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U O H
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Directorate General for Energy (DG XVII)
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The JOULE-THERMIE programme was launched in 1995 as the European Union’s first ‘integrated’ programme, bringing together the resources of the European Commission Directorates-General XII (Science, Research and Development) and XVII (Energy). This programme is funded by the European Union’s Fourth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development, one of the most extensive research funding initiatives available to European companies and research organisations. The JOULE-THERMIE programme runs until 1998 and has a total budget of 1,030 MECU of which 566 MECU are allocated to the THERMIE demonstration component of the programme for the support of projects and associated measures. THERMIE is focused on the cost-effective, environmentally-friendly and targeted demonstration and promotion of clean and efficient energy technologies. These consist of renewable energy technologies; rational use of energy in industry; buildings and transport; a clean and more efficient use of solid fuels and hydrocarbons. Essentially, THERMIE supports actions which are aimed at proving both the technological and economical viability and validity of energy technologies by highlighting the benefits and by assuring a wider replication and market penetration both in EU and global markets.
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THERMIE PROGRAMME ACTION NO DIS-0162-95-IRL
Univer sity College Dublin
For the European Commission Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII)
Energy Research Group University College Dublin Richview, Clonskeagh Dublin 14, Ireland Tel: +353.1-269 2750
html. Accrington. Goulding and Sinéad McKeon INTERNET This maxibrochure is available on the THERMIE World Wide Web site (http://erg. 1997.I. Architects: Jestico & Whiles. with respect to the information contained in this publication. UK. . Copies of the maxibrochure can then be printed.E.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Authors: John R.ie/thermie. Goulding and J.G. Design and layout: John R.2-657 5300 Fax +32.com/comprod/mirror/index. This project is supported by The Energy Commission DGXVII for Energy under the THERMIE programme. Netscape can also be downloaded from the WWW site http://home.html) in Portable Document Format (pdf). The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the Commission. (b) assumes any liability with respect to the use of. nor any person acting on its behalf: (a) makes any warranty or representation. B-1560-HOEILAART Tel +32. All World Wide Web links referred to in this maxibrochure can be accessed through viewing the pdf document within the WWW browser Netscape.2-657 3640 Front cover image: Zero Energy Headquarters building for Hyndburn Borough Council. Owen Lewis. London. Panoramalaan 7. Follow included instructions in each item of software for appropriate setup.ucd. University College Dublin Published by: LIOR E. September 1997 Reproduction of the contents is subject to acknowledgement of the European Commission.netscape. These software are available to the user at no cost. or damages resulting from this information. express or implied. Those interested can download the Acrobat Reader for their specific computer platform and then download the maxibrochure for viewing on screen. Neither the European Commission. Energy Research Group.
. . .2 Passive Solar Heating . . . 4. . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Thermal Comfort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Glossary . . . . . . . . .2 Commercial: Irish Energy Centre offices. . . . .1 CD-Rom Screen Images. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Natural Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15 16 17 18 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Sources of Further Information . . . . . . . . .4 Daylighting . . . . . . . . . .2 Urban Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Active Solar Systems . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Windberg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . 2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 CD-ROM on Bioclimatic Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Urban Planning . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . 14 Case Studies 14 . . . . . . 4. . . . . . Microclimatic Design and Urban Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of Sustainable Construction Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Thermal Indices . . . 23 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bioclimatic Charts . . . . 9 3. . 3 4 5 6 7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .1 Thermal Comfort Parameters . . . . . . . . .4 Retrofit: Old Central Market. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thessaloniki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 12 12 4 5. . . Athens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dublin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Housing: Student Hostel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . 20 8. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .3 Institutional: Teaching Hospital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . .2 Information via the Internet . 2. . . . . 2 Bioclimatic Building Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 . affirms. and ‘Sustainable’ design are now familiar terms. and enables.House in Regensburg. technological developments affecting the building sector. but which goes further than minimising the environmental impact of buildings. However. Many of these buildings manage to provide acceptable levels of thermal and visual comfort indoors. Chicago 1993. including electric lighting. vital design parameters. ‘Ecological’. ‘Passive Solar’. healthy buildings and materials. and there is a growing body of evidence that the artificially maintained conditions within many of our modern buildings are not conducive to good health. a new approach is emerging that 'Wings of Glass' . Far from limiting architectural freedom. it seeks to create an architecture which is fundamentally more responsive to location. ‘Bioclimatic Architecture’ implies a design approach which embraces the principles of sustainability*. ‘Green’. climate and human needs and which gives expression to soundly based. ‘Bioclimatic’.” Architecture has always involved the use of natural resources to serve human needs. new heating. central heating and air conditioning. with increasing awareness of the environmental impact of modern living. Munich. Their meanings overlap and some have been around for longer than others. it offers a broad range of new possibilities to enhance the design and function of our future buildings and our delight in experiencing them. Germany. Cheap fuels. have allowed buildings to become progressively more detached from their environments. cooling and lighting technologies and increased expectations of occupants have resulted in buildings that are designed and used with little regard to their location or their ambient environments. * The UIA (International Union of Architects) Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future. ecologically and socially sensitive land use and an aesthetic sensitivity that inspires. Since the Industrial Revolution. but at enormous and unsustainable cost to the environment. There is a long and inventive tradition of making buildings that are sensitive to place and to climate. Architect: Thomas Herzog. proclaims: “Sustainable design integrates consideration of resource and energy efficiency.1 INTRODUCTION seeks to provide buildings which are better suited to the needs of occupants and kinder to the global environment.
bioclimatic architecture permits a dynamic interaction between people. Passive heating. Architects: Energy Research Group University College Dublin. However substantial potential exists to increase its contribution. Dublin. if rigorous action is taken. and exemplars of climate conscious design are to be seen in vernacular buildings of various cultures throughout history. Dublin. and whose contribution varies from the modest fraction by which most European buildings already benefit. Bioclimatic design elements cannot be considered only in their technical dimensions. The building is cooled by rejecting unwanted heat to ambient heat sinks (air. store and distribute solar thermal energy and prevent overheating. the use of radiant energy for daylighting while maintaining standards of visual comfort is also encompassed within the bioclimatic approach. natural cooling and daylighting represent a spectrum of strategies whose applicability is modified by region and building type. roofs and floors to collect. to that in well-designed new buildings where the solar contribution may represent more than half of the energy conventionally required to provide comfortable thermal and visual environments. The terms ‘bioclimatic’ and ‘passive solar’ have been in use for not much more than a decade. their built environment and the outdoor conditions. windows. as noted above. cooling or daylighting will vary by region and building type. Heat flows occur primarily by the natural mechanisms of convection. a criticism which can fairly be levelled at some early solar buildings is that they were diagrammatic in concept.2 BIOCLIMATIC BUILDING DESIGN As a design approach it is relevant to all buildings and locations though the relative importance of heating. As an aside. as of their nature these systems have profound architectural implications. or 13% of building sector use. Socrates evidenced a clear understanding of climate-sensitive design and of the principles governing the solar heating of buildings. Bioclimatic buildings are characterised by the use of building elements including walls. The rich design potential of bioclimatic strategies coupled with their economic attractiveness has determined that these approaches are of fundamental importance in a more energy-efficient architecture and sustainable design. and by reducing internal gains. The definition also includes natural cooling and shading. Architects: Murray O'Laoire. and compared to more highly serviced ‘conventional’ buildings it may be significantly cheaper to operate. The objective is to manage energy flows and thus provide comfortable conditions in the occupied parts of the building at all times of the year and the day. The auxiliary inputs and their controls are designed to supplement the climatic contributions. Dublin. Nevertheless. earth and water) by means of natural modes of heat transfer. daylighting cannot meet all lighting requirements. Irish Energy Centre. and awareness of the available technologies and materials combined with an understanding of comfort. and similarly. at a certain level bioclimatic architecture has already been shown to provide in a cost-effective manner indoor climates which occupants enjoy. by 27% by the year 2000 and by 54% by 2010. Primarily a design strategy.equivalent to 9% of total fuel (and greater than coal directly burnt for heating at 6%). The design and construction of a building which takes optimal advantage of its environment need not impose any significant additional cost. Characteristically a design-orientated and building-specific technology. in that it would seem that sometimes practically all other 3 'The Green Building'. In most situations it is necessary to provide some additional heating or cooling at certain times. As far back as the 5th century BC. sky. Thirdly. conduction and radiation rather than through the use of pumps and fans. The report indicates the potential to greatly increase this contribution. It requires a knowledge of climate. the principles involved were known in ancient civilisations. View of the atrium. A 1990 study for the European Commission  reported that passive solar design then supplied the Community (of twelve Member States) with 96 MTOE primary energy per annum . and how these conditions can be affected by changes in climate. But the cooling load is firstly minimised through architectural design by reducing solar gains to the building fabric or through its windows. .
