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SN019 Web Openings

SN019 Web Openings

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NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams

NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU

NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams
This NCCI presents design rules for beams with circular and rectangular web openings. The method is applicable to both composite beams and steel beams.

Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Created on Monday, December 07, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Introduction Simple design for isolated openings Detailed design for general application Specialist Beams designed by Computer Software References

2 2 4 15 16

Page 1

NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU 1. in order to reduce the height between floors.all rights reserved. 2. December 07.2 Rectangular openings Isolated rectangular openings may be placed along the beam. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) The member is class 1 or 2 The openings are located within the middle third of the depth of the beam The openings are placed on the centre-line of the beam The openings are located within the middle half of the span of the beam The spacing centre-to-centre of adjacent openings measured parallel to the axis of the member is not less than 2.e. It should be carried past the opening for such a distance that the local shear stress due to force transfer between the reinforcement and the web does not exceed f y 3γ M0 . provided that the geometry and spacing of the openings satisfies the limits given below. These openings may be in the form of regular circular openings in cellular beams or isolated rectangular openings in rolled or fabricated beams. Introduction In many buildings. In such integrated construction. 2009 This material is copyright . they share the same zone. Web reinforcement may be provided above and below rectangular openings to compensate for the loss of shear resistance. the structure and services zones beneath the floors are integrated. various types of sizes of openings in the webs of the downstand beams are often provided. This NCCI presents three approaches to the design of beams with openings in the web. i.1 Simple design for isolated openings Circular openings Unreinforced openings Unreinforced circular openings may be located in the web of a beam without further consideration of the effect of the openings on the section properties. 2.5 times the diameter of the larger opening The distance from the centreline of each opening to the nearest point load is not less than the depth of the member The load on the member is substantially uniformly distributed The maximum shear in the member does not exceed 50% of the shear capacity of the reduced cross-section 2. in ascending order of refinement and complexity. provided that: Created on Monday. ( ) Page 2 .

5 o d b ≤ 14 ε t w y Figure 2. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement d t ≤ 10ε t w x d o ≤ 1. ) The stresses at sections XX and YY in Figure 2.10. The depth of the opening should not exceed 0.6 × beam depth.all rights reserved.5 d o do y ≥1. The horizontal centre line of the opening should be located within d/10 of the longitudinal central line of the beam.1 Proportions of unreinforced openings Reinforced openings a) The proportions of the reinforcement and the spacing between openings should satisfy the requirements in Figure 2. ) The stresses at sections UU and VV in Figure 2. The distance between the edges of the openings should be at least 1. x g) Created on Monday. 2009 This material is copyright . no account should be taken of the contribution from the composite slab.2.1.5 × opening depth.10.5 × the length of the longer opening. In assessing shear and Vierendeel bending.2 under local axial force. The shear stress on the net shear area at the openings should not exceed f y ( 3γ M0 .1 under local axial forces should satisfy EN 1993-1-1 §6. In assessing shear and Vierendeel bending. Vierendeel bending and shear forces should satisfy EN 1993-1-1 §6. The distance of any part of the opening to the nearest point load should not be less than half the depth of the member (or 45o projection from the top of the beam). where ts is the stiffener thickness. e) Page 3 . December 07.2.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU Unreinforced openings a) b) c) d) e) f) The depth of web above and below should satisfy the limits in Figure 2.2. The shear stress on the net shear area at the openings should not exceed f y b) c) d) ( 3γ M0 . The distance of any part of the opening to the nearest point load should not be less than the depth of the beam. The length of the opening should not exceed 1. The minimum projection of the stiffeners past the opening should be at least 20ts. the vertical shear is equally divided between the top and bottom Tees and no account may be taken of any contribution from the composite slab.

all rights reserved.5 o v A v ts Created on Monday. Page 4 . which is a part of the final report on the RFCS project Large web openings for service integration in composite floors. The method also covers beams with reinforced openings. the terms including the contribution from the concrete slab or composite action should be neglected. The method is applicable to both composite beams and steel beams. The rules apply to both cellular beams with circular openings.2 Proportion of reinforced openings 3. December 07. Detailed design for general application The design method described below is based on the recommendations given in [1]. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement ≤10t s A-A Section A-A Figure 2. For application to steel beams. and to beams with individual openings. 2009 This material is copyright .NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU u A ts u o ≥ 20t s ≥1.

