812;195

TRY MENI
SET UP A HOM-E LABORATORY-OVER 200 SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS

THE

GOLDEN

BOOI(

OF

ChemLi§ltJryExperinnent§
How to Set Up a Home LaboratoryOver 200 Simple Experiments
BY ROBERT ILLUSTRATED BRENT

BY HARRY LAZARUS

GOLDEN

PRESS

~

NEW

YORK

Acid: a hydrogen-containing compound that releases hydrogen ions in solution, "Uloy: a material made up by combining two or more metals, Analysis: Anhydrous: breaking down a compound

Element: a substance that contains one kind of atoms, Equation: a complete

only
II

Organic chemistry: tbe carbon compounds,

the" chemistry

of

chemical reaction by the use formulas, and signs,

de-script ion of symbols,

or

Oxida tion . the process by which a substance combines with oxygen. Pt'ec.ipitate: in a solution chemically Reaction: an insoluble solid formed bychemical reaction,

into two or more substances,
free from water, Atom: the smallest unit of an element that can enter into the making a chemical compound,

Evapur-a lion: the changing of II suhstance into vapor; also the process of remo ..ing 'water by heating. Filtmte: Filtration: a liquid obtained the

or

by filtration.

Hadical e a group of atoms (,bat behave as a single atom. a chem ieal change.
of oxygen; the op-

A torulc wedgb t: the weight of an a tom eomparedwith the weight of an oxygen atom, set at 16,

process of straining a liquid from a solid through porous material, usually filter paper. For-m u la: a group of symbols and nurnbel'S giving the composition of a compound .. Hydra te ia conrpouud containing JO!JHlly bound water or hydration (water of crystallization) that can he driven off

Reduntionr removal posite of oxidation,

Base: a, compound containing tbe hydroxide group (OR)
Catalyst: a substance that helps in a chemical reaction wi thout itself being changed, Chemical change,: stance into another

Salt: compound (oilier than water) formed by the reaction of an add and

a base,
Sa t.ur-a te,d sol u tion: contains the maximum under the co nditious , Solullility: a solution that amount of solute

by heating,
Hydroxide: a compound that the 11yd<,0X",),1 (OH) radical. [on: an electrically charged group of atoms (radical). contains

a change of a subsubstance having

different properties,
Chemis try: a branch of science dealing with the compositions of substances and the changes that Gall be made in them, ComhU5tion,: burning; a chemical change that. produces heat and light. Corn pound: a substance consisting of two or more different kinds of atoms ill definite proportions hy weight, Cry" t.al i II solid ·i n wh ich atoms or molecules are arranged in II definite pattern, Density: the weight of a Iiquid solid ill grams per emS or milliliter. or
II

the number of grams of a to make a saturated solution in 100 grams of solvent. solute needed
Solute: solvent. the substance dissolved ng mixture in a of a

atom

or

· Lalleeblee capable of being hammered or rolled into a thin sheet, · fatter: anything and bas weight.

Solu rion s a ncn-settli

solute in a solvent,
Solvent: dissolved,

that

takes up spaee

a liquid in which a solute is

i'lletal:. an element tha t is a good, cond uctor of electrici 1y, has IUELer, and whose oxide forms II hare with water, l'I'Ietalloid: an element that has properties of hoth metals and nonmetals. IIlh:tnre: comhined a mingling chemically. of substances not,

Sublf mat ion: a process by which II solid is turned into vapor and again cooled into a solid without passing through a liquid stage.
Subscript: a small numeral indicating the number of atoms of a certain element in the formula of a compound. Subsl;ance; any specific kind of matter whether element, compound, ormixture, Symbol: a letter or two letters senting one atom of an. clement, repre-

DistHla tel a liquid that has been turned into vapor and again cooled into a liquid, DistiUation: a distillate, Ductile: the process of producing out, into

?Ioleoular weight: the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms that make up a molecule of a compound, l'l'lolcoule.: the smallest unit of a compound thatoan exist, in the free state, · ·eu.trIl1i7..ation: the reaction of an acid and a base to give a salt and water, Nonmetal: an element that, is a, poor eonduetor of electricity, does not have luster, and whose oxide forms an acid, when combined with water.

a, wire.
Electrolysis: breaking down a substance by passing an electric current through it. Electrolytes

capa ble of being drawn

Synthesis: the making up of a compound from simpler compounds or from elements; the opposite of analysis, Valence: Ihe number of hydrogen atoms which one atom of an element can displace or with which it can unite,

a

EDtUtiOO

a substance that, when in or when melted, will conduct,
current,

an electric

2:

. . . . CARBON DIOXIDE. CHEMISTS .. . . . . . OF LIGHTES'T THe . . .E!~CE-S Al"lD FomfULAS THE SCIK !TIFIC APPROACH l\1R.\fENT FOR CHEiillSTRY. . . . . . ..n's CAl"<'DLB You . CA LeruM LET'S - FOR BUILDING..xarrcs .' TODAY !\IIETALS. OF THE PAST. . . .A MODER. .'TS. . . . . .. .. ... . . . . . . .. 78 24 TB.. .. . . CHillIIICALS OF i\I.UENTS. .. . TI . . SB'ITING UP YOUR Scmr'o'TIPIC LABORATORY. . WITH B. .. ..u"" AGE OF IRo. . j\'LUUNG APPARATUS FOR ExpERr. . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . .-Ll\''Y 58 60 62 64 66 ''liE LIVE I. . . . . . . . 56 3 ..No Fe WORDS' -SED BY CHE:llISTS. 76 WATER OJ. OF ALCOHOLS FOR Ei'l"ERGY.. . ...' .. . .. . . . . . ..'iCE.JffiBOHYDRA'r:£S Kn. . . . . . .YGEN - Y'lATER ioLND GASES OUIt Mosr I:-'1PORTAl""T COMPoU!\'1) THE BREATH OF LIFE. .. . . CHE:"IllSTRY OF C. . . . . . .. . . . . . FARAD... . . . .. HOME . . . .AS _ ELKllEl'I-or You STEP no UI 112 Coxnrore Il'ITlEx CHEi\llCALS Ai'lD THEIR BORON-Fu"TORE ROCRET-PmYER ELEl\m.!" 104 fATICS .. .JT FORI!I ILAS V . . . .. . ELE:'tIEI'. COLORS 6 CO~lPARE . .. . . . . .• ACIDS BASES. . 92 94 96 CHEt\UCAL CIrE)'!ICAL THE SHORTHA. . . . .. . . 2 4· SOD! 'M Al'i'D POTASSIUM.. .. . .NT Pr. C. . . . . SULFUlt AND ITs THE 48 50 51! WHERE TO GET CHEMICALS A. . 43 46 OU"T CHE~JICAL EQUATIONS 106 THE F T JRE OF CHEMISTRY 'VliAT'S AHEAD IN CHEMISTRY~ NO! -_1ETALS IODIl"m ILICON VIOLET OR BROWNil COMPOUI\:Tls.. . 68 70 72 ON'E OF THE "_ OBLE" MORE AB01.u. . . . .!TI NIIXTUl\Es. .. .. . . 26 30 32 34 H 1:TlROGEN NITROGEN CHLORINE - ALL. ... . . .. . ... . . CHE. .. .' ..ND.. . OF YOUR HOME LABORATORY EQUTP."'-RBO_T COMPO OF HYDHOCARBONS S''I'EET Al\'D .'DS.. .. . .. . .. . . YESTERDAY. .. • . . . . . . COMPOUNDS . ... . . . . .!:' T. . .. . . .. . . . . . .TlS CAIIBOX'r'LIC ACIDs BL. . ... . . 109 . . .. A. .!"\'DEQUTPMENT FORMliT. ... . IT OF A IvlILLION COi\lPOUl'I'Ds. . : ""4 18 20 22 ORGAl~IC CHEMISTRY CA.-u. . . .. . ALIDIINUM - I . .AS . . . . ..•. .. . . .. OF THE ELEME"'TS Psaronrc 36 38 COLLOIDAL DISPERSIONS NATDIt. F ATB "-\. '. . . . ... .. .. . . . PROTEINS- TIm ./y SES.RBON - ELEME. . . . . .'ESE - Two METAL _ fETALS. .. .-'cSES. . . . . ON. .AL AJ. .rns . . . TABLE FOR.. . . . . . . . . . COMPOUi'. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ."\'1) OILS SOAP AND SOAP _ L~.'i'DARTIFICIAL FIBERS 100 102 GU. . " . . ... . 28 '" .•.. .lPORTANCE OF CHEMTSTRY.. THE l?. . .. .. . . . . . BODy-BUTLDING FOODS. . .. . . . . . . . . ABUNDAl. . . . . . ArD THE MYSTERIES . .1. . . . . .. . . .. . .•. .. 80 82 84 88 90 . ..13 FORMULAS A LoT NL-LNY OF CARBON Cosn-oursns.MICAL v\'ORKING MATHE. ..'T~ . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .SCIEl'i-orIST . 9 10 12 14 16 MANGA COPPER SILVER - M. . .. " . .. . . ..... . . . . . . . . . .KING. .. . . .. .-Ll\'TI ITs FRIK1'H) M'm FOE.\fORKING WORKING SALTS - SALTS 40 42 OF SOLUTIONS WITH ACIDS. _ fEASlJREMEl'i-orS CORRECT LABORATORY TECHl\'TQUES . . . .

And that's exactly what chemistry is: FINDING 0 ~T ABOUT THINGS . The foods you eat are all chemical products and th ways in which your body turns them into muscles and bones and nerves and brain cells are some of the greatest of all chemical mysteries. "Vhat thingsf Any tbiug. :.. AIl the things you eeand lots of things you can 't see . The clothes you wear.the metal in it. The air you breathe is a mixture of chemical substances and the process of breathing is a chemical reaction. Nature itself is a tremendous chemical laboratory. the medicine you take. Everything in nature is forever passing through chemical chang . plants and animals ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~==~ INSECT SPRAYS MEAN HEAL THI ER LIVESTOCK. Every thing! Take a look around you.-COOKING AND CLEANING ARE CHEAitlCAL PROCESSES. . tbe gas that moves it. the rubber on which it roils.have to do with the science of chemistry. the house in which you livea]J the-e are products of hemistry.EVERY HOME KITCHEN IS A CHEMICAL LABORATORY. 'Here on earth.finding out wbat things are made of and what changes they undergo. the booksvou read. PURIFICATION OF WATER 4 . So is the family car . Let's start 'with yourself.-r-- The Importance of Chemistry THERE IS HARDLY a boyar a girl alive who is not keenly interested in finding out about things.

billions of years from now. Dew star's are formed. and decay. others fade. rocks crack and crumble under the influence ofairand water. UNITED 5T A YES IS THE WORLD'S LEADING PRODUCER OF STEEL I' . ATOMIC ENERGY THE FUTURE FOR ~ . This atomic OIL IS THE BASIS fOR COUNTLESS CHEMICAL PRODUCTS. for engineers to develop new means of transportation and communication that will bring the peoples of the world closer together. for doctors to cure the diseases of mankind. In the universe. PAPER AND PRINTERS' O.grow.F CHEMISTiRY. Chemistry is one of the most important of all sciences for human welfare. Chemistry means the difference between poverty and starvation and the abundant life. Within recent )'ears. die. The proper use of chemistry makes it possible for farmers to feed the world's ever-increasing population. for manufacturers to produce the thousands of items that are necessary for better and richer living. And this is only the beginning. The sun that gives us heat and light and energy is a flaming furnace of chemical processes that will eventually burn itself out. scientists have succeeded in penetrating into the innermost secrets of chemical substances and have begun to make use of the tremendous force that lies hidden in them.

so. to bake shaped clay into pottery. and earth. He held it up as a torch. obviously. He had actually taken a substance called wood and had.BOlS USED BY ALCHEMISTS N1AI"iY TIlOUSM'm years ago.BROKE OLD TRADITIONS. water. BOYLE . It siz. Think of that burning stick mentioned above. Jt was only about 2. For thousands of yems people were chiefly interested. It gave off fire . PARACElSUS TOLD HIS PU· sns TO USE EXPERIMENTS. It gave off light.except another Greek. to make glass. The discovery of the use of fire was the first great step leading toward modern chemistry. hy a chemical process called combustion or burning.which meant there was water in it. And because of his great reputation this false idea governed the thinking of scientists for t.500 years ago that philosophers began to wonder about what things were made of and what happened when a thing changed into something else . a th.something that cannot be cut further. Fire wade it possible to turn raw foodstuffs into edible meals.because no one dared suggest that he knew better than the great Aristotle! BRONZE~AGE MAN WAS ONE OFTHEEARUEST CHEMISTS. the stick bad to containfire. in the results of what they did . Democritus.they didn't care about what happened or why it happened. an early ancestor of yours pushed a stick into the hot lava flowing from an erupting volcano. C. turned it into something else.. This ancient man might be considered the world's first chemist.and smoke would be some kind of air . in Greece. The greatest Greek philosopher of the day. Everyone .and ashes are earth. It left ashes .INVESTJGATED GASES AND . Aristotle. 6 . It smoked ..zled. horn around the time when Empedocles died. But Damoeritus didn't get very far wit'll his idea. He explained that everything in the world was made from just four things which he called "elements": fire. DEMOCRJTUS INSISTED THAT MATTER CONSISTS Of ATOMS. The stick burst into fire. Around 400 B... held out for the four elements.inker by the name of Empedocles came up with an idea that seemed to make sense . and heat and finally turned into ashes. as certainly everyone should know. ail'.wo thousand years . to drive metals out of their ores. He had a different notionthat all matter was made up of tiny particles which be called alamos .~ copp~ SYM.

In the meantime. in 1661. ~ itb the help of electricity. For hundreds of years chemistry made little headway. in 1828. twenty-eight at the time. Pierre discovered the "miracle element: radium. Then.' PRIESTLEY USED HEAT OF SUN TO PRODUCE OXYGEN. Another hundred years went by. Twenty years later. \Vithin the last fifty years. gild magnesium.but they never created the slightest speck of gold. chemistry bas moved forward with giant steps. and gave the science of chemistry its name . and kimia. at the time of the American Hevolution the day finally dawned for modern chemistry.among them sodium. DAVY BROUGHT ElECTRilCITY INTO CHEMICAL RESEARCH. urea. calcium. scientists of Arabia began work in a subject they called alchemyIrom Arabic ol. of finding a way of making GOLD I They discovered a great nnmber of things not previously known. succeeded in killing off the old idea of the four elements. in 1898 the Polish-born _ Iarie Curie and her French husband. And then. Joseph Priestley. . ex-plained the true nature of burning and made up the first scientific listing of all known elements _. The advances in chemistry greatly influenced industry. Then. working in his laboratory produced a chemical. lAVOISIER GAVE THE RIGHT EXPLANATION OF BURNING. more elements were found. Tbey mixed things and boiled and distilled and extracted in the hope. pouring together. A German chemist. Karl Scheele. only a few people paid attention to him. Ie\'\' elements were discovered. in 1525.substances that cannot be formed by other substances and cannot be broken into other substances. But not a single one of these step-s would have been possible without the dedicated work of the chemists of the past who laid the foundation on which modern chemistry rests . _Ilore and more things were happening. More than a hundred years passed before an Englishman. another important break-through occurred. He did it by establishing that there are many elements . developed many sound laboratory methods. But. that bad never before been made outside the body of a living animal. Friedrich Wohler. new chemicals created. and an Englishman. Robert Boyle. MARIE CURIE AND HER HUSBAND DISCOVERED RADIUM. potassium. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier. A Swede. some day. and a Frenchman. Humphry Davy in a single 'year brought to light six new metals . discovered oxygen. agriculture and medicine. an English chemist. 'Within a few years. Neither did a great number of European alchemists. the. a Swiss doctor and scientist spoke up. This opened up a whole new age in chemistry. He had the imposing name of Theophrastus Bombastus Paracelsus v on Hohenheim. He challenged his students to tear up their books with the old theories that had been developed through reasoning only and to find out for themselves throllgh ezperimerds whether a scientific theory was right or wrong. 7 .

REGULAR LABORATORY WARE watch glass 8 .

SOME mayonnaise jar 4 oz.vill pay you to follow the example of these early chemists.s LABORATORY WARE FOR HOME LAB c stands made of clothes hanger wire 9 . In your home lab experiments it .IMPROVISED EQUIPMENT FOR HOME LA. If not.if you really get excited about chemistry . Use whatever suitable equipment you can find around the house (as suggested in column to the right) and buy only what is absolutely necessary (as shown below)..B of the greatest discoveries in chemistry were made by scientists who had no special equipment but simply used whatever was at hand. Some items may be purchased in a local drugstore or scientific supply shop. you can buy them from one of the suppliers listed on page no. Put your imagination to work. Later on . waler glas.you may want to use your pocket money for some of the lab equipment shown on page 8.

In the home lab. special gas burners are used. Sta.IN A REGU. AIM TO KEE? YOUR OWN LAB AS WELL ORGANIZED. Otherwise. Keep chemicals in glass jars and bottles. EVERYTHING HAS ITS PLACE AND IS NEAR AT HAND.LAR LAB.. If you can dump your 'waste directly into the kitchen drain (NOT into the sink). make a siphon bot. . an open shelf is OK. But it is far better if you have a place where you will not be disturbed and where you can store your equipment . fine. sturdy table will do. Source of Heat. "j'ou are all right. These are the things you'll need in your lab: Work Table. In the regular laboratory. Containers.a corner ill your room. An old. BOx: TO HOLD HOME LAB CAN BE MADE FROM PLYWOOD. Storage. a burner for denatured alcohol. .tle (page 11).Vaste Disposal .nds. LABEL THEl\{ ALL CLRARLY. Cover it with a plastic top to protect the wood. KEEP BOX LOCKED WHEN NOTIN USE AS A PRO· TECTION FOR YOUNG· ER CHILDREN. use a box that can be locked up.I I 10 . If there's no one around to disturb your chemicals and equipment. If Dot. If you have a faucet nearhy. (ltherwisa. Have a shallow metal pan under the burner for fire safety. or in the basement or the garage. Water Supply. IT IS possible that you may be permitted to work at the kitchen table when this is Dot in use. collect it in a plastic pail to be thrown out when you're finished. you can use. . Make "your own test tube stand as well as stands for holding glassware for heating.

--.3"'~ 1 c{~~ (.FOHOW PATTERNS BELOW TO MAK.. WIRE AS SHOWN HERE..-. AND L1PSTICK CONTAINER. '-~-----. . REGULA. some r---~rl. BUY WICK AT A HARDWARE STORE. cui lipstick container al dotted line Iof--.F YOU LIKE.ake 2 o~ ffres~u! on~ o[ong dolted nne 71AlJ' ·--.- e '~} :2 Y2 8 3%" '--71 US._---- 11 .. START SIPHON 8·Y BLOW· ING THROUGH [-SHAPED GLASS TUBE. ASSEMBLE WITH THIN TACKS.----.E A P'AIR Of PLIERS FOR MAKING THESE STANDS FROM CLOTHES HANGER ----Y'J.. MAKE SIPHON FROM A I-GAllON BOHLE._~~ 3" STRIP OF HIN CARDBOARD MAKES -~-. CUTOUT SIDE AND USE CUT-OUT SEQION TO KEEP TEST TUBES LINED UP STRAIGHT. SPRING CLOTHES PIN REGULATES WATER FLOW.R LAB STAND FOR TEST TUBES CAN BE PRO~ DUCED FROM STRIPS OF 1f. THERMOS CORK.) AN ADEQUATE TEST TUBE HOLDER.-~I 0 -.\ .IN YOUR LAB.IF YOU DO NOT HAVE RUNNING WATER .." 14---·· m.---- -....-'--. ALSO MAKE THE FUNNEL STAND I LUS-TRAUD ON PAGE 9.E TWO SIDES AND THREE HORIZONTAL PIECES_ DRill HOLES. I .-~--- ® CD B A'tl}' Yl@)*O 0 0 0 0 +J' [~MAKE AN AlCOHOLSURNER FROM INK BOTTLE. -n. YQU CAIJiI MAKE A HOLDER ~--~) FROM CLOTHES HA GER. f.& -INCH WOOD. YOU CAN MAKE A SIMPLE TEST TUBE STAND FROM A SALT BOX.I--·WIRE..

glass and rubber tubing. : E u co E u .u fits over the 6mm glass tubes. No. ize stoppers to use in the bottles of your apparatus." . WIDE-MOUn1 BOHLE..!. 5 10 mm 13 mm 14 mm 16 mm 18 mm 20l1}m 23 mm THESE ARE THE ACTUAL SIZES OF RUBBER STOPPERS. 0 FITS THE 16 mm TEST TUBE. just for looks but.. you need to know how to 15 mm 17 mm 19 mm cut a glass tube. A good chemist takes pride ill his apparatus. more important. An apparatus that leaks flammable gas can be very dangerous. for safety. with rubber tubing to fit.not. No. Before you start to put an apparatus together. BY MEASURING THEM AGAINST YOUR LAB WARE YOU WILL KNOW WHICH TO ORDER. Mosn of your chemical experiments you will perform in test tubes and jars . THEN FIGURE OUT SIZES OF PARTS. make a simple drawing of it so that you will know w hat it will eonsis t of.. Then get au t the various parts you will Deed to put it together. how to bend it. 12 . Glass tubes of an outside diameter of 6 millimeters lit snugly into the holes in the usual rubber stoppers.5 E v lI") u i1 . J.1(-'" 7 em 9 em t U No. Order stoppers by number. FIRST DECIDE ON APPARATUS YOU WJll NEED. He makes it with great care .. 27 mm 20 mm 24 mm 26 mm No." t E V . THESE ARE THE PARTS FOR THE SAFETY GAS GENERATOR ON PAGE 29. To determine the right. Keep a selection of different size-s on hand. and how to draw it to a jet point. measure the mouths of the bottles against the stoppers shown below in actual size. It is wise to use glass tubes of one diameter only.But occasionally you will Deed an apparatus .<i·OZ. Follow the safety precautions on pagp 16. To make an apparatus. Rubber tubing of an inside diameter of Kt.a de ice consisting of bottles and stoppers.5 FITS . See page 13. 2 No.

THE TUBE WILL FlATIEN OR "BUCKLE. THIS IS CAllED "FIRE GlAZING.B0W'1' TWO~el'lES. THUMBS BELOW MARK. SNAP TUBE INTO TWO PIECES WITH A QUICK JERK. FOR . 1 REAT Ti'iAT PART OFT u SEE V E It'll Y \_~---'T-"-::--/'" WIftERE 'YOO WANJ T0 SErgO Ilf.fiRE GLAZING CUT EDGES ROUND THE ROUGH EDGES OF CUT -TUBE BY ROTATING IN flAME. CUT APART WHEN HARD.A. B'r ROlLING~~El M€}ViNS THE JiUB.. IF HEATED TOO MUCH." MAKING JET POINT heat for about 1 % inches ~ ~--- fire gial:e tip . - HOLD TUBE WITH BOTH HANDS. BY ROLLING IT IN THE FlAME. 2 WHEN SOFT.E BAel<! AND f€)R[I.. 1 HEAT SECTION OF liUBE EVENLY WHERE YOU WANT TO FORM JET POINT. PULL SWWl Y." 13 .I.

.F WHOLE FIGURE IS J CUBIC D.. liter for volumes.---4---4---4--~---.. 10.-/"'" .. FRONT SURFACE O.E 1 liter (I) .> /' ...1/ 1/ ~. the metric system is preferred over our usual system.V V i IL ' V y V V.:: 1 gram (g) .035 ounces avoirdu- 28..37 inches 2. ~-r_-r_--+_-+_-+--+---~-~-~-. centi . That 1000 of a kind are called kilo. 2.:: 39.. It is much easier to work with when once you have learned it .. V/ V V j r-~---r--~--+_-----ir____-+---r--~--+_~V' ~~ __ ~ __ ~ __ ~ __ ~~ 1 cubic decimeter = __ ~ __ ~ __ L_~V liter 1000 cubic centimeten = 1000 milliliters centimeter ruler [ III J.946 liter (I) . grams for weights . hekto.. and g (without a period after them).350 grams (g) dupois = 1 ounce ovoir- cubiccenti mete r em' = 1 cc mllllllter rnl = = .06 quarls (liquid) 0. I V r u...vr V 1I j' II .F FIGURE IS 1 SQUARE DECIMETER (I dm'J OR 100 SQUARE CENTIMETERS (laO em').IN SCIENCE. J v t-----t-t-------t-----t--------i---+-----+---t---+-----f V V V V v~' ty /V V..:: 1000 cubic centimeters (cm> or eel III .VV BonOM LINE OF FIGURE TO THE RI...540 centimeters (em) =1 m .2 or 16 to go from one unit to the next. 100. VV v V l/IJ : l/tl V~ " V I 1-_-+-_-+-_-_l--_I-----1I--~-___I-__t-___t-___fVV t---t----+----t---+---------t--+---t---------ir--------t--. Just remember. VOlUME D..GH....../" // L_L L_L_ /L /L // ~I'/ 1""---11----t---+--+---t---t---t---t----t------r Making a Model ofa Cubic Centimeter __/ II .----r__./'" /'... ME.abbreviated to ill. you simply move the decimal point.. I9 inch ruler .ILLiMETERS (1 00 mm).:: 1000 milligrams (mg) = 1 meter {rn] ..T IS 1 OECIMETER (1 dm) OR 10 CENTIMETERS (IO em) OR 100 M.... .. That the names of the-basic units are meter for lengths. I..)/ u I ! 1----+---+---+. VV 1----+---+---+---+---+---+----+----+---1---./' L L L /1 V vV V VV' vI" l.:: pois 0.TRIC UNITS OF LENGtH 1000 meters 1m].ETRIC UNItS OF WEIGHT 1000 groms (g) 1 kilogram (kg) 1 gram (gJ .:: 1000 milliliters [rnl] 1.:: t quort (liquid) liter liter M..:: 1 kilometer (km] I meter (m] = 1000 rriillirneterstrnml inch METRIC UNitS OF VOLUM./'" ./ /'. V 'V V.. 1/1000. deca: 1/10 is called deci .. milli.ECIMETER (I dm') OR 1000 CUBIC CENTIMETERS n ooo em' OR 1000 cc] OR 1000 Mllll· LITERS (l000 ml) OR 1 lITER (I I)...-/"'" .. 1/100./'" .for instead of dividing or multiplying hy lZ or 3....these two things: 1... I I WATER WEIGHS I KILOGRAM (I kg).

