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1he 8evlsed 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure

(LffecLlve uecember 1 2000)



8ead Lhe 1983 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure As Amended
1PL 8LvlSLu 8uLLS Cl C8lMlnAL 8CCLuu8L

(8uLLS 110 127 8uLLS Cl CCu81)
LffecLlve uecember 1 2000
8uLL 110 8CSLCu1lCn Cl CllLnSLS
SecLlon 1 lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal acLlons Crlmlnal acLlons shall be lnsLlLuLed as follows
(a) lor offenses where a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls requlred pursuanL Lo secLlon 1 of 8ule 112 by
flllng Lhe complalnL wlLh Lhe proper offlcer for Lhe purpose of conducLlng Lhe requlslLe prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon
(b) lor all oLher offenses by flllng Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon dlrecLly wlLh Lhe Munlclpal 1rlal
CourLs and Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourLs or Lhe complalnL wlLh Lhe offlce of Lhe prosecuLor ln
Manlla and oLher charLered clLles Lhe complalnLs shall be flled wlLh Lhe offlce of Lhe prosecuLor
unless oLherwlse provlded ln Lhelr charLers

1he lnsLlLuLlon of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon shall lnLerrupL Lhe runnlng of Lhe perlod of prescrlpLlon of Lhe
offense charged unless oLherwlse provlded ln speclal laws
Sec 2 1he complalnL or lnformaLlon 1he complalnL or lnformaLlon shall be ln wrlLlng ln Lhe
name of Lhe eople of Lhe hlllpplnes and agalnsL all persons who appear Lo be responslble for Lhe
offense lnvolved

Sec 3 ComplalnL deflned A complalnL ls a sworn wrlLLen sLaLemenL charglng a person wlLh an
offense subscrlbed by Lhe offended parLy any peace offlcer or oLher publlc offlcer charged wlLh Lhe
enforcemenL of Lhe law vlolaLed

Sec 4 lnformaLlon deflned An lnformaLlon ls an accusaLlon ln wrlLlng charglng a person wlLh an
offense subscrlbed by Lhe prosecuLor and flled wlLh Lhe courL

Sec 3 Who musL prosecuLe crlmlnal acLlons All crlmlnal acLlons commenced by a complalnL or
lnformaLlon shall be prosecuLed under Lhe dlrecLlon and conLrol of Lhe prosecuLor Powever ln
Munlclpal 1rlal CourLs or Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourLs when Lhe prosecuLor asslgned LhereLo or Lo
Lhe case ls noL avallable Lhe offended parLy any peace offlcer or publlc offlcer charged wlLh Lhe
enforcemenL of Lhe law vlolaLed may prosecuLe Lhe case 1hls auLhorlLy shall cease upon acLual
lnLervenLlon of Lhe prosecuLor or upon elevaLlon of Lhe case Lo Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL(8ead AM
nC 02207SC LffecLlve May 01 2002 LaLesL AmendmenLs Lo SecLlon 3 8ule 110 of Lhe 8evlsed
8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure whlch provldes SecLlon 3 Who musL prosecuLe crlmlnal acLlon All
crlmlnal acLlons elLher commenced by complalnL or by lnformaLlon shall be prosecuLed under Lhe
dlrecLlon and conLrol of a publlc prosecuLor ln case of heavy work schedule of Lhe publlc prosecuLor
or ln Lhe evenL of lack of publlc prosecuLors Lhe prlvaLe prosecuLor may be auLhorlzed ln wrlLlng by
Lhe Chlef of Lhe rosecuLlon Cfflce or Lhe 8eglonal SLaLe rosecuLor Lo prosecuLe Lhe case sub[ecL Lo
Lhe approval of Lhe courL Cnce so auLhorlzed Lo prosecuLe Lhe crlmlnal acLlon Lhe prlvaLe
prosecuLor shall conLlnue Lo prosecuLe Lhe case up Lo end of Lhe Lrlal even ln Lhe absence of a publlc
prosecuLor unless Lhe auLhorlLy ls revoked or oLherwlse wlLhdrawn x x x )

1he crlmes of adulLery and concublnage shall noL be prosecuLed excepL upon a complalnL flled by
Lhe offended spouse 1he offended parLy cannoL lnsLlLuLe crlmlnal prosecuLlon wlLhouL lncludlng Lhe
gullLy parLles lf boLh are allve nor ln any case lf Lhe offended parLy has consenLed Lo Lhe offense or
pardoned Lhe offenders

1he offenses of seducLlon abducLlon and acLs of lasclvlousness shall noL be prosecuLed upon a
complalnL flled by Lhe offended parLy of her parenLs grandparenLs or guardlan nor ln any case lf
Lhe offender has been expressly pardoned by any of Lhem lf Lhe offended parLy dles or becomes
lncapaclLaLed before she can flle Lhe complalnL and she has no known parenLs grandparenLs or
guardlan Lhe SLaLe shall lnlLlaLe Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ln her behalfchan robles vlrLual law llbrary

1he offended parLy even lf a mlnor has Lhe rlghL Lo lnlLlaLe Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe offenses of
seducLlon abducLlon and acLs of lasclvlousness lndependenLly of her parenLs grandparenLs or
guardlan unless she ls lncompeLenL or lncapable of dolng so Where Lhe offended parLy who ls a
mlnor falls Lo flle Lhe complalnL her parenLs grandparenLs or guardlan may flle Lhe same 1he rlghL
Lo flle Lhe acLlon granLed Lo parenLs grandparenLs or guardlan shall be excluslve of all oLher persons
and shall be exerclsed successlvely ln Lhe order hereln provlded excepL as sLaLed ln Lhe precedlng
paragraph

no crlmlnal acLlon for defamaLlon whlch conslsLs ln Lhe lmpuLaLlon of any of Lhe offenses
menLloned above shall be broughL excepL aL Lhe lnsLance of and upon complalnL flled by Lhe
offended parLy

1he prosecuLlon for vlolaLlon of speclal laws shall be governed by Lhe provlslon Lhereof

Sec 6 Sufflclency of complalnL or lnformaLlon A complalnL or lnformaLlon ls sufflclenL lf lL sLaLes
Lhe name of Lhe accused Lhe deslgnaLlon of Lhe offense glven by Lhe sLaLuLe Lhe acLs or omlsslons
complalned of as consLlLuLlng Lhe offense Lhe name of Lhe offended parLy Lhe approxlmaLe daLe of
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense and Lhe place where Lhe offense was commlLLed

When an offense ls commlLLed by more Lhan one person all of Lhem shall be lncluded ln Lhe
complalnL or lnformaLlon

Sec 7 name of Lhe accused 1he complalnL or lnformaLlon musL sLaLe Lhe name and surname of
Lhe accused or any appellaLlon or nlckname by whlch he has been or ls known lf hls name cannoL be
ascerLalned he musL be descrlbed under a flcLlLlous name wlLh a sLaLemenL LhaL hls Lrue name ls
unknown

lf Lhe Lrue name of Lhe accused ls LhereafLer dlsclosed by hlm or appears ln some oLher manner Lo
Lhe courL such Lrue name shall be lnserLed ln Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon and record

Sec 8 ueslgnaLlon of Lhe offense 1he complalnL or lnformaLlon shall sLaLe Lhe deslgnaLlon of
Lhe offense glven by Lhe sLaLuLe aver Lhe acLs or omlsslons consLlLuLlng Lhe offense and speclfy lLs
quallfylng and aggravaLlng clrcumsLances lf Lhere ls no deslgnaLlon of Lhe offense reference shall be
made Lo Lhe secLlon or subsecLlon of Lhe sLaLuLe punlshlng lL

Sec 9 Cause of Lhe accusaLlon 1he acLs or omlsslons complalned of as consLlLuLlng Lhe offense
and Lhe quallfylng and aggravaLlng clrcumsLances musL be sLaLed ln ordlnary and conclse language
and noL necessarlly ln Lhe language used ln Lhe sLaLuLe buL ln Lerms sufflclenL Lo enable a person of
common undersLandlng Lo know whaL offense ls belng charged as well as lLs quallfylng and
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance and for Lhe courL Lo pronounce [udgmenL

Sec 10 lace of commlsslon of Lhe offense 1he complalnL or lnformaLlon ls sufflclenL lf lL can be
undersLood from lLs allegaLlons LhaL Lhe offense was commlLLed or some of lLs essenLlal lngredlenLs
occurred aL some place wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courL unless Lhe parLlcular place where lL was
commlLLed consLlLuLes an essenLlal elemenL of Lhe offense charged or ls necessary for lLs
ldenLlflcaLlon

Sec 11 uaLe of commlsslon of Lhe offense lL ls noL necessary Lo sLaLe ln Lhe complalnL or
lnformaLlon Lhe preclse daLe Lhe offense was commlLLed excepL when lL ls a maLerlal lngredlenL of
Lhe offense 1he offense may be alleged Lo have been commlLLed on a daLe as near as posslble Lo Lhe
acLual daLe of lLs commlsslon

Sec 12 name of Lhe offended parLy 1he complalnL or lnformaLlon musL sLaLe Lhe name and
surname of Lhe person agalnsL whom or agalnsL whose properLy Lhe offense was commlLLed or any
appellaLlon or nlckname by whlch such person has been or ls known lf Lhere ls no beLLer way of
ldenLlfylng hlm he musL be descrlbed under a flcLlLlous name

(a) ln offenses agalnsL properLy lf Lhe name of Lhe offended parLy ls unknown Lhe properLy musL be
descrlbed wlLh such parLlcularlLy as Lo properly ldenLlfy Lhe offense charged
(b) lf Lhe Lrue name of Lhe person agalnsL whom or agalnsL whose properLy Lhe offense was
commlLLed ls LhereafLer dlsclosed or ascerLalned Lhe courL musL cause such Lrue name Lo be
lnserLed ln Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon and Lhe record

(c) lf Lhe offended parLy ls a [urldlcal person lL ls sufflclenL Lo sLaLe lLs name or any name or
deslgnaLlon by whlch lL ls known or by whlch lL may be ldenLlfled wlLhouL need of averrlng LhaL lL ls
a [urldlcal person or LhaL lL ls organlzed ln accordance wlLh law

Sec 13 uupllclLy of Lhe offense A complalnL or lnformaLlon musL charge only one offense
excepL when Lhe law prescrlbes a slngle punlshmenL for varlous offenses
Sec 14 AmendmenL or subsLlLuLlon A complalnL or lnformaLlon may be amended ln form or ln
subsLance wlLhouL leave of courL and when lL can be done wlLhouL causlng pre[udlce Lo Lhe rlghLs of
Lhe accused

Powever any amendmenL before plea whlch downgrades Lhe naLure of Lhe offense charged ln or
excludes any accused from Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon can be made only upon moLlon by Lhe
prosecuLor wlLh noLlce Lo Lhe offended parLy and wlLh leave of courL 1he courL shall sLaLe lLs
reasons ln resolvlng Lhe moLlon and coples of lLs order shall be furnlshed all parLles especlally Lhe
offended parLy

lf lL appears aL anyLlme before [udgmenL LhaL a mlsLake has been made ln charglng Lhe proper
offense Lhe courL shall dlsmlss Lhe orlglnal complalnL or lnformaLlon upon Lhe flllng of a new one
charglng Lhe proper offense ln accordance wlLh secLlon 19 8ule 119 provlded Lhe accused shall noL
be placed ln double [eopardy 1he courL may requlre Lhe wlLnesses Lo glve ball for Lhelr appearance
aL Lhe Lrlal

Sec 13 lace where acLlon ls Lo be lnsLlLuLed (a) Sub[ecL Lo exlsLlng laws Lhe crlmlnal acLlon
shall be lnsLlLuLed and Lrled ln Lhe courL of Lhe munlclpallLy or LerrlLory where Lhe offense was
commlLLed or where any of lLs essenLlal lngredlenLs occurred

(b) Where an offense ls commlLLed ln a Lraln alrcrafL or oLher publlc or prlvaLe vehlcle ln Lhe
course of lLs Lrlp Lhe crlmlnal acLlon shall be lnsLlLuLed and Lrled ln Lhe courL of any munlclpallLy or
LerrlLory where such Lraln alrcrafL or oLher vehlcle passed durlng lLs Lrlp lncludlng Lhe place of lLs
deparLure and arrlvalchan robles vlrLual law llbrary

(c) Where an offense ls commlLLed on board a vessel ln Lhe course of lLs voyage Lhe crlmlnal
acLlon shall be lnsLlLuLed and Lrled ln Lhe courL of Lhe flrsL porL of enLry or of any munlclpallLy or
LerrlLory where Lhe vessel passed durlng such voyage sub[ecL Lo Lhe generally accepLed prlnclples of
lnLernaLlonal law

(d) Crlmes commlLLed ouLslde Lhe hlllpplnes buL punlshable under ArLlcle 2 of Lhe 8evlsed enal
Code shall be cognlzable by Lhe courL where Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ls flrsL flled

Sec 16 lnLervenLlon of Lhe offended parLy ln crlmlnal acLlon Where Lhe clvll acLlon for recovery
of clvll llablllLy ls lnsLlLuLed ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon pursuanL Lo 8ule 111 Lhe offended parLy may
lnLervene by counsel ln Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe offense


kULL 111 kCSLCU1ICN CI CIVIL AC1ICN


SecLlon 1 lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal and clvll acLlons (a) When a crlmlnal acLlon ls lnsLlLuLed Lhe
clvll acLlon for Lhe recovery of clvll llablllLy arlslng from Lhe offense charged shall be deemed
lnsLlLuLed wlLh Lhe crlmlnal acLlon unless Lhe offended parLy walves Lhe clvll acLlon reserves Lhe
rlghL Lo lnsLlLuLe lL separaLely or lnsLlLuLes Lhe clvll acLlon prlor Lo Lhe crlmlnal acLlon

1he reservaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo lnsLlLuLe separaLely Lhe clvll acLlon shall be made before Lhe
prosecuLlon sLarLs presenLlng lLs evldence and under clrcumsLances affordlng Lhe offended parLy a
reasonable opporLunlLy Lo make such reservaLlon

When Lhe offended parLy seeks Lo enforce clvll llablllLy agalnsL Lhe accused by way of moral
nomlnal LemperaLe or exemplary damages wlLhouL speclfylng Lhe amounL Lhereof ln Lhe complalnL
or lnformaLlon Lhe flllng fees Lherefore shall consLlLuLe a flrsL llen on Lhe [udgmenL awardlng such
damages

Where Lhe amounL of damages oLher Lhan acLual ls speclfled ln Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon Lhe
correspondlng flllng fees shall be pald by Lhe offended parLy upon Lhe flllng Lhereof ln courL

LxcepL as oLherwlse provlded ln Lhese 8ules no flllng fees shall be requlred for acLual damages

no counLerclalm crossclalm or LhlrdparLy complalnL may be flled by Lhe accused ln Lhe crlmlnal
case buL any cause of acLlon whlch could have been Lhe sub[ecL Lhereof may be llLlgaLed ln a
separaLe clvll acLlon

(b) 1he crlmlnal acLlon for vlolaLlon of 8aLas ambansa 8lg 22 shall be deemed Lo lnclude Lhe
correspondlng clvll acLlon no reservaLlon Lo flle such clvll acLlon separaLely shall be allowed

upon flllng of Lhe aforesald [olnL crlmlnal and clvll acLlons Lhe offended parLy shall pay ln full Lhe
flllng fees based on Lhe amounL of Lhe check lnvolved whlch shall be consldered as Lhe acLual
damages clalmed Where Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon also seeks Lo recover llquldaLed moral
nomlnal LemperaLe or exemplary damages Lhe offended parLy shall pay addlLlonal flllng fees based
on Lhe amounLs alleged Lhereln lf Lhe amounLs are noL so alleged buL any of Lhese damages are
subsequenLly awarded by Lhe courL Lhe flllng fees based on Lhe amounL awarded shall consLlLuLe a
flrsL llen on Lhe [udgmenL

Where Lhe clvll acLlon has been flled separaLely and Lrlal Lhereof has noL yeL commenced lL may
be consolldaLed wlLh Lhe crlmlnal acLlon upon appllcaLlon wlLh Lhe courL Lrylng Lhe laLLer case lf Lhe
appllcaLlon ls granLed Lhe Lrlal of boLh acLlons shall proceed ln accordance wlLh secLlon 2 of Lhls 8ule
governlng consolldaLlon of Lhe clvll and crlmlnal acLlons

Sec 2 When separaLe clvll acLlon ls suspended AfLer Lhe crlmlnal acLlon has been commenced
Lhe separaLe clvll acLlon arlslng Lherefrom cannoL be lnsLlLuLed unLll flnal [udgmenL has been enLered
ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlonchan robles vlrLual law llbrary

lf Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ls flled afLer Lhe sald clvll acLlon has already been lnsLlLuLed Lhe laLLer shall
be suspended ln whaLever sLaLe lL may be found before [udgmenL on Lhe merlLs 1he suspenslon
shall lasL unLll flnal [udgmenL ls rendered ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon neverLheless before [udgmenL on
Lhe merlLs rendered ln Lhe clvll acLlon Lhe same may upon moLlon of Lhe offended parLy be
consolldaLed wlLh Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ln Lhe courL Lrylng Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ln case of consolldaLlon
Lhe evldence already adduced ln Lhe clvll acLlon shall be deemed auLomaLlcally reproduced ln Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe rlghL of Lhe prosecuLlon Lo crossexamlne Lhe wlLness
presenLed by Lhe offended parLy ln Lhe crlmlnal case and of Lhe parLles Lo presenL addlLlonal
evldence 1he consolldaLed crlmlnal and clvll acLlons shall be Lrled and declded [olnLly

uurlng Lhe pendency of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon Lhe runnlng perlod of prescrlpLlon of Lhe clvll acLlon
whlch cannoL be lnsLlLuLed separaLely or whose proceedlng has been suspended shall be Lolled