All climate-sensitive or bioclimatic architecture will incorporate solar protection and shading as appropriate to regional circumstances. The aim should be to minimize it so that replacement of air can be controlled easily. energy efficiency. of course. Techniques include evaporative cooling and night ventilation. Cooling is of particular (though not exclusive) relevance in southern climates. and lowemissivity glazing can be used. The addition of thermal insulation to the envelope reduces thermal conduction. of primary importance in energy conscious design. energy-saving ventilation and optimisation of daylight to minimise the use of electric lighting) are essential to make the best use of the available energy. light shelves and so on. The building envelope can lose heat by infiltration. Translucent Insulation Material. indoor health and comfort conditions and architectural quality. 2. Thought should be given to topography. It is interesting that vernacular architecture often displays an exemplary appreciation of the exigencies of local climate but (apparently through a period of cheap energy) professional building designers seem to have lost the skills of designing in harmony with climate. energy-efficient design and construction practices (including appropriate use of insulation and thermal mass. and planting of wind shelter. cooling and lighting. and to provide the necessary tools to support design and predict performance’. .1 Energy Conservation While passive solar energy can help to replace conventional fuels with more environmentally benign alternative sources of heating. Double and triple glazings. Given that issues of energy-efficient building must form part of a design strategy. and substantial thermal inertia will usually form an important feature of such buildings. sometimes filled with low-conductivity gas. 4 Natural insulation for energy conservation. to achieve change it is necessary to motivate and inform professionals so that they modify their behaviour. Daylighting must be the earliest and most natural ‘bioclimatic’ application. A more holistic design approach is better suited to people’s increased expectations of their buildings in terms of environmental impact. yet this is an approach in which there is renewed interest as energy issues in non-domestic buildings are studied. convection and radiation. The perception of the thermal and luminous implications of elements such as walls and roofs is more difficult and less familiar to most designers than concepts such as architectural space and structure. Barriers such as aluminium foil can be placed behind radiators. but usually have relatively low impact on the architecture of the building. to reflect heat back into the room by radiation. can reduce thermal losses through windows. building shape.considerations were made subservient to energy collection. It is not necessary to cut out infiltration altogether. and by transmission through thermal conduction. Modern service systems have tended to mask the direct experience of a building’s environmental response to climatic change. offer significant design potential. Energy conservation techniques are. Architectural devices designed to increase the penetration of natural light deep into the interiors of commercial buildings and schools improve the distribution by techniques such as clerestory lighting. the prevention of unwanted air infiltration. Workmanship should be good and attention paid to details such as joints and closing systems. Solar Wall. effective.
of considerable thermal mass. usually without auxiliary heating and with storage either in a heavy separating wall or elsewhere in the sunspace. Heat storage. while the mass wall relies on conduction. DIRECT Non-diffusing Diffusing Direct gain sunspace Clerestory INDIRECT Mass wall Sunspace Direct Gain is the most common approach. where collected/stored heat is redirected to rooms or zones which require heat. A development is the BarraConstantini system which uses lightweight glazed collectors mounted on. Indirect Gain systems include Mass. There has been a recent upsurge of architectural interest in glazed sunspaces and atria. Trombe and water walls. Water replaces solid masonry in the third type. depending on the circumstances. where heat is retained in the building for as long as possible. 5 Passive solar heating configurations. . Movable insulation may be deployed at nighttime. Heat conservation. south-facing glazed apertures opening directly into habitable rooms in which are exposed appropriately-sized areas of heavy materials to provide thermal storage. can result in buildings which are both more energy-efficient and offer higher standards of visual and thermal comfort and health to the occupants.2. Transparent or translucent insulation materials (TIM) are a new class of materials which combine the properties of good optical transmission and good thermal insulation. especially in larger buildings. Storage is in a south-facing wall. The sunspace or conservatory is a glazed enclosure attached to the south elevation. It may be used to pre-heat ventilation air for the building. a wide range of passive techniques is now available to the building designer for new and retrofit building projects which. whose external surface is glazed to reduce heat losses. Roof pond Thermosiphon Trombe wall Barra-Constantini Remote storage wall Black attic In addition to special glazing materials (using special coatings or which operate electrochromically or photochromically). at little or no extra cost compared with conventional construction. where heat collected during the day is stored within the building for future use.2 Passive Solar Heating Passive solar design represents one of the most important strategies for replacing conventional fossil fuels and reducing environmental pollution in the building sector. but insulated from south-facing walls. which can reject or help to retain heat. walls and floors warming these before returning to the bottom of the collector. Solar energy can make a major contribution to the heating requirements of a building. with large. where solar energy is collected and converted into heat. entirely new construction materials are now being developed for the market which are often ideally suited to passive solar buildings. Depending on the local climate and the predominant need for heating or cooling. The Trombe wall has vents at high and low levels to allow convective heat transfer to the occupied space. Heated air from the collectors circulates through ducts in the heavy ceilings. For most parts of Europe it is appropriate to use the following strategy: • • • • Solar collection. Heat distribution.
. ..... It is anticipated that large-scale production will significantly reduce their cost in the near future . to use environmental heat sinks to absorb any remaining unwanted heat. Fixed or adjustable shading devices.... . before taking measures to dissipate unwanted heat. sky... ground and evaporative cooling to reduce the temperature of ventilation air and night-time cooling of the building by radiative heat loss to the sky and enhanced ventilation. Internal gains can be reduced by the use of more efficient lighting and appliances and appropriate control strategies for their operation and by the use of natural daylight wherever possible to replace artificial lighting. where necessary.. Heat Distribution Heat Conservation Passive solar heating strategy.. .. next to reduce internal or casual heat gains from appliances and occupants and finally.. replacing conventional opaque insulating materials. natural cooling may be considered in a somewhat wider sense than the strict definition above suggests..... .. ....... Solar Collection Heat Storage . Infiltration gains can be reduced by cooling the incoming air and by reducing its infiltration to a minimum necessary for comfort and health. . 6 External heat gains due to solar radiation can be minimised by insulation.. Well-designed TIM facades can reduce the annual energy requirements for space heating in new and retrofitted houses to one quarter that of comparable buildings with conventional wall insulation.. Several methods of natural cooling.. However.. reflective materials and compact building layout.. ......One of the most obvious applications of TIM is on the sunny facades of buildings... A useful design strategy for the overheating season is to first control the amount of heat from solar radiation and heated air reaching the building.. or shading provided by vegetation and special glazing may be used to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the building. Ventilation using cooled fresh air driven through the building by naturally occurring differences in wind or air pressure can help to reduce internal temperatures. to include preventive measures for controlling cooling loads as well as the possibility of mechanically assisted (hybrid) heat transfer to enhance the natural processes of passive cooling....... it is prudent to consider how the build-up of unwanted heat can be minimised in the first place. Internal Gains Passive cooling strategy.. including increased air speeds to maximise perceived levels of cooling. can help to maintain comfortable indoor conditions.. Solar Control External Gains Ventilation Natural Cooling .3 Natural Cooling Strictly defined. . ... thermal inertia in the building envelope. the term ‘passive cooling’ applies only to those processes of heat dissipation that will occur naturally...... In this context. Some transparent insulation materials are commercially available while others are still undergoing development. .. reduced window sizes. then to minimise the effect of unwanted solar heat within the building skin or at openings...... . earth and water) by means of natural modes of heat transfer leads to an appreciable cooling effect indoors.. 2. The definition encompasses situations where the coupling of spaces and building elements to ambient heat sinks (air. that is without the mediation of mechanical components or energy inputs... In practice a combination of these cooling techniques is almost invariably in operation..
Window openings and artificial light sources should be placed in such a way that glare is minimised. should be provided to allow relevant objects to be seen easily. . . Recommended optimal illuminance values for the workplace for different types of task. however. are given in the Building Energy Code published by the (UK) Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE). space organisation. be retained for the relief of each object to be brought out.. . form and dimensions. by replacing artificial light. without fatigue. Such a strategy should take account of the potential for heat gain and conservation. energy savings by replacing artificial light and the more subjective benefits of natural light and external views enjoyed by the occupants. Finally. Sufficient contrast should. visual comfort and the well-being of occupants. the range is affected by the visual performance required. especially in buildings used mainly by day. distribution and quality of the light there. function and geometry of the spaces to be lit the location. it can nevertheless only perform visual functions within a small range of illuminance levels. Illuminance Although the human eye is extremely adaptable. This can be achieved by consideration of the following in relation to the incidence of daylight on the building: • the orientation. For a particular task. the light 7 Claustras External / internal shades Coated glasses Transparent insulation Daylighting devices. of movable or permanent devices which provide protection from excessive light and glare the optical and thermal characteristics of the glazing materials. most of which must be incorporated into the building at an early stage in its design. The light distribution in the space should be such that excessive differences in relative illumination which could give the impression of inadequate lighting are avoided. form and dimensions of the openings through which daylight will pass the location and surface properties of internal partitions which will reflect the daylight and play a part in its distribution the location. particular care should be taken over the quality of the light to be provided. distribution in the room and the luminance of the walls and other surfaces. Clerestory Reflective blinds Atrium Light duct Light well Roof monitor Light shelf External reflectors • • • • Good daylighting design will not only reduce energy costs related to artificial lighting but will also diminish the need for mechanical devices to cool rooms overheated by lowefficiency electric lighting appliances. make a significant contribution to energy efficiency. indicated by a sufficiently high daylight factor. A good daylighting system has a range of elements.4 Daylighting The optimal use of natural daylight.2. Both the spectral composition and light consistency should be appropriate for the task to be performed . can. Enough illuminance. Prismatic components Tilted / reflective surfaces Achievement of comfortable lighting conditions in a space depends on the amount. etc.
