This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Developed by The Institute for Human Services for The Ohio Child Welfare Training Program October 2007
Circle apparent delays.How to Use This Chart Overview: This developmental milestones chart is designed specifically for Children Services staff. and information about the possible effects of maltreatment. and use it to assess the child’s achievement of milestones and apparent delays. Below are some suggestions: Review the chart prior to scheduled interactions with children to prompt your recall of common milestones and to help you identify potential developmental delays or concerns. or developmental areas needing further assessment. Copy the chart that corresponds to the age of the child you will be seeing. How To Use: . Caseworkers and other CPS professionals will find many ways to use this chart. It includes normal expectations of developmental milestones for children birth through adolescence.
which angle. support weight on legs. visually track cell development through midline 4-5 mo: coos.Infants and Toddlers Physical Cognitive Social Attachment: baby settles when parent comforts. parallel and symbolic. eyehand coordination. separation anxiety. then down 12 mo: beginning of symbolic thinking. and interested in roll over.. imitates sounds plays with feet. knows objects are used for specific purposes 2 yrs: 2 word phrases. head lag environment disappears. play Newborn: rough. fingerthumb opposition. reaches for objects. “raking” with hands 9 mo: gets to and from sitting. explores environment reflexive movement to learn about it. pulls to standing. some may use single words. crawls. pattycake) with caretakers 11 mo: stranger anxiety. Sensori-motor: physically uncoordinated. puzzles together . transfer objects 6 mo: babbles and from hand to hand. toddler seeks comfort from parent. plays games (i. curious 5 mo: purposeful grasp. object permanence. safe-base exploration 5 mo: responsive to social stimuli. solitary play 2 yr: imitation. exercises body by 9 mo: discriminates stretching. rock on others. receptive language more advanced than expressive language 15 mo: learns through imitating complex behaviors. points to pictures in books in response to verbal cue. uses arms to also stimulates brain prop. trial and error stomach for pleasure problem solving 7 mo: sits in “tripod”. but no hand preference 12 mo: walking 15 mo: more complex motor skills 2 yrs: learns to climb up stairs first. moving. uses more complex toys and understands sequence of putting toys. repeats movements to 3 mo: head at 90 degree master them. random. between parents and touch genitals.e. facial expressions of emotion 9 mo: socially interactive. push head and torso up off the floor. stooping and recovering.
anxious. coma. lack of discrimination of significant people. apathetic. take care of him) paralysis. caretakers. can’t use parent as source of comfort Passive. fearful. blindness. tantrums Internal organ injuries 18-36 mo: feel pride when they are “good” and embarrassment when they are “bad” 18-36 mo: Can recognize distress in others – beginning of empathy 18-36 mo: are emotionally attached to toys or objects for security Chronic illness from medical neglect Delays in gross and fine motor skills. deafness 12-18 mo: “terrible twos” may begin. willful. depressed Feel they are “bad” Immature play – cannot be involved in reciprocal. possibly mental retardation 1-3 yr: mastery of body and rudimentary mastery of Head injury and shaking: skull fracture. cerebral palsy. death.Emotional Possible effects of maltreatment Birth-1 yr: learns fundamental trust Chronic malnutrition: growth retardation. interactive play . unresponsive to others “Frozen watchfulness”. poor muscle tone Language and speech delays. may not use language to communicate Insecure or disorganized attachment: overly clingy. withdrawn. environment (can get other’s to mental retardation. environment brain damage. stubborn. in self.
illogical. some difficulty separating fantasy from reality Accurate memory. Weight gain: 4-5 lbs understood by 75% of per year people by age 3 Growth: 3-4 inches per year Physically active. stereotypic understanding of gender roles Explosion of vocabulary. magical thinking Social Play: Cooperative. grammar. may masturbate No sense of privacy Primitive. imaginative. simplistic idea of “good and bad” behavior Curious about his and other’s bodies. feels guilty when disobedient. 33 lbs. can’t jumping. Primitive drawing. value. represent themselves in climbing. may involve fantasy and imaginary friends. experiment with social roles. drawing till age 4 running. 3 ft.Preschool Physical Physically active Rule of Three: 3 yrs. takes turns in games Develops gross and fine motor skills. can’t sit still for long Clumsy throwing balls Poor understanding of time. reduces fears Wants to please adults Development of conscience: incorporates parental prohibitions. Cognitive Ego-centric. learning syntax. but more suggestible than older children Refines complex skills: hopping. ride “big wheels” and Don’t realize others have tricycles different perspective Improving fine Leave out important facts motor skills and eye-hand May misinterpret visual cues of coordination: cut emotions with scissors. social skills. sequence of events Vivid imaginations. draw shapes Receptive language better than expressive till age 4 3– 3 ½ yr: most toilet trained .
absent imaginative and fantasy play Increased frustration tolerance Social immaturity: unable to share or negotiate with peers. small stature Understands concepts of right and wrong Excessively fearful.Emotional Self-esteem based on what others tell him or her Possible effects of maltreatment Poor muscle tone. aggression. less emotional outbursts Cannot play cooperatively. motor coordination Poor pronunciation. absence of initiative Blame self for abuse. lack curiosity. encopresis. little ability to delay gratification Exaggerated response (tantrums. aggressive. preoccupation Lack impulse control. show little distress or over-react when Rudimentary sense of separated from caregiver self Underweight from malnourishment. overly bossy. aggression) to even mild stressors Poor self esteem. night terrors Self-esteem reflects opinions of significant others Curious Self-directed in many activities Reminders of traumatic experience may trigger severe anxiety. untreated illnesses Eneuresis. incomplete sentences Increasing ability to Cognitive delays. inability to concentrate control emotions. sickly. placement Physical injuries. confidence. superficial attachments. anxious. head-banging . competitive Better delay gratification Attachment problems: overly clingy. self stimulating behavior – rocking.
