 SOp69 25 Sop 69 25 Sap 69 29Sep 69 30 Sop 69 18 Oct 69 20 Oct 69 29 Oct 69 7 Nov 69 14 NOV69 START 28 Jun69 COMPLETE 26 Nov 69 25 Jul 69 4 Sap 69 17 SIp 69 26 Nov69 !1 Dec69 4* 0 28 Mar 69 26 Jan 69 21 Jul 69 5Sap 69 4 Dec 69 13 Jan 69 1 Aug 69 I Aug 69 31 Jul 69 16 Jul 69 12 Dec 69 18 Jan 69 1 Aug 69 7 Aug 69 5 12 15 15 9 17 Dec 69 Dec 69 Dec 69 Dec 69 Mar 70 Dec 69 24 Apr 69 7 May 69 18 Jun 69 1 Jul 69 8 Sap 69 8 Sop 69 12 Dec69 15 Dec 69 15 Dec 69 16 Jan 70 16 Jan 70 . CDDT is performed the .same as with the following major exceptions: the launch Service Arms No. The first is to verify the readiness of the launch vehicle. The dry CDDT is performed of the launch countdo.n exceptions: the same as tl_e last 3 I/2 hours witll the following major 8-22 Changed 5 October 19(/) . I and 2 are not retracted Digital Range Safety Command System plugs are used instead of flight code plugs test code Hypergol cartridges. spacecraft and launch facility to perform the launch sequence and the second is to complete the launch operation. Pad Activities In general.liJ r-. the wet CDDT and the dry CDI)T. 8-19 The wet countdown !. The space vehicle/ML are then interfaced with the launch pad._. igniters. Astronauts do not board the spacecraft. 20 Jan 70 21 Jan 70 10 Feb 70 11 Feb 70 20 Feb 70 2 Mar 70 9 Mar 70 4_ 41L_' 8 Nov 69 3 Mar 70 • Dates not available Figure the assembled space vehicle to the launch pad.

or correct. 9 is reconnected as soon system has stabilized in the park podtion as the 5.Auxiliary Propulsion System (APS) module _s serviced with hyperbolic propellants. The devices are certified at T-109 hours. Figure 8-20 lists the significant events of this period. ! and 2 are not retracted damper is not disconnected to a The primary attempt for a Service Arm No. The vehicle is switched to internal power. The S-IC Forward Service Arm provides the environmental conditioning interface between ground support facilities and the S-IC/S-II interstage area. The cryogenic tanks arc Changed 5 October 196q X-" . The length of the launch window on any launch date (four to five hours for lunar missions) is a mission peculiar constraint. Pressurization of the system is done at T-40 minutes. l)epressurization and gas removal must be accomplished in the event of a scrub if access is required in the S-IVB access control area. All pneumatic and propellant supply lines are vented and purged to prevent damage to the vehicle at umbilical release.a countdown programmed hold of six hours. and exploding bridgewire detonators are inert.9 seconds. A hold is defined as an interruption of the countdown for The S-lVB. in a recycle. This signal starts engine no. most major operations have been completed. in some cases. leaving an available battery life of 52 hours. are put in Launch Constraints Various operational.5 hours. Bniloff will continue until the various stage vent valves are closed for tank prepressurization and some vapor may be noticeable. These actions include holding and/or recycling. sefe and arm devices. When the countdown is interrupted. hold until the countdown can be resumed for a specific window. The Safe and Arm (S&A) devices are remotely controlled ordnance items used to make safe and/or arm the launch vehicle propellant dispersion systems. At T-8. Recertification is required in seven calendar days. preparations for the actual countdown are started. Launch mission rules specify a recycle to T-22 minutes if the countdown is interrupted between service arm retraction and S-IC ignition.cl cell cryogcnic. Launch vehicle batteries have a life of 120 hours activation.5 hours and are activated 28. HOLD AND RECYCLE CRITERIA Interruption of the countdown due to equipment failure. the battery life expended in a normal count is 68 hours. later window. Following the CDDT. Approximately four days before the launch readiness day. and . All onboard spheres are brought up to flight pressure and the crew roans the Command Module.5 hours prior to their installation. This constraint determines the maximum hold limit for the countdown period between T-8 hours i 5 minutes (start of cryogenic loading) and T-22 minutes (commence S-II stage start bottle chilldown). Hypmlgol cartridge=. Feasible actions also. Several of these factors are briefly discussed in the following paragraphs. 5 and causes the venting of the remaining high pressure pneumatic lines. During the final phase. The batteries are installed in the vehicle following at T-27. Arms No. Assmning a six hour mission requirement for the batteries. the launch commit signal is given. A turnaround comprises the actions required to recycle. . At T-O seconds.GIIOOItD II_[_IOIIT I. subsequent feasible actions depend on the function taking place at the time. the allowable S&A device life is 59 hours. At T-22 minutes. necessary purges launch mode and some service arms are retracted. conditioned and pressurized. Final check= are made on all subsystems. spacecraft and support equipment factors affect hold/recycle processing actions. The final phase of the countdown starts approximately nine hours prior to liftoff. the cryogenics are loaded. the rmal operations required for launch begin. igniters.on condition= unsatisfactory for launch or flight. the S-IC ignition command is given. the countdown begins and the space vehicle is subjected to the final checkout and servicing operations required for launch. 4. launch vehicle. With the start of the automatic sequence at T-187 seconds. The propulsion systems are serviced and prepared for launch. the decision to hold or scrub is made. and complete the countdown from the re-entry point to T-O. The devices are installed at T-102 hours and connected at T-I 1. such as the number of pressure cycles the propellant tanks have undergone. By the time spacecraft cios_out is complete. causing the holddown arn_ to retract hydraufically. the countdown designated point as specified For a scrub. or impose additional constraints on pad access during the rmal phases of the countdown. These four arms restrain the launch vehicle until a Satisfactory thrust level is achieved after which the controlled release assemblies provide for gradual release of the vehicle during liftoff. Propellants are being replenished as required to supplement cryogens lost due to boiloff. Launch board Service vehicle cryogenic propellants are not on unfavorable weather. This task takes two hours and requires use of the Mobilc Service Structure (MSS). weather or other causes may occur at any time. The preparations include items which would either compromise the safety of the vehicle if done later in the countdown. 3. in a normal count. Decilionlrepair and/or conduct time is the time available to make decisions repair operations before initiating the count. are affected by previous operations conducted on the vehicle. Device removal from the vehicle is required to perform recertification. initiators. repair Of hardware. The Command and Service Module ({'SM) ft. The water resulting from the reaction in the fuel cell is usod for drinkin:: purposes during space nlissiorts._ provide the electrical power for the spacccr:d't. the launch is stopped and returned in the launch mission rules must be rescheduled of 2.

0 0:22:00.IVB LH2 Precool (0-5%) S-IVB LH2 Fast Fill 1.0 6:27:00.0 0:00:50.0 0:45:00.1 0:00:30.0 0:01:12.0 LIFTOFF 0:00:08.0 0:10:00.0 O:3h3O.0 0:03:06.0 8:57:00.0 6:38:00.0 7:28:00.0 7:05:00.0 7:07:00.0 0:03:07.0 LIFTOFF 7:55:00.0 0:01:37.5%) S.5%) S-II Lox Tank Fast Fill (5-40%) S-II Lox Tank Fast Fill (40-96%) PreflightCommandSystem Test.0 0:01:37.0 0:26:00.5-98%) S-IVB LH2 Slow Fill (98-100%) S-II LH2 Replenish S-IVB LH2 Replenish Astronaut Loading TIME BEFORE FIRST MOTION (HR:MIN:SEC) START 1:40:00J) 1:00:08.0 6:27:00.0 0:35:00.0 0:08:00.0 7:39:00.0 STOP 1:10:00.9 3:58:00.3 System S-{VB Lox Tank Purge (GHe) S-II LH2 Tank Preconditioning S-II EngineTurbopump Purge S-II Lox Tank Purge(GN 2) S-IVB J-2 EngineTurbopump Purge S-IVB LH2 Tank Purge (GHe) S-II EngineThrust Chamber Purge (GHe) S-IVB Lox Tank Precool(0-5%) S-IVB Lox Tank Fast Fill (5-96%) S_IVB Lox Tank Slow Filf(98-99%) S-IC EngineThermal Conditioning IU CCSChecks $41 Lox Tank Pracool(0.0 LIFTOFF 0:08:00.9 8:34:00.0 0:04:37.5.II LH2 RecirculationLine Purge(GHe) S-IVB Lox Chilldown Pump Cavity Purge ST-124M3 System ON Start LV CryogenicLoading Prepareto LaunchTest IU Electrical DisconnectPurge S-II Turbine Start Bottle Purge(GHe) S-II Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump ON OperateDEE.0 8:00:00.0 8:16:00.0 8:27:00.0 6:44:00.0 0:00:08.0 1:00:00J) 0:57:00.0 LIFTOFF 1:00:00.0 0:34:30.0 7:43:00.0 7:39:00.0 0:43:00.0 0:42:00.0 0:05:00.0 0:05:3C.0 7:07:00.0 7:13:00.0 8:59:00.0 0:30:00°0 0:25:00.0 8:34:00.0 8:54:00.0 0:51:25.0 7:04:00.0 6:30:00.0 0:04:50.0 3:33:00.0 8:34:00.0 7:42:00.0 3:58:00.0 6:30:00.0 0:04:00.0 0:03:06.0 6:54:00.0 4:57:00.0 0:03:06.0 0:00:08_q 0:47:00.0 7:04:00.9 LIFTOFF LIFTOFF 0:00:17.0 0:40:00.0 3:28:00.0 7:31:00.0 6:30:00.0 0:00:08:9 0:00:08. Houstm S-II Lox Tank Slow Fill (96-99%) S-IC Lox Precool S-IC Lox Tank Slow Fill (0-6.0 0:00:16.0 0:08:00.0 0:02:47.0 0:00:08.0 0:05:00.0 8:00:00.98%) S-II Lox Tank Replenish S-IVB Lox Tank Replenish S-IC GHeSupply Bottle Pressurization S-IC Lox Tank Slow Fill (98-100%) $4C Lox Tank Replenish S-II LH2 Precool(0-5%) S-II LH2 Fast Fill (5-98%) S-II LH2 Slow Fill (98-100%) Q-Ball Powerand HeatersON S-IVB Lox Tank GHe Supply Bottle Pressurization S.0 3:33:00.0 STOP LIFTOFF 1:30:00.GROUND|_ TYPICAL PRELAUNCH SEQUENCE (SELECTED EVENTS FROM T-9:30:00.9 LIFTOFF 0:05:00.0 4:57:00.0 0:10:00.0 4:11:00.0 LIFTOFF 6:30:00.0 LIFTOFF LIFTOFF 0:00:11.0 4:36:00.0 6:02:00.0 4:11:00.0 5:45:00.0 3:28:00.0 4:55:00.0 0:04:30.0 0:30:00.0 0:14:30.0 8:00:00.0 7:28:00.0 7:42:00.0 EVENT EDS Test S-lC Fuel Level Adiust S4VB Ambient GHe Supply Bottle [_ization Azimuth Laying Final CCS Checks Preflight CommandSystemTat Final Tracking Sysmn Check CM At.0 3:28:00.0 7:39:00.II Lox Tank Preprassurization (GN2) S-II LH2 Tank Purge (GHe) S.2 0:00:08.0 8:00:00.0 0:05:30.0 7:28:00.0 7:24:00.0 EVENT Switch LV EnvironmentalConditioning From Air To GN2 G&C System Checks ST-124M3 GN2 SpherePressurization S-IVB Ambient GHe Supply Bottle Preprassurizetion LVDC Sector Sum Check S-IC Lox Tank Purge(GN 2) S.9 0:30:00.rue Arm in Park Podtion LES Armed GNC System Checks IU Gimbel Checks RangeSaf_y Commend Checks (Cloud Loop) S-IVB EngineGHe Bottle Pressurization S-II LH2 Chilldown Pump Test S-IVB Lox/LH 2 ChilldownPump Test Power Tranefer Test RangeSafety System ON S-II Turbine Start Bottle Chilldown (GH 2) Final SV Telemetry SystemChecks S4VB Turbine Start Bottle Purge S-IVB EngineThrust ChamberPurge S-iVB Turbine Start Bottle Chilldown S-II EngineThrust Chamber Purge (GHe) Prepareto Launch Test S-IC Fuel Jacket Topping (Glycol) S-IVB EngineThrust ChamberChilldown S-II EngineThrust ChamberChilldown S&A Devices Armed S4VB Turbine Start Bottle Pressurization Remove Q-ball Cover Retract and Lock CM Access Arm S-II Turbine Start Bottle Pressurization Terminal CountdownSequencerArmed Start Automatic Sequence S-II Lox Tank Prepremurization S-IVB Lox Tank Preprassurizatlon S-IC Fuel Tank Preprassurization S-II LH2 Tank Preprassurization S-IVB LH2 Tank Preprassurization S-IC LoxTank Preprassurization Transfer to Internal Power S-IVB LH2 Vent Directional Control Flight Position ON Retract and LockS-IC Intertank ServiceArm S-IC EngineHydraulic SystemFlight Activation GuidanceReferenceRelease Retract apd LockS-IC Forward _ervice Arm S-IC Ignition Command Monitor S-IC EngineThrust Buildup Monitor Thrust OK All S-iC Engines Holddown Arm Release 1 I Figure 8-20 8-24 .0 8:59:0G0 8:59:00.0 0:20:00.0 8:15:00.rF LIFTOFF 0:37:00_) 0:32:00.0 4:16:00.0 0:00:08.0 LIFTOFF 7:40:00.0 TO LIFTOFF) TIME BEFORE FIRST MOTION (HR:MIN:SEC) START 9:30:00.0 LIFTrl.0 0:10:00.0 0:15:00.0 0:13:00.0 8:15:00.0 LIFTOFF 0:04:37.0 0:31:30.0 5:45:00.7 LIFTOFF LIFTOFF 0:00:00.0 7:24:00.0 4:36:00.0 0:03:06.0 LIFTOFF 0:00:30.0 0:04:00.0 0:00:30.0 5:45:00.0 4:54:00.0 7:05:00.0 0:05:30.0 7:04:00.0 0:52:30.0 LIFTOFF 0:14:30.0 0:42:00.0 0:00:30.fl 0:00:06.0 6:54:00.0 8:59:00.0 0:10:00.0 5:45:00.9 4:55:00.0 0:00:01.3 0:00:01.0 0:00:40.0 0:03:07.0 0:42:00.0 0:20:30.0 7:28:00.0 8:15:00.9 0:00:05.0 8:00:00.0 8:00:00.IC Lox Tank Fast Fill (6.0 4:16:00.0 UFTOFF 0:46:25.0 4:11:00.0 7:28:00.0 8:02:00.0 7:40:00.0 0:00:17.9 0:00:04.0 0:03:07.0 0:00:u8.0 4:54:00.0 0:51:30.0 0:03:06.0 4:57:00.0 4:11:00.0 4:11:00.0 6:44:00.0 LIFTOFF 0:05:00.0 0:01:37.0 3:28:00.0 3:33:00.

EDS ready. The decision/repair tune available is dependent upon the time frame in which the interruption occurs and the selection of the subsequent launch window. located in the mobile launcher (ML). exhaust igniters installed. ordnance preparation complete. IU ready for firing. the gaseous hydrogen system can support four complete cycles of start tank chilidown operations from T-22 minutes to T-4. The operations mmciated with this alternative permits replacement of the launch vehicle and spacecraft batteries. LAUNCH CUTOFFINTERLOCK The Saturn V vehicle countdown is automatically controlled from "1"-187 seconds to T+6 seconds by the terminal countdown sequencer (TCS). _ciog of the spacecraft cryogenic systems and _cing of the LM SHe wstem. Capacities of launch support facifities and equipment such as the gaseous hydrogen and helium facilities. A second example. A brief description of each ". this alternative. This portion of the countdown is referred to as the automatic sequence. launch support preparation complete. there are no provisions for holding. hydraulic pressure OK.rs. The countdown is 1 J: Manual closure of the cutoff switch directly initiates a cutoff command. access platforms are removed and the countdown is resumed at T-9 hours. it can be stopped only by a cutoff signal. Required turnaround operations to permit vehicle repairs include cryogen downloading. the faring command preparation complete summation interlock must be activated. Turnaround Requirements IpLJIIq.. gas generator "es closed. The countdown is resumed at T-17 h:.g. the prowmre within the SHe tank can increase at a rate up to 10 psi per hour. The maximum allowable tank pressure. systems checks and/or repairs require vehicle acccss not obtainablc from the mobile lat.ption. spacecraft ready for launch. the necessary inspections. This capability may be used if the test conductor observes a condition serious enough to warrant cutoff. After loading and topping. The third turnaround alternative is required if LM Slle servicing b necessary. installation of access platforms and disconnecting S&A devices. and conditions. When repairs are completed. ignition source voltage OK. Once the automatic sequence has been initiated. the point at which the pad is cleared for the installation of launch vehicle batteries and the disconnec and removal of spacecraft cryogenic system servicing equipment. and many similar items. The MSS is required fo.7 _ loaded to sufficient capacity to tolerate a 56 hour delay for a normal count. the T-187 second pulse from the countclock will start the TCS. The fourth turnaround alternative is required when it becomes apparent that correction of the problem caus)ng the countdown interruption will exceed more than one maximum space vehicle system hold constraint. Manual Cutoff Capability Vehicle turnaround operations are required if a countdown interruption occurs after the initiation of vehicle cryogenic loading and if vehicle access is necessary to correct the problem causing the inten. The firing command preparation complete summation interlock includes many critical system parameters. The Lunar Module (LM) supercritical helium (SHe) system providm preuurization for the LM degent engine. The MSS Is required for CSM cryogenic servicing. e.Ogll' returned at T-9 hour_. all main fuel valves closed. In the first turnaround 'alternative the MSS is not required for vehicle access. Cryogenic boiloff and losses incurred when recycle operations require downloading of propellants may require replenishment of the storage tanks to support a subsequent launch attempt.lt is normally required if turnaround exceeds 56 hours. For the functions necessary (o accomplish vehicle turnaround during the countdown period from the start of cryogenic loading to liftoff. Cryogenic replenishme. Recharging is accomplished by mobile units which cannot be moved into position until launch vehicle cryogenics are downloaded. and the f'tring command enable switch on the S-IC launch control panel must be depressed. This provides a period for pad clearing prior to start of cryogenic loading operations at T-8 hours 15 minutcs. systems checks and/or repairs may be conducted within the space vehicle.5 minutes before recharging of the storage battery is required.t. With these three into-'3cks activated. For example. The duration of available decision/repair time varies within tile time frame in which the countdown interrupt occurs and the waivers exercised by the launch managers. Three interlocks must be activated prior to T-! 87 seconds to enable sequencer start: the TCS must be manually armed. the cryogenic storage facilities and the ground hydraulic supply unit affect hold and recycle capability. maximum hold times are affected by capacity of the Iox and LH 2 storage facilities. events. four basic turnaround alternatives are considered. the point at which SHe topoff is completed. the rate of tank preuure buildup and the elapsed time from SHe loading to engine ignition significantly affect the hold constraint imposed by the SHe system.f these alternatives is provided in the following paragraphs.ncher. hazardous gas checks. Manual cutoff is available at any time irom TCS start to umbilical separation. Improper operation or failure of any of these items will inhibit activation of the firing command preparation complete summation interlock and consequently prevent the start of the TCS. Inspections. Water generated by fuel cell operation must be drained if a hold will exceed 17 hours. Movcment and positioning of the MSS is accomplished in addition to the turnaround operations required for the first alternative. Turnaround operations can also be required if it becomes apparent that the maximum hold limits will be exceeded as a result of the countdown interruption. the S&A devices are reconnected. The countdown is resumed at T-28 hours. tank purge. all checkout valves in ground return position. In the second turnaround alternative. Instant Cutoff Interlocks The TCS may be terminated automatically following six cutoff interlocks: by any cmu of the FC?_ .