1he exLlncLlon of Lhe penal acLlon does noL carry wlLh lL exLlncLlon of Lhe clvll acLlon Powever Lhe
clvll acLlon based on dellcL shall be deemed exLlngulshed lf Lhere ls a flndlng ln a flnal [udgmenL ln
Lhe crlmlnal acLlon LhaL Lhe acL or omlsslon from whlch Lhe clvll llablllLy may arlse dld noL exlsL

Sec 3 When clvll acLlon may proceed lndependenLly ln Lhe cases provlded ln ArLlcles 32 33 34
and 2176 of Lhe Clvll Code of Lhe hlllpplnes Lhe lndependenL clvll acLlon may be broughL by Lhe
offended parLy lL shall proceed lndependenLly of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon and shall requlre only a
preponderance of evldence ln no case however may Lhe offended parLy recover damages Lwlce for
Lhe same acL or omlsslon charged ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon

Sec 4 LffecL of deaLh on clvll acLlons 1he deaLh of Lhe accused afLer arralgnmenL and durlng
Lhe pendency of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon shall exLlngulsh Lhe clvll llablllLy arlslng from Lhe dellcL Powever
Lhe lndependenL clvll acLlon lnsLlLuLed under secLlon 3 of Lhls 8ule or whlch LhereafLer ls lnsLlLuLed
Lo enforce llablllLy arlslng from oLher sources of obllgaLlon may be conLlnued agalnsL Lhe esLaLe or
legal represenLaLlve of Lhe accused afLer proper subsLlLuLlon or agalnsL sald esLaLe as Lhe case may
be 1he helrs of Lhe accused may be subsLlLuLed for Lhe deceased wlLhouL requlrlng Lhe appolnLmenL
of an execuLor or admlnlsLraLor and Lhe courL may appolnL a guardlan ad llLem for Lhe mlnor helrs

1he courL shall forLhwlLh order sald legal represenLaLlve or represenLaLlves Lo appear and be
subsLlLuLed wlLhln a perlod of LhlrLy (30) days from noLlce

A flnal [udgmenL enLered ln favor of Lhe offended parLy shall be enforced ln Lhe manner especlally
provlded ln Lhese rules for prosecuLlng clalms agalnsL Lhe esLaLe of Lhe deceasedchan robles vlrLual
law llbrary

lf Lhe accused dles before arralgnmenL Lhe case shall be dlsmlssed wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo any clvll
acLlon Lhe offended parLy may flle agalnsL Lhe esLaLe of Lhe deceased

Sec 3 !udgmenL ln clvll acLlon noL a bar A flnal [udgmenL rendered ln a clvll acLlon absolvlng Lhe
defendanL from clvll llablllLy ls noL a bar Lo a crlmlnal acLlon agalnsL Lhe defendanL for Lhe same acL
or omlsslon sub[ecL of Lhe clvll acLlon

Sec 6 Suspenslon by reason of pre[udlclal quesLlon A peLlLlon for suspenslon of Lhe crlmlnal
acLlon based upon Lhe pendency of a pre[udlclal quesLlon ln a clvll acLlon may be flled ln Lhe offlce of
Lhe prosecuLor or Lhe courL conducLlng Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon When Lhe crlmlnal acLlon has
been flled ln courL for Lrlal Lhe peLlLlon Lo suspend shall be flled ln Lhe same crlmlnal acLlon aL any
Llme before Lhe prosecuLlon resLs

Sec 7 LlemenLs of pre[udlclal quesLlon 1he elemenLs of a pre[udlclal quesLlons are (a) Lhe
prevlously lnsLlLuLed clvll acLlon lnvolves an lssue slmllar or lnLlmaLely relaLed Lo Lhe lssue ralsed ln
Lhe subsequenL crlmlnal acLlon and (b) Lhe resoluLlon of such lssue deLermlnes wheLher or noL Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon may proceed

kULL 112 kLLIMINAk INVLS1IGA1ICN

SecLlon 1 rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon deflned when requlred rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls an
lnqulry or proceedlng Lo deLermlne wheLher Lhere ls sufflclenL ground Lo engender a wellfounded
bellef LhaL a crlme has been commlLLed and Lhe respondenL ls probably gullLy Lhereof and should be
held for Lrlal

LxcepL as provlded ln SecLlon 7 of Lhls 8ule a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls requlred Lo be conducLed
before Lhe flllng of a compllanL or lnformaLlon for an offense where Lhe penalLy prescrlbed by law ls
aL leasL four (4) years Lwo (2) monLhs and one (1) day wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe flne

Sec 2 Cfflcers auLhorlzed Lo conducL prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlons 1he followlng may conducL
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlons

(a) rovlnclal or ClLy rosecuLors and Lhelr asslsLanLs
(b) !udges of Lhe Munlclpal 1rlal CourLs and Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourLs

(c) naLlonal and 8eglonal SLaLe rosecuLors and

(d) CLher offlcers as may be auLhorlzed by law

1helr auLhorlLy Lo conducL prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlons shall lnclude all crlmes cognlzable by Lhe
proper courL ln Lhelr respecLlve LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlons
Sec 3 rocedure 1he prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon shall be conducLed ln Lhe followlng manner

(a) 1he complalnL shall sLaLe Lhe address of Lhe respondenL and shall be accompanled by Lhe
affldavlLs of Lhe complalnanL and hls wlLnesses as well as oLher supporLlng documenLs Lo esLabllsh
probable cause 1hey shall be ln such number of coples as Lhere are respondenLs plus Lwo (2) coples
for Lhe offlclal flle 1he affldavlLs shall be subscrlbed and sworn Lo before any prosecuLor or
governmenL offlclal auLhorlzed Lo admlnlsLer oaLh or ln Lhelr absence or unavallablllLy before a
noLary publlc each of whom musL cerLlfy LhaL he personally examlned Lhe afflanLs and LhaL he ls
saLlsfled LhaL Lhey volunLarlly execuLed and undersLood Lhelr affldavlLs

(b) WlLhln Len (10) days afLer Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng offlcer shall elLher
dlsmlss lL lf he flnds no ground Lo conLlnue wlLh Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon or lssue a subpoena Lo Lhe
respondenL aLLachlng Lo lL a copy of Lhe complalnL and lLs supporLlng affldavlLs and documenLs

1he respondenL shall have Lhe rlghL Lo examlne Lhe evldence submlLLed by Lhe complalnanL whlch
he may noL have been furnlshed and Lo copy Lhem aL hls expense lf Lhe evldence ls volumlnous Lhe
complalnanL may be requlred Lo speclfy Lhose whlch he lnLends Lo presenL agalnsL Lhe respondenL
and Lhese shall be made avallable for examlnaLlon or copylng by Lhe respondenL aL hls expense

Cb[ecLs as evldence need noL be furnlshed a parLy buL shall be made avallable for examlnaLlon
copylng or phoLographlng aL Lhe expense of Lhe requesLlng parLy

(c) WlLhln Len (10) days from recelpL of Lhe subpoena wlLh Lhe complalnL and supporLlng affldavlLs
and documenLs Lhe respondenL shall submlL hls counLeraffldavlL and LhaL of hls wlLnesses and
oLher supporLlng documenLs relled upon for hls defense 1he counLeraffldavlLs shall be subscrlbed
and sworn Lo and cerLlfled as provlded ln paragraph (a) of Lhls secLlon wlLh coples Lhereof furnlshed
by hlm Lo Lhe complalnanL 1he respondenL shall noL be allowed Lo flle a moLlon Lo dlsmlss ln lleu of
a counLeraffldavlL

(d) lf Lhe respondenL cannoL be subpoenaed or lf subpoenaed does noL submlL counLeraffldavlLs
wlLhln Lhe Len (10) day perlod Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng offlce shall resolve Lhe complalnL based on Lhe
evldence presenLed by Lhe complalnanL

(e) 1he lnvesLlgaLlng offlcer may seL a hearlng lf Lhere are facLs and lssues Lo be clarlfled from a
parLy or a wlLness 1he parLles can be presenL aL Lhe hearlng buL wlLhouL Lhe rlghL Lo examlne or
crossexamlne 1hey may however submlL Lo Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng offlcer quesLlons whlch may be
asked Lo Lhe parLy or wlLness concerned

1he hearlng shall be held wlLhln Len (10) days from submlsslon of Lhe counLeraffldavlLs and oLher
documenLs or from Lhe explraLlon of Lhe perlod for Lhelr submlsslon lL shall be LermlnaLed wlLhln
flve (3) days

(f) WlLhln Len (10) days afLer Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng offlcer shall deLermlne wheLher or
noL Lhere ls sufflclenL ground Lo hold Lhe respondenL for Lrlal

Sec 4 8esoluLlon of lnvesLlgaLlng prosecuLor and lLs revlew lf Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng prosecuLor flnds
cause Lo hold Lhe respondenL for Lrlal he shall prepare Lhe resoluLlon and lnformaLlon Pe shall
cerLlfy under oaLh ln Lhe lnformaLlon LhaL he or as shown by Lhe record an auLhorlzed offlcer has
personally examlned Lhe complalnanL and hls wlLnesses LhaL Lhere ls reasonable ground Lo belleve
LhaL a crlme has been commlLLed and LhaL Lhe accused ls probably gullLy Lhereof LhaL Lhe accused
was lnformed of Lhe complalnL and of Lhe evldence submlLLed agalnsL hlm and LhaL he was glven an
opporLunlLy Lo submlL conLroverLlng evldence CLherwlse he shall recommend Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe
complalnL

WlLhln flve (3) days from hls resoluLlon he shall forward Lhe record of Lhe case Lo Lhe provlnclal or
clLy prosecuLor or chlef sLaLe prosecuLor or Lo Lhe Cmbudsman or hls depuLy ln cases of offenses
cognlzable by Lhe Sandlganbayan ln Lhe exerclse of lLs orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon 1hey shall acL on Lhe
resoluLlon wlLhln Len (10) days from Lhelr recelpL Lhereof and shall lmmedlaLely lnform Lhe parLles of
such acLlon

no complalnL or lnformaLlon may be flled or dlsmlssed by an lnvesLlgaLlng prosecuLor wlLhouL Lhe
prlor wrlLLen auLhorlLy or approval of Lhe provlnclal or clLy prosecuLor or chlef sLaLe prosecuLor or
Lhe Cmbudsman or hls depuLy

Where Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng prosecuLor recommends Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe complalnL buL hls
recommendaLlon ls dlsapproved by Lhe provlnclal or clLy prosecuLor or chlef sLaLe prosecuLor or Lhe
Cmbudsman or hls depuLy on Lhe ground LhaL a probable cause exlsLs Lhe laLLer may by hlmself flle
Lhe lnformaLlon agalnsL Lhe respondenL or dlrecL anoLher asslsLanL prosecuLor or sLaLe prosecuLor
Lo do so wlLhouL conducLlng anoLher prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon

lf upon peLlLlon by a proper parLy under such rules as Lhe ueparLmenL of !usLlce may prescrlbe or
moLu proplo Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce reverses or modlfles Lhe resoluLlon of Lhe provlnclal or clLy
prosecuLor or chlef sLaLe prosecuLor he shall dlrecL Lhe prosecuLor concerned elLher Lo flle Lhe
correspondlng lnformaLlon wlLhouL conducLlng anLher prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon or Lo dlsmlss or
move for dlsmlssal of Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon wlLh noLlce Lo Lhe parLles 1he same rule shall
apply ln prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlons conducLed by Lhe offlcers of Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman

Sec 3 8esoluLlon of lnvesLlgaLlng [udge and lLs revlew
WlLhln Len (10) days afLer Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng [udge shall LransmlL Lhe
resoluLlon of Lhe case Lo Lhe provlnclal or clLy prosecuLor or Lo Lhe Cmbudsman or hls depuLy ln
cases of offenses cognlzable by Lhe Sandlganbayan ln Lhe exerclse of lLs orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon for
approprlaLe acLlon 1he resoluLlon shall sLaLe Lhe flndlngs of facLs and Lhe law supporLlng hls acLlon
LogeLher wlLh Lhe record of Lhe case whlch shall lnclude (a) Lhe warranL lf Lhe arresL ls by vlrLue of a
warranL (b) Lhe affldavlLs counLeraffldavlLs and oLher supporLlng evldence of Lhe parLles (c) Lhe
underLaklng or ball of Lhe accused and Lhe order for hls release (d) Lhe LranscrlpLs of Lhe
proceedlngs durlng Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon and (e) Lhe order of cancellaLlon of hls ball bond lf
Lhe resoluLlon ls for Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe complalnL

WlLhln LhlrLy (30) days from recelpL of Lhe records Lhe provlnclal or clLy prosecuLor or Lhe
Cmbudsman or hls depuLy as Lhe case may be shall revlew Lhe resoluLlon of Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng [udge
on Lhe exlsLence of probable cause 1helr rullng shall expressly and clearly sLaLe Lhe facLs and Lhe law
on whlch lL ls based and Lhe parLles shall be furnlshed wlLh coples Lhereof 1hey shall order Lhe
release of an accused who ls deLalned lf no probable cause ls found agalnsL hlm

Sec 6 When warranL of arresL may lssue (a) 8y Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL WlLhln Len (10) days
from Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon Lhe [udge shall personally evaluaLe Lhe resoluLlon of
Lhe prosecuLor and lLs supporLlng evldence Pe may lmmedlaLely dlsmlss Lhe case lf Lhe evldence on
record clearly falls Lo esLabllsh probable cause lf he flnds probable cause he shall lssue a warranL of
arresL or a commlLmenL order lf Lhe accused has already been arresLed pursuanL Lo a warranL lssued
by Lhe [udge who conducLed Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon or when Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon was
flled pursuanL Lo secLlon 7 of Lhls 8ule ln case of doubL on Lhe exlsLence of probable cause Lhe
[udge may order Lhe prosecuLor Lo presenL addlLlonal evldence wlLhln flve (3) days from noLlce and
Lhe lssue musL be resolved by Lhe courL wlLhln LhlrLy (30) days from Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL of
lnformaLlonchan robles vlrLual law llbrary

(b) 8y Lhe Munlclpal 1rlal CourL When requlred pursuanL Lo Lhe second paragraph of secLlon of
Lhls 8ule Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon of cases falllng under Lhe orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe
MeLropollLan 1rlal CourL Munlclpal 1rlal CourL ln ClLles Munlclpal 1rlal CourL or Munlclpal ClrculL
1rlal CourL may be conducLed by elLher Lhe [udge or Lhe prosecuLor When conducLed by Lhe
prosecuLor Lhe procedure for Lhe lssuance of a warranL of arresL by Lhe [udge shall be governed by
paragraph (a) of Lhls secLlon When Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon ls conducLed by Lhe [udge hlmself he shall
follow Lhe procedure provlded ln secLlon 3 of Lhls 8ule lf hls flndlngs and recommendaLlons are
afflrmed by Lhe provlnclal or clLy prosecuLor or by Lhe Cmbudsman or hls depuLy and Lhe
correspondlng lnformaLlon ls flled he shall lssue a warranL of arresL Powever wlLhouL walLlng for
Lhe concluslon of Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon Lhe [udge may lssue a warranL of arresL lf he flnds afLer an
examlnaLlon ln wrlLlng and under oaLh of Lhe complalnanL and hls wlLnesses ln Lhe form of searchlng
quesLlons and answers LhaL a probable cause exlsLs and LhaL Lhere ls a necesslLy of placlng Lhe
respondenL under lmmedlaLe cusLody ln order noL Lo frusLraLe Lhe ends of [usLlce

(c) When warranL of arresL noL necessary A warranL of arresL shall noL lssue lf Lhe accused ls
already under deLenLlon pursuanL Lo a warranL lssued by Lhe munlclpal Lrlal courL ln accordance wlLh
paragraph (b) of Lhls secLlon or lf Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon was flled pursuanL Lo secLlon 7 of
Lhls 8ule or ls for an offense penallzed by flne only 1he courL shall Lhem proceed ln Lhe exerclse of
lLs orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon

Sec 7 When accused lawfully arresLed wlLhouL warranL When a person ls lawfully arresLed
wlLhouL a warranL lnvolvlng an offense whlch requlres a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon Lhe complalnL or
lnformaLlon may be flled by a prosecuLor wlLhouL need of such lnvesLlgaLlon provlded an lnquesL has
been conducLed ln accordance wlLh exlsLlng rules ln Lhe absence or unavallablllLy of an lnquesL
prosecuLor Lhe complalnL may be flled by Lhe offended parLy or a peace offlcer dlrecLly wlLh Lhe
proper courL on Lhe basls of Lhe affldavlL of Lhe offended parLy or arresLlng offlcer or person

8efore Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon ls flled Lhe person arresLed may ask for a prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon ln accordance wlLh Lhls 8ule buL he musL slgn a walver of Lhe provlslon of ArLlcle 123
of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code as amended ln Lhe presence of hls counsel noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe walver
he may apply for ball and Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon musL be LermlnaLed wlLhln flfLeen (13) days from lLs
lncepLlon

AfLer Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon ln courL wlLhouL a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon Lhe
accused may wlLhln flve (3) days from Lhe Llme he learns of lLs flllng ask for a prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon wlLh Lhe same rlghL Lo adduce evldence ln hls defense as provlded ln Lhls 8ule

Sec 8 8ecords (a) 8ecords supporLlng Lhe lnformaLlon or complalnL An lnformaLlon or
complalnL flled ln courL shall be supporLed by Lhe affldavlLs and counLeraffldavlLs of Lhe parLles and
Lhelr wlLnesses LogeLher wlLh Lhe oLher supporLlng evldence and Lhe resoluLlon on Lhe case