A HAND BALANCE MAKE THE TWO PANS fOR THE HAND BALANCE FROM TOP AND BOnOM OF A fROZEN-JUICE CAN.59 rider ~ 59 ~ YOU CAN USE COINS TO WEIGH 2. IF BEAM DOES NOT BALANCE HORIZONTAllY. FOR MANY EXPERIMENTS YOU NEED TO WEIGH CHEMICALS. 15 .4 A GRADUATE IS USEO FOR MEASURING LIQUIDS.t paper dip COPY THE PATTERNS ABOVE ONTO A PIECE OF PAPER. OPEN CAN AT SIDE. 3 2 read at bottom of hollow !coiled miniscusl o pcrtern for bar and 0 tongue for hand balance o o o o o o o pattern for support for hand balance . FOR SMALLER WEIGHTS. CUT CAREFULLYWITH TIN SNIPS. 5 g.5 g.. ETC. PUNCH HOLES WITH NAIL. ASSEMBLEBALANCE AS SHOWN.BAlANCE.5 g. 109. 7. FOR SMALLERAMOUNTS. TRANSFER DESIGNS TO PIECE Of TIN CAN. CUT THE PANS WITH TIN SNIPS. FOR THIS. NOT QUITE HALF ruu 10 ml. USE PATTERN BELOW TO MAKE BEAM WITH TONGUE ATTACHED. ~ ==-2. CUT A TIN STRIPTO WEIGH THE SAME AS A NICKEL THEN CUT IT IN FOUR 1 9 AND TWO . PUT SMALL "RIDER" CUT FROM TIN CAN OVER ONE ARM OF THE BEAM. YOUR 6" TEST TUBE HOLDS 22 ml.5 9 WEIGHTS. COpy THE RULER TO THE RIGHT AND ATTACH IT TO _ THE SIDE OF A TEST TUBE WITH SCOTCH TAPE FOR MEASURING ml's. MAKE A HAND . FOLD BEAM LENGTHWISE. CUT OUT AND BEND AS SHOWN TO THE lEfT. YOU CAN USE 'IT FOR ROUGH MEASUREMENTS: TUBE NOT QUITE FULL IS 20 rnl. 10 9 8 7 6 j MAKING A GRADUATE Scotch tape 5 .

Protect your clothes with a plastic apron.CTNESS. Observe the chemical reactions carefully and make complete notes of them as ~lOU go along..: f-' .FORE S. E ACT -ESS .All the experiments in this book are safe when done in the correct laboratory way as shown on these pages. _- I'l h'~ -= _ '\jt1tl =-.Label all bottles and jars containing chemicals clearly and carr ctly. MOISTEN GLASS TUBE AND STOPPER WITH WATER. I.2 SET OUT ALL THE EQUIPMENT AND THE CHEMICALS YOU NEED.RE~ .-. . Put chemicals away and clean glassware as soon as you have finished an experiment. Treat chemicals with respect.lASS TUBES THAT FIT SNUGLY INTO THE STOPPER HOLES. amount that will tell you what.~ . IN YOUR "'nen NKAT_ lESS . SAFETY . have a metal pan under it for safety.Get the habit of lining up equipment and chemicals you need on one side and placing used. Be careful with fire.. use the smallest.TARTING EXPERIMENT. items on th opposite side . WHEN YOU MAKE AN APPARATUS FOR A CHEMICAL EXPERIMENT. G.FULLY BE . ANID TIGHT-FinING RUBBER TUBING. PLAY SAFE WHEN YOU PUT A GLASS TUBE IN A STOPPER.0. 16 .- ~ ~ ~ ~ I:STRU. THEN PUSH THE TUBE INTO THE STOPPER WITH A SCREWDRIVER MOTION. II there are younger children in the family lock up your chemicals when you are not working with them..<- _ ___!.. Where amounts of chemicals are not given. three considerations are of the greatest importance: SAFETY !EATNESS and EXA.~~~ ~L ==- - "\ CARE.l: Correct Laboratory Techniques home Iaboratory. MAKE SURE THAT ALL CONNECTIONS ARE AIRTIGHT. you want to know. » 1: ". USE THE RIGHT SIZE STOPPER FOR MOUTH OF CONTAINER.:.keeping the space between them clear for your experiments. you use )'OUl' alcohol burner. PROTECT YOUR HANDS BY WRAPPING TOWEL AROUND THEM. Never taste anything unless specifically told to do so. 5 PLACE USED EQUIPMENT TO THE S DE FOR CLEANING WHEN EXPERIMENT IS COMPLETED.

WHEN HEATING A SOLID IN A TEST tUBE. PLACE THE TUBE IN A STAND AND MOVE THE flAME OF YOUR BURNER BACK AND FORTH TO HEAT THE CONTENTS EYENLY. IN WEIGHING OUT A DRY CHEMICAL.A TEST TUBE BRUSH FOR CLEANING TUBES. THEN REPLACE THE STOPPER.EAD.- TRAINED CHEMJSTS NEVER PUT STOPPER OF BOTILE ON DESKTHEY KEER IT IN ONE HAND. T TAKE STOPPER OFF WITH YOU lEFT HAND. PLACE EQUAL· SIZED TISSUE PAPERS ON EACH PAN OF THE SCALE. o !R. H®LD'ER.INT MOUTH OF TEST TUBE TOWARD YOURSelF OR TOWARD ANYONE ElSE. ROLL JAR BETWEEN FINGERS OR TAP IT GENTLY WITH YOUR INDEX FINGER. USE. USE A GLASS ROD TO TH E STREAM WHEN POURING A LIQUID FROM ONE CONTAINER TO ANOTHER. WITH THE LABEL FACING UP. NEVER PO. HOLD TUBE WITH I>i. BonLE G K6EP S. KEEP THE TUBE MOVING.E THE RIGHT CHEMICAL.~_.ECT : I WHEN HEATING A LIQUID IN A tEST TUBE. INST.TOPPER IN THE LEFT JSiiAND WHilE YOU POUR FROM THE BOTTLE IN YOUR RIGHT. WAFT THE ODORS TOWARD YOU WitH YOUR HAND. 17 . TEST DO NOT BRING TEST TUBE UP TO YOUR NOSE FOR SMELLING. RINSE IN COLD WATER. DO NOT HEAT BOTTOM OF TUiBE-CONTENTS frlAY "BUMP" AND SQUIRT OUT.MAKE IT A HABIT TO READ A lABEl TWICE TO BE SURE YOU HAV. ___..

Faraday demonstrated tohis young audience. The talks dealt with one subject only: the features or "phenomena" of . The melted c-andle grease is held in a level position by GRAVITY yet seems to defy gravity by rising in the wick by a force called CAPILLARY ACTIO!~. it goes into CHEIvIICAL REACTIONS that reveal what it is made of. PLACE A BURNING CANDLE IN THE SUN AND CATCH THE SHADOW ON A PIECE OF WHITE PAPER. IF LEFT ALONE. first. Michael Faraday. into a LIQ D." Faraday told his listeners. IN THE FLAME AND UGHTING THE} VAPORS AT THE END . you can do no better than to repeat for yourself some of the experiments that Mr. CANDLE FLAME IS BURNING VAPOR YOU WAYS CAN THAT PROVE THE FLAME IN SEVERAL OF A YOU CAN ACTUALLY LEAD THE VAPORS FROM A BURN" ING CANDLE THROUGH A BENT GLASS TUBE INTO A WATER GLASS. BLOW OUT THE CANDLE. In burning the candle produces ENERGY in the form of LIGHT and HEAT.Mrij FaraJay'Js Candle IN THE winter of 1859. YOU WILL DISCOVER THAT IT IS THE BRIGHTEST PART Of THE fLAME THAT CASTS THE DARKEST SHADOW. There is no better. MAKE A GAS WORKS FROM A CANDLE BY HOLDING A GLASS TUBE. 18 . As )'OU enter the study of chemistry. DRAWN TO A POINT. In burning a candle you start with a SOLID substance that turns." He then set out to prove his point by lighting a candle and demonstrating all the processes involved. a great British scientist. 'under which any part of this universe is governed which does not come into play and is touched upon in these phenomena. gave a number of lectures for young people. WHITISH VAPORS CONDENSE INTO A SOLID. there is no more open door by which you can enter into the study of natural philosophy than by considering the phenomena of a candle. tL OF TUBE.a candle! "There is not a law. more correctl y into a gas-like vapor). CANDLE IS AGAIN IGNITED. CANDLE CONSJSTS OF BURNING PARAFFIN VAPORS. At the same time. THEN QUICKLY BRING A LIGHTED MATCH INTO THE VAPORS. then into a GAS (or.

WHAT LIGHT .~ ANOTHER WA~ TO SHOW THAT CANDLE CONTAJNS CARBON IS TO P. WATER DROPSWILL FORM ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE FOIL. OUTSIDE OF FLAME SCORCHES A SOOTY RING. THE SOOT IS CARBON.CANDLE CONTAINS HYDROGEN A CANDLE FORMS WATER WHEN IT BURNS.ROVE THAT CARBON DIOXIDE IS FORXH1DWHEN CANDLE BURNS.{KE DEW flOW TOGETHER INTO WATER DROPS. DEW FORMS ON THE INSIDE.. &~~~I~~~p7WHAT PART OF THE FlAME IS HOnEST? TO F'IND OUT. li'\ BY WIPING FINGER INSIDE THE GLASS YOU CAN ~. WRAP IN ALUMINUM FOIL.·SCREENING COOLS THE FWltE AND SOOT FORMS. CANDLE CONTAINS CARBON PLACE PIECE OF WIRE SCREENING OVER FLAME. CRUSH A F.0 1 uses oxygen for PLACE rEST TUBE OVER FUNNEL AND LLECTHO=FAIR. POUR LIME WATER INTO TOBE AND SHAKE. 1 HOlD A COLD GLASS FOR A FEW MOMENTS OVER BURNING CANDLE. ONLY HYDROGEN BURNING IN OXYGEN FORMS WATER.EW ICE CUBES AND SPRINKlE THEM WITH SALT. 2 19 . . PUSH PIECE OF CARDBOARD SIDEWAYS INTO FlAME.. HOlD OVER BURNING CANDLE. LIME WATER GETS CLOUDY FROM CARBON DIOXIDE.

Pierre decided to find out why a certain uranium are called pitchblende gave oft' rays that were much stronger than the uranium content of the ore could explain." FILTRATION l-THE LIQUID I. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED "DECANTATION. TO ClEAR IT. First the powder had to be boiled with strong acids to extract the mysterious substance hidden in it. ~'- <: : SOLUTION-STIR WATER INTO MIXTURE OF SALT AND DIRT. They opened the door and stepped in without putting on the Iights. the containers that held the solutions of the new substance glowed in the dark! They had discovered a new element . After two years of back-breaking work they reached their goal One night they went to the shed in which they had been working. THE TER WIll DISSOLVE THE SALT BUT THE DIRT. ivlarie Curie.radium . YOU NOW HAVE THE IN "WATERY SOLUTION. They secured a whole ton of powdered are from a mine in northern Bohemia and set to work.a million times more active than uranium. IT NEEDS TO BE FILTERED BY irrnrcc IT RUN THROUGH FILTER PAPER (PAPER TOWELING WILL DO). 20 . AlI around them. THEN POUR OFF THE LIQUID.S PROBABLY STIlL MURKY. Then the solution had to be filtered and boiled down." THE WANOT SALT DECANTA nON-LET DI RT -M IX ED SALT SOLUTION STAND UNTIL MOST OF THE DIRT HAS smLED. and her French husband. What remained bad to be purified by various processes which the Curies had to invent themselves.IN 1896 a young Polish chemist.

To this knowledge the)' added their own imagination. SAlT CONSISTS Of TINY CU BES.." SALT IS WHITE. THE SALT CAN NOW BE fREED BYR.E OUT A SUITABLE WAY OF SEPARATING THE TWO SUBSTANCES. THE SALT MAKES ITS APPEARANCE AS T]NY CRYSTALS. Curiosity first. THE IMPORTANT LABORATORY TECHNIQUES OF SOlUTION. IT TASTES LIKE SALT. POUR LIQUID ONTO FILTER PAPER . ON THE BASIS OF WHAT YOU KNOW YOU SHOULD BE AB:lE TO SEPARATE THEM WITH A PAIR OF TINY TWEEZERS-BUT IT WOULD PROBABLY TAKE YOU A YEAR TO DO IT. drafty shed that was their laboratory.EVAPORATION. DIRT IS "D. THERE IS TOO LITTLE OF IT LEFT FOR THE SALT TO STAY IN SOlUTION. For the next two years they Iiterally slavst] in the .RESUlT.tell again the story of the discovery of radiumf Because it contains all the features that show the nature of the true scientist. YOU CHECK THE .R. OR YOU COULD DISSOlVE THE SALT IN WATER AND S8PARATE THE SOlUTION FROM THE INSOlUBLE DIRT . After they bad made their discovery.EJ. SALT DOES.ery that lay in that greyish-black powder. what they had done. 5 FINALLY. As an example of the scientific method the Curies used. IN DOING THIS.. BY CH. 3 NEXT FlGUR. THE WHITE SUBSTANCE lEFT AFTER EVAPORATION SHOULD BE SALTBUT IS IT? IT LOOKS LIKE SALT. The Curies were curious about the m~)'st. the Curies made t. let us follow in their footsteps .EMICAL TESTS YOU CAN PROVE THAT IT IS SALT. AND CRYS· TAUIZA TION. THIS IS KNOWN AS "EVAPORATION. DECANTATION. Before starting their work. fiLTRATION 2-FOlD FILTER PAPER AS SHOWN ON OPPOSITE PAGE AND fIT IT IN FUNNEl.IRTY. They became obsessed with a desire to find out . IN THE PROCESS.but with a much simpler problem: \Vh)' 1 MIX THOROUGHLY ONE TABLESPOON OF DIRT AND ONE TEASPOON OF ORDINARY TABLE SALT. 21 ." CRYSTAUIZATION~AS WATER IS REMOVED. 2 GET THE FACTS TOGETHER. figuring out the method they had to use to arrive at the result they were seeking. NOW DECIDE THAT YOU WANT TO EXTRACT THE SALT FROM THIS MIXTURE AS EARNESTLY AS THE CURIES DECIDED TO EXTRACT THE MYSTERIOUS SUBSTANCE FROM PITCHBLENDE -WITH THE EXCEPTION THAT YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE AFT. DIRT PARTICLES ARE OF MANY DIFFERENT SHAPES. ON THE SECOND WAY.E.not in the hope of gaining money or fame but to establish a scientific truth. ~- By using the same procedure in all other experiments in this book you are learning the methods that real scientists follow in their work .heir method of extracting radium known to the world so that other scientists could check and test. the Curiesgathered all the known facts about the material with which they were to work. USING THE STEPS SHOWN ON THE BOnOM OF THESE PAGES.you are becoming a scientist yourself. CLEARED LIQUID IS CALLED "FILTRATE. YOU DO WHAT THE CURIES DID IN EXTRACTING RADIUM AND LEARN.\OVING THE WATER BY BOILING IT AWAV. 4 YOU DECIDE. 01RT DOES NOT DIS SOLVE IN WATER. FllTRATION." EVAPORATION-THE FILTRATE CONTAINS THE SALT .

Elem_enis, COlllponnJis, and Mixtures
IN ALL your experiments in chemistry, you will be dealing with "matter." 1 fatter is any-thing that takes up room and has weight (or "mass"). An iron bar is matter - it takes up room and is hea ... as you very well know. Water ·y, is matter ---..it takes up room when )'ou fill a pail with it, and a full pail weighs plenty. The air around you is matter - it takes up lots of room; it may not. seem very Ilea,,),",yet the earth's atmosphere presses down on every square inch of your body with a weight of almost fifteen pounds. Matter has three distinct forms. TrOD, for instance, is a SOLID. Water is a LIQUID. Air has the form of a GAS. H you should take iron and divide it again and
TWO ElEMENTS AND A MIXTURE

again until you couldn't divide it. any further, every tiny particle would still be :iron. A thing that consists of one kind. of matter only is called an ELEMENT. Take water, on the other hand. You will learn to break water up into two kinds of matter - each of them an element. A thing in which two or more elements are combined chemically is c-alled a COMPO ·ND. In a compound the proportions of the different elements that male iL up are always exactly the same. Air also consists of different kinds of matter but they are not combined chemically - the)" are simply mixed together. When you make a l\lIXT IRE, ~'OU can mix the ingredients together in any proportions that suit you.
MAKING A COMPOUND

MIX TOGETHER 2 9 OF flOWERS OF SULFUR AND 3.5 9 OF IRON FILINGS. PLACEMIXTURE IN A DAMAGED TESTTUBE. HEAT. SHORTLY A CHEMICAt REACTION TAKES PLACE. THE MIXTURE GLOWS AND BLACK IRON SULFIDE FORMS. THIS CANNOT BE SEPARATED INTO SULFURAND IRON AS IN PREVIOUS TESTS.

POWDERED SULFUR AND IRON CAN BE MIXED TOGETHER IN ANY PROPORTIONS AND AGAIN SEPARATED. 1 DRAG A MAGNET THROUGH THE SULFUR-IRON MIXTURE. THE MAGNET Will PICK UP THE IRON PARTICLES. POUR HYDROCHLORIC ACID ON SOME OF THE MIXTURE IN A TESTlUBE. IRON DISSOLVES,SULFURDOES NOT.

22

ELEMENTS ARE SUBSTANCES THAT CONSIST OF ONE KIND OF MATTER. ONLY. THEY CAN BE DIVIDED INTO METALS

METALS, METALLOIDS {METAL-LIKE}, NONMETALS. ERAL OF THE NONMETALS ARE GASES.

SEV·

METAllOIDS

NONME:TALS

anHmony •....
.

~

r.I ,,;Wl' -"
boron

~

:......' carbon

~ sulfur

1<5>1

silicon

COMPOUNDS-· -INORGANIC. ALL COMPOUNDS CONSIST OF TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS. INORGANIC ACIDS BASES

COMPOUNDS (WITH A FEW EXCEPTIONS) ARE THOSE THAT DO NOT CONTAIN THE ELEMENT CARBON.

SALTS

OTHERS

CARBON COMPOUNDS-ORGANIC.
COMPOUNDS

ORIGINALLY, MADE BY LIVING THINGS (PLANTS AND

ANIMALS) WERE CALLED "ORGANIC" TODAY ORGAN· IC CHEMISTRY COVERS THE. CARBON COMPOUNDS.

ElYDROCAR.BONSr ALCOROLSr

ACIDS,

.ETC.

MixtURES

CAN CONSIST OF ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS. SOME M[XTURES ARE COARSE .. SOME (COL-

LOIDS) CONTAIN TINY PARTICLES. STILL OTHERS (SO· LUTIONS) ARE OF SAME STRUCTURE THROUGHOUT.

GRAINY
rock

MIXTURES

COLlOlDS
soda
, .

SOLUTIONS

elly

~

egg while

23

o
WATER CYCLE
Evaporation

r
,

from ocean

:

r
,

~

iI .
1

~

I

~

Freezes at 0" C
(32° Fohrellheil).

is the most important of all chemical compounds. Without it there would be DO life - all human beings and all animals would thirst to death, and all plant. life would wilt and die. Fortunately, water is also the most common compound in the world. Almost three quarters of the earth's surface is covered by water. This water is forever traveling. It is turned into invisible vapor by evaporation from oceans and lakes and growing
YES, WATER

things. When cooled, the vapor forms clouds of tiny water drops. Further cooling makes the drops fall to earth as rain or snow that fill up rivers and lakes and oceans and continu the water cycle. Chemists use nature's method to produce chemically pure water. They tum ordinary tap water into steam by boiling, then turn the steam back into water by cooling. This process is c-alled distillation and the water is called distilled water.
WATER AS A CATALYST
WATER HelPS BRING ABOUT MANY CHEMICAL REACTIONS WITHOUT ITSELF ENTERING INTO THEM. A SUBSTANCE THAT ACTS THIS WAY IS CALLED A CATALYST.
warm weier

WATER AS A SOLVENT
THE MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTION OF WATER IN CHEMICAL EXPERI.MENTS IS AS A SOLVENTTHAT IS, A LIQUID IN WHICH CHEMICALS MAY BE DISSOLVED. FIND OUT BY AN EASY EXPERIMENT WHETHER HEATING THE WATER HELPS IN DISSOLVING A CHEMICAL. .:

1 TABLESODA IN % GLASS OF COLD WATER. STIR. PART OF THE SODA DISSOLVES SLOWLY. 2 REPEAT WITH HOT WATER. SODA DISSOLVES QUICKLY. HOT WATER IS USUALLY FASTER THAN COlD FOR PREPARING A SOlUTION.

1 PLACE 1 TEASPOON. DRY BAKING POWDER IN SMAll JAR. AITACH WIRE TO CANDLE. LIGHT CANDLE AND LOWER IT 1NTO JAR. CANDlE GOES ON BURNING. OW POUR WARM WATER ON THE BAKING POWDER. A CHEMICAL REACTION MAKES THE POWDER FOAM. THE GAS RELEASED IS CARBON DIOXIDE. IT MAKES CANDLE FLAME FLICKERAND GO OUT.

cold

water

hot water

24

/. AIR BUBBLES BEGIN TO COLLECT IN THE TWO TEST TUBESABOUT TWICE AS FAST IN ONE AS IN THE OTHER. 25 . STORE IN JAR.LS YQ\:I NEEID FOR EXPERIMEt>-ITS 0~ THIS ~ND SEVERAL FQLLOWING PAGES. BRING LIGHTED MATCH TO THE MOUTH OF THE TUBE.ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER ELECTRICITYCAN BE USED TO BREAK WATER APART INTO THE TWO ELEMENTS OF WHICH IT CONSISTS -THE GASES HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN. YOU Will }'~DE FROM CARBON RODS. rw0 "ELECTRODES' ~~~ ~ Making Electrodes OLD 1 SCORE THE MIDDlE OF THE ~ ~"~ ~ . nST FOR OXYGEN 1 WHEN SECOND TUBE IS FUll OF GAS.c->: Wo~bon 2 rod AT EACH CARBON ROD FROM AN BAITERY. TOP OF THE NEXT. FOR 2" 18" USING A FilE. TIE ONE BARED WIRE AROUND OF CARBON o 3 DRY OUT THE MGlST BLACK POWDER. LIFT THE TUBE OUT OF THE WATER. ALSO NEED TWO PIECES OF INSULATED COPPER WIRE MA:rERl/dlS EG)R EXiPERIMENT-5 Ahl OR~IN~R¥ FLASHLIGHT BAITERY wru GIVfi YOU MATER1~. WHICH IS MOSTLY MANGAI'>JESE 910XIDE. WITH BonOM INTO EACH OF THE TWO TEST TUBES.'IOOTH OF THE TEST BE FIRST FILLED WITH GAS. OF THE WIRE LEADING " 0" o 0 0 0 0 ELECTRODE TO THE TOP OF THE FIRST BAnERY. APPARATUS AT RIGHT.. ROD BAnERIES AROUND RODS SO CARBON THAT NO 3 WITH OF ONE TOUCHING TAPE FASTEN THE BARED END FROM ONE CARBON IS EXPOSED. OF THE WATER WITH MOUTH WITH YOUR THUMB. BRING IN EM· END DOWN BLOW THE THE GLOWING BER BURSTS INTO THE TEST TUBE. MOUTH DOWN. LENGTHS OF INSIJLATED WIRE. FLAME. TOGETHER ADHESIVE BrnER. CLOSE I'fS MOUTH WITH YOUR THUMB. 2 A BARE THE! WIRE END OF 'fW0 SCRAPE (ARBON ReD ElEAN WITH Gl!ILL KtsllEJ. CLOSE THE .E.ITA CAN gPBNER AN0 CLEAt>l THE ZiNC €ASIN-I3. 4 TAPE THE BARED END OF THE WIRE FROM THE OF LAST BAnERY. LIFT THE TUBE OUT UP. SODA IN 1 PINT OF AND WATER THEN AS TEST TUBES GLASS AND TWO THIS SET UP THE SHOWN SOLUTION. BRIGHT FW. BREAK THE ROD INTO 1 OPEN UP BATIERY CASE €AREFULLY "/. " Performing the Electrolysis ELECTRODE UP 1 2 SLIP THE TOP OF A CARBON BIND THREE-OR. OTHER ELECTRODE TO BonOM 0 Setting WATER up Electrolysis YOU OF IS A POOR CONDUC1 TABLESPOON FilL A <> TOR OF ELECTRICITY-SO DISSOLVE WASHING WATER WITH AS SOON AS CONNECTION IS MADE.. YOU CAN GET THE REQUI'RED ElECTRICITY FROM THREE OR FOUR ORDINARY AND FLASHLIGHT BATIER1ES. GLOWING THIS IS TEST FOR OXYGEN. lHROW REMAINU'lG Ii'ARTS 61' tHE BAITERY AWAY.I. FOUR-flASHLIGHT ADHESIVE TAPE. FbASHLIGHT TWO PIECES. 1 2 LIGHT OUT A BROOMSTRAW. CONTENTS BURN WITIH A SOFT "POP!" THIS IS THE TEST FOR HYDROGEN.

oxygen is produced by driving it out of certain oxygen-containing compounds. O~ygen is the mod earth. You can get it at a drug store in a 3% solution. Slightly soluble . Colorless. A good one to use in the home lab is hydrogen perox-ide. Both of these scientist. Atomic wt. AND FOR SENDING SATELLITES INTO ORBIT." In the lab. use small numbers. How would you writ. 1. consists of 2 parts of hydrogen to 1 part of Q). O OXYGEN Oxygen-The Breath of Life IF YOU could hold your breath for a few minutes so that no air could get into your lungs. You could write it: Hydrogen 2 . Hydrogen peroxide contains 2 parts of hydrogen to every 2 parts of oxygen. AIRPLANES AND SPACE SHIPS.discovered that things burn more fiercely in pure oxygen than they do in the mixture of oxygen and other gases called 'air. 16. a Swedish chemist. But it was not until Karl Scheele. in 1772. For a catalyst. you can use the manganese dioxide from an old flashlight battery (page 25).Oxygen 1. Water. That's pretty much what chemists doexcept that they abbreviate the names to initials. discovered and described oxygen that people knew that it is the oxygen in the air that is important to life. odorless gas. in r74.OXYGEN OXYGEN Element 8. and don't bother about the number 1. people have known that no human being can live without air.in woter-3 volumes in 100 volumes at 20· C. 26 . The formula becomes H20. rygen..1 weiglit of aIr. supporting combustion (burningJ. IT'S A LONG STEP FROM THE DISCOVERY OF OXYGEN IN 1772 TO ITS PRESENT-DAY USE IN INDUSTRY AND HOSPITALS. Hydrogen peroxide is related to water. an Englishman. as you know. and Joseph Priestley. you would die.e it in chemical languages H202~ You're perfectly right! H~02 becomes water (H20) and gives oft' oxygen (0) when you throw a catalyst into it. For thousands of years.