OIIOI_ID II_II_IIT S-IC stage IoOc cutoff. The cutoff signal is caused by (a) the presence of an engine shutdown signal on the stop solenoids from internal sources; or (b) a malfunction in either of the redundant range safety command destruct systems. The range safety command receiver system check is enabled from T-I 7 seconds to T-S0 milliseconds (ms).
. .

Sequencer power mrply failure. The cutoff signal is caumi by in out.of.tolerance value of the voltage mpply. A new battery backup interlock. TCS under development having a will eventually eliminate this

|

4.

SIC

main

fuel

valve

failure.

The

cutoff

signal

is

caused by (a) both main fuel valves on any engine open prior to hypergol rupture or (b) on any engine, one main fuel valve open while the other valve remains closed (to prevent lox-rich condition in the engines). For main fuel valve failure, engines will shut down in a 3-2 sequence with the f'wst three engines shutting down at cutoff and the other two I00 ms later. If the failure occurs in engine 2 or4, a preferred engine shutdown sequence win occur, i.e., 2, 4, and 5 followed by I and 3. If the failure occurs in engine I, 3, or 5, the normal engine shutdown sequence wiU occur, i.e., I, 3, and 5 followed by 2 and 4. If cutoff is caused by other than main fuel valve failure, the normal shutdown sequence will occur.

SIC voltage failure. The cutoff signal is caused by improper voltage output from either the stagc main bus (+ IDil) or the stage instrumentation bus (+lD21). Emergency detection system (EDS) failure. The EDS failure interlock is enabled from T-8.9 seconds to T-SO ms. A cutoff signal is caused by one of the three manual cutoff commands from the spacecraft or loss of one of the three EDS voting logic buses. IU failure cutoff. This interlock is enabled from T-8.9 seconds to T-50 ms. During this period, a loss of IU ready to launch will initiate cutoff. The IU ready to launch interlock monitors the IU power systems, the flight computer, and the presence of the S-IC ignition command.

5.

6.

_L

4

-

!
8-26

tin"

m

"3

r-

SECTION IX

TABLE

OF CONTENTS 9-1 9-1 9-8 9-11 9-13 9-13

A block diagram of the basic flight shown in figure 9-1. VEHICLE FLIGHT CONTROL

control

interfaces

is

INTRODUCTION ............................. VEHICLE FLIGHT CONTROL CAPABILITY ....... CONTINGENCY PLANNING AND EXECUTION ..... VEHICLE FLIGHT CONTROL PARAMETERS ...... MANNED SPACE FLIGHT NETWORK ............ MSFC SUPPORT OF LAUNCH AND FLIGHT OPERATIONS ................................ INTRODUCTION

CAPABILITY

Flight operations are controlled from the MCC. The MCC is staffed by flight control personnel who are trained and oriented on one program and mission at a time. The flight control team members perform mission planning functions and monitor flight preparations during preflight periods. Each member becomes and operates as a specialist on some aspect of the minion. MCC ORGANIZATION The Mt;C has two control rooms for flight control of manned space flight missions. Each control room, called a Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR), is used independently of the other and is capable of controlling individual missions The control of one mission involves one MOCR and ;_ designated team of flight controllers. Staff Support Rooms (SSR's), located adjacent to the MOCR, are manned by flight control specialists who provide detailed support to the MOCR. Figure 9-2 outlines the organization of the MCC for flight control and briefly describes key responsibilities. Information flow within the MOCR is shown in figure 9-3. The consoles within the MOCR and SSR's permit necessary interface between the flight controllers and spacecraft. The displays and controls on these consoles other group displays provide the flight controllers with capability to monitor and evaluate data concerning mission. Problems identified I. 2. 3. the the and the tthe

Mission control monitoring provides, at the various operational levels, the information required to control, direct and evaluate the mission from prelaunch checkout through recovery. The monitoring function during vehicle flight includes space vehicle tracking, receipt and evaluation of flight crew and launch vehicle status, transmittal of up-data commands to the onboard computer and voice communications with the flight crew. The facilities used in the accomplishment of the monitoring function include an assembly, checkout and launch facility, a central flight control facility, a worldwide network of monitoring stations and a real-time display system. Associated with the flight crew in mission control are the following organizations and facilities: ! Mission Control Center (MCC), Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas. The MCC contains the communication, computer, display, and command systems to enable the flight controllers to effectively monitor and control the space vehicle.
2.

operations

Kennedy Space Center, Cape Kennedy, Florida. The space vehicle is assembled and launched from this facility. Prelaunch, launch, and powered flight data are collected by the Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF) at KSC from the launch pads, CIF receivers, Merritt Island Launch Area (MILA), and the downrange Air Force Eastern Test Range (AFETR) stations. This data is transmitted to MCC via the Apollo Launch Data System (ALDS). KSC is the Impact Predictor (1P). Also located at

concerning crew safety and mission success are to flight control personnel in the following ways: Flight crew observations. Flight Review recorder controller real-time observations. data received from tape

of telemetry playback. of actual

4.
3.

Trend analysis Review

and predicted

values. specialists. previous mission

Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. GSFC manages and operates the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) and the NASA Communications (NASCOM) networks. During flight, the MSFN is under operational control of the MCC.

5. 6.

of coliected and

data by systems comparison with

Correlation data. Analysis testing. uf

7.

recorded

data

from

launch

complex

4.

George

C.

Marshall

Space

Flight

Center

(MSFC), Tile facilities at the MCC include an input/output designated as the Command, Communications and System (('CATS)anti a computational f:lcilily, Iht" Computer Complex IRT('('). Figure _1-4 sh(_w_ functional configuration. processor Telemetry Rt':d :liTnt" tht' _,1( (

Huntsville, Alabama. MSFC, by means of the Launch Information Exchange Facility (LIEF) and the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC), provides launch vehicle systems real-time support to KS(" and MCC for preflight, launch, and flight operations.

MlbSlONCONTROL The ('CATS consists of three Univac 494 general purpose at a rate of one sample per six seconds from all statv)ns actively tracking the spacecraft. Figure 9-5 shows ¢lat;i fh)w from liftoff to orbital insertion, As the launch vehicle is boosting the spacecraft to an altitude and velocity that will allow the spacecraft toattain earth orbit, the trajectory is calculated a,d displayed on consoles and plotboards in the MOCR and SSR's. Also displayed are telemetry data concerning status of launch vehicle and spacecraft systems. If the space vehicle deviates excessively from the nominal flight path, or if any critical vehicle condition exceeds tolerance limits, or if the safety of the astronauts or range personnel is endangered, a decision is made to abort tile missi on. During the orbit" phase of a mission, all stations that are actively trackinlz the spacecraft will transmit the tracking data through GSFC to the RTCC by teletype, at a frequency of one sample every six seconds, if a thrusting maneuver is performed by the spacecraft, high-speed tracking data at the rate of five s/s is transmitted in addition to the teletype data. Any major maneuver during a mission is planned to occur during or just prior to acquisition by a tracking station that can relay I'igh-speed tracking data to the MCC. This is to ensure that data is available for the calculation of the new spacecraft orbit and ephemeris.

computers. Two of the computers are configured so that either may handle all of the input/output communications for two complete missions. One of the computers acts as a dynamic standby. The third computer is used for nonmission activities. The RTCC is a group of five IBM 360 large scale, general purpose computers. Any of the five computers may be designated as the mission operations co_tputer (MOC). The MOC performs all the required computations and display formatting for a mission. One of the remaining computers will be a dynamic standby. Another pair of computers may be used for a second mission or simulation. SPACE VEHICLE TRACKING

|

From liftoff of the launch vehicle to insertion into orbit, accurate position data are required to allow .the Impact Predictor (IP) and the RTCC to compute a trajectory and an orbit, These computations are required by the flight controllers to evaluate the trajectory, the orbit, and/or any abnormal situations to ensure safe recovery of the astronauts. The launch tracking data are transm!,tted from the AFETR sites to the IP and then to the RTCC via high-speed data communications circuits at the rate of ten samples per second (s/s). '[he IP also generates a state vector smooth sample which is transmitted to the RTCC at a rate of two s/s. (A state vector is defined as spacecraft inertial position and inertial rate of motion at an instant of time.) The message from the IP to the RTCC alternately contains one smoothed vector, then five samples of best radar data. Low speed tracking data are also transmitted via teletype (TTY) to MCC

Approximately 25 minutes prior to anticipated spacecraft acquisition by a tracking station, a message giving time, antenna position coordinates, and range is dispatched to that station. This information is computed from the ephemeris and is used by station personnel to pre-position the antenna and enable spacecraft acquisition with minimum delay.

4

AFETR

II
Figure 9- I

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COMMAND.. [! TELEMETRY _ [] TRAJECTORY ''W-''__ COMMAND _ TELEMETRY TRAJECTORY "*----COMMAND LOADS COMPUTER COMPLEX (RTCC) IBM 360 i_ REAL-TIME rr i _" I I \ \ MISSION I / / TELEMETRY • "----COMMAND EXECUTE EXECUTE RESPONSE'--" _DISPLAYS VOICE COORDINATION 'i I --DISPLAYS SUPPORT ROOf. 0 AND P OFFICER COMMUNI CATIONS... AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM (CCATS) UNIVAC 494 I I GSFC [] vRr : _ . SPACECRAFT COMMUNICATOR ' . CONTROLLER l S/C COMMANDS AND DATA MISSION PROCEDURE STATUS 'l g MISSION PROCEDURE STATUS I Figure 9-3 FLIGHT CREW r J -.r WUlIIION [ I VEHICLE LAUNCH STAGES I STAGE STATUS SYSTEMS VEHICLE ] MISSION DI RECTOR >. • EQUIPMENT STATUS I M AND 0 "--7 J I _ _ FLIGHT INFORMATION I I SUPERVISOR _1-'_'[ _ _1_ FLIGHT CS DYNAHI GROUP } FLIGHT ] SYSTEMS ASSISTANT FLIGHT DIRECTOR STATUS MCC/MSFN STATUS "JIv I DIRECTOR STATUS .IS (SSR'S) I I " J t Figure 9-4 9-4 .

SET ANTENNA OMNI. if an update for a particular command is rece/ved after the inhibit for that command. Real-time commands are _tored prior to the mission in the Command Data Processor (CDP) at the applicable command site. SET ANTENNA LO-GAIN. real-time commands and command loads (also caped computer loads. F_ch sequence must be aepm'ately inhibited with the command beinC processed immediately alter LVD(" acceptance. The execution of a real-time command results in immediate reaction by the Ensinewtol_.7 MMmOIel COMMAND SYSTEM affected system. This command is addre. in alternate switch ulecSor sequence would jettbon l_e S. The rewiring telemetry and trajectory will reflect the maneuver and close the commandin8 loop. The SEQUENCE INHIBIT re. computer update. ReaHkne commands correspond to unique Sl_Ce vehk:Je hardware and therefore require careful plmmin8 to yield ¢onmtands which provide altenmf_ systems opasflon in the event of an anticipated failure. commands to the space vehicle fall into two categories. Other examples of trod-time commands are: LH 2 VENT CLOSED.il stale and the S-JVB mile would be u_ed to attain • pstldnl orbit. loads. a Un/vac b42B general purpose digital computer. TERMINATE. The effects of the command wlfl be obumred in subsequent data presented to the flilht control teem. and SET ANTENNA HI-GAIN. The CDP. P_miion plaoninl also includes commands necmmry to bdtbte ndio. or update). Among the exceptions is the "clock word" command. and output commands when a request for uplink is generated.ii enlina fail to ill. To prevent spurious commands from reaching the specs vehicle.'. the flight crew will move the switches from the BLOCK to ACCEPT position and thus permit the flow of uplink data. D_rJptions of aeve_l reid-time comnwnds used by the Booster System The Apollo ilronnd command systems have been dmilned to work closely with the telemetry and trajectory s:_stems to provide a method of "cl. the astronaut will maneuver the spacecraft at the optimum time specified by the command.. For example. such as maneuvertn8 the spececrafl. ! DATA FLOW. For example. should the g.. but Instead. the command may not be immediately executed. In some cases. This veriflm the correct execution of the command and closes the loop. LOX VENT OPEN. encode.time command provides the capability to inhibit a prolmmed sequence. usually a maneuver. LH 2 VENT OPEN.osed-loop" command which includes the astronauts and flight controllers as vital links in the commanding operation. switches on the Command Module console block uplink data from the onboard computers. is profffamed to format. ¢ont_ plans.Ss/O - e * DATA ALSO SENT VIA COI_UNI CATIONS SATELLITE AND RELAY STATION Figure _-. The ALTERNATE SEQUENCE reel-time commands permit the onbom'd Launch Vehicle Dtgt_l Computer (LVDC) to devkte &ore its nomml prolram and enter a predeflned. With a few exceptions. Real-Time Commends Real-time commands are used to control space vehicle systems or subsystems from the . At the appropriate times. altenute sequence of WOllmm steps. ._round. The manenvers may be inhibited in any random order required during the miion. analysis of epececrafl dsta by flight controllers results in a command to alter an observed condition. the inhibit is removed and the maneuver will occur at the update time specified.sed to the onboard timing system and is used when the downlink (telemetry) time word and the ground timing system arc out of" tolerance. LIFTOFFTO ORBITAL INSERTI(N TTY 1 S/6 --'-- SEC S/6 SEC .. re or the enllmel thut down prel_Ulrely.

the display request from it into digital format for The converter slide f'de data distributor routes slide selection data from the RTCC to reference slide files and converter slide f'dea. and "IV monitors): consolc digital readouts and event lights. dynamtc data formats which are processed and combined with background data on film slides. The display and control system interfaces with the RTCC and includes computer request. Due to the nature of these commands. detailed mimion control by the in the various specialty areas by Diq)lay Sysmm Several methods of displaying data are used including television (projection "IV. MCC is equipped with facilities of data from the MSFN and higl_ data !ow-ctpeed data. in the form of high-speed data and/or teletype messages to the appropriate site and stored in the command data processor. Control System A control system is provided for flight controllers to exercise their respective functions for mission control and technical management. the Fright Dynamics Officer (FDO). cause the computer to "make up" a command load.F mUION _ Command Command Loads loads are generated by the real-time computer Other examples of command loads UPDATE. SLV PRELAUNCII TARGET ORBrr TARGET UPDATE. it is transferred via NASCOM. group displays. When the load is "ready". Command loads are b. These indicator lights are operated by CCATS m response to the verification told/or reject messages received from the site. slide file. a load validation message is sent to the CCATS and to the flight controller. and vehicle system status. The event indtcator modules display discrete . the Guidance Officer (GUIDO). a television camera. digitalAo-TV converter and telemetry event driver equipments (see figure 9-6). encoder multiplexer. equipment modes. Disposition of each command is displayed by iddicator lights on the command panel. MOCR and detailed support the SSR's are made possible. system modes. to provide each operational position in the MOCR with the control and displav capabilities required for the particular mission. and by selecting the appropriate computer program. Flight controllers typically requited to generate a command load include the Booster Systems Engineer (BSE). special symbol and vector displays for conversion into video signals. "[he real-time TERMINATE command may by used to halt a sector dump before the last block of data is telemetered. closed circuit TV. This data diaplay to the flight controBers. communications equipment and assorted modules. the data structure csnnot be determined prior to the mission but must be calculated as a result of real-time data. When the command load is properly stored in the site's command data processor. plotting display. The CCATS will retain the load in memory where it is available for retransmission sh_JId difficulties be encountered in the transfer procedure. television channels.re contained in the following paragraphs. q-h . These units are assembled as required.m_ion evems. Prior to :he acquisition of the space vehicle by a site. "tile prcstored values will be adjusted immediately upon the receipt of the update command. The resultant display image on the face of the cathode ray tube is optically mixed with the slide file image and viewed b'. which transmits the mixed images to the TV monitors and projectors. When the load is approved. The SECTOR DUMP command causes the LVDC to telemeter the entire contents of one memory sector. The SEQUENCE INITIATE UPI)ATF+ command permits update of stored values for the time of initiation of each of the preprogramed maneuvers specified for the mission.Ic components are arranged to provide efficient operation and convenience for _hc flight controller. The NAVIGATION UPDATE command permits h.ading of six navigation parameters and an execution time into the LVDC. one of the voice coordination loops and each flight controller will execute his commands according to the priority assigned by real-time decision. are: TIM_ BASt. for example. may define the exact conditions under which a thrust may be applied that will change a faulty orbit to the daaired orbit. A command load.umi on the ¼test available telemetry and/or trajectory data. tiach BSI': event iliodule t:Gilsists of 18 hilevel indicators which permit a total of 3++ event posithms per modtde o . The encoder multiplexer receives the console keyboard and encodes transmission to the RTCC. Brief descriptiors of the console modules :. attd the Retrofire Officer (RETRO). teletype and is computer processed for With this displayed data. A typical console configuration for th_ Booster System Engineer ts shown it1 figure 9-7. DISPLAY AND CONTROL SYSTEM which provide for the input KSC over a combination of wide-band data. This process produces analog voltages which are applied to the appropriate element of a character-shaped beam cathode ray tube. request keyboards. This system is comprised of different groups of consoles with television monitors. The cons¢. The R/T CMD enables the circuitry to permit the command function for console/site combinations requested. The digital-to-TV data consists of preprogramed. computer-generated. UPD?Tli. and St. the flight controllers requiring command capability during the pass indicate their requirements to the Real-Time Command Controller (R/T CMD) in the CCATS area. When the space vehic!e has been acquired by the site. it will be announced o_ :. or a series of memory sectors within the same memory module. The RTCC operating personnel take data supplied by the flight controllers requesting the command load. Typical command loads (BSE)are described below. The digital-to-television conversion is accomplished by processing the digital display data into alphanumeric. this command is used to telemeter the memory sector in which the navigatiotl update parameters are stored. The SECTOR DUMP command applies to the orbital phase. receives RTCC control data signals required to generate individual console television displays and large scale projection displays. it is reviewed by the responsible flight controller via the display system._ complex on request of flight controllers. For example. and distributes control signals to a video switching matrix to connect an input video channel with an output television viewer or projector channel.