(b) 8ecord of prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon 1he record of Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon wheLher
conducLed by a [udge or a prosecuLor shall noL form parL of Lhe record of Lhe case Powever Lhe
courL on lLs own lnlLlaLlve or on moLlon of any parLy may order Lhe producLlon of Lhe record or any
of lLs parL when necessary ln Lhe resoluLlon of Lhe case or any lncldenL Lhereln or when lL ls Lo be
lnLroduced as an evldence ln Lhe case by Lhe requesLlng parLy

Sec 9 Cases noL requlrlng a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon nor covered by Lhe 8ule on Summary
rocedure (a) lf flled wlLh Lhe prosecuLor lf Lhe complalnL ls flled dlrecLly wlLh Lhe prosecuLor
lnvolvlng an offense punlshable by lmprlsonmenL of less Lhan four (4) years Lwo (2) monLhs and one
(1) day Lhe procedure ouLllned ln secLlon 3(a) of Lhls 8ule shall be observed 1he prosecuLor shall acL
on Lhe complalnL based on Lhe affldavlLs and oLher supporLlng documenLs submlLLed by Lhe
complalnanL wlLhln Len (10) days from lLs flllng

(b) lf flled wlLh Lhe Munlclpal 1rlal CourL lf Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon ls flled wlLh Lhe
Munlclpal 1rlal CourL or Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourL for an offense covered by Lhls secLlon Lhe
procedure ln secLlon 3 (a) of Lhls 8ule shall be observed lf wlLhln Len (10) days afLer Lhe flllng of Lhe
complalnL or lnformaLlon Lhe [udge flnds no probable cause afLer personally evaluaLlng Lhe
evldence or afLer personally examlnlng ln wrlLlng and under oaLh Lhe complalnanL and hls wlLnesses
ln Lhe form of searchlng quesLlons and answers he shall dlsmlss Lhe same Pe may however requlre
Lhe submlsslon of addlLlonal evldence wlLhln Len (10) days from noLlce Lo deLermlne furLher Lhe
exlsLence of probable cause lf Lhe [udge sLlll flnds no probable cause desplLe Lhe addlLlonal
evldence he shall wlLhln Len (10) days from lLs submlsslon or explraLlon of sald perlod dlsmlss Lhe
case When he flnds probable cause he shall lssue a warranL of arresL or a commlLmenL order lf Lhe
accused had already been arresLed and hold hlm for Lrlal Powever lf Lhe [udge ls saLlsfled LhaL
Lhere ls no necesslLy for placlng Lhe accused under cusLody he may lssue summons lnsLead of a
warranL of arresL

kULL 113 AkkLS1

SecLlon 1 ueflnlLlon of arresL ArresL ls Lhe Laklng of a person lnLo cusLody ln order LhaL he may
be bound Lo answer for Lhe commlsslon of an offense

Sec 2 ArresL how made An arresL ls made by an acLual resLralnL of a person Lo be arresLed or
by hls submlsslon Lo Lhe cusLody of Lhe person maklng Lhe arresL

no vlolence or unnecessary force shall be used ln maklng an arresL 1he person arresLed shall noL
be sub[ecL Lo a greaLer resLralnL Lhan ls necessary for hls deLenLlon

Sec 3 uuLy of arresLlng offlcer lL shall be Lhe duLy of Lhe offlcer execuLlng Lhe warranL Lo arresL
Lhe accused and dellver hlm Lo Lhe nearesL pollce sLaLlon or [all wlLhouL unnecessary delay

Sec 4 LxecuLlon of warranL 1he head of Lhe offlce Lo whom Lhe warranL of arresL was dellvered
for execuLlon shall cause Lhe warranL Lo be execuLed wlLhln Len (10) days from lLs recelpL WlLhln Len
(10) days afLer Lhe explraLlon of Lhe perlod Lhe offlcer Lo whom lL was asslgned for execuLlon shall
make a reporL Lo Lhe [udge who lssued Lhe warranL ln case of hls fallure Lo execuLe Lhe warranL he
shall sLaLe Lhe reason Lherefore

Sec 3 ArresL wlLhouL warranL when lawful A peace offlcer or a prlvaLe person may wlLhouL a
warranL arresL a person

(a) When ln hls presence Lhe person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed ls acLually commlLLlng or ls
aLLempLlng Lo commlL an offense
(b) When an offense has [usL been commlLLed and he has probable cause Lo belleve based on
personal knowledge of facLs or clrcumsLances LhaL Lhe person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed lL and

(c) When Lhe person Lo be arresLed ls a prlsoner who has escaped from a penal esLabllshmenL or
place where he ls servlng flnal [udgmenL or ls Lemporarlly conflned whlle hls case ls pendlng or has
escaped whlle belng Lransferred from one conflnemenL Lo anoLher

ln cases falllng under paragraphs (a) and (b) above Lhe person arresLed wlLhouL a warranL shall be
forLhwlLh dellvered Lo Lhe nearesL pollce sLaLlon or [all and shall be proceeded agalnsL ln accordance
wlLh secLlon 7 of 8ule 112
Sec 6 1lme of maklng arresL An arresL may be made on any day and aL any Llme of Lhe day or
nlghL

Sec 7 MeLhod of arresL by offlcer by vlrLue of warranL
When maklng an arresL by vlrLue of a warranL Lhe offlcer shall lnform Lhe person Lo be arresLed of
Lhe cause of Lhe arresL and Lhe facL LhaL a warranL has been lssued for hls arresL excepL when he
flees or forclbly reslsLs before Lhe offlcer has opporLunlLy Lo so lnform hlm or when Lhe glvlng of
such lnformaLlon wlll lmperll Lhe arresL 1he offlcer need noL have Lhe warranL ln hls possesslon aL
Lhe Llme of Lhe arresL buL afLer Lhe arresL lf Lhe person arresLed so requlres Lhe warranL shall be
shown Lo hlm as soon as pracLlcablechan robles vlrLual law llbrary

Sec 8 MeLhod of arresL by offlcer wlLhouL warranL When maklng an arresL wlLhouL a warranL
Lhe offlcer shall lnform Lhe person Lo be arresLed of hls auLhorlLy and Lhe cause of Lhe arresL unless
Lhe laLLer ls elLher engaged ln Lhe commlsslon of an offense ls pursued lmmedlaLely afLer lLs
commlsslon has escaped flees or forclbly reslsLs before Lhe offlcer has opporLunlLy Lo so lnform
hlm or when Lhe glvlng of such lnformaLlon wlll lmperll Lhe arresL

Sec 9 MeLhod of arresL by prlvaLe person When maklng an arresL a prlvaLe person shall lnform
Lhe person Lo be arresLed of Lhe lnLenLlon Lo arresL hlm and Lhe case of Lhe arresL unless Lhe laLLer ls
elLher engaged ln Lhe commlsslon of an offense ls pursued lmmedlaLely afLer lLs commlsslon or has
escaped flees or forclbly reslsLs before Lhe person maklng Lhe arresL has opporLunlLy Lo so lnform
hlm or when Lhe glvlng of such lnformaLlon wlll lmperll Lhe arresL

Sec 10 Cfflcer may summon asslsLance An offlcer maklng a lawful arresL may orally summon as
many persons as he deems necessary Lo asslsL hlm ln effecLlng Lhe arresL Lvery person so
summoned by an offlcer shall asslsL hlm ln effecLlng Lhe arresL when he can render such asslsLance
wlLhouL deLrlmenL Lo hlmself

Sec 11 8lghL of offlcer Lo break lnLo bulldlng or enclosure An offlcer ln order Lo make an arresL
elLher by vlrLue of a warranL or wlLhouL a warranL as provlded ln secLlon 3 may break lnLo any
bulldlng or enclosure where Lhe person Lo be arresLed ls or ls reasonably belleved Lo be lf he ls
refused admlLLance LhereLo afLer announclng hls auLhorlLy and purpose

Sec 12 8lghL Lo break ouL from bulldlng or enclosure Whenever an offlcer has enLered Lhe
bulldlng or enclosure ln accordance wlLh Lhe precedlng secLlon he may break ouL Lherefrom when
necessary Lo llberaLe hlmself

Sec 13 ArresL afLer escape or rescue lf a person lawfully arresLed escapes or ls rescued any
person may lmmedlaLely pursue or reLake hlm wlLhouL a warranL aL any Llme and ln any place wlLhln
Lhe hlllpplnes

Sec 14 8lghL of aLLorney or relaLlve Lo vlslL person arresLed Any member of Lhe hlllpplne 8ar
shall aL Lhe requesL of Lhe person arresLed or of anoLher acLlng ln hls behalf have Lhe rlghL Lo vlslL
and confer prlvaLely wlLh such person ln Lhe [all or any oLher place of cusLody aL any hour of Lhe day
or nlghL Sub[ecL Lo reasonable regulaLlons a relaLlve of Lhe person arresLed can also exerclse Lhe
same rlghL
kULL 114 8AIL
SecLlon 1 8all deflned 8all ls Lhe securlLy glven for Lhe release of a person ln cusLody of Lhe law
furnlshed by hlm or a bondsman Lo guaranLee hls appearance before any courL as requlred under
Lhe condlLlons herelnafLer speclfled 8all may be glven ln Lhe form of corporaLe sureLy properLy
bond cash deposlL or recognlzance

Sec 2 CondlLlons of Lhe ball requlremenLs All klnds of ball are sub[ecL Lo Lhe followlng
condlLlons

(a) 1he underLaklng shall be effecLlve upon approval and unless cancelled shall remaln ln force aL all
sLages of Lhe case unLll promulgaLlon of Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL lrrespecLlve of
wheLher Lhe case was orlglnally flled ln or appealed Lo lL
(b) 1he accused shall appear before Lhe proper courL whenever requlred by Lhe courL of Lhese 8ules

(c) 1he fallure of Lhe accused Lo appear aL Lhe Lrlal wlLhouL [usLlflcaLlon and desplLe due noLlce shall
be deemed a walver of hls rlghL Lo be presenL LhereaL ln such case Lhe Lrlal may proceed ln
absenLla and

(d) 1he bondsman shall surrender Lhe accused Lo Lhe courL for execuLlon of Lhe flnal [udgmenL

1he orlglnal papers shall sLaLe Lhe full name and address of Lhe accused Lhe amounL of Lhe
underLaklng and Lhe condlLlons requlred by Lhls secLlon hoLographs (passporL slze) Laken wlLhln
Lhe lasL slx (6) monLhs showlng Lhe face lefL and rlghL proflles of Lhe accused musL be aLLached Lo
Lhe ball
Sec 3 no release or Lransfer excepL on courL order or ball no person under deLenLlon by legal
process shall be released or Lransferred excepL upon order of Lhe courL or when he ls admlLLed Lo
ball

Sec 4 8all a maLLer of rlghL excepLlon All persons ln cusLody shall be admlLLed Lo ball as a
maLLer of rlghL wlLh sufflclenL sureLles or released on recognlzance as prescrlbed by law or Lhls 8ule
(a) before or afLer convlcLlon by Lhe MeLropollLan 1rlal CourL Munlclpal 1rlal CourL Munlclpal 1rlal
CourL ln ClLles or Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourL and (b) before convlcLlon by Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal courL
of an offense noL punlshable by deaLh recluslon perpeLua or llfe lmprlsonmenL

Sec 3 8all when dlscreLlonary upon convlcLlon by Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL of an offense noL
punlshable by deaLh recluslon perpeLua or llfe lmprlsonmenL admlsslon Lo ball ls dlscreLlonary 1he
appllcaLlon for ball may be flled and acLed upon by Lhe Lrlal courL desplLe Lhe flllng of a noLlce of
appeal provlded lL has noL LransmlLLed Lhe orlglnal record Lo Lhe appellaLe courL Powever lf Lhe
declslon of Lhe Lrlal courL convlcLlon Lhe accused changed Lhe naLure of Lhe offense from non
ballable Lo ballable Lhe appllcaLlon for ball can only be flled wlLh and resolved by Lhe appellaLe
courL

Should Lhe courL granL Lhe appllcaLlon Lhe accused may be allowed Lo conLlnue on provlslonal
llberLy durlng Lhe pendency of Lhe appeal under Lhe same ball sub[ecL Lo Lhe consenL of Lhe
bondsman

lf Lhe penalLy lmposed by Lhe Lrlal courL ls lmprlsonmenL exceedlng slx (6) years Lhe accused shall
be denled ball or hls ball shall be cancelled upon a showlng by Lhe prosecuLlon wlLh noLlce Lo Lhe
accuse of Lhe followlng or oLher slmllar clrcumsLances

(a) 1haL he ls a recldlvlsL quaslrecldlvlsL or hablLual dellnquenL or has commlLLed Lhe crlme
aggravaLed by Lhe clrcumsLance of relLeraLlon
(b) 1haL he has prevlously escaped from legal conflnemenL evaded senLence or vlolaLed Lhe
condlLlons of hls ball wlLhouL valld [usLlflcaLlon

(c) 1haL he commlLLed Lhe offense whlle under probaLlon parole or condlLlonal pardon

(d) 1haL Lhe clrcumsLances of hls case lndlcaLe Lhe probablllLy of fllghL lf released on ball or

(e) 1haL Lhere ls undue rlsk LhaL he may commlL anoLher crlme durlng Lhe pendency of Lhe appeal

1he appellaLe courL may moLu proprlo or on moLlon of any parLy revlew Lhe resoluLlon of Lhe
8eglonal 1rlal CourL afLer noLlce Lo Lhe adverse parLy ln elLher case
Sec 6 CaplLal offense deflned A caplLal offense ls an offense whlch under Lhe law exlsLlng aL
Lhe Llme of lLs commlsslon and of Lhe appllcaLlon for admlsslon Lo ball may be punlshed wlLh deaLh

Sec 7 CaplLal offense or an offense punlshable by recluslon perpeLua or llfe lmprlsonmenL noL
ballable no person charged wlLh a caplLal offense or an offense punlshable by recluslon perpeLua
or llfe lmprlsonmenL shall be admlLLed Lo ball when evldence of gullL ls sLrong regardless of Lhe
sLaLe of Lhe crlmlnal prosecuLlonchan robles vlrLual law llbrary

Sec 8 8urden of proof ln ball appllcaLlon AL Lhe hearlng of an appllcaLlon for ball flled by a
person who ls ln cusLody for Lhe commlsslon of an offense punlshable by deaLh recluslon perpeLua
or llfe lmprlsonmenL Lhe prosecuLlon has Lhe burden of showlng LhaL evldence of gullL ls sLrong 1he
evldence presenLed durlng Lhe ball hearlng shall be consldered auLomaLlcally reproduced aL Lhe Lrlal
buL upon moLlon of elLher parLy Lhe courL may recall any wlLness for addlLlonal examlnaLlon unless
Lhe laLLer ls dead ouLslde Lhe hlllpplnes or oLherwlse unable Lo LesLlfy

Sec 9 AmounL of ball guldellnes 1he [udge who lssued Lhe warranL or granLed Lhe appllcaLlon
shall flx a reasonable amounL of ball conslderlng prlmarlly buL noL llmlLed Lo Lhe followlng facLors

(a) llnanclal llablllLy of Lhe accused Lo glve ball
(b) naLure and clrcumsLance of Lhe offense

(c) enalLy for Lhe offense charged

(d) CharacLer and repuLaLlon of Lhe accused

(e) Age and healLh of Lhe accused

(f) WelghL of Lhe evldence agalnsL Lhe accused

(g) robablllLy of Lhe accused appearlng aL Lhe Lrlal

(h) lorfelLure of oLher ball

(l) 1he facL LhaL Lhe accused was a fuglLlve from [usLlce when arresLed and

([) endency of oLher cases where Lhe accused ls on ball

Lxcesslve ball shall noL be requlred
Sec 10 CorporaLe sureLy Any domesLlc or forelgn corporaLlon llcensed as a sureLy ln
accordance wlLh law and currenLly auLhorlzed Lo acL as such may provlde ball by a bond subscrlbed
[olnLly by Lhe accused and an offlcer of Lhe corporaLlon duly auLhorlzed by lLs board of dlrecLors

Sec 11 roperLy bond how posLed A properLy bond ls an underLaklng consLlLuLed as llen on
Lhe real properLy glven as securlLy for Lhe amounL of Lhe ball WlLhln Len (10) days afLer Lhe approval
of Lhe bond Lhe accused shall cause Lhe annoLaLlon of Lhe llen on Lhe cerLlflcaLe of LlLle on flle wlLh
Lhe 8eglsLry of ueeds lf Lhe land ls reglsLered or lf unreglsLered ln Lhe 8eglsLraLlon 8ook on Lhe
space provlded Lherefore ln Lhe 8eglsLry of ueeds for Lhe provlnce or clLy where Lhe land lles and
on Lhe correspondlng Lax declaraLlon ln Lhe offlce of Lhe provlnclal clLy and munlclpal assessor
concerned

WlLhln Lhe same perlod Lhe accused shall submlL Lo Lhe courL hls compllance and hls fallure Lo do
so shall be sufflclenL cause for Lhe cancellaLlon of Lhe properLy bond and hls rearresL and deLenLlon

Sec 12 CuallflcaLlons of sureLles ln properLy bond 1he quallflcaLlons of sureLles ln a properLy
bond shall be as follows

(a) Lach musL be a resldenL owner of real esLaLe wlLhln Lhe hlllpplnes
(b) Where Lhere ls only one sureLy hls real esLaLe musL be worLh aL leasL Lhe amounL of underLaklng

