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{{ 1 ... ndeed there is in the bocfy a piece of flesh which if it is sound then the whole bocfy is sound, and if it is corrupt then the whole bocfy is corrupt. Indeed it is the heart. 'J
Reported by al-Bukhari [Eng. Trans. 1/44/no.49J & Muslim [Eng, Trans. 3/840/no.3882].
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Kalamullah.Com

~'rj DISEASES OF
LAjlA.!.J ~.,uJ'

THE HEARTS
& THEIR CURES

Translatedfrom the originalArabic I?J Abu Rumaysah

DAAR US-SUNNAH PUBUSHERS
BIRMINGHAM

CONTENTS

Transliteration

Table

12 13
17 18 19

The life of Ibn Taymiyyah
His His The His His His Teachers Students Praise of the Scholars for him Sayings Death Works

25 29 30 34

COMPILER'S FOREWORD COMPILER'S INTRODUCiION

The Keys to the Life of the Heart The Ailments of the Hearts and their Cures Verses of the Qur'an concerning Healing

36
41

44

He is Secured from Chubta] [2.8 The Causes for Jealousy] [2.ulm] [1.6 Types of -?.5 The Effect of Sins Upon the Purity of the Heart] [1.1 Between Sickness and Death] [1.9 The Need for Beneficial Knowledge] [1.3 The Competition between a!-$iddiq and <Umar] 87 88 92 95 [2.2 The Qur'an is a cure for the Heart] [1.7 The Life of the Heart] 1.8 The State of the Dead Heart] [1.4 Moses Displays Chubta] [2.1 The Types of lfasadj [2.CHAPTER ONE Concerning the Ailments of the Hearts and their Cutes 46 [1.2 Between lfasad and Chubta] [2.10 The Reality of the Life of the Heart] 52 54 55 56 60 63 71 71 78 82 CHAPTER TWO Envy is a Sickness of the Heart [2.6 Blameworthy Jealousy] [2.3 Righteous Action are a Cure for the Heart] [1.4 Leaving Indecent Actions are a Cure for the Heart] [1.5 Whoevers Ranking Becomes Lofty.7 The Cure for Jealousy] [2.9 Between Jealousy and Miserliness] 96 97 101 108 109 115 .

1 [3.3 [3.CHAPTER THREE The Disease of Desires and Passionate Love [3.2 [3.5 APPENDIX Between Jealousy and Desires] 117 The Reality of Passionate love (ishk)] 118 The Natural Inclination of the Heart is to love Allah] 124 Preventative Measures from Passionate 126 Love] 127 Some Cures for the Heart] Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah 130 Types of Hearts The Correct and Sound Heart The Dead Heart The Diseased Heart 136 136 140 141 Selected biographical notes Glossary for Arabic terms Bibliography 149 156 160 .4 117 p.

)r ~g ~ k . I. t.. th ')Z (. ~ J r I m n . -. diphtlwngs.kt ...:-Ib Ut I.q .U . w [j Cl) tkh (._ aw ay . etc.J . s t gh uf L...)'I .S- ...JIIsh ~~ .A h ..J w i. I...Transliteration Table Consonants.. Short: long: diphthongs: -a _-.l=.l d ~ dh ..iy Hlwelr... Arabic initial: unexpressed medial and final: ~.

He and his family were later forced to flee to Damascus due to the occupation by the Tartars. He became famous for his knowledge 1 of hadith. Muhammad. During his early studies of Islam. 13 . henever ceased to amaze his teachers at the strength of his memory. It is said that he was first allowed to give legal verdicts at the age of nineteen and he began teaching at Dar al-Hadith as-Sttkrflyah at the age of twenty-two. keen intelligence and depth of understanding.IBN TAYMIYYAH May Allah have mercy upon him He is Ahmad bin (Abdu-l-Halim bin 'Abdu-s-Salarn bin (Abdullah bin Abu Qasimibn Taymiyyah al-Harranl Taqi ad-Din Abu al-'Abbas bin Shihab ad-DIn. indeed he Ar. on the tenth or the twelfth of the month Rabi'u-l-Annua! in the year 661H. He came from a family of scholars. Sham. He was bornin Harran. Jordan and Palestine. in those days represented the areas of Syria. his father and grandfather were both scholars as were three of his brothers: 'Abdu-rRahman. an old city within the Arabian Peninsula between Syria! and Iraq. 'Abdullah and his half-brother.

writing. courage and inspiring talks were one of the most important factors in the Muslims victory against their enemies. astronomy and medicine. the critique levelled against him by some that 'his learning exceeded his intellect' can safely be relegated to the [rash bin. the majority of $Uft sects and paths and the adherents of other religions.Ashd'irab. These efforts won the praise and admiration of many scholars and indeed the ensuing generations of Muslims to this very day. history. acute and valid. Mu'tazilah and many of . He always showed a great concern for the affairs and welfare of the Muslims and this manifested itself greatly in his efforts during the Jihad against the Tartars. Many of the scholars of his time testified that he had attained the rank of Mt!Jtahid. Christians and Rawaftt/ah wherein his displays of bravery. He also attained expertise in Ustd al-Fiqb and Fiqb. ibn Tayrniyyah launched an intellectual struggle against the various deviant sects and heretical ideas of his day." 2 When this is understood. Aside from the physical JIDad. His criticisms were not based on a lack of understanding. the philosophers who promoted the school of the early Greeks ifalasifa). He refuted the Shta. the People of Theological Rhetoric CAhl al-Kalam) .such as the Jahmryyah. 14 . For example it is said that his refutation of Greek philosophy was one of the most devastating attacks ever leveled against them. rather he first gained an in-depth knowledge of each of these schools and as such his critique of them was systematic. knowledge of the differences of opinions present amongst the scholars. His refutation of Christianity was outstanding and his rebuttal of the Shi'a completely demolished their beliefs and innovations from root to branch. mathematics. he impressed all with his circles on tafsir.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES was a lfaftz (Hadith Master). and for his knowledge of the Qur'an and its related sciences.

ibn al-Qayyim. these refutations." Similarly ibn KathIr mentions that some scholars debated with him concerning 'Aqidab ai-f:/amawi. and yet again he was later imprisoned for a legal verdict he issued prohibiting making journeys for the purpose of visiting graves. relates from him when he was told that his enemies had plotted to kill him or imprison him. His complete reliance upon Allah can be best summed up in what his student. His enemies were careful to look for anything by which they could attack him and they eventually found what they were looking for in his works of belief entitled 'Aqidab ai-Wasi!!Jyah and 'Aqidah ai-ljamaw!Jyah. With regards his personality and worship." Ibn Tayrniyyah was again imprisoned because of a legal ruling he gave concerning divorce. IbnKathir mentions that some scholars sat with ibn Taymiyyah to debate with him concerning his 'Aqidah ai.Ibn Taymfyyab Needless to say. It was during this imprisonment that he passed away. they accused him of anthropomorphism and had him imprisoned on more than One occasion. If they kill me it will be martyrdom for me.14. 4 Ibn Kathir [14/5]. Due to their total misunderstanding of what he wrote. 8iddyah iVacm-Nihi[yah [Vol. 15 . If they 1 Ibn Kathir.JYah and his replies to their accusations could not be rebutted. made him many enemies and as a result his life was full of trials and persecutions. both inwardly and outwardly. under the heading 'Aqd Mt!Jdlis atbThaldtha]. he exerted a huge and lasting influence on all who met him and he was known for his worship and glorification of the Islamic laws. and his very direct methods of refuting.Wiis~tjyyah and the debate ending with their agreeing with him in what he had written.

we would go to him. Allah knows. despite imprisonment. If they imprison me. all these feelings would leave us to be replaced by relief. I was of those who knew well his habits. ibn Taymiyyah had a purer life than anyone could. nay. it will be a place of worship for me. it will be migration for me. I have never seen anyone who had a better life than his.AJ. "Ibo al-Qayyim. I will call its people to Allah so that they answer me. 16 . and frequently would he direct his gaze to the sky. intimidation and oppression. certainty and tranquillity. he would not talk to anyone unnecessarily after the prayer of Fajr and would remain performing the dhikrof Allah in a low voice which perhaps could just be heard by one sitting next to him. Ndhjyah min f. He was the most generous. things completely opposite to them.laydh Shqykh at-Islam [p. if they expel me to Cyprus. Despite the difficulties and all that expunges comfort and luxury. When We were seized with fear and our thoughts turned negative.' Ibn al-Qayyim himself said. the strongest of heart and the most joyful of souls. This he would do until the Sun had risen high and the time in which it is pro- . Wfibi! as-Jrryyib [p. with the radiance of bliss in his face. strength. and the earth grew narrow for us.DIS E :\ S E S 0 F THE J-l E i\ R TAN D T H FIR C l' R f': S expel me. No sooner did we look at him and hear his words. 691. 30].!> Al-Bazzar said.

.52]. to: . " .Ibn Tqym!Jyah hibited to pray was over.Refer Maj1m/' raltiJvii Shaykh ai-isltim [18/76~ 1211. Hair 17 . the ruler Muhammad bin Qalawun accused him of wanting to wrench kingship from him due to his large following to which he replied. al-Bazzar [p.lfil/17Ift' al-10/dIlV[18/76-121]..Tbdminah [1/154]. Tadhkirahal-Huffddb[3/1496].< al-Bazzar [p_74]. adh-Dhahabi.l'1Iiyyab [p. he did not delve into worldly conversations and he never asked for any of its livelihood. ad-Durar a/-Kdminahfi"4_'ydn aJ-Mi'ab ath.1 'ldll/{. I have not seen him mention any of the pleasures and attractions of this world.al-Bazzar. Ibn al-' Asqalanl. I I This particular chronicle of teachers includes forty. Dbayl ibn RtlJab [2/387]. 8 Once. lbn Kathir [14/136-137]. al-.' He also said.. your kingship and the kingship of Moghul is not even worth two meagre coins in my eyes! <) His Teachers" He studied under a great number of scholars and he himself mentioned a number of them as related by adh-Dhahabi directly from him. Instead he directed his attentions and conversations to seeking the Hereafter and what could get him closer to Allah. 40] . I would do that! By Allah.

'Aziz ibn 'Abdu-l-Mun'im Abu Muhammad Isma'il ibn Ibrahim at-Tanukhi Ai-Manja ibn 'Uthman at-Taniikhl ad-Dimashqi Abu al-'Abbas al-Mu'ammil ibn Muhammad al-Balisi Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr ibn Sulayman al-Arniri Abu al-Faraj 'Abdur-Ral:unan ibn Sulayrnanal-Baghdadi Sharaf ad-DIn al-Maqdasi. 12 AI. Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. 3]. Sitt ad-Dar bint 'Abdu-s-Salam Tayrniyyah ibn His Students He had many students and those who were affected by him are many. The total number of scholars whom he took knowledge from exceeds two hun- dred. Ibrahim ibn 'AlI as-Salihi alI:IanbalI His paternal aunt. Muhammad ibn Ahmad. .Isma'il ibn 'Umar.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES one male scholars and four female scholars." The following is a selection of some of his teachers: • • • • • • • • • • • Abu al-'Abbas Ahmad ibn 'Abdu-l-Da'im al-Maqdasi Abu Nasr (Abdu-l. 52]. 18 . Adh-DhahabI. Muhammad ibn Ahmad.'Uqad ad-DIlrr!Jyah [p. Yusuf ibn 'Abdur-Rahman. Ibn Kathir. some of his students were: • • • • • Ibn al-Qayyim al-jawziyyah. AI-MizzI. Ibn 'Abdu-l-Hadi. al-Kowtikib ad-Durriyyab [p. Ahmad ibn Ahmad ash-Shafi'i Muhammad ibn 'Abdu-l-Qawi al-MagdasI TagI ad-DIn al-Wasip.

With regards to tion of the religion and knowledge of opinions [on an issue). 'Umar ibn 'AlI.ymiyyah. his abundant concern for others and his worship. ibn 'Uthrnan at-Tanukhi.this along- 19 . The Sunnah was in front of his eyes and upon the tip of his tongue with eloquent phrases and an open eye. nor a man who was stronger in recalling texts and referring them to their sources. 'Umar al-Harrani. Ahmad ibn Y:lQya. Below is a selection of some of these statements: 1. I have not seen one who Was quicker than he at recalling a verse which pertained to the issue that he derived from it.he could perform iJtihtid due to his fulfilling its conditions. Shams ad-DIn Abu 'Abdullah. Muhammad ibn al-Manj. he was unequalled in tafsir and the foundathe differing . Ahmad ibn Husain. • • • • • Ibn Fadlillah al-Amri. He was a sign from the signs of Allah expounding upon it. Ibn Muflih. AI-HijiZ adh-Dhahabi said. Yusuf ibn 'Abdu-l-Mahmiid ibn 'Abdu-s-Salarn al-Batti. The Praise of the Scholars for him Many scholars praised ibn Ta.not only for his scholarly achievements but also for his active participation in Jihad and the affairs relating to public welfare.Ibn Tqymjyyah • • • Al-Bazzar. It was amazing when he mentioned an issue over which there was a difference of opinion and when he gave evidence and decided the strongest opinion . Ibn QiiQj: al-Jabal. Ibn al~Wardi. Zayn ad-DIn Abu Hafs.Zayn ad-DIn 'Umar.

despite his vast learning. Wbosoever associates with him and knows him well accuses meof falling short with regards to him. and attack his opponents [verbally] hence planting enmity in their souls towards him. I have not seen his like for supplications [to Allah]. acknowledged his ability. However I do not believe him to be infallible. If only he were gentle to his opponents then there would have been a word of agreem~nt over him for indeed their great scholars bowed to his learning. for he . lack of mistakes and 20 . and I have been wronged by both parties . courage and lack of attention to the joys of the soul. not caring for the blame that came to him. fluid mind and re~ gard for the sanctity of the religion . extreme courage.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES side his generosity. His hair reached his earlobes and his eyes were eloquent tongues. He could be overcome with sharpness and anger in discussion. He was white skinned with black hair and a black beard with a few grey hairs. Whosoever opposes him and differs with him accuses me of exaggeration. dear voice with a fast recitation. He was quick to anger but overcame it with patience and forbearance. Quite possibly his legal rulings in the various sciences teached three hundred volumes. his seeking succour with Him and his abundant conCern for others.his companions and his opponents. He had broad shoulders and a loud. rather I differ with him on both fundamental and subsidiary matters.was a man from amongst men. indeed more and he was always saying the truth for the sake of Allah.