Direct glare occurs when a light source with a high luminance enters directly into one’s field of view. Architects: A&D Wejchert. Whatever its level. In general. Beresford Court office building. Surface finishes should. Glare Glare is caused by the introduction of an intense light source into the visual field. HQ for Legal & General Assurance. Reflected glare is caused by specular reflection from polished interior surfaces. Dublin. light colours should be used for large surfaces. Surrey.Contrast Contrast is the difference between the visual appearance of an object and that of its immediate background. UK. Health effects Besides being needed for visual perception. indirectly or by reflection. illuminance or reflectance between surfaces. therefore. Glare can be caused directly. hitherto unknown effects on the human mind and body. lead to psychological discomfort and loss of productivity. Dublin. Arup Associates. The penetration of natural light can be controlled by reducing the incident flow. 8 Meeting area. Light control Penetration of solar radiation into a building contributes much to the quality of the lighting there . Daylight is involved in setting the "biological clock" and its associated rhythms. Control of direct or diffuse sunlight is important to comfort because it reduces glare. it always produces a feeling of discomfort and fatigue. light also regulates metabolic processes in the human body. the amount of contrast and the luminance of the windows. . It can be expressed in terms of luminance. This effect could be enhanced in the occupants of deep-plan buildings where artificial light levels are insufficient to trigger physiological responses. Daylight also provides clues for spatial and time orientation which. Architects + Engineers + Quantity Surveyors. when removed. Indirect glare occurs when the luminance of walls is too high. to achieve good luminance distribution. A lack of light (particularly in winter at high latitudes) can lead to seasonal affective disorder (SAD) with symptoms of lethargy and depression. and affects the immune system and psychological and emotional states.as long as the sun’s rays do not reach the occupants’ eyes directly or by specular reflection. The amount and distribution of the light (and hence the amount of contrast) in a room is very dependent on the reflectivity of the walls and other surfaces. It can be experienced with interior lighting or when the sun or clear sky is seen through windows either directly or after reflection from an exterior surface. It can be achieved either by incorporation of permanent or movable exterior devices into the building design to reduce the view of the sky or by using movable interior screens to reduce the luminance of the window. be chosen with regard to their reflectances (the ratio of overall reflected radiant energy to incident radiant energy). Humans evolved in an environment of purely natural daylight and it seems likely that it has other. Kingswood. It can be mildly distracting or visually disabling for the occupant. Glare can be reduced by careful design and choosing light sources and backgrounds of suitable luminances.
political. In the past. and the shelter from wind and rain provided by the hills of many Welsh and northern English valley towns.  & . 9 . To take best advantage of and to build in harmony with the environment. Seville. New planning directions are needed to reduce energy consumption in existing cities: for example. aesthetic. it has been possible to integrate energy. the integration of living and working places and improvements in the energy efficiency of public transport. Italy. although it should be taken in context with an analysis of the microclimate at the site. General climatic factors such as solar radiation. and building design.1 Urban Planning In the past. Architect: Jaime Lopez de Asiain.3 MICROCLIMATIC DESIGN AND URBAN PLANNING 3. cheap road and rail transport and specialised land-use zoning have encouraged dispersed settlement patterns which have resulted in increased energy consumption. air and ground temperatures. distancing work. in existing settlements as well as new ones.  & . urban morphology. Local knowledge of the climate can also be useful. urban planning should become more responsive to site. etc. pollution. climate has been a strong influence on urban planning. The amount of land covered by contemporary cities continues to grow with consequences for energy consumption. Seville. Today. Cities and energy use interact on three levels: urban planning. but in recent decades. precipitation. transportation systems. Microclimatic design for outdoor cooling at the World Fair. In the design of a few totally new towns. and wider social considerations in a more holistic urban plan. transport facilitates the ‘suburban dream’. strategic. climatic considerations have informed the location of urban settlements: for example the availability of cooling winds in Perugia. Various publications give general guidance on site analysis techniques and some include tools and methods to aid the process: . and humidity can be established using data from national meteorological services and other publications . a good knowledge of the local climate and a detailed analysis of the chosen location are desirable before a strategy for bioclimatic design is embarked upon. municipal ordinances. social. and loss of amenity. recreation and home from each other and increasing transport demand. Conventional land-use planning is influenced by obsolete zoning concepts. As concepts of bioclimatic design penetrate deeper into society. such as Ecolonia in The Netherlands and Louvain-la-Neuve in Belgium. climate and nature. environmental. wind. Urban form is the result of the complex interaction of many pressures and influences: economic. while in many regions contemporary city planning imposes limitations on development which force the same suburban model.
Information on design tools and guidelines are provided in . as it is difficult to achieve solar shading because of the lower altitude of the evening sun. Tall buildings interfere with winds by creating undesirable turbulence and downdraughts to the detriment of the microclimate at ground level.2 Urban Morphology The interaction between urban form. deciduous vegetation can offer shade. Urban and building morphologies may be moulded for solar access or shade. Studies by ETSU in the UK have shown that simple site re-planning and housing re-orientation can result in significant energy savings. Where hard surfaces must be used. while permitting solar access in winter. Different layouts result in differing microclimates with greater or lesser comfort. when needed. for shelter from or exposure to winds depending on the requirements. Czech Republic.  and .3. improve urban temperatures and comfort in the heating season. Favourable orientations for solar access can. as seen in the whitewashed streets and buildings of some Mediterranean towns. and air temperatures tend to be high at this time of day. vegetation and neighbouring constructions. In winter. cooling of the air by evapo-transpiration and Canal. filtering of dust and airborne pollutants. Street orientation can dramatically influence solar gain and the effects of winds. space. Care must be taken to maintain solar access. pale colours can more effectively reflect solar radiation. because buildings impede wind flow and give off heat. cities also tend to be warmer than surrounding areas because of impeded ventilation and large areas of hard surfaces of high thermal mass which retain heat. 10 . and to provide shelter from cooling winds and rain by the use of topographical features. energy use and environmental impact. At southern latitudes. where possible. Vegetation may also be arranged to direct cooling breezes to where they are most needed. Where the need for summer cooling is greater than for winter heating. climate and energy is complex. the urban microclimate is generally warmer than the surrounding countryside. Where cooling is required. In the cooling season. westerly orientations should be avoided. Prague city centre. Dense city planning of Athens showing mutual shading of buildings. streets and public spaces may be oriented to take advantage of prevailing summer breezes and buildings configured to provide mutual shading.
Relative humidity is the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the amount of moisture in the air to the moisture it would contain if it were saturated at the same temperature and pressure. Causes that are not obvious.4 THERMAL COMFORT The internal temperature of the human body is constant and. Architects: Murray O'Laoire. cause the most stress. Comfort charts are also available to enable a quicker assessment of the comfort zones. Unlike internal body temperature. Thus.1 metres per second for office work to 0. for instance. An individual’s feeling of thermal comfort is optimal when the production of internal heat is equal to the thermal losses from the body. such as a sunbeam or a draught. The average surface temperature of the surfaces enclosing a space is the mean radiant temperature. Office work. These show given values of certain comfort parameters as a function of the other comfort parameters. Because the temperature of the body is usually higher than that of the room. In temperate regions. it is not constant. the predicted mean vote and predicted percentage of dissatisfied) which can be used to establish the conditions under which a percentage of occupants will be comfortable . The interactions between the parameters have. playing squash produces approximately 7. Production of metabolic energy depends on the level of activity in which the individual is engaged. The other four are linked to the surrounding environment:. A sunspace in the ‘Green Building’.or dissatisfied. the relative humidity in a room should be between 40%. to be made. The relative air velocity due to the individual’s activity can vary from 0 to 0.5 to 2 metres per second for someone playing squash. The aim is to maintain the body at a constant internal temperature of 36. Metabolism is the sum of the chemical reactions which occur within the body. Within buildings. Three of the seven comfort parameters relate to the individual: metabolism. it is more important to design spaces in which people can influence the conditions they experience that to try to maintain complete stability. Skin temperature is a function of metabolism. The thermal resistance of ordinary summer clothing is 0. the influence of relative humidity on thermal comfort is small. People are more tolerant of changes which they understand. The clo is the unit of thermal resistance due to clothes and is equal to 0.2 metres per second. metabolic reactions occur continuously to compensate for loss of heat to the surroundings. The met is the unit of metabolic energy and is equivalent to 58 watts per square metre. In fact. The pattern of variation is also important. or with which the occupant has little sympathy. is 1.1 Thermal Comfort Parameters It is impossible to specify precise values for the seven comfort parameters which would give an environment suitable for everyone. comfort zones. Generally. and the absence of these can create a feeling of discomfort. we are conditioned to adapt to quite major changes in our environment. Dublin. and 70%. The surface area of the human body. raising the relative humidity from 20% to 60% allows the temperature to be decreased by less than 1K while maintaining the same comfort level. If a building is well insulated. Bioclimatic charts also show the influence on thermal comfort zones of changing buildingrelated parameters. such as those caused by a faulty air conditioning system. this can be taken to be the mean of the temperatures of the surrounding surfaces in proportion to their surface areas.8 square metres. measured with an ordinary dry bulb thermometer. Dublin. the temperature of the internal surface of the outer walls is close to room temperature. and particularly those which can be controlled. Room temperature. is very important to thermal comfort since more than half the heat lost from the human body is lost by convection to the room air.5 clo while that of indoor winter wear is 1 clo. clothing and room temperature. for instance. as the body has no means of storing heat. The actual balance between the two depends on seven parameters outlined below. As a simplification. The velocity of the air relative to the individual influences the heat lost through convection. for a predicted percentage of the population (typically 75%). This reduces the radiative heat losses and therefore increases the feeling of thermal comfort. heat generated by it has to be dissipated. however. clothing and skin temperature. air speeds are generally less than 0. It also diminishes the occurrence of convective draughts. Except for extreme situations (when the air is absolutely dry or it is saturated). to prevent drying up of the mucous membranes.7 degrees C. on average.8 met whereas . to avoid the formation of mould in the building. It is crucial to remember when designing spaces for human occupancy that people are not best suited to entirely “comfortable” conditions. 11 4. been described by a number of thermal indices (such as the optimal operative temperature.0 met. generates approximately 0.155 square metres K per watt.