e M pl.eff width of the steel flange opening depth (or diameter) depth of web of the top Tee depth of web of the bottom Tee eccentricity of the centre-line of the opening above the centre-line of the beam offset distance of centre of stiffener from tip of web design value of concrete cylinder compressive strength yield strength of steel depth of the steel section effective depth of steel section between the centroids of the Tees height of deck profile slab depth effective depth to the centre of compression of the slab reduction factor due to length of the opening e es f cd Created on Monday.all rights reserved.Rd nsc .T.e M c.1 Ab Af As At Aw bf do dt db Notation cross-sectional area of the bottom Tee section cross-sectional area of flange cross-sectional area of horizontal stiffener cross-sectional area of the top Tee section cross-sectional area of the web of the Tee = d t t w.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU 3. 2009 This material is copyright .red moment acting on the web-post elastic bending resistance of the web-post moment developed due to local composite action between the top Tee and the slab over a length s reduced plastic resistance of the Tee Vierendeel bending moment Vierendeel bending resistance due to local composite action number of shear connectors between the centre of adjacent openings Page 5 Mv M vc.red reduced bending resistance of bottom Tee due to axial tension M el.eff k e o effective length of web-post for buckling length of opening M ( x ) global bending moment at point x from the adjacent support M b.red reduced elastic resistance of the Tee Mh M h. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement fy h heff hp hs hs. December 07.T.

eff Vh.eff t wt Vb. December 07.Rd Vc. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement tft tw t wb tw.all rights reserved. Rd . ℓo axial tension in the bottom Tee at point (x) compressive force in the slab at point (x) elastic compressive resistance of the Tee including depth of web corresponding to the class 3 limit plastic compressive resistance of the Tee including depth of web corresponding to the class 2 limit design resistance of a shear connector root radius of a rolled section centre-centre spacing of opening edge to edge spacing of openings thickness of flange thickness of bottom flange thickness of top flange web thickness thickness of bottom web effective web thickness thickness of top web design shear resistance of the bottom Tee design shear resistance of the slab applied shear force at the centre-line of the opening horizontal shear in web-post effective horizontal shear force due to combination of moment and shear design horizontal shear resistance in web-post design shear resistance of the top Tee distance from the support to the closest edge of the opening distance of the elastic neutral axis of the top Tee below the top flange additional deflection due to simple openings pure bending deflection of the beam efficiency factor for cracked concrete according to EN 1992-1-1 compressive stress acting on the web-post compressive strength of the web-post Page 6 Nc(x) N el N pl Pd r s so tf tfb Created on Monday.Rd x yet δ add δb νc σc σ c.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU nsc ( x ) number of shear connectors from the support to point (x) nsc .o N ( x) number of shear connectors over length. 2009 This material is copyright .Rd VEd Vh Vh. Rd Vt.

2009 This material is copyright . the effective length by 0.3do for elongated openings.2 Section classification Plastic section properties may be used for class 1 and 2 sections. as follows: Class 2 o ≤ 32t w ε or d t ≤ 10t w ε ⎛ 32t ε ⎞ 1− ⎜ w ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ o ⎠ (1) Created on Monday. the top flange generally may be treated as class 2 on account of its attachment by shear connectors to the slab.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU 3. Classification of the web of the Tee The webs of the Tees may be classified.all rights reserved. 7do for circular openings and the actual length decreased Effect of axial tension on section classification The section classification for an unstiffened Tee is modified if the bottom Tee is subjected to tension. 0. December 07. Classification of flange EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1994-1-1 may be used for the classification of the flanges. of the opening may be taken as the actual length for rectangular openings. Class 3 webs may be treated as Class 2 if : N ( x) Ab f y ≥ 1− 20tw 2ε f y Ab f y (3) Class 4 webs may be treated as class 3 if: db ≤ 14tw ε ' 1 − ( 36tw ε ' o (4) ) 2 and if ' o > 36t w ε Page 7 . For class 3 and 4 sections elastic properties apply. For composite beams. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Class 3 o ≤ 36t w ε or d t ≤ 14t w ε ⎛ 36t ε ⎞ 1− ⎜ w ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ o ⎠ o (2) For stability of the web.

Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement (6) and Vb.red .2 by using the greater value of VRd. the shear resistance is calculated according to: Vt.Rd + Vc.2.red o ≤ Vb.Rd = 0.9[(2r + t wt ) / 2 + d t t wt ] f y γ M0 3 Created on Monday.Rd = d t t wt f y γ M0 3 ( ) ) ( ) (5) and Vb.c/bwd given by expressions (6. The value of vc may be determined from EN1992-1-1 §6.red . M b.Rd + Vt. The value depends on parameters given in the National Annex to EN1992-1-1. December 07.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU where ε' = ε 1− N ( x) (A p ) b y 3.red or M el.T.5 as M pl.T. Pure shear resistance of perforated section VEd ≤ Vb. Page 8 .Rd = d bt wb f y γ M0 3 ( For hot rolled steel sections. taking account of the reinforcement in the slab. is given in section 3.Rd (9) The reduced bending resistance of the bottom Tee. 2009 This material is copyright . the maximum shear force is reduced due to Vierendeel bending and is given by: Vb = 2 M b.2a) and (6.all rights reserved.9[(2r + t wb ) / 2 + d t t wb ] f y γ M0 3 ( ) Shear resistance of concrete The shear resistance of the concrete slab is calculated by considering an effective width of three times the slab depth added to the width of the beam flange. Vc.3 Shear resistance Shear resistance of Tees The shear resistance of the top and bottom Tees of fabricated steel sections is given by: Vt.Rd = 0.2b).Rd (8) For the bottom Tee.Rd = ( 3hs + bf ) ( hs − hp )ν c (7) where vc is the shear strength of concrete.

eff = t w for p ≤ 0. To establish the resistance of a beam with a large rectangular web opening. is incorrect. the shear buckling resistance of an unperforated web from EN 1993-1-5 should instead be multiplied by the reduction factor[4]: ⎛ do ⎜1 − ⎜ hw ⎝ o ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (13) This method is sufficiently conservative not to require further calculation of web stability or local Vierendeel bending. a closed solution of the resistance is given in equation (30). Effective web thickness due to shear tw.4 Global bending action Compression in slab The bending resistance at a distance x along the beam depends on the degree of shear connectors at that position.8a).5 (11) or t w. which applies to single rectangular openings. The reduction factor should be calculated according to (1 − ( h o d w + 0. see [2].Rd ≥ VEd (10) For wider web-posts. Expression (N. For narrow web-posts.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU Shear resistance of highly asymmetric sections The shear resistance of highly asymmetric sections is based on equilibrium of the top and the bottom Tees. 2009 This material is copyright . For more precise calculations.Rd ) Created on Monday.5 where p = VEd (Vb + Vt. the shear resistance can be approximated by: VRd = 2Vb (1 + 2e heff ) + Vc. the full design procedure is presented in the following sections.3 o dw )) (12) For a web with a large single rectangular hole this expression was found to be too conservative. December 07.Rd + Vc.eff = tw 1 − ( 2 p − 1) ( 2 ) for p > 0.all rights reserved. The compression force in the slab is given by: N c ( x ) = nsc ( x ) Pd (14) Tensile force in bottom Tee The tensile force in the bottom Tee due to global bending is calculated according to: Page 9 . 3. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Shear buckling The shear buckling resistance of a beam with web openings is given in ENV 1993-1-1 Annex N.

T = 2 2 2 Aw f y (d t / 2 + t f − y e ) + Af f y ( y e − t f / 2) + As f y (d t − es + t f − y e ) + Aw f y d t2 / 12 (21) (d t + t f ye = − ye ) Aw ( d t 2 + tf ) + Af tf 2 + As ( d t − es + tf ) ( Aw + Af + As ) (22) Page 10 .NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU For partial shear connection: N ( x) = M ( x ) − N c ( x ) ( hs + hp ) 2 + yet h − yet − yeb ( ) (15) For full shear connection: N ( x) ≤ M ( x) h + hs.all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement The minimum degree of shear connection that should be achieved at any opening position. is such that: Nc(x) ≥ 0.5N(x) (18) i. 2009 This material is copyright . No limit on the degree of shear connection is made in the region close to the supports.5 Bending resistance of Tees (19) (20) Plastic resistance Mpl. provided the minimum degree of shear connection is achieved at mid-span.t = Aw fy (dt/2 + tf – yp) + Af fy (yp – tf/2) + As fy (dt – es + tf – yp) yp = ( Af + Aw + As ) ( 2 Af ) for As ≤ Af − Aw Elastic resistance Mel.eff − yeb (16) Force in top Tee The force in the top Tee is given by the difference between N ( x ) and N c ( x ) which also should satisfy: N ( x ) − N c ( x ) ≤ At f y (17) Minimum degree of shear connection Created on Monday. that there are sufficient shear connectors between any opening and the beam end to transfer at least half the overall bending compression into the slab.e. The shear connectors in the last 300 mm should be ignored because of the unknown detailing of the connection at the stage when the beam is designed. December 07. 3.