He used to preserve the prayers and fasts. He did not give legal rulings out of poor understanding for he was extremely intelligent. al-Htiftz Abu al-Yu'mari [ibn Sayyid an-Nas] said in his biography of ibn Taymiyyah. he proved (his stances] and argued following the footsteps of the Imams who preceded him. I found him to be from those who had acquired a fortune of knowledge in the sciences that he had. Sunnah and Qjyas (analogy). and the least number given was fifty thousand. he. Ibn Bajt al-'AsqalanI said. Should he speak about a hadith. was the seat of its knowledge and fully 13 Ibn Hajr.. treasure having no equivalent . 'al-Mizzi encouraged me to express my opinion on Shaykh aUs/am TaqI ad~DIn.. 21 . Afterwards many talked about the number that attended his funeral prayer." 2. glorifying the laws outwardly and inwardly.Ibn Tqymryyah conceded that he was an ocean having no limits and a. The Shaykh of our Shaykhs. Should he speak about tafsir. he knew its limits. He fell ill in the castle [wherein he was imprisoned] with a serious disease until he died on the night of Monday 20'h Dhu-I-Qa'dah. and they prayed over him in the Maijid of Damascus. and should he pass a legal ruling in fiqb. He used to completely memorise and implement the Sunan and Athar (narrations). [under the biography of ibn Taymiyyah]. he would carry its flag. nor out of lack of knowledge for he was an overflowing ocean. Neither did he play with the religion but derived evidence from the Qur'an. so he has a reward if he erred and two rewards if he was correct.

. The acclaim of TaqI ad-DIn is more renown then that of the Sun and titling him ShC!Jkh ai-Islam of his era remains until our time UpOn the virtuous tongues.DIS E A S E S () F THE H EAR. Indeed he is excused for his mistakes because he is one of the Imams of his time and it has been testified that he fulfilled the conditions of ijtihad .. .' . and that which he is incorrect in should not be blindly followed. D THE i n r: r R I· S cognisant of its narrations.. none was seen who was more comprehensive or meticulous than he.. Here are his works overflowing with refutations of those who held to tajsim (anthropomorphism). 22 . Ibn Hajr also said. It will continue tomorrow just as it was yesterday. you would not see one like him and his own eye did not see one like himself .. T A j\. yet despite this he is a man who makes mistakes and is also correct.. Should he give a lecture on religions and sects. No one refutes this but a person who is ignorant of his prestige or one who turns away from justice .. He surpassed his contemporaries in every science.is to benefited from and Allah's Mercy should be sought for him due to it.14 3.those of his stances that were rejected from him were not said by him due to mere whims and desires and neither did he obstinately and deliberately persist in them after the evidence was established against him.. So that which he is COrrect in . From the astonishing qualities of this man was that he was the severest of people against the People of 14 Ibid.and that is the majority .

15 4. Then he should isolate from all of this what is rejected and warn against it with the intention of giving sincere advice and to praise him for his excellent qualities and for what he was correct in. he became an Imam in tafsir and everyFrom Ibn Hajr's endorsement of Radd al. as is the way of the scholars.t/ah. He was intelligent and had much committed to memory. His works on this are many and famous and his fatdIVa on them cannot be counted... then this would be a sufficient indication of his [ibn Taymiyyah's] great position. writer of many works. Ibn Kathir said. 15. the Rawtifi.Ibn Tqymjyyah Innovation. The least he would do when he heard something was to memorise it and then busy himself with learning it.fi'I Imams and others. not to speak of the Hanbalis. so how the eyes of these innovators must have found joy when they heard those who declared him to be a kdftn And how delighted they must have been when they saw those who did not declare him to be a ktifir in turn being labeled k. the ijuliilryyah and the 1ttibcidiyyah.dfin It is obligatory upon the one who has donned the robe of knowledge and possesses intelligence that he consider the words of a man based upon his well-known books or from the tongues of those who are trusted to accurately convey his words. from which both his opponents and supporters benefited. 23 . If there were no virtues of Sh~kh TaqI ad-Din except for his famous student Shcrykh Shams ad-DIn ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah. of his time testified to his prominence in the [Islamic] sciences . And how could it be otherwise when the Sha.Wdftr contained at the end of the book.

[14/118-119]. However his errors with respect to his correct rulings were like a drop in a huge ocean and they are forgiven him as is authentically reported by Bukhari. may Allah have mercy upon him. and if he has erred then he has one reward.. Bahjatul Bairar. As for hadlth then he was the carrier of its flag. AI-fjajiz al-Mizzi said. nor one who followed them more closely. Indeed it was said that he was more knowledgeable of the Jtqh of the madbhabs than the followers of those very same madhbabs in his time and other than his time.\ S E S () F THE H E .DIS E . no scholar of a science would speak to him except that he thought that that science was the specialty of ibn Taymiyyah. aEjdfi:G able to distinguish the weak from the strong. I have not seen the likes of him and his own eye had not seen the likes of himself.I> He also said. Ibn Kathir. He was. He was a scholar in Usu] and the branches of the religion. from the greatest of scholars but also from those who err and are correct..\ N D THE IRe l' R L S thing linked to it and knowledgeable infiqh. Haydt Shaykh al-Isld»: ibn Tay"'iryah [po 211. 1- 24 .." II. 1 have not seen one who was more knowledgeable than he of the Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger. When a ruler ttlakes a ruling) and he is correctthen he has two rewards....\ R T . 5. fully acquainted with the narrators . in grammar. . the language and other textual and intellectual sciences .

the Scholar of Hadith. Maddrij [1/531] 21 Mtgmii'FatduJa [1/54] 25 .. He." • Whoever desires everlasting bliss. It is not possible to exaggerate his renown when he is mentioned and his fame does not require us to write a lengthy tract on him. the Ascetic. the most knowledgeable of the knowledgeable. the Explainer of the Qur'an. statements. the fldfift.. let him adhere firmly to the threshold of servitude'? • The Lord loves to be loved. was unique in his time with respect to understanding the Qur'an and knowledge of the realities of faith . AI-flqiz'Abdur-Ral)man ibn Rajab al-Hanbali said. [2/387-392]. He is the imam.Ibn Tqymiyyah 6. Ma/mii' Fatawa [10/85] I') ~"ibnal-Qayyim. may Allah have mercy upon him.. the Mt9tahid. Taqi ad-DIn Abu al-'Abbas Shaykh at-Islam. the legal Jurist." • Guidance is not attained except with knowledge and cor- 1< ibn Rajab. • Every punishment from Him is pure justice and every blessing from Him is pure grace.1B His Sayings Shaykh al-Islam was famous for stating profound below is a selection of some of them.

24 • This whole. al. Exalted is He." • The one who is [truly] imprisoned is the one whose heart is imprisoned from Allah and the captivated one is the one whose desires have enslaved him. for the Lord. 23 24 25 Majmi/ Fatdwa [10/38] Majmi/ Fatdwa [1/80] ibn al-Qayyim." • Worship is founded upon the Legal Law and following it. religion revolves around knowing the truth and acting by it. aI. suspect it. is the Appreciative. The less the servant loves his Master.Wdbil [po 69] Ibn al-Qayyim." • In this world there is a paradise. the more will he love 22 Majmti' Fatdwd [10/40] ibn al-Qayyirn. whoever does not enter it will not enter the Paradise of the Hereafter. not upon ones base desires and innovation.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES rect direction is not attained except with patience. al-Maddrij [2/68] 26 27 26 . and action must be accompanied by patience. the less will he love other objects and they will decrease in number." • The more the servant loves his Master. 69J.Wdbi/[P.i? • If you do not taste the sweetness of an action in your heart.

P • A man will never fear something be due to a disease in his heart. he will not feel anger at their onset. 478] 29 W \I 12 "al-Bazzar '0-1 [po 74J ibn al-Qayyim. [3/289] 27 . ai-Madan." 2>< Majmtj' Fattiwd [1/94] Majmti' Fatdlva [10/88] Ma/mti' Fatdwd [10/255] Majmii' Fatdwd [10/256] ibn al-Qayyim.P for the Jihad besides Allah unless it • Trials and tribulation are like feeling the heat and cold.Ibn Tqym!Jyah other objects and they will increase in number. or he is the perpetrator of a sin. when one knows that they cannot be avoided. in which case he is in need of repentance. he is always moving from one blessing to another and is always in need of repentance. ar-Raw4ah [p. in which case he is need of gratitude." removes the cause. nor will he be distressed or disheartened." • Sins cause harm and repentance • Bearing witness to taw/lidopens the door of good and repentance from sins closes the door of evil-" • The Jihad agains t the soul is the foundation against the disbelievers and hypocrites." • Perpetually is the servant either the recipient of a blessing from Allah.

showing allegiance to those He has allegiance to.39 ibn al-Qayyim. the servant is left loving those He loves and what He loves. To be killed is martyrdom and to be exiled from my land is a spiritual journey. man finds in the remembrance of Allah. showing enmity to those He shows enmity towards. a delight that is incomparable to anything else. Wdbil[p. 37 • Sins are like chains and locks preventing their perpetrator from roaming the vast garden of tawNd and reaping the fruits of righteous actions. hating those He hates and what He hates." • The objective of asceticism is to leave all that harms the servants Hereafter and the objective of worship is to do all that will benefit his Hereafter. 69] 28 . Imprisonment for me is a chance to be alone with my Lord.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES • The perfection of tawl." • What can my enemies do to me? I have in my breast both my heaven and my garden.idis found when there remains nothing in the heart except Allah." • In this world. ordering what He orders and prohibiting what He prohibits. al-Maddnj[3/485] Minhtij as-Sunnah [5/389] Mqmu'Fatdwd [14/458] )S 16 37 38 Majmu'rafduJd [14/49] Wibn al-Qayyim. praising Him and worshipping Him. If I travel they are with me. never leaving me.

41' 29 .according to my knowledge . Once al-Bazzar [pp. hid away from the people out of fear for their lives. they were well known for their enmity for ibn Taymiyyah and thus. the markets in Damascus were dosed and all transactions of livelihood werestopped .Ibn Tcrym!yyah His Death Ibn Taymiyyah died while imprisoned on the twentieth of Dhu-lQa'dah of the year 728H. None but Allah could enumerate them. There were SO many people in front of his funeral.. Once the people had heard of his death. behind it. He fell sick for the few days preceding his death. Al-Bazzar says. 'this is how the funerals of the Imtims of the Sunnah are to be!' At that the people started to cry. nota single person in Damascus who was able to attend the prayer and wanted to remained except that he appeared and was present for it. As a result. when the call to prayer for . heads. and then someone shouted." Ibn Kathir said. after ultimately being banned from reading or writing. jurists all came out.?uhrwas proclaimed they prayed after it straight away against the usual norm. scholars.. His funeral Was attended by a huge congregation despite the many lies and slanders being spread about him by certain innovators of his time.Governors. 82-83J.except three individuals... to its right and to its left. They say that none of the majority of the people failed to turn up .

A Seventh Century Sunni Creed' The Aqida al-WastfyaoJ ibn Ttrymrya [tr. 30 . 1402/1982] 4. Omar A.EASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR Cl'RFS they finished prayer.. many ate still available and in print. then the people poured OUt from everywhere and all the doors of the Masjid . Merlin Swartz.DIS. 1966] 2. the deputy khatib came out as the main khatib was absent and in Egypt .. or about. Public Duties in Islam [tr. Muhtar Holland. Farhat . 42 The books of. 41 His Works Ibn Taymiyyah was a prolific writer and authored many works spanning a broad range of topics.and he ied the prayer over ibn Tayrniyyah . 41 '" None of the lists detailed below are meant to be exhaustive. Khayats. The Islamic Foundation. 1409/1989] 5. 1973] 3... A number of his works have also been translated and below is a list of these works followed by some of his works in Arabic. ibn Tayrniyyah available in the English language: 1. Ibn Tt!JmiJyah's Essqy on the linn [tr. The Concise Legary [tr. and they assembled at aU(hayl market. the Hague: Mouton.Abbaas. Jam'iyyah Ihyaa Ibn Kathlr [14/138]. Abu Ameenah Hila! Philips. The sum of his writings were thought to consist of hundreds of volumes and even though a large number of them have been lost. Farrukh. Ibn Tt!Jmfyyah on Public and Private Law in Islam or Public Poliry in Islamicjurisprudence [tr.

Ibn Tcrymryyah ----------~~-----6. Introductionto the Principles of T¢eer[tr. Muhammad Abdul
Haqq Ansari, al-Hidaayah, 7. Minhaaj as-Sunnah, 1415/1994]

The Friends of Alian and the Friends oj Shcry!dn [trans. Abu
1421/20001.