1. Thus. Pa 25 3000 20 5 3 40 10 20 tB ulb T em We 2000 15 15 10 1000 5 5 10 1 2 2 6 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 4 25 30 35 40 Dry Bulb Temperature (°C) Graph of hygrothermal conditions showing indoor thermal comfort conditions . Comfort Zones: The human body involuntarily regulates its production of internal heat to the thermal conditions of the environment. The predicted mean vote (PMV) is a thermal sensation scale. demolition and recycling. 6. the operative temperature can be taken to be the mean of the room temperature and the mean radiant temperature. detailed information on the environmental impacts of the materials they commonly specify is not yet available on a basis which facilitates direct comparison. Building designers play a key role in the selection of materials. The predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) is an indication of the percentage of people susceptible to feeling too warm or too cold in a given thermal environment.thus showing that. They show that by changing these parameters the comfort zone can be extended a considerable amount even when the external climate conditions are unfavourable . To reduce this figure to 10%.3 Bioclimatic Charts Bioclimatic charts have been prepared by Givoni  which make it possible to determine the effect on thermal comfort of changing building-related parameters such as thermal inertia and ventilation rate. The environmental profiles of many individual products and processes have been identified by means of life cycle analysis (LCA) which outlines the environmental effects from extraction. However. However. It can be deduced from the PMV. when the PMV is +1). use. Comfort zone Zone of influence of thermal inertia Zone of influence of ventilation Zone of influence of occupant behaviour Air conditioning zone Heating zone 5 SELECTION OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS The reasons for selecting sustainable building materials are compelling: half of all the raw materials extracted from the Earth are for building-related purposes. there is substantial agreement that LCA is not wholly adequate for the comparison of building materials and few building materials have been investigated. 20 30 50 25 60 . When the air velocity is 0. the PMV is in the range -1 to +1. A PMV value of zero provides the optimal thermal comfort conditions. through production. if the comfort temperature has been established as 20 OC. A strategy which focused only on the minimisation of fossil fuel use and its replacement in buildings with renewable energies would ignore a hugely significant opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of modern living. by applying the concepts of climate-sensitive architecture. real space. a brick fired in an electric kiln in one country which uses oil for the production of electricity might involve the release of two or three times as much CO2 as a brick made in an identical kiln in a country which mainly uses hydro-electricity. 5. then for a mean radiant temperature of 19OC. The optimal value of the operative temperature corresponds to the comfort temperature in the room. LCA studies do not take account of one type of environmental impact compared 12 4. A positive PMV value means that the temperature is higher than optimal and a negative value means that it is lower. the room temperature must be set at 21OC. eventually creating a situation where the metabolic generation of heat is offset by the heat losses so the individual experiences only very small variations in the feeling of thermal comfort and thereby feels at ease. The optimal operative temperature is defined as the uniform temperature of a black radiative enclosure in which the occupant exchanges the same quantity of heat through radiation and convection as he or she would in a non-uniform. If. 2.4. then the PMV has to be in the range -0. then the PPD index shows that 25% of the population will be dissatisfied. 3. and almost 50% of all energy used in Europe is buildingrelated. for instance. Furthermore. For example.2 metres per second or less. The mean opinion of a large group of individuals expressing a vote on their thermal feeling under different thermal circumstances has been used to provide an index to thermal comfort. 4. over half of the waste we produce comes from the building sector. when the PMV is -1) to a slight feeling of warmth (termed ‘mild’.5 to +0.2 Thermal Indices Vapour Pressure 4000 30 mm Hg Relative Humidity (%) 100 80 70 90 per atu re ( °C) Thermal indices have been developed which describe the interactions between the seven parameters above to evaluate the occupants’ likely feeling of thermal comfort. The comfort zone is generally regarded as stretching from a slight feeling of cold (termed ‘fresh’. reliable. the effects of climatic variation on the interior environment can be minimised to the extent that they become negligible.5.
based on such information as is currently available has been devised and its use throughout Europe is increasing. Life Cycle Stage 5 with another. In some countries. new research and product development may affect the environmental preferences 13 Demolition and disposal Building product life-cycle flow chart. was originally prepared for application in The Netherlands where it is used by most of the municipalities. policy instruments such as regulations and subsidies are absent. T 6 Producer: 3 4 H.contained within the EPM strategy. developed in 1991 by Woon/Energie. For example. START L SA ion osit Dep eration Incin P O L. In brief. W Test MA Ra min w mat NU ing/ Har erial FA prim ary vesting ene rgy P. F. R 8 S. but a relative ranking based on environmental impact: an environmental preference. Similarly.the destruction of tropical rain forests or the destruction of the ozone layer? Definitive answers to these issues covering a range of commonly used building materials are unlikely to become available in the near future. increased demand is likely to lead to greater availability and quality and reduced prices of some currently expensive materials which have acceptable levels of environmental impact. While based on available information. which is more important in the long and short term . It has now been edited and published in English for wider use throughout Europe . this does not reduce the responsibility of all involved in building specification to reduce the risks their choices impose on people and the environment. but a pragmatic approach. A TI truc I O nstallatiotion N n on oliti g T Dem ucturin N str ReAI Con s M . and it may not yet be possible to lay down comprehensive statutory conditions for sustainable building. the Environmental Preference Method considers environmental impact throughout the whole life-cycle of a material taking account of the following main issues: Shortage of raw materials Ecological damage caused by material extraction Energy consumption at all stages (including transport) Water consumption Noise and outdoor pollution Harmful emissions Global warming and acid rain Health aspects Risk of disasters Repairability Re-usability Waste The Environmental Preference Method is not final. Decisions made by building designers and those who commission buildings will largely determine the future of the construction materials supply industry. A 1 Nr: Validity: C DI S E / ER duction TU Pro cessing Pro ibution r dist Reu Rec se or yclin g 7 Date/ Test institute: Product: 2 R. However. and offers a good basis for the comparison of many building materials and products which are in common use. The building-related Environmental Preference Method (EPM). The result is not an absolute assessment. The development of new products and markets can also be stimulated by the choices of materials being made by building designers who are taking environmental issues into account. Life Cycle Stage 1 Raw material extraction and processing into raw materials Energy Fuels Life Cycle Stage 2 Production of building materials Emissions into the atmosphere Emissions into water Emissions into soil (solid waste) Others INPUT Raw materials Water Life Cycle Stage 3 Construction and re-building / extension of buildings Life Cycle Stage 4 Operation and maintenance of buildings Planet Earth. and the environmental issues associated with each material featured are also briefly discussed. S / Use Cle anin g 5 EN Ren Re ovat AN habilitat ion ion C E UT IL IZ Green: Low environmental impact Yellow: Medium environmental impact Red: High environmental impact A = Air impact W= Water impact E = Earth impact P = Power consumption L = Landscape picture F = Flora and fauna T = Transportation R = Refuse / waste H = Health of the people S = Social aspects TR = Trouble risk £ = Economic aspects The ‘Swiss Roll’ eco-label system. These are ranked according to their environmental impact.
