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2595-2600 © Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm
Impact Analysis of Mini BAJA Vehicle Roll Cage using Finite Element Analysis
Yashvir Singh1*, Nishant Kr. Singh2 and Puneet Mangla3
Hindustan College of Science and Technology, Mathura, U.P., India *Corresponding Author E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract The objective of this research work is the prediction of fatigue life span and durability loading of the chassis frame of Mini BAJA vehicle. The Mini BAJA Vehicle is an off-road race vehicle powered by a small gasoline engine. As is such the combination frame and roll cage must be equally strong and light. In an effort to fulfill the rules set down by the governing body and ensure proper integration, strength, and weight minimization; it is imperative to properly analyze the material properties and geometry as well as the overall design geometry. Thus, fatigue study and life prediction on the chassis is necessary in order to verify the safety of this chassis during its operation. Stress analysis using Finite Element Method (FEM) can be used to locate the critical point which has the highest stress. This critical point is one of the factors that may cause the fatigue failure. The magnitude of the stress can used to predict the life span of the vehicle chassis. Keywords: Stress analysis, Finite Element Method, Vehicle Chassis
Mini BAJA is a collegiate competition sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The objective is for a team of students to design, fabricate and race an off-road vehicle powered by a ten horsepower Briggs and Stratton gasoline engine. The vehicle is required to have a combination frame and roll cage consisting of steel members. As weight is critical in a vehicle powered by a small engine, a balance must be found between the strength and weight of the design. To best optimize this balance the use of solid modeling and finite element analysis (FEA) software is extremely useful in addition to conventional analysis.
maintenance of center of gravity. R. taking into account the aspects relative to the economical viability of an initial small scale production. Model of chassis The model of the chassis is drawn with the help of solid works.A. The model is depicted in figure 1. . G. and structural analysis and design modifications. the SAE rules committee was contacted to ensure compliance. This review included not only the letter of the guideline but also a discussion of the intent. Structural optimization of automotive components applied to durability problems has been investigated by W. total weight of structure and simpler geometry for reduction of production cost. The material of chassis is AISI 1018 Mild Steel which is class of carbon steel with 386 MPa of yield strength and 634 MPa of tensile strength. as well as the interaction between the frame design and other factors.24 m. such as drivetrain. In any cases in which the clarity or meaning of a rule was in doubt. and driver safety and restraint. initial design. Analysis of chassis Design constraints The design of the Mini BAJA frame is defined by the design safety rules set out by the SAE. The model has length of 2. First. The other properties of chassis material are tabulated in Table 1. Ye et al  have investigated the static and fatigue behavior of aluminium box stiffener/ web frame connections using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to provide a connection solution that can reduce the fabrication costs by changing the cutting shapes on the web frame and correspondingly the weld process meanwhile sufficient fatigue strength can be achieved. These rules are updated yearly to address new safety concerns. F. They also define the specific requirements of the frame geometry. It is important that the reader understand that these constraints were in place during the design of the vehicle frame. material selection. It will cover the design constraints required by SAE. suspension. A thorough review of the design and rules were made at the end of the design stage before fabrication. Ferreira et al . R. Fermér and H. The requirements were referenced when making decisions regarding the material selection. The design of an off-road vehicle chassis has optimized by increasing the torsional stiffness. Fermer et al  investigated the fatigue life of Volvo S80 Bi-Fuel using MSC/Fatigue. M. Conle et al  did research about fatigue analysis and the local stress-strain approach in complex vehicular structures. Filho et al  have investigated and optimized a chassis design for an off road vehicle with the appropriate dynamic and structural behavior. These rules define the frame design in two ways. P. Svensson  studied on industrial experiences of FE-based fatigue life predictions of welded automotive structures. The following paper outlines the design and analysis of the Northeastern Mini BAJA vehicle’s frame design. design geometry and any additional modifications to the design. N.35 m and width of 1. the rules set specific requirements on the building material’s material type and geometry.2596 Yashvir Singh et al M.
. the maximum force is 5500 N. For this model. The load is assumed as a uniform pressure obtained from the maximum loaded weight divided by the total contact area from the front and the rear side.Impact Analysis of Mini BAJA Vehicle Roll Cage Table 1: Properties of chassis material Properties Elastic modulus (Pa) Density (Kg/m3) Poisson’s ratio Tensile strength (Mpa) Yield strength (Mpa) Value 210 x 109 8030 0. Detail loading of model is shown in Figure 2 and 3. In both the cases.3 634 386 2597 Figure 1: Model of chassis Loading The chassis model is analyzed for the effect of impact forces from the front and the rear portion of the vehicle. when force is applied the degree of freedom have to be fixed in opposite direction. Figure 2: Impact force from front side.
Figure 4: Axial displacement plot during front impact loading Figure 5: Lateral displacement plot during front impact loading . The stress magnitude of critical point is 50 MPa. The maximum stress occurs at the side of the vehicle near the driver’s cabin.3 mm. The figure 6 shows the maximum Von Misses stress. The value of maximum lateral displacement will be 1. the value of maximum displacement will be 2. The figure 5 shows the lateral displacement of the bars of the chassis. During the front impact analysis.2598 Yashvir Singh et al Figure 3: Impact force from rear side Results and discussions Front impact force analysis The figure 4 shows the maximum axial displacement.7 mm.
The maximum stress occurs at the rear side of the vehicle where engine will be placed. the value of maximum displacement will be 5. The figure 9 shows the maximum Von Misses stress. The figure 8 shows the lateral displacement of the bars of the chassis. Figure 7: Axial displacement plot during rear impact loading Figure 8: Lateral displacement plot during rear impact loading . During the rear impact analysis. The value of maximum lateral displacement will be 2.7 mm.5 mm. The stress magnitude of critical point is 100 MPa.Impact Analysis of Mini BAJA Vehicle Roll Cage 2599 Figure 6: Maximum Von Stress plot during front impact loading Rear impact force analysis The figure 7 shows the maximum axial displacement.
Fermér and H. November 18 – 20.  N. Leal. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures 24 (7). . Fatigue Analysis and the Local Stress-strain Approach in Complex Vehicular Structures. Svensson. Sao Paulo. it is important to take note to reduce stress magnitude at this point. References  M. Brasil. Kaeya. Conle and C. International Journal of Fatigue 29 (2007) 1426–1433. P. Filho. International journal of fatigue. September. Ye and T. Sandin. C. C.  M. R. Germany. Fatigue Life Analysis of Volvo S80 BiFuel using MSC/Fatigue. Industrial Experiences of FE-based Fatigue Life Predictions of Welded Automotive Structures. Borges. Martins. 12th International Mobility Technology Congress and Exhibition. F. it can be concluded that this critical point is an initial to probable failure.2600 Yashvir Singh et al Figure 9: Maximum Von Stress plot during rear impact loading Conclusion Numerical simulation result shows that the critical point of stress occurred at side of the chassis during front loading and at rear side near the place where engine is placed.  W. Salloum. T. Thus. 1999. J. Kameoka. Worldwide MSC Automotive Conference. 2003. 2001. G. A.  R. S.  F. McInally and G. Automotive Frame Optimization. Static and Fatigue Analysis of Three Types of Aluminium Box. F. and J. Moan. M. 489–500. Chu. G.de F. SAE Technical Papers. Structural Optimization of Automotive Components Applied to Durability Problems.-C. Since fatigue failure started from the highest stress point. Fermer. The magnitude of highest stress is critical because the value of SF is below than the recommended value. Rezende. A. 1997. 2003. A. J. Ferreira. S.Stiffener/Web Frame Connections.
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