1414/1993]

Rumaysah, Daar us-Sunnah,

8. Ibn Tqymflyah Against the Greek Logicians [tr. Wal B. Hallaq,
Oxford University Press, 1993]

9. Aqeedah al-WaasittJyah [tr. Assad Nimar Busool, lQRA International Educational Foundation, 1994]; Sharh Aqeedah al- Waasitjyyah [commentary Muhammad Khalil
Harras, tr, Muhammad Rafiq Khan, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1416/1996] 10. Fundamentals of E,!/oining Good & Forbidding Evil [tr. Abu Khalil & Muhammad al-jibali, al-Qur'an & Sunnah Society of North America, 1997] 11. Mukhatasar lqtidaa as-Siraat al-Mustaqeem [Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1416/1996] 12. The Book oj Eemaan [compiled from the works of ibn Taymiyyah by Dr. Muhammad Nasim Yasim, al-Firdous Ltd., 1997] 13. Diseases oj the Hearts and their Cures [tr. Abu Rumaysah, Daar us-Sunnah, 1418/1998] 14. Ibn Tqymryyah'sLetters from Prison [tr. Abu Ammar, Message of Islam, 1419/1998] 15. The Waasitah Betueen.Allaab & The Creation [tr. Abu Iyaad Amjad Rafiq, Invitation to Islaam, 1998] 16. Al-Ubudryyah [tr. Nasir ud-Deen Khattaab,]; also translated as Ibn Tqymryyah'sEssay on Servitude [tr. Abu Safwan Farced ibn Haibatan, al-Hidaayah, 1420/1999] 17. Kitab al-Iman: Book of Faith [tr. Salman Hasan al-Ani.Jman Publishing House, 1999]

18. Ibn Taimrya'sStruggleAgainst Popular Religion: with an annaiated translation oj his Kitab lqtida as-Sirat al-Musfaqim MukhalafatAshab alJahi", [Muhammad Umar Mernon, the

31

DISEASES

OF

THE

HEART

AND

THEIR

CURES

Hague: Mouton,

1976]

19. Ibn T'tYm!yyah and his Projeas of Reform [Serajul Haque,
of Bangladesh, 1982] 20. Ibn T'tYm!yyah'sEthics [Victor E. Makari, Scholars Press, 1983] 21. A Muslim Theologian's Response to Christianity: Ibn T'tYmryyah'salJawabas-Sahih [ed. Thomas F. Michel, Caravan Books, 1985] 22. Economic Concepts of Ibn T'tYmiJ_yah[Abdul Azim Islahi, The Islamic Foundation, 1408/1988] 23. The Political Thought of ibn T'tYmilyah [prof. Qamaruddin Khan, Adam Publishers & Distributers, 1992] 24. Ibn T'tYm!Jyah & The Islamization of Knowledge [Taha Jabir al-Alwani, nrr, 1994] 25. The Relief from Distress - An explanation to thedu'a of Yiinusjtrans. Abu Rumaysah, Daar us-Sunnah, 1425/ 2005]. The available Arabic works of ibn Taymiyyah are many, from amongst them: 1. Mqjmi/ Fatauldibn Tqymryyah [compiled by 'Abdur- Rahman ibn Qasim and his son, Muhammad in thirty-seven volumes] containing many monographs and treatise that he wrote. 2. Fatdwa al-.K1Ibrti,n five volumes i Islamic Foundation

3. Fatdwd al-Mipiyyah 4. AIJawdb as-Saf;ip Ii man Baddala Din al-Masip, in six volumes

5. 6. 7. 8.

Minh4J·as-Sunnab an-Nabawtjyah, in six volumes Darr Ta'druq al-'Aql tua-n-Naql, in twelve volumes As-Sarim al-Maslui 'aid Shdtim ar-Rasiil, in three volumes Naqd at-Ta'sis

32

Ibn Tqymiyyah 9. Iqtid« as-Jtrd! ai-Mustaqim iiMukhdiafah A!b;ib aijabim, in
two volumes

10. Ai-Isfiqdmah 11. Naqd Mardtib ai-!Jma 12. ar-Radd 'aid ai-Man/iqiyyin 13. ar-Radd 'aid al-Akhna)i 14. ar-Radd 'aidai-Bakti 15. an-Nubuwwdl 16. Qa'idah 'Adhimah fi-l-Farq bayn rlbddah Ahl ai1sidm lJJa-limdn wa 'lbddah Ahl ash-Shirk wa~n"Niftiq 17. Ai~Qawd'id an-Nurdn?lyah ai-Fiqhiyyah 18. Taftiribn Tt9'miyyab,compiled by 'Abdu-r- Rahman '0 mayri,
in seven volumes.

33

it is the owner of the limbs. so when the owner becomes purified its soldiers become purified. his or her sincerity and the extent to which he or she prefers Allah over himself or herself. but rather due to the strength of the caller. one from the other. faith. his or her truthfulness. 1 The heart forms the foundation. Actions are distinguished. not by their number or form. and hastening to correct and purify it from sickness and all sins. for it is the place to which the Lord looks and the storehouse for tawfJid.COMPILER'S Foreword All praise is due to Allah. with respect to their excellence in the Sight of Allah in accordance with the condition of the heart. peace and blessings be upon the Last Prophet Know 0 beloved reader that it is most important to spend one's time and energy in treating the heart. and the limbs are its soldiers. This is due to the heart occupying a great and lofty position in Islam. and sincerity. and when the owner becomes I As stated by Ibn al-Qayyim 34 .

to pray the night prayer while the people are sleeping. to perform the actions of obedience to Allah frequently. Ibrahim bin ~4bdulldh al-ljdzimi. containing many benefits.' So my brother Muslim. this is a treatise by Shaykhul-Islarn Ibn Taymiyyah concerning the topic. So if you. 35 . said: 'The heart has been singled out for this because it is the leader of the body. So it is upon you 0 Muslim to hurry to distribute this amongst your beloved friends and your brothers so that perchance Allah may correct their hearts and Allah's aid is sought. wish to cure your heart then it is upon you to be truthful with regards to seeking refuge with Allah and putting your trust in Him. Al-I:Iafiqh ibn Hajr al-iAsqalani. and to frequently recite the Qur'an. 0 servant of Allah. and through the purification of the leader the subjects become purified.' I found it amongst his. and with his corruption they become corrupted. may Allah have mercy upon him and nourish us with his knowledge. 'Fatdwd' and saw it to be a beautiful work. May Allah allow all of this to be preserved by him.. to pray a great deal of superogatory prayers.Compiler's Foreuard sullied then its soldiers become sullied. 'Diseases of the Hearts and their Cures. and to treat your heart by making it continuously stick to the remembrances and by befriending only the righteous ..

36 .COMPILER'S INTRODUCTION The Keys to the Life of the Heart Ibn ul-Qayyim. prohibitions and regulations. full of blessings that they may ponder over its verses. being humble before Allah in secret. meaning.1:~~-'1~-.. [Surah $rid (38) : 29] So Allah informed us that He sent down this Great Qur'an.:'( . the Most High. said: h. Amongst its blessings is that the one who recites I /jddiyyul-Arwdb iii Bilridil-Afrdb [po 45] of Ibn ul-Qayyim. and that men of understanding may take heed. may Allah have mercy upon him.~ 1~YZl'~. 1 Allah.. commands. said: The keys to the life of the heart lie in reflecting upon the Qur'an.~ ~ dt1\~rl'.."'-' '. _~ ~ 0~\Tr A Book which We have sent down to you. blessed in its wording. 'P"41. ~J~. and leaving sins.I.

.. nor fall into distress and misery in the Hereafter as stated by Ibn 'Abbas (rar/iyAlkihu 'anhu) in the commentary to the verse. by Ibn Mas'ud (ratfiyAflahu (anhu).J.. and Mim is it word./~//-.. 'rhe best of you is.aditb reported on the 2 Messenger of Allah (:i) said.. 2912] andad-Darimi. 2/62 no... Trans..c:iI~ ~ij.~-~L::. at-Tirmidhi [no. 1/452]. . 106].-/"".SI.ihah [no.. 37 . ~.. [Surah Ttl Hd (20):123] Amongst its blessings is that the one who learns it and teaches it is from the best of people as occurs in the !>adithreported by al-Bukhari.whoever follows My guidance shall neither go astray nor fall into distress and misery. 3 Amongst its blessings is that it will be an intercessor Referring to the f.." .•.Arna'u. [Translator's Note] )~al:Ul:tal-Bukhari [6/501 no.!t~u Ii... and at-Tirrnidhi said that it is basan fapip} Also amongst its blessings is that the One who reads it and acts upon it shall not be misguided in this world. "'. and this reward is increased tenfold. 545]. that the 'The one who recites a word of the Qur'an shall get one reward which then is increased tenfold... Refer to af-Saf. J6. . the ooe who learns the Qur'an and then teaches it.r--. I do not say tbatAlij lAm Mim is a word. but Alijis a word.. to Zad ai-Maid of Ibn al-Qayyirn [1/339]. I t is SaM..u.-~ ". ~~"jJ~)ijI....The K9s to the Life --------~------~~ of the Heart even one word of it then he has a reward.' Reported inRlyriti elf-Sa/iNn [Eng. Trans. Lam is a word. Misbktital-Maflibih [Eng. 660] and the notes of Shu'ayb al.. as mentioned in the padith reported by atTirrnidhi.

and through this faith. Trans. such that if one Were to come across a verse commanding something then he should follow it. recourse to it is a blessing and to give it up is a cause of grief. Recite the two bright ones. which I did not forget afterwards.Nawwas (rat/fyAI/ahu 'aflhu). the Exalted informed us that He revealed the Qur'an so that its meanings. for to take.' Sahih Muslim [Eng. 1759J (Translator's Note] 38 . If one were to come across a verse concerning the Mercy of Allah then he would hope for this Mercy and ask for it. pleading for those who recite them. 2/385-386 DO.' The Messenger of Allah (~ the Qur'an and those to it will be brough t wi th Siirah al-Baqarab and . and the magicians cannot confront it.'Imrdn. If one were to come across a verse concerning the glorification of Allah then he would glorify Allah.DIS E A S E S 0 F THE H EAR TAN 0 THE) RC r RES Day of Judgement for its companions who used to act by it in this world as occurs in the two apddith reported by Muslim in his J'apih. 1757. or two flocks of birds in ranks.' And the baditb of an. for on the Day of Resurrection they will come as two clouds or two shades. commands and prohibitions may be reflected over. 'Two clouds or two black canopies with light between them. knowledge. Allah said while describing the believers. 'The Excellence of Reciting the Qur'an' in Riyat/ as-SaIINfI. guidance and taqwd will increase. that he heard the Messenger of Allah (:i) saying: 'On the Day of Resurrection who acted according preceding them. that he heard the Messenger of Allah (~ say: 'Recite the Qur'an.41. If one were to come across a verse forbidding something then he should leave it. for on the Day of Resurrection 4 it will corneas an intercessor for those who recite it. 4 He. Referring to the badith of Abu Umarnah (radiyAIJahu 'anhu). See also the chapter.'In/ran likened them to three things. al-Baqarab and AI. or like two flocks of birds in ranks pleading for one who recited them. Recite Siitah al-Baqarab. If one were to come across a verse threatening with punishment then he would fear this and seek refuge with Allah from it.

saying: Who issupplicating to Me that I may answer him? Who is asking of Me that I may give him? Who is seeking forgiveness of Me that I may forgive him? 5 This /Jiidith contains encouragement to stand in the last part of the night. seeking forgiveness.1G\~)l\S~~~~ Do they not ponder over the Qur' an or are there locks upon their hearts? [5urah Mul. supplicating. they increase their faith. as occurs in the authentic hadith.al-Bukhari [no. and He who is far removed from imperfection. ~~~~)~. 9474] and Muslim [no. 5 39 . Paradise and shelter from Hellfire at the time when Allah descends to the lowest Heaven in the last third of the night. and asking for forgiveness. and Allah. asking for victory. Paradise and safety from the Fire. praying. said. the Most High.The Krys to the Life of the Heart And when His vetses are recited unto them. does not break His promises. [5urah Anfdl (8) : 2] Due to their containing promises and threats that motivate hope and fear. and supplicating for good in this life and the Hereafter. Meaning to desire and long for Allah through supplication.ammad (47) : 24] Amongst the ways of giving life to the heart is to be humble to Allah in secret. Indeed Allah has commanded us with supplication and promised to reply. Our Lord descends to the lowest heaven when a third of the night remains. turning to Him. Amongst the Sahlh. 758].

o ~.. "I saw the sins killing the hearts.. and this is a blessing that Allah bestows upon whomsoever He wishes. And from the ways of giving life to the heart is to leave the sins that kill it. Breeding ignominy due to their addiction.j~~~r!)i~~~J. as in the hadith.llIhi!. (J"1. When the servant performs a sin a black spot apc pears on his heart.)i' Nay! But on their hearts is the covering of sins (ran) which they used to earn.giveness this black spot is removed. (.Reported by an-Nasa') and at-Tirmidht [1/1281.o l S E :\ S E S () F THE H EAR TAN D T H F. And in the leaving of sins lies its life. and Allah is the Possessor of great blessings and bounty.. and this is the 'ran' about which Allah spoke. [Surah ul-MufafJifin83:141 ' The poet said.t for your soul that you preserte it. and if he returns to sin the black spot grows until his heart becomes black. who said it was (hi'>"" . 40 . and if he seeks fot. And it is be. l R C L' RES times that this reply will be attained is the last part of the night.