understands concepts of space. concrete thinking. rational. time. steady growth: 3 -4 inches per year Use physical activities to develop gross and fine motor skills Motor & perceptual motor skills better integrated 10-12 yr: puberty begins for some children Cognitive Use language as a communication tool Social Friendships are situation specific Perspective taking: Understands concepts 5-8 yr: can recognize of right and wrong others’ perspectives. board games Morality: avoid punishment. more team sports. and provide difference between child with structure behavior and intent. age and security 10-11 yr: can accurately recognize and consider 5-6 yr: believe rules can others’ viewpoints be changed Concrete operations: Accurate perception of events. regards them as inflexible. practices social roles Takes on more responsibilities at home Less fantasy play. can adapt behavior to fit different situations.School Aged Physical Slow. self interested exchanges . reflect upon self and attributes. or years earlier More effective coping skills Understands how his behavior affects others 7-8 yrs: strict adherence to rules 9-10 yrs: rules can be negotiated Begin understanding social roles. logical thought. can’t assume the role of Rules relied upon to the other guide behavior and 8–10 yr: recognize play. dimension Can remember events from months.
boy-girl Extreme reaction to perceived danger (i. easily frustrated. with clothes on) manipulative May speak in unrealistically glowing terms about his parents Difficulties in peer relationships. over-controlling Unable to initiate. immediate gratification.g. relationships.e. truth/dare. tests commitment of foster and adoptive parent with negative behaviors Role reversal to please parents. stealing. verbal outbursts. participate in. anxiety with hitting. easily frustrated. or overly solicitous. post traumatic stress disorder. re-enacting intercourse May be mistrustful of adults. academic challenges are threatening. may feel out of control Extremes of emotions. anxiety. flirting. can be overly reliant on teachers. strip poker.Emotional Self esteem based on ability to perform and produce Alternative strategies for dealing with frustration and expressing emotions Sensitive to other’s opinions about themselves 6-9 yr: have questions about pregnancy. intercourse. flight. and take care of parent and younger siblings Emotional disturbances: depression. freeze” response) kissing. emotional numbing. older children may “self-medicate” to avoid negative emotions Act out frustration. swearing sexual activity (e. attachment problems. or complete activities.. fighting. anxiety. magazines Possible effects of maltreatment Poor social/academic adjustment in school: preoccupied. breaking objects. feel inadequate around peers. anger. sexual swearing. look for nude pictures in books. stroking/rubbing. inadequate coping skills. conduct disorders . 10-12 yr: games with peeing.. emotional outbursts. difficulty concentrating. lying. cause anxiety Little impulse control. give up quickly Attachment problems: may not be able to trust. some “fight.
social Youth acclimate to experiencing them.Adolescents Physical Growth spurt: Girls: 11-14 yrs Boys: 13-17 yrs Cognitive Social Formal operations: precursors in Young (12 – 14): early adolescence. as follows: parents. need to be reject hypotheses or possible independent from outcomes based on logic all adults. more psychologically developed in middle and distance self from late adolescence. perspective taking: understanding. and impacted by Morality: golden rule. ambivalent about Think hypothetically. consider acceptance changes in body a number of possibilities and depends on plan behavior accordingly conformity to observable traits or Think logically: identify and roles. emotionality conformity with law is necessary for good of society . understand and consider trust. self-revelation others’ perspectives. abstractly. and is first step towards perspectives of social intimacy. from adults. Systematic problem solving: respect honesty & can attack a problem. identify Puberty: with peer group. sexual relationships. Insight. Girls: 11-14 yrs Think hypothetically: calculate social status largely Boys: 12-15 yrs consequences of thoughts related to group and actions without membership. conscious systems choices about adults to trust. straightforwardness consider multiple solutions. may plan a course of action become sexually active Cognitive development is uneven. logically sexual behavior is exploratory Think about thought: leads to introspection and selfMiddle (15 – 17): analysis friendships based on loyalty.
behavior. may self-criticism. identity frequent and violent mood swings includes positive self image comprised of cognitive and May be unable to form or maintain affective components satisfactory relationships with peers Additional struggles with identity Emotional disturbances: depression. rely on peer grandiose expectations for self group for support May engage in self-defeating. being an adopted attachment problems.Emotional Psycho-social task is identity formation Possible effects of maltreatment All of the problems listed in school age section Young adolescents (12-14): selfIdentity confusion: inability to trust in self to conscious about physical be a healthy adult. with coherent “whole”. formation include minority or bianxiety. emotionally labile. values into emotions. engage in activities for intense May overcompensate for negative selfemotional experience. may appearance and early or late appear immobilized and without development. parental standards. overly rigid expectations for over-react to parental self. negatively affected by physical and sexual Poor self esteem: pervasive feelings of guilt. testing. gay/lesbian identity . conduct disorders child. or impulsive examination of others’ values. body image direction rarely objective. may be excessively labile. inadequacy questions or criticisms. racial status. and Middle adolescents (15-17): aggressive. risky esteem by being narcissistic. expect to fail. abuse. post traumatic stress disorder. antisocial. behavior. forms identity by organizing perceptions of ones Lack capacity to manage intense attitudes. behaviors. may withdraw beliefs. blatant rejections of unrealistically self-complimentary.
D. Hughes.D Child Welfare League of America Press 1998 . and Ronald C.. Ph. Ph. Rycus.Content in this booklet was adapted from “The Field Guide to Child Welfare Volume III: Child Development and Child Welfare” By Judith S.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.