BNE consoles may obtain a hardcopy of a display by use of a PBI.'ORJ L LAMPS I Figure o-6 ]DISPLAY I t)-/ . The SMEK is also used to instruct the RTCC to convert messages to designated MSFN appropriately labeled PBI's. The status report module (SRM) provides flight controllers in the MOCR with the mean_ to report mission status to the flight director and assistant flight director and to review systems status in the SSR's. or a reference file for viewing on the TV monitor. The abort request indicator provides the capability. This produces a priority command to the spacecraft. by toggle switch action. The Iffound from liftoff. determined prior to the mission. data into sites.'LA'. used in The analog meter module displays parameters in engineering units. can be displayed.number thumbwheel encoder. rhe specific module teletype contains O The communications module provides rapid access to internal.1 lmuol¢ Another type of event module has the capability to display up to 72 events. closed circuit TV within the MCC and KSC. reference f'de data. The manual select keyboanl (MSK) permits the flight controller to select a TV channel. Flight controllers may monitor as well as talk over these circuits. The dgnals affecting the lights are telemetry inputs from the space vehicle. to indicate an abort condition. display request) and a select. external. Console modules not illustrated in figure 9-7 but MOCR and SSR consoles are described below. The desired item is selected by use of a PBi three.mode switch (TV channel. and commercial voice communications circuits. The module also indicates receipt/rejection of commands to the space vehicle and verification of proper storage of command loads in a site command data processor. elapsed time module shows the elapsed time cmcgltm. a computer-generated display format. and commercial TV. The command module provides the flight controller with the means to select and initiate real-time commands and command loads for transmission to the spate vehicle. The hardcopy is delivered to the console via a pneumatic tube system. Up to 15 measurements. The TV monitor module provides viewing of computer-generated displays. The summary message enable keyboard (SMEK) permits the flight controller to instruct the RTCC to strip out selected data from telemetry inputs and to format this data into digital-to-TV summary displays. There are movable markers on each meter which are manually set to show the nominal value CONSOLE KEYBOARDS II I II I t DIGITAL DISPLAY DATA DISTRIBUTOR I [ACCUMI. reference file. The modules are made up of pushbutton indicators (PBI's) which are labeled according to their function.

to the human or medical aspects . non-nominal subsystem with alternate mission 3. flight control procedures. during 9. Redline critical vehicle. preflight training and simulation. listed items and also mission go/no-go Mandatory and highly desirable instrumentation control of the space vehicle after liftoff. which includes prelaunch. The mission rules are based upon the mission objectives and on the objective of maintainin$a high degree of confidence in crew safety during mission implementation. 3. Planning ['or a mission begins with the receipt of mission req uirements and objectives. flight and recovery operations. When the flight controller acknowledges the lit PBI by depressing it. which manual "" * Mission rules are a compilation of rules governing the treatment of contingency situations. The time span before bunch cutoff will not be attempted. 7.::b. MSFN and MCC support. 4. CONTINGENCY PLANNING AND EXECUTION 6. rules cover the as _ppropriate. data acquisition and flow.is time of spacecraft liftoff. voltage. a red warning light at the bottom of the meter is lit.gency operations. Mandatory and highly desirable range and MSFN support required to support the mission after liftoff. 8. flight crew activities.r . The purpose of the mission rules is to outline preplanned actions to assist in making rapid re'd-time decisions during prelaunch. following listed items and | Mandatory and highly desirable onboard instrumentation requ/red to collect data for flight control piirposes or postflight evaluation. Space vehicle nominal and performance in accordance capabiliW.. Redline values are the maximum and/or minimum limits of a parameter (redline function) necessary to describe system and component performance and operation. The light extinguishes when the parameter returns to tolerance or the exceeded limit is manually extended. performance limitations recovery anti q-8 ta. Launch Mission Rules i_unch mission other infommion I. the appropriate PBI in the module illuminates as a warning. Man. When a parameter exceeds the established tolerance. Range safety requirements and instrumentation established by the Air Force Eastern Test Range.ff 7. a readout indicator on the FDK will display a four digit code which identifies the di3play format on which the out of tolerance parameter appears. Flight Mission Rules Flight mission rules cover the following medical decision rules for appropriate points. 10. Redline values defining upper and lower limits of parameters. current and operating time. _intlow rules pertaining to such items . Included in this documentation are the mission rules. Wind and weather Long. launch azimuth. Recovery Laull. MISSION RULES Launch window def'mition and launch pertaining to launch operations. onboard the space 2. The display is called up by depressing the appropriately labeled PBI. This keyboard provides the same capability as MSK in the "display request mode" except that the callup is faster in that thumbweeI selection is not required. Rules relating manned flight. When _n out of tolerance condition occurs. Trajectory and guidance. window rules as 4.MIUIONCOICDtOL of the parameter as well as the upper and lower limits. 8. such as pressure. flight. The space vehicle functional sequence.latory and highly desirable range and instrumentation support required to prepare and launch ihe space vehicle and accomplish postflight analysis. Mandatory and higidy desirable instrumentation required to verify that vehicle is ready for launch. mission 5. functions are mandatory items. Mission documentation covering all aspects of the mission is developed and tested during the planning and training period. and recovcry operations that ensure crew safety and effective operational control as well as the attainment of the primary mission objectives. The forced display module (FDK) indicates to the flight controller a violation of preprogramed limits of specific analog parameters as determined from the incoming data. Mandatory and highly support in the MCC. 5. for any system/subsystem essential to mission success.range camera restrictions coverage on the launch. desirable items of for 2. and other mission related operations. restrictions. Simulations are planned and performed to test procedures and train flight control and flight crew teams in normal and contir. required for the launch. I. The simulation and training exercises result in a state of readiness for the mission. temperature. The display request keyboard (DRK) provides a fast means of requesting the RTCC for a specific display format. 6. and subsequent analysis and evaluation. The planning activity results in specific plans for prelaunch and launch operations. The mission rules categorize the degree of importance assigned to space vehicle/operational support elements as follows: A mandatory item (M) is a space vehicle element or operational support element that is essential for accomplishment of the primary mission. A highly desirable item (HD) is a space vehicle or operational support element that supports and enhances the accomplishment of the primary mission or is essential for accomplishment of the secondary mission objectives. recovery operations.

dealing with the emergency detection sYstem. MCC requests abort of the mission or. In the Mission Control Center. 4. EDS.send an abort request signal from the time the launch es_pe system (LES} is armed until the space vehicle reaches sufficient altitude to clear the top of the umbilical tower. and the emergency Wocedures related to mission abort. Typical on which mimion rules are based are The Command Pilot of a manned mission may initiate inflight action as he deems necessary for crew safety. 14. 19. I_--W: 7 MtS. are rescheduled to derive maximum modified mission. ABORTGROUND RULES over the contingency. and Booster Systems Engineer have the capability to send an abort request signal. In the event such conditions are discovered. ATTITUDE CONTROL) EVENT INDICATORS (GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION. Time critical aborts must be initiated onboard the spacecraft because sufficient time is not available for response by the MCC ground based flight controllers. Flight Dynamics Officer. EVENT INDICATORS (S-IC/S-II) EVENT INDICATOR (VEHICLE TELEMETRY STATUS. ATTITUDE CONTROL) COMMUNICATIONS MODULE 8. 7. 12. 10. circumstances permitting. the Launch Director and Flight Director have concurrent responsibifity for sending an abort request. sends t_rrective commands to the vehicle or requests corrective flight crew action. 9. all manual abort requests from the ground during flight will be based on two independent indications of the failure. are refmed as required. In the event of a non-catastrophic recommends alternate flight procedures. 13. 15. The malfunctions and corresponding hazards are incorporated into the premiss/on simulations and the mission rules malfunctions/hazards listed in figure 9-8. describes the manual and automatic capabilities for mission abort designed into the Satura-Apollo system. Control of the space vehicle passes from the launch Director to the Flight Director when the space vehicle dears the top of the tower. RANGE SAFETY) EVENT INDICATORS (S-IVB) GROUND ELAPSED TIME MODULE EVENT INDICATORS (GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION.. 18. If. MCC and raison events benefit from the Malfunctions Right crew safety shall take precedence accomplishment of mission objectives. 2. Where possible. are analyzed and a nussion rule is developed to respond to the malfunction. such ['o-'I O O O O O O 17 1. Also described in Section !11 are the abort modes and limits.!i • _ ti . 16. The detection of slowly diverging conditions which may result in an abort is the ixime responsibility of MCC._AHBBUa. 17. From liftoff to tower clear. TV MONITOR TV MONITOR TV MONITOR COMMUNICATIONS MODULE COMMAND MODULE COMMAND MODULE COMMAND MODULE STATUS REPORT MODULE ABORT REQUEST MODULE MANUAL SELECT KEYBOARD COMMUNICATIONS MODULE SUMMARY MESSAGE ENABLE KEYBOAkD Figure 9-7 . 5. 3. 6. COMMAND. the Flight Director. LAUNCH VEHICLE which MALFUNCTIONS/HAZARDS could result in loss of the space vehicle 0 Section ill of this manual._ VEHICLE MISSION ABORT CAPABILITY The Launch Operations Manager may .

No.6 seconds (tower sideengineonly) 4. lossof control after 75 seconds S-II SUMMARY Dual Engine Out Possible Lossof Attitude Error Signal 1.7 seconds 2._ No S-ICI S-II First Plane Separation No S-II SecondPlane S_zration Failure to Jettison LET No S-II/S-IVB Separation PU System Failure Certain Possible 1.lossof contlol Certain 1 9-10 .9 rounds 3.ce up to 0. may generatehectingproblem I.no advene effect 2. Holddownarm interfm. or lower end centerengines. Lossof vehicledueto overheating Certain Requiresuseof emergency proceduresfor removalof LET after orbit is achieved I. causes actuatorshardoverin affected plane.2 seconds(plus yaw only) 3. I:e!!urain yaw end roll to large e. deviation from nominaltrejectot/qnd increased S-IVB first burn times 1. Failure in pitch to current value tilt mlmt 1. Tower collisionup to 3. Actuators hardover. or upper end centerengines) Certain 1. Holddown arm interferenceup to 0. Pad fallback up to 0.. Exponential divergenceof vehicle Certain attitude at all flight times.F MISSION COKIltOL TYPICAL LAUNCH VEHICLE MALFUNCTIONS/HAZARDS Abort Malfunction PomibioHazard S-IC SUMMARY Gingio Engine OUt 1. Lossof control in max. For pitch or yaw.5 seconds prior to secondplane separation. Deviationfrom nominal trajectory and increased S-IVB first burn times None Possible Single Engine Out Possible None 1. excessive attitude deviation Probable S-IVB SUMMARY " (Applicableto both firstand secondburnsexcept where nnted) Saturated Error Signal 1° Certain For pitch or yaw. Tower collisionup to 5. With an engine out at approximately 3. causes actuatorshardover in the affected plane. For pitch or yaw. Pad failback up to 30 seconds 2.q region with 5-95 percentilewinds Dual Engine Out Certain 1. ion of control Certain Sio.3 seconds (2 tower side engines) 4. Lois of control in max-qregion with advem winds Actuator Herdovar 1. vehicleand interstaga collisionis possible 2.orbit isnot possible 1.25 seconds Certain 2.loss of control Certain Pouible Lore of Attitude Rate Certain Rapidvehicle oscillation end buildup of excasive vehicle rates 1. Holddown arm interferenceup to 1. CSMjoint capability exceededup to 120 seconds (adjacent control engined 5. Lossof control up to 60 seconds (2 opposite engines.5 seconds for plussaturation in yaw and up to 6. Tower Collisionup to 3.uznt valuescennz lots Of control 2. Possible lossof control _.5 seconds 3. Certain Saturated Control Signal Primry effem ere trajectory deviationsand incrmed S-IVB first burn times None OneActuator Herdover 1. Pad failbeck up to 30 seconds 2. Lossof mission. lossof control Figure 9-8 Saturated Error Signal Sheet l of 2) 1.5 secondsfor negative yaw saturation 4.. Lossof control (rapid tumbling) at all flight times and for all v_nds Lossof Attitude Rate Signal Lm of Attitude Error Signal Oscillatorydivergenceof vehicle attitude at all flight times. Tower collisionup to 7. S-II ignition possible Certain Requimmmt Malfunction Loisof Attitude Commend PossiMeHazard Abort Requirement Certain !. For inboard cam. lossof error signalcauses dow divergence from nominal trajectory and. Nona . For cases other than 1.|. eventually. Holddown arm interferenceup to 1.2 seconds 3. above. For outboardcase.

Deviation from nominal trajectory.hh_w. there are a number of operational support elements such as ALDS. if TLI isattained.m.l. Representative parameters included in this essential data will be briefly described in the following paragraphs. and component performance capability.yMt. displayed._. S-IVB. ground supl_ort. for confirming inflight |'_OWCl'.ti. processed. Excessive attitude deviation if failure occursprior to 30 secondsbeforenominal S-IVB cutoff Certain NOTE: Except where othmwiN noted. eventually.-1 MB_UONCONTROL TYPICAL LAUNCH VEHICLE MALFUNCTIONS/HAZARDS Abort Mllfuection Pmible Hazard S-IVB SUMMARY (Continued) Lmof Affitoda Comm-qd 1. Actueton burdovar.t PARAMETERS GROUP MONITORED BY BOOSTER SYSTEMS 4 ' The launch vehicle checkout and prelaunch operations monitored by the Launch Control ('enter (LCC) were briefly discussed in Section VIII of this manual. They arc rcsponsihle for abort actions due to failure or loss of thrust and _wcrralc conditions. Duringpoweredflight (secondburn). range safety.liollill Iii . less of control in all three axes 3. and other ground support facilities which 11111_I IW opPr. roll ._p_t'ifit. ctc: for monitoring atll|lltlc colmol tll)tl '. During EPO. causes attitude deviationsmd small changes in vehicle rates 2. hydraulic supply pressures.¢ separations :1111. S-il. transmitted.vahicle rates may causedifficulties for TD&E EngineOut 1. los of attitude control 3. telemetry. and IU) and advises the flight tlircctor aad flighl crew of any system anomalies.lt._ Lossof Attitude Rate Signal Lossof Attitude Error Signals I.llldillt. excessive attitude deviation 1. los of control s_. system. CSMinsertion is pessiMeif engineout ocurredafter 10 minutes of flight time 2° Duringsecondburn. The redline wdues must be within the predetermined limits or the countdown will be halted.It_C |gfilllon. During tint bum. 1.sof Both AP8 Modules PcasiMaHazard I.1 for digital colllnl. range instrumentation. TLI capability determinedby real-time analysis None (Continue_) Abort Requirement Certain Possible Satumled Rite 1.all cn_inc_ go.. Failure in pitch to currant valuecauses tilt arrest Carton Cwtain (except for late portion of bum) Certain Requirement Malfunction Lo. I)uring the final countdown. vehicle rateswill continue uncorrected.. causes d0w divergence from nominal trajectory and. . hundreds of parameters are monitored to ascertain vehicle. H 2 and 0 2 concentrahons.re pressure. Failure in yew to largeoffset value causes lots of control 2. PARAMETERS MONITORED BY LCC Typical redlines are fuel and oxidizer tank ullage pressure. lea of roll control 2. thrust chamber jacket temperatures. These operations determine tile state of readiness of the launch vehicle. or I v _. Lossof control ProbeMa Certain Possible PU System Failure OneActuator Hardovar One Actuator Inoperative None Stagingto SPS Certain 1.presenting difficulties for TD&E Certain Lossof One APS Module During poweredRight (first and secondburns). In addition to the redlincs. The Booster Systems Group monitors launch vehicle swlcm_ (S-IC. and S-IVB oxidizer and fuel recirculation pump flow. time is measuredfrom launch first motion Figure 9-8 (Sheet VEHIE _E FLIGHT CONTROL PARAMETERS 2 of 2) In order to perform flight control monitoring functions.. DuringTLI coast.. IU guidance computer operations.d llllie_ lit fhrt. bus voltages.Jnd pitch iniliah. essential data must be collected. sl. GN 2 and helium storage spht. Ion of roll control. hohldown release. Rapid vehicleoscillation and buildup of excessive vehicle rates For pitch or yaw. During EPO. cn_. Among these parameters arc the "redlines". ground communications.c cutoffs.]. Duringpowmed flight (first bum). ground tracking and telemetry stations. and other operational support systems. and evaluated to dctermine the space vehicle's capability to start or continue the mission.

in the event of rejection of a command by the onboard computer. detailed specialized support by the flight Attitude Control and Stabilization Systems (ACS) Engineer monitors the attitude control system. the S-IVB hydraulic and auxiliary propulsion systems. Naviga. and digital (sequential) BSE systems. The following SSR.iaintains and analyzes consumables status. and other data. and the Retrofire Officer (RETRO). space vehicle position. for commands to the launch vehicle. PARAMETERS GROUP MONITORED BY SPACECRAFT SYSTEMS 7. helium storage tank pressure. latitude versus longitude. start tank pressure/temperature. Typical plotboard displays generated from the surveillance parameters are altitude versus downrange distance. and latitude versus flight path angle. and for monitoring and evaluating the SIC and S-ll flight performance. BSE No. THRUST OK pressure switches.ion. he determines the cause of the rejection. guidance and navigation. flight path angle versus inertial velocity. landing point prediction. ephemeris. subiimator inlet temperature. mechanical. 3. The MOCR positions of this group include tile Command Service Module Electrical. antenna polarization angle. 2 of mission impact when consumables predicted limits. and the emergency detection system.MIsmoN CONTROL Specific !. and ('ontrol Engineer (('SM (. ST-124 gimbal temperature and bearing pressure. Typical parameters monitored include roll/pitch/yaw guidance and gimbal angles. 2. 3. Electrical monitors Network electrical and Systems (all (ENS) LV Engineer IU The surveillance parameters measured by the ground tracking stations and transmitted to the MCC are computer processed into piotboard and digital displays.Z axes). Typical parametem monitored include exploding bridgewire voltages. 3 monitors the attitude control. PARAMETERS GROUP MONITORED BY are depleted beyond 2.Y. the Guidance Officer (GUIDO). vent valve positions. attitude control fuel and oxidizer module temperatures. 4. engine actuator (yaw/pitch/roll) position. longitudinal acceleration.N('). 3. engine ignition/cutoff. electrical. systems stages). BSE No. and main stage propellants. provides detailed support to BSE No. velocity. Consumables Engineer monitors status at all times of launch vehicle consumables including all high pressure spi:eres. bulkhead pressure differential and chilldown and provides detailed support to the BSE No. I-nvironmental. and and ('SM Ihe and 8. 9. etc. The flight dynamics group compares the actual data with premission calculated nominal data and is able to determine mission status. optical. The ENS 9-12 . position and The Flight Dynamics Group monitors and evaluates the powered flight trajectory and makes the abort decisions based on trajectory violations. Typical parameters monitored include hefium tank pressure. Among the parameters monitored are thrust chamber pressure. Engine Systems Engineer monitors the S-ll and S-IVB engine systems and O2/H 2 burner and provides detailed support to BSE No. entry time and orbital maneuver determinations. LVDC temperature. and various bus voltages. Typical paramete_rs monitored include hydraulic accumulator pressures. environmental contr. navigation. azimuth and elevation angles. may be calculated. coordinates telemetry playback: determines spacecraft weight and center of gravity: and executes digital commanding of spacecraft systems.q system. 2. pre-valve position. engine inlet Iox and LH 2 pressure. Parameters monitored are similar to those monitored by BSE No. and O2/H 2 burner chamber dome temperature. and common bulkhead pressure.Z (X. Typical parameters monitored includes ST-124-M3 acceletometer and gyro pickups fixed velocity (X. rendezvous planning. prepares mission log. The Spacecraft Systems Group monitors and ewduates the performance of spacecraft electrical. It is responsible for abort planning. etc.. trajectory. The ACS provides detailed support to BSE's No. Stage Systems Engineer monitors the pressurization. aml life support systems. rhe surveillance parameters include slant range. hydraulic reservoir piston position. From these measurements. 1 on their status. malfunction of the computer. 10. Environmental. and IU systems.. and excessive rates (pitch/roll/yaw). controllers are located are located in the vehicle in the system FLIGHT DYNAMICS The preceding flight MOCR. fuel and oxidizer tank ullage pressure.Y. and fixed components). 6. Typical flight control parameters monitored include engine combustion chamber presmre. The MOCR positions of the Flight Dynamics Group include the Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO). 1 has overall responsibility for the group. i. II Command commands Systems sent to the Engineer monitors launch vehicle and the advises BSE No. _-_ponsibilities in the group are allocated as follows: BSE No. The GND provides detailed support to BSE No. . and digital commanding of the guidance systems. 2 and 3.e. inertial alignment correlation. 2 supports BSE No. and various bus voltages and ¢urrents. He advises the BSE No. Lunar Module Electrical. GN 2 regulator inlet temperature. and various bu_ voltages. malfunction of the command system. improperly coded command. repressurization. and range safety systems (sating at orbital insertion). engine gimbal system supply pressure. Communications Fngineer (CSM EI_('t)M). the Guidance. flight path angle. The MOCR positions dynamics are given SSR. APS propellants. 1. Guidance and Navigation Systems (GND)Engineer monitors the guidance. 1 in monitoring the S-ll flight and assumes responsibility for monitoring the S-IVB burns. angular rates.