YOU NEED A "PNEUMATIC TRAY WITH TROUGH. WATER-FIllED 2 METAL "BRIDGE. HEAT BURNER. MAKING OXYGEN IN THE HOME LAB 1 TO COLlEa OXYGEN. TEST FOR OXYGEN WITH GLOWING BROOMSTRAW. ON THE IT FILL JAR WITH WATER AND PLACE IT UPSIDE DOWN THAT THE OXYGEN OUT AND FillS WHEN IT BY fORCING REPLACING BRIDGE IN SUCH A WAY AND 5 BUBBLES INTO oxygen is slightly heavier than air -so keep mouth of jar up THE WATER JAR IS FULL OF OXYGEN. STRIP OF TIN CAN. TURN JAR RIGHT SIDE TO PREVENT THE OXYGEN OF STEEL WOOl TO RED HEAT OVER ALCOHOL TO WIRE. PLACE AN EMPTY JAR OVER CANDLE. [OR PUT STOPPER IN IT). SLIDE A GLASS PLATE UNFROM ESCAPING. BLUE LIGHT. ADD PINCH OF MANGANESE DIOXIDE FROM FLASHLIGHT BATTERY (SEE PAGE 2S).c TEASPOON FULL OF 3"10 HYDROGEN DIOXIDE. SULFUR 2Y2 . WATER RI.F OXYGEN FILL JAR Y. FULL OF 3"10 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.. 2~ .SES 11'1 JAR TO REPLACE OXYGEN USED." "~" FIT BOTTLE WITH STOPPER WITH L-SHAPED GLASS TUBE AND ENOUGH TO REACH HOLE OF BRIDGE. PIECE OF SULFUR IN CROOK IGNITE JAR OF OXYGEN. DER OPENING UP-QUICKLY. OF "BRIDGE" FOR "PNEUMATMADE FROM SULIC TROUGH" BENT STRIP OF TIN CUT FROM CAN. MAKIN:G A SMALL AMOUNT O. ADD RUSBER TUBE LONG 3 FILL BOTTLE Y. LIGHT CANDLE.1 FASTEN A SMALL CANDLE TO MIDDLE OF PIE PLATE WITH CANDLE DRIPPINGS. EMBER GLOWS BRIGHTER AND MAY BURST INTO FlAME. PEROXIDE. CANDLE GOES OUT. LOWER INTO 2 PLACE SMALL MATCH. ~ A MOMENT LATER.. WITH LOWER INTO FUR BURNS WITH A BRILLIANT." THIS IS A DEEP. YB 4 OF MANGANESE PUT THE STOPPER IN. FILL PIE PLATE WITH WATER.

IF TUBE WH. DROP IN HALF A DOZEN ZINC STRIPS.\EDIATELY. ADO A COUPLE OF Z. WITH LIGHTED MATO!. TIE ON MOUTH BALLOON WITH IS INFLATED.. everydaythings as gasoline and fuel oil and cooking gas.CE E.MPTY TEST TUBE OVER GLASS TUBE. OVERING HOLD A COLD GLASS OVER HYDROGEN THE INSIDE OF THE GLASS SHOWS THAT WATER IS FORMING'! HYDROGEN IS LIGHTEST GAS KNOWN 1 FTLLA POP BOTTLE MIXTURE OF y~ FULL OF HALF- AND-HALF HYDROCHLORIC ACID AND WATER. HENRY HAD WHEN NO CAVENDISH. TRY AGAIN. this purpose was demonstrated in 1937 in the Hirulenburq disaster. after a trip across the Atlantic Ocean.ITIED. the clothes you wear. Thirty-six people lost their lives. AFTER ANOTHER TEttS~O\:J MINUTI1. BUBBLES OF HYDROGEN FORM IM}. 3 PL(A. COVERED ISHING IDEA OF THE ASTONHYDROGEN RELEASED IN A BOMB. The danger of using an explosive gas for. when the hydrogen-filled Zeppelin dirigible exploded on arriving at Lakehurst few Jersey." SOFT "POP' 4 GAS IS PUR!. hydrogen . TUBE 2 CLOSE TES:r T BE WITH RUBBER STOPPER WITH GLASS DRAWN TO JET POINT. is part. RISE TO IF PERM. IT WILL SOAR UP IN THE SKY. So is the food you eat. 28 . For this reason one of its early uses was for filling balloons. The first man-carrying gas balloon was sent up by the Frenchman.CHlORIC ACID.your own body is approximately 10 per cent hydrogen. The zinc forms a compound (ZnClz) with the chlorine and sets the hydrogen free (Hz).of All HYDROGENis the lightest element in eristence-7l4 the weight of air . in 1783. COVER APPARATUS WITH A TOWEl. the milk you drink. It is found in all living things . as you know. LIGHT JET. LET NO 2 3 FIT BAllOON WHEN FLAME COME NEARI OF BOTTLE. INDOORS.EN PUT IT BACK. you can make hydrogen by adding strips of zinc from a flashlight battery to hydrochloric acid which consists of hydrogen (H) and another gas called chlorine (Cl). TEST THIS TUBE FOR HYDROGEN "BARKS.. DEW. Hydrogen is one of the most important of all the elements. Jacques Charles. HYDROGEN FORMS WATER WHEN IT BURNS 1 FILL TEST TUBE % FULL OF HYDRO. FlAME. Water.. AFTER 1 MINUTE. HYDROGEN FORCE OF WHO IN DIS1766. AND OPENING FROM WILL DOORS.INC STRIPS. and such common. In the home lab. STRING CEILING REMOVE BALLOON OUT- BOnlE..

AS SHOWN ON PAGE 25. CANDLE GOES OUT.FILl SMAll JAR WITH IT.E IN WATER·FILLEDTEST TUBE.MAKING HYDROGEN IN THE LA. AND THEN ONLY AFTER YOU HAVE TESTED IT FOR PURITY. WATER·FILLEDJARS.BUBBLEIT INTO UPSIDE·DOWN. COLLECT SOM. 5 POUR ACID FROM BOTTLE A INTO BOTTLE B. 6 CLOSE TUBE OF BOTTLE A WITH CLOTHESPIN. MOUTH DOWN. WHEN ACID NO LONGER TOUCHES ZINC. MAKE ALL CONNECTIONS AIRTIGHT. HYDROGEN EXPLOSIVE. HYDROGEN BURNS AT MOUTH OF JAR. HYDROGEN MIXED WITH AIR EX· PLODES WITH A SHARP "BARK. APE WITH MY ROGIN IS HIGHLY IN MIXTURES WIiTH AIR." • KEEP flAME AWAY ERATOR BonLE. fROM YOUR MAIN GEN· i ! i : I • IGNITE HYDROGEN ONLY FROM TEST TUBE GENERATOR DESCRIBED ON OPPOSITE PAGE. HYDROGEN FORCESACID FROM BOTTLE B BACK INTO . some • TEST HYDROGEN FOR PURITY BY COLLECTING A TEST TUBE FULL OF IT AND BRINGING A LIGHTED MATCH TO . BRING LIGHTED CANDLE UP INTO JAR. FOLILOW SAFETY RULES BELOW. TESTIT AS DESCRIBED BOTTOM OF PAGE." PURE HYDRO· GEN BURNS WITH A QUIET "POP. LIFT JAR OUT OF WATER.UBE C. DROP ZINC STRIPSON TOP OF PEBBLES. WHEN YOU KNOW FROM TESTING SAMPLESOF GAS COLLECTED IN TEST TUBES THAT HYDROGEN IS PURE. WHEN AT HYDROGEN IS PURE. GENERATOR Will GIVE YOU All THE HYDROGEN YOU NEED. CHANGE S RING CLOTHESPIN FROM RUBBERTUBE OF BOTTLE A TO RUBBER TUBE OF BOTTLE B. 8 WHEN YOU HAVE MADE THE EXPERIMENTSYOU WANT. A 4·0Z. REACTION STOPS. WHEN FULLOF GAS.A. 7 AS SOON AS HYDROGEN STARTSTO BUBBLEUP THROUGH WATER IN PNEUMATIC TROUGH. • MAKE ONLY SMALL AMOUNTS OF HYDRO· GEN IN THE HOME LAB.B t }·AAKETHE SAFm GAS GENERATOR DESCRIBEDON PAGE 12. FIT STOPPERS AND TUBESAIRTIGHT. 29 .MOUTH OF TUBE. OR FORCE IT OVER BY BLOWING IN . 4 PLACE 1" LAYER OF SMALL PEBBLES ON BOnOM OF BOTTLE B.

but you can see it when it has been cooled and compressed into a solid block of "dry ice. SIDE DOWN. produce all the vegetable matter that. a gas. PUT IN THE STOPPER. You cannot see the CO2 in the air .even with vinegar. carbon dioxide (C02) forms a weak acid (H2COZ)' You know the taste of this acid from soda water-the bubbles are CO2 being set free. are able to take the carbon out of the carbon dioxide in the air and.• _ BOTTLE OF FURIC ACID. FILL BOTTLE HA["F FULL OF MIXTURE OF 1 PART VINEGAR AND 1 PART WATER." You can drive the CO2 out of most carbonates with the help of a weak: acid .EXHAlE CAJ<BON OXYGEN TAKE IN CARBON OIOXJOE Yo . WRAP ATTACH SODA BICARBONATE PACKAGE SODA IN A SHEET OF TOILET TISSUE. Carbonic acid combines with many metals to make "carbonates. SHORT ITH A GLASS A TUBE RUBBER OF J TIP INTO STOPPER. humans and animals eat. in sunlight. AND WHICH FORM THE CHEMICALS MIX CARBON FORCES OUT THE WATER. CHEMICAL CONTAIN SODA AND FIRE EXTINGUISHERS SOLUTION A WHEN OF BAKING SULTURNED UPDIOXIDE . carbon dioxide (COJ is formed. MAKING A FIRE EXTINGUISHER MODEL . The reason is that green plants. which is diluted acetic acid. This is one of the most important gases for human life. TO TUBe WITH A RUBBER BAND. 30 . HA_VE already learned in experimenting with a burning candle that when something containing carbon burns in the air." When dissolved in water (H20). by combining it with oxygen and hydrogen from water and with various minerals in the soil.

ARBON IN THE PITCHER INTO THE FlAME FEW ml LIME WATER. HYDROGEN ON TOP OF PEBBLES IN YOUR GAS GENERATOR. BURNING HANG . YOU CAN PROVE BOTH POINTS: 1 STIR 1 TEASPOON HYDRATED LIME 1 PINT OF WATER. (1 PART ACID TO 1 PART WATER). BOTTOM. FROM fMRBLE ACID CARBON CHIPS AND DIOXIDE DilUTED IS USUAL~Y MADE HYDROCHLORIC PLACE CHIPS THEN [PAGE 29).PRODUCES CANDLE CANDLE CARBON DIOXIDE A A GLASS SHAKE PROVES A LIGHTED CANDLE DIOXIDE fORMED IN A JAR BY A WIRE. WHEN LIME WATER UP WITH COVER TOP WITH THE AIR.. FILTER LIQUID CLOSE BOTTLE TIGHTlY. 2 WAY PLACE 1 TEASPOON Of BAKING SODA IN A PITCHER. Does nol supporl I combuslion (burning]. OF INTO 2 LET STAND UNTil LIME SINKS TO THE INTO A BOTTLE..ES OF CARBON DIOXIDE MAK. POUR THE THE JAR THE DIOXIDE WHEN THE CARBON BURNING IN JAR CONTAINING HAS GONE OUT. REACHES THE TOP OF THE CANDLE. GOES OUT.529 weight of air. THAT CO~ HAS BEEN PRODUCED. FEATUR. BREATHE THROUGH GLASS TUBE INTO LIME WATER GETS MILKY. PLATE. ING IN TEST TUBE. PROCEED AS FOR fMKING IS A BURNING 31 . Does nol burn. POUR A SMALL Af.. ' 1. OUNT HANG OF WHITE VINEGAR OVER THE SODA. odorless I gas. fairly soluble in woo CO2 IS HEAVIER THAN AIR AND DOES NOT SUPPORT BURNING. 44.co 2 CAR 80 N DIOXIDE Compound. TEST FOR CO2 CO2 MILKY TURNS BY LIME WATER CHANGING CALCIUM HYDROXIDE CO2 IN LABORATORY.ING LIME WATER Molecular wI. UME WATER THIS SHOWS THAT BREATH· PROCESS. Colorless. MILKINESS YOU WOULD POUR WATER. 1.

odorless Does net burn. 0. to form ammonia gas (I\IH3).espeIN DRY nST ~UBE. 32 NITROGEN DIOXIDE ment on earth. ~GASIS VERY IRRITATING. !-itrogen is what J'on might call a "lazy" element. Colorless. Yet. It is only at high temperatures and under great pressures that a chemist can make nitrogen combine with another element. UNUSED GAS IS ALMOST All NITROGEN-WITH SMALL PERCENTAGEOF RARE GASES AND CARBON DIOXIDE.5 volumes in 100 vels.NITROGEN GOES INTO 90'S.. from which other nitrogen compounds CHon be made. You will also want MOMENT.QQC. the farmer must add them to his soil in the form of some . supporl DOles nol combustion (burn. NITROGEN FRO.ingJ. tiny bacteria on the roots of certain plants can take nitrogen from the air and make it combine with ox-ygen and minerals.. And that 'is of tremendous importance to " all of us . hydrogen.. thO f======~==1 :1 78 % NITROGEN 21% OXYGEN REPEAT CANDLE-BURNING EXPERIMENT ON PAGE 27. It does not help in burning nor does it burn if you try to ignite it. in nature. Slightly soluble in wo ter-l . in the soil into "nitrates .1 2. 967 weigh! of air. IN A cially with ammonia gas 1 -H3). 00 NOr INHALe. IN A WEU·VENTILAfED You will not have much satisfaction out of workROOM. co. kind of fer tiliz er.. A~G-ON .. If plants do not get nitrates naturally.M l-HE ATMOSPHERE J % RARE GASES:'" .for all plants Deed nitrates if they are to thrive. IT IS NITROGEN DIOXIDE. but you will lind it interAND SODIUM.nitrogen makes with oxygen. BISULfATE esting to deal with some of its compounds . HEAT EQUAL AMOUN~S OF SALTPETER ing with nitrogen itself. A BROWN GAS to have a look at one of the half dozen combinations FORMS. the hrown gas called nitrogen dioxide (NO~).t~ON !::RYPTON XENON :HELIUM AlSO.

A OF PRODUCING IS TO GET IT FROM ITS Compound. RED lITMUS PAPER TURNS BLUE IN AMMONIA. MAKING AMMONIA SAL AMMONIAC FROM 1 ON A PIECE OF PAPER. 33 . penerrcfinq odor. Colorless gas wi. RED LITMUS PAPER HELD AT ITS MOUTH TURNS BLUE. CLOSE MOUTH OF TUBE WhH THUMB. NH·3 AMMONIA PRODUCING AMMONIA SIMPLEST WAY AMMONI.AMMONIA DIS· SOLVES EASILY. MOUTH DOWN. TESTIT WITH LITMUS PAPERAND FOR SOLUBILITY.th strong. EMPTY BOTTLE WITH AMMONIA FROM GENERATOR CAN. Fill PINT CAN ONE QUARTER FUll OF HQIJSEHOLO AMMONlA. SOLUBILITY OF AMMONIA TEST TUBE FROM GAS GENERATOR CAN.BOARDAWAY.596 weight of ojr. AMMONIA'S EXTRAORDINARY SOLUBILITY CAN BE SHOWN IN A SPECTACULAR DEMONSTRATION. THEN HEAT OVER LOW FLAM. BOTH JARS FILLWITH "SMOKE" OF TINY AA-\MONIUM CHLORIDE CRYSTAlS. HEAT CAN OVER tow FLAME. PROVIDE TUBE WITH STOPPER AND L-SHAPED GLASS TUBE. PLACE 2 FILLANOTHER JAR WITH AMMONIA. 3 HOLD ON TO AMMONIA-FULED JAR AND P u CARD. PLACE IT FIRMLY ON ros STOPPEROF APPARATUS. POUR EXCESS ACID BACK INTO ITS BOTTLE.MIX 1 PART OF SAL AMMONIAC WITH 2 PARTS OF HYDRATED LIME. WATER RUSHES IN AND FILLS TUBE. MOIST. 1 MAKE UP APPARATtlS AS SHO K1IN ILLUSTRATION. ---2 FILL DRY. DROP MIXTURE INTO A TEST TUBE. TEST TUBE IS FULL OF AMMONIA WHEN MOIST. WATER SPURTS FROM LOWER BOTTLE UP INTO UPPERBOTTllE IN A FOUNTAIN THAT TURNS PINK AS AMMONIA REACTS ON PHENOLPHTHALEIN. ADD 5 DROPS OF PHENOLPHTHALEIN SOLUTION-. OPEN TER.. Molecular weight 17. 3 BLOW INTO L-SHAPEDGLASS TUBE TO DRIVEA FEW DROPS OF WATER UP INTO THE UPPERBonLE. ADD A FEW DROPS OF. FILLIT WITH WATER. PLACE TEST TUBE OVER GLASS TUBE. IMMEDIATELY. THE WHITE MYSTERY SMOKE 1 MOISTEN INSIDE OF J R WITH SMALL AfIlOUNT OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 2 COllECT AMMONIA IN DRY TESTTUBE. COVER JAR WITH SQUARE OF CARD"BOARD. FIT STOPPER WITH 6" GLASS TUBE IN OPENING.E. WATER. KEEPING BOnlE UPSIDE DOWN. 4 SUDDENLY. Highly 501- SOLUTION AS HOUSEHOLD AM· MONIA. IT UPSIDE DOWN ON CARDBOARD. .

But it is dangerous when used improperly because it affects the lungs . DIP STRIPS THEN DRY THEM.a small amount of it in the water kills the dangerous germs that may lurk in it. Chlori1_1e-F rienJ and Foe a gas of great importance. Be careful not t·ob. WAFT A LlTILE CAREFULLY TOWARD TEST GAS BY HOLDING YOU FOR A SNIFF. Chlorine is also used extensb .rea·the fumes. 10% household ammonia) on band. MAKING TEST PAPER FORCH. Sniff this if you get too strong a whiff of chlorine.. CHLORINE IS You can produce chlorine as a greenish-yellow gas by driving it out of one of its compounds . Atomic wI. which is a solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). FORMS.LO RI N E CHLORINE FROM HYDROCHLORIC ACID . GRAINS STARCH WITH 30 ml (AS 1 Put. STARCH·IODIDE OF FILTER PAPER IN MIXJURE. MANGANESE CHLORINE DIOXIDE INTO DISSOLVE IN MIXTURE IODIDE O. or a common laundry bleach ("Clorox" or others). 34 .5 9 (Va TEASPOON) ACID. which consists of hydrogen (H) and chlorine (CI).MOUTH OF TUBE.. ADD 3 m! (Va CHLORIC TEST TUBE) UNDILUTED HYDRO- A SMALL AMOUNT AS TWO OF POTASSIUM HEAT GENTlY.MOISTENED PAPER AT . PAPER TURNS BLUE.As a "poison gas" it caused many casualties in World War 1. WATER. TEST TUBE.ely in bleaching. We wouldn't be certain of safe drinking water in our cities if it weren't for chlorine . NOTE: Perform these experiments out-of-doo·rsor befor·e an open: window. Have a bottle of diluted household ammonia (90% water.F RICE).S 9 (~. . MUCH BRING TEASPOON) TO BOIl.hydrochloric acid (HC1).· Chlorine is a friendly gas when it is used correctly.• CI CHLORINE Element 17.MIX ..

THE CHLORINE. THE CLOTH SOON AND AGAIN HANG FADEIT COLORED COTCOLOR OF HAPPENS.. FORMED. BRIGHTlY FASTEN A SMALL WAD OF TON ClO~H 2 CLOTH.BINES WITH THE DOES THE BLEACHING. ERATED OXYGEN 35 . NOT WOOD YET THAT THE CHLOPERTHE CHLORINE DIRECTLY WILL WITH COMBINE SEVERAL RINE FORMS BLEACHING.BROWN CHLORIDE BOnLE.MAKING CHLORINE 1 MAKE RIGHT. ONLY TRULY "FAST" IN CONTACT HYDROGEN AND THE COLORS COLORS REMAIN.'tATCH RINE-FillED . HANG IN IT (FROM A CORK OR FROM A PIECE OF CARDBOARD) A STRIP OF DRY. 1 FILL A BonLE WITH CHLORINE GAS. THE CHLORINE WlTH THE HYDROGEN DLE AND FREE AS SOOT. C TO STICKS TO YOUR PALM FROM FROM GEITlNG CHLORINE OUT IN THE ROON. WITH OTHER IT IS ELEPARNOTE" EACH TIME YOU R MOVE TO SHOW THE SOLUBILITY OF CHLORINE. COM. CHLORINE. C HAS LYE TEASPOON IS DISSOLVED. LOWER A BURNING A BOTTLE DENSE OF SMOKE OF CANDLE CARBON INTO A IS MENT. NOTHING IS NOT .. POURS OUT. DROP IN Sani Flush TLE C ABSORBS EXCESS OF CHLORINE GAS. TICULARLY AND MANY ACTIVE HYDRO- HYDROGEN lIfE GAS-COlLECTING BOntE B FOR EXPERICONNECT BOntES PREVENT GEN COMPOUNDS. THE LIB- WITH WATER.AFFECTED. SMOKE A HEAVY MOISTEN IN THE CHLORINE. LIBERATES OXYGEN. COMBINES IN IT OF THE CAN- SETS THE CARBON AND PULP. A CHLORINE-FillED MOUTH BonLE. POUR A SMAll BOTTLE AMOUNT WITH OF WATER INTO CLOSE THE YOUR PALM. STEEL WOOL AND LOWER TO A [PIECE OF IT INTO OF CHLOIRON WIRE. HEAT IT WITH A J. SHAKE . THE BonLE THE SUCTION CHLORINE GREAT TON USE BLEACHING AND HAS IN COTLINEN IT IS CREATED. TAKE STOPPER OUT OF BOntE A. DISSOLVES AND A AND CHLORINE GAS. BonLE V2 A. BLEACH BOntE WATER POUR IN THE HOME SHOWN OF BonLE LAB AT APPARATUS 1 INCH INTO LIQUID (CLOROX) IN WHICH B IS EMPTY. WHEN REACTION SLOWS ADD MORE SODIUM BISULFATE WITH CHLORINE MOST MENTS..

THE A1CHEM. worked out a simpler system . Yet it took chemists hundreds of years before they settled on -this uniform method of writing out their chemical formulas. These particles he called "atoms. he added a small letter 36 to one of the symbols to .how else could they retrace their steps in case they actually hit upon the gold they were seekingi' Tbey in ented a whole line of complicated symbols that only they could understand. an English scientist.' -Where two names started with the same letter." S for 'sulfur." and easier to write "CO~"than "carbon dioxide. In taking notes of your experiments you are certain to have 1earned that it is much quicker to write HH" than "hydrogen. USED FANCIFUL FIGURES TO WHICH THEY REPRESENT THE CHEM.C for "carbo. each with a marking to indicate a specific element. THE NAMES ELEMENTS ABBREVIATED. it will seem the simplest and most logical thing in the world to use these abbreviations of the names of the different elements rat bel' than the full names.ICALS WITH EB sulfur oxygen hydrogen o 00]) ammonia JOHN DALTON SUGGESTED MARKED CIRCLES TO INDICATE DIFFERENT ElEM.Chemical ShorthanJ SO FAR you have experimented with ox--ygen. and have combined the two elements iron and sulfur into a chemical compound. chemical reactions.and hydrogen. In the early days of chemistry no one bothered to do much writing about it. and chlorine. J ons Jakob Berzelius. ~~~~~~~~3 Au aurum 19o1dl C cOrbo (corban) JONS JAKOB zsuus BER- DEVELOPED IN WHICH OF ARE THE SYSTEM USED TODAY. The invention was almost forced upon him." The smallest possible part of the compound that re ulted he called a ' compound atom"today we call it a "molecule. The first to invent a usable s stem was Jabo Dalton. A Swedish chemist. As chemists delved deeper and deeper into the mysteries of matter it became more and more important for them to write out their experiments in such a way that all other chemists would know what they were trying to explain. For his symbols he took the first letter of the Latin name of each eIement. carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In his study of chemistry he had become convinced that all chemical reactions could be explained in terms of the tiniest possiblepart of one element reacting with the tiniest possible part of another.the same system scientists use today.ISTS WORKED. But it became necessary for the alchemists to write down their experim nts . you have also separated water into the two elements of which it consists." Before long.ENTS. These circles served to explain Dalton's theory but they were too difficult to work with to show complicated." To explain his 'atomic theory" Dalton made use of circles.