(c) lf Lhere are Lwo or more sureLles each may [usLlfy ln an amounL less Lhan LhaL expressed ln Lhe
underLaklng buL Lhe aggregaLe of Lhe [usLlfled sums musL be equlvalenL Lo Lhe whole amounL of Lhe
ball demanded

ln all cases every sureLy musL be worLh Lhe amounL speclfled ln hls own underLaklng over and
above all [usL debLs obllgaLlons and properLles exempL from execuLlon
Sec 13 !usLlflcaLlon of sureLles Lvery sureLy shall [usLlfy by affldavlL Laken before Lhe [udge LhaL
he possesses Lhe quallflcaLlon prescrlbed ln Lhe precedlng secLlon Pe shall descrlbe Lhe properLy
glven as securlLy sLaLlng Lhe naLure of hls LlLle lLs encumbrances Lhe number and amounL of oLher
balls enLered lnLo by hlm and sLlll undlscharged and hls oLher llablllLles 1he courL may examlne Lhe
sureLles upon oaLh concernlng Lhelr sufflclency ln such manner as lL may deem proper no ball shall
be approved unless Lhe sureLy ls quallfled

Sec 14 ueposlL of cash as ball 1he accused or any person acLlng ln hls behalf may deposlL ln
cash wlLh Lhe nearesL collecLor of lnLernal revenue or provlnclal clLy or munlclpal Lreasurer Lhe
amounL of ball flxed by Lhe courL or recommended by Lhe prosecuLor who lnvesLlgaLed or flled Lhe
case upon submlsslon of a proper cerLlflcaLe of deposlL and a wrlLLen underLaklng showlng
compllance wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of secLlon 2 of Lhls 8ule Lhe accused shall be dlscharged from
cusLody 1he money deposlLed shall be consldered as ball and applled Lo Lhe paymenL of flne and
cosLs whlle Lhe excess lf any shall be reLurned Lo Lhe accused or Lo whoever made Lhe deposlL

Sec 13 8ecognlzance Whenever allowed by law or Lhese 8ules Lhe courL may release a person
ln cusLody on hls own recognlzance or LhaL of a responslble person

Sec 16 8all when noL requlred reduced ball or recognlzance no ball shall be requlred when
Lhe law or Lhese 8ules so provlde

When a person has been ln cusLody for a perlod equal Lo or more Lhan Lhe posslble maxlmum
lmprlsonmenL prescrlbed for Lhe offense charged he shall be released lmmedlaLely wlLhouL
pre[udlce Lo Lhe conLlnuaLlon of Lhe Lrlal or Lhe proceedlngs on appeal lf Lhe maxlmum penalLy Lo
whlch Lhe accused may be senLenced ls desLlerro he shall be released afLer LhlrLy (30) days of
prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL

A person ln cusLody for a perlod equal Lo or more Lhan Lhe mlnlmum of Lhe prlnclpal penalLy
prescrlbed for Lhe offense charged wlLhouL appllcaLlon of Lhe lndeLermlnaLe SenLence Law or any
modlfylng clrcumsLance shall be released on a reduced ball or on hls own recognlzance aL Lhe
dlscreLlon of Lhe courL

Sec 17 8all where flled (a) 8all ln Lhe amounL flxed may be flled wlLh Lhe courL where Lhe case
ls pendlng or ln Lhe absence or unavallablllLy of Lhe [udge Lhereof wlLh any reglonal Lrlal [udge
meLropollLan Lrlal [udge munlclpal Lrlal [udge or munlclpal clrculL Lrlal [udge ln Lhe provlnce clLy or
munlclpallLy lf Lhe accused ls arresLed ln a provlnce clLy or munlclpallLy oLher Lhan where Lhe case
ls pendlng ball may also be flled wlLh any reglonal Lrlal courL of sald place of lf no [udge Lhereof ls
avallable wlLh any meLropollLan Lrlal [udge munlclpal Lrlal [udge or munlclpal clrculL Lrlal [udge
Lhereln

(b) Where Lhe granL of ball ls a maLLer of dlscreLlon or Lhe accused seeks Lo be released on
recognlzance Lhe appllcaLlon may only be flled ln Lhe courL where Lhe case ls pendlng wheLher on
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon Lrlal or appeal

Any person ln cusLody who ls noL yeL charged ln courL may apply for ball wlLh any courL ln Lhe
provlnce clLy or munlclpallLy where he ls held

Sec 18 noLlce of appllcaLlon Lo prosecuLor ln Lhe appllcaLlon for ball under secLlon 8 of Lhls
8ule Lhe courL musL glve reasonable noLlce of Lhe hearlng Lo Lhe prosecuLor or requlre hlm Lo
submlL hls recommendaLlon

Sec 19 8elease on ball 1he accused musL be dlscharged upon approval of Lhe ball by Lhe [udge
wlLh whom lL was flled ln accordance wlLh secLlon 17 of Lhls 8ule

When ball ls flled wlLh a courL oLher Lhan where Lhe case ls pendlng Lhe [udge who accepLed Lhe
ball shall forward lL LogeLher wlLh Lhe order of release and oLher supporLlng papers Lo Lhe courL
where Lhe case ls pendlng whlch may for good reason requlre a dlfferenL one Lo be flled

Sec 20 lncrease or reducLlon of ball AfLer Lhe accused ls admlLLed Lo ball Lhe courL may upon
good cause elLher lncrease or reduce lLs amounL When lncreased Lhe accused may be commlLLed
Lo cusLody lf he does noL glve ball ln Lhe lncreased amounL wlLhln a reasonable perlod An accused
held Lo answer a crlmlnal charge who ls released wlLhouL ball upon flllng of Lhe complalnL or
lnformaLlon may aL any subsequenL sLage of Lhe proceedlngs and whenever a sLrong showlng of
gullL appears Lo Lhe courL be requlred Lo glve ball ln Lhe amounL flxed or ln lleu Lhereof commlLLed
Lo cusLody chan robles vlrLual law llbrary

Sec 21 lorfelLure of ball When Lhe presence of Lhe accused ls requlred by Lhe courL or Lhese
8ules hls bondsmen shall be noLlfled Lo produce hlm before Lhe courL on a glven daLe and Llme lf
Lhe accused falls Lo appear ln person as requlred hls ball shall be declared forfelLed and Lhe
bondsmen glven LhlrLy (30) days wlLhln whlch Lo produce Lhelr prlnclpal and Lo show why no
[udgmenL should be rendered agalnsL Lhem for Lhe amounL of Lhelr ball WlLhln Lhe sald perlod Lhe
bondsmen musL

(a) produce Lhe body of Lhelr prlnclpal or glve Lhe reason for hls nonproducLlon and
(b) explaln why Lhe accused dld noL appear before Lhe courL when flrsL requlred Lo do so

lalllng ln Lhese Lwo requlslLes a [udgmenL shall be rendered agalnsL Lhe bondsmen [olnLly and
severally for Lhe amounL of Lhe ball 1he courL shall noL reduce or oLherwlse mlLlgaLe Lhe llablllLy of
Lhe bondsmen unless Lhe accused has been surrendered or ls acqulLLed
Sec 22 CancellaLlon of ball upon appllcaLlon of Lhe bondsmen wlLh due noLlce Lo Lhe
prosecuLor Lhe ball may be cancelled upon surrender of Lhe accused or proof of hls deaLh

1he ball shall be deemed auLomaLlcally cancelled upon acqulLLal of Lhe accused dlsmlssal of Lhe
case or execuLlon of Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon

ln all lnsLances Lhe cancellaLlon shall be wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo any llablllLy on Lhe ball

Sec 23 ArresL of accused ouL on ball lor Lhe purpose of surrenderlng Lhe accused Lhe
bondsmen may arresL hlm or upon wrlLLen auLhorlLy endorsed on a cerLlfled copy of Lhe
underLaklng cause hlm Lo be arresLed by a pollce offlcer or any oLher person of sulLable age and
dlscreLlon

An accused released on ball may be rearresLed wlLhouL Lhe necesslLy of a warranL lf he aLLempLs
Lo deparL from Lhe hlllpplnes wlLhouL permlsslon of Lhe courL where Lhe case ls pendlng

Sec 24 no ball afLer flnal [udgmenL excepLlon no ball shall be allowed afLer a [udgmenL of
convlcLlon has become flnal lf before such flnallLy Lhe accused applles for probaLlon he may be
allowed Lemporary llberLy under hls ball When no ball was flled or Lhe accused ls lncapable of flllng
one Lhe courL may allow hls release on recognlzance Lo Lhe cusLody of a responslble member of Lhe
communlLy ln no case shall ball be allowed afLer Lhe accused has commenced Lo serve senLence

Sec 23 CourL supervlslon of deLalnees 1he courL shall exerclse supervlslon over all persons ln
cusLody for Lhe purpose of ellmlnaLlng unnecessary deLenLlon 1he execuLlve [udges of Lhe 8eglonal
1rlal CourLs shall conducL monLhly personal lnspecLlons of provlnclal clLy and munlclpal [alls and Lhe
prlsoners wlLhln Lhelr respecLlve [urlsdlcLlons 1hey shall ascerLaln Lhe number of deLalnees lnqulre
on Lhelr proper accommodaLlon and healLh and examlne Lhe condlLlon of Lhe [all faclllLles 1hey shall
order Lhe segregaLlon of sexes and of mlnors from adulLs ensure Lhe observance of Lhe rlghL of
deLalnees Lo confer prlvaLely wlLh counsel and sLrlve Lo ellmlnaLe condlLlons lnlmlcal Lo Lhe
deLalnees

ln clLles and munlclpallLles Lo be speclfled by Lhe Supreme CourL Lhe munlclpal Lrlal [udges or
munlclpal clrculL Lrlal [udges shall conducL monLhly personal lnspecLlons of Lhe munlclpal [alls ln Lhelr
respecLlve munlclpallLles and submlL a reporL Lo Lhe execuLlve [udge of Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL
havlng [urlsdlcLlon Lhereln

A monLhly reporL of such vlslLaLlon shall be submlLLed by Lhe execuLlve [udges Lo Lhe CourL
AdmlnlsLraLor whlch shall sLaLe Lhe LoLal number of deLalnees Lhe names of Lhose held for more
Lhan LhlrLy (30) days Lhe duraLlon of deLenLlon Lhe crlme charged Lhe sLaLus of Lhe case Lhe cause
for deLenLlon and oLher perLlnenL lnformaLlon

Sec 26 8all noL a bar Lo ob[ecLlons on lllegal arresL lack of or lrregular prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
An appllcaLlon for or admlsslon Lo ball shall noL bar Lhe accused from challenglng Lhe valldlLy of hls
arresL or Lhe legallLy of Lhe warranL lssued Lherefore or from assalllng Lhe regularlLy or quesLlonlng
Lhe absence of a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe charge agalnsL hlm provlded LhaL he ralses Lhem
before enLerlng hls plea 1he courL shall resolve Lhe maLLer as early as pracLlcable buL noL laLer Lhan
Lhe sLarL of Lhe Lrlal of Lhe case
kULL 11S kIGn1S CI ACCUSLD

SecLlon 1 8lghLs of accused aL Lrlal ln all crlmlnal prosecuLlons Lhe accused shall be enLlLled Lo
Lhe followlng rlghLs

(a) 1o be presumed lnnocenL unLll Lhe conLrary ls proved beyond reasonable doubL
(b) 1o be lnformed of Lhe naLure and cause of Lhe accusaLlon agalnsL hlm

(c) 1o be presenL and defend ln person and by counsel aL every sLage of Lhe proceedlngs from
arralgnmenL Lo promulgaLlon of Lhe [udgmenL 1he accused may however walve hls presence aL Lhe
Lrlal pursuanL Lo Lhe sLlpulaLlons seL forLh ln hls ball unless hls presence ls speclflcally ordered by Lhe
courL for purposes of ldenLlflcaLlon 1he absence of Lhe accused wlLhouL [usLlflable cause aL Lhe Lrlal
of whlch he had noLlce shall be consldered a walver of hls rlghL Lo be presenL LhereaL When an
accused under cusLody escapes he shall be deemed Lo have walved hls rlghL Lo be presenL on all
subsequenL Lrlal daLes unLll cusLody over hlm ls regalned upon moLlon Lhe accused may be allowed
Lo defend hlmself ln person when lL sufflclenLly appears Lo Lhe courL LhaL he can properly proLecL hls
rlghLs wlLhouL Lhe asslsLance of counsel

(d) 1o LesLlfy as a wlLness ln hls own behalf buL sub[ecL Lo crossexamlnaLlon on maLLers covered by
dlrecL examlnaLlon Pls sllence shall noL ln any manner pre[udlce hlm

(e) 1o be exempL from belng compelled Lo be a wlLness agalnsL hlmself

(f) 1o confronL and crossexamlne Lhe wlLnesses agalnsL hlm aL Lhe Lrlal LlLher parLy may uLlllze as
parL of lLs evldence Lhe LesLlmony of a wlLness who ls deceased ouL of or can noL wlLh due dlllgence
be found ln Lhe hlllpplnes unavallable or oLherwlse unable Lo LesLlfy glven ln anoLher case or
proceedlng [udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve lnvolvlng Lhe same parLles and sub[ecL maLLer Lhe adverse
parLy havlng Lhe opporLunlLy Lo crossexamlne hlm

(g) 1o have compulsory process lssued Lo secure Lhe aLLendance of wlLnesses and producLlon of
oLher evldence ln hls behalf

(h) 1o have speedy lmparLlal and publlc Lrlal

(l) 1o appeal ln all cases allowed and ln Lhe manner prescrlbed by law
kULL 116 AkkAIGNMLN1 AND LLA
SecLlon 1 ArralgnmenL and plea how made (a) 1he accused musL be arralgned before Lhe courL
where Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon was flled or asslgned for Lrlal 1he arralgnmenL shall be made ln
open courL by Lhe [udge or clerk by furnlshlng Lhe accused wlLh a copy of Lhe complalnL or
lnformaLlon readlng Lhe same ln Lhe language or dlalecL known Lo hlm and asklng hlm wheLher he
pleads gullLy or noL gullLy 1he prosecuLlon may call aL Lhe Lrlal wlLnesses oLher Lhan Lhose named ln
Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon

(b) 1he accused musL be presenL aL Lhe arralgnmenL and musL personally enLer hls plea 8oLh
arralgnmenL and plea shall be made of record buL fallure Lo do so shall noL affecL Lhe valldlLy of Lhe
proceedlngs

(c) When Lhe accused refuses Lo plead or makes a condlLlonal plea a plea of noL gullLy shall be
enLered for hlm

(d) When Lhe accused pleads gullLy buL presenLs exculpaLory evldence hls plea shall be deemed
wlLhdrawn and a plea of noL gullLy shall be enLered for hlm

(e) When Lhe accused ls under prevenLlve deLenLlon hls case shall be raffled and lLs records
LransmlLLed Lo Lhe [udge Lo whom Lhe case was raffled wlLhln Lhree (3) days from Lhe flllng of Lhe
lnformaLlon or complalnL 1he accused shall be arralgned wlLhln Len (10) days from Lhe daLe of Lhe
raffle 1he preLrlal conference of hls case shall be held wlLhln Len (10) days afLer arralgnmenL

(f) 1he prlvaLe offended parLy shall be requlred Lo appear aL Lhe arralgnmenL for purposes of plea
bargalnlng deLermlnaLlon of clvll llablllLy and oLher maLLers requlrlng hls presence ln case of fallure
of Lhe offended parLy Lo appear desplLe due noLlce Lhe courL may allow Lhe accused Lo enLer a plea
of gullLy Lo a lesser offense whlch ls necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe offense charged wlLh Lhe conformlLy
of Lhe Lrlal prosecuLor alone

(g) unless a shorLer perlod ls provlded by speclal law or Supreme CourL clrcular Lhe arralgnmenL
shall be held wlLhln LhlrLy (30) days from Lhe daLe Lhe courL acqulres [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe person of
Lhe accused 1he Llme of Lhe pendency of a moLlon Lo quash or for a blll or parLlculars or oLher
causes [usLlfylng suspenslon of Lhe arralgnmenL shall be excluded ln compuLlng Lhe perlod

Sec 2 lea of gullLy Lo a lesser offense AL arralgnmenL Lhe accused wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe
offended parLy and prosecuLor may be allowed by Lhe Lrlal courL Lo plead gullLy Lo a lesser offense
whlch ls necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe offense charged AfLer arralgnmenL buL before Lrlal Lhe accused
may sLlll be allowed Lo plead gullLy Lo sald lesser offense afLer wlLhdrawlng hls plea of noL gullLy no
amendmenL of Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon ls necessary chan robles vlrLual law llbrary

Sec 3 lea of gullLy Lo caplLal offense recepLlon of evldence When Lhe accused pleads gullLy Lo
a caplLal offense Lhe courL shall conducL a searchlng lnqulry lnLo Lhe volunLarlness and full
comprehenslon of Lhe consequences of hls plea and shall requlre Lhe prosecuLlon Lo prove hls gullL
and Lhe preclse degree of culpablllLy 1he accused may presenL evldence ln hls behalf

Sec 4 lea of gullLy Lo noncaplLal offense recepLlon of evldence dlscreLlonary When Lhe
accused pleads gullLy Lo a noncaplLal offense Lhe courL may recelve evldence from Lhe parLles Lo
deLermlne Lhe penalLy Lo be lmposed

Sec 3 WlLhdrawal of lmprovldenL plea of gullLy AL any Llme before Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon
becomes flnal Lhe courL may permlL an lmprovldenL plea of gullLy Lo be wlLhdrawn and be
subsLlLuLed by a plea of noL gullLy

Sec 6 uuLy of courL Lo lnform accused of hls rlghL Lo counsel 8efore arralgnmenL Lhe courL
shall lnform Lhe accused of hls rlghL Lo counsel and ask hlm lf he deslres Lo have one unless Lhe
accused ls allowed Lo defend hlmself ln person or has employed counsel of hls cholce Lhe courL
musL asslgn a counsel de offlclo Lo defend hlm