Because heat is difficult to store or transport. Collectors can often be integrated into the building envelope. The glazing and insulation reduce heat losses so that fluid temperatures up to 70 K above ambient can be reached. district heating. with most energy (in temperate zones) arriving during the summer months. The next. and solar thermal systems. before long PV should be able to compete with other forms of electricity generation. such as cooling fans. Solar thermal systems trap solar energy and deliver it as sensible heat without conversion into any other form of energy. There are three main types of solar collector in widespread use. distributed and stored using a variety of active systems. The insulating properties of the vacuum mean heat losses are low. and many thousands of systems are in use in buildings in Europe and worldwide. Arrays of PV cells are typically arranged in panels on south-facing areas of roof or wall. The electricity they generate can be used immediately in some applications. Architectural integration of PVs offers interesting possibilities. or noise. It consists of an array of evacuated glass tubes each containing a flat absorber plate which conducts heat to the transfer fluid.or ground-mounted. other applications include space heating. have little or no visual impact. without noise or pollution and with little visual impact. Solar thermal is probably the most environmentally benign form of energy in widespread use. A typical system consists of south-facing collectors. the sun’s energy may be harvested. 14 . which convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are used to convert the energy of the sun directly into electricity. a storage tank. Costs of PV systems are falling dramatically. with over a million square metres of collectors produced in the EU in 1997. toxins. These unglazed collectors are limited to producing temperatures in the heat transfer fluid about 20 K above ambient. sometimes with a special selective coating. Finally. cooling. and these collectors can reach temperatures of more than 100 K above ambient. Lifespans are estimated at 20 years. and reliability is high. and industrial processes. Because solar energy is unevenly distributed over time. or other heat store. Solar thermal energy is one of the easiest and most economical ways to put the sun to work. sometimes the building fabric or the ground. otherwise. have been eliminated). one side of which is transparent glass or plastic. particulates. the most sophisticated type in widespread use is the evacuated tube collector. A network of experienced installers and maintainers exists throughout Europe. it can be stored in batteries or supplied to the national grid. battery-driven systems are generally appropriate where there is no existing grid connection. matching energy supply and demand is the major challenge for system designers. a distribution network carrying a fluid. and semi-transparent systems replacing glazing. Solar thermal systems are the most widely used and economical form of active solar energy. usually roof. The most common use is for domestic hot water. Visual intrusion is not great. Solar thermal systems are made from relatively harmless materials which can be recycled after use (CFCs. is enclosed in a flat insulated box. or for emergency supply. solar thermal systems tend to be decentralised. and most common. including the installation of opaque panels on roofs. nor do they significantly impact ecosystems. with energy collection near to the point of use. facades and shading devices. and in many cases owners and occupants are happy to be visibly using solar energy. which use solar energy to heat air or water. and usually a back-up conventional heat source for periods when the sun isn’t shining. roof or facade elements can be offset against that of the PV systems that replace them. type is the flat plate collector in which an absorbent black plate or tube. Connecting the PV panels to the grid means there is no need for costly battery installations.6 ACTIVE SOLAR SYSTEMS As well as being used passively for lighting and heating. The cost of glazing. Roof-mounted solar thermal collector. usually water-based. The past quarter-century has seen solar thermal grow from an "alternative" movement to a mature industrial sector. standalone. and while in use emit no greenhouse gases. once used in some evacuatedtube collectors. These include photovoltaics. The simplest is an uninsulated black plastic or metal tube through which water is circulated.
and features timber cladding reminiscent of local Bavarian barns. The design of the building and its energy systems have. the hostel also serves as a working demonstration of the principles of bioclimatic architectural design. To minimise heat losses due to ventilation. from an early stage. for the frame structure of the northern zone of the building and for internal finishes. Used for only a few hours during daytime. Indeed. incorporating 140mm of insulation. and visible service runs. Germany. Windberg. and no energy is used for HVAC other than a few small fans in bathrooms and similar areas. Water for showers and other domestic purposes is heated by evacuated-tube solar collectors located in the southfacing roof and stored in six large tanks situated internally. Lighting energy is also low. A particular requirement of the brief was that spatial divisions in the hostel should be flexible and capable of future change. they benefit from direct solar radiation through the ample. 7. The external wall facing north is of a thermally lightweight construction.7 CASE STUDIES excessive solar gain by a large overhanging roof. All bedrooms face south giving views of the surrounding countryside and allowing solar radiation to be optimised during the heating season. Architect: Thomas Herzog. entrance and bathroom areas. In addition to its primary function. The design brief also included the treatment of external spaces around the monastery. The latter can respond quickly to provide both heating and the requisite air changes to the shower rooms located in the thermally lightweight northern zone. high specification windows. The overall heating energy used by the building is only 45kWh/m2y. timber is used extensively for structural roof members. been strongly influenced by a thorough analysis of the patterns of use of the various spaces. but continuously during night time at a relatively low temperature. Windberg. When required. The bathrooms need higher temperatures than other spaces. These differences are evident from an analysis of the space planning. structural systems and materials used in the building. transparent insulation which heats up the massive external walls. in particular youth groups attending the adjacent 12th century monastery and education centre which it serves. storage. Profiled metal decking elements are used for the roof covering. In summer. solar collectors and storage elements. a nonrecirculating heat recovery unit is fitted in the roof space. this low-energy hostel provides sleeping accommodation and ancillary rooms for 100 guests. and a high level of thermal mass in the internal walls which modulates day-night temperatures in the building. 15 . The students are made aware of the passive and active energy systems and environmental performance of the building and these presentations are facilitated by a digital information board in the entrance area showing energy performance. rooms which are used for several hours at a time are separate from those used for short periods. but only for a few hours per day. some recreation and common room facilities having been previously provided in the monastery.1 Student Hostel. the bedrooms are protected from Student Hostel. Munich Completed in 1991 and situated in the rural Bavarian town of Windberg. two gas-fired boilers with a total capacity of 92 kW provide auxiliary domestic hot water and also space heating via small radiators in the southern part of the building and a warm-air ducted heating system in the northern part. The intermittently used spaces are located behind the north facade and include circulation.
Four open-plan offices are grouped around a small doubleheight atrium which accommodates the entrance. Architects: Energy Research Group University College Dublin The architects’ brief was to design an office building for thirty occupants. Total primary energy consumption is 140 kWh/m 2 y. CFC-free insulation is used in wall cavities and under the ground floor. well lit and comfortable environment for the occupants while consuming a fraction of the energy which would be used by a similarly-sized conventional office building. argon-filled double-glazed units and careful attention has been paid to the draught sealing of door and window openings. with ancillary spaces. The atrium is the public face of the building. low embodiedenergy and recyclable materials. These and the reinforced concrete upper floor contribute significant thermal mass. Floor plan of the Irish Energy Centre. providing ample natural light. From the top floor corridor there are views back via the bright atrium to the green space beyond. Monitoring has shown daylight factors on the working plane to be between 5% and 10%. Dublin. The building was completed in 1996. Ireland. which would be architecturally responsive to climate. and structural walls are of locally-made concrete blocks. Forbairt. lighting and ventilation requirements. exhibition and meeting area and assists the natural lighting and ventilation of the building. Average room height in the offices is 3m. windows and partitions. was formerly a car park. thus placing minimal demand on non-renewable energy sources. Windows use low-emissivity. The result is a building which provides a natural. while the design of the building section allows light to penetrate the core areas of the 410m2 building and provides views to the north.7. The objectives were as follows: • To exemplify an awareness of energy efficient design and construction • To respond architecturally to climate. and the intention was that its natural lighting and finishes should reflect an external quality and emphasise the relationship with the external public route. All of the open-plan offices have windows on four sides which results in optimum daylight Irish Energy Centre offices. The organisation of the building breaks naturally into small-scale cellular spaces and larger open-plan office spaces on both floors. gypsum plastered to the inside with a self-finish to the exterior. context and function • To incorporate innovative applications of conventional materials and energy systems • To make a positive contribution to the existing campus. for example: timber for roof trusses. natural stone for floor coverings and external paving. located among twenty buildings of various ages and forms on the campus of the State development agency. Dublin. context and function. under overcast conditions. or 57% of consumption for a comparable new Irish office building with no air conditioning. There is an emphasis on the use of natural. and mineral-fibre insulation in the roof space. healthy. 16 . while using proven energy-efficient strategies to satisfy heating. The elongated form of the building screens a work-yard and reinforces a principal pedestrian route through the campus. The IEC site. Dublin.2 Irish Energy Centre. and views for all of the occupants.