T. The local composite resistance is also limited due to possible pull-out failure of the shear connectors. No reduction is needed when o is smaller than five times the depth of the top Tee.5do for circular openings and the centre-centre spacing of openings. 0. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement 3. is as follows: M vc. red = M pl. T.5dot.5do for elongated openings.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU To ensure that the adjacent solid web is strong enough to resist the force transferred from the stiffener. Reduced bending resistance due to axial force Plastic resistance for Tees without stiffeners: M pl. red = M el.o Pd ( yet + hs. the cross-sectional area of the stiffener is limited to a maximum of 0. which requires further limits: M vc.6 Vierendeel bending o Effective length of opening For Vierendeel bending. Rd ≤ o d P for single shear connectors in line (28) Page 11 . increased by 0. Applied Vierendeel moment The Vierendeel bending moment is given by: M v = VEd o (26) Local composite action The Vierendeel bending resistance due to local composite action of the slab with the top Tee. T 1 − ( N N el ) ( 2 ) (25) Created on Monday. s. Rd = nsc. the effective length of the opening may be taken as the actual length for rectangular openings. T. red = M pl. December 07.all rights reserved. 2009 This material is copyright . T (1 − N N pl ) (24) Elastic resistance for Tees with or without stiffeners: M el. T 1 − ( N N pl ) ( 2 ) (23) Plastic resistance for Tees with stiffeners: M pl.eff ) k (27) The reduction factor is given by k = [1 − o (25ht )] for unstiffened openings and by k = [1 − o (35ht )] for stiffened openings.

all rights reserved.red + M vc ) o (30) Closely spaced openings For closely spaced openings. Elongated openings For the analysis of elongated openings in beams with otherwise regular circular openings at spacing s.e s ) 1 + 2 e heff + M c. as follows: VEd ≤ (4 M 1 + ( 2e + d o ) heff b.Rd.red + 2 M t.s /s should not exceed Vc.eff = hs − yet − yeb The term Mc.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU M vc.eff ) hs. The horizontal shear force Vh is given by: Page 12 .s/s should not exceed Vc.e s ) + M c.7 Web-post resistance Horizontal shear force Web-post shear occurs due to the development of longitudinal forces in the bottom Tee necessary to resist global bending.s s (31) with Created on Monday.s = nsc Pd ( yc. 2009 This material is copyright . the value of M h. Rectangular openings For closely spaced rectangular openings.t + hs.red o + 2 M h. Rd ≤ 1. 3.red o + 2 M h.e should be taken as 67% of that given by expression (32) between a circular opening and an adjacent elongated opening and as 50% of that given by expression (32) between adjacent elongated openings. December 07. the shear resistance is further reduced due to bending at the top of the web-post.5 o Pd for shear connectors in pairs (29) Widely spaced openings The total Vierendeel bending resistance is verified by: VEd ≤ ( 2 M b. as follows: Circular openings VEd ≤ (4 M b.e = so 2t w f y 6 (32) (33) (34) M c.s s (35) The value of the term Mc. the shear resistance is influenced by the bending resistance of the web-post.Rd. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement M h.