(ii) The dead heart. So it contains love of Allah. despicable morals and manners from those things that cause it to die. humble. and it is continously wavering between these two conditions. sincerity and trust towards Him from those things that are essential to it remaining alive. and it is secure form all doubts that contradict what He informs. The third is the heart which is diseased. harsh and dead heart. this being the opposite of the correct heart containing no life.The Ailments of the Hearts and their Cures The hearts are three types: (i) The correct heart that is secure from all desires that oppose the command of Allah and His prohibitions. So the first type of heart is the living. soft and gentle heart. Just as it is secure from worshipping anything else besides Allah and from seeking judgement from any person other than His Messenger. neither knowing its Lord nor worshipping Him. it can either be made secure or have 41 . The second is the dry. (iii) The heart that has some life but also has a defect. faith in Him. It also contains the love of vain desires and preference for them.

joy or correction for it. Its cure lies in guidance based on knowledge. This can never be perfected except through purification of heart. There can never be any happiness. loving it and preferring it to everything else. 1 The heart becoming defective and weak revolves around two basic matters: the corruption of knowledge and the corruption of intent. This can never be attained except through striving hard against one's soul that incites towards evil. and safeguarding oneselffrom them through remembrance of Allah. Guidance based on knowledge is to know the truth and to follow it.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES its destruction sealed. So these two diseases are the lords of all the ailments that afflict the heart. the Exalted. The heart can never be alive and correct except through cognisance of the truth. and seeking refuge with Him from them. knowing their plots and objectives.anger and misguidance. unless it makes its sole object of worship and desire Allah alone. and its relinquishing itself from all types of false love and despicable manners. repentance. The life of the heart and its illumination is the cause of all good to be found in it and its death and darkness is the cause of all evil to be found in it. These in turn lead to two destructive illnesses . Misguidance being the end result of the corruption of intent. and bringing it to account and combating the satans from among the jinn by holding fast to Allah. The whole of the Qur'an is a cure for these two 1 Refer to Ighatha alLahfdn of Ibn al-Qayyirn [1/7-10] and Mqmii' FattiuJo of Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah [10/91-149]. All of the diseases of the heart are founded upon desires and doubts. 42 .

Qawd' id wa ad.The Ailments of the Hearts and their Cures diseases and others and it contains perfect guidance.' 11m al-lvla' 1)liil bi Ma' rifah a!.fii/of Re fer to Tariq al.2 2 Iva al-{ !. 43 .rVtqfii ild at./)awdbi! Ibn as-Sa'di [P204].

_/~!~ ':::./j. said. (i) .. the Most High. a healing for that which is in your 44 ..•.J ~~_~~Jf~ " He will heal the breast ofa believing folk. [St/rah Shuford (26) : 80] (Iii) .--=--K·_~:. He heals me.Verses of the Qur'an concerning Healing Allah.A.There has come unto you an exhortation from your Lord. [Surah Tawbah (9): 14] ~i) And when I become sick.

" ..·~J..-~JJ. a guidance and mercy for the believers. It is a guidance and a healing for those who believe.i. ·. [Jurah Nah! (16) : 69] 45 .{..\~. "0!."'__' /' _.f (10) : 57] (iv) And We reveal of the Qur'an that which is a healing and a mercy for the believers.~y.:1~(~I-:" ':~ t~ ~ ~ . [Surah Yunu...A~ r» .-~---- Verses oj the Qur' an concerningHealing breasts. [Surah Isra' (17) : 82] (v) »VA!. ..\".~~.. M .i 1~li"'-:'.. . [Surah Fussila: (41) : 44] (vi) ~~ .~~Y'"":'~&-- There comes forth from their bellies a drink of diverse hues wherein is healing for mankind.AJy '~.

~)~ In their hearts is a disease and Allah has increased their disease. we seek His help. the One Who has no partner. Whomsoever Allah guides.~r~~I~J. ~.. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except for Allah. Allah the Exalted said about the hypocrites. and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.CHAPTER ONE Concerning the Ailments of the Hearts and their Cures Indeed all praise is due to Allah. and we seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our souls and the evil of our actions. none can misguide.. [Surah al-Baqarab (2) : 10] 46 . and we seek His forgiveness. none can guide. and whomsoever Allah misguides.

.... and those in whose hearts is a disease.There has come to you good advice from your Lord. 'What does Allah intend by this parable?' [Sllrah al-Muddaththir (74) : 31] ...~~IY"J. a guidance and a mercy for the believers....~ Jo~ <"..~~I~-.". ..... and those who spread false news among the people of Madinah cease not.c1"'\-:.. -I1i~ . 'I~ ~ .lu~_.. I ... We shall certainly let you overpower them.....J~!" r. [Surah al·Apzdb (33) : 60] ~ ..="i ...''~""i \~. then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbours but for a litde while.... ·~ .I·JI~""I""~...~J ' .and that no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the believers. ')U.... ..· "'..Concerningthe Ailments rf the Hearts and their Cures That He may make what is thrown in by Satan a trial for those in whose hearts is a disease and whose hearts are hardened... .. .)!)IG". 47 ..J":'. and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the disbelievers may say... ~ .~ .1f/I~:.Jo I - r . and a healing for that which is in the hearts. [Surah al-ljajj (22) : 53] If the hypocrites....:i1 ~r-r:)t~~~1 '...... I~I .

~ ~_.such as its perceiving something sweet to be bitter or its hallucinating things that have no reality in the real world. 1 Ret: RLS [Jurah Yunus (10) : 571 ~~ ». it is a degeneration that occurs in it causing a failure of the natural senses of perception and movement. So with respect to its perception either it goes completely such as blindness or deafness. leading to illnesses as a result of these but not leading to death or physical ruin. [5umh al-lsrd' (17) : 821 .~ ...and heal the breast of a believing people and removes the anger of their hearts.r: .) _~~ :J.) & ~ r'\.i\~J.q/~~~iit:_n ~ _~~ And We send down from the Qur'an that which is a healing and mercy to those who believe..DIS E A S E S OFT H E H R ART AND T H F.. or it perceives objects incorrectly ... or its desire of things that would weaken it. [5urah Tawbah (9) : 14-15] The disease of the body is the opposite of its being sound and in good health. or the body's aversion to nourishment that it is need of.~ ~C:0( ~ '~. and it increases the wrong-doers in nothing but loss..:.~\~\~... With respect to the failure of its movements then examples of this would be the inability to digest food. Instead these failures would lead to suffering of the actual body either as a result of consuming a wrong quantity of SOme- 48 .~:.

So this is why 'diseases' has sometimes been explained to be doubt and suspicion. 321 49 . causing failure in its perception and desires. and loving the falsehood that would cause it harm. In their hearts is a disease and Allah has increased theirdisease. . as was explained by Mujahid and Qatadah ill their commentaries to the verse. [Sllrah al-Ap.?!ib (33) . [Jurah al"Baqarah (2) : 10] and at other times to be the desire to commit fornication as in the case of the verse. or it could be by consuming too much and therefore the body would require it to be removed. As for the first. So with respect to its perception then this is degenerated by its being presented with doubts upon doubts until it cannot see the truth or it perceives the truth incorrectly.Lest he in whose heart is a disease be moved with desire. The same ls true for the disease of the heart for it is a type of degeneration that OCCllrSin it..Concerningthe Ai/mentsof the Hearts and their Cures thing or applying something to the body in the wrong way. then it could be consumirtg too little aquantity of nourishment and therefore the body would require more. As for the second) then it could be likeextremely high or low temperatures due to incorrect usage of medicine.. Its desires are degenerated by its hating the truth which would be of benefit to it.

. until maybe he dies.. Therefore. But if he is affected by something that will increase his strength and weaken the illness then the opposite will occur. then he increases in illness and his endurance becomes weaker. . [5umh Tawbah (9) : 14-15] 50 . Sickness. So a healthy state is preserved by remaining healthy and is removed by the opposite. Allah. the Exalted said. cold. This is whyal-Khara'iti The sick person is harmed by things that the healthy person is not. exertion or other such things will harm him due to his inability to endure them in his weakened state. The book rf the IVeakness rf the Hearts Meaning their Diseases.. for this hurts the heart. weakens the one afflicted by making his endurance weak and unable to sustain what he would have been able to sustain in a strong state. so slight heat. and heal the breast of a believing people and removes the anger of their hearts •.' meaning by 'diseases' here . The disease of the heart is a pain that occurs in the heart such as the anger felt towards an opponent who overcomes you.the diseases of desire.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES authored a book called. if a sick person is afflicted by something similar to that which led him to being sick in the first place. and the sickness is made more severe by the presence of conditions similar to those that led to the sickness in the first place and removed by the opposite. in general.

causes harm to his heart until he attains knowledge and certainty. sprinkle some water on the wound or put a bandage on his wound and then wipe over it. "We went on a journey and a man from amongst us was. Likewise doubt and ignorance cause pain to the heart. 1 And the one who has doubt in something he has taken on board.'" Reported in Sunan Abu Dawud [Eng. anger and sorrow -aU of these being sufferings that occur in oneself. He asked his Companions.Concerning the Ailments of the Hearts and their Cures So the healing for them Was by removing the suffering that had occurred in their hearts.572) which raises thel:Jt1dith to the level of hasan. and wash the remainder of his body. 131]. [Translator's Note] 51 . The Prophet (~ said. 201].' meaning healing of their grief.' I The full text of the padithis narrated byJabir bin 'Abdullah that he said. Could they not have asked if they did not know? Indeed the Cute for ignorance is to ask.I) he was of this upon which he said. and Awn a/-Ma'bHd of al-Adhimabadl (1/534+ along with the notes of Ibn alQavyim in the margin). The baditb has a da'if sanad but it has a support from thefiadith ofIbn 'Abbas reported 5ul1an Ibn Mtijah [00. injured in the head by a Stone. Hence it is said to a scholar when he answers in a way that clarifies the truth: 'you have healed me with the answer. \X'hen we returned informed to the Prophet (. TalkhisaUjabirofIbn Hajr [1/260 no.' So he bathed and as a result died. Trans 1/89 no. 336] and ad-Daruqutni. 126]. 'They have killed him. 3641. 'We do not find any concession. may Allah kill them! Could they not have asked If they did not know? Indeed the cure of ignorance is to ask! It Was sufficient for him to perform tqyammlini. for you are capable of employing water (for purification).SahihIbnMtijah[no. Sapih SunanAbu Dill/iid [no. 'Do you find that I have a concession for performing It!Yammum?' They said. but the last part of thepadith starting with 'sprinkle some water on the wound' remains da'if Refer to Tamam a/·Minnah [pg. After this he had a wet dream.' In the Case of retaliation it is said: 'The close relatives of the killed sought healing. and it is said: 'So and so has healed his anger.

Allah. the Most High. sickness or healing for the heart. sickness and the cure is greater and more vital then the life. Its life. sickness and cure of the body. the Most High. That He may make what is thrown in by Satan a trial for those hearts is a disease and whose hearts are hardened. death. If wisdom and goodly exhortation occur then theses are routes to its correction and cure. and in this case there can be either death.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES [1. or the sickness becomes more acute. said. and are weakened by doubt and become distant from faith and therefore what is thrown in by Satan becomes a trial for them. This is why the heart becomes sick when presented with doubts and desires. 52 .1 Between Sickness and Death] Sickness is of a lesser level then death. Allah. death. so the heart dies due to total ignorance but becomes ill due to having fragments of ignorance. says. [Surah al-ljqjj (22) : 53] Because this breeds doubts in them and their hearts harden due to their dryness.

. We shall certainly let you overpower them.and that no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the believers. and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the disbelievers may say..'{jib (33) : 32) 53 ..[1. [Surah alA/.Lest he in whose heart is a disease be moved with desire . rather they contains the sickness of doubt and desire. 'What does Allah intend by this parable?' [Surah al-Muddaththir (74) : 31] These people's heart (which have hardened) have not died as in the case of the disbelievers and the hypocrites..1 BefJJJeenSickness and Death] ------~--------- If the hypocrites. The same applies to (the ones referred to in) His saying: . and those in whose hearts is a disease. and those who spread false news among the people of Madinah cease not. and neither are their hearts correct and pure like the pure hearts of the believers. then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbours but for a little while.. [Surah al-AI..zab (33) : 60) .

and when it submits to the temptation. hating that which will deviate it after it used to desire that which would deviate it and hate that which would guide it.2 The Quean is a cure for the hearts] The Qur'an isa cure for that which is within the heart. for it contains clear proofs that distinguish the truth from falsehood. due to its weakness. The Qur'an removes all the sicknesses that invoke false desires until the heart becomes pure and therefore its desires become pure and it returns to the natural state (jijrah) that it was created in. contrary to the heart diseased with desire. and for the one who has the sickness of doubt and desire in his heart. will incline towards what it is tempted with in accordance to the strength or the weakness of the sickness.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR Cl'RES Referring to the sickness of desire. for it. the sickness in the heart is satiated.for indeed the purification of the heart is like the growing of the body. and stories which contain lessons that necessarily lead to the correction of the heart by making the heart desire what is good for it and detest what is harmful to it. correct perception and understanding such that the heart sees things in accordance to their reality. 54 . It contains wisdom. [1. Hence the heart is left desiring that which will guide it. just as the body returns to the natural state upon being treated. and remove the sickness of false doubts to leave certain knowledge. goodly exhortations both encouraging good and deterring from evil. The heart will be nurtured with faith and the Qur'an such that it will become strong . for indeed if the correct heart is tempted by a woman it will not incline towards her.

$adaqah (charity).. -:"-1/~~~/·~~.. [Jurah Tawbah (9) : 103] 55 . but along with this there is a need to prevent anything from harming it. the sins as water extinguishes fire. ~_ r'· -""" "U--~ .. causes the heart to be purified. So the body will not grow until it gains that which will benefit it and is prevented from that which will harm it. it is said. when it has grown in correction..: . Allah the Exalted said.3 Righteous Actions are a Cure for the Heart] Zakdh(purification) in the language means: growth and increase in correction.[1.~/"-~i"1~ ~J"r. ~~ Take tadaqah from them in order to purify them and sanctify them with it. due to its extinguishing ~"G. i .2 The Quldn isa curejor the hearts] [1.. likewise the heart will not become pure such that it may grow and become complete with respect to its correction.j. The heart is in need of being nurtured so that it may mature and increase until it becomes complete and correct just as the body is in need of nourishment that is good for it. Its zakdh means something additional to it being merely free of sins.1i. 'something has zakdh'..~JJ. until it attains that which benefits it and represses that which harms it just as the flower will not grow without these two factors.