Architects: Meletitiki .. 17 . and efficient energy management control information via a Building Energy Management System (BEMS). Located seven kilometres to the north west of Thessaloniki on a 150. among other detailed measures. led to the incorporation of ceiling fans in most nursing wards and areas of similar function. optimum start and stop times. this 735 bed hospital occupying 70. Model of Papageorgiou Foundation General Teaching Hospital. To explain and facilitate the operation of the different energy saving design features of the hospital. where possible. from an early stage. the specification of thicker insulation. while the diagnosis and therapy units are to the north-west. controls electricity demand via time-programmed commands. users' guidelines have been prepared as a manual and in poster form for display. has been placed on the bioclimatic use of landscaping for cooling and to reduce traffic noise.the air handling units and the chillers. ventilation patterns. shading. etc. those associated with the lighting design such as the incorporation of 'intelligent' lighting controls. passive cooling. 2940 3822 5.A.3 2160 2808 4. cooling and daylighting while the energy use in the extensive mechanical and electrical plant essential in a modern hospital has been minimised by careful design and Saving Energy conscious architectural design Intelligent lighting controls Enhanced efficiency in mechanical processes and heat recovery Energy MWh CO2 tonnes Pay back years specification (see table). Design emphasis. The L-shaped nursing wards are to the south-east with patients’ rooms in a quiet zone away from traffic noise. viewed from the North. The building thermal simulation studies have. the use of natural ventilation. and those measures applied to the mechanical installations.0 Total estimated annual energy savings for three main categories of energy saving measures. The building is organised around a large central entrance hall from which the main vertical and horizontal circulation axes lead to wings of different heights. N. the most important being major heat recovery in two main parts of the mechanical installation . night cycles. daylighting. three main categories of energy saving measures were incorporated in the final design: those concerning the architectural elements such as insulation. Athens. Greece. following the thermal and lighting studies. the highest of which has seven storeys. shading. indoor air quality and comfort. which concentrated on the nursing wards and the main entrance hall under overcast sky conditions and involved the use of scale models and fullscale physical simulations using a PASSYS test cell.000m2 of floor area has been designed to function using less than three-quarters of the energy used in a conventionally designed hospital of similar size. equipment duty cycles. and an 'economiser' for night cooling using ambient air. Thessaloniki. Daylighting studies. heat recovery and reduction of heat losses. and modifications in the design of the shading devices.7. Thessaloniki.3 Papageorgiou Foundation General Teaching Hospital. A BEMS. Detailed thermal. lighting and construction materials analyses made possible by the EC JOULE ‘Solar House’ programme and carried out during the design phase of the project have helped to optimise natural forms of energy for heating. In general.000m2 site adjacent to a busy dual carriageway. have led to improved design of the window shading devices. Tombazis and Associates Architects Ltd. which may be operated from a central point.5 1340 1794 9. and use of ceiling fans.
a year. Co-ordinator: Talos Engineering. Improvement of the local microclimate and creation of a ‘green’ image for the building which will encourage users to consider the environmental effects of their actions. and improve natural ventilation. • View of existing conditions in Old Central Market. Its upper frame contains water pipes and injectors (with a water recycling system) to irrigate the plants and assist cooling by evaporation. The renovation study focused on the need to improve lighting through better use of daylight. consisting of an earth-to-air heat exchanger. Athens. • • • • • • The requirement for local lighting above the fish and meat stalls has been met by the installation of high-frequency fluorescent lamps which can provide the required illuminance while consuming less electricity.4 Rehabilitation of Old Central Market. reduce heat losses in winter. Scale models and computer simulations have been employed to evaluate the energy and environmental effects of a range of thermal and daylighting proposals with support from the EC JOULE ‘Solar House’ programme. • The installation of thermostatically controlled adjustable louvres at openings on the terrace level and at the upper part of the inclined roof. 18 . The installation of ‘air curtains’ at the main entrances to the market. Electric Lighting is needed at each stall. Athens. Winters are mild while summers are hot and conditions in the market are far from comfortable or suitable for the display and sale of produce. filters. Effective air filtration thus improving indoor air quality and protecting the outdoor environment. The total estimated savings are 240 MWh. Increasing the area of roof glazing and the use of diffuse glazing to increase the penetration of daylight and reduce solar gains during summer. reduce solar gains in summer. opaque roof panel to reduce thermal losses in winter.7. Greece. • • • The incorporation of these measures is projected to achieve the following results: • Internal temperatures of 20 oC in winter and 28 oC in summer. and an air distribution system incorporating ducts. Athens Architect: Synthesis and Research Ltd. The retrofit is projected to save 55% of heating and cooling energy and 70% of lighting energy when compared with existing or conventional systems. after exhaustive evaluation. The incorporation of a hybrid system for cooling and heating. The market consists of a large rectangular hall with top and side lights (the fish market with 74 shops and 109 stalls) and three surrounding arcades along the perimeter of the building (the meat market with 75 shops and 192 stalls). fans and air diffusers. Computer simulation of improved lighting conditions in Old Central Market. Various passive and active features were considered for incorporation in the design and. and producing less heat than the incandescent lights they replace. The introduction of an insulated. The Old Central Market.000 ECU. a series of solar air heaters. the following were selected: • Four symmetrical ‘air chimneys’ at the corners of the building incorporating waste heat recovery and filtration units for the supply and exhaust of air to and from the building. Installation of an ‘environmental panel’ shading device which is covered with deciduous plants. Photovoltaic panels to supply electricity to the automated control system. worth about 21. is a 19th-century building of significant architectural interest which is in daily use. located in the congested centre of Athens. An average internal illuminance of 800 lux. by Fraunhofer Institute Freiburg. while preserving the architectural integrity of the building.
3D solid rendering of building CAD model. such as dynamic simulation methods of which ESP-r is an example. these strategies and technologies have not been widely adopted by the building design community. the smaller practice can not afford to dedicate staff in this way and so consultants can be employed to provide these specialist services. users will bring to a tool their own assumptions and simplifications of the design problem. when the design is still fluid and major changes can be easily made. The computerisation of information sources allows designers to locate required information quickly. The more complicated the tool the more the user will need to remain familiar with all aspects of its application or re-training will be required. and three-dimensional modelling software which allow the architect to study lighting distribution in spaces or to predict ventilation in buildings. Design tools are not always calculation methods. Assessing a building’s energy performance in detail requires complicated calculations to estimate year-round performance. whether new or rehabilitation projects. Some software packages. they are capable of correctly indicating appropriate design directions at a stage when strategic and major tactical decisions about the building form. Similarly. They range from quite simple written assessment procedures to advanced computer applications. With simple tools. re-use at a later date may only require a brief review of the user documentation. 19 Design tools can sometimes assist where specialist or expert knowledge of a topic is not available or where the required study of an issue would be prohibitively complex or time-consuming. They are often mistakenly used with the assumption that they can predict reality often the basis for serious misuse of design tools. Here.8 DESIGN TOOLS After more than two decades of research. it is likely that once the use of the tool is understood. . These tools make it easier and quicker to study questions that may not have been considered in the design process. and physical tools. Many tools have been developed to determine the behaviour of physical phenomena which would otherwise have been too complex to examine. However. The introduction of CD-ROM technology over the past few years and the emergence of the Internet are examples of this. These simplified tools frequently depend on a range of assumptions. can produce very detailed predictions of a building's performance under a range of closely defined operating conditions. Although less accurate than high-level dynamic simulation tools. leading to more thorough consideration of energy issues. can offer extremely useful guidance early on. Often. they are based on assumptions and approximations which introduce errors. Awareness of the assumptions and simplifications made within the tool’s theoretical analysis method is crucial. have been created to help with energy efficient design. orientation. One reason this situation exists is because building designers often do not have the means to assess the impact of new energy strategies and technologies efficiently and reliably. The users of these design tools will tend to be trained staff and they will often be part of several project teams with the specific task of carrying out these simulation studies. materials and operating conditions can be made at little or no cost. This has led to the development of building energy design tools. we have a broad understanding of building energy use and strategies to improve the efficiency of its utilisation. A wide range of design tools is now available to help architects and engineers design more energy-efficient buildings. are still designed without any energy-related considerations beyond those enforced by building regulations. While some tools can achieve quite accurate predictions. Simpler tools. many other types have been developed. Handbooks. Applications now available include tools which indicate the energy related aspects of an emerging design where only an outline of information is available. However. Most buildings. Daylight factor profile (coarse and fine) results. whether manual or automated. But such tools require a considerable amount of information on the design of the building and are generally best suited to fine tuning the design at an advanced stage. tools also have their limitations. tabulated data. both manual and computerized. some of which can be refined as the design progresses. This is certainly true for complex dynamic simulation tools. The value of these simplified tools should not be underestimated. we focus on manual and computer-based calculation procedures. In some cases this extends to assessing interactions between design elements previously treated in isolation.