Sec 7 AppolnLmenL of counsel de offlclo 1he courL conslderlng Lhe gravlLy of Lhe offense and
Lhe dlfflculLy of Lhe quesLlons LhaL may arlse shall appolnL as counsel de offlclo such members of Lhe
bar ln good sLandlng who by reason of Lhelr experlence and ablllLy can compeLenLly defend Lhe
accused 8uL ln locallLles where such members of Lhe bar are noL avallable Lhe courL may appolnL
any person resldenL of Lhe provlnce and of good repuLe for problLy and ablllLy Lo defend Lhe
accused

Sec 8 1lme for counsel de offlclo Lo prepare for arralgnmenL Whenever a counsel de offlce ls
appolnLed by Lhe courL Lo defend Lhe accused aL Lhe arralgnmenL he shall be glven a reasonable
Llme Lo consulL wlLh Lhe accused as Lo hls plea before proceedlng wlLh Lhe arralgnmenL

Sec 9 8lll of parLlculars 1he accused may before arralgnmenL move for a blll of parLlculars Lo
enable hlm properly Lo plead and prepare for Lrlal 1he moLlon shall speclfy Lhe alleged defecLs of
Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon and Lhe deLalls deslred

Sec 10 roducLlon or lnspecLlon of maLerlal evldence ln possesslon of prosecuLlon upon
moLlon of Lhe accused showlng good cause and wlLh noLlce Lo Lhe parLles Lhe courL ln order Lo
prevenL surprlse suppresslon or alLeraLlon may order Lhe prosecuLlon Lo produce and permlL Lhe
lnspecLlon and copylng or phoLographlng of any wrlLLen sLaLemenL glven by Lhe complalnanL and
oLher wlLnesses ln any lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe offense conducLed by Lhe prosecuLlon or oLher
lnvesLlgaLlng offlcers as well as any deslgnaLed documenLs papers books accounLs leLLers
phoLographs ob[ecL or Langlble Lhlngs noL oLherwlse prlvlleged whlch consLlLuLe or conLaln
evldence maLerlal Lo any maLLer lnvolved ln Lhe case and whlch are ln Lhe possesslon or under Lhe
conLrol of Lhe prosecuLlon pollce or oLher law lnvesLlgaLlng agencles

Sec 11 Suspenslon of arralgnmenL upon moLlon by Lhe proper parLy Lhe arralgnmenL shall be
suspended ln Lhe followlng cases

(a) 1he accused appears Lo be sufferlng from an unsound menLal condlLlon whlch effecLlvely renders
hlm unable Lo fully undersLand Lhe charge agalnsL hlm and Lo plead lnLelllgenLly LhereLo ln such
case Lhe courL shall order hls menLal examlnaLlon and lf necessary hls conflnemenL for such
purpose
(b) 1here exlsLs a pre[udlclal quesLlon and

(c) A peLlLlon for revlew of Lhe resoluLlon of Lhe prosecuLor ls pendlng aL elLher Lhe ueparLmenL of
!usLlce or Lhe Cfflce of Lhe resldenL provlded LhaL Lhe perlod of suspenslon shall noL exceed slxLy
(60) days counLed from Lhe flllng of Lhe peLlLlon wlLh Lhe revlewlng offlce

kULL 117 MC1ICN 1C UASn
SecLlon 1 1lme Lo move Lo quash AL any Llme before enLerlng hls plea Lhe accused may move
Lo quash Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon

Sec 2 lorm and conLenLs 1he moLlon Lo quash shall be ln wrlLlng slgned by Lhe accused or hls
counsel and shall dlsLlncLly speclfy lLs facLual and legal grounds 1he courL shall conslder no ground
oLher Lhan Lhose sLaLed ln Lhe moLlon excepL lack of [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe offense charged

Sec 3 Crounds 1he accused may move Lo quash Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon on any of Lhe
followlng grounds

(a) 1haL Lhe facLs charged do noL consLlLuLe an offense
(b) 1haL Lhe courL Lrylng Lhe case has no [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe offense charged

(c) 1haL Lhe courL Lrylng Lhe case has no [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe person of Lhe accused

(d) 1haL Lhe offlcer who flled Lhe lnformaLlon had no auLhorlLy Lo do so

(e) 1haL lL does noL conform subsLanLlally Lo Lhe prescrlbed form

(f) 1haL more Lhan one offense ls charged excepL when a slngle punlshmenL for varlous offenses ls
prescrlbed by law

(g) 1haL Lhe crlmlnal acLlon or llablllLy has been exLlngulshed

(h) 1haL lL conLalns avermenLs whlch lf Lrue would consLlLuLe a legal excuse or [usLlflcaLlon and

(l) 1haL Lhe accused has been prevlously convlcLed or acqulLLed of Lhe offense charged or Lhe case
agalnsL hlm was dlsmlssed or oLherwlse LermlnaLed wlLhouL hls express consenL

Sec 4 AmendmenL of complalnL or lnformaLlon lf Lhe moLlon Lo quash ls based on an alleged
defecL of Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon whlch can be cured by amendmenL Lhe courL shall order LhaL
an amendmenL be made
lf lL ls based on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe facLs charged do noL consLlLuLe an offense Lhe prosecuLlon
shall be glven by Lhe courL an opporLunlLy Lo correcL Lhe defecL by amendmenL 1he moLlon shall be
granLed lf Lhe prosecuLlon falls Lo make Lhe amendmenL or Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon sLlll suffers
from Lhe same defecL desplLe Lhe amendmenL

Sec 3 LffecL of susLalnlng Lhe moLlon Lo quash lf Lhe moLlon Lo quash ls susLalned Lhe courL
may order LhaL anoLher complalnL or lnformaLlon be flled excepL as provlded ln secLlon 6 of Lhls rule
lf Lhe order ls made Lhe accused lf ln cusLody shall noL be dlscharged unless admlLLed Lo ball lf no
order ls made or lf havlng been made no new lnformaLlon ls flled wlLhln Lhe Llme speclfled ln Lhe
order or wlLhln such furLher Llme as Lhe courL may allow for good cause Lhe accused lf ln cusLody
shall be dlscharged unless he ls also ln cusLody of anoLher charge

Sec 6 Crder susLalnlng Lhe moLlon Lo quash noL a bar Lo anoLher prosecuLlon excepLlon An
order susLalnlng Lhe moLlon Lo quash ls noL a bar Lo anoLher prosecuLlon for Lhe same offense unless
Lhe moLlon was based on Lhe grounds speclfled ln secLlon 3 (g) and (l) of Lhls 8ule

Sec 7 lormer convlcLlon or acqulLLal double [eopardy When an accused has been convlcLed or
acqulLLed or Lhe case agalnsL hlm dlsmlssed or oLherwlse LermlnaLed wlLhouL hls express consenL by
a courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon upon a valld complalnL or lnformaLlon or oLher formal charge
sufflclenL ln form and subsLance Lo susLaln a convlcLlon and afLer Lhe accused had pleaded Lo Lhe
charge Lhe convlcLlon or acqulLLal of Lhe accused or Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe case shall be a bar Lo
anoLher prosecuLlon for Lhe offense charged or for any aLLempL Lo commlL Lhe same or frusLraLlon
Lhereof or for any offense whlch necessarlly lncludes or ls necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe offense
charged ln Lhe former complalnL or lnformaLlon

Powever Lhe convlcLlon of Lhe accused shall noL be a bar Lo anoLher prosecuLlon for an offense
whlch necessarlly lncludes Lhe offense charged ln Lhe former complalnL or lnformaLlon under any of
Lhe followlng lnsLances

(a) Lhe graver offense developed due Lo supervenlng facLs arlslng from Lhe same acL or omlsslon
consLlLuLlng Lhe former charge
(b) Lhe facLs consLlLuLlng Lhe graver charge became known or were dlscovered only afLer a plea was
enLered ln Lhe former complalnL or lnformaLlon or

(c) Lhe plea of gullLy Lo Lhe lesser offense was made wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe prosecuLor and of
Lhe offended parLy excepL as provlded ln secLlon 1(f) of 8ule 116

ln any of Lhe foregolng cases where Lhe accused saLlsfles or serves ln whole or ln parL Lhe
[udgmenL he shall be credlLed wlLh Lhe same ln Lhe evenL of convlcLlon for Lhe graver offense
Sec 8 rovlslonal dlsmlssal A case shall noL be provlslonally dlsmlssed excepL wlLh Lhe express
consenL of Lhe accused and wlLh noLlce Lo Lhe offended parLy

1he provlslonal dlsmlssal of offenses punlshable by lmprlsonmenL noL exceedlng slx (6) years or a
flne of any amounL or boLh shall become permanenL one (1) year afLer lssuance of Lhe order
wlLhouL Lhe case havlng been revlved WlLh respecL Lo offenses punlshable by lmprlsonmenL of more
Lhan slx (6) years Lhelr provlslonal dlsmlssal shall become permanenL Lwo (2) years afLer lssuance of
Lhe order wlLhouL Lhe case havlng been revlved

Sec 9 lallure Lo move Lo quash or Lo allege any ground Lherefore 1he fallure of Lhe accused Lo
asserL any ground of a moLlon Lo quash before he pleads Lo Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon elLher
because he dld noL flle a moLlon Lo quash or falled Lo allege Lhe same ln sald moLlon shall be
deemed a walver of any ob[ecLlons excepL Lhose based on Lhe grounds provlded for ln paragraphs
(a) (b) (g) and (l) of secLlon 3 of Lhls 8ule
kULL 118 kL1kIAL
SecLlon 1 reLrlal mandaLory ln crlmlnal cases ln all crlmlnal cases cognlzable by Lhe
Sandlganbayan 8eglonal 1rlal CourL MeLropollLan 1rlal CourL Munlclpal 1rlal CourL ln ClLles
Munlclpal 1rlal CourL and Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourL Lhe courL shall afLer arralgnmenL and wlLhln
LhlrLy (30) days from Lhe daLe Lhe courL acqulres [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe person of Lhe accused unless a
shorLer perlod ls provlded for ln speclal laws or clrculars of Lhe Supreme CourL order a preLrlal
conference Lo conslder Lhe followlng
(a) plea bargalnlng
(b) sLlpulaLlon of facLs
(c) marklng for ldenLlflcaLlon of evldence of Lhe parLles
(d) walver of ob[ecLlons Lo admlsslblllLy of evldence
(e) modlflcaLlon of Lhe order of Lrlal lf Lhe accused admlLs Lhe charge buL lnLerposes a lawful
defense and
(f) such maLLers as wlll promoLe a falr and expedlLlous Lrlal of Lhe crlmlnal and clvll aspecLs of Lhe
case
Sec 2 reLrlal agreemenL All agreemenLs or admlsslons made or enLered durlng Lhe preLrlal
conference shall be reduced ln wrlLlng and slgned by Lhe accused and counsel oLherwlse Lhey
cannoL be used agalnsL Lhe accused 1he agreemenLs coverlng Lhe maLLers referred Lo ln secLlon 1 of
Lhls 8ule shall be approved by Lhe courL
Sec 3 nonappearance aL preLrlal conference lf Lhe counsel for Lhe accused or Lhe prosecuLor
does noL appear aL Lhe preLrlal conference and does noL offer an accepLable excuse for hls lack of
cooperaLlon Lhe courL may lmpose proper sancLlons or penalLles

Sec 4 reLrlal order AfLer Lhe preLrlal conference Lhe courL shall lssue an order reclLlng Lhe
acLlons Laken Lhe facLs sLlpulaLed and evldence marked Such order shall blnd Lhe parLles llmlL Lhe
Lrlal Lo maLLers noL dlsposed of and conLrol Lhe course f Lhe acLlon durlng Lhe Lrlal unless modlfled
by Lhe courL Lo prevenL manlfesL ln[usLlce

kULL 119 1kIAL
SecLlon 1 1lme Lo prepare for Lrlal AfLer a plea of noL gullLy ls enLered Lhe accused shall have aL
leasL flfLeen (13) days Lo prepare for Lrlal 1he Lrlal shall commence wlLhln LhlrLy (30) days from
recelpL of Lhe preLrlal order chan robles vlrLual law llbrary

Sec 2 ConLlnuous Lrlal unLll LermlnaLed posLponemenLs 1rlal once commenced shall conLlnue
from day Lo day as far as pracLlcable unLll LermlnaLed lL may be posLponed for a reasonable perlod
of Llme for good cause

1he courL shall afLer consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe prosecuLor and defense counsel seL Lhe case for
conLlnuous Lrall on a weekly or oLher shorLLerm Lrlal calendar aL Lhe earllesL posslble Llme so as Lo
ensure speedy Lrlal ln no case shall Lhe enLlre Lrlal perlod exceed one hundred elghLy (180) days
from Lhe flrsL day of Lrlal excepL as oLherwlse auLhorlzed by Lhe Supreme CourL

1he Llme llmlLaLlons provlded under Lhls secLlon and Lhe precedlng secLlon shall noL apply where
speclal laws or clrculars of Lhe Supreme CourL provlde for a shorLer perlod of Lrlal

Sec 3 Lxcluslons 1he followlng perlods of delay shall be excluded ln compuLlng Lhe Llme wlLhln
whlch Lrlal musL commence

(a) Any perlod of delay resulLlng from oLher proceedlngs concernlng Lhe accused lncludlng buL noL
llmlLed Lo Lhe followlng

(1) uelay resulLlng from an examlnaLlon of Lhe physlcal and menLal condlLlon of Lhe accused
(2) uelay resulLlng from proceedlngs wlLh respecL Lo oLher crlmlnal charges agalnsL Lhe accused

(3) uelay resulLlng from exLraordlnary remedles agalnsL lnLerlocuLory orders

(4) uelay resulLlng from preLrlal proceedlngs provlded LhaL Lhe delay does noL exceed LhlrLy (30)
days

(3) uelay resulLlng from orders of lnhlblLlon or proceedlngs relaLlng Lo change of venue of cases or
Lransfer from oLher courLs

(6) uelay resulLlng from a flndlng of exlsLence of a pre[udlclal quesLlon and

(7) uelay reasonably aLLrlbuLable Lo any perlod noL Lo exceed LhlrLy (30) days durlng whlch any
proceedlng concernlng Lhe accused ls acLually under advlsemenL

(b) Any perlod of delay resulLlng from Lhe absence or unavallablllLy of an essenLlal wlLness
lor purposes of Lhls subparagraph an essenLlal wlLness shall be consldered absenL when hls
whereabouLs are unknown or hls whereabouLs cannoL be deLermlned by due dlllgence Pe shall be
consldered unavallable whenever hls whereabouLs are known buL hls presence for Lrlal cannoL be
obLalned by due dlllgence

(c) Any perlod of delay resulLlng from Lhe menLal lncompeLence or physlcal lnablllLy of Lhe accused
Lo sLand Lrlal

(d) lf Lhe lnformaLlon ls dlsmlssed upon moLlon of Lhe prosecuLlon and LhereafLer a charge ls flled
agalnsL Lhe accused for Lhe same offense any perlod of delay from Lhe daLe Lhe charge was
dlsmlssed Lo Lhe daLe Lhe Llme llmlLaLlon would commence Lo run as Lo Lhe subsequenL charge had
Lhere been no prevlous charge

(e) A reasonable perlod of delay when Lhe accused ls [olned for Lrlal wlLh a coaccused over whom
Lhe courL has noL acqulred [urlsdlcLlon or as Lo whom Lhe Llme for Lrlal has noL run and no moLlon
for separaLe Lrlal has been granLed

(f) Any perlod of delay resulLlng from a conLlnuance granLed by any courL moLu proprlo or on
moLlon of elLher Lhe accused or hls counsel or Lhe prosecuLlon lf Lhe courL granLed Lhe conLlnuance
on Lhe basls of lLs flndlngs seL forLh ln Lhe order LhaL Lhe ends of [usLlce served by Laklng such acLlon
ouLwelgh Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe publlc and Lhe accused ln a speedy Lrlal

Sec 4 lacLors for granLlng conLlnuance 1he followlng facLors among oLhers shall be
consldered by a courL ln deLermlnlng wheLher Lo granL a conLlnuance under secLlon 3(f) of Lhls 8ule

(a) WheLher or noL Lhe fallure Lo granL a conLlnuance ln Lhe proceedlng would llkely make a
conLlnuaLlon of such proceedlng lmposslble or resulL ln a mlscarrlage of [usLlce and

(b) WheLher or noL Lhe case Laken as a whole ls so novel unusual and complex due Lo Lhe number
of accused or Lhe naLure of Lhe prosecuLlon or LhaL lL ls unreasonable Lo expecL adequaLe
preparaLlon wlLhln Lhe perlods of Llme esLabllshed Lhereln

ln addlLlon no conLlnuance under secLlon 3(f) of Lhls 8ule shall be granLed because of congesLlon
of Lhe courL's calendar or lack of dlllgenL preparaLlon or fallure Lo obLaln avallable wlLnesses on Lhe
parL of Lhe prosecuLor

Sec 3 1lme llmlL followlng an order for new Lrlal lf Lhe accused ls Lo be Lrled agaln pursuanL Lo
an order for a new Lrlal Lhe Lrlal shall commence wlLhln LhlrLy (30) days from noLlce of Lhe order
provlded LhaL lf Lhe perlod becomes lmpracLlcal due Lo unavallablllLy of wlLnesses and oLher facLors
Lhe courL may exLend buL noL Lo exceed one hundred elghLy (180) days lor Lhe second Lwelve
monLh perlod Lhe Llme llmlL shall be one hundred elghLy (180) days from noLlce of sald order for
new Lrlal