7 mNION OONlrltOL Communications Engineer (LM EECOM). ships. launch.000 miles).aunch ('ontrol Center (LCC) within 60 minutes after wind data transmission. MSFC also provides support via postflight data delivery and evaluation. under_a cable. and MSC is controlled by MSC and is not routed through GSFC.as¢. telemetry. Western Test Range (WTR). PRELAUNCH WIND MONITORING MSFN stations are categorized as lunar support stations (deep-space tracking in excess of 15. television. and near-space support stations without USB equipment. These petitions are backed up With detailed support from the vehicle systems SSR. Angle of attack. and Australian Department of Supply (DOS). command. other circuits are provided for launch coordination. Florida and Wheeler AFB. NASA COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS The NASA Communications (NASCOM) network is a point-to-point communications systems connecting the MSFN stations to the MCC. Figure 9-10 shows the geographical location of each station. The LIEF operations support organization is shown in figure 9-12. Figure O-II depicts a typical NASt'OM configuration. The Apollo Insertion and injection ships have a similar capability through the communications satellites. and recovery. These circuits carry teletype. LAUNCH INFORMATION EXCHANGE FACILITY and flight LIEF for The Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) is a global network of ground stations. the Huntsville Operations Support (HOSC) provides real-time support of launch vehicle prelannch.oddard Space Flight Center.('(' for [ox and LH 2 loading. and Canberra. The ALDS consists of wide-band telemetry. and a high speed circuit for the Countdown and Status Transmission System (CASTS). and aircraft designed to support manned and unmanned space flight. and capabilities. voice and teletype communications. In the event of marginal wind conditions. Simulations are made on either the IBM 7094 or B5500 computer and results are reported to the I. operations. voice coordination circuits. Beginning at T-24 hours. recording. and related facilities used by the MSFC launch vehicle design team to support Apollo-Saturn mission operations. communicatmns. engine deflections and structural loads are calculated and compared against vehicle limits. respectively. Patrick AFB. Recovery forces under DOD are not considered to be part of the MSFN. The MSFN stations throughout the worhl are interconnected by landline. SPS helium tank pressure. Range Instrumentation Ships (RIS). launch escape tower and motor discretes. In addition. Typical parameters monitored by this group include fuel cell skin and condenser temperatures. data processing. and Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft (ARIA). and fuel and oxidizer inlet pressure differential. launch. Navigation. various battery and bus voltages. The group is headed by the Flight Surgeon in the MOCR. $ The Life Systems Group is responsible for the well being of the flight crew. MSFN stations include facilities operated by NASA. PARAMETERS MONITORED BY LIFE SYSTEMS GROUP MgFC SUPPORT OPERATIONS OF LAUNCH AND FLIGHT voice/data circuits and two teletype circuits. System support engineers from MSFC and stage contractors are organized into preselected subsystem problem groups (approximately 160 engineers in 55 groups) to support KSC and MSC in launch vehicle areas which may be the subject of a request for analysis. Honolulu. In-depth real-time support is provided for prelaunch. The Apollo Launch Data System (ALDS) between K_. The capabilities of MSFC laboratories and the System Development Facility (SDF) are also available. voice. and data in real-time support of the missions. AGCU drift. and flight operations from HOSC consoles manned by engineers who perform detailed system data monitoring and analysis. tracking data. public information. MANNED SPACE FLIGHT NElrWORK The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by means of the Launch Information Exchange Facility (LIEF) ant. radio anti communications satellite circuits. the the The DOD facilities include the Eastern Test Range (ETR). White Sands Missile Range (WMSR). near-space support stations with Unified S-Band (USB) equipment. At T-2 1/4 hours. configured to meet The LIEF encompasses those personnel. where the primary communications switching center is located. andthe LM Guidance. United States Department of Defense (DUD). and Control Engineer (LM GNC). Figure 9-9 is a matrix listing the stations. SPS fuel and oxidizer tank pressure. contingency data balloon releases are made by KS(' on :m hourlv after T-2 I/2 hotirs and a go/fie-go recothmt'ndalitm transmitted to KS(' fi_r each contingency rek. designators. simulations. fuel cell current. Each MSFN USB land station has a minimum of five Prelaunch flight wind monitoring analyses and trajectory simulations are jointly performed by MSFC and MS(" personnel located at MSFC during the terminal countdown. The network provides tracking. A go/no-go condition is also relayed to the 1. The network is specifically the requirements of each mission. and television capabiliUes. actual wind data is transmitted periodically from KSC to the HOSC. Aeromedical and environmental control specialists in the life systems SSR provide detailed support to the Flight Surgeon. Three smaller NASCOM switching centers are located at London. These data are used by the MSFC/MSC wind monitoring team in vehicle flight digital simulations to verify the capability of the vehicle with these winds. a go/no-go reconunendation ns transmitted to KSC by the wind monitoring team. wind basis ts I'his t) 13 . The group monitors the flight crew health status and environmental/biomedical parameters. NASCOM is managed by the (. Hawaii serve as switching centers for the I)OD eastern and western test ranges. display.

Malagasy {NASA) Corpus Christi. Hawaii (NASA) Madrid. (_ USNS Huntsville uoes not have uDdata capability (_ ARIA do not have update or range and range rate capability (_) VHF antenna for telemetry and tracking (_ Apollo telemetry and command remote site data processors (UNIVAC 542B) _'_ MSFN wlnqs of Jet Propulsion Laboratory buildings at these Lunar Support Stations Figure 9-9 g 9-14 Changed 5 October 1969 Itmr . support is normally provided from liftoff through the active launch vehicle post-spacecraft separation phase. as required. Mexico (NASA) * Kokee Park. and for rovidinl advisory contact with vehicle design specialists. range and range rate.mid WSlI_ 01)N11_ continpncy data CIF/DATA-CORE on-line to expedite Ground MSFC is provided MSFC in and trajectory simulatiom reporting to KSC. California _ ** Guam (NASA) * Guaymas. The HO$C en0neering consoles provide support. updata. Australla Cape Kennedy (DOD-ETR) Carnarvon. SUPPORT to the At liftoff. Goddard Alr ODeratlons Control Center.data are received are computed and displays in CIF. communications Group at primary support is directed are also maintained with MCC and the KSC]MCC Systems support Faclllty Mission Control Center. Africa {DOD-ETR) Tananarlve. SpainSpain (NASA) Madrid. (NASA) * Goldstone. primary support transfers from KSC to the MCC. voice. PAFB Central Instrumentation Facility/ Apollo Launch Data System. Florida (_D-ETR) Patrick AFB. Australia (_E) Canary Islands (NASA) * Grand Bahama Island (OOD-ETR) Grand Turk Island (DOD-ETR) ** Grand Bahamas. Texas (NASA) Apollo Range Instrumented Aircraft USNSHuntsvtlle USNS Mercury USNS Redstone USNS Van • ** *** (_ (D_00_I : ACN ANG 4n Near Space Support Stations Lunar Support Stations Supplemental Stations (not listed above are Space Defense Cetlter (NORAD) and NASA facilities which are used as required) Unified S-Band antenna for teleme(ry. California (NASA. Florida (DOD-ETR) P_torla. real-time via are performed eugineers phase and in CIF to any coordinate support preperations request. Houston MSFN 0oerattons Center. Wind anemometer and strain in real-time and bending moments compared with _ bending moment LAUNCH During the KSC. by monitoring detailed instrumentation for system inflight and dynamic trends. _ _ Merrlt Island Florida (NASA) Merrltt Island. California (DOD-WTR) * Honeysuckle Creek. or until LIEF mission support termination. So. a pmlaunch period. by amsting in the detection and bolation of vehicle malfunctions. KSC Ascension Island (NASA) : Antlqua {NASA) Antigua (DOD-ETR) Ascension Island (DOD-ETR) Bemuda (NASA) Vandenberg. to the Booster Systems Group for S-IVB/IU orbital operatiom. for the flight answer wind monitoring activities laboratoW personnel for are also performed developmental tats by of display8. Austrelta (WR[) Honeysuckle Creek. and tracking. Voice Booster AND FLIGHT OPERATIONS gauge. approximately T + 6 hours.A) ** Go|dstone.

-._ EQUATOR C_ PACIFIC OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEAN 1so° 0o NOTE: SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT ARE ALSO USED AS MSFN LTATIONS AND ARE POSITIONED AS REQUIRED FOR EACH MISEION.._. .. o ATLANTIC OCEAN -.--- ..

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... aerodynami_ drag and earth oblateness turthcr perturb the orbit. vent.. 7. docking. the orbit is continuously perturbed by low-le_el Li| 2. Lunar orbit imartion. and propellant dump timelines for UP(.. Lunar module (LM) descent.. _. no major thrusting occurs: however.. MISSION PROFILE for the H-! are similar to the The" Apollo 12. LV into 2..... maneuver.... capability to perform the S-IVB t 3..... Trandun_r Trandunar (TLI).. Launct_ vehicle attitude........ and 3.e _how... Descriptions of the mission following paragraphs... 2. Apollo 14/SA-509 and ...... figure 10-3. LV earth impact.) insertion I'Ll. The LV major 1. are: service propulsion system The launch vehicle places the spacecraft with three crewmen aboard into a 100 nautical mile circular parking orbit..ent-to-hover boost... and lunar module ejection (TD&E) operations after translunar injection (TLI)... Demonstrate acceptable LM systems during the dew.. performance Mission objectives for the H-type objectives of the H-i mission. for a point landing.Apollo 15/SA-510 space vehicles. $. an ALSEP techniques consistent with a seismic net... 4. Transearth coast.. AS-50?. ! 1.. The mission profile for a lunar landing mimon is shown on figure !0-1. Demonstrate acceptable LM systems during the ascent and rendezvous mode.. survey.... The H-I mission !. Changeti 5 October 1909 It)-I .. Auxiliary propulsion system (APS) ullage burns....._d spacecraft subsystems checkout is perfonned.... Tranr.. orbit (EPOI. !0.. The boost to EPO consist of complete burns of the S-IC and S-ll stages and a partial burn oi . The SC major flight objectives Demonstrate acceptable (SPS) performance and SC guidance during the lunar orbit insertion boost and the transearth injection boost. and spacecraft/lunar module adapter) recontact with the SC. The primary launch day is November day is November 16.. instrument unit. 4.. MISSION PROFILE .. S-IVB eva'lye | S-IVB sUngshot... capability to work in the lunar Develop man's environment.. Perform tempting 2.. and translunar coast... Entry and recovery. landing missions of tile H-type are planned for Apollo 13/SA-508. LAUNCH TO EPO phases are contained in the Demonstrate spacecraft trajectory. During coast in EPO....... Deploy Develop selenoiogical in a mare area. 8. The vehicle coast_ in EPO for up to three revolutions while launch vehicle _. IJd ascent...... Lunar._ S-!VB stage. 1969 launch date.._rth parking injection tout.. miuions performance INTRODUCTION .. 3..:.s follows: inspection. .. or LV lunar impact. arth injection..... INTRODUCTION 3. MISSION OBJt-'CTIVES .. flight objectives the (SC) are: capability to the specified inject the translunar 12. 4. Figure 10-2 gives the operational trajectory ground track for the AS-507/H-! mission for the November 14. 14 and the backup launch The mission prof'fle following phases: i... Demonstrate LV capability to maintain a specified attitude for transportation... MISSION CONSTRAINTS .. H-I mission is an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) manned Lunar Landing Mission (LLM) to be implemented during the November.. in that order of priority.a TABLE [--- gKTIOII X j IMISSION VARIABLES ANDCONSTRAINTS OF CONTENTS 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-6 2. Perform LV dumping and sating after final LV/SC separation and the S-IVB evasive maneuver to reduce the probability of LV (S-IVB.. 9... MISSION OBJECTIVES primary objectives are t. 6. 1969 launch month (11-16 November).. launch mission conmts of the to e. Lunar surface operations. Demonstrate LV evasive maneuver... venting thrust...

....... 1(16° W TliO° W 1]11° W 120°W TOOiW j IlO°W ?BDW _W 41PW ]PW __4CEIRAFT SEPARATION _ TRANSPOSITION _ DOCKING I_ AL SEPARATION Fltmre 10-2 Chanlted 5 October 1969 10-3 ....i ...... illt0 WINDOW.. "! l OPERATIONAL TRAJECTORYGROUNDTRACK I 11i0o I[ IOPI[ 110 o " AZIMUTHI ANDj NOVEMBERj 14..........

0 AeS LH2 CV LH2 MPV LOX NPV J' T8+0:09:40.S-IVB APS ULLAGE ENGINES PITCH ROLL YAW +120 o +180 ° -40 o +120 o +190° +40o +191o +180o 0o TIME IN HOURS: MINUTES: SECONDS FOR NOM!_.0:00:00_ ALIGN ALONG LOCAL HORIZONTAL ' i T7+0:00:20.00:00.0 T8+0:00:01.0.0 T7+1:25:00.5 T7_:00:00..0 I T7+0:'5:00.AND PROPELLANT DUMP TIMELINES EARTH PARKING ORBIT-TRANSLUtt.wT6+0:00:42.2 TT_.0 I I T8+0:23:20.0 &IVB CUTOFF (SECOND BURN) I T7.2 I APS LH 2 CV J" j' I T7+1:00:00.2 f T8+0:23:25.2 LH2 NPV ( LOX NPV )' T7+1:14:59.21.0 • ALIGN ALONG LOCAL HORIZONTAL I T5+0:00:20.2 T8+0:01.-POSlTION S-IVB CUTOFF (FIRST BURN) TG.e \e MANEUVER TO TD&E ATTITUDE CSM SEPARATION --h----h .. VENT.PROPULSIVE VENT APS. SECTION II # Figure IO .0 I T7+0:35:00..0 S-IVB SLINGSHOT SEQUENCE LOX DUMP T8+0:21:20. 2 AIDS T5+0:00:00.L GROUND ELAPSED TIMES SEE FIGURE 2-1.0 T7+0:02:30.0 T8+0:22:15.0 T5+0:01:27..3 LH2 CV LH2 NPV LOX NPV 1 S-IVB RESTART IGNITION I TB+O:H:ZB.0 I T7+1:28:00J0 I T8+0:09:40.AR INJECTION 1 qw. MANEUVER TO S-IVB EVASIVE ATTITUDE START S-IVB EVASIVE BURN %o I _Q START SLINGSHOT SEQUENCE I I T7+0:25:00.7 T7+0:!4:59.a..0 T8+0:56:40.2 LEGEND: -..0:_:00.0 TLI L T7+0 "UQ" 09 • 0 " T5+0'Lm_:G9./ ATTITUDE.8 T7+0:14:59.8 T7+0:00:00. CSM DOCK SC/LV SEPARATION %o I .7 ( TRANSLUNAR TRAJECTORY e_ h^.4 T8+0:00:01.-_-LOCAL HORIZONTAL VENT CLOSED/NO DUMP/ULLAGE ENGINES OFF VENT OPEN/DUMP ON/ULLAGE ENGINES ON CV-CONTINUOUS VENT (PROPULSIVE) NPV-NON.3 10-4 Changed $ October I969 .0 T8+1:01:40.