[Surah an-Nur (24) : 28] 56 .. And had it not been for the Grace of Allah and His Mercy on you.. not oneof you would ever have been pure from sins . the natural strength of the body emerges and it can find relief and thereby grow..»~. then go back. So the zaktih of the heart means its growing and becoming complete. [Surah an-Nqr (24) : 21] J.'" ~'" ..ai ~jl_) .And if you are asked to go back.t. Allah the Exalted said... so when one repents from sins the strength of the heart emerges as does its desire to perform righteous actions and it finds relief from these false and cortuptmatters that it was submerged in. So when the body is freed of this leprosy by releasing the additional blood for example.. .h£~. the heart is released from contamination ~whereby it mixed the righteous actions with evils actions. ~~~~I~t.. for these are of the same level as leprosy of the body or thorns on a flower. Likewise when one seeks repentance from sin. for it is purer for you.:t=.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CLRLS [1..:./ ).4 Leaving Indecent Actions are a Cure for the Heart] Similarly abstaining from indecent actions and sins leads to purification of the heart.

4 Leaving indecentActions are a Curefor the Heart] Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and protect their private parts. and remembers the Name of his Lord and prays.il4~~~... Fir'aun).. so you should fear Him?' [Silrah an-Ndzi'at (79) : 18-19] So tazkfJyah (purification).0~Jj~J~~ And say to him (i.i""'~..''''''·''i.·~~~'~... I"'..i..Ii . and indeed he fails who corrupts his self..[1... even if its basic meaning is growth.· But what could tell you that perchance he might become pure? [Surah (Abasa (80) : 3] ~~4~jl4:. That is purer for them . and that I guide you to your Lord.0~~&. [Surah alA'ld (87) : 14-15] 0~ -. 57 .' Indeed whoever purifies himself shall achieve success...~_b' ~~~ ....ti Indeed he succeeds who purifies himself. 'Would you purify yourself. I_r:'_'~&jlrc::\i .e.. [Surah ash-Shams (91) : 9-10] e~~.(:!. [Surah an-Nur (24) : 30] ~ ~..

-~J.id and imdn by which the heart is purified. or in reports. for indeed tawbfdincludes negating any lordship besides Allah and affirming the Lordship of Allah in the heart.. . the Most High. '. performing good and avoiding evil).h .-). or in belief. or in the belief of the people.. . . He.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES blessing and increase in goodness.// . is only attained by removing the evil. .~JW SO do not ascribe purity (tuzakkt) to yourself. Tazki)yah (purification) is the act of making something pure.. this being the reality of 'La Ilaba flldAlIdh' (there is none worthy of worship except Allah) and this being the basis by which the hearts are purified.. The Most High. It is similarly said: 'adaltuhu' when you made it just.e... /). and this is why purification has come to combine both these matters (i.. Allah. either in and of itself.~{.riidt(41) : 6-7] Meaning by zakdh. [Surah FUJ.and are disbelievers in the Hereafter. And woe to the polytheists..11 . [Surah Nqjm (53) : 32] 58 . the tawf. said. those who do not give the zaleiih.. said. in and of itself. • .

" t-1)~\ _0'"1oJ. ~~ l-:lL)/~"5~)&j\J(:~1f ~~ -~ Vr- Have you not seen those who claim purity for themselves. He knows best who fear Allah.(LS.r. . the Most High.4 Leaving IndecentActions are a Curefor the Heart] i. [Surah an-Nisd' (4) : 49] Meaning He makes pure whomsoever He pleases and makes his purity known. [Surah Nqjm (53) : 32] Zaynab was initially known as Burra. As for the saying of Allah. 59 .e. just as the purifier declares to be pure only those whose justice he can bear testimony to. said. do not broadcast that you are pure. and it is said that she purified herself and so the Messenger of Allah (:I) called her Zaynab. and this is not the same as His saying 0~. nay .~tij Indeed he succeeds who purifies himself./1.but Allah purifies (yuzakki) whom He pleases. [Surah ash-Shams (91) : 9] This is why Allah.

.. or correction. Therefore._". and in balance lies the correction of the heart. The good and pure actions constitute justice for the soul whereas bad actions oppress the soul. 60 .He has the reward for the (good) that he has earned.. This is why for every sin that the person has committed he has oppressed his self (zdliman Ii nqfsiht). and he is punished for the (evil) which he has earned .. before they effect the external body.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES [1. The opposite of zulm is 'adl. Allah the Most High. so this sinful person has not been just to his self rather he has oppressed it. .=... Allah said. likewise when he is just then he is the One who is just and the one upon whom the justice is carried out. . The correction of the heart lies in 'ad! and its corruption lies in zulm.i .~. The person does an action and he will receive the fruit of this action.S'f~~. either of benefit./:r~I--::" .. when the servant oppresses himself he is the oppressor and oppressed at the same time. . ..5 The Effect of Sins Upon the Purity of the Heart] 'AdZ (fairness and justice) is Ftiddl (balance). said. just as in zulm (imbalance/ oppres~ sian) lies its corruption.:"~_"!::. be it bitter or sweet. harm. [Surah al-Baqarab (2) : 286J 'AmI (actions) have an effect upon the heart.

said. a weakness for the body. a cause for extensive provisions and love in the hearts of the creation. [Sumh Fu!!ilat (41) : 46] If you do good. [Surah at-Tur (52) : 21] . OLA· . Indeed bad actions are a darkness in the heart. ~~v. you do good for your own selves.5 The Effect of Sins Upon the Purity of the Heart Whoever does righteous deeds it is for the (benefit of) himself.[1.. a cause for decrease in provisions and hatred in the hearts of the creation. a blackness on the face.y":. a strengthening for the body.e. ~~_. [5umh al-1mi' (17) : 7] Some of the Sala! said.:.. 'Indeed good actions are a light in the heart. and whosoever does evil.'" . a glow on the face. and if you do evil. you do it against yourselves.~:'~~~ljr Every person has a pledge for that which he has earned. 61 .Ibn 'Abbas as mentioned by Ibn a1-Qayyim in alJawab al-Kaji. it is against his own self.' Allah.::sc -5"" J" Every person has a pledge for what he has 2 i. the Most High.

when he will find for himself no protector or intercessor besides Allah.but the ideal or close to the ideal should be aimed for.' This is because the sickness distorts the temperament. it will not be accepted from him. Such are they who are given up to destruction because of that which they earned. its health and correction lies in balance. and its sickness lies in deviation. [Surah al-Anam (6) : 701 Tubsa/a means: to-repress. oppression and digression.should be aimed for. This is why it is said.but the ideal or the dosest to the ideal .DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES earned. [Stirah al-Muddaththir (74) : 38] But remind (them) of it (the Qur'an) lest a person be given up to destruction (tubsala) for that which he has earned. And even if he offers every ransom. in action or knowledge . to fetter and captivate. Similarly when the body has recovered from illness it is said: 'He has balanced his temperament and disposition. describing the Sa/aft way: 'the ideal way. safe from mixing both justice and injustice .' 62 . But complete balance in everything is impossible. The same case applies to the heart. despite the fact that there is no way to achieve complete balance.

. "'4. ..[1. "i~".. .. . [1.l:. . ..-. sent the messengers and revealed the Books so that man may establish justice. and the greatestform of justice is to worship Allah alone with no partner..5 The Effect Allah said 0/ Sins Upon the Purity 0/ the Heart '\....:.IY"_7·-'0'J 1-::·-:... 63 . even if you desire to be. The basis of the heart being corrected lies in it being alive and enlightened..U~'J~ IjIJI) . Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said to one of the people../ ...u/m] ?ulm is of three types.' meaning that the fear you have of men is due to a sickness from within you.. -: . then giving due justice to the rights of man.( if" 1·Z__in~.:f .. such as the sickness of shirk and sins. i-t :.~.6 Types of ?... then being just upon oneself.~.ilt -... .':~ " And give full measure and full weight. and in justice lies its good health and purity..t'~y... WU.~~ And you will never be able to be just between the wives. [5urah an-Nisd' (4) : 129] "'" 'i•It . We do not burden a soul beyond what it can bear.1.. [Surah al-An'dm (6) : 152] Allah.. 1":'...: /.. .!Jr-: .~ ~J-=~')l..~ '.... and all of these are from the sicknesses of the heart.. 'If you were healthy you would not fear anyone... the Exalted.. ·...-..j~_?-YJ~ l .

DIS E A S E S (_)F THE H EAR TAN D THE IRe L' R F. like him who is in the darkness of disbelief from which he can never come? [Surah al-An'd»: (6) : 122] This is why Allah has mentioned the life of the heart. like His. That he may give warning to he who is alive [Surah Yd-Sin (36) : 70J o you who believe! Answer the call of Allah and His Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life. and know that Allah comes in between a person and his heart. [Surah al-Anfdl (8) : 24J 64 . ~~~"/~ . the Most High.:y_) / ~u ~. the Exalted's saying. its illumination. death and darkness in a number of places. said. S Allah. Is he who was dead and We gave him life and set for him a light whereby he can walk amongst men. And verily to Him you shall be gathered.

Trans.. "SaM al"Bukhari[Eng. is: j... 65 . ~~ ~ (""":' _." ~ / ~ . The similitude of a house in which Allah is mentioned. 4 Allah. In the authentic padith. 8/278 no.~bi 'Y. dumb and in darkness.." /:ilill.[1.... ' ':·L ~ 't " Those who reject our signs are deaf. 2/156 no... has said. and the house in which Allah is not mentioned is as the Living and the dead. 280]..' In the SafJih (ofal-Bukhari) is the padith. the 'Verse of Light' and the 'Verse of 1 S'afyihaJ-Bukhar! '!Eng. Perform some of your prayers in your houses. and a disbeliever from a believer. 1/254 no. [Surah alAn'am (6) : 39J Allah has mentioned Darkness' saying. 424.Trans.'(:).6 ljpes 0/ ?ulmj He brings out the living from the dead.. and do not take them as graves. and brings out the dead from the living [Surah ar-Rio» (30) : 19] From the examples of this is His bringing forth a believer from a disbeliever. 416].. the Most High.

whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself). Then He said. the glass as it were a brilliant star.an olive neither of the east or west. the lamp is in the glass. The parable of His Light is as (if there were) a niche and within it a lamp. though no fire touched it. their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water. lit from a blessed tree. As for those who disbelieve. Light upon Light! [Surah an"Nur (24) : 35] This is the similitude for the light of faith in the hearts of the believers.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. until he comes up to it. he finds it to 66 .

Indeed. over'whelmed with a great wave. lack of faith and (correct) knowledge. when an evil thought comes to them from Satan. The person who possesses these is in darknesses one above another. [it/tah a/-Anij (7) : 201] 67 . one considers them to be something of benefit. there is no light. those who are pious. topped by dark clouds .[1. said. Or (the state of the disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea. for indeed the sight occurs only with the light of faith and (correct) knowledge. 40) is the sirnilitude propounded for extensive ignorance. the Most High.darkness one above another . unable to see anything. they remembet (Allah). Rather Allah will fully give him his recompense for these actions (in Hell). Allah. And Alhih is Swift in taking account.if a man stretches out his hand. he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allah has not appointed light. but He finds Allaah with him. Who will pay his due (in Hell). [5urah an-NIIT (24) : 39~40] So the first verse (no. but when they come to him (on the day of Judgement) he will not find any benefit in them at all. and they then see (aright). 39) sets forth a similitude for the false beliefs and the actions that arise from these beliefs.6 TYpes if ?ulm) be nothing. The second verse (no.

~~h. .-/ ..0' ~jl ~~J....."... /' .. [Surah al-Baqarah (2) : 257] 68 ..h And indeed she did desire him and he (Yiisuf) would have inclined to her desire. But as for those who disbelieve their protectors are false deities...:-"~ f-=_... c .Inorder that you might lead mankind out of darkness into light ..' /~Ja \"'. had he not seen the evidence of his Lord. : _.• ~''''. and no sin was recorded against him due to his having performed a good action and not performed an evil one. He brings them out from the darkness into the light.. j'I./. " t . • ../. they bring them out from the light into the darkness.. ~ .. and recorded for him a complete good deed.~~ ' .J. ~. &." J.JT~...:'.JI i.' ~A. -:t-/ /1/ . J. so due to this Allah caused him to turn away from that which he was inclined to...}J\jl [}urah 1brahim (14) :1] . [Surah Yusuf(12) : 24] Meaning the proof of faith which his heart had attained..... . -e f/ . Allah is the Protector of those who believe...DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES ~~_)~J. o~ ~'~V"GI~~~d /.. the Exalted said..'d~t~_:. Allah....

[1. o [S'urah al-Hadid (57) : 28] This is why Allah has propounded two types of parables for faith: a parable of water by which life exists and the foam which comes with it. thus does Allah (by parables) show forth truth from falsehood . and also from that (ore) which they heat in the fire in order to make ornaments or utensils.6 Tjpes ~f . and a parable of fire by which light is produced.. He sends down water (rain) from the sky. He will give you a double portion of His Mercy. 69 . Allah said.. rises a foam like unto it... but the floods bears away the foam that mounts up on the surface. and the valleys flow according to their measure. and He will give you a light by which you shall walk straight .?ulmJ you who believe (in Moses and Jesus)! Fear Allah and believe in His Messenger.