Sec 6 LxLended Llme llmlL noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe provlslons of secLlon 1(g) 8ule 116 and Lhe
precedlng secLlon 1 for Lhe flrsL LwelvecalendarmonLh perlod followlng lLs effecLlvlLy on
SepLember 13 1998 Lhe Llme llmlL wlLh respecL Lo Lhe perlod from arralgnmenL Lo Lrlal lmposed by
sald provlslon shall be one hundred elghLy (180) days lor Lhe second LwelvemonLh perlod Lhe Llme
llmlL shall be one hundred LwenLy (120) days and for Lhe Lhlrd LwelvemonLh perlod Lhe Llme llmlL
shall be elghLy (80) days

Sec 7 ubllc aLLorney's duLles where accused ls lmprlsoned lf Lhe publlc aLLorney asslgned Lo
defend a person charged wlLh a crlme knows LhaL he laLLer ls prevenLlvely deLalned elLher because
he ls charged wlLh a ballable crlme buL has no means Lo posL ball or ls charged wlLh a nonballable
crlme or ls servlng a Lerm of lmprlsonmenL ln any penal lnsLlLuLlon lL shall be hls duLy Lo do Lhe
followlng

(a) Shall prompLly underLake Lo obLaln Lhe presence of Lhe prlsoner for Lrlal or cause a noLlce Lo be
served on Lhe person havlng cusLody of Lhe prlsoner requlrlng such person Lo so advlse Lhe prlsoner
of hls rlghL and demand Lrlal
(b) upon recelpL of LhaL noLlce Lhe cusLodlan of Lhe prlsoner shall prompLly advlse Lhe prlsoner of
Lhe charge and of hls rlghL Lo demand Lrlal lf aL anyLlme LhereafLer Lhe prlsoner lnforms hls
cusLodlan LhaL he demands such Lrlal Lhe laLLer shall cause noLlce Lo LhaL effecL Lo be senL prompLly
Lo Lhe publlc aLLorney

(c) upon recelpL of such noLlce Lhe publlc aLLorney shall prompLly seek Lo obLaln Lhe presence of Lhe
prlsoner for Lrlal

(d) When Lhe cusLodlan of Lhe prlsoner recelves from Lhe publlc aLLorney a properly supporLed
requesL for Lhe avallablllLy of Lhe prlsoner for purpose of Lrlal Lhe prlsoner shall be made avallable
accordlngly

Sec 8 SancLlons ln any case ln whlch prlvaLe counsel for Lhe accused Lhe publlc aLLorney or
Lhe prosecuLor

(a) knowlngly allows Lhe case Lo be seL for Lrlal wlLhouL dlscloslng LhaL a necessary wlLness would be
unavallable for Lrlal
(b) llles a moLlon solely for delay whlch he knows ls LoLally frlvolous and wlLhouL merlL

(c) Makes a sLaLemenL for Lhe purpose of obLalnlng conLlnuance whlch he knows Lo be false and
whlch ls maLerlal Lo Lhe granLlng of a conLlnuance or

(d) Wlllfully falls Lo proceed Lo Lrlal wlLhouL [usLlflcaLlon conslsLenL wlLh Lhe provlslons hereof Lhe
courL may punlsh such counsel aLLorney or prosecuLor as follows


(1) 8y lmposlng on a counsel prlvaLely reLalned ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe defense o fan accused a flne
noL exceedlng LwenLy Lhousand pesos (2000000)
(2) 8y lmposlng on any appolnLed counsel de offlclo publlc aLLorney or prosecuLor a flne noL
exceedlng flve Lhousand pesos (300000) and

(3) 8y denylng any defense counsel or prosecuLor Lhe rlghL Lo pracLlce before Lhe courL Lrylng Lhe
case for a perlod noL exceedlng LhlrLy (30) days 1he punlshmenL provlded for by Lhls secLlon shall be
wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo any approprlaLe crlmlnal acLlon or oLher sancLlon auLhorlzed under Lhese rules

Sec 9 8emedy where accused ls noL broughL Lo Lrlal wlLhln Lhe Llme llmlL lf Lhe accused ls noL
broughL Lo Lrlal wlLhln Lhe Llme llmlL requlred by SecLlon 1(g) 8ule 116 and SecLlon 1 as exLended by
SecLlon 6 of Lhls 8ule Lhe lnformaLlon may be dlsmlssed on moLlon of Lhe accused on Lhe ground of
denlal of hls rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal 1he accused shall have Lhe burden of provlng Lhe moLlon buL Lhe
prosecuLlon shall have Lhe burden of golng forward wlLh Lhe evldence Lo esLabllsh Lhe excluslon of
Llme under secLlon 3 of Lhls rule 1he dlsmlssal shall be sub[ecL Lo Lhe rules on double [eopardy
lallure of Lhe accused Lo move for dlsmlssal prlor Lo Lrlal shall consLlLuLe a walver of Lhe rlghL Lo
dlsmlss under Lhls secLlon

Sec 10 Law on speedy Lrlal noL a bar Lo provlslon on speedy Lrlal ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon no
provlslon of law on speedy Lrlal and no rule lmplemenLlng Lhe same shall be lnLerpreLed as a bar Lo
any charge of denlal of Lhe rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal guaranLeed by SecLlon 14(2) ArLlcle lll of Lhe 1987
ConsLlLuLlon

Sec 11 Crder of Lrlal 1he Lrlal shall proceed ln Lhe followlng order

(a) 1he prosecuLlon shall presenL evldence Lo prove Lhe charge and ln Lhe proper case Lhe clvll
llablllLy
(b) 1he accused may presenL evldence Lo prove hls defense and damages lf any arlslng from Lhe
lssuance of a provlslonal remedy ln Lhe case

(c) 1he prosecuLlon and Lhe defense may ln LhaL order presenL rebuLLal and surrebuLLal evldence
unless Lhe courL ln furLherance of [usLlce permlLs Lhem Lo presenL addlLlonal evldence bearlng upon
Lhe maln lssue

(d) upon admlsslon of evldence of Lhe parLles Lhe case shall be deemed submlLLed for declslon
unless Lhe courL dlrecLs Lhem Lo argue orally or Lo submlL wrlLLen memoranda

(e) When Lhe accused admlLs Lhe acL or omlsslon charged ln Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon buL
lnLerposes a lawful defense Lhe order of Lrlal may be modlfled

Sec 12 AppllcaLlon for examlnaLlon of wlLness for accused before Lrlal When Lhe accused has
been held Lo answer for an offense he may upon moLlon wlLh noLlce Lo Lhe oLher parLles have
wlLnesses condlLlonally examlned ln hls behalf 1he moLlon shall sLaLe (a) Lhe name and resldence of
Lhe wlLness (b) Lhe subsLance of hls LesLlmony and (c) LhaL Lhe wlLness ls slck or lnflrm as Lo afford
reasonable ground for bellevlng LhaL he wlll noL be able Lo aLLend Lhe Lrlal or resldes more Lhan one
hundred (100) kllomeLers from Lhe place of Lrlal and has no means Lo aLLend Lhe same or LhaL oLher
slmllar clrcumsLances exlsL LhaL would make hlm unavallable or prevenL hlm from aLLendlng Lhe Lrlal
1he moLlon shall be supporLed by an affldavlL of Lhe accused and such oLher evldence as Lhe courL
may requlrechan robles vlrLual law llbrary
Sec 13 LxamlnaLlon of defense wlLness how made lf Lhe courL ls saLlsfled LhaL Lhe examlnaLlon
of a wlLness for Lhe accused ls necessary an order shall be made dlrecLlng LhaL Lhe wlLness be
examlned aL a speclflc daLe Llme and place and LhaL a copy of Lhe order be served on Lhe prosecuLor
aL leasL Lhree (3) days before Lhe scheduled examlnaLlon 1he examlnaLlon shall be Laken before a
[udge or lf noL pracLlcable a member of Lhe 8ar ln good sLandlng so deslgnaLed by Lhe [udge ln Lhe
order or lf Lhe order be made by a courL of superlor [urlsdlcLlon before an lnferlor courL Lo be
deslgnaLed Lhereln 1he examlnaLlon shall proceed noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe absence of Lhe prosecuLor
provlded he was duly noLlfled of Lhe hearlng A wrlLLen record of Lhe LesLlmony shall be Laken

Sec 14 8all Lo secure appearance of maLerlal wlLness When Lhe courL ls saLlsfled upon proof of
oaLh LhaL a maLerlal wlLness wlll noL LesLlfy when requlred lL may upon moLlon of elLher parLy
order Lhe wlLness Lo posL ball ln such sum as may be deemed proper upon refusal Lo posL ball Lhe
courL shall commlL hlm Lo prlson unLll he complles or ls legally dlscharged afLer hls LesLlmony has
been Laken

Sec 13 LxamlnaLlon of wlLness for Lhe prosecuLlon When lL ls saLlsfacLorlly appears LhaL a
wlLness for Lhe prosecuLlon ls Loo slck or lnflrm Lo appear aL Lhe Lrlal as dlrecLed by Lhe courL of has
Lo leave Lhe hlllpplnes wlLh no deflnlLe daLe of reLurnlng he may forLhwlLh be condlLlonally
examlned before Lhe courL where Lhe case ls pendlng Such examlnaLlon ln Lhe presence of Lhe
accused or ln hls absence afLer reasonable noLlce Lo aLLend Lhe examlnaLlon has been served on
hlm shall be conducLed ln Lhe same manner as an examlnaLlon aL Lhe Lrlal lallure or refusal of Lhe
accused Lo aLLend Lhe examlnaLlon aL Lhe Lrlal lallure or refusal of Lhe accused Lo aLLend Lhe
examlnaLlon afLer noLlce shall be consldered a walver 1he sLaLemenL Laken may be admlLLed ln
behalf of or agalnsL Lhe accused

Sec 16 1rlal of several accused When Lwo or more accused are [olnLly charged wlLh an offense
Lhey shall be Lrled [olnLly unless Lhe courL ln lLs dlscreLlon and upon moLlon of Lhe prosecuLor or any
accused orders separaLe Lrlal for one or more accused

Sec 17 ulscharge of accused Lo be sLaLe wlLness When Lwo or more persons are [olnLly charged
wlLh Lhe commlsslon of any offense upon moLlon of Lhe prosecuLlon before resLlng lLs case Lhe
courL may dlrecL one or more of Lhe accused Lo be dlscharged wlLh Lhelr consenL so LhaL Lhey may be
wlLnesses for Lhe sLaLe when afLer requlrlng Lhe prosecuLlon Lo presenL evldence and Lhe sworn
sLaLemenL of each proposed sLaLe wlLness aL a hearlng ln supporL of Lhe dlscharge Lhe courL ls
saLlsfled LhaL

(a) 1here ls absoluLe necesslLy for Lhe LesLlmony of Lhe accused whose dlscharge ls requesLed
(b) 1here ls no oLher dlrecL evldence avallable for Lhe proper prosecuLlon of Lhe offense commlLLed
excepL Lhe LesLlmony of sald accused

(c) 1he LesLlmony of sald accused can be subsLanLlally corroboraLed ln lLs maLerlal polnLs

(d) Sald accused does noL appear Lo be Lhe mosL gullLy and

(e) Sald accused has noL aL any Llme been convlcLed of any offense lnvolvlng moral LurplLude

Lvldence adduced ln supporL of Lhe dlscharge shall auLomaLlcally form parL of Lhe Lrlal lf Lhe courL
denles Lhe moLlon for dlscharge of Lhe accused as sLaLe wlLness hls sworn sLaLemenL shall be
lnadmlsslble ln evldence
Sec 18 ulscharge of accused operaLes as acqulLLal 1he order lndlcaLed ln Lhe precedlng secLlon
shall amounL Lo an acqulLLal of Lhe dlscharged accused and shall be a bar Lo fuLure prosecuLlon for
Lhe same offense unless Lhe accused falls or refuses Lo LesLlfy agalnsL hls coaccused ln accordance
wlLh hls sworn sLaLemenL consLlLuLlng Lhe basls for hls dlscharge

Sec 19 When mlsLake has been made ln charglng Lhe proper offense When lL becomes
manlfesL aL any Llme before [udgmenL LhaL a mlsLake has been made ln charglng Lhe proper offense
and Lhe accused cannoL be convlcLed of Lhe offense charged or any oLher offense necessarlly
lncluded Lhereln Lhe accused shall noL be dlscharged lf Lhere appears good cause Lo deLaln hlm ln
such case Lhe courL shall commlL Lhe accused Lo answer for Lhe proper offense and dlsmlss Lhe
orlglnal case upon Lhe flllng of Lhe proper lnformaLlon

Sec 20 AppolnLmenL of acLlng prosecuLor When a prosecuLor hls asslsLanL or depuLy ls
dlsquallfled Lo acL due Lo any of Lhe grounds sLaLed ln secLlon 1 of 8ule 137 or for any oLher reason
Lhe [udge or Lhe prosecuLor shall communlcaLe wlLh Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce ln order LhaL Lhe laLLer
may appolnL an acLlng prosecuLor

Sec 21 Lxcluslon of Lhe publlc 1he [udge may moLu proprlo exclude Lhe publlc from Lhe
courLroom lf Lhe evldence Lo be produced durlng Lhe Lrlal ls offenslve Lo decency or publlc morals
Pe may also on moLlon of Lhe accused exclude Lhe publlc from Lhe Lrlal excepL courL personnel and
Lhe counsel of Lhe parLles

Sec 22 ConsolldaLlon of Lrlals of relaLed offenses Charges for offenses founded on Lhe same
facLs or formlng parL of a serles of offenses of slmllar characLer may be Lrled [olnLly aL Lhe dlscreLlon
of Lhe courL

Sec 23 uemurrer Lo evldence AfLer Lhe prosecuLlon resLs lLs case Lhe courL may dlsmlss Lhe
acLlon on Lhe ground of lnsufflclency of evldence (1) on lLs own lnlLlaLlve afLer glvlng Lhe prosecuLlon
Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be heard or (2) upon demurrer Lo evldence flled by Lhe accused wlLh or wlLhouL
leave of courL

lf Lhe courL denles Lhe demurrer Lo evldence flled wlLh leave of courL Lhe accused may adduce
evldence ln hls defense When Lhe demurrer Lo evldence ls flled wlLhouL leave of courL Lhe accused
walves Lhe rlghL Lo presenL evldence and submlLs Lhe case for [udgmenL on Lhe basls of Lhe evldence
for Lhe prosecuLlon

1he moLlon for leave of courL Lo flle demurrer Lo evldence shall speclflcally sLaLe lLs grounds and
shall be flled wlLhln a nonexLendlble perlod of flve (3) days afLer Lhe prosecuLlon resLs lLs case 1he
prosecuLlon may oppose Lhe moLlon wlLhln a nonexLendlble perlod of flve (3) days from lLs recelpL

lf leave of courL ls granLed Lhe accused shall flle Lhe demurrer Lo evldence wlLhln a nonexLendlble
perlod of Len (10) days from noLlce 1he prosecuLlon may oppose Lhe demurrer Lo evldence wlLhln a
slmllar perlod from lLs recelpL

1he order denylng Lhe moLlon for leave of courL Lo flle demurrer Lo evldence or Lhe demurrer lLself
shall noL be revlewable by appeal or by cerLlorarl before [udgmenL

Sec 24 8eopenlng AL any Llme before flnallLy of Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon Lhe [udge may
moLu proprlo or upon moLlon wlLh hearlng ln elLher case reopen Lhe proceedlngs Lo avold a
mlscarrlage of [usLlce 1he proceedlngs shall be LermlnaLed wlLhln LhlrLy (30) days from Lhe order
granLlng lL



8uLL 120 !uuCMLn1


SecLlon 1 !udgmenL deflnlLlon and form !udgmenL ls Lhe ad[udlcaLlon by Lhe courL LhaL Lhe
accused ls gullLy or noL gullLy of Lhe offense charged and Lhe lmposlLlon on hlm of Lhe proper
penalLy and clvll llablllLy lf any lL musL be wrlLLen ln Lhe offlclal language personally and dlrecLly
prepared by Lhe [udge and slgned by hlm and shall conLaln clearly and dlsLlncLly a sLaLemenL of Lhe
facLs and Lhe law upon whlch lL ls based

Sec 2 ConLenLs of Lhe [udgmenL lf Lhe [udgmenL ls of convlcLlon lL shall sLaLe (1) Lhe legal
quallflcaLlon of Lhe offense consLlLuLed by Lhe acLs commlLLed by Lhe accused and Lhe aggravaLlng or
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances whlch aLLended lLs commlsslon (2) Lhe parLlclpaLlon of Lhe accused ln Lhe
offense wheLher as prlnclpal accompllce or accessory afLer Lhe facL (3) Lhe penalLy lmposed upon
Lhe accused and (4) Lhe clvll llablllLy or damages caused by hls wrongful acL or omlsslon Lo be
recovered from Lhe accused by Lhe offended parLy lf Lhere ls any unless Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe clvll
llablllLy by a separaLe clvll acLlon has been reserved or walved

ln case Lhe [udgmenL ls of acqulLLal lL shall sLaLe wheLher Lhe evldence of Lhe prosecuLlon
absoluLely falled Lo prove Lhe gullL of Lhe accused or merely falled Lo prove hls gullL beyond
reasonable doubL ln elLher case Lhe [udgmenL shall deLermlne lf Lhe acL or omlsslon from whlch Lhe
clvll llablllLy mlghL arlse dld noL exlsL

Sec 3 !udgmenL for Lwo or more offenses When Lwo or more offenses are charged ln a slngle
complalnL or lnformaLlon buL Lhe accused falls Lo ob[ecL Lo lL before Lrlal Lhe courL may convlcL hlm
of as many offenses as are charged and proved and lmpose on hlm Lhe penalLy for each offense
seLLlng ouL separaLely Lhe flndlngs of facL and law ln each offense