This returns the SC to earth with no additional thrusting should lunar orbit insertion not be executed. At the sun elevation referenced to local site is between $ and 13 degrees. the CSM makes the required plane change Changed 5 October 1969 I0-. should lunar orbit insertion not be executed. (See fqgure i0-1). 6. the S-IVB stage is safed by venting the remaining propellant and high pressure gas bottles. An 80-second burn of the S-IVB APS ullage engines propels the S-IVB/IU/SLA a safe distance away from the spacecraft. lunar soil sample. the translunar orbit is perturbed by a propulsive hydrogen vent for approximately 15 minutes. The CSM transposes and docks with the LM.850 and 1. This reduces vehicle velocity and changes tile trajectory so that the LV coasts past the trailing side of the moon. the pitch and roll angles remain the same._ . 4. and LM) by use of the Service Module (SM) reaction control system (RCS). 5. 2. the yaw angle changes from -40 to +40 degrees. the S-IVB/IU/SLA is maneuvered from the TD&E attitude to the S-IVB evasive maneuver attitude. S-IVB EVASIVE for the November 14 and 16 launch days 1. On the trailing ride. High-periselenum altitudes are those greater than 100 nautical miles. 3. The first injection opportunity occurs midway through the second revolution in parking orbit and the second injection opportunity occurs midway through the third revolution. Targeting objectives are approximately respectively. In this maneuver. hydrogen propulsive venting. the SC maneuvers to a non-free-return trajectory. capabilities and limitations. LUNAR ORBIT INSERTION i-_ The S-IVB stageisreign/tedto injectthespace vehicleto the k J' translunarconic. A retrograde velocity differential is attained by a liquid oxygen dump through the L2 engine. The SM propulsion wstem is mini to deboost the spacecraft into lunar orbit. the horizontal at the landing Lunar landing rites following tabulation. of a contingency of astronaut LM inspection. the !. the vehicle yaw attitude angle is changed in sign but not in magnitude. Photography Collection Assessment through the LM window.A is achieved by use of the SM RCS. the H-i mission are shown in the LUNAR LATITUDE 2° 24'S 1° 41' N OPERATIONS LUNAR LONGITUDE 23 ° 18'W 41 ° 54' W MANEUVER Following the separation of the combined CSM/LM from the S-IVB/IU/SLA. free-return trajectory. TRANSLUNARCOAST Following S-IVB cutoff.000 nautical miles. (See figure 10-3). The nominal trajectory places the SC into a low-periselenum free-return trajectory. and TL! opportunity. including documented lunar soil santple. Tile retrograde velocity differential Js a variable depending on The staytime on the lunar surface is open-ended up to a planned maximum of 32 hours. the LV is co-rotational with the moon. SC/t2_ adapter (SLA). flight azimuth. LM DESCENT Two astronauts enter the LM. perform LM checkout. The lunar orbit altitude is approximately 60 nautical miles. The moon's gravitational field increases LV velocity sufficiently to place it into solar orbit. LUNAR MODULE ASCENT and extravehicular Prior to LM liftoff. collection of a Lunar field geology. This trajectory permits. Experiment deployment (ALSEP). The Command and Service Module (CSM) is separated from the reminder of the vehicle (S-IVB. Following the retrograde dump of propellants. After checkout of the LM to assess its launch capability. The reignition time and orbital positionof the S-IVB injection boost depend upon the lunar declination' and upon the injection window and opportunity to be used. The lunar surface at the of view for at least ! 20 time of landing. IU. be obtained Photographic records will activity will be televised. After the propulsive vent closes. A trim burn for plane change and/or circularization may be made if required. a maneuver to place the SC into a proper transearth trajectory. and this attitude is maintained intertially throughout TD&E operations. Translunar trajectories are classified as nominal or hybrid. LAUNCH DATE November November LUNAR 14 !6 SURFACE for landing rite is in the astronauts' field seconds prior to touchdown.1 tam TRANSLUNAR INJECTION several factors including launch time and date. the vehicle maneuvers . the targeting objective at TL! is for a high-periselenum. In the hybrid trajectory. and separate from the CSM udng the SM RCS. and a burn of the S-IVB APS ullage engines. Separation of the combined LM/CSM from the S-IVB/IU/SI. The LM descent propulsion system (DPS) is used for the descent to the lunar surface.to the commanded TD&E attitude. (See figure 10-3)._ may be depressurized to allow egress to the surface. Ground traces for TLI boosts are shown on figure 10-4. the S-IVB slingshot procedure is initiated by maneuvering the the LV (S-IVB/IU/SLA) to the slingshot attitude. for example. The planned lunar surface activities include the following major items in tentative order of priority: 1. S-IVB SLINGSHOT After the S-IVB evasive maneuver is completed. The nominal plan provides for two exploration periods of open-ended duration up to 3 hours each for simultaneous exploration by both astronauts with a maximum radius of operation limited to 1500 feet. Shortly after SC/LV final separation.

. CM control during the atmospheric portion of flight is maintained by the roll position that controls the lift-to-drag ratio• Control in this manner provides a maneuvering capability through the reentry corridor. if Network for does not exceed 40 degrees Mission requirements impose the following constraints launch vehicle.m_ ---SECOND OPPORTUNITY ENVELOPE i I lb6O W $ D°E 105 ° E iI 120 ° E • 135 ° E 150 ° E 165 ° E BASED ON A$-807 H-1 MISSION FLIGHT SIMULATION8 FOR NOVEMBER 14.0 g's. 10-6 Changed 5 October 1969 L .._ • FIRST OPPORTUNITY :. in the Pacific within ±35 degrees latitude 4. MIllION | oe _a o '. TRANSEARTH COAST are made. midcourse corrections required. using the Manned Space Flight navigation. for the S-ll and During transearth coast. the CM separates from the SM using the SM RCS. and to rendezvous and dock with the CSM. The nominal flight duration does not exceed ] lO hours. during the S-IC boost on the shall not 2. and the return inclination relative to the earth's equator.P I .. The Lam_ch Veificle Digital Computer (LVDC) flight program will have the capability to conduct alternate missions.' ENVELOPE • . Earth touchdown P. S-IVB or IU E Prior to atmospheric entry.. operations and planning: 1. to transfer to the CSM orbit. Nominal acceleration exceea 4.... The LM ascent propulsion system is used to achieve the initial orbit• The LM RCS is used to make a plane change trim burn (if required). TRANSEARTH INJECTION 10-4 and nominally earth. llllO LAUN(_4 DATE. The propellant utilization systems S-IVB stages will be open loop.. Contingencies and corresponding alternate missions will be identified in the Flight Mission Rules. the two LM crewmen transfer to the CSM.. 180 ° Figure to permit a nominally coplanar rendezvous.. The LVIX" flight program mL_st be capable of accepting real-time Digital Comp_tter System (DCS) commands for specific functions (except when inhibited by the crew) during earth orbital and TLI k_ coast periods.. spacecraft. occurs within I ! days of the launch from Recovery and transport of the crew and equipment Lunar Receiving Laboratory will be conducted approved quarantine procedures.. Once docked to the CSM. MI881ON CONSTRAINTS to the under The SM propulsion system is used to boost the CSM out of lunar orbit. The CSM is separated from the L/V[using the SM RCS. Representative of these functions are If navigation and target update. to achieve a concentric orbit. ENTRY AND RECOVERY 3..

and ln/tiate S-IVB restart sequence (Time Base 6). maneuver to eras/re attitude. 11. yaw and roll is one degree second during the TD&E maneuver. Continuous . terminat/on of DCS routines. If system status precludes nominal injection during the second revolution. inh/bit S-IVB of EPO. Ruler in earth orbit and tramdunar coast modes. Crew commanded pitch and yaw attitude rates will be limited to 0. !0. telemetry. the crew hat a manual attitude control capability. Attitude control will revert to the launch vehicle when relinquished by the crew. command are C 5. and Time Base 8 enable.7 MISSION generalized switch selector events. per 12. UUlization of these DCS mode commands will be as identified in the Flight Mission TLI burn. Changed 5 October 1969 I 0-7/10-8 . The flight azimuth shall be not less than 72 degrees and not greater than !08 delgees. and voice are requirad fog • 10-minute period within the first 20 minutes after TL! cutoff. Tracking is required on • basis of non-interference with CSM support. telemetry. Utilization of this capability be as identified in the Flight Mission Rules. will 9.5-1VB tracking. Attitude commands must be pro tided by the spacecraft from the time of takeover until SC/LV separation. 13. TLi will be performed duftng the second revolution The LVDC flight program shall be capable of executing the following commands from the spacecraft: early S-II/S-IVB staging.5 degrees per second. Utilization of this capability will be as identified in the Flight Miss/on Rules. The spacecraft will provide attitude commands to the LVDC in the event of launch vehicle attitude reference failure during either powered flight or coast periods. Telemetry is required from the S-IVB for a mirdmum of !0 minutes following TLI. and roll rates to 0. and required during the TD&E maneuver. 6.3 degrees per second. 8. injection during the third revolution of EPO will be pou/ble. Rate limit in pitch. S-IVB trackinlg.

Center CNV ... NASA MSFN Station........ cps ...................... Digital Data Acquisition System DEE ......... CRO ........ Augmented Spark Igniter ATT ........................... BMAG ........ A/G COMM .................... Astronaut ac ............ COl ...................................... Degree DOD ...................... Antigua Ant .................. CW ................................... NASA MSFN Station............. _.......................... Air Force Base AFD ............................................. Electrical... Converter/Compressor Facility CCS ..... Data Transmission System E EAO ..... Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft ASC . and ('ommunicatmns Earth Entry Landing Mollitot I-ngmeer _....... CIF ......................... C-T ...... Carnarvon Cathode Ray Tube Command and Service Module Crawler-Transporter Cable and Wireless Clockwise Continuous Wave NASA MSFN Station................... Bermuda Biomedical Body Mounted Attitude Gyro Blunt End Forward Booster Systems Engineer CAL DOD-WTR MSFN Station..... Command Module CMC ............. Angle of Attack AOCC .. Descent Propulsion System DRK . BIOMED ...................................................................... Data Processor............ Decibel dbm .................. ... ELS EMS .. Atlantic Missile Range ANG ................... Actuation Control Module ACN .................. Computer Interface Unit CKAFS ......................................................... DOD-ETR MSFN Station............................ Confined Detonating Fuse Changed 5 October 19¢_'_ A I .............................. Experiment Activities Officer Exploding Bridgewlre Electrical Control Assembly Environmental Control System Environmental Control Unit |-mergency Detection System Environ........ Cape Kennedy Air Force Stations CM ............. Digital Event Evaluator deg ............. C NASA MSFN Station. Abort Summary Document ASI . Spacecraft Comnmnicator CASTS ...ystem Syswm Certificate of Flight Worthiness ....................... CECO ............................. Canary Islands High Speed Metric Camera Command F A APPENDIX A A .... Department of Defense DOS .......................... Ascension Island ASD . D DATA-CORE ........ Department of Supply (Australia) DPS ............................................................................. Atlantic Ocean Ships APS . Destruct Command Receiver DCR ... DOD-ETR MSFN Station... Vandenberg AFB................................................................ BSE .................................. Vectoring Equipment Apollo Guidance Computer Air to Ground and Ground to Air Communications { AGCU .... BEF ........................ Attitude Control and Stabilization Systems Engineer (Booster Systems) AF .. Antenna ANT .... Antigua AOA ..................... EDS ................... CRT ................. ECA ........................ EBW ........ Communications and Telemetry System CCF ............ DOD-ETR MSFN Station................................................................. COM ........................................................... Amplitude Modulation amp .............................. Ascension Island ACS .... Ampere or Amplifier AMR .... Countdown and Status Transmission System CCATS .................... Air Force AFB ...uxiliary Propulsion System ARIA ........... Direct Current DCR .................................... Acquisition of Signal AOS ...................................... C&W ....... Command...................................... Command CNTR ...... Apollo Launch Data System ALSEP ............. ........ Calibrationable Pressure Switch CAPCOM .................................... CY1 ...................... CW ....... Cutoff or Checkout COFW ........... CSM ............ Alternating Current ACCEL .. PAFB AOS ......... Altitude AM ....... Digital Computer System DDAS ..... DisFlay "*nd Keyboard (Spacecraft Guidance and Control) DTS .... MSFN Site Critical Design Review Spacecraft Commander Center Engine Cutoff _Center of Gravity Central Instrumentation Facility (Located at Kennedy Space Center) CIU ................................................... Coun terclockwlse CDDT ........ Air Operations Control Center. .................................................................................... CDR ... Countdown Demonstration Test CDF ............................... Assistant Flight Director AFETR .............................................. Design Certification Review DCS ............ Attitude AUTO ........ Cape Kennedy CO .............. Automatic BDA . Acceleration ACE .................................................... .Contingency Orbit Insertion Common Cycles per Second (Hertz) WRE MSFN Station................... CDK .._ental.... California calips .................. ECU ............... CZR ......................................................fABBREVIATIONS ANDACRONYMS CDP ...... Command Communications System CCW ................... EECOM ........ Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package Alt ........................... Air Forct Eastern Test Range AGAVE ....................................... Decibels Referenced to One Milliwatt dc ............ Apollo Guidance Control Unit ALDS ........................................................................................ CG .............. Display Request Keyboard DSKY ......... Acceptance Checkout Equipment ACM .................. Automatic Gimbaled Antenna AGC .............. ECS ................... Command Module Computer CMD ........ CIF Telemetry Conversion System db ..........................................................

wC U m Im .

.... JPL ............... Flight Termination System (3 G ....................... GSE-ECU ................. NASA MSFN Station..... IECO ........................................... Fahrenheit F ............... Flight Evaluation Working Group FGR ..................... Jet Propulsion Laboratory Kilohertz Kilobits per Second (One Thousand tlertz) Kilometer Potassium Hydroxide Kennedy Space Center lb(s) .............................................................. Lunar Landing Mission LM .................................i Gravity versus Velocity NASA MSFN Station. IP .......... IVT ........ Flight Readiness Review FRT .................................... Huntsville Operations Support Center HSD ........... EVA ............................... IU ................. Flight Director Attitude Indicator FDK ........... Grand Turk Island Guidance Guidance Officer Ground Engine and Systems Enl_m_r (Booster Systems) Earth Parking Orbit Electrical Suppo_ Equipment Eestefn Test Range Extravehtodar Activity Extmvehim_lar Tnumfer fAND .... IO .............................. Ground Control Computer GDC ........ Flight Activities Officer FC ........................... First Article Confqwration Inspection FAO . IF .... Valve Inch Communications Satellite Industrial Operations Indian Ocean Ships (l_ted at Kennedy Spac_ Center) inter-Range Instrumentation Group Instrument Unit lntravehicular Transfer Ignition Monitor •q ........ International ICD ...................................... Navigation and Control .. Launch Escape LEM .................... Force FACI ...................... IFV ...... lOS ... Flight Control Office FCSM .................. USNS Huntsville l-lz .......................................... Flight Combustion Stability Monitor FD ........................................... in ............................................................ Grains per Foot GPI ......... Ei_tricad EPO ......... Australia HSKX ............................................................................... Flight Dynamics Officer FPT ..................... Flight Controller FCO ................................................ Goldstone California GDSX ................................. Guidance and Navigation .................................. WRE MSFN Dezp-Spece Station........................... Grand Bahama Island GCC ........................................................ KM ......................... KOH ........ Lunar ExcUrsion Module LES . Input Axis Bnsinem Machines Corporation lntm'face Control Document Inboard Cutoff Inboard Engine Cutoff Intermediate Frequency Igniter Fuel Valve ltmmtive Guidance Mode Impulse Inertial Measurement Unit IMV .............................................................. ETR ............ Flexible Linear Shaped Charge FLTR ............. Gyro Display Coupler GDS ...... Guidance and Control ...... Liftoff A-2 Changed 5 October 1969 ...................................4¥_I011Y| G-V ....... HoneymcHe Creek......................... KSC ... MSFN Wing of JPL Station at Honeysuckle Creek HTV .................... 2 Hydrogen .. kHz .................................................... Guidance.......................... Navigation and Digital Systems Engineer (Booster Systems) GOX ....... DOD-ETR MSFN Station....... Flight Geometry Reserves FLSC ...................... ENS ... DOD-WTR MSFN Station................................. MSFN Wing of JPL Station at Goldstone GET ........ Helium HF ........................ Forced Display Module FDO .......................... DOD-ETR GUID ....................................C AIII_|I ENG ... F F ....................................................................... Gaseous Oxygen GPF ........... ...... GWM ......... Flight Performance Reserves FRR .......................................Altitude Rate of Change NASA MSFN Station..................................................................................... Flight Evaluation Team FEWG .......... Liquid llydrogen I................ Acceleration of Gravity GAL .... Flight Director FDAI .............. H .................................. GTK ..................... INTELSAT .......................... High Frequency (3-30 MHz) HOSC ....... Flight Readiness Test FT ..... Ice ........... Guidance............ Foot or Feet FTS ....... Launch Control ('enter LCR ..... Impact Predictor IRIG .................................... IGM ............................. GSFC .. NASA MSFN Deep Space Station...................... HAW ................ High-Speed Data HSK.......... Hertz (one cycle per second) IA .................... Guidance Reference Release GSE .. IBM ...................................................... EVT ....IEF .................. Gallons per Minute GRR .................... Pound(s) LCC ........ Lunar Module LO .... Guam Network lid ...... Launch Escape Tower LH 2 . Launch Escape System LET . Gas Generator GH 2 GHz GH 2 G&C G&N GNC GND ................. Gimbal Position Indicator gpm ....................................... Gaseous Nitrogen .................... Frequency Modulation FFPR .. ................................................................ IMP IMU ................ Gaseous Hydrogen .................... LIEF Control Room LE .......................... Hawa............................ GUIDO ................ Highly........................................ Gigihartz (One Billion Hertz) ........ ................................................................ Launch lnformatio:l Exchange Facility LLM ... De_mble Mission Rule Item He ................................. K kbps ................. ESE ............................... Support Equipment GSE-Environmental Control Unit Goddard Space Flight Center MSFN Station.. Gallon(s) GBI ............................ Grand Bahama Island GBM .. Ground Elapsed Time GG .................. Filter FM .......................................

