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A Mid-Term Project Report Submitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Technology Under Biju Pattnaik University of Technology Project ID: 11079 Submitted By

SUBHASH KUMAR PASHUPATI JHA

Roll No. # CSE200833392 Roll No. # CSE200833397

2010 – 2011

Under the guidance of

Mr. Sourav Pramanik

**NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
**

PALUR HILLS, BERHAMPUR– 761008, ODISHA, INDIA

i. ABSTRACT

Generic face recognition systems identify a subject by comparing the subject’s image to images in an existing face database. These systems are very useful in forensics for criminal identification and in security for biometric authentication, but are constrained by the availability and quality of subject images. In this project, we will propose a novel system, that uses descriptive non-visual human input of facial features to perform face recognition without the need for a reference image for comparison. Our maps images in an existing database to a fourteen dimensional descriptive feature space and compares input feature descriptions to images in feature space. Our system clusters database images in feature space using feature-weighted K-Means clustering to offer computational speedup while searching feature space for matching images. We are working in MATLAB environment. Our system has four modules: 1: Convert Descriptive Features to numeric data. 2: Extract 14 features from each face image from face database. 3: Compare input features with extracted features of a face. 4: Display the best match image.

SUBHASH KUMAR PASHUPATI JHA . Lastly.I. We still seek his blessings to proceed further. N.I. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is our proud privilege to epitomize our deepest sense of gratitude and indebtedness to our guide. and selfless inspiration has always helped us to move ahead. B. Dean. SOURAV PRAMANIK for his valuable guidance.T and Prof.T. Sangram Mudali. Mr. Their continued derive for better quality in everything that happens at N.S. keen support. His inspiring assistance and affectionate care enabled us to complete our work smoothly and successfully.ii. N. We can never forget to thanks our family and friends for taking the pain of helping us and understanding us at any hour of time during the completion of the project. Ajit Kumar Panda.S. SWADHIN MISHRA.T.I. Director. encouraging attitude and constant inspiration rendered by Dr. We are also thankful to Mr. intuitive ideas and persistent endeavor.S. We acknowledge with immense pleasure the interest. we bow our gratitude at the omnipresent Almighty for all his kindness.Tech Project Coordinator for giving us valuable time and support during the presentation of the project.

........................iii..............3 Learning of ANNS............... REFERENCES ........................10 2...............5 Neural Network:.............................13 2.....3................15 2....5.....5....2 Linguistic variables..........................................................................................................................3 Example.................................2..................................................16 8..1 Learning with a teacher:....... TABLE OF CONTENTS 2..5............................2..............................................22 iv............2 Learning without a teacher:.......... LIST OF FIGURES .............15 2...........3....................11 2.............................................................

We will implement all these in MATLAB programming language. User input. the color of the skin. These semantic descriptions.[3].1. given a description of the face as an input. The seven discretized geometric features combine with the seven descriptive features to form a composite fourteen dimensional feature set for our system. in the form of facial descriptions. We will identify the possible facial features that may lead to better recognition[5] while coming to our present feature set. to check for matches. most systems that have been developed in the past are constrained by images being the primary. Users may utilize this system to identify images by just entering general descriptions. The face identification problem is one of accepting or rejecting a person’s claimed identity by searching an existing face database to validate input data. Thereafter. A set of prospective matches is then identified and returned. . Our system uses general facial descriptions as input to retrieve images from a database. In cases where images are not available as sample input. and often singular. the input description is compared to the three closest clusters of images in feature space iteratively.it not possible for such systems to perform face recognition. However. Similar images are clustered in feature space using weighted K-means clustering. Our approach draws inspiration from the fact that humans describe faces using abstract and often subjective feature measures such as the shape of a face. Our system will formalize subjective human descriptions into discrete feature values and associates seven descriptive and seven geometric features to face images. directly maps to the fourteen dimensional descriptive feature space. removing the constraint of input images for face recognition and identification purposes. hair color etc. 5 . form of input data. Many databases for face identification and recognition have been built and are now widely used. supplied by humans are immune to picture quality and other effects that reduce the efficiency of contemporary face recognition and identification algorithms. INTRODUCTION The face recognition problem involves searching an existing face database for a face.