Sec 4 !udgmenL ln case of varlance beLween allegaLlon and proof When Lhere ls varlance
beLween Lhe offense charged ln Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon and LhaL proved and Lhe offense as
charged ls lncluded ln or necessarlly lncludes Lhe offense proved Lhe accused shall be convlcLed of
Lhe offense proved whlch ls lncluded ln Lhe offense charged or of Lhe offense charged whlch ls
lncluded ln Lhe offense proved

Sec 3 When an offense lncludes or ls lncluded ln anoLher An offense charged necessarlly
lncludes Lhe offense proved when some of Lhe essenLlal elemenLs or lngredlenLs of Lhe former as
alleged ln Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon consLlLuLe Lhe laLLer And an offense charged ls necessarlly
lncluded ln Lhe offense proved when Lhe essenLlal lngredlenLs of Lhe former consLlLuLe or form parL
of Lhose consLlLuLlng Lhe laLLer

Sec 6 romulgaLlon of [udgmenL 1he [udgmenL ls promulgaLed by readlng lL ln Lhe presence of
Lhe accused and any [udge of Lhe courL ln whlch lL was rendered Powever lf Lhe convlcLlon ls for a
llghL offense Lhe [udgmenL may be pronounced ln Lhe presence of hls counsel or represenLaLlve
When Lhe [udge ls absenL or ouLslde Lhe provlnce or clLy Lhe [udgmenL may be promulgaLed by Lhe
clerk of courL

lf Lhe accused ls conflned or deLalned ln anoLher provlnce or clLy Lhe [udgmenL may be
promulgaLed by Lhe execuLlve [udge of Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL havlng [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe place of
conflnemenL or deLenLlon upon requesL of Lhe courL whlch rendered Lhe [udgmenL 1he courL
promulgaLlng Lhe [udgmenL shall have auLhorlLy Lo accepL Lhe noLlce of appeal and Lo approve Lhe
ball bond pendlng appeal provlded LhaL lf Lhe declslon of Lhe Lrlal courL convlcLlng Lhe accused
changed Lhe naLure of Lhe offense from nonballable Lo ballable Lhe appllcaLlon for ball can only be
flled and resolved by Lhe appellaLe courLchan robles vlrLual law llbrary

1he proper clerk of courL shall glve noLlce Lo Lhe accused personally or Lhrough hls bondsman or
warden and counsel requlrlng hlm Lo be presenL aL Lhe promulgaLlon of Lhe declslon lf Lhe accused
was Lrled ln absenLla because he [umped ball or escaped from prlson Lhe noLlce Lo hlm shall be
served aL hls lasL known address

ln case Lhe accused falls Lo appear aL Lhe scheduled daLe of promulgaLlon of [udgmenL desplLe
noLlce Lhe promulgaLlon shall be made by recordlng Lhe [udgmenL ln Lhe crlmlnal dockeL and servlng
hlm a copy Lhereof aL hls lasL known address or Lhru hls counsel

lf Lhe [udgmenL ls for convlcLlon and Lhe fallure of Lhe accused Lo appear was wlLhouL [usLlflable
cause he shall lose Lhe remedles avallable ln Lhese rules agalnsL Lhe [udgmenL and Lhe courL shall
order hls arresL WlLhln flfLeen (13) days from promulgaLlon of [udgmenL however Lhe accused may
surrender and flle a moLlon for leave of courL Lo avall of Lhese remedles Pe shall sLaLe Lhe reasons
for hls absence aL Lhe scheduled promulgaLlon and lf he proves LhaL hls absence was for a [usLlflable
cause he shall be allowed Lo avall of sald remedles wlLhln flfLeen (13) days from noLlce

Sec 7 ModlflcaLlon of [udgmenL A [udgmenL of convlcLlon may upon moLlon of Lhe accused be
modlfled or seL aslde before lL becomes flnal or before appeal ls perfecLed LxcepL where Lhe deaLh
penalLy ls lmposed a [udgmenL becomes flnal afLer Lhe lapse of Lhe perlod for perfecLlng an appeal
or when Lhe senLence has been parLlally or LoLally saLlsfled or served or when Lhe accused has
walved ln wrlLlng hls rlghL Lo appeal or has applled for probaLlon

Sec 8 LnLry of [udgmenL AfLer a [udgmenL has become flnal lL shall be enLered ln accordance
wlLh 8ule 36

Sec 9 LxlsLlng provlslons governlng suspenslon of senLence probaLlon and parole noL affecLed by
Lhls 8ule noLhlng ln Lhls rule shall affecL any exlsLlng provlslons ln Lhe laws governlng suspenslon
of senLence probaLlon or parole



8uLL 121 nLW 18lAL C8 8LCCnSluL8A1lCn

SecLlon 1 new Lrlal or reconslderaLlon AL any Llme before a [udgmenL of convlcLlon becomes
flnal Lhe courL may on moLlon of Lhe accused or aL lLs own lnsLance buL wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe
accused granL a new Lrlal or reconslderaLlon

Sec 2 Crounds for a new Lrlal 1he courL shall granL a new Lrlal on any of Lhe followlng grounds

(a) 1haL errors of law or lrregularlLles pre[udlclal Lo Lhe subsLanLlal rlghLs of Lhe accused have been
commlLLed durlng Lhe Lrlal
(b) 1haL new and maLerlal evldence has been dlscovered whlch Lhe accused could noL wlLh
reasonable dlllgence have dlscovered and produced aL Lhe Lrlal and whlch lf lnLroduced and
admlLLed would probably change Lhe [udgmenL

Sec 3 Cround for reconslderaLlon 1he courL shall granL reconslderaLlon on Lhe ground of errors
of law or facL ln Lhe [udgmenL whlch requlres no furLher proceedlngs
Sec 4 lorm of moLlon and noLlce Lo Lhe prosecuLor 1he moLlon for new Lrlal or reconslderaLlon
shall be ln wrlLlng and shall sLaLe Lhe grounds on whlch lL ls based lf based on a newlydlscovered
evldence Lhe moLlon musL be supporLed by affldavlLs of wlLnesses by whom such evldence ls
expecLed Lo be glven or by duly auLhenLlcaLed coples of documenLs whlch are proposed Lo be
lnLroduced ln evldence noLlce of Lhe moLlon for new Lrlal or reconslderaLlon shall be glven Lo Lhe
prosecuLor

Sec 3 Pearlng on moLlon Where a moLlon for new Lrlal calls for resoluLlon of any quesLlon of
facL Lhe courL may hear evldence Lhereon by affldavlLs or oLherwlse

Sec 6 LffecLs of granLlng a new Lrlal or reconslderaLlon 1he effecLs of granLlng a new Lrlal or
reconslderaLlon are Lhe followlng

(a) When a new Lrlal ls granLed on Lhe ground of errors of law or lrregularlLles commlLLed durlng Lhe
Lrlal all Lhe proceedlngs and evldence affecLed Lhereby shall be seL aslde and Laken anew 1he courL
may ln Lhe lnLeresL of [usLlce allow Lhe lnLroducLlon of addlLlonal evldence
(b) When a new Lrlal ls granLed on Lhe ground of newlydlscovered evldence Lhe evldence already
adduced shall sLand and Lhe newlydlscovered and such oLher evldence as Lhe courL may ln Lhe
lnLeresL of [usLlce allow Lo be lnLroduced shall be Laken and consldered LogeLher wlLh Lhe evldence
already ln Lhe record

(c) ln all cases when Lhe courL granLs new Lrlal or reconslderaLlon Lhe orlglnal [udgmenL shall be seL
aslde or vacaLed and a new [udgmenL rendered accordlngly


8uLL 122 ALAL

SecLlon 1 Who may appeal Any parLy may appeal from a [udgmenL or flnal order unless Lhe
accused wlll be placed ln double [eopardy

Sec 2 Where Lo appeal 1he appeal may be Laken as follows

(a) 1o Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL ln cases declded by Lhe MeLropollLan 1rlal CourL Munlclpal 1rlal
CourL ln ClLles Munlclpal 1rlal CourL or Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourL
(b) 1o Lhe CourL of Appeals or Lo Lhe Supreme CourL ln Lhe proper cases provlded by law ln cases
declded by Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL and

(c) 1o Lhe Supreme CourL ln cases declded by Lhe CourL of Appeals

Sec 3 Pow appeal Laken (a) 1he appeal Lo Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL or Lo Lhe CourL of Appeals ln
cases declded by Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL ln Lhe exerclse of lLs orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon shall be Laken by
flllng a noLlce of appeal wlLh Lhe courL whlch rendered Lhe [udgmenL or flnal order appealed from
and by servlng a copy Lhereof upon Lhe adverse parLy
(b) 1he appeal Lo Lhe CourL of Appeals ln cases declded by Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL ln Lhe exerclse
of lLs appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon shall be by peLlLlon for revlew under 8ule 42

(c) 1he appeal Lo Lhe Supreme CourL ln cases where Lhe penalLy lmposed by Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal
CourL ls recluslon perpeLua or llfe lmprlsonmenL or where a lesser penalLy ls lmposed buL for
offenses commlLLed on Lhe same occaslon or whlch arose ouL of Lhe same occurrence LhaL gave rlse
Lo Lhe more serlous offense for whlch Lhe penalLy of deaLh recluslon perpeLua or llfe lmprlsonmenL
ls lmposed shall be by flllng a noLlce of appeal ln accordance wlLh paragraph (a) of Lhls secLlon

(d) no noLlce of appeal ls necessary ln cases where Lhe deaLh penalLy ls lmposed by Lhe 8eglonal
1rlal CourL 1he same shall be auLomaLlcally revlewed by Lhe Supreme CourL as provlded ln secLlon
10 of Lhls 8ule

LxcepL as provlded ln Lhe lasL paragraph of secLlon 13 8ule 124 all oLher appeals Lo Lhe Supreme
CourL shall be by peLlLlon for revlew on cerLlorarl under 8ule 43

Sec 4 Servlce of noLlce of appeal lf personal servlce of Lhe copy of Lhe noLlce of appeal can noL
be made upon Lhe adverse parLy or hls counsel servlce may be done by reglsLered mall or by
subsLlLuLed servlce pursuanL Lo secLlons 7 and 8 of 8ule 13

Sec 3 Walver of noLlce 1he appellee may walve hls rlghL Lo a noLlce LhaL an appeal has been
Laken 1he appellaLe courL may ln lLs dlscreLlon enLerLaln an appeal noLwlLhsLandlng fallure Lo glve
such noLlce lf Lhe lnLeresLs of [usLlce so requlre

Sec 6 When appeal Lo be Laken An appeal musL be Laken wlLhln flfLeen (13) days from
promulgaLlon of Lhe [udgmenL or from noLlce of Lhe flnal order appealed from 1hls perlod for
perfecLlng an appeal shall be suspended from Lhe Llme a moLlon for new Lrlal or reconslderaLlon ls
flled unLll noLlce of Lhe order overrullng Lhe moLlon has been served upon Lhe accused or hls counsel
aL whlch Llme Lhe balance of Lhe perlod beglns Lo run

Sec 7 1ranscrlblng and flllng noLes of sLenographlc reporLer upon appeal When noLlce of
appeals ls flled by Lhe accused Lhe Lrlal courL shall dlrecL Lhe sLenographlc reporLer Lo Lranscrlbe hls
noLes of Lhe proceedlngs When flled by Lhe eople of Lhe hlllpplnes Lhe Lrlal courL shall dlrecL Lhe
sLenographlc reporLer Lo Lranscrlbe such porLlon of hls noLes of Lhe proceedlngs as Lhe courL upon
moLlon shall speclfy ln wrlLlng 1he sLenographlc reporLer shall cerLlfy Lo Lhe correcLness of Lhe
noLes and Lhe LranscrlpL Lhereof whlch shall conslsL of Lhe orlglnal and four coples and shall flle sald
orlglnal and four coples wlLh Lhe clerk wlLhouL unnecessary delaychan robles vlrLual law llbrary

lf deaLh penalLy ls lmposed Lhe sLenographlc reporLer shall wlLhln LhlrLy (30) days from
promulgaLlon of Lhe senLence flle wlLh Lhe clerk Lhe orlglnal and four coples of Lhe duly cerLlfled
LranscrlpL of hls noLes of Lhe proceedlngs no exLenslon of Llme for flllng of sald LranscrlpL of
sLenographlc noLes shall be granLed excepL by Lhe Supreme CourL and only upon [usLlflable grounds

Sec 8 1ransmlsslon of papers Lo appellaLe courL upon appeal WlLhln flve (3) days from Lhe flllng
of Lhe noLlce of appeal Lhe clerk of courL wlLh whom Lhe noLlce of appeal was flled musL LransmlL Lo
Lhe clerk of courL of Lhe appellaLe courL Lhe compleLe record of Lhe case LogeLher wlLh sald noLlce
1he orlglnal and Lhree coples of Lhe LranscrlpL of sLenographlc noLes LogeLher wlLh Lhe records shall
also be LransmlLLed Lo Lhe clerk of Lhe appellaLe courL wlLhouL undue delay 1he oLher copy of Lhe
LranscrlpL shall remaln ln Lhe lower courL

Sec 9 Appeal Lo Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourLs (a) WlLhln flve (3) days from perfecLlon of Lhe appeal
Lhe clerk of courL shall LransmlL Lhe orlglnal record Lo Lhe approprlaLe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL

(b) upon recelpL of Lhe compleLe record of Lhe case LranscrlpLs and exhlblLs Lhe clerk of courL of
Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL shall noLlfy Lhe parLles of such facL

(c) WlLhln flfLeen (13) days from recelpL of sald noLlce Lhe parLles may submlL memoranda or
brlefs or may be requlred by Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL Lo do so AfLer Lhe submlsslon of such
memoranda or brlefs or upon Lhe explraLlon of Lhe perlod Lo flle Lhe same Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL
shall declde Lhe case on Lhe basls of Lhe enLlre record of Lhe case and of such memoranda or brlefs
as may have been flled

Sec 10 1ransmlsslon of records ln case of deaLh penalLy ln all cases where Lhe deaLh penalLy ls
lmposed by Lhe Lrlal courL Lhe records shall be forwarded Lo Lhe Supreme CourL for auLomaLlc
revlew and [udgmenL wlLhln flve (3) days afLer Lhe flfLeenLh (13) day followlng Lhe promulgaLlon of
Lhe [udgmenL or noLlce of denlal of a moLlon for new Lrlal or reconslderaLlon 1he LranscrlpL shall
also be forwarded wlLhln Len (10) days afLer Lhe flllng Lhereof by Lhe sLenographlc reporLer

Sec 11 LffecL of appeal by any of several accused (a) An appeal Laken by one or more of several
accused shall noL affecL Lhose who dld noL appeal excepL lnsofar as Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe appellaLe
courL ls favorable and appllcable Lo Lhe laLLer

(b) 1he appeal of Lhe offended parLy from Lhe clvll aspecL shall noL affecL Lhe crlmlnal aspecL of Lhe
[udgmenL or order appealed from

(c) upon perfecLlon of Lhe appeal Lhe execuLlon of Lhe [udgmenL or flnal order appealed from
shall be sLayed as Lo Lhe appeallng parLy

Sec 12 WlLhdrawal of appeal noLwlLhsLandlng perfecLlon of Lhe appeal Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal
CourL MeLropollLan 1rlal CourL Munlclpal 1rlal CourL ln ClLles Munlclpal 1rlal CourL or Munlclpal
ClrculL 1rlal CourL as Lhe case may be may allow Lhe appellanL Lo wlLhdraw hls appeal before Lhe
record has been forwarded by Lhe clerk of courL Lo Lhe proper appellaLe courL as provlded ln secLlon
8 ln whlch case Lhe [udgmenL shall become flnal 1he 8eglonal 1rlal CourL may also ln lLs dlscreLlon
allow Lhe appellanL from Lhe [udgmenL of a MeLropollLan 1rlal CourL Munlclpal 1rlal CourL ln ClLles
Munlclpal 1rlal CourL or Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourL Lo wlLhdraw hls appeal provlded a moLlon Lo
LhaL effecL ls flled before rendlLlon of Lhe [udgmenL ln Lhe case on appeal ln whlch case Lhe
[udgmenL of Lhe courL of orlgln shall become flnal and Lhe case shall be remanded Lo Lhe laLLer courL
for execuLlon of Lhe [udgmenL

Sec 13 AppolnLmenL of counsel de offlclo for accused on appeal lL shall be Lhe duLy of Lhe clerk
of courL of Lhe Lrlal courL upon flllng of a noLlce of appeal Lo ascerLaln from Lhe appellanL lf
conflned ln prlson wheLher he deslres Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL CourL of Appeals or Lhe Supreme
CourL Lo appolnL a counsel de offlclo Lo defend hlm and Lo LransmlL wlLh Lhe record on a form Lo be
prepared by Lhe clerk of courL of Lhe appellaLe courL a cerLlflcaLe of compllance wlLh Lhls duLy and
of Lhe response of Lhe appellaLe Lo hls lnqulry





8uLL 123 8CCLuu8L ln 1PL MunlClAL 18lAL CCu81S


SecLlon 1 unlform rocedure 1he procedure Lo be observed ln Lhe MeLropollLan 1rlal CourLs
Munlclpal 1rlal CourLs and Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourLs shall be Lhe same as ln Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal
CourLs excepL where a parLlcular provlslon applles only Lo elLher of sald courLs and ln crlmlnal cases
governed by Lhe 8evlsed 8ule on Summary rocedure





8uLL 124 8CCLuu8L ln 1PL CCu81 Cl ALALS


SecLlon 1 1lLle of Lhe case ln all crlmlnal cases appealed Lo Lhe CourL of Appeals Lhe parLy
appeallng Lhe case shall be called Lhe appellanL and Lhe adverse parLy Lhe appellee buL Lhe LlLle
of Lhe case shall remaln as lL was ln Lhe courL of orlgln