html Building Environmental Performance Analysis Club BEPAC aims to improve building performance by encouraging the use and development of environmental analysis and prediction methods. TX 77843. CH-3003 Bern. Dublin 14. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory http://eande. Fax 409 845 4491.lbl.yahoo.uoa.ac. produced by the UK Construction Industry and Computing Association. operation and maintenance of buildings.dmu.gov/radiance/ ADELINE http://www.gov/BTP/BDA/BDA.1344-487575 International Building Performance Simulation Association IBPSA’s objective is the advancement and promotion of the science of building performance simulation to improve the design.ucd. e-mail: 100572. College Station.de/wt/adeline/adeline.energy.Software for Building Services . Switzerland.Simplified http://erg.lbl. Guildhall Place. Fax: +44.1223-62865 BSRIA .ie/ 20 . Contact: BEPAC Administration.lbl.dap.html Solar Energy Laboratory http://sel.org/online/virtual-library/VLibenergy. Ireland Fax:+353.iesd.html Centre for Building Science.com Web site:http://www.fhg.edu http://www. provides detailed information on the selection of energy software.html Energy Ideas Clearinghouse .tamu.Energy Systems Research Unit.ucd.1 Sources of Further Information on Design Tools Resource Guide Contains numerous references to design tools and energyrelated publications. Fax:+41. Contact: IBPSA.html Computer-Based Design Tools http://eande.gov/CBS/NEWSLETTER/NL3/EDA.ie Web site: http://www.8.crest.uva. Reading RG8 8AS.edu/ Energy Research Group UCD http://erg.uk/Departments/ESRU/ esru. University of Strathclyde http://www. Purley on Thames. a computer aided learning module for architecture students http://lesowww.htm PASSPORT .1734842861. e-mail: jolivetp@richview. US. UK.okstate.osti. United Kingdom.2 Information via the Internet RADIANCE .31-352 7756 Guidance on Selecting Energy Programs This guide.strath.com/Science/Energy/ IVAM Environmental Research http://www.Liste der Software/Liste des Logiciels A comprehensive listing (in German and French) of internationally developed software with contact details for each design tool included. Berkshire RG12 7AH.me.erg. Available from Bundesamt für Energiewirtschaft.ac.Daylighting simulation http://radsite.gr/pascool.wsu.htm The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Energy http://solstice. Fax: +44.lbl.nl/welcome.edu/ibpsa/IBPSA.1-283 8908. Fax: +44.gov/html/osti/estsc/estsc. Bracknell.ucd. Old Bracknell Lane West.html Energy Science and Technology Software Center http://apollo.gov/CBS/CBS.3163@compuserve. Cambridge CB2 3QQ.wisc. Department of Architecture Texas A & M University.ibp.epfl. Clonskeagh.ivambv. Contact CICA.ucd.html ESP-r .uk/bepac/ 8.Software http://www. Available on disk (for Macintosh) from the Energy Research Group University College Dublin. construction. 16 Nursery Gardens. UK.ie Info Energie . Richview.Science: Energy http://www. Contact: The Building Services Research and Information Association.a selection guide Information on a wide range of energy software.mae. e-mail email@example.com/passport/passport.edu/ep/eic/ Building Design Advisor http://eande.ch/anglais/Leso_a_software_batman.html BATMAN.htm l PASCOOL Passive cooling of buildings http://www.html Yahoo .
Luminous efficacy: The ratio of the light emitted by a lamp to the energy consumed by it. Combined heat and power (CHP): The use of a single source to generate and both electricity and heat. The remainder is waste heat vented to the atmosphere or lost in transmission.5°C assumes a design temperature of 18°C. and glazed to reduce heat loss to the outdoors. in soil or in the crevices or pores of rock. For oil this includes the energy costs of extraction and processing. Luminance: Light emitted by unit area of matt surface. Biomass: Organic materials. influenced by local topography. The heating degree day value for a year is calculated by taking the sum of the differences between the base temperature and the mean daily temperature for each day of the heating season. Diffuse radiation: Solar radiation which is scattered by reflection from or transmission through a diffusing material (such as the atmosphere). Mass wall: A solid south-facing wall that absorbs solar radiation and transmits some of its heat into the building by conduction. the lower the shading coefficient. In an oil or coal fired power station about one third of the primary energy emerges in the form of electricity. manufacture. animal or commercial wastes. office equipment. The first medium (the source) cools.9 GLOSSARY Infiltration: Unwanted leakage of outdoor air into a building through cracks. use of such (crops. while the second (the heat sink) warms up. store and distribute solar energy for the building. measured in lux. Degree days: The product of the number of degrees below a given base temperature (15. Heat pump: A thermodynamic device that transfers heat from one medium to another. Sometimes called ‘cogeneration’. Often used to reclaim heat from outgoing ventilation air or waste water. Hybrid system: A predominantly passive solar system in which some external power is used to move naturally heated or cooled air or water around a building. It is expressed in candelas/m2. and transport). or. Illuminance: The light striking a unit area of a specified surface. Possible sunshine: Amount of time between sunrise and sunset when the sun is shining (expressed as a percentage). processing. For electricity it includes heat wasted in generation and distribution losses. Daylight factor: Illuminance at a specified point indoors. Reflectance: Ratio or percentage of the quantity of light reflected by a surface to the amount of light striking that surface.5°C allowance for internal gains and heat stored in the fabric of a building. Active solar system: A system in which mechanical equipment is used to collect. Primary energy: Energy value of a fuel at source. more generally. around door and window openings. Direct radiation: Solar radiation coming directly from the sun. Microclimate: The climate of a specific site or of a small area. the less energy the window transmits. which may feed springs and wells. etc. expressed as a percentage of the simultaneous horizontal illuminance outdoors under an unobstructed sky. Shading coefficient: A measure of a windows ability to transmit solar radiation. Embodied energy: The total amount of energy used in bringing a product or material to its present state and location (including harvesting/mining. store and distribute solar energy without artificial inputs of energy.5°C is a common figure) and the number of days when that temperature occurs. joints. Out-gassing: Emission of gases or volatile organic compounds from a material (solvents. and equipment (domestic appliances. Internal/Casual gains: Heat gains within a building resulting from occupants. for example). One unit of electrical energy saved in a building represents 3 units of energy saved at the power plant. for example) to generate energy. lighting. also. Biofuel: Any fuel (solid. with a 2. Expressed as a value between 0 and 1. liquid or gas) produced from organic material. Life cycle analysis: Assessment of the total environmental impacts associated with a products manufacture. Passive solar systems: Systems which use building elements to collect. use and disposal. process machinery). the intensity of light per unit area of surface seen from a given direction. 21 . The outer surface is generally given a matt black surface to increase absorption of solar radiation. Photovoltaic (PV) energy: Use of solar cells to generate electricity from solar radiation. Heat exchanger: A device whereby heat is transferred from a medium flowing on one side of a barrier to a medium flowing on the other. Macroclimate: The general climate of a region. Heat recovery: Reclaiming heat which would otherwise be wasted (see Heat Exchanger). The base temperature of 15. human. It is expressed in lumens/W. off-gassing from paints. relative to the transmittance of a single sheet of 3mm clear glass. Groundwater: Water found within the earth.
entering the living space through the upper vent. haze (moisture) and/or dust. airborne substances (typically indoor pollutants). Water wall: Similar in action to a Mass Wall. Air between the wall and glazing is heated by the wall and rises. and drawing cool air from the living space through the bottom vent. Trombe wall: Similar to a Mass Wall. Utilisation factor: The percentage of useful incoming solar energy which displaces conventional or fossil fuelled heating. Visible transmittance: A measure of the light in the visible portion of the spectrum which passes through glass. Smart windows: Windows which respond to changes in thermal or lighting conditions. Some heat is transmitted into the living space by conduction. 22 . usually with reference to air or water quality. but constructed of water-filled metal. Convection currents set up in the water transfer heat more rapidly through the wall.g. It is expressed by a number between 0 and 1. Super windows: Double or triple-glazed windows. Windows with electrochromic or photochromic glazing are two examples. Sustainability: Activities are sustainable if they will not contribute to irreversible damage to or depletion of natural systems or resources within a foreseeable period. Turbidity: Lack of clarity or purity. glass) to the total radiant energy incident on its surface. glass or plastic tubes or drums. Air turbidity is generally due to smoke. but with vents at top and bottom. Transmittance: Ratio of the radiant energy transmitted through a substance (e.Sinks (out-gassing): Materials which first absorb. gas filled and with a low-emissivity coating. Thermo-circulation: Natural circulation of air induced by temperature-related changes in its density. and then release over an extended period.
help facilities and keywords in seven EU languages. A very large quantity of information is presented in a visually appealing format on the CD-ROM which is fully illustrated with photographs.a sustainable architecture. practical tool for architectural teachers. video and animated graphical sequences.2-657 3640 E-mail: info@lior. architects.E.I. It is envisaged that the CD-ROM will be a convenient. Only minimal computer skills are required to use the package effectively.G. background music and spoken information. students. tables.be Website: http://www.E. 23 . Panoramalaan 7 B-1560 Hoeilaart Belgium Tel +32.2-657 5300 Fax +32. graphs. Basic principles.10 CD-ROM ON BIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE This Maxibrochure gives a brief overview of the main topics covered in an associated interactive CD-ROM on Bioclimatic Architecture which is now available from the address below. The CD-ROM operates on IBM PC compatible platforms and provides opportunities to explore a wide range of easily applied energy-saving. and all those who wish to explore an architecture which is responsive to the environment . The first edition is in English with additional menus. This new CD-ROM on Bioclimatic Architecture has been created as part of a THERMIE Programme action of the European Commission (Directorate-General XVII for Energy) and will be updated on a regular basis. design guidance. It is part of a growing family of CD-ROMs on energy efficiency and environmental topics titles include: • Biogas from Waste & Waste Water Treatment • Biomass Combustion • Wind Energy Technologies • Rational Use of Energy in Road Transport • Composting • Photovoltaics • Organic Farming • Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems The CD-ROMs are available at 150 ECU each (plus 10 ECU for post and packaging) from: LIOR E.lior.I. and a range of exemplary solutions combining good architecture and sound energy practice are provided.be/ ORDER FORM (Please photocopy and send to LIOR E. builders and planners. architectural drawings. The material is presented in highly graphical forms to suit various levels of users’ experience and knowledge while allowing complete freedom to efficiently navigate through the material to find relevant information to the task in hand.G at the above address) Name: Address*: Country: Please supply Tel: copies of the CD-ROM on Bioclimatic Architecture Fax: Organisation: Method of Payment: ❑ Eurocheque Credit card number: Expiry date: ❑ Bank draft ❑ Visa or Mastercard / Access credit card Signature: Date: (please tick) * NB: Please state credit card billing address where different to that above. environmentally friendly technologies for the building sector.