The author proposed collecting facial profiles as curves. and then classifying other profiles by their deviations from the norm. security monitoring. and surveillance system. resulting in a vector of independent measures that could be compared with other vectors in a database. his/her face that draws our attention most. Mug shots searching. Progress has advanced to the point that face recognition systems are being demonstrated in real-world settings [2]. A formal method of classifying faces was first proposed in [5]. For that reason face recognition has been an important research problem spanning numerous fields and disciplines. LITERATURE REVIEW For every unknown person. So face is the most important visual identity of a human being. The rapid development of face recognition is due to a combination of factors: active development of algorithms. identifying one or more persons in the scene by using a stored database of faces [1]. finding their norm. This because face recognition. and a method for evaluating the performance of face recognition algorithms. Training the face recognition system with images from of the face recognition systems. the known individuals and classifying the newly coming test images into one of the classes is the main aspect 6 .2. The problem is mainly a classification problem. i.e. The problem of face recognition can be stated as follows: Given still images or video of a scene. is a fundamental human behaviour that is essential for effective communications and interactions among people. access control. This classification is multi-modal. in additional to having numerous practical applications such as bankcard identification. the availability of a large databases of facial images.

Neural Networks.2. 7 . and principal component. Neural Networks: The attractiveness of using neural networks could be due to its non linearity in the network. But it is not used for more number of persons. and used face and voice. Template Matching. neural network approaches encounter problems when the number of classes (i. 1.Loève expansion. eigenvector. Face Recognition Technique: There are lots of techniques for face recognition. There is substantial related work in multimodal biometrics. Eigenfaces: Eigenface is one of the most thoroughly investigated approaches to face recognition. 5. The weights describing each face are obtained by projecting the face image onto the eigenpicture. 2. they are not suitable for a single model image recognition test because multiple model images per person are necessary in order for training the systems to “optimal” parameter setting. 3. individuals) increases. If the number of persons increases. It is also known as Karhunen. Hidden Markov Model. 6. Hence. For example used face and fingerprint in multimodal biometric identification. Dynamic Link Architecture.. use of the face and ear in combination seems more relevant to surveillance applications 2. The way in constructing a neural network structure is crucial for successful recognition. However. These are: 1. References [2.1. the computing expense will become more demanding. Eigenfaces (Eigenfeatures). Feature Based Matching. One of the first artificial neural networks (ANN) techniques used for face recognition is a single layer adaptive network called WISARD which contains a separate network for each stored individual . They argued that any face images could be approximately reconstructed by a small collection of weights for each face and a standard face picture (eigenpicture). Moreover. 3] used principal component analysis to efficiently represent pictures of faces. eigenpicture. 4.e. the feature extraction step may be more efficient than the eigenface methods. In general.

however. Feature based matching. etc. nose. such as eyes and eyebrows. mouth.3. 5. and the shape of face outline. Dynamic link architecture is an extension to classical artificial neural networks. The overall configuration can be described by a vector representing the position and size of the main facial features. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs): Stochastic modeling of non stationary vector time series based on (HMM) has been very successful for speech applications. In general. Reference presented a dynamic link structure for distortion invariant object recognition which employed elastic graph matching to find the closest stored graph. Reference [3] applied this method to human face recognition. mouth. the matching process is computationally expensive. whose vertices are labeled with a multi-resolution description in terms of a local power spectrum and whose edges are labeled with geometrical distance vectors. which can be associated with the states of a hidden Markov model. Geometrical feature matching techniques are based on the computation of a set of geometrical features from the picture of a face. the images should be converted into either 1D temporal sequences or 1D spatial sequences. Object recognition can be formulated as elastic graph matching which is performed by stochastic optimization of a matching cost function. Since HMMs require a one-dimensional observation sequence and images are two dimensional. 8 . implies that the overall geometrical configuration of the face features is sufficient for recognition. dynamic link architecture is superior to other face recognition techniques in terms of rotation invariance. Memorized objects are represented by sparse graphs. Faces were intuitively divided into regions such as the eyes.. Graph Matching: Graph matching is another approach to face recognition. 4. The fact that face recognition is possible even at coarse resolution as low as 8x6 pixels [5] when the single facial features are hardly revealed in detail. nose.

where binary sets have two valued logic true or false. fuzzy logic variables may have a truth value that ranges in degree between 0 and 1. Fuzzy logic has been extended to handle the concept of partial truth. it still remains controversial among most statisticians. One can use more than one face template from different viewpoints to represent an individual's face. such as the Euclidean distance. In general. There are several other more sophisticated versions of template matching on face recognition. However. Template Matching A simple version of template matching is that a test image represented as a twodimensional array of intensity values is compared using a suitable metric. who 9 . it will be dependent on the accuracy of the feature location algorithms. from control theory to artificial intelligence. Furthermore. Current automated face feature location algorithms do not provide a high degree of accuracy and require considerable computational time.2 Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic. Fuzzy logic began with the 1965 proposal of fuzzy set theory by Lotfi Zadeh. these degrees may be managed by specific functions. especially in the wide range of environments encountered in real world. In contrast with traditional logic theory. In summary.geometrical feature matching based on precisely measured distances between features may be most useful for finding possible matches in a large database such as a Mug shot album. where the truth value may range between completely true and completely false. 6. 2. Though fuzzy logic has been applied to many fields. with a single template representing the whole face. no existing technique is free from limitations. when linguistic variables are used. it deals with reasoning that is approximate rather than fixed and exact. Further efforts are required to improve the performances of face recognition techniques. template-based approaches compared to feature matching are a more logical approach.