The lighteningahnost snatches away their sight. whenever it flashes for them they stand still. But Allah ever encompasses the disbelievers. Or like a rainstorm from the sky. when it lighted all around him. Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire. [Surah al-Baqarab (2) : 17-201 70 . Allah took away their light and left them in darkness so they could not see.wherein is darkness. then. He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. And if Allah willed.DIS E A S E S 0 F THE H EAR TAN 0 THE IRe l' R L S [Sutah ar-Ra'd (13) : 17] Similarly Allah has propounded twO parables for hypocrisy. Indeed Allah has power over all things.so they will not return (to the Right Path). They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. They are deaf. thunder and lightening. dumb and blind .

Refer to as-$ahiha/. Make the Qur'an the nurturer (rabi) of our hearts and the light of out chest.[1. [Translator's Note] 5 71 . [1.. see or understand. is in a singular gender not plural.7 The Lift of the Heart] So He propounded a parable for them with one who kindled a fire. sees and understands due to the light that it contains.8 The State of the Dead Heart] The heart that is alive and enlightened hears. 5 Rabi': means the rain that descends from the sky and nourishes the plants. while the dead heart does not hear.Abu Ya(!ii[q 1/156J. Part of a lengthy supplication reported by Ahmad [3712].this is not the place for a detailed explanation of these parables for the purpose here is only to mention the life of the heart and its illumination. each time it ignited Allah caused it to extinguish. [1.7 The Life of the Heart] In the narrated dU'd there occurs. The Arabs call the season in which the rain first descends al-Rabi' due to the fall of rain which causes growth (of produce). [no. 199]. and the parable of water in which the water is sent down containing darkness. thunder and lightening . The non-Arabs call the season that follow winter al-Rabi' because in this season the plants from which fruit is produced blossom and the leaves on the trees appear. The wording of this hadith of Ahmad. however.i/. The baditb is [al. at-Tabarani in al-Kabir [3/74/1] and others.

ll-. dumb and blind. the Exalted said. ~. but can you guide the blind.. even though they see not? [Sumh Yunus (10) : 42-431 And of them are some who listen to you. if they . (They are) deaf.. is as that of him who shouts to the (flock of sheep) that hears nothing but calls and cries. [S'Jrah ai-Baqarah (2) : 1711 .."'t{ . and deafness in their ears.--J And among them are some who listen to you..q ~~~~1T~J[~~~~e .DIS E AS E S 0 r THE H EAR TAN D T H L IRe t: 'R L S Allah. even though they comprehend not? And among them are some who look at you... 0j}~...~"} ~ The example of those who disbelieve.>~ ~ ~ ~.. but We have set veils on their hearts.r--0!" jl1~-:. but can you make the deaf hear.)~~:' j '-'. so they understand it not..

purah al-Baqarab (2) : 171] 73 .'=:-.J~.!> /~J:/G\~I~-'" y . This is why Allah said. $''' J> ~~/Gt ~.8 The State 0/ the Dead Heart) see everyone of the signs they will not believe therein. and their eats cannot heat.hearing and seeing.~ /. ears and eyes.fot theanimals possess hearing and seeing. to the point that when they come to argue with you.dffi~:k~ ~ - And they say: 'Our hearts are under coverings from that which you invite us to. the disbelievers Say: 'These are nothing but tales of the men of old. 4.' lStirah Fussilat (41): 5] So they mentioned the barriers upon their hearts. Their bodies are alive . /..J __ (.J --.\i/ ~!.\-' t'~~i-.r"'!Y ~ . and eat and drink and marry.. and between us and you isa screen.}.' [Surah afAl1'dm (6) : 25] So He informed us that their hearts cannot understand.(1. and in our ears is deafness. is as that of him who shouts to the (flock of sheep) that hears nothing but calls andcries. and they do not believe in what they have seen of the Fire as He informed us about them when He said. The example of those who disbelieve. but this is a life of the body devoid of life in the heart -like the life of an animal .

~ 6. what is ~}~0LG.nay even more astray.jtG.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES Likening them to the cattle./~. [Surah al-Furqd« (25) : 44] And indeed We have created many of the [inn and Mankind for Hell. they have eyes wherewith they heat not.nay.. [Surah al-A(r41 (7) : 179] A group of the commentators. And when harm touches man. when referring to these verses and those that resembled them such as the verse. They are like cattle . shouts. They have hearts wherewith they understand not. 74 . or sitting or standing.J' ~ -So ~ Or do you think that most of them hear or understand? They are only like cattle .. they are even farther astray from the Path. he invokes Us. ~t ~~~ !'r.:-'"' t~::\i~ r 1. at whom the shepherd and they hear nothing except the cry (not understanding said). But WhenWe have removed his harm from him. lying down on his side... as He said in other verses.: p~~~~.4:. ~.

when he is entrusted.[1. and the one who has a portion of them has a portion of hypocrisy until he leaves them: when he speaks he lies. rather his thoughts link (these verses) to those who openly manifested shirk from amongst the Arabs. Secondly: man possesses a strain of hypocrisy and disbelief even if he possesses faith along with this. the Christians and the polytheists of Turkey and India . and the hypocrites are many in all periods of time and they are in the lowest level of the Hellfire. So it is said in reply that firstly: those that openly manifest Islam include amongst them the believer and hypocrite. he speak a lie.and hence he would not benefit from these verses that Allah revealed so that His servants may be guided. or to those he knows to have openly shown disbelief such as the Jews. These verses refer to the disbelievers. 75 . he betrays.8 The State oj the Dead Heart} -=--------~ he passes on his way as if he has never invoked Us for a harm that touched him! [Surah Yunus (10) : 12] Regarding these and other such verses that mention the faults of man and their condemnation. when he makes a covenant. he proves treacherous. There are four qualities which jf found in a person make him a pure hypocrite. when he speaks. (the commentators) said.' So the one who hears this explanation is left thinking that one who openly manifests Islam is not included in this condemnation and threat. as the Prophet (~ said in the padith reported by both al-Bukhari and Muslim. and that the meaning of 'man' here is 'the disbelievers.

Trans.aditb. 1/40 no. 33. abusing the lineage. He (~ said in the authentic a/:. Four (traits) in my Ummahare from the matters of jrihifiyyah (pre-Islamic ignorance): boasting about nobJe descent. 1asked about the reason for this. Your slaves are your brothers and Allah has placed them under your command.' The Prophet (~said to me. He replied. wailing [over the dead] and seeking rain from the stars. '0 Abu Dhar! Did you abuse him by calling his motherwith bad names? You have displayed a trait of }dhiljy_yah. and it is established in the . 'At ar-Rabadha I met Abu Dhar (ra~yAI!dhu ~nhu). 7 Referring to the padith reported by al-Ma'nir that. ()$afJihal-Bukhdri [Eng. 2/444 no. 2033]. inch by inch such that if they were to enter a lizard hole. 1/32 no. Do not ask slaves to do things beyond their capacity and if you do so. Trans. Indeed you have displayed a trait of Jrihil~ryah in you. of al-Bukhari that he said to Abo Dhar.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES when he quarrels. 76 . 1/29 no. 'I abused a person by calling his mother with bad name.] and ~aPihMuslim [Eng. 29llTranslator's Note] H $afJib Muslim [Eng. So whoever has a brother under his command should feed him of what he eats and dress him of what he wears." And Abo Dhar WaS from the most truthful of people with respect to his faith. 111].$abi/:. then help them. They asked. you too would do so. he behaves in a evil and insulting manner 6 So he informed us that the one who has a portion of these then he has a portion of hypocrisy. 8 You will indeed follow the ways of those that came before you. Trans.' $apip al-Bukhdri[Eng. who was wearing a cloak and likewise his slave. Trans.

or Hudhayfah . 9/314 no."? Ibn AbI Mulaykah said. So when this is understood. III to Iqtida Sirdf al-l}fuslaqim of Ibn Taymiyyah. it becomes known that every servant benefits from what Allah mentioned concerning faith. the inverted heart. either extolling the branches of faith or censuring the branches of disbelief. 'Who else from amongst the people could it be.' To which he replied.this is the heart of the disbeliever. 4221.x/hatthe early nations took to shall also be taken to by my nation. They said.these are a people that have mixed good actions with evil ones.S The State of the Dead Heart] 'Do you mean the Jews and Christians?' He replied. II Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim 77 . Ahmad [2/4501. a time when it is called to faith. and a time when it is called to hypocrisy .[t. 'Do you mean the Persians and the Romans. 9 Jab/I.that he said.this is the heart of the hypocrite. Trans. I met thirty of the Companions of Muhammad (~ 11 all of them fearing hypocrisy for themselves. cubit by cubit and handspan by handspan. that has two attractions. The encased heart . 'Who else?" \. 4/1402 no. The heart ate of four types: the clear heart that is illuminated bya torch" this is the heart of the be" liever. 6448]. SaM Muslim [Eng. and the heart. And from 'Ali: . Refer Trans.! al-BukhtirirEng.

9 The Need for Beneficial Knowledge] This is because the person. ~~ [5umh al-Fdtibab (1): 6] saying: 'Allah has already guided the believer. [Not only this but we find that] that which he does have knowledge of. ~~~::. is commonly in need of knowledge of that which would benefit him and harm him.' Others from amongst them say that the meaning is. he does not put the greater part of it to practice! Assuming that all of 78 .~ j(k~i Guide us to the Straight Path.' This question really occurs due to the absence of their contemplating upon the Straight Path to which the servant seeks guidance to.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CeRES The case mentioned above is similar to what some of them ask concerning His saying. so what benefit is there in seeking guidance?' Then some of them reply by saying that the meaning is 'keep us firm upon guidance' as the Arab would say to the one who is asleep. [1. Yet others from amongst them say that it means. 'sleep until I come to you. 'keep our hearts firm upon the guidance' and that the request for-firmness has been omitted. He is in need of knowledge concerning what he has been commanded to do and forbidden from doing in the finer aspects of the matters and in those areas of which he has no knowledge. and leave what He forbade in all matters. 'increase me in guidance. for the meaning [of the verse] is [seeking guidance to] act according to what Allah ordered. even if he has believed that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and that the Qur'an is the truth in a general way.

[1. ~\~4:7.. complete His Favour upon you. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and future. [Surah Fatb (48):1"2] And He said with respect to Musu and Harlin.·-: • _ . cognizance of what comes under his general orders and Cart tern for acting according to ones knowledge. "".. . and guide you on a Straight Path .~~~'J" .. This is why He said to His Prophet after the treaty of ljudqybiJyah. and guided them to the Right Path. 117-118] The Muslims have differed as to what Allah Willed from the 79 .:·I. for indeed just having knowledge is not a cause for attaining guidance if one does not act according to his knowledge. . [511mh t1s-$tiffdt (37)."it~.~_ J1·r.."r-J _.. Guidance to the Straight Path includes all of the following matters: cognizance of what the Messenger (~ came with in detail.9 The Need for Beneficial Knowledge] the commands and prohibitions contained in the Qur'an and Sunnah have reached him. Indeed We have given you a manifest victory. and We gave them the clear Scripture. then the Qur'an and Sunnah contain laws that are general and universal for which it is not possible to specify to every individual person ~ therefore the person has been commanded due to the likes of this to ask for guidance to the Straight Path.!U./~::.::.

The one who has attained guidance in the past is in need of guidance in the future.' The opinion of those who say that it means: 'increase us in guidance' includes what has 80 . If they were guided to the Straight Path in these matters then they certainly would have performed what they had been commanded to do. So due to their continually saying this supplication and their acknowledging their continuous need of Him they became God-Fearing Friends of Allah.matters of knowledge. Sahl bin 'Abdullah at-Tustori said. this is the real meaning behind the saying of those who say that it means: 'establish us and guide us to being firm upon the Straight Path. and left what they had been forbidden from. There is not route between a servant and Allah closer to Him then need.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CLRES textual matters . belief and action while all of them are agreed that Muhammad is the truth and the Qur'an is the truth. Furthermore the majority of those who know what Allah has ordered disobey Him and do not follow His Way. [Surah al-Fatibab (1): 6] in every prayer along with the knowledge of their continuous need of Allah that He guide them on the Straight Path. then the greatest reason for this was their supplicating to Allah with this supplication. Guide us to the Straight Path. If all of them were to have attained guidance to the Straight Path in totality then they would never have differed. As for those whom Allah guided from amongst this nation until they became from the God-Fearing Friends of Allah.

81 . and if it still be there it is also pos~ sible that it not be acted upon. But all that has been stated refers to His guidance to the Straight Path that is to be granted in the future. And the person is not considered to be one who is guided until he acts according to his knowledge in the future. for indeed action in the future is upon knowledge that is not yet attained.9 The Need for Benefiaal Knowledge) preceded./1. but it is possible that this knowledge not be there in the future. provision and all of the happiness that the soul seeks are obtained [from Allah]. this is why Allah made it obligatory upon them in every prayer and they are not in need of any other supplication as they are of this one. When guidance is obtained to the Straight Path then help. Therefore all of mankind is in dire need of this supplication. Allan knows best. rather it could be removed from the heart.

The noun 'modesty' is derived from 'life'.it's owner is also alive . Modesty is from faith.and it contains modesty which prevents it from performing evil and despicable actions. rather life is an attribute existing independently in the described. Modesty and bashfulness are two branches from amongst the branches of faith.DIS E A S E S OF THE H EAR TAN D THE IRe U RES [1.so every living thing has understanding. or merely one of knowledge and ability as assumed by a group of investigators into the Knowledge of Allah and His power such as Abu al-Husain alBasri. 139]. $a/. because in the modesty of the heart lies its immunity from these types of actions. 57].10 The Reality of the Life of the Heart] Know that the life of the heart and other than it is not merely one of sensation. intention. intent and performs actions and performs actions out of choice is alive. al-Bukhari [Eng. and everything that has knowledge. 8/89 no. Trans.il. Life is also a necessary outcome of these . and it is a condition for the existence of knowledge. He can only be considered to have Life as long as He Knows and is Able. intent and the ability to perform actions out of choice. Muslims [Eng. This is not the case. movement and intent. so the heart that is alive . 82 . Trans. This is why the Prophet (. and obscenity and 12 $aNI. or merely one of knowledge and ability as assumed and intent." and he said.I) said. They said. 1/27 no.