Joseph Louis Proust." One atom of carbon and one atom of oxygen make carbon monoxide. always contain the same number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. In recent years it has been necessary to change Dalton's idea of an atom as being the smallest indivisible part of an element. Nowadays we have machines. When a compound contained several atoms of the same element Berzelius indicated this by placing a Dumber in front of the symbol.ENUCLEUS IN AN "INNER SHELl" AND FOUR MORE WHIRLING AROUND IN AN "'OUTER SHELL" IF YOU COUL.. but also that 12 weight units of carbon (12 being the atomic weight of carbon) combine with 16 weight units of oxygen (16 being the atomic weight of m. CO2.distinguish the two elements from each other . HCI. IF YOU COULD SLOW DOWN AN ENLARGED CARBON ATOM YOU MIGHT SEETWO OF ITS ELECTRONSTRAVElING AROUND TH. But even with our new idea of an atom. that can bombard." placed at the lower right of the symbol . WITH A "SUN" (PROTONS AND NEUTRONS) IN THE CENTER AND "PLANETS" (ELECTRONS)AROUND IT. had discovered that whenever elements form compounds these are always of a very definite composition . and electrically charged protons and electrons ." Water molecules.he used Ca for "calcium. J'gen) to form 28 weight units of the compound carbon monoxide. . It was later found Dece5SOO'y change this to a smaller number called to a "subscript.H20. FeS. or "smash" atoms into still smaller parts-neutrons.the "Law of Definite Composition." for instance to distinguish it from carbon (C).the "Law of Multiple Proportions. 37 AN ATOM MIGHT LOOK LIKE A BALL SUCH AS THIS IF YOU ENLARGED IT A BILLION TIMES. and Berzelius' method is still the simplest . Dalton's main theory is still useful for ex-plaining chemical reactions.D HALT AN ENLARGED CARBON ATOM COMPLETELY. But Berzelius went an important step further. THE "SHELl" IS NOT SOLID-IT CONSISTS OF ELECTRONSMOVING SO FAST THAT THE'( SEEM TO FORM A SOLID SHEll. such as the cyclotron. And Dalton had found that when two elements combine in different ways they do this in simple proportions . IT WOULD LOOK A lOT LIKE OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. By then the French chemist." To show the composition of a compound he simply put together the symbols for the elements into a 'formula"-CO. "CO" then not only meant that one atom of carbon and one atom of oxrygen combine to make one molecule of carbon monoxide. To describe these things in a simple way Berzelius made each of his symbols stand not only for a specific element but also for its relative weight as compared to the weight of other clements-its 'atomic weight. shorthand" method any scientist has ever devised for writing them down.. According to today's atomic theory protons and neutrons form the nucleus of the atom and electrons whirl around the nucleus with such tremendous speed that they seem to form a "shell" around it. and so on. for example. one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen make carbon dioxide.

944 19 4 Kr Potassium 39.013 11 Mg t:2 @ < ~ -- "w'poxygen CLEUS IN TONS THE MODERN (p) AND PICTURE OF AN ATOM CENTER. ' elements." But their idea of an .22 40 Nb Niobium 92. water.86 Rhenium 1B6. and air. DRY. of course.2 76 Tungsten 183.85 Magnesium 24·32 A 18 K _Argon 39.13 Th Thorium 232.92 Ac 89 Actinium 227 PrOJeodymium 140.63 38 Y Yrtrlum 88. earth.05 72 Ta Tantalum 180. 1 90 Pa 91 U Uranium 238.9-5 73 W 74 Re 75 Os Osmium 190.96 Chromium 52.50 Cerium 140.003 IA II A 3 Be Beryllium 2 Li Lithium 6.se 54 .940 9.FROM: THE earliest times people have tried to explain what "matter" was made of.95 Calcium 40 . 8 0 20 Cr 26 Scandium 44.48 371. aurum (gold .9 VA 22V ~3 Vcrnadium 50..95 Technetium 99 Ruthenium 101..91 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 5 Krypton 83. NEUTRONS IT CONSISTING HAS A NU· OF PROElECTRONS THE (n).element" was quite different from what we mean by that word today.1 Ilca rv A ~] TI Titcrnium 47.C). WITH IN RINGS AROUND . 'lost earlyphilosophers agreed that "matter" was made up of what they called.92 39 Zr Zirconium 91..07 92 Np 94 Protadinium 231 Neptunium 237 Plutonium 242 38 .01 Mangane. by their Latin names (the same we use today in chemical s-ymbols): carbo (carbon . 8 n 3 Ne Neon 20. 94 36 Rb Rubidium 85.91 5S B1:I Barium T37. COl( RUNNING FROM TOP TO I La 57 Ce 58 Pr- 59 Nd 60 Pm Sm 62 Lanthanum 138. THE ELEMENTS WITHIN A GROUP HAVE MANY TRAITS IN COMMON. They called them.8 Molybdenum 95.1 Xe 6 Rn Xenon 131.991 THE iliA PERIODIC TABLE OF VI A THE VII 24 Mn ELEMENTS A 25 Fe Iron 55.22 INERT GASES Ir _ I ALKALI METALS D 61 93 Pu ALKALINE EARTH METALS ROWS RIGHT UMNS RUNNING FROM LEFT 10 ARE CALLED PERIODS. sulfur (8).92 Neodymium 144. The early Greek philosophers thought the entire universe was composed of only four basic-substances: fire.05 88 Act~non$ 89103 0D Hf Hafnium 178.36 56 57-71 lanthanons 7 Radon 222 86' Fr Francium 223 87 'Ra Radium 226. NOW! FOR INSISTED THAT SUBSTANCES WATER AND WERE MADE WAS MOIST H 1 1.35 BOTTOM ARE CAllED GROUPS. EARTH THAT WAS MOIST..Au).183 10 Na Sodium 22.008 hYdf0 gen(0p 4 EtEMENTS:FIRE HOT AND AIR THAT WAS THAT WAS COlD HOT.27 Promethium 145 Samorium 150. WE KNOW 1 Hydrogen e o 2 He Helium 4. argentum (silverMORE THAN All A THOUSAND DRY AND THAT YEARS PHILOSOPHERS UP OF AND BffiER FOUR COlD. This explanation made sense at the time and was DOt seriously challenged for many centuries. The old Romans actually knew nine of the substances we call elements today.Sr Strontium 87.3 S4 C5 Cesium 132.

(aluminum .""""::--"-".94 67 Er Erbium 167 . Within a short.39 197 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At ~taline 210 85 .IS ITS ATOMIC NUMBER. HENRY MOSELEY. DM.. Today the number has reached 102 .71 ) IB Copper 63.7 lead 207.066 Fluorine 19 Chlorine 35.88 u 29 Zn B 13 Si 14 AI Silicon Aluminum 28.K). 7 2 68 Tm Thulium 168.-=.61 Polonium 210 52 I 53 77 Pt 81 78 AD 79 Hg 80 T1 Mercury Thallium Pfatinum Gold 195.457 9 VIII Co 27 Ni Cobalt 58. THE RUSSIAN SCIENTIST.008 VI 70 B 8 VlI B F Oxygen 16 Sulfur 32. eighty-four elements were known. In this table you will find listed the 102 elements that are known today.Ph).82 P 15 5 30.. and aluminium.ITRI MENDELEEFF.21 32 As 33 Se Selenium 78. I UNSTABLE ElEMENTS Eu Europium 152 64 Tb 63 Gel 65 Dy 66 Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium 157.___j LOJDS r--l METAL· r==--l Ho NON- . I HEAVY METALS L. Element 103 will probably he discovered. ferrum (iron .916 Iodine 126.975 Arsenic 74. kalium (potassium .72 Indium 114. By the beginning of the twentieth century.Fe). cuprmll (copper . Each element is described by its chemical symbol. hydrargyrum (mercury-« Hg).Cu)..38 31 Ge Germanium 72.94 Nickel 58. produced by splitting the atoms of other elements.96 34 Br Bromine 79.the last ten man-made.61 204.2 Ag 47 Cd Cadmium 112.__---". stannum (tin .51 Holmium 164.09 26. A YOUNG ENGLISH SCIEN· TIST.91 106. L__jMETAlS '--_--' I RAR E EARTH METALS L-=-_. (sodium1Ia).J..93 162. AN ATOM ALWAYS HAS THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS.6 Tin 118.09 200. its atomic number. time.. By 1800.94 69 Vb Ytterbium 173. ON THIS BASIS DISCOVERED THE PE~ RIODIC LAW AND DEVELOPED THE PERIODIC TABLE. HYDROGEN IS THE SIMPLEST OF All ATOMS.98 30 Ga Gallium 69.Ag).91 16 C) 17 Phespherus 28 Cu Zinc 65. III B B Boron 10. HE DISCOVERED THE LAW OF ATOMIC NUMBERS AND ARRANGED THE ELEMENTS ACCORDING TO THE elECTRIC CHARGE FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS. chlorine THE NUM.. thirteen more had been added and had been given made-up Latin namesamong them nalrinm.54 Silver 107. its full name.91 35 Rh 45 Pel 46 Rhodium Palladium 102.Al).011 VB 6N Nilrogen 14. mCignesium OCCUR PERIODICAllY.4 Ir Iridium 192.99 71 Am 95 em 97 Cf 96 Bk 98 Americium Berkelium Curium Colifornium 243 247 249 249 E Einsteinium 254 99 Fm lOT 100 Mv Mendelevium Fermium 256 255 No Nobelium 251 102 ? 103 39 . plumbum (lead .82 IV B 5C Corbon 12.76 Bismuth 209 51 Te Tellurium 127. PERFECTED THE PERIODIC TA· BLE.So). .04- 70 Lu lutetium 174. and its atomic weight.26 158.41 48 In 49 5n 50 Sb Antimony 121. thirty-four elements had been discovered.BER Of PROTONS IN AN ATOM. ~ rthin the next ten -years.

TlONS DUCT LIGHTS AND LIGHT PAGE 25. scientists ex-perimenting with chemistry have worked with solutions. EASILY REPEAT SOME OF HIS CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLUT10NS SET UP THE SAME APPARATUS AS ON LIGHT WIRE. is dissolved in water. These atoms or groups of atoms Arrhenius called "ions" from a Greek word that means "to wander. YOUR OWN LAB. The reason that non-conductors do Dot conduct electricity is that they do not dissociate into ions. on the other hand.«sthrough. the negative ions rush to the positive pole. These ions "wander" about in all directions until an electric current is applied to the solution.sugar among them . It is the ions that conduct the current through the solution. NaCI). ' The chemical dissolved was the "solute. The solution in water of a great number of chemicals ." When chemists began to use electricity as one of tools they discovered that different solutions behaved in different ways. They were "non-conductors.did not let electricity pa." Some chemicals. When that happens. He was only 25 years old at the time. OTHERS DO NOT 40 . They were good couductors . it ionizes into positively charged sodium ions ( -a") and negatively charged chlorine ions (Cl"). BULB DOES UP. for instance. The liquid they used for making a solution (usually water) they called the "solvent. the positive ions to the negative pole.. SOME CON· ELECTRICITY AND THE UP. His idea was that when a chemical that conducts electricity is dissolved in water. FR01>f THE IN HIS EARLY EXPERIMENTS.The Mysteries of Solutions earliest days. His theory has been modified somewhat over the years hut in most respects holds true today. each molecule is broken up ." In 18-4 a Swedish scientist named Svante Arrhenius developed a theory to help explain the mysterious behavior of solutions.into electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms." Vi'hen table salt (sodium chloride. Arrhenius' theory of ionization helped explain a great number of things that have puzzled chemists.MPLE SET-UP."dissociated" ." His new theory came to be called "Arrhenius' theory of ionization."electro! ytes. ADD FLASH· BULB TO END OF ONE TRY DIFFERENT SOLU· BULB NOT IN GLASS. SVANTE ARRHENIUS YOU CAN USING EXPERIMENTS USED IN A SI. conducted electricity very easily.

RDOES NOT DISSOLVE. 1 POUR 20 ml WATER OF ROOM INTO A CUSTARD TE}. WITHOUT LEAST MAKE INTO IN FREEZING COMPART- MAKING 50 ml GRADUATE A NARROW SOLUTIONS FIRST: MEASURE 50 ml WATER JAR. WHAT rr DISSOlVE ADD QUICKER. 6..) 4 TAKE SOLUTION OFF FIRE. POINT 1 PINCH MORE 10% (10 PER CENT) SOLUTiON. 50 ml..E OF THE ADDED PETE. IN ONE. SOON SALTPETER IS DISSOLVED. SALT- STIR. (TO MAKE A CUSTARD CUP.} BURNER. SALTED SOLVE 1 PINCH lEAVE P~CE MENT. SOM. ATE SHOWN ON PAGE 15. 41 . IN TRAY WITH INDIVIDUAL SOLUTION PANE OF CLEANED TERGENT.. ADD 109 MORE SALTAT HIGHER TEMPERATURES (AT BOILING.SATURATED SOLUTIO'NS A SATURATED SOLUTION IS ONE IN WHICH NO MORE OF THE CHEM. MANY CHEMICALS FORM CRYSTALS OF DISTINCT SHAPES. 20 ml H20 DISSOLVES 49 9 SALTPETER. ONE CUPS NEEDLE-LIKE NEXT 2 PINCHES. 5 ml WATER AND TEASPOON SALT UNTIl SOLVES. 3 PLACE CUSTARD CUP OVER ALCOHOL All PETER.ICAL WILL GO IN SOLUnON AT THAT PARTICULAR TEMPERATURE.ICAL.INE AT WHAT BOILS. DISOF SALT. ADD 6 9 SALTPETER [POTASSIUM NITRATE).·7H20 ~ CRYSTALS POUR LOWER FREEZING POINT THAN THE SOLVENT USED. USING 10 ml TEST TUBE GRADUMEASURE 40 ml WAYOU . ~ ICE CUBE CUPS. MAKE A . IT TAKES MORE SOLUTE TO MAK.. BEHAVIOR OF SOLUTIONS CRYSTALLIZATION CRYSTALLIZATION MgS04. SOLUTION WITH WATER OF POINT HAS HIGHER BOILING THERMOMETER.\PERATURE CUP.RK AT 50 ml LEVEL FREEZE FIRST. ADD NOW? ADD SALT. AND SO ON. STIR. A SOlUTION SATURATED AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. HEAT MIXTURE OF OF IN TEST TUBE. MAKE NETWORK.--- - SALT. MUCH OF THE SALTPETER LIQUID IS AGAIN COMES OUT AS CRYSTALS BY SLOW CRYSTALLIZATION. AU THE SALTPETER DISSOLVES. TO 1 9 OF THE CHEM.3 9 SOLU- SATURATED IN 20 ml WATER.MAY WANT INTO MARK. CLEAR 2 LIQUID KNOJ TION IS SATURATED [AT MAKES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. POUR WATER INTO EACH CUP. 2% SQLUTION: CUP. AS IT COOLS. CANDY DETERM. 50 ml GRADUATE.. V. 2 ) ADD 3 9 MORE SALTPETER. READ AGAIN. TO HEAT THE WATER SLIGHtlY.) POUR SOLUTION TO THE 50 ml GRADUATE. TER INTO STIR. ~~~-=~. ADD 5 9 OF THE CHEMICAL POINT THAN THE SOLVENT USED. ADD POUR INTO WATER SO ml IS BOILING MEASURE 40 ml WATER INTO STIR TO WATER ADD CUSTARD DISSOLVE. IN SALT.E A SATURATED SOlUTION. I EPSOM SALT DISHOT OVER GLASS WITH DEFeSO . 20"C.

TRACT WITH HOT WATER FOR ACIDS AND USE AS AN INDICATOR 42 .. USE A TEST TUBE. PLACE A STRIP OF ZINC IN CUT RED DROP STEEP UP OR IN HOT GRATE LEAF.HOW DO YOU KNOW AN ACI. AS INDICATOR. ACIDS ACT MET. nitric acid (HN03) . sodium bisulfate. POUR INTO 5 ml HYDROCHLORIC DISAPPEARS.N. "Sani-Flush' .PAGE 44) STRIP OF PAPER. a different definition is used. POUR A FEW rnl ON HYDROCHLORIC IT.S. HYDROGEN CABBAGE FOR SmrNG OF ACID 1h POUR OFF LIQUID. wherever PLACE CHLORIC lITMUS DROP ACID OF ON DILUTED HYDRO· BLUE CHANGES (CONTINUED HOME-MADE Ol . But what is an acids Earlier.IZE BASES. ACIDS have many traits in common. ACID DISSOlVES. this book uses sodium acid sulfate.. You will rememh er that the nucleus 0 f an a tom contains positively charged protons.DS NEU1i'iRAl. 5 . ACI. the "acidic" traits were used tv define an acid.DICATORS 3. WATER.y flOWERS MATTER WHICH AND A!ND FRUITS CONTAIN COLORING BASES. HOUR..protons to another substance. ZINC THE FREE.sulfuric acid and nitric acid should NEVER be used in the home lab. Acids are "proton donors .jaHSO~. The first two . They taste sour. They change the color of certain plant. DIP FINGER IN THIS HIGHLY DILUTED ACID. Anids in solution liberate protons as ions (H+). THE COlOR TO RED. But with the modern understanding of the atom. Thcy destroy the skin and might hlind you if :you got them in the eyes. YOU CAN EX. ADD 5 ml ·HYDROACID TO 15 DROP CHLORIC rnl WATER. and hydrochloric acid (H'Cl). And so we say that an acid is a substance that will give up ~ or "donate" .bROPS OF MIXTURE IN GLASS OF WATER. IN. PHTHALEIN SOLUTION. (Wherever a chemical experiment would ordinarily call for sulfurie acid. They neu tralize base-s. The foremost acids used inind ustry " are sulfuric acid (H!SOJ. They are much too DANGEROUS. MJ. subatances-s-whlch are called "indicators. FINTASTE DROP ON GER TIP.D? T Working ~th Acids ACIDS TASTE SOUR.AI. 4." They contain hydrogen (H) that can be replaced hy a metal.

. A base is a substance that will accept and combine with protons from another substance. BASES ACT WITH INDICATORS.or "aocept'I-> positively charged protons from anotberub tance. Do not touch lye flakes with your fingers and do not gel the solution n your ikin . FROM GET S}'''ALL AMOUNT DRUG STORE. BASES taste brackish . dilute it quickly DISSOLVE 5 9 (1 TEASPOON) WATER. HEAT GENTLY." _-H~ OH). LYE IN 50 ml DROP 5 DROPS OF SOlUTION IN GLASS OF WATER. It is particularly dangerous to get lye in your eye .:ide ("slaked lime. 2. They neutralize acids.PAGE 45) PLACE DROP OF LYE SOLUTION RED LITMUS PAPER. FAT DISSOlVES TO FORM SOAP. b c---. II ·you get lye on ~-ou.. AN ACID TURNS BLUE RED.~ONLY LITMUS US. these ions take on . The first of these .Working~th Bases HOW DO YOU KNOW A BASE? 1.it dissolves the natural oil. indicators. with LOTS OF 'VATER. ·When a base is neutralized. (CONTI1nJED 01." The most important bases are sodium hydroxide ("lye. DIP FINGER HIGHLY BASE. They change the color of . "CSE IT ·WITH GREAT CARE in your exp crimen ts. BASES TURN pHYDRION IS MORE INDICATOR ACIDS AND PAPER EXACT FOR BASES. and calcium hydro::." Ca(OHh).05 g) IN 50 ml DENATURED ALCOHOl!. 5 mf LYE SOLUTION. ammonium 'hydroxids ("ammonia. 43 1 TO 2 mJ DILUTED Hel ADD A SINGLE DROP OF SOLUTION. ACT WITH '4 BASES NEUTRALIZE WHITE TURNS PHENOLPHTHALEIN PINK WITH BASES. BASES TASTE BRACKISH.sodium hydrox-ide . But what I:S a haseil When a base is dissolved in water it Iiherates negatively charged hydroxyl ions (OH-).is used in many households to clean sluggish drains and to keep sinks from stopping up ("Drano"). ON IN· LABORATORY INDICATORS o LITMUS PAPER IS MOST COMJ. ' They contain a combination of oxygen and hydrogen atoms called "hydroxyl" (OH). RED LITMUS BLUE.. Bases are "proton acceptors. ADD TINY LUMP OF FAT TO 5 ml LYE SOLUTION. PHENOlPHTHALEIN 2 POUR INTO TRE MIXTURE TURNS A BRILLIANT PINK.ED INDICATOR. ON TASTE IN THIS DROP DILUTED FINGER TIP. THE COLOR STANTLY CHANGES TO BLUE. DISSOlVE A PINCH (0.' 1 aOB).

) IGNITE A SULFURCANDLE (OR A TINY HEAP OF flOWERS OF SULFUR] ON A PIECE OF TIN. THE LOWER THE NUMBER BELOW 7. HOLD MOISTENED BLUE lITMUS PAPER OVER FLAME." 'Whenc\Ceryou use hydrochloric acid in an experiment.HOUSEHOLD ITEMS CONTAINING ACIDS u' ACID FROM NON·METALlIC OXIDE AciJs-C01tD. not if in the eyes). pH SYSTEM IS A WAY OF DESCRIBING THE RELATIVE ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY OF A SOLUTION. PURE WATER HYDROCHLORIC IS NEUTRAL WITH pH7.U E IT WITH GR EAT CARE.2 ml WATER TO TEST TUBE B. THE HIGHER TOMATOES I CONTENTS SALIVA BORIC ACID MILK 81 I 1 ACID LEMONS ACETIC ACID SAUERKRAUT STOMACH SULFURIC ACID LITMUS 8 I~ I~ I eJl 44 ~ I (3 I RED CABBAGE PHENOLPHTHALEIN . del' the name of "muriatic ACID FROM A SALT " SHOWN. THE MORE ACID THE SOLUTION.AKE. Or neutralize it with bicarbonate of soda (but. dilute it quickly with LOTS OF 'YATER. MUS RED. K1"'f03• and sodium bisulfate.nlllllln.eJ nitric acid would be called for. Hydrochloric acid is used in many households unacid.ADD . If any of it gets on you. this book produces it in a mixture of a nitrate. SH. RESULT IS WEAK HYDROCHLORIC ACID. SULFUROUS ACID FORMED TURNS IT RED.

SAL SODA (WASHING blue from 50 ml WATER. Ammonia is a common household cleaning liquid. BASE FROM A SALT CUP. YOU CAN DETERMINE YOU THE ACIDITY ARE TESTING. PLACE A CALCIUM LUMP OF OXIDE) LIME (QUICKLIME. THE SOBACK REACTION HYDROXIDE CARBONATE. WHEN YOU KNOW pH AN INDICATOR OR ALKAlINITY OF THE SOLUTION JWf~RlNE 7 SEA WATER 1BORAX OF MILK OF MAGNESIA AMMONIA LYE LIME WATER BICARBONATE SODA ~ ~j t3 l~ ~I J ~ LITMUS 45 . WATER AS POWDER IN A CUSTARD ADD AS MUCH OFF STEAM. LIME HEATS UP. CLEAR LIQUID CONTAINS HYDROXIDE CARBONATE (LYE). It has a very strong smell. CUP. GIVES CRUMBLES INTO OF SlAKED LIME (CALCIUM HYDROXIDE). PROAND FILTER. HEAT SLIGH LY. Also watch your nose wben yOU work with ammonia. SODIUM E IN red Ii trn us tIu rns base. THE MORE ALKALINE AT WHAT THE SO- CHANGES COLOR. THE . ADD SLAKED LIME MIXED WITH STIR. LUKEWARM IT WILL ABSORB. Ammonia should also be handled with care and should he washed off quickly if "you get it on you. DISSO[ CARBONATE) IN A CUSTARD TEASPOON SODA. Calcium hydroxide is a white powder. CHEM. LUTION. THE NUMBER ABOVE 7. You will use it in a great number of experiments.CALIS HELD BY THE FILTER.HOUSEHOLD ITEMS CONTAINING BASES BASE You can also neutralize it with vinegar (but not if FROM in the eyes).ICAl DUCES SODIUM CALCIUM DIUM CIUM WATER.

-OUS ACIDS FORM . SODIUM NITRATE Ne. SODIUM ClilORITE SALTS -rc REMEMBER: -Ie ACIDS FORM -ATE SALTS.Salis-Chemicals of Many Uses IS USED EXTENSIVELY IN CHEMICAL ANAlYSIS IN A TECHNIQUE CALLED TITRATION.all the nitrates (salts of nitric acid) and most of the chlorides (salts of hydrochloric acid). Many salts. HYDROGEN SULFATE HVIDRQGEt>l NITRATE HYElROGEN CAR80NATE HYIllROGIiN ACfTA'JE HYDROGEN CHLORIDE HYDROGEN SULFIDE I=IYDROGEN SULFITE HYDROGEN NITRITE HYDROGEN CHLORITE H¥DROCHLORIC ACIO HCI HYDRDSULfURIC ACID H. + + e-: HOW THE ACre Sl!ILFURI!Z A. Kl) which contain no free hydrogen or hydroxyl ions. 2 POUR 10 ml DILUTED HYDROCHLORIC ADD INTO MEASURING TUBE. RETURN ACID NOT USED TO MEASURING TUBE.H. HC. on the other hand.S0.most of the carbonates (salts of carbonic acid) and most sulfides (salts of hydrosulfuric acid).SO. for example is what happens when you neutralize sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid: °aOR HC}. and acid salls (such as NaHSO~. 3 PICK UP A FEW rnl OF THE MEASURED ACID IN AN EYE DROPPER (PIPETTE). SODIUM NITRITE NeCIO.H. SOOIUM CARBONATE NaC. Numerous other chemicals are produced [Tom them. FORMUlA AND NAJ"E OF SALT Na. You'll probably find at least half a dozen different salts used daily in your home . in gardening. ACIDS FOR.S SULFUROUS ACID NITROUS ACID CHLOROUS ACID HYDROH. tiI. and the metal atoms of the base combine with what remains of the acid to form a salt.lST DROPS INTO IT FROM A LONG TUBE-A BURmE-AS MUCH ACID OF KNOWN STRENGTH AS IS NECESSARY TO NEUTRALIZE IT. HClO. Of all the salts used in industry table salt _ aC1) and washing soda (I 'a2C03) are of greatest importance. are insoluble . 1 FOR A TRY AT TITRATlON.0. SODIUM SULFITE NeNO. In your chemical experiments )'OU II be working with two classes of salts: normal salts (such as I aCl.ions) of the base to form water.O.in cooking and baking.ordinary table salt which has given its name to other substances of a similar nature.SODIUM ACETATE NeCI Ne. YOU NOW KNOW HOW MANY rnl ACID YOU HAD TO USE TO NEUTRALIZE THE AMMONIA. Ne. Our way of life would be completely disrupted if our country's industry did not have enough of these two salts. Or simply: BASE plus ACID turns into WATER plus SALT This. THIS WILL COLOR THE MIXTURE A DEEP PINK.CID NITRIC ACle CARBONIC ACID ACETIC A(IID THE NAMES OF SALTS ARE MADE UP BORMULA AND NAME Of. Some of these salts dissolve easily in water . DROP ACID SLOWLY INTO THE AMMONIA MIXTURE UNTIL COLOR IS COMPLETelY GONE.CO. HNO. THE CHEM. MIX A FEW ml OF HOUSEHOLD AMMONIA WITH 40 ml WATER. POUR SOME OF THIS ACID INTO THE AMMONIA UNTIL COLOR HAS ALMOST VANISHED.HOH a The result is water and sodium chloride . Many other salts are necessary for our well-being.SO. Na2CO~. for cleaning. TO DETERMINE THE UNKNOWN STRENGTH OF A BASE.SO. ACID 1=1 .lrE 46 . BY CHECKING ACID USED HE FIGURES STRENGTH OF BASE.CD. NaHC03) which contain replaceable hydrogen. NEUTRALlZAnON W!L'\T HAPPENS when )'orr neutralize an acid with a base or a base with an acidf The hydrogen atoms (H+ ions) of the acid combine with the hydroxyl groups (OH. ADD A DROP Of PHENOLPHTHALEIN.S SODIUM CHLORIDE SODIIJM SULFIDE HI>JO.M -IDE SALTS. 80DIWM SULFATE NaNO.