while probabilistic logic corresponds to "probability. the non-numeric linguistic variables are often used to facilitate the expression of rules and facts. as these differ. 2. Then we may consider two concepts: Empty and Full. It is essential to realize that fuzzy logic uses truth degrees as a mathematical model of the vagueness phenomenon while probability is a mathematical model of ignorance.prefer Bayesian logic.2. fuzzy logic and probabilistic logic yield different models of the same real-world situations.2 Linguistic variables While variables in mathematics usually take numerical values. let a 100 ml glass contain 30 ml of water. However. the great utility of linguistic variables is that they can be modified via linguistic hedges applied to primary terms. Fuzzy logic corresponds to "degrees of truth". Then one might define the glass as being 0.7 empty and 0. For example. The linguistic hedges can be associated with certain functions.1 Degrees of truth: Fuzzy logic and probabilistic logic are mathematically similar – both have truth values ranging between 0 and 1 – but conceptually distinct. Both degrees of truth and probabilities range between 0 and 1 and hence may seem similar at first. likelihood".2. in fuzzy logic applications. Another designer might equally well design a set membership function where the glass would be considered full for all values down to 50 ml. and some control engineers. due to different interpretations. The same could be achieved using probabilistic methods. 10 . Note that the concept of emptiness would be subjective and thus would depend on the observer or designer.3 full.[4] A linguistic variable such as age may have a value such as young or its antonym old. The meaning of each of them can be represented by a certain fuzzy set. There is no consensus on which method should be preferred in a specific situation 2. by defining a binary variable "full" that depends on a continuous variable that describes how full the glass is. who prefer traditional two-valued logic.

and expressing the data in such a way as to highlight their similarities and differences. For this reason. What is it? It is a way of identifying patterns in data. such as fuzzy associative matrices. Since patterns in data can be hard to find in data of high dimension. where the luxury of graphical representation is not available. 2. Step 5: Choosing components and forming a feature vector Step 6: Deriving the new data set: 11 .3 Principal Components Analysis Finally we come to Principal Components Analysis (PCA).3.e. Rules are usually expressed in the form: IF variable IS property THEN action 2.3 Example Fuzzy set theory defines fuzzy operators on fuzzy sets. This technique used in image compression. PCA is a powerful tool for analyzing data. without much loss of information. and you compress the data. The other main advantage of PCA is that once you have found these patterns in the data. by reducing the number of dimensions. fuzzy logic usually uses IF-THEN rules. The problem in applying this is that the appropriate fuzzy operator may not be known. or constructs that are equivalent.1 Method Step 1: Get some data Step 2: Subtract the mean Step 3: Calculate the covariance matrix Step 4: Calculate the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix.2.2. as we will see in a later section. i.

A.2.1: flow chart for k-means clustering. Begin with a decision on the value of k = number of clusters 12 . Here is step by step k means clustering algorithm: Figure 2. Macqueen (1967) and then by J. A. Simply speaking k-means clustering is an algorithm to classify or to group your objects based on attributes/features into K number of group. The grouping is done by minimizing the sum of squares of distances between data and the corresponding cluster centroid. The problem now is to determine which medicines belong to cluster 1 and which medicines belong to the other cluster. Wong around 1975. Thus the purpose of K-mean clustering is to classify the data. We also know beforehand that these objects belong to two groups of medicine (cluster 1 and cluster 2). Step 1. Hartigan and M. K is positive integer number.4 K MEANS CLUSTERING K-Mean Clustering K-Mean Clustering K means clustering algorithm was developed by J.