[1.10

The Reaiiry of the Lift

of the Heart}
of

boasting are two branches hypocrisy. U

from the branches

This is why the living being is clearly affected by despicable actions and he has an intent that prevents him from performing them in contravention to the one who is shameless because he is not alive and therefore has no modesty and therefore no faith that would restrain him from evil. So if the heart is alive and the person dies in its separation from the body, then the death of the soul lies in its separation from the body not in the fact that it, in and of itself, has died - with the meaning of life leaving it. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

Do not say those who are slain in the Way of Allah: 'they are dead', rather they are alive... [5umh al-Baqamh (2) : 154J

Think not of those who are slain in the Way of Allah as dead. Nay they are alive... [5urahAI'Imrtin (3): 169] Despite the fact that they have died are included in His sayIngs,

" Reported by at- Tirmidhi and al-Baghawi in Shari; as-Xunnab [12/366], declared

!{/hih by al-Hakim and basan by al-Traql,

83

DISEASES

OF

THE

HEART

AND

THEIR

CURES

Every soul shall taste of death ... [SurahAI (/mran (3) : 185] ,. _"-~'-::l/}_"

iJ-Hrf~lJ~

»>

clLI
J ,.

Indeed you will die and they will die... [SI/rah az-Zumar (39) : 30]

He is the One Who gave you life, then will cause you to die, then give you life. [Stirah al-lfqjj (22) : 66] Therefore the death that is affirmed is not the same as the negated death. The affirmed death is the separation of the soul from the body, and the negated death is the leaving of life in totality from the body and soul. This is similar to the fact that sleep is the brother of death. Allah said,

.at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep. He keeps those (souls) for which He ordained death and sends the rest for a term appointed. [SI/rah az-Zumar (39) :42]

It is AllilhWho takes away the souls

84

[1.10 ------=----

The Reality qf the Life qf the Heart}

The Prophet (;I) used to say when he awoke from sleep,
. (~~fll ~I-:; ;_,_., " _y

~~t ~J.:.;c;t;.l I.j- - '~I» ill~. ."

All praise is due to Allah Who gives us life after He had caused us to die arid unto Him is the resurrection. 1.4 In another baditb,

j_

~~j

'if:./) j;.

~Jj ,~~

.(J-~

.j. ~liLP

-?:lll ~4I~II

- --

All praise is due to Allah Who restored to me health and returned my soul and has allowed me to remember Him." When he lay down to sleep he said,

~lu.~j ~w.!ll· ,Li.lijJ'::"'; j ~·2..lli:-·.!Cl tf1J1• , .•~WI.!6t.:.t Jl r+U1 • 41 :#li ¢101j ,I,ki;'li 1.=::;.1
• , ... . ., ... ' ,~.... ""t ,~ ."......
o'!: ,

my soul, and You shall take its life, to You belongs its death and life. If You should keep my soul alive then protect it, and if You should take its life then forgive it. 0 Allah I ask You to grant me good health. 16

o Allah, verity You have created

14

$aNi? ai-Bukhtiri [Eng. Trans. 8/217], ,'lahi/J Musiim [Eng. Trans. 4/1422 no. 6549], Sunan Abu Dciwtid [Eng. Trans. 3/1402 no. 5031].
I;

Reported
l1)a

Yawm
1(,

by at-Tirrnidhl [no.3401]. It is ,rabii? , refer to Mu/Jadhdhab Layki of Shaykh 'Ali Hasan [pg. 33] [Translator's Note].

'Amitl al-

Sa!;ifr Muslim lEng. Trans. 4/1422 no. 65501 from the i?adithof

Ibn 'Umar.

85

lI! ~ 'I~·.324].8j217 no.Drs E t\ S E S 0 F THE H EAR TAN D T E-IE IRe r RES He said. I die and live. Trans.lJ ~.::. I' Sabi/. Muslim [Eng. 4/1422 no. 0 Allah.~f Ie With Your Name.i'!. $a!.! a!-Bukhari [Eng. 6549]. 86 . . Trans.t.

referring to the permissible form of envy where the envier wishes to have the same blessings as the envied but without desiring to see them removed from the envied. This isopposed to basad.' This is different from ghubta1 (also meaning envy) because it I Chub/a: envy. the blameworthy form of envy where the envier wishes to see the blessings removed from the envied.' So in accordance with this it is not possible that the person upon whom the blessings have been bestowed be jealous of these blessings because this person has them and is accustomed to them.CHAPTER TWO Envy is a Sickness of the Heart Some people said while explaining its meaning: 'Envy (basad) is a grievance that befalls one due to knowledge of the good condition of the wealthy. A group of people said: 'It isa desire to have the blessings removed from the one who is envied even if the one who is jealous does not attain the likes of these blessings. 87 .

and the Prophet (~ called it basad in the ~adtth reported by both al-Bukhari and Muslim from the badith of Ibn Mas'ud and Ibn 'Umar.' for indeed the one who dislikes the blessings bestowed upon other than him desires to see them removed. [2. or one similar to it. R F. (racjryAlltihu 'anhum). and he desires to be like him or better. but then it becomes more severe as is the case of the one who is sick.1 The Types of ljasadJ Strictly speaking. that he ~) said: 88 . This is the type of jealousy which incurs blame. envy (~asad) is hatred and disliking the good condition of the envied one. so when one hates something he is then hurt and grieved by the existence of what he hates. This is why this second group said: 'It is a desire to have the blessings removed.DIS E A S E S () F THE H EAR TAN D T H h 1 R C t. so this is jealousy and has been called ghubta. for it is possible that this blessing. 2) That he dislikes the superiority of that person over him. This of two types: 1) Unrestricted dislike of the blessings bestowed upon the envied. returns to the envied. S refers to a desire to possess the blessings bestowed upon the one who is envied but without the desire to see them removed from him. But this pain is not removed except as a result of his continuously watching the envied so that the' jealous person finds relief when the blessing is removed. and this becomes a sickness in his heart such that he takes pleasure in removal of the blessings from the envied even if this does not result in any benefit to him except for the single benefit of having the pain that was in his soul removed.

~abih Muslim [Eng. 'If only I were given the likes of what he has been given so that I may act upon it the way this person is. is. 6/501 no. 1/62 no. 1 The ljpes 0/ HasadJ ~~~----------------- There is no envy (~asad.[2.' And a person to whom Allah has bestowed wealthand he spends in the cause of Truth. so when a person hears him he says. 'If only I were given the likes of what he has been given. (rarjiyAlldhu 'anhuma. so that I may act upon it the way this person is. Trans. Trans.ng. Al-Bukhari There is no desirable form of jealousy except for two types: a person to whom Allah has given the Qur'an and he recites it day and night. 2/388 no. 2/389 no. 6/500 no. so a person says. 544]. 2 This being the wording of Ibn Mas'ud. 17771.' 4 . Trans. and a person to whom Allah has granted wealth and property from which he gives in charity night and day. 73]. and a person to whom Allah has granted wealth and property and along with this the power to spend it in the cause of Truth. 89 . except in two cases: a person to whom Allah has granted wisdom. A person to whom Allah has given the Qur'an and he recites it night and day.laM al-Buhhari [Eng. \ ~aNh al-Btikhtiri [Eng. ". 1779J. )aNb Muslim [p. )·ahihal·Bukhtiri [Lng. Trans. 543J. The wording of Ibn 'Urnar. 3 also reports this badith from Abu Hurayrab (radiyAlkihu 'anhu) and its wording is. Trans. and he rules by this and teaches it to the people.

Competition is not considered blameworthy in general. So if this other person were not present then he would not have desired these blessings. the Exalted said. both of them trying to attain the same good. So because the starting point of this love is this dislike that someone else be made superior to him. rather it is considered to be praiseworthy when competing for righteousness.' This is why the generality of mankind have been tried with this second type of envy that has also been called ai-muncifasah (competition) because two people compete in a single desired matter. then this is called envy due to the love following the dislike. 90 . meaning that a person love the condition of someone else and dislike that this person be superior in this way (without his wishing that it be removed from that person).DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES So the Prophet (~ forbade basad. with the exception of two cases which are referred to as al-ghubta. As for desiring that Allah bestows favours upon him without consideration of people's material conditions then this is not envy at all. So ifit is asked: 'Then why is this called envy when he loves only that Allah bestows these blessings upon him?' It is said. 'The starting point of this love is his looking towards the favours Allah has bestowed upon someone else and his disliking that this person be favoured over him. The reason for their trying to attain it is that one of them dislikes that the other be blessed with this matter over him just as anyone of two competitors dislikes that other beat him.

rather he is being presented with punishment. They will be given to drink pure sealed wine. This is in total agreement to the badith of the Prophet (. and fulfils the trusts of its owners. looking on.the same is true of them'!Jahid. then such a person is not to be envied and neither is his condition to be hoped for. But the souls do not envy the one who is in severe hardshipand this is why the Prophet (~ did not mention it even though the 91 . for he forbade envy except of the one who has been granted knowledge and he acts according to it and teaches it. As for the One who has been granted knowledge but does not act upon this knowledge.1 The 7jpes of lfasadJ Indeed the pious will be in delight. The Station of such a person is lofty but this only comes after a great amount of effort (jihad) . or the one who has been bestowed wealth but does not spend this is obedience to Allah.I). for he is not ina state of good that is desirable.[2. He also allowed jealousy for the one who has been given a responsibility and he fulfils it with knowledge and justice. On thrones. and judgesamongst the people by the Qur'an and Sunnah. and for this let those compete who want to compete. and the one who has been bestowed wealth and spends it (in the way of Allah). You will recognize in their faces the brightness of delight. The last thereof (that wine) will he the smell of Musk. [Stirah af-MutqJftjin (83):22-26] So One is commanded to compete for these delights and not to compete for the delight of this fleeting world.

92 . because thete is no tangible benefit attained from the people for these actions by which the person can be exalted or disgraced. is superior to the one who is spending wealth. envy occurs when someone else attains power and authority. This is why you find envy directed at the People of Knowledge.DISEASES OF THE HEART AKD THEIR CURES mujahid. [2. for the people benefit this person by nourishing his heart. this is why Allah. the one free from imperfection. even if this person be blessed with far more food. Similarly for the one who attracts a following due to his spending his wealth. as opposed to these two blessings of power and authority. has propounded two parables. who have a following amongst the people that you will not find directed to others who do not have such a following. Similarly the Prophet (?i) did not mention the one who prays. otherwise the one who is performing actions is not normally envied. drink and wives than others. as can be attained in teaching and spending. Mankind is in need of that which will correct them in both these matters. The opposite is true for the teacher and spender for they have no enemy in the physical world.2 Between ljasad and Chub/a] Fundamentally. but in the case that there were an enemy that they would have to perform Jihad against. then their tanking is more superior (than theit station without having an enemy to fight). fasts and performs the pilgrimage. and this person brings benefit to them by nourishment of the bodies. fighting in the Way of Allah. for they cause a great deal of envy.

So when a completely powerless slave under the possession of someone is considered. Could they be equal? (Byno means. Nay! (But) most of them know not.[2. for indeed the idols are not capable of performing any actions that would be of benefit. and neither of saying anything that would be of benefit. and (the other) a. and is himself on the Straight Path? [Surah alNabl (16):75-76] These two parables were propounded by Allah for His Own Holy Self and for that which is worshipped besides Him. whichever way he directs him he brings no good. and he spends thereof secretly and openly.2 Between lfasad and Chub/a] Allah puts forward the example: a slave under the possession of another. one of them dumb. and another to whom Allah has provided a goodly provision from which he spends in secret 93 . Is such a man equal to one who commands justice. man on whom We have bestowed a good provision from Us. not). and he is a burden to his master. he has no power of any sort. All the praises and thanks be to Allah. who has no power over anything. And Allah puts forward another parable of two men.

and the angels. he does not understand nor speak. one of them is dumb.. This person is then like the one upon whom Allah has conferred wisdom and he acts according to it and teaches it. and is upon the Straight Path.it .~> t:~~I~jti5::... ~1.. and this person capable of doing good for the people in secret and open. for whichever way he directs him he brings no good and hence he is of absolutely no use. . And Allah has propounded this parable for Himself... (He is always) maintaining His creation in Justice. the Exalted said. is able to bestow good upon His servants. the idol) who Cannot do anything. He is maintaining His creation is justice is upon the Straight Way as He. All-Powerful.-§~~l~ Allah bears witness that there is none worthy of worship but He. / "" 'ii'" ~ '" .-_.one to whom Allah has bestowed wealth from which he spends day and night.iWI.-§l~r':iZt~r .enjoining justice and acting justly. [Surah AI 'Imran (3):18. The other is a just scholar . the All-Mighty. and those having knowledge. can this slave. and as He is continuously doing so. for He is All-Knowing.1 94 . ". So how Can this incapable slave (i. ~~\~\. The second parable: when two people are considered. There is. ever be equal? And He. none worthy of worship but He. incapable of doing good... free is as He from defect. commanding justice. the All-Wise.e. and is not capable of anything and is in fact a burden upon his master.. be likened to Allah to the extent that he is worshipped alongside Him? So this is the parable of. All-Just.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR Cl'RES and in the open.

[2.3 The Competition between af-$iddiq and 'UmarJ
And He said upon the tongue of Hud,
... ::';.o!

---=----

~..I'~&~_)uj.