MARBLE. OR OYS· TER SHELLS (All BONATES) ACID. BRING TO BOIL. . 2 DISSOLVE 5 9 SODA IN 20 ml WARM WATER.-'hen you caused zinc metal to react with hydro-chloric acid.. 3 FILTER THE MILKY SALT FROM ANOTHER SALT AND ACID MIXTURE. WATER. DISSOlVES AND CALCIUM IN A THE HYDROCHLORIC IN THE QUICKLIME CHLORIDE fORMING CALCIUM WATER. you produced a salt: base and a salt to form a new base and a new salt: C_a(OH)1 another acid: + Na 2 ----+- 2NaOH + CaC0 3 A salt and an acid often form another salt and Fe Zn + -.'F£S -----. 1 DISSOLVE 5 9 EPSOM SALTS (MAGNESI- UM SULFATE) IN 20 11'11. MAGNESIUM DROP PIECES OF CHALK.. (QUICKLlMf) ADD WHitE STIRRII'IG.'hen you made iron sulfide directly from the two elements iron and sulfur.znCL. PLACES FORM WITH OF ml HYDROCHLORIC THE ZINC THE HYDRO- GEN OF THE ACID TO A SALT (ZnCI. - + Ha Two soluble salts may also form two other saltsone of them insoluble: When you made sodium hydroxide you used a 47 + Mg'i . CONTAINS THE FILTRATE SODIUM SULCAR- FATE. BONATE IS RETAINED BY RESULT IS CALCIUM THERE ARE many ways of producing a salt in addition to neutralization. CARBONIC CARBON OF THEM CALCIUM CHLORIDE CARAND IN A FEW ml HYDROCHLORIC ACID (WHICH DIOXIDE AND BREAKS UP INTO WATER). COUPLE DIS- SALT FROM METAL OXIDE SALT FROM METAL AND ACID INTO POUR ACID. "".HOUSEHOLD ITEMS CONTAINING SALTS Sani DIFfERENT WAYS OF PRODUCING DROP Flush SALTS ZINC A IN TEST A STRIPS TUBE. POUR INTO HOT EPSOM SALT SOlUTION. you made a salt: + 2Hi + HaC03 (H 0 + CO~) 2 + 2. ACID ACID. PLACE 1 TEA POON OXIDE GLASS.! CaC03 C:aCI \I.) THE CHLORINE.

Hypo in solution forms a colorless compound with iodine. Gray-block crystals of a peculiar odor. GRAYISH-BLACK. r .4 TOGETHER 9 SODIUM 2 9 POTASSIUM BISULFATE. AI. I .. That's . . DROP A FEW CRYSSOLVENT AND TALS IN EACH OF FOUR TEST TUBES·. ADD SHAKE rUBE." It is found in almost every home medicine cabinet and is used as a disinfectant for wounds. "hypo '_ around when JOU work with iodine. ~-_. PLACE JAR AS A CUSTARD SETTlE ON LID ON OF TOP OF FUMES JAR AS IODINE CUP. Iodine has many other uses . Iodine has the bad habit of staining practically MAKJNG IODINE IN A PYREX CUSTARD CUP DIOXVIOLET Element 53.'"hy it is advisable to have sodium thiosulfate _ photographer's fixing salt. HEAT SOON IODIDE. Be careful not to breathe fumes. - ~ f'?' F== I ::==:::: :L_ TO TEST SOLUBILITY OF _"'_'-c ~ hardly any iodine dissolves when put in plain water.in photography and in the preparation of various medicines and dyes. "'~ iodine makes violet soluhon In carbon tetrachloride. CRYSTALS. DROP HALF A DOZEN ICE CUBES I TO A JAR.9. ~ iodine dissolves in water If you add potassium iodide. 2 9 MANGANESE MIXTURE GENTlY. IS It is easily driven out of its compounds as beautiful.IODll'<"E all interesting element to experiment with. .NE. ADD A LITTLE WATER. I IODINE everything with which it comes in contact with a brown stain that won't come off in washing. Combines directly with metals and n o nmetals. wI.. metalliclooking crystals on cooling. FUMES EMERGE. and again cooling them into cry-stal form. I I' . SOLUBILITY OF IODINE 4 .. These crystals can he further purified by turning them into vapor again. . This process is called "sublimation.• __ :_ -_ IODI.j•." Y au are probably familiar with the 2% alcoholic solution of iodine known as "tincture of iodine. 126. VJ iodine dissolves With brown color in olcohol. I . ~L- . It has a density of 4. Sublimes with viole! color. THE VIOLET BOTTOM SHINY 1 IDE. violet fumes that turn into grayish-black. .91.

SET UP APPARATUS AS DESCRIBED ON PAGE 35 WITH THIS EXCEPTION: THROUGH WHEN IN BOntE 8. 49 . YOU WILL GET WHITE OF STARCH WITH COOl. HEAT I. A FEW BISULFATE THE FREE FATE. TION.EASED. BLUE LITMUS STARCH IODINE IODINE STAIN PAINT PAPER WITH THE BROWN COlORLESS SHAKE UP A PINCH IODINE. ALSO HYDROGEN THAT RED. PAINT WITH THIS SOlUTION WITH IODINE. MAKE SOlUTION OF % 9 PO- TASSIUM IODIDE IN 40 ml WATER.MIX A FEW CRYSTALS (AS MUCH AS A PEA) OF POIODIDE WITH SODIUM TASSIUM TEASPOON DISSOLVE POTASSIUM GRAINS OF A FEW CRYSTALS OF IODIDE AND SODIUM SHAKE. AS CHLORINE THIS SOLUTION WITH IODIC IT TURNS BROWN ACID FORMS. DISSOLVE A FEW CRYSTALS OF SODIUM OVER LmERS AS HYPO FORMS THIOSULFATE ("HYPO") COMPOUND IN WATER. POUR DROP OF MIXTURE WATER. FREED IODINE. 10 ml SOLU- COLD WATER IN A TEST TUBE.IODINE FREEl) BY CHLORINI THE CHLORINE IN ADD OF A LIQUID BLEACH ALSO FREES IODINE. IODIDE-AN TURNS V~ BISULOF PLACE STRIPS LITMUS PAPER AT IODINE ACID IS RE- THE MOUTH OF TUBE. IOE>INE COlORS LIQUID BROWN. IN 5 ml WATER. COLOR. TO SOlUTION FEW IODIDE A COUPLE OF DROPS POTASSIUM CRYSTALS IN 10 ml WATER. MORE CHLORINE BUBBLES THE MAKING IODIDE fROM IT CLEARS AGAIN COlORLESS IODINE BY . wrrrso GENTlY. ADD HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. ADD BRIGHT INTO DROP OF IODINE BLUE COLOR RESULTS. ADD TO HOT WAT·ER. "BRING TO A BOIl.

several hundred feet underground..07 .... wt.066 .f""~' ~ OF THE GROUND .he sulfur. Yellow crys-'.. SULfUR POWDER P'ROVES TO BE RHOMBIC CRYSTALS ... to burn). Sulfur itself is used for many purposes..- IS' Element Atomic 5 UL FUR 16 . He piped. people were certain that the devil himself was around. SOME SUlfUR USES TN THE old days. SULFUR CANDLES. brennen. sulfur was called "brimstone" {"burning stone" . then forced the melted sulfur to the top with compressed air. gummy Taw rubber into elastic rubber usable for automobile tires and other li"ubber products. America produces most of the world's sulfur... superheated water underground to melt t. Herman Frasch.flame and a suffocating smell.._:-tals. Density: 2.ELTED FORM BY ~ ---="='_~ A PROCESS INVENT. most sulfur came from the volcanic Italian island of Sicily. IS PRODUCED ~~ BY DRIVING IT OUT .S04)' This acid enters into the (CO -TINlJ"""ED ON PAGE . lnsoluble Melh Boils Burns in water.: 32.. But today. -:. at at in air with blue flame.~"!". ~---------.from an old word.. big deposits.52) SULFUR CAN USUAllY BE BOUGHT IN THREE DIFFERENT FORMS: AS STICK SULFUR.. By a proeess called "vulcanization" it turns sticky..Y\lben it burned with a blue . But by far the greatest use of sulfur is in the prsparation of sulfuric acid (H:/..... 119°C. Sulfur also goes into such things as matches and gunpowder and medical preparations.._ IN M. About a hundred years ago.. were found in Louisiana. 444°C. AND AS A POWDER (FlOWERS OF SULfUR}. UNDER MICROSCOPE.~ ED BY HERMAN~. The problem of getting it up was solved in 1894 in a very clever way by a young German emigrant. _ FRASCH.-_-_ -"'_ MOST OF OUR SUL• F\J~. Until fairly recently. 50 .

• HEAT 1fz TEST TUBE FULL OF FLOWERS OF SULFUR TILL IT IS M. AS SOON AS CRUST FORMS ON TOP. 51 . IN A FEW DAYS THIS AGAIN BECOMES YELLOW SULFUR.fD uouro. WHEN COOlED YOU HAVE A PERFECT CAST.D SUlfUR DISSOLVE A FEW CRY5TALS OF HYPO (SODIUM THIOSULFATE) IN 1fz TeST TUBE WATER.i 1 MAKE A MOLD fROM A NICKEL BY ATIACHING A WALL OF SCOTCH TAPE AROUND THE EDGE OF IT. PLASTIC SULfUR HEAT THE THICKEI'IED SULFUR FURTHER UNTIl IT flOWS FREELY AGAIN. YOU WlLl see THAT SULFUR HAS FORMED TINY NEEDlE·L1KE CRYSTALS. POUR INTO MOLD. ADD 1 DROP OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID.MAKING MONOCLINIC CRYSTALS OF SULRJR WHEN YOU MelT SULFUR. 3. 2 FILL TEST TUBE VJ FULL OF FLOWERS OF SULFOR.R. YOU CAN TURN TUBE UPSIDE DOWN WJII:IOUT ANYTHING COMING our. IT BECOMES LIQUID AGAIN AND B_OlLS WITH YELLOW VAPOR . POUR MELTED SULFUR INTO A DRY FILTER. MELT GENTLY HIGH ABOVE FLAME. 2. . 1 MElT liz TEST TUBE POWDERED SULFUR. SOON IT NO LONGER flOWS. CARAM EL-BROWN. OPEN UP fILTER PAPE. IT GOES THROUGH FOUR 5TAGES: 1. IT TURNS ALMOST S011D.IRST MELTS INTO A WA1ERY. CONTINUE HEATING. 4. IT NEXT BECOMES SLOW-FLOWING. STRAW-COlO8.ELTED WITH LIGHT COLOR.. IT f.ITTURNS INTO A PLASTIC MASS. THEN POUR THE DARK FLUID INTO GOlD WATER. SOON LIQUID TURNS MILKY Of EXCEEDINGLY FINE PARTICLES OF SULFUR. PRECIPIT ATE.

REMOVE SULFUR. By a special. COVER AGAIN WITH GLASS PLATE.just imagine a skunk producing a chemical with this formula: CH3CH2CH2CH2SH. LIFT GLASS PI. H.SO. SO 2 SULFUR Hydrogen SuIfide-_1lany sulfur compounds have unpleasant.h water. Highly soluble in woter-3. ADD A FEW ml WATER. IN A SHORT WHILE.JAR FillS WITH FUMES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE.DIOXIDE FOR SUlFlJR BLEACHING 1 AnACH WIRE TO SMALL BOTILE CAP. COLORS HAVE BLEACHED. SHAKE.directly or indirectlyof practically every manufactured article we use today. 2. Does not burn nor support combustion. in making steel and paper. and thousands of other chemicals.The first step in making sulfuri acid from sulfur is to burn the sulfur. It combines with metals into salts (sulfides) that can be distinguished from each other by their colors and by the way they react with acids and other chemicals. SULFUR DIOXIDE FROM production .lDE AND PRECIPITATE OF SULFUR RESULT. Some of these compounds have very complex molecules . penetrating smells. Hydrogen sulfide is used in chemical analysis to determine what metals are found in a certain substance. MAKING SULFUROUS ACID LIGHT SULFUR IN BonLE CAP.\OISUi'lED. BRIGHT-COLORED FLOWER. fibers and films.LT () DISSOlVE V2 TEASPOON iHYPO (SODIUM THIOSULFATE) IN 40 ml WATER. plastics and explosives. FILL THE BOTILECAP HALF FULL OF SULFUR POWDER. ulfur dioxide can be forced to take on another oxygen atom and form sulfur trioxide (SO!).. It is used in refining gasoline. DROP INTO JAR APPLE PEELINGS AND .A. at 20° C. LOWER BURNING SULFUR INTO A JAR:. this makes sulfuric acid: H!O+ 03 -- H~S04 A SA. DISSOLVES IN WATER IT fORMS A WEAK . LIGHT THE SULFUR. Colorless gas with a chok. TEST fOR ACID WITH BLUE LITMUS PAPER. 52 .937 vols. 'i -il. AS SO. WHEN JAR IS FULL OF fUMES. complicated pro ess. Be careful not to breathe fumes.2 weight of oir. COVER THE JAR WITH GLASS PLATE TO EXTINGUIS SULFUR. LOWER BURNING SULFUR INTO JAR. 64. The smell of rotten eggs on the other hand. t\l1lenburning in the air. SULFUR DIOX. ADD A FEW ml HYDROCHLORIC ACID.. AFTER A FEW MOMENTS.ACIDSULFUROUS ACID. Sulfur Dioxide . comes from the simple compound hydrogen sulfide (Hl ).ing odor.. each atom of sulfur takes on two atoms of oxygen to make ODe molecule of sulfur dioxide gas (80-2). in 100 vels.H. ~~~~~~d~ Moleculor wt..

in 100 DROP INTO A DRY TEST V~ TEASPOON POWDERED SULFUR AND A LUMP OF CANDlE WAX AS LARGE AS A PEA. HYDROGEN SULFIDE HAS SMELL OF ROITEN EGGS in wcter -2.58 vels.BAGJ. IT TURNS BLACK FROM SILVER SULFIDE. ges rotten wilh weight a to form Iy soluble 34. HEAT TEST TUBE WITH SULFUR MIXTURE.S STREAMING OUT Of JET. BREAK THE TEST TUBE (IN A PAPER . MOISTEN A SILVER COIN.17 Felrr HYDROGEN SULFIDE IS AN IMPORTANT LAB TOOL FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. Burns flame 1. BECAUSE OF INCOMCOMBUSTION. HYDROGEN SULFIDE BUBBLES INTO TEST SOLUTION. A PRECIPITATE WILL FORM.S FlAME. wI.S FlAME. 3 HOLD COLD GLASS PLATE IN . HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM FeS 'AAKE IRON SULFIDE AS DESCRIBED ON PAGE 22..NOTE:Perform these experiments out-of-doors or before an open window.. ruas _-1+-+1---. of air. with Molecule Colorless odor of eggs.S CdS ZnS 53 .S 1 PUT STOPPER WITH GIiASS ruse WITH JET POINT IN TESri :rUBE IN WHICH YOU MAKE H. SET UP APPARATUS AS SHOWN.S.S INTO A SOLUTION CONTAINING A SALT OF A HEAVY METAL WILL HElP TELL YOU WHAT METAL IS FOUND IN THE SALT. blue SO. PLm rss COLOR OF THE SULFIDE FORMED WHEN YOU LEAD H. MAKE SOLUTION IN TEST TUBE OF CHEMICAL YOU WANT TO ANALYZE. DROP SMALL PIECES IN. IF THIS CONTAINS SALT OF ONE OF THE HEAVY METALS. EXPERIMENTS WITH H. HOLD IT IN H. SULFUR IS SET FREE. BY ADDING HYDROCHLORIC ACID YOU MAK. ANOTHER TEST TUBE. H2S ~~~ ~~~ HYDROpound.E H. YOU CAN ACTUAH Y "DRAW" WITH THE H. o No. LEAD GLASS TUBE INTO THE SOLUTION. CRUSH THE FeS WITH A HAMMER.S. Be careful not to breathe fume·s.

silicon compounds are insoluble in water. rock or cement.1lost glass and many glazes are made by fusing together sand (SiO!).lDES OR SILICATES. Within recent years.MAKING CEMENT powder. _. Silicon is found in nature in combination with oxygen (mostly the dioxide. Paper and cloth can be made water-repellent by being treated with suitable silicones. It is used as a glue. The silicates of sodium and potassium dissolve in water. SILICON (from the Latin silex. for fireproofing wood and for preserving eggs. Some of them are oil-like. Whether you are walking on sand or clay.RALSAND MANY AR. oxygen. Burns in.E SILICON PRECIOUS STONES OX. Si02) and in different silicates (salts of various silicic acids). and soda. The glass of our windows and the glasses from which we drink are silicates. Still others are rubber-like. So are the glazes on our cups and the enamel on our hathtubs. With few exceptions.SAND-40% 54 . chemists have developed a whole line of new silicon compounds called silicones. A concentrated solution of sodium silicate (Na2SiOa) is sold in hardware stores under the name of waterglass. flint) is the second most abundant element on earth . MINE. almost half of what you're stepping on is silicon. Some look like putty ("Silly Putty"). limestone. Forms about 27% of the earth's crust. And that is a good thing for all of us.after oxygen.

MIX 10 ml HYDROCHLORIC ACID AND 10 ml WATER..D=--_--_-" MAKING SIL'ICON DIOXIDE IN ONE GLASS. 1 DILUTE 5 ml WATERGLASS (l'Io. YOUR SILICATE "JUNGLE" IS FUllY "GROWN. IN ANOTHER. DILUTE 20 ml WATERGLASS WITH 20 ml WATER. MOVING TUBE.ICATES 2 AFTER FILTERING.: .) DRIVES IT OUT OF WATERGLASS. POUR THE TWO MIXTURES AT ONE TIME . BY POURING HYDROCHLORIC ACID OVER MARBLE CHIPS. !II STAND SPOON UPRIGHT IN THE MIXTURE WHICH. 2 9 lYE (NoOH).. PLACEIT IN A SPOT WHERE IT Will NOT BE DISTURBED. ALUM. MAKING SIL. AND 5 ml WATER.J. HEAT CAREFULLY./ TIN A TEST TUBE. MAKE THE CO. YOU WILL HAVE A CLEAR SOLUTION OF SODIUM SILICATE (No:>..--. "GROWING" A SILICON II JUNGU" 3 ADD A FEW DROPS TO THE WATERGlASS TO GET PRECIPITATE OF COPPERSILICATE.) GIYES UP WATER (H20) AND TURNS INTO A GRAYISH-WHITE POWDER OF SIUCON DIOXIDE (Si02). IN A PINT JAR. PLACESOME OF THE Gel ON A METAL JAR LID. EPSOM SALT. ALMOST IMM.ICON DIOXIDE YOU MADE." 55 . DROP IN CRYSTALSOF VARIOUS SALTS YOU MAY HAVE: IRON SULFATE." IN A FEW HOURS. r. THE CRYSTALS SEND UP "SHOOTS. MAKING SILICIC ACI. TURNS INTO A JELLY ("GEL") SO STIFF THAT SPOON STANDS BY ITSELFAND YOU CAN TURN THE GLASS UPSIDE DOWN. MIX 1 gOF THE SIL. PER SULFATE.SiO..EDIAT ELY.SiO. PLACE V2·INCH LAYER OF SAND.) WITH 5 ml WATER.THE SILICICACID (H. WEAKNESS OF SILICIC ACID SlllCIC ACID IS SO WEAl< THAT CARBONICL ACID [H1CO. POUR ON TOP OF THIS A MIXTURE OF EQUAL PARTSOF WATERGLASSAND WATER.SrO.~ __ --. COP. 2 DISSOLVESMALL CRYSTALOF COPPERSULFATE IN WATER. HEAT.INTO A THIRD GLASS.

ETALS CAN BE RECOGNIZED.sr: '. containing the element boron. was carted ont of Death' alley in California by twenty-mule teams . HOT AND COOlED.. boron carbide (B{C).the fastest form of transportation imaginable. S@WiGlroL-FutureRocket-PowerElelllent? LEss THAN A hundred years ago a mineral called borax. TOUCH BEAD TO CHEM· ICAl TO BE TESTED. Its carbon. Boron bas the ability (as does carbon) to combine with hydrogen in a number of ways. compound. OXIDIZE THE CHEMICAL IN VERY HOT FlAME GENERATED WITH HELP OF A BLOWPIPE. Boron can be is-olated as a hard brownish-black powder.about the slowest transportation you can think of. When tbeseboranes or boron hydrides burn. TO MAKE TEST. PRODUCE DISTINCT COLORS BY WHICH THE M. is almost as hard as diamond. But YOIl are probably more familiar with boron CERTAIN METAL OXIDES. Someday. boron may be put in zip-fuels for space missiles .hey develop a tremendous amount of power. DIP HOT lOOP IN BORAX. HEAT WIRE lOOP. green flome. STUDY THE COLOR OF BEAD. hot IRON COPPER NICKEL 4 cold B a e G 0 G) hot MANGANESE COBALT CHROMIUM 0 0 ~ cold 0 0 0 56 . t. HEAT TO FORM BEAD. FUSED INTO A "BEAD" OF MELTED BORAX.

used for cleaning purposes and as a water softener. used as a mild antiseptic. and for making other boron compounds. IGNITE. STIR WITH GLASS ROD.) WHICH YOU CAN DRAW I)qTO THREADS WITH GLASS ROD. STIR. BORIC ACID GIVES GREEN EDGES TO THE FlAMES. The glass industry uses large quantities of borax for making boron-aluminum-silicate glass. WHEN FILTRATE HAS RUN OFF. a2B40. Borax bas a great number of uses outside the home. It is used for soldering. ADD ~ BORAX TO 15 ml WATER. MAKING BORIC ACID ADD 4 ml HYD OCHLORIC ACID TO HOT BORAX SOLUTION. WASH BORIC ACID REMAINING IN FIL· TER WITH A SMAU AMOUNT OF COLD WATER TO REMOVE NeCI AlSO FORMED IN THE PROCESS. TARD POUR CONTENTS OF CUS· CUP INIOA FILTER. WASH MUSTARD OFF.d in almost every household: boric acid (H3B03).'lOH!O). IT GIVES 0FF WATER AND TURNS TO SYRUPY MASS OF MELTED BORIC oxIDE (B20. USE FOR EXPERIM:ENTS ONlY. HEAT BORIC ACID IN AN OLD TEASPOON. ADD A COUPLE ml DENATURED ALCOHOL. DRY STRIPS.hrough two of its compounds which are fOUTI. BORIC ACID CRYS· TALLIZES OUT AS SOLUTION COOLS. YEtLOW TURMERIC It'fDICATOR PAPER TURNS BROWN WITH BORIC ACID.t. 57 . 4 SPREAD OUT FILTER TO LET BOR. for producing certain kinds of soap. DIP STRIPS OF PAPER TOWELING IN MUSTARD. REMOVE FROM FIRE. • IN A CUSTARD CUP. TO MAKE TEST PAPER. You know this kind of glass by its trade Dame PYTex. YELLOW COLORING MAnER IN TABLE MUSTARD IS TURMERIC.IC ACID CRYSTALS DRY. TESTS FOR BORIC ACID DROP A FEW CRYSTALS OF BORIC ACID IN A CUSTARD CUP. and borax (sodium tetraborate. Kitchen utensils and laboratory ware made of Pyrex glass have the great advantage over ordinary glass that they can be placed directly on the fire and do Dot break so easily when they are subjected to sudden heating or cooling. BRING TO BOIL STIR UNTIL BORAX IS DISSOlVED.

Inland plants. can be cui with knife. THEN SET ASIDE. K2C03)· In 1807. Inland people boiled out wood ashes in large pots to get "potash" (potassium carbonate. (En. "SALARY" COMES FROM SALARIVM -THE WAGES PAID IN SALT TO ROMAN SOLDI EI'S. the British scientist. Humphry Davy. IN A TEST TUBE.ED: NcHSO . UNTIL HALF THE WATER HAS BEEN EVAPORATED..At CARBONATE (Na2CO.97 . 2 POUR CLEAR UQUID INTO LARGE PIE PLATE. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most common sodilIll1 salt it is the chemical that makes ocean water "salty.ED Will BE MUCH LARGER. HYDROGEN CHI:ORlDE IS SET FREE AND SODIUM SULFATE IS I'ORM.. LEAD CO2 INTO SODA SOLUTION FORI 0 MINUTES. He called them sodium (from soda ash) and potassium (from potash). NaiC03). SALT fORMS FINE CRYSTALS.. Densily.: 0.DNBY S'HAKING 3 TEASPOONS WASHING SODA IN 30 rnl com. WATER.. 1 MAKE SATURATED SOLUTI.. MAKING NORMAL SAlt ACID SALT F. on the other hand.". PLACE IN SUNNy WINDOW FOR WATER TO EVAPORATE SLOWLY. These are still their English names. NoCI _.. 2 SET UP APPARATUS fOR MAKING COl AS SROWN ON PAGE 31.. THE ACID CARBONATE (NcHCO." Plants growing in the ocean take up so much of the sodium that people along the seacoasts of the world used to burn dried seaweed to secure "soda ash" (sodium carbonate.: 22 . succeeded in isola ring the metals found in these salts. SHORTLY NcHCO" CRYSTALS APPEAR.). BOn STIRRING WITH WITH TOP END 'i~~~~'~---REDUCE " SAL'F (NoCl) 19 9 TABLE 50 ml HOT SOLUTION. But in chemical formulas they are referred to as natrium (Na) and kalium (K) . HEAT A MIXTURE OF 2 g SODIUM ACID SULFATE (SODIUM BISULFATE) WITH 1 9 TABLE SALT (Noel). and al q.] IS . 'Burns with yellow flame . Atomic WI. FILTER IT. '>ADE BY LEADING CO2 TO NORM.ALTS of sodium and potassium have been used for thousands of years in making soap and glass and for a great number of other purposes. BUT NOT COLD. CRYST ALLIZl NG SAL'T BY EVAPORATION 1 DISSOLVE TIm S.. HCI + Nc2SO . . + 58 .ili (alkali). Element 11.. Reacts with woler. THE CRYSTALS FORM.ROM SODIUM SULFATE IS PRODUCED BY HEATING SODIUM ACID SULFATE WITH SODIUM CHLORIDE.gJish: Sodiurn] Silver-white metal. GLASS TUBE SEALED (TO MAKING ACID SALT FROM NORMAL SALT "BUMPING").from abbrev-iations of the Arabic names: of the ashes: nairun..99 J. Oxidizes in air.. They proved to be wax-soft and silvery. IN WATER. pick up potassium from the soil.