. 0 2 ......................... Message Acceptance Pulse MAX . Model B Launch-Umbilical Tower Launch Vehicle Launch Vehicle Data Adapter Launch Vehicle Digital Computer M ........ NASA MSFN Deep Space Station.. Minute ML .................................. Mobile Launcher MLA .......................... Remote Digital Multiplexer RDX ........................................Primary Guidance Navigation and Control System PISS ................ Output Axis Overall Acceptance Test Outboard Engine Cutoff Outboard Cutoff '*_ ................................................................................ MSFN Wing of JPL Station at Madrid MAP ......... ".............. Mission Control Programmer Main Conference Room Mission Director Main Display Console McDonnell-Douglas Corporation Mild Detonating Fuse Medium MER ..... .............. Merritt Island......... MD ............................................................................. Mission Operations Computer MOCR ....... Propellant Utilization Q QLDS R R ....................Pentaerythrite Tetranitrate PFR .................................. Propellant psi ............ DOD-ETR MSFN Station....................................... OCO .............. Pulse Repetition Frequency PRN ....... Master Event Sequence Controller MFCO . Puth-Button Indicator PC ... prolrmn Director's Flight Readiness Review PDR .................. LV .......... Pitch Control PCM ............................... Africa PRF .... Modification or Model MR .............................. NORAD ...................... Propellant Tanking Computer System PTL ......... ................................................................ Cyd°trimet hY Icnetrini tra'tum' R&DO .. Mission Control Center MCP .......... Merritt Island.................... Millisecond (I / 1000 Second) MSFC .. MDC MDC MDF MED ...............+_ A t .. DOD-ETR MSFN Station....+. Manned Space Flight Network MSFNOC .............. Propellant Di_q_ersion System PEA ........... Florida PBI ............................................................. Pounds per Square Inch Gauge PTCR .................... National Aeronautics NASCOM ... Quick Look Data Station ¢t Changed 5 October I t_+............. Mixture Ratio MSC .............................. USNS Mercury MESC ........................................ LVDC ...................................................................................... MTVC ................ .............. Mission Support Room MSS .............. NASA NMI . Mission Operations Control Room MOD ........... OSC ......................... N N/A ........... M Linear Shaped Low-Speed l_ta Lunar Test Article... Pulses per Second PRE ......... Remote Analog Submultiplcxer RCR . Florida PAM ...... Madrid................... Preliminary Design Review PDS ........................................ ......................... Main Bus B (Spacecraft) M&O .................7 JmltIVIATIOIII LOR ........... Mobile Service Structure MTF ............ ..... Psuedo-Random Noise PRPLNT ......... Research and Oevelopulent ()l_++'l:ltltJtl_ ................. ODOP....... DOD-ETR MSFN Station...................... Percent PDFRR ......... O&P ............ Manual Select Keyboard MSR ..................... _ ............................ Recovery Control Room RCS ..+' OEKX) ..................................... LSD ........................................................ Florida MILA .......................... .............. Patrick AFB..................... .................. Manual Fuel Cutoff MHz ...........klukl Oxygen AND m O OA .................... Merritt Island Launch Area MIN .............. !ox ...... .................... ...................................................................... OX ............................................... Preflight Review PGNCS. Offset Doppler Outboard Engine Cutoff Oz ygen Operations and Procedures Oscillator Operatiom Support Room Operational Televition System Oxidizer LSC .......................Multiplexer q_ at*...... OBECO ........ Pad Terminal Connection Room PTCS ............ Pounds per Square inch Differential psig .. OAT ................................................................................. Pulse Amplitude Modulation PAT ....... Maximum MCC .......... Monomethyl Hydrazine MNA ................................................ Pacific Ocean Ships Position Potentiometer + +i t pps ............................... Not Applicable and Space Administration Communications Network Nautical Mile Number Defense Command (DOD) Net Positive Suction llead Mississippi Test Facility Manual Thrust Vector Control ............ DOD-WTR MSFN Station.................... Roll RACS ........................... OSR .......... LTA-B ..................................... Manned Space Flight Network Operations Center MSK ................. lunar Orbital Rendezvous LOn of Sllpud L..... Apollo Program Office (Symbol) MAD ...... Prepare to Launc c PU ...... Minimum Min .......... Florida MMH ....... North American Air NPSH .................. P ......................... Spain MADX ...................................... So. No ............................. Portable Life Support System POGO ........... Patrick Air Force Base..................... Undesirable Launch Vehicle Longitudinal Oscillations POI .......... Remote Automatic Calibration System RASM .................. MCR .... Reaction Control System RDM .............................................. LUT ..................... ................... NASA MSFN Station.... Pounds per Square Inch psia ..................Pulse Code Modulation pet .............. Matt or Mandatory Mission Rule item MA ........................... NASA .... Maintenance and Operations MOC .....Platform Electronics Assembly PETN ..... OTV ....Parking Orbit Insertion POS POS POT . Main Bus A (Spacecraft) MNB ................................................. LVDA .... Pretoria..... Pitch PAFB ........................................................... Marshall Space Flight Center MSFN ............ ......... Megahertz (One Million Hertz) MIL .. MUX ...... Manned Spacecraft Center m/see or ms ...................................... LOS ........... Pounds per Square Inch Abqolute psid ...

.... Time Base TAN ..... Up-Data-lAnk UHF .................. Malagasy TBD ............ Velocity Increment Ap .................................... ST-! 24-M3 ............... Terminal Phase Finalization TPF ............................................................................................................................ Subcarrier Oscillator SCS ............................... Attitude l:rror ('ollHll.................... Differential Pressure AV ..................... Vehick" AttitudL' _'.... Television TVC ............ Thermal Conditioning System .......... Very High Frequency (30-300 MHz) vswr .... Stability Control System SDF ... Y ....................................................................... Telemetry TPF .................................. Thrust Vector An--ular Deflection AP .................. Austr'............... Thrust Vector Control TWR JETI" ............. Volts..... Volts v-a ......................... Velocity V ................................... Transposition....... SPS .................... Reliability & Quality Assurance R&R ............... Tenninlll'Phase Finalization TPl .. XTAL ................................................................ ....................... Half Lift Landing Range RI ......................... To Be Determined TCS ............................ Retrofire Officer RF ................... AFETR Telemetry Station at Cape Kennedy Teitra¢ ....... SRO ..................... Remote Digital Submultiplexer RED ....................... Translunar Injection TM .... Teletype "IV ..... Corpus Christi......... Docking and Ejection TEL IV ............. Direct Current VHF ............ SIT ....... Telemetry Tracking TEX ................................................... Tail Service Mast TrY ....... Full Lift Landing Range RHL ....... Vehicle Assembly Building VAN.. Microsecond ..... Receive and Record RS ............. USNS Vanguard V/D ........... Second SECO ... SRA .... Conferencing.............. Root Mean Square RNG ....... Atmosl'heti_ Density Increment sec .................. Range Safety Officer RSS ...................... SLA . Desired Att...................... USNS Redstone RETRO ..................... Safety and Arming SACTO ........................... NASA MSFC Station.............. Weapons Research Wide Band Data Establishment.............................................. WTR ... DOD-ETR MSFN Station................................ Texas TLi . Separation Systems Interface Test Spacecraft-LM Adapter Saturn Launch Vehicle Service Module Summary Message Enable Keyboard Serial Number Service Propulsion System Spin Reference Axis Status Report Module Superintendent of Range Operations Samples per Second Single Sideband Staff Support Room Saturn V Stable Platform Start Tank Discharge Valve Space Vehicle Switch(ing) Synchronize V .............. Standard Cubic Feet per Minute SCO ........................ STDV .......... SRM ........ SI: acecraft SCAMA ......................tlltl X ......................... Rocket Propellant R&QA ....................................................... SSR ......... SMEK .. SW .................................. Range Safety Command Receiver RSDP ..................................................lud+" I A-4 Changed 5 October 1969 1Ill' ..................................... Real-Time Computer Complex R/T CMD ............. SLV .......... S/N ............ s/s ...... Real-Time Command Controller TD&E ........... United States Navy Ship V S&A .. Switching... WRE ............... Voice and Data vdc .... Radio Interference RIS ........... Volt-ampere VAB ........................................ Single Engine Cutoff SEP ............................................................................... SM .......................... . and Monitoring Arrangement scfm ............................. "......... Voltage Standing Wave Ratio 't 4_ 't+" W WBD ................... Voice v ................................................. .................................................. Relay Station RSCR ...................................fAD|ILEVIATiONSAND ACRONY_ RDSM ............................................................. "............................................dian Department of Supply White Sands Missile Range Western Test Range WSMR ............................... '.... X-Z XLUNAR ................... Tananarive....... Vehicle Attitude Angular Chauge R:ttc .............................................................................................. SV ........................................ Sacramento Test Operations SC ................................................. Real Time Command RTCC ........... Unified S-Band USBS .......... Remote Site Data Processor RSO ............................. SSB . Ultra High Frequency (300-3000 MHz ) USB ........................ SYNC ......................... Root Sum Square RTC ........................ DOD-WTR MSFN Station.. Radio Frequency RFL ........... _ ............................ Terminal Phase Initiation TSM ................................................... Range Instrumentation Ship RMS ....................... System" Development Facility see ........ Unified S-Band Station USNS .. Range RP-I .... NASA MSFN Station................................................... SYMBOLS I ranslunar Crystal Yaw T (With Subscript) ......................... Tower Jettison U UDL .......................

Internal Note Components Cleatun_ 1968. 1967 . IBM It)¢_? %('l) Y_. program Directive No. C-Band Radar Transponder IBM 66-966-0008. Part 1. January 19. Battery. N. Rev E. 1965. Eiectlical Interface. 1966. 1.7 APPENDIX I "1 ! BIBLIOGRAPHY Abort and Malfunctioned Flll_. 1969. Battery Technical 66-966.9. Boeing Report D5-15795-$. S-ll/S-IVB. April 21. SE Flight Readiness Reviews. 1967. Received from MSFC November 17. SM2A-03-SC 106-(2). I Apollo Minion Rules. ICD 40M05486B. DAC-56644. Rev. Design Volume Certification 4. 1966. 1969. Bo_ to S-IC/S-IIJ Letter Report Assignments.4. August 23. I LEM/S-IVB/IU. Apollo Abort Summary (AS-506/107). 1967. Launch Vehicles. Apollo Apollo Mission Document. SM2A-O3-Block 11 -(1 ). i and Aft Bus No. II Apollo Flight 010-000-1. 15. I_ . 29.40M37521. 1969. Design Certification Review Report. Rev. 6. AS-503. IA68317. Rev.July Description. 1967. Not numbered. 1967.. AS-504. 19()8. Emergency Detection System July i. November 8. March I. Automatic Terminal Countdown SequencA. Rev. Block 11 Spacecraft. 4OM30597. Rev. 1969. Satqn_ S!. Review Report. Emergency Detection from MSFC November and Procedures (Draft Copy) 7. Aft Bus No. 1968. R-3896-11. IBM 66-966-0022. Apollo Operations Handbook.I Rocket Enipne 1969. Set SST-135C. Engine Data l)escnption. I. Rev. Introduction to June lb. C. I. Desiln Certifw_tion 1968. C.August 2._ ('hanged 5 October 196'. September 27. 1969. 40M30780. B. Saturn V Launch Vehicle. 5. June 17.0024. Emergency Detection and Procedures. 1967. Saturn V Vehicle. 1968. Saturn !. (. S-IVB Volume6. October 1. S-IVB IA68316. Battery Battery. Clearance Envelope. 1968. 2: Rev. M. Vehicle. and Service December 2. IA59741. March 15. Review. Forward Bus No. AS-507. SD68-125. 10. 4K. Not numbered. Schematic. Boeing Letter Report 5-6171-H-130. Operating Instructions. August 14. Apollo-Saturn V. (L_aft copy). Apollo De. February 15. B: Not l:lifJ_t Control Data Requirements. 7. 1967 . IOM3053 I. J Apollo Program Directive V Facility Electrical Interface. March I. May 21. June 26. MSC Mhmion G. August I. and Apollo No. 13M50123.lgn Certification Program Directive No. Instruction 8020.d. IBM Manu.aunch Vehicle Technical Manual.40M30593. S-IC/S-ll. 1968. Battery. NASA Management Review Report S-IC Stage. Saturn V Launch Vehicle Bloq:k 11CSM. NHB 8080. July Interlocks Electrical Interface. February 16.1. Electrk. Operational 1968. Saturn V Received 22. Not numbered J:h_|t IUI Cotltrol. MSC-CF-P-69-30. July II. F.11-3 Stale. September from llnition 15. August 6. 13M50117. 1968. May Astrionics November System Handbook. 1965.mdard . Apollo Operatiom Handbook. AS-S05. IV-4-401-1. Coupled Loads Analysis Scpmtion. March 1967. Saturn V Vehicles/LC-39. Physical: Rev. Envelope S-IVB to IU. Manual. April 2. 2. Launch Vehicle ESE/propellant Systems. K. July 19. Saturn V Vehicle. Stage. Apollo Test Requirements. SA-502. August 5-93 In-H-070. Volume 1968. Electrical Interface. 1968. Apollo/Saturn K-V-O 12. September 30. 1969. 1968. Command Procedures. 1968. S-IVB/Instmment Unit. Addendum.al Interface.t Analysis. 8.ommand Decoder 66-966-0019. September 10. S-IVB Forward Bus No. Ch8. S-IVB May 19. Module. Not numbered. Spacecraft Description. Apollo Countdown Hold Limits and Vehicle Turnaround Operations. 1968. L. 1968. 4OM50547. F-I Rocket R-3896-1. 1968. Compmtte Mechanical 1969. February 20. Volume 2. 1968. MSFC No. Chg. Assembly. AS-503. Final. dated. February I J. 4OM30596. 1968. April 12.

1969. A. November for Poweged FUlM laboratories. E. Performance (S-IC). Pteasurtzation System. 196. 1969. Unit-Saturn V. Roy._ 3 Fuel Tank Pre-. 1969. June 10. S-IC Stalle.5. Mmtud. 13M$OO98E. July 31. April Hazardous Gas MSFC*MAN-234.!_M and Control 66-966-0003. Network Operatiom DocmnenL All Flights. 1.m . ILl (SAVB). Functiomd Schematic. Vehicle Hoiddown Platforms.May 16. August 15. and 11. Boeblj Report V. 1965. ! I Flight August Sequence Program. 1968. IgOr. Description.. Rev. _8turn S-ll._f. 1969.Februmy Saturn V launch Vehicle. 1969. 1969. Advanced !i. Fluids Requirements. 1969. SE 005-003-2H. Rev. H-I Mission. 1968.TM 487-MD. Feoruary I. Vol. Apollo/Saturn IB. Opomttomd Flisht Tnjectory. I May 29. Fu_tional IOM30554. SA-$06. E. Kraft. soe_q Report D5-155_-7.F INNJOflSMSIY PUJht Contt_ 6:2-140. Fluids Requirements. MSFC-MAN-100. 13M50099.SB.on. C. 14-1 _. Rev. Saturn Apollo. Sattmt V Vehicle F. S-II Stage. March 24. AS-$07. Frequency Plan. I 0M03309. I_mlte Safety. LamwJt Vehicle Operations Countdown Demomtmtion Vol. Installation. for Sdpport of Space Vehicle Test and Launch Countdown. November Launch 1969. D$-I$509(F)-7. 10M30637. R-3825-1. Instrument Unit Environmental Control System Saturn IB/V. 1968.Not numbered. Revised June.Ch_ System DeggJption Judy I. March 15. Arms and Service and Maintenance. 4. ICD. Saturn Chj.June 13. H. I Flisht Manual. April 2. AFETRR 127-9. Adyanc d 21. Def'mitton of.7. V A5-507 Launch Month. Plan. June 19. August 29. 127-1. Detection System. November IB62829. MSI_-MAN-$tFT. Marc& 1 I. 1969. Mimion Summary Report. S-IC. 40M33627. 1966.I B-O23. SA-507. 14/AS-$09 and 15/AS-510. Fluids Requirements. 1969. 5. V launch Pro_ Aullu$t. 1369. PM-SAT-PS. September i0. SID S-IVB-503N Stalle FI_ght Report4. Saturn MSFC44AN-506. 1968. !1 of Ill. Boyntun Jr. Saturn V/SA-$07. Unit. Instnsment i 5. 66-904. Rev. M. Inboard Profile. AFETRM Subsystem _epor:. DAC-$6773A Schedules and Status. I 0. 19. 1966. J-2 Rog_t Enlltne Opegattn8 instngtJons Manual. FifSht Sequence 1969. April 30. April and V. DAC-$6675A. (John H. Saturn V. AS-507. Fight Cmt_. August !. lnsh'umentation Communicatiom. S-IVB-506N StNi_ FliJht Information and t)l. Febt_tu3" I. Schemsttc. 1967. ICD. Fluids Requirements. 1969. PM4J_T-8010. Instrument Requirement. 1968: Protective Hood and Tower January 26. 29. 1969. November Guidance. Ranje Safety S¢. June 30. erat. System Perfonna:ge Pmdktion. ! 3M6. Rev. S-IVB. !$]AS-$08. Saturn Instrument SA-$(Y?. Apollo/Ssturn V.ttmbeNd.Propulsion System. Updated WeeF J Interlock B. ICD. August i 2. IOZ22501. System Description. Prediction. 196_. _ Report D$-IS$$1(F). SID hutrumunt Unit kturn ilJ]V. Inc. Saturn Vehiclo. O:dmmge Systems. Operational Msas Charscteristi_.2 Clumjed $ October 1969 t. Saturn V Vehicle ICD. February 25. Ground Safety K. 1969.) Not _ Implementation Plan. July Plfsht 24. 1966. Information Volume i. and Operations November 1968 Unit Assembly. Data. i_ijht OpenUom Planninj and Orbital M_. 1968: IBM 66-966-0009. _'_t r. 1969. Ground Vehicle. Saturn V _ Saturn Goddard Space S-IVB Stalle. Rev. 76K04274. D$-I5512-7. May 2. Rev. F. H-Serlu Missions. VOl. Navijation. July 1. Mobile launcher.aurizationSystem S-IVB. Rev. Apollo Saturn V. 11 (S-ll) and Vol. 1966.. 13M$0096F. (Space dated. SA-$07.) AIAA Paper No. 1969. Roy. 1967. Support Equipment Fact Booklet. D. 1969. 13M$00971t.ptember Manual. Boein8 Latta Report 5-940041-360. Tail Service Mast. Report-G Mlmion. Handbook Technology PrepanttJon for Manned and Christopher C.IBM and Component 66-966-0006. FUjht Pm4"_ Opetatiora. 1969. Saturn V launch Vehicle. SA-507. Instrumentation 62-136. 19. L. 12]AS-$07. I. System. Apollo Ausnst II (H-Mission). Log Tank F_ IB62828. 1965. R-3825-1B. Operations March 25.Chg. Vehicle. KSC V-20060. C. Saturn V. _ Prime Minion.7. Boeinll Report D5-13699-7.

Vehicle. SIC Stal_. Janumy System October Alma. Buein8 Report D5-15568-4. Sequence of Events. Manual. CP621M0014A. Saturn thru AS-505 . 1969._-atance/Desian and Quelification Requirements: Jenumy I. 1969. Saturn V/S-Ii (Prime Equipment). System. Ausust 30. 1968). Slide Wire TM-4-214-39. Contract End Item.1000004A. AS-$06. 1966 RS-O2W. NASA TM X-$3162. Pel. MSFC-MAN-O040-3. 1966. 1969. March IS. 1969. ~ .7 ImKJOG(L4mY Sacu_ Ren_ Safety Command System Novmnl_ 9. SA-$03 and sulmaluent. 1969. Apollo Prosrsm Directive No. Detail. Detail Contract End Item. 1969. row. CP02SO0001103D. Performance/ Desijn and Oualtficatton Requirements.'ime Equipment). January 9. 30-Second. 10M30586. Contract End Item. Detail. Rev. Description Manual. Structural I_ AS-$O4.4. Saturn V Launch 2. Timer. Spectfkation. 3: March I 0. Egress Preiaunch and Pllsht. SA-503 and subsequent. Februsty Sl_tion. 1. J (Prime Equipment). 1964. AS-503 5. Vol. V Program (SA-$04 throush (Revised October 29. 20. Telemetry System $0M71 $35-3. C. September 5. 1969. LC-39. Saturn SA-$1S). Engine Cutoff Enable: May 22. Saturn V/S-IVB (P.Clr2090(OB. V. for Saturn. Review. B Sequence nd Plow of bfaniwsre Development and Key lmpection. Saturn V/S-IC Requirements. September 23. \ Changed 5 October 1960 14_ b4 . Performance/Design and Product Conflgu_tion Specification. 7915671-1. 1968. end Certification Checkpoints.e. Specification Baseline. Multiple 1968. SA-S07 through SA-515. 6A.