eff = Vh + 2 M h d o on the top tee where Mh is the moment necessary to achieve equilibrium between shear in the top and bottom Tees. with the effective slenderness λ = 12 ( e t )× (1 λ1 ) .red o + M c. December 07. 7 d o for circular openings = 0.4 of EN1993-1-1 [3]. 2009 This material is copyright .eff − yeb (37) Horizontal shear resistance By considering the shear area of the web-post.eff ( sotw ) o (40) (rectangular openings). The compressive stress in the web-post is calculated as σ c = Vh. whereλ1 is as defined in EN1993-1-1.eff = Vh − 2 M h d o on the bottom tee (39) or Vh.Rd Closed solution for web-post buckling (42) + σ c.all rights reserved. The effective length of the web-post is given by: e = 0.s − heff s (36) For full shear connection: Vh = VEd s h + hs. Effective horizontal stress Web-post buckling may be analysed by considering the compressive stress due to an effective horizontal force in the web-post given by: Created on Monday.Rd is established from buckling curve c in Figure 6.Rd = sot w f y 3 (38) Web-post buckling need not be checked if do ≤ 20tw ε for circular openings. for so ≤ d o (circular openings) or for so ≤ The compressive strength σ c. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Vh.Rd tw so ) VEd ≤ (4 M 1 + ( 2e + d o ) heff b.s s (43) Page 13 . the horizontal shear resistance is given by: Vh.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU For partial shear connection: Vh = ΔN = VEd s M c. 7 so 2 + d o 2 ≤ d o for rectangular openings (41) e Web-post buckling does not occur if σ c ≤ σ c.5 so 2 + d o 2 ≤ 0.

eff d o 2 ≤ M h.5L δb ⎝ L ⎠⎝ L ⎠⎝ L ⎠ With the coefficient ko given by: ko = 1. The use of the larger of the shear forces takes into account of asymmetry in the section. (45) 3. steel beam For circular openings o = 0. to circular openings. For multiple similar sized openings.0 for unstiffened openings.5 for unstiffened openings. no further web-post bending check is required for circular or elongated openings.e . conservatively.5d ot wt 0.e M h. 2009 This material is copyright . For widely spaced openings. the additional deflection is given by: (46) (47) Page 14 . steel beam ko = 2.5d o twb (44) The effective width of the web-post is taken as 0.e is given in equation (32).8 Deflection Additional deflection The additional deflection due to a single opening at position x is given approximately by: δ add ⎛ ⎞⎛ d ⎞⎛ x ⎞ = ko ⎜ o ⎟ ⎜ o ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ for x ≤ 0. σc = Vt Vb ≥ 0. For rectangular or square openings. December 07. Web-post bending for rectangular openings Created on Monday.all rights reserved.0 for stiffened openings. This applies to rectangular openings and also. composite beam ko = 1. composite beam ko = 1.5d o . Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Provided that M h ≤ M h. the compressive stress may be taken as the larger vertical shear force in the top or the bottom Tee acting over an effective width of do 2 . and do for rectangular openings.5 for stiffened openings. the bending resistance at the top or the bottom should satisfy Vh.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU The value of the term Mc. Openings may be considered as widely spaced when their edge to edge spacing exceeds do for circular openings and o for elongated openings. the interaction effects in web-post buckling and web-post bending may be ignored.Rd.s/s should not exceed Vc.7 do for circular or elongated openings. Widely spaced openings For widely spaced openings.

Information on these specialist products and access to the software is provided by the websites listed below.arcelor.westok. www. December 07. Specialist beams designed by computer software The substantial market for beams with multiple web openings has led to the creation of specialist products.com/EN/software/cellularbeams/default. These are also supported by specialist software. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Page 15 .5 N o ko ⎜ o ⎟⎜ o ⎟ δb ⎝ L ⎠⎝ L ⎠ where No is the total number of openings along the beam.uk www.fabsec.co.all rights reserved.cfm www.uk Created on Monday.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU δ add ⎛ ⎞⎛ d ⎞ = 0. (48) 4.asc. 2009 This material is copyright .co.

Ascot. EN 1993-1-1 Design of steel structures. RFCS Project Reference 7210-PR-315. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Page 16 . December 07. EN 1993-1-5 Design of steel structures.all rights reserved.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU 5. Plated structural elements. 2004 Large web openings for service integrations in composite floors. Created on Monday. 2009 This material is copyright . 1 2 3 4 References Design of composite beams with large openings (RT959). unpublished SCI Report. Final report. General rules and rules for buildings.

Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams Company SBI Bernt H Johansson AB Date Emma Unosson Bernt Johansson G W Owens A Bureau B Uppfeldt C Müller J Chica G W Owens SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI 23/5/06 23/5/06 23/5/06 23/5/06 23/5/06 12/7/06 3. France Created on Monday. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by: Page 17 .all rights reserved. Sweden 4. Germany 5.NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI: Design rules for web openings in beams SN019a-EN-EU Quality Record RESOURCE TITLE Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. December 07. UK 2. 2009 This material is copyright .

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