Reads with water. 50 soft it can be cuI with knife.100. Bums with viclet flame. COLLECT FilTRATE IN A CUSTARD CUP. 2KNOz + O. Element 19. THEN DIP LOOP IN COMPOUND AND HOlD IN FlAME. (English: Pa-. TO CRYST AUIZE OUT. USE BLUE GLASS TO SCREEN OUT YEllOW OF No. HEAT IT.. SODIUM COMPOUNDS GIVE THE FLAMEA BRIGHT YELlOWREDCOlOR.87. STIR UP SEVERAL TEA· SPOONS OF FRESH WOOD ASHES WITH ARM WATER. -. 59 .INS. Oxidizes in air. Density: 0.K KALrUM PIONEER WOMEN MADE POTASH FROM WOOD ASHES. fosslum) Silverwhite metal. POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS GIVE VIOLET FlAME. Atomic wt. TO SEEVIOLET COlOR OF PO· TASSIUM IN MIXTURE WITH No. EVAPORATEMOST OF WATER. DIP NICHROME WIRE IN HCI TO CLEAN IT. 2 FILTER THE MIXTURE OF ASHES AND WATER. THEN COOL TO PERMIT K2CO. SKIM OFF WOO REMA.: 39. IT GIVES UP OXYGEN AND BECOMES POTASSIUM NITRITE: 2KNO. NITRATE TO NITRITE WHEN YOU HEAT POTASSIUM NITRATE. FLAME COLOR TEST FOR SODIUM AND POTASSIUM THE COMPOUNDS OF CERTAIN METALS GIVE DISTINCT COLORS· TO A FLAME.

CalciuJLn. Tell a master builder to build a monument..." She can do it if she gets enough calcium in her feed to make the shell.) 60 . He can do it with.. STALACTITES AND STALAGMITES ARE UNDERGROUND DEPOSITS OF CaCO". (SEE ALSO PAGE 45. The name of calci urn was given to the metal bidden in limestone by its discoverer. EA SHEllS. the drops gave up H20 and CO2 and left CaC03 behind.. A widespread mineral called gypsum Is the sulfate of calcium. of clams and mussels and billions of tiny sea creatures.L. Rainwater containing carbon dioxide seeped through the ground and dissolved a small amount of limestone.. STA1\'D TJP STRAIGHT. some goes in solution as calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HC03)~).. But if the water contains carbon dioxide. it loses three quarters of its water and becomes plaster of Paris (2CaSO~· H~O). It is found in nature in cliffs and mountain ranges in the form of chalk and limestone and marble. Calcium carbon ale is almost insoluble in water. Calcium carbonate (CaC03) is the starting point. The minute deposits of falling drops during thousands of years created the stalactites hanging from the roof of the caves and the stalagmites rising from the floor. In this.for Building You can do it because your bones contain calcium. Tell a hen to "go lay an egg. Tell a mason to put up a brick house. \ . And it makes up the shells. 'When gypsum is heatad.. He will make it from marblecalcium again. for most calcium compounds . It comes from calx. each molecule of sulfate has two molecules of water attached to it (caSol• 2H:iO). WHEN WAteR IS ADDED TO LUMPSOF QUICKLIME lCaO). . THEYCRUMBLEINTO A WHITISH .... WHEN LIMESTONE IS HEATED IN KILNS.~> ' c.. IT LOSESCARBON DIOX. the old Latin name for lime.!___... This explains the formations in our famous limestone caves.MARBLEARE ALL CALCIUM CARBONATE. Humphry Davy.-'-ltL._. ~--. When you mix plaster of Paris and water... In falling from the cave ceiling and drying.. CORAL. -~ ~'. UMESTONE.!'-'-~ (.:. it again takes on the full amount or H20 and hardens into a hydrate similar to the original gypsum. .POWDe:R OF SLAKED OR HYDRATED tIME (Ca(OHhl. mortar containing calcium.and for other chemicals as well.~b .lDE AND TURNS INTO QUICKllME-CALCIUM OXIDE..

DISTILLED WATER MAKES lARGE AMOUNT OF FOAM. All IMPURITIES[CALCIUM CARBONATE AND SULFATE. YOU CAN MAKE A DISTILLATION APPARATUS fROM TWO PINT-SIZE CANS.EAD THE CARBON DIOXIDE INTO LIME WATER. INTO MILKY SOLUTION. IN BOTTLEB. THIS IS DONE BY EVAPORATING THE WATER AND CONDENSING THE STEAM. THIS IS THE SUBSTANCE THAT MAKES MOST HARD WATER "HARD.' Fill A SLENDERJAR HALF FUll OF WATER TO BE TESTED. POUR ACID ON MARBLE CHIPS TO MAKE CO" l.AND OTHERS)MUST BE REMOVED FROM WATER TO BE USED AS SOlVENT. HARD TAP WATER MAKES VERY LITTLE FOAM.TESTING HARDNESS OF WATER 1 MAK TION BY D1SS5iVING 1 9 SOAP FLAKESIN 20 ml DENATURED ALCOHOL. CHECKAMOUNT OF FOAM.0) IS USED IN POLICE WORK FOR MAKING CASTS OF TRACKS. POUR SOLUTION INTO CUSTARD CUP. HEAT. ~ WHEN HOT. ADD SOLUTION OF 2 TEASPOONS WASHING SODA IN 50 ml WATER. FILTER. InURNS MILKY THROUGH FORMATION OF CoC03• CONTINUE LEADING CO. KINESS DISAPPEARS./' /<7-: 61 . YOU GET A HEAVY WHITE PRECIPITATE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE. SOFT TAP WATER GIVES FAIR AMOU T OF FOAM. POUR IN TRACK. ~~'. HARD WATER SOFTENED WITH WASHING SODA MAKES FOAM. CLOSE MOUTH OF JAR.Iz. PLACE MARBLE CH PS ON TOP OF PEBBLES.AKING "HARD" WATER SET UP GAS GENERATOR AS SHOWN ON PAGE 3 . SHAKE VIGOROUSLY. CASTING PR. BOHLE A CONTAINS H:fDROCHLORIC ACID. HAS BEEN TURNED INTO SOlUBLE Co(HCO." a IN THE SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY. LEAVE TO SETONE HOUR.ECIPIT A TID CALCIUM CARBONATE 1 WHEN MARBLE CHIPS HAVE DISSOlVED IN ACID IN BOTTLE B IN EXPERIMENT ABOVE. MIX PLASTERWITH WATER UNTIL IT HAS CONSISTENCY OF MEDIUM CREAM. water to be distilled is in this can can upside down-bottom M.INSOLUBLE CaCO. WITH PLASTER OF PARIS PLASTEROF PARIS (2CoS04'H. . ADD 10 ~_DROPS Of SOAP SOLUTION.

2 POUR SOlUTION OF J 9 SOD. That is exactly the case. Mg REACTSFAST. IT BURNS WITH BLUISHGREEN FLAMETO ZINC OXIDE.INC. 62 . In their compounds they are very much alike. GO INTO. TAKE A WOK at tbe periodic table of elements on pages 38. EVEN WITH VINEGAR-Mg WITH COLD VINEGAR. in column lIB the metal zinc. magnesium had little use . for instance). IF ENOUGH METAL IS USED. InOIS YELLOW WHEN HOT. 2 COPPER IS FORCED OUT AND Mg AND Zn. But in some of their reactions -they do not behave alike . (MgO) WITH WATER.ACIDS. AND InS0.39. white light._' "J ~ BRILLIANT.4 ARE COLORLESS.HOLD 2-!NCH PIECE OF MAGNESIUM RIBBON WITH A PAIR OF PlIERS. .. But the fact that they are in separate "subgroups" would suggest that tbey cliffer in certain respects. flAME. I! TEST MIXTURE WITH RED UTMUSPAPER. One atom combines with one atom of oxygen to form the oxide (MgO and ZnO). DI.. NOW TOUCH ZINC WITH A COPPER WIRE. IGNITE IT.MgSO . REACTION SPEEDSUP. MIX ASHES ::. THE OTHER HALF OVER SLIVERSOF ZINC.SSOLVE4 91 COPPER SUl. ~. . IT BURNS WITH A . CAUSED BY ELECTRICPROCESS.. SOLUTION .1 -~_ CUT SLIVER OF Z. . WHITE -. ' . POUR HALF CF THE SOlUTiON OVER STRIPSOF MAGNESIUM. WHITE WHEN COOl. HOLD IT IN FLAME.FATE IN 40 rnl WATER..as you wil11earn. they are found both have the Roman numeral II would indica. Zn SLOWLY. and one atom replaces two atoms of hydrogen in fanning a salt (IvlgCl2 and ZnCI2.. The fact that the two families in which.IUM BISULFATE IN 10 rn WATER ON Mg AND z-..mainly in flash photograph-y because it burns with a blinding.. In WITH HOT. Before World War II.te that they are related. But the metal became important when lightweigbt planes were neededmelted together with other metals it forms an "alloy" REPLACEMENT OF COPPER 1 BOTH METALS REACTWITH WEAK . THE BLUECOLOR DISAPPEARS. In column IIA you find the metal magnesium.

TATE. PRECIPITATEDISSOIV.) RESULTS .Mg"· . 0 ens i IY : : 3 Densil'y: 1 . that is light ·yet very strong.. LUTEDT1NNERS' FlUJD(ZnClxl. Some magnesium compounds are used in medicine: milk..RDWARESTORE. 6 5 . ZnCO.. HERE A SO YOU GET WHITE PREC!PI. 3 MAKE SOLUTION OF 5 9 WASHING SODA [SODIUM CARBONATE~ IN 50 rnl WATER. .: ~ Atomic 'Nt •.ESWITH FORMATION OF SODIUM ZINCATE (Na.. FOR}'~S. 14 ADD SMALL AMOUNT OF AMMONIA TO DILUTED TINNERS' FLUID. ADD SOME OF THIS SOLUTION TO THE OTHERTWO.4 . Zn(OH)..). CO. GEl:. malleable. Ductile and '1er-wl'iit·e metal. white Ught.S INTO SOlUTION OF EPSOM S... ma'i!eabJe.1gS0~·7HlO).MgSO . THIS REACTSWITH THE WATER TO MAH Mg(OH).. BI u ish-while 7 melal. 3 LEAD H. 2.. DilUTE 5ml OF FLUID WITH 15 ml WATER. Bums lnoir made 10 bum with with v'ery brilliant bluish flome.lBQM HA.• 7H 0) IN 20 ml WATER. ~~GUN'~ 'Element 12. FORMS. THE Mg JAR.(OHl. Can be water. fORMING COMPOUND WITH NH.AtT(MgS04}. ADD MORE NaOH. A '2 LEAD HYDROGEN SULFIDE(H]'S) INTO DILUTEDTlNNERS' flUID ( nCl.AKING MAKJNG tHE CARBONATES tHE HYDROXID·ES 1 ADD SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOlUTION TO SOlUTION OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE.WHITE Mg(OHl. Zn AND M9 WITH H.BUT NOT OF MAGNESIUM SUlFIDE. 2. 3 B. DISSOLVES. IS FORMED.M..MONIA (AMMONIUM HYDROXIDEJTO MAG· NESIUM SULFATESOLUTION.•)_ YOU GET A WHITE PRECIPITATEOF InS. IN Zn JAR. THIS IS A STRONG SOLUTION OF ZINC CHLORIDE.5 1 DISSOLVE 2 9 EPSOM SALT (MAGNESIUM SULFATE. THIS IS NORMAL IN MAGNESIUM CARBONATE (MgCO •.Zn 0.. IN BOTH JARS YOU WILL GET A HEAVY WHIU PRECIPITAT.. Zinc has been used for ages to coat iTOn pails and pipes to prevent them from rusting .. ADD SMALL AMOUNT OF NoOH SOLUTION TO 01. THE Zn(O.SNtALlBOT· TlE OF . 5 .. Zl1(OHh FORMS." Zinc is also a part of many alloys (German silver and brass) and is import-ant in the making of dry-cell batteries. Sil.TINNERS'FlUIID . Distils ~'Duc:iHe. ADD MORE.)."galvanized iron. IS SET FREE AND BASIC ZINC CARBONATE (In(OH) •.. PPARATUSSHOWN ON PAGE 53.. Zn ~e~en~ Atomic 3~ wI. when healed to Reacts with boilfng boiling. AGAIN Mg. of magnesia (!vtg (OH)g) and Epsom salt (!I. M.E.. 63 . 1 2 SETUP HYDROGEN SULFIDE.' 7. ADD A.Hl.1.

irr THE CRYSTAL GROW FOR A WEEK OR MORE. C. impossible to imagine our world without aluminum. QlRSTf:D OF DISCOVERED ALUMINUM IN 1825. Two GROWING ALUM CRYSTALS MAKE A SMALL AMOUNT OF ALUMINUM POWDER BY FILING IT OFF AN OlD ALUMINUM POT. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE IS fORMED. Density. Fora number of years aluminum was so expensive that it was considered in class with gold and silver. SET ASIDE TO COOl.98. HANG THIS IN SOLUTION FROM A PENCIL PLACE IN QUIET SPOT. The solid aluminum cap placed on top of the Washington Monument in 1884 was first put on public display so that everyone could have a look at such a great rarity. PICK OUT LARGEST ONES. HEAT GENTlY AGAIN UNTIL ALL IS DISSOLVED. AI ALDMINUM Element 13. HYDROGEN IS RelEASED. Atomic wt. POUR LIQUID OFF UNDISSOLVED ALUM. STIR INTO IT POTASSIUM ALUM OR AMMONIUM ALUM UNTIL NO MORE DISSOlVES. metalfrom the pots :in the kitchen to the airplanes flying overhead. ductile. HYDROGEN IS FREED AND SODIUM ALUMINATE (NaAIO~) IS fORMED. isolated it from aluminum chloride (AIC13).LMOST Ahundance H. Will burn in oxygen with white flame. TIE THREAD TO LARGEST CRYSTAL YOU PICKED. able to ~ak. 2. Silver-white metal. Almost everywhere you look you see items made of this silver-white.AluminUIn-in IT IS A. Hans Christian ¢rsted. DROP THEM IN A LITTLE DILUTED HYDROCHLORIC ACID. COOL 3 POUR COOLED SOlUTION INTO NARROW GLASS. Amphoteric.SENTED BY THE CRYSTALS YOU REMOVED.70. CHARLES HALL OF THE UNITED STATES FOUND' A CHEAP WAY OF PRODUCING IT IN 1886.e r-----'==-~a high polish. Although aluminum is the most abundant metal on earth. no one had ever seen it lllltil1825 when a Danish scientist. 1 HEAT WATER UNTil IT IS SLIGHTlY MORE THAN LUKEWARM. 64 . DISSOLVING AlUMINUM 1 CUT ALUMINUM FOIL IN SMAll STRIPS. SPRINKLE IN flAME TO MAKE SPARKS OF BURNING ALUMINUM. ADD TO SOWTION AS MUCH MORE ALUM AS IS REPRE. malleable. -2 WHEN CRYSTALS HAVE FORMED.: 26. 2) DROP STRIPS OF tuMINUM FOlLIN 10% NaOH SOLUTION.

-lit IN ANOTHER JAR.mostly because of its lightness. Clay" for instance. AND SODA (. Al(OH)3) is our main source of aluminum..OR fROM A FLOWER POT. WASH ITRE'BY SQUIRTING WATER INTO IT.KAl (S04h' 12H10 and NHtAl (SO4k12H. fRECIPITAT.IS· SOLVE % TEASPOON ALUM. NO COl IS FORMED . AlLUM MAKES ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE WITH SODA. The other is tbat aluminum sulfate (A}. a 22~year-{)ld American chemist.:ml WATER . is an aluminum silicate. One is that aluminum is an "amphoteric" element.. ADD HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 65 . AFTER WASHING. invented a way of prodncing aluminum cheaply from aluminum ox-ide (Al!Os).O. Charles Martin Hall. AMMONIA ADDED TO ALUM SOLUTION G1VES ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE.. O. MAKING ALUMINUM HYDItOXIDE Two things about aluminum will interest you as a chemist. but also an acid (HAl07).) TO 14 TEASPOON OF AlUM IN 20 ml WATER.j(S04)3) has the ability to combine .E SHOULD BE CARBONATE-8UT IS IT? n ('2"l a ruTEOlY FILTER THE PRECIPITATE. ADD % TEASPOON SODA IN 20 -:. IN THIS.years later.. THIS Will DfSSOLV.AMMONIA. BUT THIS DOES NOT DISSOlVE IN MORE AMMONIA. INTO IT 1 TABLE· SPOON EARTH FROM THE GARQEN. !HIS IS NOT A CARBONATE. CLEARING WATER WITH ALUM ] :2 DISSOlVE I 9 [Y4 TEASPOON) ALUM IN 10 rnl WATER. which means that it can form not only a base (Al(OH)3). ADD A umE 10% NoOH SOLUTION.E IN MORE NoOH TO FORM SODIUM ALUMINATE. But aluminum is also found in natureas ox-ideand in many complex silicates. DJRT SETIlES FASTER IN THIS JAR THAN IN THE FIRST JAR. The mineral bauxite (AlH02. YOU GET JelLY-LIKE ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE..S04) and am-ith monium sulfate «_ ffi4) aBO 4) into beautiful cubic crystals of double salts called "alums". Since then aluminum has become one of the most popular of all metals . ALUMINUM HAS NO CAR· BONATE. potassium sulfate (K. ADD 1 TEASPOON . MAKE A SIMILAR MIXruRE.. I 1 POUR WATER INTO A pINT JAR AND STIR.BRING PRECIPITATE INTO A TEST TUBE.

IT GIVES UP OXYGEN). 2 AFT:ERA 'FEW MINUTES. your fingers and glassware may get brown. EXPERIMENTS WitH POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE KMnO. OR 111. But add up to l~ per cent of it to steel and the result is an alloy . THE KMnO~ IS REDUCED [THAT IS.000. white and pink.. MIX 2 9 MANGANESE DIOXIDE.000. 5 m] TO 45 ml WATER FOR SOlUTION 1/1. ADD 30 rnl WATER.AND 10 ml WATER.ALF OF THE MANGANESE SULmE SOLUllON YOU HAVE MADE. POUR 10% SOlUTION OF NoOH UNTIL NO MORE PRECIPITATE FORMS. FILTER. THIS GIVES A SOlUTION OF 1 TO 100. ~~ INTOH. AGAIN. Rinse thoroughly with water afterwards.rIETALLIC MANGANESE and have already used in a great number of your chemical experiments.IS SET fREE.FILTRATECONT'Ji:1NS MANGANESE SULFATE(MnSO~) AND SODIUM SULFATE. LOR YOU STILL SEE IS CAUSED BY THE PRESENCE OF MOR THAN 600. The most common ore from which manganf'cSeis extracted goes under the name of "pyrolusite .000. Y Oll can get rid of this stain easily with diluted hydrochloric acid. PLACE A FEW CRYSTALS OF POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE ON BOTTOM OF A TEST TUBE.000.000. and red. 6 9 soDIUM BISULFATE. WILL GfVE. WHITISH Mn(OH): OXIDIZES INTO BROWN MnO[OH}.000. OR 1/100.000. IT OXIDIZESHCI AND SETS CHLORINE 'FREE.SE HYDROXIDE 1 IN A PYREXCUSTARD CUP. REDUCING KMnO.000. In working with these compounds.rHIS SOLUTION WITH 45 ml WATER. IT WIll BUBBLEVIGOROUSLY BECAUSEOXYGEN . HEAT MIXTURE GENTLY. YOU AN IDEA OF SMALLNESSOF MOlECULE. This " is nothing but yOUT old friend manganese dioxide (!VInO!)which -you fouod in your flashlight battery II. DROP A FEW DROPS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID ON THEM. 1 DISSOLVE % 9 PO'TASSIUMPERMANGANATE IN 50 ml WATER. 66 .000 MOLECULES OF KMnO~. The compounds of manganese come in almost any color )'ou can think of: black and brown. YOU ON OF 1 T 1. has no use by itself.MANGANESE DIOXIDE TO MANGANESE SULFATE 2 MANGANESE SULFATE TO MANGANE."mauganese steel" . F.so hard that it is suitable for machine parts that areexposed to a lot of rough wear. violet and green..

Silvery-gray metal wilh reddish tinge.). Reactswilh woler. WHITE PRECIPITATE IS MnCO. lis compounds with oxygen range from bases to acids.). CRYSTALS 3 POUR I'ERMANGANATE INTO IRON SALT. MANGANESE CARBONATE SETTLE.MnO J.j 9 SODIUM CARBONATE IN 10 ml WATER. Density: 7. 2 DISSOLVE A COUPLE OF KMn04 ~ HALf TEST TUB Of WATER.: 54. ADD HYDROCHLOR[C ACID BY THE DROP UNT[L· DISSOLVED. 67 . ADD TINY AMOUNT Of SODIUM BISULFATE (TO MAKE SOLUTION SOUR). RESULT [S MANGANESE CHLORIDE (MnCI. COLOR DISAPPEARS AND OXYGEN IS LIBERATED. ADD A CRYSTAt Of' POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE TO GIVE THE SOlUTION ~ LIGHT RED COLOR. 2 1 DISSOlVE A SMALL CRYST~L OF I. POUR IN A LITTLE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE [H20.44. POUR THE RED SObtlTION INTO A FILTER. ~eS04J IN HAlf A TEST TUBE FULL Of. PASSING THROUGH FILTER PAPtR HAS CAUSED KMli04 TO BE REDUCED TO POTASSIUM MANGANATE (K.RON SOLFATE (FERROUS SULFATE.94.. POUR SOlUTION OF .). Atomic wt.. POUR LIQUID OFF PRECIPI· TATE.). IT IS G~E~ INSTEAD OF RED. GREEN FERROUS SULFATE IS OXIDIZED TO BROWN FERRIC SULFATE (Fel(SO . WATER. MANGANESE MANGANESE SULFATE TO CARBONATE " MANGANESE CHLORIDE TO MANGANESE SULFIDE MANGANESE CARBQNATE TO MANGANESE CHLORIDE Element 25. Mn MANGA- N ESE 5 4 'INTO SECOND HALf OF SOLUTION. DISSOlVE A fEW CRYSTALS OF POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE IN WATER. WATCH E FILTRATE.THE EXPERIMENTS ALONG THE TOP Of THESE PAGES SHOW HOW IT IS POSSIBLE TO MOVE fROM ONE COMPOUND TO ANOTHER. 1 DISSOL E 1 g SODIUM HYDROXIDE IN 50 ml WATER.