....................... Aborts........ TLI Boost . Angle of Attack.................... Onboard Pneumatics . Control System Components............................. S-II ............................... Ground Pneumatic ................... TLI Boost ... flight control computer ............................. Auxiliary Propulsion System........ Boost to Parking Orbit ... C-Band Radar. Checkout Valve...... Spacecraft ....... b-iVB ............ Altitude-Raege Profde. CSM/LM FINAL SEP Switches.. mode Ill ......... Control System.. IU ............. Contingency Planning and Execution .. Control Signal Processor........... S-[VB ............. 4-way......... TL! Boost ......... ............ Launch Escape System ............. accelerometer signal conditioner .......... 7-10 4-17 6-21 2-18 2-17 2-18 3-16 5-I Abort Controls................................. Computer........................ Angle of Attack.......... Control Subsystem........ 1.................... .. Nominal F!ight .... Body C CANARD DEPLOY Switch .......... Control Valve..... Axia! Force.............. mission rules ......... S-IC ......... ABORT Light..... platform electronic assembly .................. S-IVB .. construction ..... Attitude Timeline ......................... ST-124-M3 ac power supply ................... Altitude.. mode IV ............ Criticality Analyses ..... Chilidown Inverter.. S-IVB .................. launch escape system .......... real-time commands ............. Corridor Indicator........................................_ 3-14 7-27 1-3 4-5 6-21 2-1 3-14 3-14 3-13 7-27 9-5 9-5 9-5 7-16 7-19 9-6 9-8 9-8 9-9 9-9 9-9 8-8 7-! 5 7-15 7-15 7-i 5 7-16 7-16 7...! 24-M3 inertial platform assembly ....oad at S-IC Center Engine Cutoff ....... abort 8round rules ............... vehicle mission abort capability ..................... D Data Adapter................................ Aft Skirt Assembly... Altitude-Range ProFile. Manual............. Cutoff Sequence.. Access Door..... mode IB medium altitude ... ML ...... emergency modes ......... .. APEX COVER JETI" Switch ........ EPO Boost .............. Range Safety ..... Boost to Parking Orbit .. S-IV B ........................................................ Antennae......_hef 1969 INI)I \ I t ................... ALPHABETICAL INDEX 8 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-15 3-I? 9-9 3-9 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-19 3-1 3-18 3-18 3-t8 3-19 3-19 3-23 3-23 3-23 3-13 3-13 3-13 9-9 2-6 2-6 3-9 7-28 6-19 3-21 2-5 6-I 6-l 8-15 3-9 2-8 2-I0 2-10 2-8 2-I I 3-9 2-I l 5-22 3-14 10-4 3-15 3-15 6-19 6-19 6-19 2-5 2-19 2-19 8-13 2-13 2-13 I-8 Batteries..... Crawler-Transporter ............. S-II .......... Spacecraft .............. b-iC ......................................... Accumulator/Reservoir......................... Flight Control.........TWR JETI" Switches ............. Boost to Orbit ................. service propulsion system ..................... IU ........... S-II ........... Computer.................... TLI Boost .......................... ...... Launch Pad ............... Service Propulsion System ............ Cutoff Capability..................... Aerodynamic Pressure...... IU ........... Spacecraft ... S-IC .................... mode IA low altitude mode ..................... Controlled Release Mechanism..... launch vehicle malfunctions/hazards ............... ST................................ Abort Modes and Limits .............................................................. TLI Boost ................... LVDC..... LV digital computer and LV data adapter .... LV Digital. CM/SM SEP Switches................................. Spacecraft .... service propulsion system control ....................... Control System.. Cutoff Sequence....... Air Intake Building............................ Acceleration........... CSM/LV SEP Switch ...... Azimuth................... Description... mode IC high altitude ............... Inertial................. Launch Pad ........................................ Spacecraft ...... Altitude....... S-IC and Early S-ll Flight Aft Interstage Assembly... Abort......... Vehicle Capability ............. ABORT SYSTEM-2 ENG OUT Switch ............ Console.......... control signal processor ........... Altimeter........... Limits... Inertial...... entry monitor system . Converter/Compressor Facility ................... S-IVB ..................... sequencer event manual pushbuttons .. ATT SET Switch ..... Circular Earth Parking Orbit ......................................1.............. Spacecraft .... Abort Ground Rules .... IU ...................... Spacecraft ................... Aborts....... mode il .. Axial Load at S-IC Outboard Engine Cutoff ....................... ABORT SYSTEM-LV RATES Switch .......... Accelerometer........... stability control system .. Abort Overrate Settings ......... IU ........................... Control System........ IU .............. Bending Moment. Axia .......... Azimuth Azinmth....... ABORT SYSTEM ............ GSL .................. Typical BSE ......... command loads .. AUTO RCS SELECT Switches ............ index Changed 50ct........................ EPO Boost ........ IU GSE ...................................... S-IVB ......................................! 6 7-18 7-18 7-19 5-15 9-6 5-15 4-4 8-16 3-18 8o I 0 1-3 3-13 3-14 8-25 5................ Certification and Review Schedules ... Bending Moment Variation with Wind Altitude Bending Moment Variation with Wind Azimuth BMAG MODE Switches ........................ IU.... Batteries.7 ¢_-8 Shell Structure...... .................................... Spacecraft ............................................................... Azimuth Aligmnent Building................. CM RCS PRESS Switch...... Command System ........ IU .......... translational controller ....... Acceleration........... MCC . Command Communications System ....................... Batteries.................. Spacecraft .. Angle of Attack Meter........F K A I ............ Action/Entry Report.............................................. operation ...... S-IC and Early S-II Flight ........... Boost to EPO .......................... CM RCS He DUMP Switch ..

.l D II o .ll m I Im ii .ira I" t i m Ill 0 JItl In _ Jill __ .

fY Des/gn Reviews ................................ Directional Control Valve S-IVB .................. DIRECT Switches, Spacecraft .................... Discrete Backups, IU Flight Program ............... Display Console, Spacecraft ....................... Display System, MCC ............................ Distribution, Electrical Power, S-II .................. Distributors, IU ............................... measuring .................................. control .................................... EDS ...................................... power ..................................... auxiliary power ............................. Distributors, S-IC ............................. main power distributor ........................ sequence and control distributor ................ propulsion distributor ........................ thrust OK distributor ......................... timer distributor ............................. measuring power distributor .................... Distributors, S-I! .............................. Distributors, S-IVB ............................. DROGUE DEPLOY Switch ...................... Dynamic Pressure Flight Loads .................. E EDS Power Switch, Spacecraft .................... EDS Switch, Spacecraft ........................ Egress System, Launch Pad ...................... Electrical Control Subsystem, S-IVB ............... Electrical Control System, $41 .................... Electrical Interface, 1U/SLA ...................... Electrical, IU ................................. batteries ................................... power converters ............................ distributors ................................. IU grounding ............................... Electrical Power System, Launch Pad ............... Electrical Power System, S-If ..................... distribution ................................ Electrical, S-IC ............................... distributors ................................. switch selector .............................. Electrical, S-II ................................ power system ............................... control system .............................. Electrical, S-IVB ............................... batteries ................................... power distribution ........................... chilldown inverter ........................... propellant utilization static inverter-converter excitation modules ........................... electrical control subsystem .................... 3-11 3-12 8-13 6-23 5-22 7-29 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-1 ! 7-12 8-13 5-20 5-21 4-13 4-1 $ _- 18 5-20 5-20 5-22 6-21 6-21 6-21 6-21 6-23 6-23 6-23 6-23 6-25 6-25 6-25 !-1 3-13 ?-13 _-6 3-18 3-18 3-1_ 5-4 4-6 I-3 6-17 3-15 7-21 3-2 9.6 5-21 7-11 7-1 ! 7-11 %!2 7-12 7-12 4-15 4-15 4-15 4-17 4-17 4-17 4-17 5-21 6-21 3-14 2-17 Enl0ne Cutoff. S-II ............................. Engin,_ Cutoff, S-IVB ............................ l/nlltne Gimbalinl, S-IVB ....................... Engine Opecatinl Requirements, S-IC .............. Engine Operation, SIC .......................... enlline start... .......... engine cutoff ........... _ ................... emergency enl_ine cutoff ...................... Engine Operation, S-I! .......................... start preparations ............................. engine start sequence ........................ enl_e cutoff ................................ cutoff sequence .............................. Engine Operation, S-IVB ......................... start preparations ............................ engine start sequence ......................... engine cutoff ............................... cutoff sequence ............................. restart ..................................... Engine-Out Conditions .......................... Engine Perfmmance ............................ Engine Start, SIC ............................... Engine Start Preparations, S-IVB .................. Engine Start Sequence, S-ll ....................... Engine Start Sequence, S-IVB .................... Engine Subsystems, S-IC ....................... hypergol manifold ............................. control valve, 4-way .......................... turbopump ................................. gas generator ............................... heat exchanger .............................. main fuel valve .............................. main lox valve .............................. checkout valve .............................. high voltage igniters .......................... Entry and Recovery, Spacecraft ................... ENTRY .05G Switch ........................... ENTRY EMS ROLL Switch ...................... ENTRY Monitor System, Spacecraft ............... ENTRY EMS ROLL switch .................... ENTRY .O$G switch ......................... EMS FUNCTION switch ...................... EMS MODE switch ........................... threshold indicator (.05G light) ................. corridor indicators ........................... roll stability indicator ......................... G-V plotter ................................. A V/RANGE display ......................... Environmental Control System, IU ................ thermal conditioning system ................... preflight air/GN 2 purge system ................. gas bearing supply ........................... hazardous gas detection system ................. Environmental Control System, Launch Pad ......... Environmental Control Sysiem, S-IC ............... forward skirt compartment .................... thrust structure compartment .................. hazardous gas detection ....................... Environmental Control System. S-II ................ thermal control ............................. engine compartment conditioning ............... tank insulation ............................... purge and Iz_g detection ....................... Environmental Control gystem. S-IV B .............. aft skirt and interstage ........................ forward skirt ............................... forward skirt area purge ....................... 5-7 6-8 6-19 4-4 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 5-6 5-6 5-7 5-7 5-7 6-4 6-4 6.4 6-8 6-8 6-8 2-17 2-3 4-6 6-4 5-7 6-4 4.4 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-4 4.5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 10-6 3-17 3-17 3-17 3-17 3-17 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 7-2 7-2 7-4 7-4 7- i 0 8-i 2 4.3 4-3 4-3 4-3 5-4 5-4 5-4 5-5 5-5 6-I 6-? 6-3 _.4 .ll

"tP

4

. _' "

......

sequencer assemblies ......................... pressure switches ............................ propellant management ....................... propellant utilization subsystem ................. Electrical Systems, Design Rules ................. ELS Switches, Spacecraft ........................ Emergency Detection System. IU .................. Emergency Engine Cutoff, S-IC ................... Emergency Modes ............................. EMS FUNCTION Switch ........................ EMS MODE Switch ............................ Engine Compartment Conditioning, S-il ECS ......... Engine Cutoff, S-IC ............................

INDEX

2

Changed

5 October

i 969

7
E Equipment Location, IU ........................ Escape System, Launch Pad ...................... Event Tinter, Spacecraft ........................ Excitation Modules, S-IVB ....................... F
H

74 8-13 3-10 623

Guidance Computations, IU ...................... GUIDANCE Switch ............................ guidance reference failure condition .............. no guidance reference failure condition ........... G-V Plotter ........................ ...........

7-14 3-1 I 3- I 1 3-1 I 3-18

Failure Effects Analyses ......................... Fill and Drain, LH2, S-IVB ....................... Firing Room, LCC ............................. Flame Deflector, Launch Pad ..................... • Flight Control Parameters ....................... Flight Control, S-IC ............................. fluid power ................................. hydraulic servoactuator ....................... Flight Control, S-I! ............................. preflight operation ........................... inflight operation ............................ Flight Control, S-IVB ........................... engine ghnbaling ............................. hydraulic system ............................ Flight Director Attitude Indicator .................. Flight Geometry Propellant Reserves ............... Flight Loads ................................. high dynamic pressure/wind loads .............. center engine cutoff loads ..................... outboard engine cutoff loads ................... engine-out conditions ......................... Flight Mission Rules ............................ Flight Performance ............................. Flight Performance Parameters .................... Flight Performance Propellant Reserves ............. Flight Program, IU ............................. prelaunch and initialization .................... powered flight major loop ..................... interrupts .................................. telemetry routine ............................ discrete backups ............................. Flight Safety .................................. Flight Sequence ................................ launch and boost to EPO ...................... circular EPO ................................ translunar injection boost ...................... coast in translunar orbit ....................... S-IVB evasive maneuver ....................... slingshot mode .............................. Fluid Power, S-IC .............................. Forward Skirt Compartment, ECS, S-1C .............. Forward Skirt, S-IC ............................ Forward Skirt, S-IVB ........................... Fuel Loading and Delivery, S-IC ................. RP- I pressurization .......................... RP- l delivery ............................... Fuel System Facilities, Launch Pad ................ Fuel Tank, S-IC ................................

1-3 6-16 8-19 8-15 9-1 ! 4-7 4.7 4.7 5-11 5-11 5-15 6-18 6-19 6-i 9 3-1 2-3 2-17 2-17 2-17 2-17 2-17 9-8 2-3 2-3 2-3 7-20 7-20 7-20 7-2 l 7-2 ! 7-21 1-9 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-3 2-3 2-3 4-7 4-3 4-1 6-1 4- l l 4-1 l 4-12 8-13 4-1

Hazardous Gas Detection System, IU ............... Hazardous Gas Detection, S-IC .................... Heat Exchanger, S-IC ........................... Helium System ................................ Hold and Recycle Criteria ....................... launch constraints ............................ turnaround requirements ....................... Holddown Arms, Mobile launcher ................. HOSC ....................................... Hydraulic Actuators. S-IVB ...................... Hydraulic Pumps, S-IVB ......................... Hydraulic Servoactuator, S-IC ..................... Hydraulic System, S-IVB ........................ hydraulic pumps ............................. accumulator-reservoir assembly ................. hydraulic actuators, pitch and yaw ............... Itydrogen (Gaseous) Facility, Launch Pad ........... Hypergol Manifold, S-IC .........................

7- i 0 4-3 4-5 6-13 8-23 8-23 8-25 8-8 9-13 6-19 6-19 4-7 6-19 6-19 6- !9 6-19 8-13 4-4

Igniters, High Voltage, S-IC ...................... Inertial Platform, ST-124.M3 ..................... lnflight Operation, S-II .......................... Instrumentation. S-IC ........................... telemetry system ............................ measurement system ......................... Instrumentation, S-ll .... ' ....................... measurement system ......................... telemetry system ............................ antennae ................................... Instrumentation and Telemetry, S-IVB ............. measurement system ......................... telemetry syst_.m ............................ Instrument Unit ............................... Interface Flow, Stage Electrical .................. Interface Structure, Launch Pad ................... Interlocks. Launch Cutoff ....................... Interrupts, IU Flight Program ..................... lnterstage Data Flow ........................... lntertank Section, S-IC .......................... Inverter-Converter, S-IVB Propellant Utilization IU Equipment Locations ........................ IU/SLA Interface .............................. mechanical interfac_ .......................... electrical interlace ...........................

.....

4-5 7-16 5-15 4-18 4.19 4-19 5-22 5-22 5-22 5-22 6-26 6-26 6-27 7-1 i-7 8-12 8-25 7-21 !-3 4-1 6-21 7-4 7-29 7-29 7-29

Gas Bearing Supply, IU ......................... Gas Generator, S-IC ............................ Gas System, lligh Pressure, Launch Pad ............. Grounding, IU ................................ Ground Safety ................................ Ground Support Equipment, IU ................... IU access door .............................. Ill umbilical ................................ optical aligmnent ............................

7-4 4-4 8-12 7-12 !-5 7-28 7-28 7-28 7-29

J-2 Engine, l-2 Engine,

S-II ................................ S-IVB ..............................

5-6 6-4

Launch Launcl', Launch Launch Launch

to Earth Parking Orbit ................. Complex 39 ............................ Constraints ............................ Control Center ..................... Mission Rules ..........................

2- I. !0- I S- I 8-23 • .... 8 I 9-_

Ch:mged

5 October

1969

INI)I

X 3

Launch Pad
structure

.................................. ...................................

8-8 8-8 8-12 8-12 8-12 8-13' 8-13 8-13 8-13 8-13 8-I$ 8-15 8-15 8-15 8-15 1-2 1-3 I-3 1-3 I-I 3-12 3-12 3-13 3-13 3-13 3-13 3-13 3-13 3-13 3-13 3-13 3-14 1-3 3-1 I 3-11 3-1 i 3-11 3-11 3-12 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-4 8-8 8-15 8- i 6 8-16 8-16 5-5 3-14 5-17 5-17 6-16 6-16 6-16 5-20 6-16 6-17 6-17 6-17 6-17 6-17 9-13 2-20 ..... 3-9 3-16

pad terminal connection room .................. environmental control system .................. high presure gas system ....................... interface structure ........................... emergency escape system ...................... electrical power ............................. fuel system facilities .......................... fox system facilities .......................... gaseous hydrogen facility ...................... azimuth alignment building .................... photography facilities ......................... water facilities .............................. air intake building ........................... flame deflector ............................. Launch Requirements ...... _................... Launch Vehicle Description ... ................... general arrangement .......................... interstage data flow .......................... Launch Vehicle Development ..................... Launch Vehicle EDS Controls, SC ................. EDS switch ................................. CSM/LM FINAL SEP switches .................. CM/SM SEP switches ......................... PRPLNT switch ............................. ABORT SYSTEM - 2 ENG OUT switch ........... ABORT SYSTEM - LV RATES switch ............ ABORT SYSTEM -TWR JETI" switches .......... S-II/S-IVB Switch ............................ MAIN RELEASE switch ...................... ELS switches ............................... CM RCS PRESS switch ....................... Launch Vehicle. General Arrangement .............. Launch Vehicle Normal Controls, SC ............... GUIDANCE switch .......................... XLUNAR switch ............................ EDS POWER switch .......................... UP TLM switches ............................ S-IVB/LM switch ............................ LC-39 Facilities and Equipment ................... vehicle assembly building ...................... launch control center ......................... mobile launcher ............................. launch pad ................................. mobile service structure ....................... crawler-transporter ........................... converter/compressor facility ................... ordnance storage area ......................... Leak Detection. S-II ECS ........................ LES MOTOR FIRE Switch ...................... LH 2 Feed System, S-II .......................... LH 2 Recirculation, S-II ......................... LH 2 System, S-IVB ............................ LH 2 low pressure fuel duct ................... LH 2 t'fll and drain ............................ LH 2 Tank Pressurization. S-I! .................... LH 2 Tank Pressurization. S-IVB ................... prepressurization ............................ pressurization ............................... repressurization ............................. LH 2 venting ................................ directional control valve ....................... LIEF ....................................... Liftoff Clearance .............................. LIFTOFF/NO AUTO ABORT Lights, Spacecraft LIMIT CYCLE Switch. Spacecraft .................