Assign each of the remaining (N-k) training samples to the cluster with the nearest centroid. The use of neural networks (NN) in faces has addressed several problems: gender classification. Repeat step 3 until convergence is achieved. face recognition and classification of facial expressions. Take the first k training sample as single-element clusters 2. or systematically as the following: 1. 2. Step 3.5 Neural Network: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a powerful tool for pattern recognition problems. It 13 . we calculate the distance to all centroid and get the minimum distance. that is until a pass through the training sample causes no new assignments. If the number of data is bigger than the number of cluster. accurate recall was reported even when input image is very noisy or when portions of the images are missing. If the number of data is less than the number of cluster then we assign each data as the centroid of the cluster. A system named Wilke. Aleksander and Stonham's recognition devise (WISARD) was devised.5. If a sample is not currently in the cluster with the closest centroid. This data is said belong to the cluster that has minimum distance from this data. expression analysis and face verification was reported in [53]. switch this sample to that cluster and update the centroid of the cluster gaining the new sample and the cluster losing the sample. Take each sample in sequence and compute its distance from the centroid of each of the clusters. 2.1 Single Layer adaptive NN: A single layer adaptive NN (one for each person) for face recognition. A few NN based face recognition techniques are discussed in the following. After each assignment. for each data. You may assign the training samples randomly. recomputed the centroid of the gaining cluster.Step 2. Put any initial partition that classifies the data into k clusters. Each centroid will have a cluster number. Using a small set of face images. Step 4. One of the earliest demonstrations of NN for face recall applications is reported in Kohonen's associative map [52].

Figure 2. 2. this network is strictly a feed forward or acyclic type .Such a network is called single layered network. One classifier was constructed corresponding to one subject in the database.5. The resulting representation was classified using a standard multilayer perceptron (MLP). The function of hidden neurons is inter 14 .2 Network Architecture. 2. In other words. In [33] the first 50 principal components of the images were extracted and reduced to five dimensions using auto associative neural network. In this simplest form of a layered network. 2). but not vise-versa.2 : Basic structure of Artificial Neural Network.5. Classification was achieved by determining the classifier that was giving the highest response for the given input image. we have an input layer of source nodes those projects on to an output layer of neurons.needs typically 200-400 presentations for training each classifier where the training patterns included translation and variation in facial expressions. Multilayer feed forward networks: The second class of the feed forward neuron network distinguishes itself by one or more hidden layers. whose computation nodes are correspondingly called neurons or units. with designation “single later” referring to the o/p layer of neurons.2 Multilayer Perceptron (MLP): Much of the present literature on face recognition with neural networks present results with only a small number of classes (often below 20). Single layer feedforword networks: In this layered neural network the neurons are organized in the form of layers. 1).

3 Learning of ANNS The property that is of primary significance for a neural network is the ability of the network to learn from environment.venue between the external i/p and the network o/p in some useful manner. and to improve its performance through learning.5. A neural network learns about its environment through an interactive process of adjustment applied to its synaptic weights and bias levels. which gives actual network response. 2. As shown in figures output of the neurons is fed back into its own inputs is referred as self-feedback .5. 15 .1 Learning with a teacher: 1). Network becomes more knowledgeable about its environment after each iteration of the learning process. 3). Network may have hidden layers or not.e. 2.3. output layer. Recurrent networks: A recurrent network distinguishes itself from feed forward neural network. Supervised learning: the learning process in which the teacher teaches the network by giving the network the knowledge of environment in the form of sets of the inputs-outputs pre-calculated examples. Neural network response to inputs is observed and compared with the predefined output. The i/p vectors are feedforward to 1st hidden layer and this pass to 2nd hidden layer and so on until the last layer i. The difference is calculated refer as “error signal” and that is feed back to input layers neurons along with the inputs to reduce the error to get the perfect response of the network as per the predefined outputs. The ability of hidden neurons is to extract higher order statistics is particularly valuable when the size of i/p layer is large. in that it has least one feed forward loop.A recurrent network may consist of a single layer of neurons with each neuron feeding its output signal back to the inputs of all the other neurons.

3. Reinforcement learning is usually involved in exploring a new environment when some knowledge( or subjective feeling) about the right response to environmental inputs is available. because no information on way the right output should be provided. 16 . Reinforcement learning In reinforcement learning.2. 1). it developes the ability to form internal representation for encoding features of the input and there by to create the new class automatically. The system receives an input from the environment and process an output as response. Rather provision is made for a task independent measure of the quality of the representation that the network is required to learn and the free parameters of the network are optimized with respect to that measure. it receives a reward or a penalty from the environment. 2). in unsupervised learning. Unsupervised learning: in unsupervised or self-organized learning there is no external teacher or critic to over see the learning process.2 Learning without a teacher: Unlike supervised learning. the learning of an input output mapping is performed through continued interaction with environment in order to minimize a scalar index of performance. In reinforcement learning. The system learns from a sequence of such interactions. Subsequently. the learning process takes place without teacher that is there are no examples of the functions to be learned by the network. Once the network has become tuned to the statistical regularities of the input data. the system must employ some random search strategy so that the space of plausible and rational choices is searched until a correct answer is found.5.