IN FERRIC SALTS. 2 IN ANOTHER. -=~~~~~~~~= 68 . WEDGE IT IN BonOM OF A GLASS. EACH IRON ATOM HAS REPLACED THREE HYDROGEN ATOMS.. FERROUS SALT FERRIC CHLORIDE {FeCI.}. MAKlN. MAKING A FERRIC SALT T.ACID OVER STEEt WOOl.86 •. IN A FEW DAYS.:{Ii 3 TO EACH. IRON HAS REACTED WITH OXYGEN AND MOISTURE TO FORM RUST-{FezO. MAKES LIGHT BLUE PRECIPITATE. If you should walk around your home and touchdiITerent things with a magnet.EN FilTRATE CONTAINS FERROUS CHfORIDE (FeCI.!. 2 lIGHT-GRE.NG OF IRON sewing box.lz"3 Hp.G A FERROUS SALT 1 POUR HYDROCHLOR.__I 55. of being attracted and influenced by a force called magnetism.E AS STEEL WOOl DISSOLVES.--__. Dudi!e end malleable.85. you would be surprised at the large number of them that would prove to contain iron. WATER HAS RISEN IN GLASS. Reocts Wtlh most acids.1 TEASPOON (SEE PAGE 35). Skyscrapers and MOISTEN A WAD OF FINE STEEt WOOL WITH VINEGAR (TO SPEED UP ACTION). W e Live METAL 11:t an Age of IIL""o}lll TWO KINDS OF IRON COMPOUNDS IRON FORMS TWO KINDS OF COMPOUNDS.~i 1 -I ~II --. EACH IRON ATOM HAS REPLACED TWO HYDROGEN ATOMS. HYDROGEN IS SE-t EItE. Gray-while metal. GREEN FERROUS SALTS EASilY OXIDIZE INTO RED-BROWN FERRIC SALTS. ADD A FEW DROPS SET UP APPARATUS FOR M.-----:. EEJS.AKING CHLORINE Of SOlUTION OF 1f. Densily: 7. releasing Oydrogen. and look around. FIlTER THE SOLUTION. INTO BOnlEB POUR FERPOTASSIUM FERROCYANIDE IN ROUS CHLORIDE SOlUTION YOU HAVE JUST 50 ml WATER". has the peculiar quality of being magnetic ~ that is. ==:::. INVERT GLASS IN PIE P·LATE Of WATER.:s::-~~:-=---_____o.). The moment you step outdoors you will be even more amazed. BfLUTE SOME OF THE FERROUS CHLORIDE SOlUTION WITH WATER.C .EST FOR IRON SALTS 1 IN ONE TEST TUBE.RIC SALT MAKES MADE. They would range in size from the car in the garage and the refrigerator and stove in the kitchen to the nails in the walls and the needles and pins ill yow' mother's IRON RUSTI. IN FERROUS SALTS. THE CHLORINE TURNS THE GREEN A DEEP BLUE PRECIPITATE OF FERROUS CHLORIDE {FeClzjINTO A BROWN PRUSSIAN BlUE. DILUTE SOME FERRIC CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH WATER.

coaperose. ADD A FEW CRYSTALS OF SODIUM BISULFATE TO KEEP THE SOLUTION SOUR. in turn. -\ADE WITH NO OXYGEN PRESENT IS WHITEBUT YOU GET MUDDY." This is removed wh n 'the white-hot.000 tons of are. 1. 2 TO ANOTHER PORTION OF FERROUS SULFATE SOlUTION ADD SODIUM CARBONATE SOLUTION.5 per cent. 69 TO SOLUTION OF % TEASPOON FERROUS SULFATE I 50 ml WATER.ture. of hot air is forced through the mi .all of these d pend all iron (in the form of steel for their existen c. To tum it into st el. This is done either by the Bessemer process (named for an Englishman Henry Bessemer) or by the open-hearth process. and this.. railroads and.000 ton' of coke. PURE CARBONATE ." The pig iron is brittle becaus it contains close to 5 per cent carbon.5 to 1. + 3C0 i 2 At the sam time. LIGHT-GREEN FERROUS SULFATE SOLUTION TURNS REDDISH-BROWN. iron is poured out into moulds and cooled into bars of pig iron. the most commonly used iron compound is th iron sulfate (ferro us sulfate.. has nothing to do with copper but comes from an old French word. The iron is driven out of its ore (mostly Fe~O~) in huge furnaces. H101 HAS OXIDIZED FeSO . the limestone mbines with various impurities to form a glass-like compound called "slag. BECAUSE OF IMPURITIES.. EVENTUAllY TURNING INTO fERRIC HYDROXIDE. also Iarge amounts of the coal from which to make the coke that goes into iron production. The coke burns "With great heat.2CO Fe!03 + 3CO C 22 2 plus heat 2F I ) IRON HYDROXIDES AND CARBONATE I DISSOLVE % TEASPOON FERROUS SULFATE IN 50 m! WATER.)· Pi In chemical experiments. this is what happens: FROM FERROUS SALT TO FERRIC + O CO CO + C~. We are very lucky to have in Am rica.. hips machinery of all kinds . This. In chemical language. and 500 tons of limestone. to arbon dioxide. Fe· O~· -H20) . not only large amounts of iron ore but. The finished steel is molded into "ingots" and shipped to manufacturing plants all oyer the country. remains. with more coke forms carbon monoxide. TO FERRIC SULFATE (Fe2(S04). the last name mislead youit. ADD SOLUTION OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE. Eaeh Iuruace can make as much as 1 000 tons of iron at one time from 2. the carbon must be burned au ~ until amy from ." Don't leI. YOU GET DIRTY-GREEN PRECIPITATE OF Fe{OHll' SOON OXIDIZING TO BROWN FERRIC HYDROXIDE. reduces the iron oxide to metallic iron. A blast. 2 ADD HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SOLUTION. PURE FERROUS HYDROXIDE IS WHITE. .hridges. WHITISH-GREEN PRECIPITATE OF FERROUS CARBONATE.also called "green vitriol' and "copperas.

the most important use for copper is for electrical purposes." This deposit was called verdigris . while cupric with it was its softness.-~-i~~.:in cu~ric salts. It serves to bring the current from the place where it is produced to the place where it is to be used (although.---.. . . In cuprous salts.the same compound you will see on a bronze statue or a copper-clad church spire exposed to wind and weather. Cuprous salts (such times for weapons and utensils. CuCI) are colorless. GREEK AND TROJAN W ARR10RS. VI'hen the)' were dug out of the ground.literally "green of Greece" (from old French.~ v~ _ -_ .. This alloy gave its name to more than two thousand 'years ofhuman history . one copper atom has taken the ture. ? ...."-. After silver.. some aluminum has taken its place for high-tension 70 "~. ilie)' were covered with a green "rust.:t MOST IMPORTANT USE OF COPPER TODAY IS fOR ELECTRIC WIRING. The main trouble as cdprous chloride. .." Todd\. C~~~~. Copper became especially valuable less than a hundred yearn ago when a satisfactory method for producing a steady flow of electricity was invented. i au WI fi d: copper In t h e wirmg in your own nome and in every electrical gadget you use.III . .~' <: '" "- . That is why it was used long before historic place of two hydrogen atoms..-~~ ~.'NG . ~ ~ . .~-~~-~ ~-:. euso. within recent 'y!k'll"S.. -. copper is the best conductor of electricity...--~~.:-._ ~~~~~~~5~1~~\~"~-. :':. some early coppersmith discovered that copper and blue in coloI'. It consis ts of basic cupric carbonate . one opper-atom has taken the place of one hydrogen COPPER IS ONE of the few metals found free in il~~atom.. --_. -. Today.. . tin (also found free in nature) melt-ed together formed an alloy that was much harder than either of the two metals..__ . RONZE-AN ALLOY MADE UP OF COPPER AND TIN. ll~ /. terl.. \ \)"'"' ·11 .o_-~ \\\HE \ \ _.. de Grece).~.the period called the "Bronze Age . ' A great number of weapons from the Bronze Age have been found in Greece. BE~RE THE GATES OF TROY USED SWORDS AND SHiElDS OF ..t" _ topper" makes two Kinds of salts. Tbis was remedied when salts (s~h~ci'ipric sulfate.--. wll·e\._ ---=-=----:.5H~O) are bright. -- \ C({])lrnlTller-YesterdLay1t" l.

ANY METAL IN THE SERIES WILL DRIVE OUT ANOTHER METAL BElOW IT AND TAKE ITS PLACE IN THE SALT. POUR 10 ml INTO EACH OF FOUR TEST TUBES. HEAT TO BOILING. YOU MADE CUPRIC CHLOR DE WHICH IS SOLUBLE IN WATER. 4 WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE. YOU GET A WHITE PRECIPITATE. COPPER Element 29.z. HEAT WHILE STIRRING UNTIL THEY HAVE TURNED INTO A WHITE POWDER. INSOLUBLE IN WATER.97.RON REPLACEMENT SERiES POTASSIUM SODIUM CALCIUM MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM 1 CRUSH A FEW CUPRIC SULFATE CRYSTALS. Easily rolled and drawninlo wire. WITH AMMONIA YOU'lL ALSO GET Cu(OH)" BUT THIS DISSOLVES IN MORE AMMONIA WITH DEEP BLUE COLDR.54. Density. 10% SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION PRECIPITATES DIRTY-BLUE CUPRIC HYDROXIDE (Cu(OH).\ENT SERIES. Nellt to silver.MA.. BROWN ISH·B LACK PRECIPITATE OF CUPRIC SULFIDE. 1 DROP ZINC CHROMIUM IRON NICKEl I . SEVERAL CLEAN NAILS INTO A SOLUTION OF COPPER SUL· FATE. ~ ----=---~ . COPPER WITH I. THEN !'OUR OFF LIQUID. 3 SODIUM CARBONATE SOLUTION GIVES BLUE-GREEN CUPRIC CARBONATE PRECIPITATE. 2 3 ADD SAKE. REPLACING WATERFREE (ANHYDROUS) CUPRIC SULFATE SHOWS IF WAJER IS PRESENT IN A LIQUID BEING TESTED. IjDD Sh\ALL PIECES OF COPPER WIRE. BY JREA-rING THiS WITH METALLIC GGPPER.). POUR A FEW DROPS OF THE HOT SOLUTION INTO'" LARGE AMOUNT OF WATER.KING COPPER COMPOUNDS DISSOLVE 109 COPPER SULFATE IN 100 ml WATER. LEAVE FOR HALF AN HOUR. CU 1 LET CUPRIC HYDROXID (IN EXPERIMENT ON TOP OF PAGE) SETTlE. BLUE CRYSTALS FORM.: 63. ONE DROP OF WATER. NOTHING HAPPENS.is the best conductor of electricity. 8. Atomic wt. WHEN YOU DISSOLVED CUPRIC HYDROXIDE IN HCI. METALS CAN BE ARRANGED IN A REPLACEJ. YOU GOT CUPROUS CHLORIDE. Soft metol of reddish color. PLATINUM GOlD . TIN lEAD COPPER MERCURY SILVER SHAKE UP A LITTLE ANHYDROUS C PRIC SULFATE WITH CARBON TETRACHLORIDE.'" 71 . ADD HYDROCHLORIC ACID UNTIL All IS DISSOLVED. 2 NAILS ET ALLIC TION ARE NOW COATED WITH COPPER AND THE SOLUCONTAINS fERROUS SULFATE.

De nsify. SOlUTION. UNEBOTTOM OF CUSTARD CUP WITH ALUMINUM FOil.: 107. SIL v"BR . SILVER CHLOIRIDE 01S5OLV.re.contains 7. .LL OF WATER.54... BRIN .oXIDE . PLACE TARNISHED COIN ON FOIl.the rest is copper..E.own into wi. ' -3 TO 5 ml AgNO. CHEESEUKE PRECIP. ADD AMMONIA. vith copper to make it harder. THE SILVER BECOMES SHINY AGAIN. AgCI. It is hard to believe that the blacks and grays you see when yon look at a photograph are various concentrations of metallic silver. 4 TO PART OF AgGI PRECIPITAT. IT TURNS ViOlET FROM M.LIKE COPPER and gold . PRECIPITATE OF SILVER OXIDE DISSOlVES WHEN veu ADD MORE AMMONIA. chemical processes . HYPO HAS lEFT STAIN Of BROWN-BLACK SILVER SUL'FIDE..5 TO ANOTHER PART OF Agel. 1 TARNISHED I SILVER SILVER TARNISHES WHEN IT IS EXPOSED TO SULFUR.oWN 'P·RECIPITATE""""':N. SOLUTION. metals from their ores. ADD AMMONIA. ADD WATER AND SODA.. HEAT UNTIL HYPO MEtTS. h SILVER COMPOUNDS GET 5 g SilVER NITRATE IN YOUR lOCAL DRUG STORE. i Eo.2 TO ml AgNO. That's why most silver is alloyed . Y. ADD TABLE SALT (~aCI) SOlUTION.ITATE IS SILVER CHLORIDE (Agel).880. DD SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOlUTION. I ..ES. ADD % TEASPOON SODIUM CARBONATE. DlSS.all of them having to do with silver. 1 6 . WASH.ETAllIC SILVER. S oft.5 parts capper to 92.. l""ARtlISH VANISHES.oLVE IN 50 ml WATER. TO A BOIL. 6 PLACE REMAINING AgCI IN THE SUN..) SOlUTION. Atomic wi..~MEREDINTO ANY SHAPE DESIRED. PLACE A FEW CRYSTALS OF SODIUM THIOSULFATE ("HYPO") ON A SILVER COIN . TO 5 ml SILVER NITRATE (AgNO. 72 . When you take a snapshot. Sterling silver . PLACE SILVER TO BE CLEAI'-IED IN ALUMINUM TRAY.oT Of HYDROXIDE.a famous alloy used for jewelry . Only %J of American silver coins is silver .SILVER SMITHING IS AN ANCIENT ART. REMOVING TARNISH FROM SILVER Juster. Bed knewnccnducto~ of .it is almost as soft as copper.OU GET DARK-BR. SILVER Element 47. BOIL GENTLY. BUT OF SILVER . to extract.SILVER IS MALLEABLETHAT IS.5 parts silver. IT CAN BE HA/. DISSOLVES. A g. you get yourself involved in a series of complicated. POUR CUP HALF fU.5ily ham-' dr. ADD SODIUM THIOSULFATE SOWTlON. YOU CAN USE THIS METHOD FOR CLEANING SILVERWARE. 10. Pure silver has one drawback . . white meted with bright .is found free in nature and was therefore known to man long before he learned.electriCity.

More of this silver is brought out in the developing bath.A CAMER. a certain amount of it gives up metallic silver (AgBr . MORE THAN 150 TONS OF SILVERARE USED EACH YEAR IN MAKING FILM fOR THE MOVIES. of exposing. I· FROM A C0MMERCIAL PHOTOGRAPHER.Ag Br). PL CE SHEET ON PIECE OF PLyWOOD. ENSJTlZED SIDE UP. After washing and drying. __ ~ 73 .EW SHEETSOF. as above. FlATIEN PRINT IN A BOOK. yon place the negative on a piece of photographic paper and go through a similar procedure. ON TOP OF IT. dey eloping fixing. HOLD IN POSITION WITH SPRING CLOTHES PINS." A SLOW PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER. To make a natural-looking pi ture. and drying. th film is placed in a fixing bath which removes all unexposed silver bromide. you have a photographic negative in which tbe whi~ parts you photographed appear black and the black parts appear white. washing.IN THE SHADE. WHEN DRY. "PRINTING-OUT PAPER. PHOTOGRAPHING WlTHOUT . AFTER FIVE MINUTES. GET A f. LAY A LEAF AND A SHEET OF GLASS. + PHOTOGRAPHY INVOLVES A WHOLE SERIES OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES. EXPOSETO SUN UNTil PAPER IS BLACKISH-VIOLET.A 2 FIX THE LEAF PRINT IN A SOLUTION OF 109 HYPO IN 100 ml WATER. 'When fully developed. 3 DRY THE PRINT IN THE AIR ON TOP Of NEWSPAPER. WASH IN RUNNING WATER. When the silver bromide is ex-posed to light.In making a photographic film the manufactur 'r spreads an emulsion of gelatin that contains silver bromide (AgBr) over a transparent sheet of cellulose acetate.

and three hydrogen atoms with aile atom of nitrogen As YOU R<\" VB (l\1H3)· The capacity of one atom to hold on to other atoms is called its valence (from Latin taleniia. ONE CA.IS A GAS). ONE MOlECULE CARBON DIOXIDE COMBINES WITH ONE MOLECULE CALCIUM HYDROXIDE TO FORM ONE MOLECULE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE (ARROW POINTING DOWN INDICATES THAT IT IS A PRECIPITATE) AND ONE MOLECULE OF WATER. Two oxygen atoms combine with one carbon atom to make CO!. you will have noticed that one atom of hydrogen combines with one atom of chlorine (Hel). Two hydrogen atoms combine with one oxygen atom . USE AS PATTERNS FOR CUTIING CIRCLES OF CONSTRUCTION BOARD. PUNCH HOLES AS INDICATED. (ARROW POINTING UP INDICATES THAT THIS . strength). The chart on page 75 shows some of the common AO~ TQ THESE DIAGRAMS SHOW WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU BURN CARBON AND TEST FOR CO. two hydrogen atoms with one atom of oxygen (H20).RBON ATOM (W1TH FOUR POSfTIVE VALENCES) COMBINES WITH TWO ATOMS OF OXYGEN (EACH WITH TWO NEGATIVE VALENCES) TO FORM ONE MOLECULE OF CO. Carbon has a valence of 4. itrogen has a valence of3. 74 .USING PATIERNS AT LEFT. TRACE EACH OF THE CIRCLES SHOWN ABOVE ONTO CARDBOARD. so we use hydrogen as OUT starting pain t and give it a valence of 1.. No atom has a lower valence than the hydrogen atom. CUT OUT SEVERAL CIRCLES OF CONSTRUCTION BOARD IN VARIOUS COlORS. PUNCH THE HOLES NECESSARY TO INDICATE VALENCES.that gives oxygen a valence of 2. studied the chemical formulas in the text.

) WITH TWO NEGATIVE VALENCES. WRITE THE NAMES OF THE ELEMENTS WITH CRAYONS.you need H2 to combine with O. 75 ..~ Item SOME 'OMMON Circle VALENCES Negafive Item Valences Positive Valences Valence Valence Circle 'A A Ag +1 +3 +3 +4 +2 +1+2 +2+3 +1 +1 +2 +2 +1 +4+6 +4 +1 A C (I J -1 -1 -3 -2 -2 AI B c Co Cu PUT V.. + SULFUR HAS SEVERAL VALENCES. such as the ammonium radical C\1JIJ that behaves as a metal. IT HAS A VALENCE OF -2 IN H~S." BRASS CLIPS IN HOLES SHOWING POSITIVE VA· LENCES.-) wo uld not. C C A SO. Hydrogen with one plus (H +) and oxygen with two minuses (0 . YOU CAN MAKE UP A SINGLE CIRCLE TO STAND FOR THE SULFATE RADICAL ISO . C with 4 (C++++) takes two 0 each with -2 (0--). others have minus (-) signs. OF +4 IN SO" AND OF +6 IN SOl AND IN SULfURIC ACID (H2SO . in order to balance.. YOU CAN SHOW THESE VALENCES WITH TWO EMPTY HOLES AND SIX .). B valences for making up formulas. B II SO.. Notice that some valences have plus (+) signs. c c B N B B C 0 S I' B B A Fe H K Mg A B B A Mn No CO. With these models you will be able to figure out how compounds are made up and what happens in the various chemical reactions yon will cause in your experiments. HOLD THEM IN PLACE WITH SCOTCH TAPE.that is groups of atoms that hang together in chemical reactions. IN MAKING THE CIRCLE fOR SULFUR. To get a clear understanding of chemical formulas make yourself a set of atom models as shown on these pages. NO. INSTEAD OF USING ONE SULFUR CIRCLE AND fOUR OXYGEN CIRCLES TO INDICATE A SULFATE. and the sulfate radical ( 0. Similarly. 'iVben )'OU make up the. es and minuses.) that goes into the making of salts. fit together . Arost of the items are elements.. OH -2 -1 -1 -2 -2 B AA S Si NH .BRASS CLIPS. formula for a compound. there must be the same number of pin. but some of them are :'radicals" .

carbo meant coal.the other 10 to 20 per cent is made up of various substances from which a great number of important and valuable chemical compounds are made.To THE OLD RO:llA_l'iS.huge tree ferns. HEAT TURNED TREES AND OTHER PlANTS 76 . To the modern chemist. giant club mosses and horsetails. The coal that we use for fuel contains from 80 PRESSURE AND to 90 per cent carbon . During the ages they were covered by other dead trees and by layers upon layers of mud.plants and animals . INTO THE COAL WE USE TODAY. They thrived in the hot. So is also the graphite that forms the "lead" of your pencil and the diamond in the jeweler's window. pressure and heat turned them into coal.a black rock that would burn. in hundreds of thousands of compounds produced by nature and in many thousands more created in the laboratory.and in many dead things. died and tumbled to the ground. All the GOal we mine deep underground today is made up of the remains of plants that grew around three hundred million years ago . Eventually. carbon is an element found in an living things . The soot from a smoking candle is almost pure carbon. It is hidden in the whitest sugar and the reddest rose and the greenest apple. humid climate.

CARBON Elem~nt 6. At c rn i c wI.: 12.011. Found in nature as diamond [density 3.52), 05 grophite (density 2.25), and 05 coal. Diamond burns in oxygen, coal in air.

C

THRU FORMS

OF

CARBON
GRAPHITE IS A SOFT FORM OF CARBON. IT FEELS SLIPPERY.

diamond

rough

lignite

uses of graphite bituminous cool
ANTHRACITE IS ALSO CALLED HARD COAl. BITUMINOUS GRAPHITE IS A SOFT FORM OF CARBON.

cut diamonds

~~
COAL IS SOFT COAl. LIGNITE IS BROWN COAl. IS THE HARDEST SUBSTANCE KNOWN.

IT FEElS SLIPPERY. DIAMOND

IN REGULAR DISTILLATION (SEE PAGE 61), A CHEMICAL IS PURIFIED. IN DESTRUCTIVE OR DRY DISTIlLATION, T E SUBSTANCE IS BRO· KEN INTO SEVERAL DIFFERENT CHEMICALS.

for dry distillation of wood, whittle twig into slivers, or use wooden matches without heads.

for dry distillation of coal, crush lump of bituminous coal into powder.

FILL TEST TUBE V~ FULL OF COARSELY POWDERED BITUMINOUS COAL (OR SLIVERS). PLACE SMAll WAD OF COTTON AT MOUTH OF TEST TUBE. CLOSE MOUTH OF TUBE WITH STOPPER WITH l·SHAPED GLASS TUBE DRAWN TO A JET POINT. PLACE TU.BE HORIZONTALLY IN HOLDER. HEAT COAL [OR WOOD).

1

000

2

AFTER A WHILE, COTTON

DENSE FUMES DEVELOP. THEY CAN

BE IGNITED

AT lET.

WAD DISCOLORS FROM TAR CONDENSING

AFTER BEING DISTIllED.

4 STOP HEATING. MOUTH OF TUBE. IF MONIA (A). IF YOU ACID (B). COAL HAS
CARBON SUGAR IN

REMOVE STOPPER. BRING MOISTENED LlTMUS PAPER TO YOU DISTILLED COAL, RED LITMUS TURNS BLUE FROM AM· DISTILLED WOOD, BLUE LITMUS TURNS RED FROM ACETIC TURNED TO COKE, WOOD HAS BECOME CHARCOAL

YOU CAN PROVE PRESENCE OF CARBON IN THE FOOD YOU EAT BY HEATING SMALL SAMP.LES OF CHEESE, BREAD, MEA, SOGAR. BE SURE TO DO THIS OUTDOO TO PREVENT EXPER(MENTS FROM SMELLING UP T E WHOlE HOUSE.

HEAT 1 TEASPOON CANE SUGAR IN A CUSTARD CUP. FIRST, SUGAR MELTS. THEN IT TURNS BROWN -IT "CARM\ELlZES." NEXT IT GIVES OFF THICK VAPORS THAT CAN .BE IGNITED. FINAllY, A PURE FORM OF COAL REMAINS.

RUB A lUIYIR OF SUGAR WITH CIGARrnE ASHES (TO ACT AS CATALYST). IGNITE. DIP TEST TUBE IN LIME WATER. HOLD QVER BURNING SUGAR. FILM OF CALCIUM CARBONA E SHOWS CO~ IN FLAME-PROVING THAT THERE IS CARBON IN SUGAR.

IT WAS ONCE BELIEVED THAT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS COULD BE PRODUCED ONLY BY LIVING ORGANISMS.

THE CHEMISTS of about two hundred years ago divided all compounds very neatly into two groupsorganic and inorganic. The organic compounds were those produced by living organisms - that is, plants and animals. The inorganic compounds were made up of dead things - rocksa:nd minerals, water and various gases. _ -0 organic compound, these chemists insisted. co~d ever be produced artificially - they required the force we call "life" for their creation. And then, in 1828, a German chemist, Friedrich Wohler, completely upset this idea. In his laboratory, Wohler had mixed ammonium sulfate(NHj)2S0j) and potassium c)'anate (KCI-O), expecting to get ammonium cyanate. After evaporating, he analyzed the compound he had made. To his amazement he discovered that it was not ammonium cyanate at all, but urea - a compound produced in the kidneys of living animals, including man. The atoms of the ammonium cyanate molecule had rearranged themselves into a urea molecule. -ffi1 CNO had turned into (NH2}2CO.

A few years later, another organic compoundacetic acid - was made artificially. And then the lid really blew off. NIore and more products of plant and animal life were put together - synthesized - in the laboratory. And as if tills were not enough, chemists began producing organic compounds that were not even found in nature. It became clear that the old meaning of organic chemistry no longer was right. And so, the definition was changed. Today, organic chemistry is defined as "the chemistry of the carbon compounds." Tills definition is almost, but not 100 per cent, correct. The metallic carbonates, for instance are still considered to he inorganic compounds, and c-arbon dioxide and carbonic acid are regarded as being both organic and inorganic. You may think it odd that a whole branch of chemistry should deal with the compounds of a single element. But you will not be surprised at all when you start experimenting with a few of the close to 1,000,000 carbon compounds.

78

HYDROCAltBOl'lS
CARBON AND

CONTAIN T'NO ELEMENTS ONLY: HYDROGEN. HYDROCARBONS WITH

FEW ATOMS TO THEIR MOLECULES ARE GASES. OTHERS WITH MANY ATOMS ARE LIQUIDS AND SOUDS.

AtCOFfO:kS

MAY BE CONSIDE.RED HYDROCARBONS IN WHICH A HYDROGEN ATOM_IS REPLACED BY OH.

CAR:BO_HYI;»RATES ARE IN MANY OF OUR MOST VALUABLE FOODSTUFFS AS STARCH AND SUGARS.

£ST£R~ IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CAN BE COMPARED TO SALTS IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. FATS AND OILS

ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT ESTERS. THESE ARE THE "SALTS" OF GLYCERINE AND FATTY ACIDS.

a
Carlor Oil

~

eeocl'"

Winlll(gr'.. :e:n

Oil of

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS ARE NAMED FOR THE CARBOXYL GROUP-COOH-FOUND IN THEIR FORMULAS.

PROT:E:IN"S ARE COMPLEX COMPOUNDS THAT CONTAIN CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN.

QiHH CARBON COMP-OUNDS;--IN ADDITION TO THE MAIN GROUPS ILLUSTRATED ABOVE, THERE ARE

NUMEROUS OTHER KINDS OF CARBON COMPOUNDS. MANY HAVE VERY COMPLICATED FORMULAS.

79

C ~ C c::=J H ~ H =C . This time it came to him in a dream.. oxygen of 2 . To understand this. ethylene (C~Hl)' and acetylene (CzH. C~H4 ocerylene. ethane). 80 .. two by two. BY ARRANGING THE SIX CARBON ATOMS IN. But bow explain compounds consisting of two atoms of carbon and six of hydrogen (C!HG. in these three _ C~C_ =C=C= -C5CNow add a hydrogen atom to each of the free bonds . this kind of arrangement.4.GBEFORE HIS EYES. acetylene)~ A German chemist and professor. different ways. A SNAKE SEE}. write out carbon atoms with four lines to indicate the valence arrange the lines in these three different bonds. it was Kekule who offered the explanation. -. But there were still many carbon compound formulas that would not line up in. WHy""S: but -C- ~c - =C= Then hook them together. He had been KEKUL'E.and there you have the formulas for the three hydro-carbons . or two atoms of carbon and four of hydrogen (C!11~.) : H~C-C-H " / H 'H H. Carbon has a valence of 4. A RING. ethylene) . The answer was quite simple: While the atoms of most elements "hook on" to the atoms of other elements according to their valences.MOlECUtE IN A DREAM. C~6' for instance-s.benzene.ED TO WHIRL IN A RIN. CH" How IS IT FOSSIBLE for carbon to make 80 many different compounds of such tremendous "ariety~ That was one of the great questions facing chemists during the last century. Friedrich August Kekule.H H H H H H H H H erhylene. came up with the solution. THE PROB- lEM WAS SOLVED. an important hydrocarbon obtained by distillation of coal.IT UPON THE STRUCTURE OF THE BENZENE .ethane (ClEo). It was easy enough toexplain carbon dioxide.'S BENZENE RING H H=C I. H C~H2 r:nelh(:lIH~.~ ~ ~ c H I C = H ~ AUGUST KEKUlE H. It was also easy to explain the molecule of the simple hydrocarbon methane (CH~).the formula had to be CO~. or two of carbon and only two of hydrogen (C2H!. /H H-- H"C=C-:: H• H-C-C-H ~H So far so good. Again. the atoms of carbon "hook on" to each other as well.