10.1 CD-ROM Screen images Bioclimatic Architecture CD-ROM screens 24 .
A. Chiel Boonstra and John Mak. James & James Science Publishers. in Maxibrochure format. John R. 1993. John A.11 REFERENCES  The Climatic Dwelling . Robbins.An Introduction to ClimateResponsive Residential Architecture. European Association for the Promotion of Cogeneration (COGEN Europe). Edisud. Fax +32 2 772 5044. Szokolay. Owen Lewis (Eds).Components. Lighting / Daylighting. 1989. ECD Partnership. Eoin O’Cofaigh. Guide pour la région Provence .A European Reference Book.V. Thermal Comfort. for the European Commission. Energy Research Group University College Dublin for the European Commission. Research and Development. J. ISBN 0-2730-0268-6  Conception thermique de l’habitat. Harwell. B. 12] European Solar Radiation Atlas: Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces. EUR 13445  European Wind Atlas. Vivienne Brophy. James & James Science Publishers.An Environmental Preference Method for Use in Construction and Refurbishment. Directorate General XVII for Energy. Directorate General XII for Science. EUR 13445  Transparent Insulation Technology. B. Springer-Verlag (for the Commission of the European Communities).Côte d’Azur. ISBN 0-442-27949-3  Estalvi d’Energia en el dissery d’edificis.L. C.A Primer for Architects. Steemers (Eds). Solar Heating. London. ISBN 0 7134 69196. 1996. Pitman. Theo C. Owen Lewis.K. James & James Science Publishers. Tel +32 2 772 8290.V. Owen Lewis. Dublin for the European Commission DGXVII.London.A. EUR 13445  Energy in Architecture . Fanchiotti. June 1993. ISBN 1-873936-38-9  Renewable Energy . Goulding. J. N. Aplicacio de sistemes d’aprofitament solar passiu. Universite Catholique de Louvain Services de Programmation de la Politique Scientifique de Belgique. T. ECD Partnership.Power for a Sustainable Future.  Daylighting in Buildings. John Goulding and J. Materials and Services. Baker.I. 1986. Givoni. London.T. Commonwealth Science Council. 135pp. Goulding. ISBN 84-393-0670-9  Guide d’aide à la conception bioclimatique. Architectural Association School of Architecture. Steemers (Eds).  Passive Solar Energy as a Fuel. Cellule Architecture et Climat. Office of Public Works. Owen Lewis. Owen Lewis.. Energy Research Group University College Dublin for the European Commission. Brisbane 1996. 1997 (annual publication since 1993). Morris. Steemers (Eds). 1996. Oxford University Press (in association with the Open University). Baker et al.Sustainable Building for Ireland. 333pp. Passive Cooling). University of Queensland. J. Ann Mc Nicholl and J. Department of Energy Solar Programme . DGXII 1990.An Architectural Ideas Competition for the Remodelling of Apartment Buildings. 1988  Handbook of Sustainable Building . Owen Lewis (Eds). PLEA & Department of Architecture. Energy Efficient Lighting) and 16 illustrated posters (Bioclimatic Urban Design. Risø National Laboratory. Markus and E. Owen Lewis. John R. James & James Science Publishers. Goulding (Eds). in Maxibrochure format.Generalitat de Catalunya. Energy Studies Programme. Energy Management. Climate and Architecture. Solar Water Heating. 1986  Man. Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). Brussels. 1992. 1992.R. UK.Alpes .New York. 352pp. W Palz. Theo C. K. Climate and Energy. London. Dapartament d’Industria i Energia . [11. prepared within the INNOBUILD (Innovative Mechanisms for the Dissemination of Energy-Efficient Building and Product Research) project of the European Commission DG XII co-ordinated by the Energy Research Group. 656pp. J Greif (Eds). ISBN 3-540-61179-7  Buildings.N. 1996  The European Directory of Sustainable Energy-Efficient Building 1997 . 1996. John R.The European Passive Solar Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company . 25 . for the Commission of the European Communities. N. Batsford for the Commission of the European Communities. ISBN 87 550 1482 8. London. 1988  Daylighting. David Anink. ISBN 1-898473-30-7  Green Design . 1994. University College Dublin. Graduate School. Batsford for the Commission of the European Communities. Godfrey Boyle (Ed).1996. ISBN 1-873936-71-0  Daylighting in Architecture . ISBN 1-873936-39-7  Living in the City . Denmark. Design and Analysis. London for the European Commission DGXII. B. Directorate General XVII for Energy.  Contact: Michael Brown. ISBN 0-7076-2392-8  Solar Geometry. Ann McNicholl. ISBN 0-19-856452-X / 0-19-856451-1 (Paperback).T. London for the Commission of the European Communities. U.  A series of four booklets (Passive Solar Heating. SOL A. Steven V. 1996. J. Science Publishers. 1976. ISBN 0-8533-4108-7  Passive and low energy building design for tropical island climates. ISBN 1-873936-39-7  Energy Conscious Design . 1986. Olley and J. London for the European Commission DG XII. 1987  Passive Solar Energy Efficient House Design. ISBN 0 7134 69196. 1980..
49 I-10128 Torino Italy Tel: +39 11 3190833 / +39 11 3186492 Fax: +39 11 3190292 E-mail: soges@mbox. rue Louis Blanc F-92038 Paris La Défense France Tel: +33 147 17 68 65 Fax: +33 147 17 67 47 E-mail: gep@gep-france. Sp.Roma Italy Tel: +39 6 3048 3686 Fax: +39 6 3048 4447 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org OPET Norrland c/o The Association of Local Authorities in the County of Vasterbotten Vasterbotten Energy Network Norrlandsgatan email@example.com@compuserve. planta 21 E-28046 Madrid Spain Tel: +34 1 456 5024 Fax: +34 1 555 1389 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.Dulas The Old School .co.cress.stm.manner. 7.) Linke Wienzeile 18 A-1060 Vienna Austria Tel: +43 1 586 15 24 ext: 21 Fax: +43 1 586 94 88 E-mail: email@example.com@impiva.es Institut Wallon Boulevard Frère Orban 4 B-5000 Namur Belgium Tel: +32 81 25 04 90 Fax: +32 81 25 04 90 E-mail: iwallon@mail.C.de CRES Centre for Renewable Energy Sources 19 km Marathonos Ave. ADEME c/o ADEME-BRIST 27.O. 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Altener and THERMIE.eu.dg17. Panoramalaan 7 B-1560 Hoeilaart Belgium Tel +32 (2) 657 5300 Fax +32 (2) 657 3640 With the support of: The European Commission Directorate-General for Energy DG XVII 200 rue de la Loi B-1049 Brussels. oil.G.be URL: http://europa. the Commission’s server on the World Wide Web.E. Ireland Tel. nuclear energy. the integration of energy markets. the promotion of energy research and technological development through demonstration projects. coordinates and manages energy policy actions at European level in the fields of solid fuels.‘The overall objective of the Community’s energy policy is to help ensure security of energy supplies for European citizens and businesses at competitive prices and in an environmentally compatible way. More information is available in DG XVII’s pages on Europa. School of Architecture. renewable energy sources and the rational use of energy. electricity. The most important actions concern the security of energy supply and international energy cooperation.int/en/comm/dg17/dg17home. +353 (1) 269 2750 Fax. SAVE. finally. DG XVII manages several programmes such as Synergy.’ Produced by: Energy Research Group University College Dublin.I. Clonskeagh. gas. Dublin 14. 353 (1) 283 8908 for LIOR E. the promotion of sustainable development in the energy field and. DG XVII initiates.cec.htm . Richview. Belgium fax: +32 (2) 295 05 77 E-Mail: info@bxl.
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