missing true edges. Classical methods of edge detection involve convolving the image with an operator (a 2-D filter). high computational time and problems due to noise etc. there are problems of false edge detection. Not all edges involve a step change in intensity. There are an extremely large number of edge detection operators available. vertical. So. Edge detection is difficult in noisy images. Operators can be optimized to look for horizontal. so they can average enough data to discount localized noisy pixels. This results in less accurate localization of the detected edges. which is constructed to be sensitive to large gradients in the image while returning values of zero in uniform regions. The operator needs to be chosen to be responsive to such a gradual change in those cases. Attempts to reduce the noise result in blurred and distorted edges. the objective is to do the comparison of various edge detection techniques and analyze the performance of the various techniques in different conditions. since both the noise and the edges contain high frequency content. Therefore. Effects such as refraction or poor focus can result in objects with boundaries defined by a gradual change in intensity [1]. Variables involved in the selection of an edge detection operator include Edge orientation. the majority of different methods may be grouped into two categories: 17 . Operators used on noisy images are typically larger in scope. The geometry of the operator determines a characteristic direction in which it is most sensitive to edges.2. each designed to be sensitive to certain types of edges. edge localization. or diagonal edges. There are many ways to perform edge detection. The discontinuities are abrupt changes in pixel intensity which characterize boundaries of objects in a scene. Noise environment and Edge structure. However.6 EDGE DETECTION: Edge detection refers to the process of identifying and locating sharp discontinuities in an image.

Figure 2.1Gradient based Edge Detection: The gradient method detects the edges by looking for the maximum and minimum in the first derivative of the image. with an edge shown by the jump in intensity below: . with an edge shown by the jump in intensity below: Suppose we have the following signal. 18 .3: Edge detection process 2. Suppose we have the following signal.6.6. An edge has the one-dimensional shape of a ramp and calculating the derivative of the image can highlight its location.2 Laplacian based Edge Detection: The Laplacian method searches for zero crossings in the second derivative of the image to find edges. 6.

19 .2.7FEATURE EXTRACTION When the input data to an algorithm is too large to be processed and it is suspected to be notoriously redundant (much data. but not much information) then the input data will be transformed into a reduced representation set of features (also named features vector). Transforming the input data into the set of features is called feature extraction. If the features extracted are carefully chosen it is expected that the features set will extract the relevant information from the input data in order to perform the desired task using this reduced representation instead of the full size input.

edge detection using different operator etc. basically our project requires good knowledge on MATLAB so in order to fulfill the requirement of the project we have worked sincerely on MATLAB and learned various activities on it such as how to read or a picture. In this way we have understand the use of MATLAB in the field of Digital Image Processing. masking. convert it to one form to another form. For our project followings are the concept that we gone through: i) Artificial Neural Network ii) Fuzzy Logic iii) K-means clustering iv) Future extraction v) Edge Detection 20 . EXISTING WORK 3EXISTING WORK In the initial stage of our project we have studied various books based on our project. sampling.3.

since the available data often consists of witness' descriptions. 21 . We believe that this could yield good results for other data types as well. specially where direct pattern recognition is either infeasible or yields unsatisfactory results. In general. FUTURE WORK We believe that our approach will be of great use for forensic face recognition and criminal identification systems which require descriptive input semantics. our method of searching for data using descriptive semantics could combine with existing automated face recognition systems and augment them. the use of descriptive input features allows for input data to bear different semantics than the data being searched for. Adler et al concluded in 2006 that humans effectively utilize contextual information while recognizing faces.3. In addition. This could help improve our face recognition method by obtaining qualitatively better user input as well as improving our recognition performance. and in general equal or outperform even the best automated systems. Extensions to our work could include the annotation of contextual data to images using the descriptive semantic method.

Face databases. 2007}. [2] Sherrie L. Schuckers. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. pp..Oct. Part B.} [3] Ralph Gross. Kirby and L. Series C. 2001. “Application of the Karhunen. Sirovich. A k-means clustering algorithm.5:475{491. 12. A. applied statistics. Dec.1990. REFERENCES [1] A. A. Comparing human and automatic face recognition performance. Man. Adler and M. Issue . and Cybernetics. vol. 28:100{108.E. Systems.25.1979. Applied statistics . February 2005. Eyewitness identification in actual criminal cases: An archival analysis.8.. Hartigan J. 831-835. [5] M. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 22 . [4] Wong M. Behrman. Law and Human Behavior .Loève procedure for the characterization of human faces. Davey Bruce W. IEEE Transactions on . 37(5):1248{1255.” IEEE Trans.

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