1,( :\~~"'r\

Indeed my Lord is upon the Straight Path. [Stirah Hud (11 ):56J This is why the people used to exalt the home of al-'Abbas: 'Abdullah used to teach the people and his brother used to feed them, and so they used to exalt them due to this. Mu'awiyah, (rat/!JAlldhu 'anhu), saw the people asking Ibn 'Umar about the rites of Hajj and Ibn 'Umar would give them the verdicts, to which Mu'awiyah said, 'By Allah this is nobility' or something similar.

[2.3 The Competition between af-$iddiq and (Umar]
So here is 'Umar bin al-Khattab (rat.jfyAllahu 'anhu) competing with Abu Bakr (rat/!JAllahu (anhu) with respect to spending in charity as is established in the $a(Jip (of al-Bukhari) from 'Umar bin al-Khattab, (rat.jfyAlldbu 'anhu), that he said: The Messenger of Allah (:i) commanded us to give in charity, and this coincided with my possessing some wealth. So I said (to myself): 'If there is a day that I can better Abu Bakr than it is this one.' So I went with half of my wealth and the Messenger of Allah (~ asked me, 'What have you left for your family?' I replied, 'The same amount.' Then Abu Bakr came with everything that he possessed and the Messenger of Allah (~ asked him, 'What have you left for your family?' He replied, 'I have left Allah

9S

DIS

E A S E S 0 F THE

H EAR

TAN

D THE

IRe

L' RES

and His Messenger

for them.' SCiI said, 'I will never

be able to better you in anything!'

So what 'Umar did here was competition and the permitted type of jealousy (ghubta), but the state of as-Siddiq was better than his, and thus he would generally be the victor in such competition due to his indifference to the condition of others.

[2.4 Moses Displays Ghuhta]
Likewise is the case with Prophet Mllsa as is mentioned in the hadith of Mi~rcijthat he competed and felt jealousy towards the Prophet (3i) to the point that he,
Cried due to the extent to which the Prophet ~ has surpassed him. So it was said to him, ''Why an; you crying?' He replied, 'I am crying because there is a servant who shall be sent after me, and more of his nation shall enter Paradise than mine.' s

This badith is also reported in other than the J'a/Jib with a different wording,
We passed a person while he was saying in a loud voice, 'You have blessed him and honoured him (over me).' So we were raised to him and gave him our salam, he replied to our salam and said, 'Who is this with you 0 Jibra'Il?' He said, This is Ahmad.' He said, 'Welcom~ 0 Illiterate Prophet who has conveyed the Message of his Lord and sincerely advised his nation.' Then we moved on and 1 said, 'Who was this 0 Jibra'll?' He replied, That was Musa bin 'Irnran.' I said, 'And who was he censuring?' He
; Reported

by both al-Bukbari and Muslim

96

-------

(2.4

Mom Displf!)ls Ghub/aJ

replied, 'He was censuring your Lord with regards to you.' 1 said, 'He was raising his voice to His Lord?' He replied, 'Indeed Allah knew his truthfulness.'

So in this 'Umar resembled Musa, and the condition of our Prophet C*') was superior to that of Miisa for he did not possess any of this permissible jealousy.

[2.5 Whoevers Ranking Becomes Lofty, He is Secured from Chub/a]
Similar to this from amongst the Sahtibah were Abu 'Ubaydah bin jarrah and those like him who were free from these types of concerns and due to this they were of a more exalted rank than those who would compete and display jealousy (ghub!a) even though it was permitted. 'nus is why Abu 'Ubaydah deserved to be called,
The trusted one of this Ummah."

For if the one trusted does not have any rivalry and desire in his self for the things that he is entrusted with, then he is the most deserving of having the trust placed in him. The one who is known to possess no rivalry in greater matters is entrusted with the smaller matters, and the one is known to have no reason to steal from the wealth is entrusted with the wealth. As for the one who finds in himself treachery that resembles that of a wolf entrusted with sheep, then he is not able to discharge the trust placed in him due to his having in his heart a desire for what he is entrusted with. It is reported in the Musnad ofAhmad
t,

from Anas, (ratjryAlkihu

Reported by both al-Bukhari and Muslim

97

that he said. so when the Prophet (:i) left. '0 servant of Allah there Was no hatred or disassociation between my father and me but I heard the Messenger of Allah (. I would do so.' So when the three days were over I was eager to make little of his actions.' He replied. 'Yes. 'Except that I never heard him speak except good. 'Abdullah bin 'Amr al-'A$ followed this person and said.' and you arrived on those three occasions.DLSEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES (anhu).' Anas continued saying.I) saying on three occasions. so I wished to stay with you so that I may 98 . 'Abdullah said. On the third day the Prophet (:.I) again said words of similar import and again this person appeared in the same condition. his beard dripping with the water of wudir and holding his sandals in his left hand. and he gave us the salam. We were sitting in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (:I) one day and he said. The next day the Prophet (~ said words of similar import and the same person appeared in the same condition. 'indeed I have abused my father and I swore that I would not go to him for three days so if you would let me stay with you until those three days expire. 'A person is about to arrive from this mountain path who is from the people of Paradise. All he did was when he turned sides on his bed he would mention Allah and make takbir and would do this until he stood for the Fajr prayer.' So a person from the An~ar arrived. I said. 'A person is about to arrive who is from the people of Paradise. So 'Abdullah told us that he spend three nights with this person yet he did not see him stand for the night prayer at all.

.' 'Abdullah said.:.. ~•• . _// ~ /~/ /'. and give them preference over themselves even though they were in need of that./ _. ~~ffi..~-'~~~J~->:J~J ._. Meaning that which has been given to their brothers Muhijirim.--. He is Securedfrom Chub/a? look at your actions and emulate them... 'This is something that has reached you and something that We cannot endure' lies an indication of his lack of jealousy and his being secure from all types of jealousy. .. ... and neither do I find any jealousy for the wealth that Allah has bestowed upon them.' . Lf:1. '.. {-I~ ~_'~ -/... \.5 Iroomrs Rankit{g Becomes Loity.-\. [Surah al-Hasbr (59):91 ~'-r:~9J1. The scholars of tajsir have stated: from the They do not find in their breasts jealousy and hatred for what has been given to the Muhajiriin.'. '. .2..:. But I have not seen you perform a great deal of actions...mddis sabih 99 . This is why Allah praised the An.' - So in the saying of' Abdullah bin 'Amr to him.J. 'It is nothing more than what you have seen. 'This is that which has reached you and is something that we cannot endure.rdr with His saying. except that I do not find in myself any disloyalty to any of the Muslims.".... And have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given (the muhtljir! n).. "t /.IL~ i.~5-. . ".--... so what is it that has reached you to make the Messenger of Allah (:j) say what he said?' He replied.

So this is competition in that which would bring them closer to Allah.'/ . 'What has been given to them from the war booty.' And others said: 'What has been given to them of precedence and blessings' So they find no need of that which has been given the Muhtijiriin of wealth and rank even though jealousy arises over these sorts of things.Then for this let those who compete..~.. compete! 15urah al-MutaJjifln (83):26] 100 . such that if one tribe were to do something for which they were regarded favourably by Allah and His Messenger then the other tribe would desire to do the same.".~ .. .... Jlvit\·'j)·dt~~-. Allah says.» »»> . ~iJf A/ !'" /'_J....» .'_...DISEASES OF THE HEART AND 'r n EIR CURES Then some of them said. Between the Aws and the Khazraj there existed competition in matters of religion. .

6 B/amewortf?y jea/ou.S the deciding factor behind their wish even after the Truth has been made clear to them. then Allah has Many of the People of the Book wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed.ry} [2.6 Blameworthy Jealousy] As for the jealousy that is totally blameworthy said with regards to the Jews. out of envy from their own selves even after the truth has become clear to them.l. [Jurah al-Baqarah (2):109] 'They wish' meaning that they hope to make you apostasise from your religion out of jealousy. So jealousy W. This is because when they saw you attain what you attained of blessings .[2. Or do they envy men for what Allah has given them of His bounty? Then We have already given the family of Abraham the Book and Wis- 101 . Similarly this is mentioned in another verse.they became jealous of you.in fact they saw you attain that which they themselves had never attained .

And from the evil of the witehcrafts when they blow in the knots. and enough is Hell for burning (them) .:'\ D T II I•. Labid bin al-(A~arn. S dorn.H ()f Ibn Kathir (4/584). hating the favours bestowed by Allah upon someone else is an oppressor. And from the evil of the envier when he envies. Refer r" rh« /rI/.• I R I:. The magic was done by the Jew. going beyond bounds due to this. From the evil of what He has created.\llah .. H he\ RT . So if he were to wish for something that has been hriven to someone else which would help bring him closer to . As for the one who dislikes that someone else be blessed and wishes to be blessed in the same way. [Si/rall al-Falaq (11. As is reported by al-Bukhari. then this is forbidden for him except in that which will bring him closer to Allah. I R ( . [Sutall an-Xlrii' (4):54-551 Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Daybreak. Of them were (some) who believed in him (Muhammad) and of them were some who averted their faces from him.\..' So the one who is jealous. 102 .\ S F S () F T u r.\/jf{//I was revealed due to the jealousy of the jews harboured towards the Messenger of Allah (~ to the extent that they performed magic on him. and conferred upon them a great kingdom.3):1-51 A group of scholars of taftir mentioned that this . And from the evil of the darkening (night) as it comes with its darkness. Muslim and Ahmad.DIS E .

However. dictated by this jealousy. But forgive and overlook until Allah brings about His Command. Many of the People of the Book wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed. his wishing for it in his heart. and he should forgive and overlook. Yirsuf and his brother are loved more by our father than we. without looking to the condition of someone else is better and more excellent. he would be an oppressor goingbeyond bounds.6 Bfamewortf?y jea/ou!)] then there is no problem in this.--------------~---- [2. [Surah al-Baqarab (2):109] Indeed Yusuf.. deserving of punishment unless he repents.. ('a/ayhis sa/tim) was tried by the jealousy of his brothers: When they said: Truly. out of envy from their own selves even after the truth has become clear to them. He should be patient of the harm afflicted upon him by the one who is jealous. Then if this person were to act. So the one who is affected by the one who is jealous is oppressed and should be enjoined to patience and taqui«. just as Allah said. [Sumh Yusuf(12):8] 103 .

IRe l' R F S So they were envied due to their father favouring them over the rest of the brothers. Hence he was oppressed by the one who desired him due to her base desires and her corrupt objective. preferring the punishment of this world rather than the Displeasure of Allah (in the Hereafter). Yiisuf was tried by the one who invited him to an indecent deed and attempted to seduce him. and his being sold as a slave by the ones who took him to the land of the disbelievers. lest they arrange a plot against you. then his becoming captive and owned without his choice. and his subsequently being owned by these disbelieving people. and its happiness or sadness lay in his accepting or rejecting the temptation. which is why Ya'qub said to Yusuf.D j SEA S E S () F THE H EAR T . Then after being oppressed.""N l) T H I. o my son! Relate not your vision to your brothers. and she sought aid from anyone who would help her in this but he was preserved from this. This forced him to seek refuge in the prison 104 . He was also oppressed by those who hated him with a hatred that led to his being thrown in the well. Indeed! Satan is an open enemy to man! [Jurah Yusuf (12):51 They went on to oppress him by discussing his murder and throwing him in the well. Instead he chose to be imprisoned rather than perform this indecent deed. So this love with which she desired him arose as a result of her succumbing to the vain desires of her heart.. therefore these people removed him from the absolute freedom that he enjoyed to becoming forced into slavery to the false worshippers.

for only 105 .just as was done by the Muhdjiritn in their choosing to leave their settlements rather than leave their religion for which they were harmed and punished. and if one were not to be patient at the these then he would take to the way of mere animals. His patience on this occasion arose out of his own coupled with his fear of Allah. transgression and disobedience is sought from him . thus differing from his at their oppression.and if he were not to accept this then he would be harmed and punished . thereby making his trial greater. The Prophet (~ was harmed in a number of different ways but he Was patient through-out this with a patience that arose out of his own volition. then surely Allah makes not the reward of the doers of good to be lost. and is patient. So this patience of his was greater than the patience of Yusuf.even if it results in imprisonment or banishment from his land .[2.6 B/amewort~yjea/ou!)} out of his OWn free will. is the more excellent of the two. and indeed he was harmed in this way only that he may do what he did out of his own choice. [5urah YiiJuj (12):90J Likewise when the believer is harmed due to his faith. arising from one's free will. and disbelief.then he should choose this harm and punishment over renegading from his religion . This is why Allah said. which was having patience at the calamities. volition patience onset of likes of This second type of patience. Indeed he who fears Allah.

So what befell the believers came about as a result of their choosing obedience to Allah and His Messenger and it was not from the afflictions that occur without the servant's choice of the type that Yiisuf Was tried with. Then all of them emigrated secretly except for 'Umar bin al-Khartab and those like him.rar gave him the pledge of the allegiance and when the polytheists came to know of this they tried to prevent him from leaving (for Madinah) and tried to detain him and his Companions. As for the person who is tried and harmed for choosing obedience to Allah. So this patience endured by the believers was the nobler of the two types of patience. and his sins will be expiated. Allah. and when they did not do this . Then when Abu Talib died they became more severe against him. and when the An. This. said. and he was only punished by imprisonment when he did not comply.the least of which was imprisonment. for the polytheists imprisoned him and Bani Hashim for a time ina mountain pass. But disbelief was sought from the Prophet (~and his Companions. and its possessors are greater with respect to ranking.then they were punished by being sIaughtered and other such harms . and neither of the type of his being separated from his father. the Most High. then he will be rewarded for the actual trial and it shall be written as a righteous action for him. 106 . even though the one who is tried without his will shall be rewarded for his patience and his contentment with the decree of Allah.DISEASES OF THE HEART AND THEIR CURES an indecent action was sought from Yusuf.

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