Sec 2 AppolnLmenL of counsel de offlclo for Lhe accused lf lL appears from Lhe record of Lhe
case as LransmlLLed LhaL (a) Lhe accused ls conflned ln prlson (b) ls wlLhouL counsel de parLe on
appeal or (c) has slgned Lhe noLlce of appeal hlmself ask Lhe clerk of courL of Lhe CourL of Appeals
shall deslgnaLe a counsel de offlclo

An appellanL who ls noL conflned ln prlson may upon requesL be asslgned a counsel de offlclo
wlLhln Len (10) days from recelpL of Lhe noLlce Lo flle brlef and he esLabllshes hls rlghL LhereLo

Sec 3 When brlef for appellanL Lo be flled WlLhln LhlrLy (30) days from recelpL by Lhe appellanL
or hls counsel of Lhe noLlce from Lhe clerk of courL of Lhe CourL of Appeals LhaL Lhe evldence oral
and documenLary ls already aLLached Lo Lhe record Lhe appellanL shall flle seven (7) coples of hls
brlef wlLh Lhe clerk of courL whlch shall be accompanled by proof of servlce of Lwo (2) coples Lhereof
upon Lhe appellee

Sec 4 When brlef for appellee Lo be flled reply brlef of Lhe appellanL WlLhln LhlrLy (30) days
from recelpL of Lhe brlef of Lhe appellanL Lhe appellee shall flle seven (7) coples of Lhe brlef of Lhe
appellee wlLh Lhe clerk of courL whlch shall be accompanled by proof of servlce of Lwo (2) coples
Lhereof upon Lhe appellanL

WlLhln LwenLy (20) days from recelpL of Lhe brlef of Lhe appellee Lhe appellanL may flle a reply
brlef Lraverslng maLLers ralsed ln Lhe former buL noL covered ln Lhe brlef of Lhe appellanL

Sec 3 LxLenslon of Llme for flllng brlefs LxLenslon of Llme for Lhe flllng of brlefs wlll noL be
allowed excepL for good and sufflclenL cause and only lf Lhe moLlon for exLenslon ls flled before Lhe
explraLlon of Lhe Llme soughL Lo be exLended

Sec 6 lorm of brlefs 8rlefs shall elLher be prlnLed encoded or LypewrlLLen ln double space on
legal slze good quallLy unglazed paper 330 mm ln lengLh by 216 mm ln wldLh

Sec 7 ConLenLs of brlef 1he brlefs ln crlmlnal cases shall have Lhe same conLenLs as provlded ln
secLlons 13 and 14 of 8ule 44 A cerLlfled Lrue copy of Lhe declslon or flnal order appealed from shall
be appended Lo Lhe brlef of Lhe appellanL

Sec 8 ulsmlssal of appeal for abandonmenL or fallure Lo prosecuLe 1he CourL of Appeals may
upon moLlon of Lhe appellee or moLu proprlo and wlLh noLlce Lo Lhe appellanL ln elLher case dlsmlss
Lhe appeal lf Lhe appellanL falls Lo flle hls brlef wlLhln Lhe Llme prescrlbed by Lhls 8ule excepL where
Lhe appellanL ls represenLed by a counsel de offlclo

1he CourL of Appeals may also upon moLlon of Lhe appellee or moLu proprlo dlsmlss Lhe appeal lf
Lhe appellanL escapes from prlson or conflnemenL [umps ball or flees Lo a forelgn counLry durlng Lhe
pendency of Lhe appeal

Sec 9 rompL dlsposlLlon of appeals Appeals of accused who are under deLenLlon shall be glven
precedence ln Lhelr dlsposlLlon over oLher appeals 1he CourL of Appeals shall hear and declde Lhe
appeal aL Lhe earllesL pracLlcable Llme wlLh due regard Lo Lhe rlghLs of Lhe parLles 1he accused need
noL be presenL ln courL durlng Lhe hearlng of Lhe appeal

Sec 10 !udgmenL noL Lo be reversed or modlfled excepL for subsLanLlal error no [udgmenL shall
be reversed or modlfled unless Lhe CourL of Appeals afLer an examlnaLlon of Lhe record and of Lhe
evldence adduced by Lhe parLles ls of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lerror was commlLLed whlch ln[urlously
affecLed Lhe subsLanLlal rlghLs of Lhe appellanL

Sec 11 Scope of [udgmenL 1he CourL of Appeals may reverse afflrm or modlfy Lhe [udgmenL
and lncrease or reduce Lhe penalLy lmposed by Lhe Lrlal courL remand Lhe case Lo Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal
CourL for new Lrlal or reLrlal or dlsmlss Lhe case

Sec 12 ower Lo recelve evldence 1he CourL of Appeals shall have Lhe power Lo Lry cases and
conducL hearlngs recelve evldence and perform any and all acLs necessary Lo resolve facLual lssues
ralsed ln cases (a) falllng wlLhln lLs orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon (b) lnvolvlng clalms for damages arlslng from
provlslonal remedles or (c) where Lhe courL granLs a new Lrlal based only on Lhe ground of newly
dlscovered evldence

Sec 13 Cuorum of Lhe courL cerLlflcaLlon or appeal of cases Lo Supreme CourL 1hree (3)
!usLlces of Lhe CourL of Appeals shall consLlLuLe a quorum for Lhe sesslons of a dlvlslon 1he
unanlmous voLe of Lhe Lhree (3) !usLlces of a dlvlslon shall be necessary for Lhe pronouncemenL of a
[udgmenL or flnal resoluLlon whlch shall be reached ln consulLaLlon before Lhe wrlLlng of Lhe oplnlon
by a member of Lhe dlvlslon ln Lhe evenL LhaL Lhe Lhree (3) !usLlces can noL reach a unanlmous voLe
Lhe resldlng !usLlce shall dlrecL Lhe raffle commlLLee of Lhe CourL Lo deslgnaLe Lwo (2) addlLlonal
!usLlces Lo slL Lemporarlly wlLh Lhem formlng a speclal dlvlslon of flve (3) members and Lhe
concurrence of a ma[orlLy of such dlvlslon shall be necessary for Lhe pronouncemenL of a [udgmenL
or flnal resoluLlon 1he deslgnaLlon of such addlLlonal !usLlces shall be made sLrlcLly by raffle and
roLaLlon among all oLher !usLlces of Lhe CourL of Appeals

Whenever Lhe CourL of Appeals flnd LhaL Lhe penalLy of deaLh recluslon perpeLua or llfe
lmprlsonmenL should be lmposed ln a case Lhe courL afLer dlscusslon of Lhe evldence and Lhe law
lnvolved shall render [udgmenL lmposlng Lhe penalLy of deaLh recluslon perpeLua or llfe
lmprlsonmenL as Lhe clrcumsLance warranL Powever lL shall refraln from enLerlng Lhe [udgmenL
and forLhwlLh cerLlfy Lhe case and elevaLe Lhe enLlre record Lhereof Lo Lhe Supreme CourL for
revlew

Sec 14 MoLlon for new Lrlal AL any Llme afLer Lhe appeal from Lhe lower courL has been
perfecLed and before Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe CourL of Appeals convlcLlng Lhe appellanL becomes flnal
Lhe laLLer may move for a new Lrlal on Lhe ground of newlydlscovered evldence maLerlal Lo hls
defense 1he moLlon shall conform wlLh Lhe provlslons of secLlon 4 8ule 121

Sec 13 Where new Lrlal conducLed When a new Lrlal ls granLed Lhe CourL of Appeals may
conducL Lhe hearlng and recelve evldence as provlded ln secLlon 12 of Lhls 8ule or refer Lhe Lrlal Lo
Lhe courL of orlgln

Sec 16 8econslderaLlon A moLlon for reconslderaLlon shall be flled wlLhln flfLeen (13) days
from noLlce of Lhe declslon or flnal order of Lhe CourL of Appeals wlLh coples Lhereof served upon
Lhe adverse parLy seLLlng forLh Lhe grounds ln supporL Lhereof 1he mlLLlmus shall be sLayed durlng
Lhe pendency of Lhe moLlon for reconslderaLlon no parLy shall be allowed a second moLlon for
reconslderaLlon of a [udgmenL or flnal order

Sec 17 !udgmenL LransmlLLed and flled ln Lrlal courL When Lhe enLry of [udgmenL of Lhe CourL
of Appeals ls lssued a cerLlfled Lrue copy of Lhe [udgmenL shall be aLLached Lo Lhe orlglnal record
whlch shall be remanded Lo Lhe clerk of Lhe courL from whlch Lhe appeal was Laken

Sec 18 AppllcaLlon of cerLaln rules ln clvll procedure Lo crlmlnal cases 1he provlslons of 8ules 42
44 Lo 46 and 48 Lo 36 relaLlng Lo procedure ln Lhe CourL of Appeals and ln Lhe Supreme CourL ln
orlglnal and appealed clvll cases shall be applled Lo crlmlnal cases lnsofar as Lhey are appllcable and
noL lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhe provlslon of Lhls 8ule





8uLL 123 8CCLuu8L ln 1PL Su8LML CCu81


SecLlon 1 unlform rocedure unless oLherwlse provlded by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or by law Lhe
procedure ln Lhe Supreme CourL ln orlglnal and ln appealed cases shall be Lhe same as ln Lhe CourL
of Appeals

Sec 2 8evlew of declslons of Lhe CourL of Appeals 1he procedure for Lhe revlew by Lhe
Supreme CourL of declslons ln crlmlnal cases rendered by Lhe CourL of Appeals shall be Lhe same as
ln clvll cases

Sec 3 ueclslon lf oplnlon ls equally dlvlded When Lhe Supreme CourL en banc ls equally dlvlded
ln oplnlon or Lhe necessary ma[orlLy cannoL be had on wheLher Lo acqulL Lhe appellanL Lhe case shall
agaln be dellberaLed upon and lf no declslon ls reached afLer redellberaLlon Lhe [udgmenL of
convlcLlon of lower courL shall be reversed and Lhe accused acqulLLed



8uLL 126 SLA8CP Anu SLlZu8L

SecLlon 1 Search warranL deflned A search warranL ls an order ln wrlLlng lssued ln Lhe name of
Lhe eople of Lhe hlllpplnes slgned by a [udge and dlrecLed Lo a peace offlcer commandlng hlm Lo
search for personal properLy descrlbed Lhereln and brlng lL before Lhe courL

Sec 2 CourL where appllcaLlon for search warranL shall be flled An appllcaLlon for search
warranL shall be flled wlLh Lhe followlng

(a) Any courL wlLhln whose LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon a crlme was commlLLedchan robles vlrLual law
llbrary
(b) lor compelllng reasons sLaLed ln Lhe appllcaLlon any courL wlLhln Lhe [udlclal reglon where Lhe
crlme was commlLLed lf Lhe place of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme ls known or any courL wlLhln Lhe
[udlclal reglon where Lhe warranL shall be enforced

Powever lf Lhe crlmlnal acLlon has already been flled Lhe appllcaLlon shall only be made ln Lhe
courL where Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ls pendlng
Sec 3 ersonal properLy Lo be selzed A search warranL may be lssued for Lhe search and selzure
of personal properLy

(a) Sub[ecL of Lhe offense
(b) SLolen or embezzled and oLher proceeds or frulLs of Lhe offense or

(c) used or lnLended Lo be used as Lhe means of commlLLlng an offense

Sec 4 8equlslLes for lssulng search warranL A search warranL shall noL lssue excepL upon
probable cause ln connecLlon wlLh one speclflc offense Lo be deLermlned personally by Lhe [udge
afLer examlnaLlon under oaLh or afflrmaLlon of Lhe complalnanL and Lhe wlLness he may produce
and parLlcularly descrlblng Lhe place Lo be searched and Lhe Lhlngs Lo be selzed whlch may be
anywhere ln Lhe hlllpplnes
Sec 3 LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL record 1he [udge musL before lssulng Lhe warranL
personally examlne ln Lhe form of searchlng quesLlons and answers ln wrlLlng and under oaLh Lhe
complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses he may produce on facLs personally known Lo Lhem and aLLach Lo Lhe
record Lhelr sworn sLaLemenLs LogeLher wlLh Lhe affldavlLs submlLLed

Sec 6 lssuance and form of search warranL lf Lhe [udge ls saLlsfled of Lhe exlsLence of facLs
upon whlch Lhe appllcaLlon ls based or LhaL Lhere ls probable cause Lo belleve LhaL Lhey exlsL he
shall lssue Lhe warranL whlch musL be subsLanLlally ln Lhe form prescrlbed by Lhese 8ules

Sec 7 8lghL Lo break door or wlndow Lo effecL search 1he offlcer lf refused admlLLance Lo Lhe
place of dlrecLed search afLer glvlng noLlce of hls purpose and auLhorlLy may break open any ouLer
or lnner door or wlndow of a house or any parL of a house or anyLhlng Lhereln Lo execuLe Lhe
warranL Lo llberaLe hlmself or any person lawfully aldlng hlm when unlawfully deLalned Lhereln

Sec 8 Search of house room or premlses Lo be made ln presence of Lwo wlLnesses no search
of a house room or any oLher premlses shall be made excepL ln Lhe presence of Lhe lawful occupanL
Lhereof or any member of hls famlly or ln Lhe absence of Lhe laLLer Lwo wlLnesses of sufflclenL age
and dlscreLlon resldlng ln Lhe same locallLychan robles vlrLual law llbrary

Sec 9 1lme of maklng search 1he warranL musL dlrecL LhaL lL be served ln Lhe day Llme unless
Lhe affldavlL asserLs LhaL Lhe properLy ls on Lhe person or ln Lhe place ordered Lo be searched ln
whlch case a dlrecLlon may be lnserLed LhaL lL be served aL any Llme of Lhe day or nlghL

Sec 10 valldlLy of search warranL A search warranL shall be valld for Len (10) days from lLs daLe
1hereafLer lL shall be vold

Sec 11 8ecelpL for Lhe properLy selzed 1he offlcer selzlng Lhe properLy under Lhe warranL musL
glve a deLalled recelpL for Lhe same Lo Lhe lawful occupanL of Lhe premlses ln whose presence Lhe
search and selzure were made or ln Lhe absence of such occupanL musL ln Lhe presence of aL leasL
Lwo wlLnesses of sufflclenL age and dlscreLlon resldlng ln Lhe same locallLy leave a recelpL ln Lhe
place ln whlch he found Lhe selzed properLy

Sec 12 uellvery of properLy and lnvenLory Lhereof Lo courL reLurn and proceedlngs Lhereon
(a) 1he offlcer musL forLhwlLh dellver Lhe properLy selzed Lo Lhe [udge who lssued Lhe warranL
LogeLher wlLh a Lrue lnvenLory Lhereof duly verlfled under oaLh

(b) 1en (10) days afLer lssuance of Lhe search warranL Lhe lssulng [udge shall ascerLaln lf Lhe
reLurn has been made and lf none shall summon Lhe person Lo whom Lhe warranL was lssued and
requlre hlm Lo explaln why no reLurn was made lf Lhe reLurn has been made Lhe [udge shall
ascerLaln wheLher secLlon 11 of Lhls 8ule has been complled wlLh and shall requlre LhaL Lhe properLy
selzed be dellvered Lo hlm 1he [udge shall see Lo lL LhaL subsecLlon (a) hereof has been complled
wlLh

(c) 1he reLurn on Lhe search warranL shall be flled and kepL by Lhe cusLodlan of Lhe log book on
search warranLs who shall enLer Lhereln Lhe daLe of Lhe reLurn Lhe resulL and oLher acLlons of Lhe
[udge

A vlolaLlon of Lhls secLlon shall consLlLuLe conLempL of courL

Sec 13 Search lncldenL Lo lawful arresL A person lawfully arresLed may be searched for
dangerous weapons or anyLhlng whlch may have been used or consLlLuLe proof ln Lhe commlsslon of
an offense wlLhouL a search warranL

Sec 14 MoLlon Lo quash a search warranL or Lo suppress evldence where Lo flle A moLlon Lo
quash a search warranL and/or Lo suppress evldence obLalned Lhereby may be flled ln and acLed
upon only by Lhe courL where Lhe acLlon has been lnsLlLuLed lf no crlmlnal acLlon has been
lnsLlLuLed Lhe moLlon may be flled ln and resolved by Lhe courL LhaL lssued search warranL
Powever lf such courL falled Lo resolve Lhe moLlon and a crlmlnal case ls subsequenLly flled ln
anoLher courL Lhe moLlon shall be resolved by Lhe laLLer courLchan robles vlrLual law llbrary





8uLL 127 8CvlSlCnAL 8LMLulLS ln C8lMlnAL CASLS


SecLlon 1 AvallablllLy of provlslonal remedles 1he provlslonal remedles ln clvll acLlons lnsofar as
Lhey are appllcable may be avalled of ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe clvll acLlon deemed lnsLlLuLed wlLh Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon

Sec 2 ALLachmenL When Lhe clvll acLlon ls properly lnsLlLuLed ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon as provlded
ln 8ule 111 Lhe offended parLy may have Lhe properLy of Lhe accused aLLached as securlLy for Lhe
saLlsfacLlon of any [udgmenL LhaL may be recovered from Lhe accused ln Lhe followlng cases

(a) When Lhe accused ls abouL Lo abscond from Lhe hlllpplnes
(b) When Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ls based on a clalm for money or properLy embezzled or fraudulenLly
mlsapplled or converLed Lo Lhe use of Lhe accused who ls a publlc offlcer offlcer of a corporaLlon
aLLorney facLor broker agenL or clerk ln Lhe course of hls employmenL as such or by any oLher
person ln a flduclary capaclLy or for a wlllful vlolaLlon of duLy

(c) When Lhe accused has concealed removed or dlsposed of hls properLy or ls abouL Lo do so and

(d) When Lhe accused resldes ouLslde Lhe hlllpplnes