LM Ascent ................................... 10-5 LM Decent .................................. 10-5 loads. S-IC Center Engine Cutoff ................. 2-17 loads, SIC Outboard Engine Cutoff .... ........... 2-17 Low Prerau_ Fuel Duct. S-IVB " .6-16 Lox Engine Supply, S-IVB ....................... 6-14 Lox Feed System, S-I! .......................... 5-17 LOx Fill and Drain, S-IVB ....... :..:'_'_:. .......... 6-14 Lox Loading and Delivery, S-IC ................... 4-12 lox drain ................................... 4-12 lox pressurization system ...................... 4-13 lox delivery ................................. 4-13 Lox Recircuiation, S-II'. ......................... 5-17 Lox System Facilities, Launch Pad ................. 8-13 Lox System, S-IVB ............................. 6-13 iox fill _md drain ............................. 6-14 lox engine supply ............................ Lox Tank Pressurization. S-II ..................... LOx Tank Premuriz_.tion. S-IVB ................... prepressurization ............................ premrization ............................... repretmrization ............................. Iox venting ................................. Lunar Orbit Insertion ........................... Lunar Surface Operations ........................ LV ENGINE Lights. Spacecraft ................... LV GUID Light, Spacecraft ..... ................. LV RATE Light. Spacecraft ...................... LV TANK PRESS Gauges ....................... M MAIN DEPLOY Switch, Spacecraft ................ Main Fuel Valve, S-IC ........................... Main Lox Valve, S-IC ........................... MAIN RELEASE Switch, Spacecraft ............... Malfunction Detection, S-II ...................... Malfunctions/;iazards, Launch Vehicle ............. Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) ............. MANUAL ATTITUDE Switches .................. Manufacture and Launch Concepts ................ Master Alarm Lights, Spacecraft .................. MCC Organization ............................. Measurements and Telemetry, IU .................. measurements ............................... telemetry .................................. Measurement System, S-IC ....................... RACS ..................................... Measurement System, S-II ....................... Measurement System, S-IVB ..................... Mechanical Interface, IU/SLA .................... Mission Constraints ............................ Mission Control Monitoring ...................... Mission Objectives ............................. Mission Prof'de ................................ launch to EPO .............................. transiunar injection .......................... translunar co.'-'t ............................. S-IVB evasivemaneuver ....................... S-IVB slingshot ............................. lunarorbitinsertion.......................... LM descent ................................ lunar surface operations ..................... LM ascent ................................ transearth injecUon ......................... transearth coast ............................. entry and recovery .......................... 3-14 4-5 4-5 3-13 5-I I 9-9 9-13 3-16 1-2 3-10 9-I 7-25 7-25 7-25 4-19 4-19 5-22 6-26 7-29 10-6 9-I IO- I I0- I I0-I I0-I 10-5 10-5 IO-S 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 IO-c, I ()-¢_ 1()-¢, 6-14 5-17 6-14 6- ! 4 6-14 6- ! 6 6- i 6 10-5 i 0-5 3-1 3-9 3-1 3-10

INDEX

4

Changed

5 October 1969

L_

7
m Mlmlun ProfUm. Analysis of ...................... Mission Rules ................................. laur.,h raison rules rulm ........................... .......................... flight mission Mobile launcher ............................... launcher base ............................... umbilical tower .............................. holddown m .............................. service mm ................................ tail service mast ............................. Mobile Service Structure ........................ Mode and Sequence Control. IU ................... switch selector .............................. operation sequence ........................... Monitoring and Control. LV ...................... Monitoring Displays (LV). Spa_;ecraft .............. flight director attitude indicator ................. LV ENGINE lights ........................... LV RATE light .............................. S-ll SEP light ............................... LV GUID light .............................. LIFT OFF/NO AUTO ABORT lights ............. ABORT light ............................... angle of attack meter ......................... accelerometer ............................... altimeter ................................... event timer ................................ MASTER ALARM lights ...................... LV TANK PRESS gauges ...................... MSFC Support of Launch and Flight Operations LIEF ..................................... prelaunch wind monitoring .................... launch and flight operations support ............. MSO Building ActiviUes ......................... Multiplexing, IU Telemetry ...................... N NASA Communication Network(NASCOM) ......... Navigation, Guidance and Control, IU .............. navigation scheme ........................... guidance computations ................ ........ control subsystem ........................... control system components .................... Navigation Scheme. IU .......................... powered flight .............................. orbital flight ................................ O Operation Sequence. IU ......................... Optical Alignment, IU GSE ...................... Ordnance. S-IC ................................ propellant dispersion system ................... retrorocket system .......................... Ordnance. $41 ................................ separation system ............................ ullage rocket system .......................... • retrorocket system ........................... propellant dispersion system ................... Ordnance. S-IVB .................. : ........... separation system ............................ ullage rocket system .......................... ullage rocket jettison system ................... propellant dispersion system ................... Ordnance Storage Area .......................... Oxidizer Tank. S-IC ............................ 7-22 7-29 4-19 4-23 4-23 5-22 5-22 5-25 5-25 5-26 6-27 6-27 6-29 6-33 6-33 8-16 4-1 9-13 7-13 7-14 7-14 7-15 7-15 7-14 7-14 7-14 I-2 9-8 9-8 9-8 8-4 8-4 8-6 8-8 8-8 8-8 8-15 7-21 7-21 7-22 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-10 9-13 9-13 9-13 9-14 8-21 7-25 Oxyl_n/Hydrollun P Pad Activities, Pralaunch ........................ Pad Terminal Connection Room .................. Parameters, BSE Group .......................... Parameters, Flight Control ........................ Parameters, Flight Dynamics Group ................ Parameters, LEC ............................... Parameters, Life Systems Group ................... Parameters, Spacecraft Systems Group .............. Path Angle. Inertial. Boost to EPO ................. Path Angle, Inertial. TLI Boost ................... Perceptible Prelannch Events ..................... Performance, Saturn V Launch Vehicle ............. Photollraphy Facilities, Launch Pad ................ Pitch Angle. Boost to Parking Orbit ................ Platform Electronic Assembly, IU ................. Pneumatic Control, S-IC ......................... Pneumatic Control. S-II ......................... ground pneumatics ........................... onboard pneumatics .......................... Pneumatic Control, S-IVB ....................... POGO Suppression System ....................... Power Converters. IU ........................... 56 volt power supply ......................... 5 volt measuring voltage supply ................. Powered Flight Major Loop. IU Flight Program ....... Power Supply. AC. ST-! 24-M3 .................... Power Supply, 5 Volt. IU ........................ Power Supply, 56 Vo!t. IU ...................... Preflight Operation, S 1I ......................... Prelaunch and Initialization. IU Flight Program ....... Prelaunch Operation • • .......................... MSO building act..x sties ........................ VAB activities ............................. vehicle transfer and mating ..................... pad activities ............................... Prepressurization, S-II Propellant_ ................. Pressure Switches, S-IVB ........................ Propellant Conditioning, $-IVB ................... Propellant Delivery Subsystems, S-il ............... Propellant Depletion, S-II ........................ Propellant Dispersion System, S-IC ................ Propellant Dispersion System, S-I! ................. Propellant Dispersion System, S-IVB ............... Propellant Loading ............................. Propellant Dump, S-IVB ......................... Propellant Dump Timeline ....................... Propellant Management. S-I! ..................... Propellant Management, S-IVB .................... Propellant Servicing System_ S-I! ................. Propellants. S-IC .............................. fuel loading and delivery ..................... iox loading and delivery ...................... Propellants. S-ll .............................. propellant servicing system .................... recirculation system .......................... prepressurization ............................ propellant delivery subsystems .................. Iox feed system ............................. LIt 2 feed system ........................... Iox tank pressurization ........................ Ltt 2 tank pressurization ...................... propellant management ..................... propellant utilization subsystem .............. 8-22 8-8 9- I I 9- I ! 9-11 9-11 9- i 3 9-1 ! 2-12 2- ! 2 i-9 2-1 8-15 2-4 7-16 4-7 5-15 5-15 5-15 6.17 4-4 7-10 7-10 7-11 7-20 7-18 7-1 I 7-I0 5-1 I 7-20 8-21 8-2 i 8-2 ! 8-21 8-22 5-17 6-25 6-1 I 5-17 5-20 4-23 5-26 6-33 2-3 6-17 10-4 5-20 6-25 5-15 4- I I 4-1 I 4-12 5-15 5-15 5-17 5-17 5-17 5-17 5-17 5-17 5.2.0 5-20 5_20 Burner ....................... 6. I !

......

• ,. ,

(Th_ nged 5 October

I _?t,t#

IN I )1 X _

................... Sequencer Event Manual Pushbuttom. SC CONT Switch............ POGO suppression system ..... IU ................ I _ -| INI)hX 6 (:hanged 5 October 1969 ............ _-I thrust structure .. and ATr DI_ADBAND Switches .I.. S-IVB ................................................ purge.............. 3-15 MANUAL ATTITUDE switches .... S-IVB ................ analysis of mission profiles ..... Iox re.......... general ......... venting ........................................ 3..................I Structure............... S-II .... Propulsion S-IVB ............................... TL! Boost .................................. transportation ............ Propellant Weights. 3-14 SPS engine start ............................................ S-IVB ................. Propulsion........................ oxypn/hydrogen burner .............13 6-13 6-14 6-14 6-16 6-16 6-17 6-I 5-20 6-25 I0-4 2-14 2-14 2-14 2-3 2-3 2-3 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-6 5-5 5-6 5-6 5.. .... propellant dump .... 7-2 Structure............... Range............ Mobile Launcher ..... 3-15 SPS engine shutdown .................. 3-15 AUTO RCS SELECT switches .......... S-IC/S-il ..................................................... PRPLNT Switch............ switch selector ............. engine operating requirements .................... "............. engine operation . Ptlrge.... pref'dl and thermal conditioning .......................... 7........ CANARD DEPLOY switch ............ ground safety ............. S-il ECS ................ LES MOTOR FIRE switch ....23 6-23 6-23 3-13 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 8-8 Propellants........ CM RCS He DUMP switch ...... engine subsystems .............................. CSM/LV SEP switch ................. manufacture and launch concepts .......... RACS.... Propellant Weights...................... LH 2 recirculation ........ S-IVB Evasive Maneuver ................................................................. DROGUE DEPLOY switch ......................I Delivery ................ 3-9 3-13 2-3................................... RP-I Pressurization .......... ............... Propulsion..................................................... 4......................... ............ APEX COVER JETF switch . S-IVB ........ S-If ......................................! i. 3-16 SC CONT switch ............I forward skirt ...... Propellant Utilization Subsystem.................. Propellant Tank Assembly............................ J-2 rocket engine .................. reliability and quality assurance .... Boost to Parking Orbit ..... Safety ................................. IU ....................... 4-I fueltank ............ S-II ........................... 4...... Propulsion Performance .................................................. design reviews . S-IC ..................... lox system ............................................................... I-I Stage Sequencer........ 4....I !......................... 3-15 DIRECT switches ..................................................... Sequence of Events.......................................................................I intertank section ........... S-IVB ....... Launch ....I-3 4-23 7-27 7-27 I-6 I.... Propellant Utilization...................... flight safety ...... S-IVB ...... RATIo............................... Accelerometer .......• ll¢l_X $ S-II SEP lig hi... 2-3................... Safety and Arming Device ............. SC ................... S-IVB/LM Switch ... Spacecraft ............. IU ..........! 5 thrust vector control . Separation.......! I 6-4 6-4 6-4 3-13 4-4 5-5 6-4 7-4 ......... S-IC . propellant loading . 4-19 7-27 7-27 2-9 1-3 1-3 !-5 I-9 2-9 3-16 9-5 5-17 5-17 5-17 10-6 !-2 1-2 I-3 I-3 6-8 4-23 5-25 3-18 4-12 4-1 I Service Propulsion System Control.................................................... Recirculation System...... 4-I thruststructure ....... command communications system ....... Schedule Summary ...... on . engine performance ...............................I oxidizer tank ............ Prefdl and Thermal Conditioning.. LH 2 system ............ engiue operation .....1 !-2 I-2 I-2 1-3 1-3 3-16 I-4 5-22 6-27 2-2 8-24 6................... Reliabihty and Ouality Assurance ..... fox tank pressurizat..... 6-11 6........... S-II .... Range Safety and Instrumentation ........... C-band radar ....... propellant conditioning ................ Retrolocket System.................................................... Real-Time Commands . 3-16 BMAG MODE switches . malfunction detection ....... Propellant Weights..................................................... 5-6 Structure................... Saturn V System Description ........ S-IC .......................... S-IC ............ Service Arms................................................ Saturn V Launch Vehicle Data ..... S-IC Purge........................... S-II/S-IVB ............................................................. Sequence of Events............. S-II ....................... b:23 Start Preparations.. Spacecraft ....... S-II Engines .... Spacecraft ............ Restart.. 4......circulation .... Spacecraft ........... S-II/S-IVB Switch............. failure effects and criticality analyses ................ Roll Stability Indicator ......................... Purge System.... 3............... MAIN DEPLOY switch ..I8 Slingshot Mode ................. 3-16 Stage Separation... 3-16 RATE and ATT DEADBAND switches .......................... S-IC Measurement System ............... S-IVB Fwd Skirt ........ IU Preflight .......................... Propellant Vent Timeline .. J-2 rocket engine ................ Spacecraft ..............11 6-11 6............. stage sequencer ..................... Retrorocket System.........10-5 3-12 i..... S-IVB .. launch requirements ........................... launch vehicle development ... Recovery...................... LH 2 tank pressurization .. 3-16 LIMIT CYCLE switch ............................... Radio Command System.......... helium system .............. vehicle design ground rules ........... Prelaonch .............. Saturn Tracking Instrumentation...... '_ l propellant 5ystcIllS # tank structure [unllfl ................... ............ Purge................... 3-15 Signal Conditioner....... Sequencer Assemblies...................................................... Design Rules ...................... vehicle development flow ........10-5 Stability Control System... RP......... Spacecraft ................ _-I body shell structure ..... Spacecraft ............! 5 ATT SET switch ....................... S-II ............................................................ Separation.... engine operation ............................................. Range...

.................. Transportation ...... umbilical.... Vehicle Assembly Building ............. Thrust Structure Compartment... prelatmch operations ........................... 3-1 I ('hanged S ()ctober 19_)t) INI)I \ I\l)t \ ... Time Bases....... Turnaround Requirements.......................................... Umbilicals.......... high bay area ...... S-IVB Aft Skirt and lnterstage S-IVB ForwarO Skirt ........ Propellants....... Thermoconditioning. S-II ................................ ! 0-5 !-3 5-4 4-4 8-25 Test System...... ':...05 G Light) ................... Vehicle Assembly and Checkout .... Transearth Coast ..... AV/RANGE W Water Facilities....................................... Venting........... S-IC ....................... .. Thrust Structure.................................................. S-ll ........... Vehicle Design Ground Rule* ................ MSFC ...... Display ........ Space Vehicle ............ Telemetry Telemetry......... S-IVB ................ UP TLM Switches ....... XYZ XLUNAR Switch .... S-IC ...... Telemetry. parameters monitored by life systems group .... Thrust Vector Control... low bay stem .................... TLI Boost . Tail Service Masts.............................................................................................. Thrust Structure..... MCC organization .................. Thermal Control............. Wind Monitoring ............ Mobile Launcher ............................ 6-3 6-3 3-18 2-16 4-3 4-1 5-1 6-1 3-15 2-15 2-1 $ 2-16 7-22 10-6 3-13 9.................. S-II ..... System.... test system .... Spacecraft ..... Translational Controller..... .. :......... ECS............ S-IVB .. electrical systems .............................................................. Trajectory Profile .......I I-3 I-3 9............................ .. Vehicle .. Operation Sequence........... / Threshold Indicator (................................................. Thrust During EPO . Thermoconditioning............................ Switch Selector............. Spacecraft ........ S-IC ................. Tracking......................... parameters monitored by LCC ............ parameters monitored by FIX) .... Translunar Coast . Transearth Injection .... Switch Selector............................... Boost to Parking Orbit ....................... S-ll ..i 2 9-13 9.............. TL! Boost Ground Trace ................. Turbopump.................... _CS................................... Vehicle Hight Control Parameters ........ S-IVB.. forward S-IVB ................. S-ll ...............! 2 U $ propellant tank agembly .................... Thrust vs Time History...... Velocity......................! I 9... ............................. Translunar Injection Boost . Vehicle Development Flow .............. Switch Selector...... .............................. Routine......... Telemetry.... Thermal Conditioning System............4 2-7 2-7 t_-v3 3-18 L 8-15 2-17 9-13 .... S-IVB ......... safety .. S-ll ...... utility mu_x .................... IU ......... certification and review schedules ........... Tunnel.... IU Flight Program S-IC .................................. Transfer and Mating................. Launch and Flight Operations.. IU ............................................................ 6-33 5-25 6-29 7-28 1-1 3..................... Tank Insulation.... Velocity................ S-IVB ........ aft a_Art assembly .I........... Trajectory Groundtrack .... Thrust vs Time History..... aft intentase assembly .......! 2 9.... S-Ii .. i 0-5 2.............................. V VAB Activities .. S-IC ........... Ullage Rocket System.......... command system ............ 8-8 5-5 5-1 7-25 7-21 4-19 5-22 6-27 8-17 7-2 5-4 ........................................... S-IVB . Launch Pad ............ helium/nitrogen storage ................ Umbilical.......9 2.............. IO ... Tank Structure............ space vehicle tracking ........7 f e E Structure.............. ..... parameters monitored by SC systems group ............ skirt assembly ....... Vehicle Misalon Abort Capability ............... display and control system ...................................... Telemetry.... Vehicle Weight.......I ! 9............ IU GSE .......2 10-3 10-2 10-6 i 0-6 8-2 I 3-14 2-3..... Launch Vehicle ............ S-IVB ... S-IC .. Prelaunch 8-21 8-16 8-17 8-2 I 8-! 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 i-! 1.......I 9-2 9-5 9-6 9........ Tower Jettison Switches.................. Design Rules .........................! 1 9................ Spacecraft .. Support....... Vehicle Flight Control Capability .................................................... Thrust Structure.... parameters monitored by BSE ..................... Boost to Parking Orbit .. thrust structure ............ S-ll ................. Thrust vs Time History...................................I 9...................................... IU ................... Wind Loads ............ 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 9-14 7-2 ! 4-18 6-23 Ullage Rocket Ullage Rocket Jettison System......... stage sepammtion .....

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