. twisting and twining . THIS IS HOW THE BENZENE MOLECULE WIlt LOOK WHEN YOU P' TOGETHER FROM HOME-MADE BON ATOMS...until suddenly one of the snakes grasped its own tail and whirled around in a ring... Starting from these yery simple formulas... This dream gave Kekule the clue: the carbon atoms in benzene hang together in a ring.ISTHE WAY THE BENZ.. each atom using three of its bonds to hang on to the atoms next to it.. YOU CAN THINK OF THE BENZEN. ..... USING THIS PATTERN. .. YOU CAN DO WITH SCOTCH TAPE.. YOUR OWN MODEL OF METHANE MOlECULE... VALENCE BONDS ARE SHOWN BY RODS (B). IN MODELS OF CARBON ATOMS. .. FOLD AT DOTTED LINES. TAPE WITH SCOTCH TAPE..... In his dream.. HOLDING BANANAS.. I I -. III the evening he dozed b fore the fire.. with one bond free to book onto a hydrogen atom. of organic formulas. . I -.. MAKE UP TETRAHEDRONS FROM CARDBOARD.I . FOR HOME-MADE MODELS OF CARBON ATOMS. IN THEIR FREE HANDS. modern scientists can figure out the most complicated chemical formulas.. working all day with long lines. . " I I I I represent . THE FOUR VALENCE BONDS POINT AWAY FROM THE CENTER (NUCLEUS] TOWARD THE CORNERS OF A TETRAHEDRON-A FIGURE MADE UP OF FOUR TRIANGLES. THIS ... I I I IN A CARBON ATOM (AI. . the lines of formulas turned into snakes. 81 . ...E RING AS SIX MONKEYS HANGING ON TO EACH OTHER WITH ONE OR TWO HANDS.ENE MOlECULE LOOKS WHEN IT IS CONSTRUCTED FROM PARTS USED TO MAKE UP LABORATORY MODELS FOR DEMONSTRATION.. ' .hydrogen atoms TWO LABORATORY MODELS SHOWING THE METHANE MOlECULE.

"Fill 'er up!" The attendant pours what may be a hexane-septane-octane-nonane mixture into the gas tank. THIS IS DONE IN TALL TOWERS. FUEL OIL. r 82 . turpentine. to mention a few. OIL FIELDS ARE FOUND IN SEVERAL STATES. FRACTIONATING OF OIL THE FIRST JOB OF THE Oil REFINERY IS TO SPLIT UP THE OIL INTO THE PARTS (OR FRACTIONS) OF WHICH IT CONSISTS. (r.which can then be built up further and further. gasoline. FOLLOWED BY KEROSENE. Yes. THE OIL IS HEATED. But that is only the beginning. And that is exactly what chemists are doing today . A great number of hydrocatbons come from petroleum (crude oil). Coal and natural gas provide several others.r~ .compounds that COIltain only hydrogen and carbon. LUBRICATING OILS. rl ?'~. plosives. THE VAPORS RISE IN THE TOWER. camphor. A HUNDRED YEARS AFTER THE FIRST OIL WELt IN PENNSYLVANIA. ASPHALT. mister]" Into the engine goes another hydrocarbon mixture ..natural rubber.. One of the remarkable things about hydrocarbons is that it is possible to combine some of those with small molecules into others with larger ones (as in making synthetic rubber)..g~b • h~ . By replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with hydroX)d groups (OH) or carboxyl groups (COOH) or chlorine atoms (Cl).. plastics and m. and rubber are all hydrocarbons .-:.. "Check your oil. --. motor oil..giving us medicines and dyes.. Many more are produced by nature . as well as to "crack" those with large molecules into others with smaller ones (as when a heavy oil is' cracked" into gasoline). and countless other things. THE LIGHTEST FRACTIONS-GAS AND GASOLINE-GO TO THE TOP. WAX. for instance.. " CRUDE OfL ASPHALT THE FAMILY CAR stops at the service station..possibly along the line of C2JIwC21H~rC22H45' And SO)VOU take offon hydrocarbon tires.. _. it is possible to build up more complicated compounds . Even the red coloring of tomatoes and the yellow of carrots are hydrocarbons.

83 . POUR A !. FILL JAR WITH WATER. SET UP APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING GAS AS SHOWN BELOW. METHANE IS MADE BY HEATING WATER-FREE SODIUM ACETATE WITH "SODA LIME. Oil IS CRACKED INTO GAS THAT BURNS WHEN IGNITED.COONc). TO DEMONSTRATE THIS.. TURPENITINE- NAPHTHALENE C.. EVAPORATE MIXTURE AT lOW HEAT TO GET POWDER OF SODIUM ACETATE. GIVING OFF A BLACK SMOKE OF CARBON WHICH YOU CAN COllECT IN A JAR. 2 TURN JAR UPSIDE DOWN. NAPHTHALENE SETTLES ON BOTTOM IN LEAFY CRYSTALS.ITTlE TURPENTINE INTO BOTTLE CAP. CRUSH A COUPLE OF MOTH BALLS. PLACE A SMALL WICK IN A IT.HAMMER to~PS ElF BITUMINOUS COAL INTO A COARSE POWDER. PUT JAR FILLED WITH ICE WATER OVER CUP. HEAT TO MAKE METHANE: CH. Fill FUI'INEL WITH IT. AND 5 9 CALCIUM OXIDE. HEAT THEM IN A CUSTARD CUP. THEN GIVE OFF VAPOR. HEAT STEEL WOOL A LITTLE LATER.H.H. FIRST THEY MELT. DROP INTO ISST TUBE. IS USED IN MAKING MOTH BAlLS. CRACKlNG OIL POUR A FEW ml HOUSEHOlD 011 IN TEST TUBE. MIX 5 9 SODIUM ACETATE (CbI. PLACE WAD OF STEEL WOOL NEAR MOUTH OF TUBE. ALSO HEAT THE OIl. PLACE BOTTLE CAP ON PIECE OF PAPER.." 1 TO TO % GIVEN WHITE MAKE SODIUM ACETATE. CLOSE IT WITH STOPPER THAT HAS A GLASS TUBE WITH JET TlP. IGNITE TURPENTINE.COONo NoOH ~ CH4 No. TUBE IS FILLED WITH METHANE. ADD WASHING SODA CUSTARD CUP VINEGAR UNTIL NO MO~E CO. IT BURNS INCOMPLETElY. NAPHTHALENE CAN BE PURIFIED BY SUBLIMATION. IS OFF. 5 9 SODIUM HYDROXIDE. BRING FUNNEL INTO LARGE JAR. IN THE LABORATORY. PLACE A WATERFILLED TEST TUBE OVER FUNNEL IN A FEW DAYS. + + " ~lliiill~ NAPHTHAUNE~.CO.

.Most of our sugar comes from sugar beets or sugar cane. filtered.MUCH OF THE SUGAR WE USE IS MADE BY EVAPORATING THE JUICE OF SUGAR BEETS AND SUGAR CANE.).nen) and shelter us (wood). oxygen is the same as in water (H20) ~ that is.CoRnO."putting things together with the help of light.white crystals of a sugar with the chemical name sucrose {CuHnOli}· Another sugar called glucose (C6HI~O. S -CARS .. THE GREEN LEAVES OF THE PLANT AND SENT INTO THE FRUITS FOR STORAGE. And so we find carbohydrates that have 22 atoms of hydrogen and 11 atoms of OA'J'gen to 12 atoms of carbon (Cl~HnOll)' or 12 hydrogen and 6 oxygen to 6 carbon (CoHl~06)'. often in the company of still another sugar of the same formula called fructose (C5Hn06). The result is purc. THE. of our food supply in the form of sugars and starches. twice as much hydrogen as oxygen." When green leaves are exposed to sunlight.CGHI20. (glucose) + C H"O. Another carbohydrate called cellulose helps to clothe us (cotton. The juice is pressed out. and oxygen in which the proportion between hydrogen and. while setting ox-:ygen freealong this line: 6H20 6CO~ sunlight ---. hydrogen. 6 (fructose) (CONTI ~ -ED ot PAGE 86) . These two sugars can be made in the laboratory by treating the more complicated sucrose with an acid. But when we talk about carbolrydrates we mean organic compounds of carbon.5E SUGARS ARE MADE IN.• is found ) in ripe fruits. li. 602 Carbohydrates are of tremendous importance to all of us. SUGAR IS BOILED-DOWN SAP OF SUGAR MAPLE USUALLY. when we talk about "hydrates" we mean chemicals that contain water. Th sucrose picks up water ana splits into glucose + + + t THE SWEETNESS OF FRUITS AND BERRIES COMES FROM A MIXTURE OF TWO KINDS OF SUGAR CALLED FRUCTOSE AND GLUCOSE. or 10 and 5 to 6 carbon atoms (C6HI00.. C12H22011 (sucrose) + lItO . the chlorophyll in them combines the hydrogen from water with carbon dioxide Irom the air... They make 1I1) a large part. cleared.. Carbohydrates are produced by plants by a remarkable process called photosynthesis .. and evaporated.

S BRITTLE THREAD. MOLASSES.TEST FOR GLUCOSE 5 U GAR FEHLING A 1 A GERMAN SCIENTIST. LEMONS. ALSO TRY JUICES OF VARIOUS FRUITS: PRUNES. TWO SOLUTIONS ARE REQUIRED.. ORANGES. GLUCOSE HAS BEEN FORMED. ~-p~e~rf~O~rm kitchen. SEVERAL CONTAIN GLUCOSE AND GIVE RED PRECIPITATE.LESPOONS WATER AND 2 TA· BLESPOONS llGHT SYRUP.. SPOON OUT TABLESPOONFULS ONTO A SHEET OF GREASED ALUMINUM FOIL PUSH STICK IN EACH BLOB. HEAT GENTLY FOR A FEW MINUTES WITHOUT BOILING. DISSOLVE 7 9 SODIUM HYDROXIDE IN 70 mI WATER. THEN CONTIINUE HEATING WITHOUT STIR· RING UNTil A SAMPLE DROPPED INTO COLD WATER FORN. MAPLE SYRUP. YOU GET RED PRECIPITATE. HEAT FEHLING SOLUTION IN ANOTHER TEST TUBE. f~llll· IT IS EASY TO MAKE lOLLIPOPS. CANE SUGAR IS NOT GLUCOSE BUT ANOfHER SUGAR CALLED SUCROSE. DISSOLVE 5 9 COPPER SULFATE IN 70 mI WATER. THOUGHT UP THE TEST FOR GLUCOSE THAT HAS HIS NAME. IN THIS SOLUTION. SUGAR IN MILK (LACTOSE) GIVES Cu20 PRECIPITATE. THEY ARE MIXED JUST BEFORE USE. thiS. ~=~~SE:~ " HEAT A MIXTURE OF 2 ml FEHLING A AND 2 ml FEHllNG B IN A TEST TUBE. HONEY. RING. REMOVE WHEN COLD. RED PRECIPITATE OF CUPROUS OXIDE (Cu"O) SHOWS GLUCOSE IS PRESENT. YOU DO NOT GET RED PRECIPITATE.. FOR THIS TEST. ADD A FEW DROPS OF SOLU· TION TO BE TESTED.. ADD A FEW ml SUGAR SOlUTION. II 8. USE FEHLING TEST TO fIND OUT IF DIFFERENT SWEETTASTING FOODS CONTAIN GLUCOSE SUGAR: CORN SYRUP. MAKING SUGAR CANDY 1 SUCROSE TO GLUCOSE ff=2. iff-I/-V-85 . ADD 10 DROPS HYDROCHLORIC ACID. BERRIES. d / clt-. OVER LOW HEAT AND WHILE STIR. /~ '. HEAT AGAIN.r~~. . DISSOLVE 25 9 ROCHELLE SALT (SODIUMPOTASSIUM TARTRATE)I FROM YOUR LOCAL DRUG STORE. !'lent in the experi- 1 DISSOLVE 1 9 CANE SUGAR IN 10 ml WATER IN A TEST TUBE. 2 FEHLING B. TEST CANE SUGAR WITH FEHLING. HERMAN fEHLING. DISSOLVE % CUP SUGAR IN 2 TAB. / I d111-~~-' . HEAT AGAIN. 1 FEHLING A. _ ..

wood and fibers. 86 . UNEXPOSEDPARTSBECOME BROWN. DIP IN BOI.F SUNLIGHT IS ABLE TO COlA· BINE WATER (TAKEN .EN TS W1iTHPHOTOSYNTHES J5 ] POT UP A NASTURTIUM OR GERAN. stands for "any number of times. see pages 102:-103. 3 PLACE LEAF IN IODINE TEST SOLUTION. So is the cellophane around your candy and the rayon that goes into ladies' dresses.STAR CHE~ .. Cotton is 95 per cent cellulose. THE GREEN SUBSTANCE IN LEAVES-CALLED CHlORO· PHYLL-WITH THE HELP D. A GROWING PLANT IS THE MOST ASTONISHING CHEM· ICAt FACTORY ON EARTH. gl ance it looks quite simple.000 times as much as a single molecule of glucose. PLACE CUSTAR. The paper OIl which this hook is printed is specially treated cellulose. NOW EXPOSE THE GROWING PLANT TO THE SUNLIGHT FOR TWO HOURS. PARTS EXPOSED TO SUN TURN BLUE. You can break this polysaccharide ("many-sugar") into the monosaccharide ("single-sugar") glucose by treating it with an acid. TRACTS THE CHLOROPHYll FROM THE LEAF. IT EX. CELLULOSE is the building material of the plant world. THEN DROP IT INTO DENATURED ALCOHOl IN A CUSTARD CUP. THIS PROVES PRES· ENCE OF STARCH. For more about cellulose in natural fibers and rayon. It is a carbohydrate with very large molecules. It makes up the cell walls of leavesand st-alks.At first. EXPERI M. Take a look at its formula: (CJIIOO ~)~.it.INBY THE ROOTS) WITH CARBON DIOXIDE fROM THE AIR (TAKEN IN THROUGH THE LEAVES) TO FORM SUGAR FIRST AND THEN STARCH." A single molecule of starch may weigh 6. THEN FASTEN STRIPS OF BLACK PAPER ACROSS BOTH SIDES OF ONE OR MORE lEAVES. REMOVE BtACKPAPER STRIPS.D CUP IN A POT OF BOILING WATER. But note that little x .lING WATER FOR A MOMENT TO KILL THE LEAF. 2 PICK OFF A LEAF. FOR A COUPLE OF DAYS.Starch is distributed in most pI ant parts.IUM PLANT AND PLACE IT IN THE DARK. AS ALCOHOl GETS HOT. KEEP lEAF IN ALCOHOl UNTIl All CHLOROPHYll IS OUT.

SQUEEZE. YOU GET RED PRECIPITATE THAT SHOWS PRESENCE OF GLUCOSE. SALIVA DIGESTS THE STARCH AND TURNS IT INTO A SUGAR.IVES A BWE COlOR TO STARCH. rliEM UP ON FINE SID. MALTOSE. TO 10 ml 1 PER CENT STIARCH SOLUTION ADD 10 DROPS HYDROCHLORIC ACID. BE MADE BY DILUTING 5 ml REGULAR TINCTURE OF 10DIN.PREPARING STARCH TEST FOR STARCH IT IS A SIMPLE MATTER TO GET STARCH fROM POT A TO ES. THEN COOL SOLUTION. 87 . LINE UP FIVE TEST TUBES. EACH CONTAINING 5 ml WATER AND 1 DROP IODINE TEST SOLUTION. SOLUTION FOR TESTING STARCH CAN.E OF GRATER.E IN 50 ml WATER. WATER. PLACE THIS IN GLASS OF WARM (NOT HOT) WATER. GRATE PLACE POTATO PULP ON DOUBLE LAYER Of CHEES~LOTH. POUR REST INTO A JAR FOR FURTHER SmUNG. POUR OFF MOST OF WATER.E.E WITH 45 ml WATER. LET STARCH IN POT. COlOR GETS LESS AND LESS BlU. 1 PEEL A COUPLE OF POTATOES.ISSOlVING A FEW IODINE CRYSTALS (fROM EXPERIMENT ON PAGE 48) IN A SOLUTION OF I 9 POTASSIUM 10DlD. IODINE G. IN ANOTHER TEST rUBE. BOIL FOR 2 MINUTES. FOLD UP AND TIE. STIR %9 STARCH IN 5 ml COLD WATER. DIP AND SQUEEZE UNTIL MOST STARCH IS OUT. SHAKE. sernr EXPERIMENTS WITH STARCH TO MAKE 1 PER CENT STARCH SOlUTION.t. ADD 45 ml MORE WATER. DIP BAG IN POT 'OF. OR YOU CAN MAKE IT BY D.REATED STARCH SOLUTION DOES NOT REACT WITH THE FEHLING SOLUTION. BRING TO BOIL WHILE STIRRING. TESl THE RESULT WITH FEHUNG SOLUTION. DROP 3 DROPS SAtiVA-STARCH MIXTURE INTO A TEST lUBE WITHIOD1NE SOlUTION. ADD 2 DROPS OF SALIVA [SPITHE) TO 5 ml STARCH SOLUTION. UN. WITH 2-MINUTE INTERVALS.

This acts as a catalyst and turns the glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide: CJII!O. . Glycerol (C3H:.2C2H50H 2CO! The ethanol is finally separated [rom the watery liquid by distillation. to a great extent. Their names are made. In growing.HuOs). becomes CH30H. and hard liquor. CH~. Alcohols may be considered hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen (H) atoms are replaced by hydroxyl (OB) groups.110!'. in the same way in which it was made thousands of years ago. alcohol is the strong stuff in beer. Methanol (CH30H) was originally called wood alcohol because it was made by the destructive distillation of wood.'T PEOPLE. the tin)' plant cells of yeast are made to grow in the solution of a simple sugar such as glucose (C. ClH6. ethane. It is very poisonous and is therefore used to "denature" ethanol. GRANDCHILDREN. wine. making this unfit for drinking. But to a chemist. STYRENE ETHYLENE . In this. SYNTHET1C 'PLASTICS OXALIC ACID RUBBER EXPLOSIVES BUTYL ALCOHOl ACETONE CEllULOSE ACETATE - - ~CHLOROFORM PHOTOGRAPHIC TEXTTLE FIBERS PROPIONIC -VINYl ACID FILM ACETALDEHYDE ACET ALD EHYD E CYANOHYDRIN ACETIC ANHYDRIDE ALCOHOL ACETANILIDE 88 . becomes C2HsOH. the yeast cells give off a substance called zymase. ethanol (also known as ethyl or gram alcohol) . and so on. this is just one of many alcohols. + I THE "FAMILY TREE" OF ETHANOL-WITH SOME OF ITS CHILDREN. methanol (also called methyl alcohol).(OH)J) is still another alcohol which you probably know better under the name of glycerin. by a process called fermentation. up from the names of tbe hydrocarbons to which they are related by giving these an "-01" ending. Glycerol may be considered a product of propane (C3H ) in which not on but three H atoms have been replaced by OH. To Ethanol (CZH50H) is produced today. In this way. methane.GLYCOl - AND GREAT-GRANDCHILDREN.

METHYL ALCOHOLMETHANOL METHYL SALICYLATE vapors burn with blue flame METHANOL CAN BE PRODUCED BY DRY DISTILLATION OF WOOD. LEAD THE GAS INTO LIME WATER. rr--/ rP:-' 89 . IN A FEW DAYS. GAS DEVELOPMENTSLOWS DOWN. PLACE BOTTlE IN A WARh\ SPOT. HEAT.EWARMWATER. HEAT. SHORTlY THE LIQUID BEGINS TO BUBBLE. 2 FILTER HALF OF THE FERMENTED LIQUID INTO A -PINT SCREW-TOP CAN. DISTill OFF A FEW ml ETHANOL AT lOWEST POSSIBLE HEAT. ADD V2 PACKAGE YEAST THAT HAS BEEN SOFTENED IN LUK. GAS IS CO~. MIX WITH V4 TEASPOON SODIUM BISULFATE. LEAD VAPORS THROUGH l-SHAPED GLASS TUBE INTO TEST TUBE IN MIXTURE OF WATER AND ICE. YOU GET SMELL Of WINTERGREEN OILMETHYL SALICYlATE. CRUSH AN ASPIRIN TABLET. ETHYL AlCOHOLETHANOL 1 IN A PINT BonLE MIX % CUP CORN SYRUP WITH 1 CUP WARM WATER. SET UP APPARATUS FOR DISTILLATION AS DESCRIBED ON PAGE 61 WITH THE EXCEPTION THAT HEATING IS DONE ON A WATER BATH MADE FROM HALF A QUART CAN WITH WATER. DROP A FEW DROPS OF METHANOL (OR DENATUREDALCOHOl] ONTO HOT MlXTURE. FILL A TEST TUBE ONE THIRD FUll OF SLIVERS OF WOOD.

MAWS-APPLE TREE.NNIC ACID. C. NOW IT IS MADE ARTlFICIALlY. OXALIC ACID ORIGINALLY CAME FROM THE WOOD SORREL PLANTOXALIS. They all contain a combination of one carbon atom.IN MANY UNRIPE FRUITS-GREEN APPLES. LATIN FOR WillOW.. GRAPEFRUITS. But to get them in pure and concentrated form it is usually necessary to turn them into sodium or calcium salts and then free the acids from the salts 'with a stronger acid . CITRIC ACliD GIVES THE TART TASTE TO CITRUS FRUITS-lEMONS. IS FOUND IN THE BARK OF A NUM. USED FOR TANNING. VINEGAR MEANS "SOUR WINE.NAME COMES FROM LATIN . STIch as fats and oils and the flavors of many fruits and the odors of many flowers). PLUMS. Still other of these organic acids are produced by the action of bactaria (acetic acid from wine or cider.ACETIC ACID IS WHAT MAKES VINEGAR TASTE SOUR. lactic acid when milk turns sour. MALIC ACID IS fOUND .i YOUTHTh-:K Organic acids have ODe thing in oommon.BER OF TREES AND IN GALL APPLES ON OAK TREES. carboxylic acids. when CH3COOH (acetic acid) forms CH3COO_ ~a (sodium acetate). in which they are found. liMES. SALlCYUC ACID GOT ITS NAME FROM SAUX. This COOH combination. called a carbox-yl group (from a joining-up of the words carbon and hydro:ryl). CURRANTS. butyric acid in rancid butter). IT WAS FIRSTMADE FROM BARKOF WILLOW TREES. one oxygen atom. for instance.AND ORANGES. When these acids form salts it is the H in tbe carboxyl group that is replaced by a metal. 90 ." THAT IS WHAT IT USED TO BE. AND A GREAT NUMBEROF OTHERS.racted directly from the plant parts.>LfI. Some of them OCCllI as free adds (citric acid. of anything more refreshing than a glass of cold lemonade on a hot summer's day~ Or anything better than cranberry sauce for adding a tang)' taste to the Thanksgiving dinnerj The tartness of lemonade and cranberry sauce comes from organic acids. fORMI. malin acid). Many of the acids which were formerly obtained from plant parts can now be made artificially in thelaboratory. as. lA. Some organic acids can be eJl:i. These acids are found ready-made in nature in great numbers. and one hydroxyl group (OR).. has given the organic acids their scientific name. others as esters (products of acids and alcohols. tannic acid.C ACID IS THE HIGHLY IRRITATING ACID THAT ANTS {fORMICA} PUMP INTO YOU WHEN THEY BITE YOU.

HEAT GENTLY. 2 DISSOLVE A CRYSTAL OF IRON SULFATE IN 5 ml WATER AND ADD TO THE TEA.. HEAT GENTLY. VINEGAR VINEGAR IS DILUTED ACETIC ACID. IT DOES NOT GO INTO SOLUTION. 5 COPPERSULFATEGIVES THE GREEN COPPER SAliCYLATE. FILTRATECONTAINS CALCIUM ACETATE. SALICYUC ACID ] BOil % TEASPOON TEA IN 50 ml WATER. MIX A SMALL AMOUNT OF SAl. ACID TANNIC ACID IS FOUND IN TEA. THEN LET IT STAND TO STEEPAND COOL.COCH. U SALICYLATE GIVES REDBROWN FERROUS SAliCYLATE. 1 WARM 50 ml WHITE VINEGAR IN A CUSTARD CUP. M. YOU WILL GET A BLACK PRECIPITATE OF IRON TANNATE. RED FERRIC SALICYLATE. SEVERAL OF ITS SALTS-ACETATES-CAN BE MADE FROM VINEGAR. 4 A FERRICSALT GlVES WINE. PLA6E [ DRY TEST TUBE. MOISTENED BLUE LITMUS PAPER AT MOUTH OF TUBE TURNS RED. YOU GET THE ODOR OF PHENOL-ALSO KNOWN AS CARBOLIC ACID. DO NOT ERHEAT-IF YOU DO.ICYLIC ACID WITH AN EQUAL AMOUNT OF CALCIUM OXIDE.IX CAtCIUM ACETATE WITH AN EQUAL AMOUNT OF SODIUM BISULFATE.).YOU NOW HAVE A SODIUM SALICYLATESOLUTION.NO~ FROM SALICYLIC ACID 1 SHAKE UP 1 g SALICYLIC ACID WITH 10 ml WATER. 91 .ACETIC ACID YOU HAVE ALREADY MADE SODIUM ACETATE (ON PAGE 83). FILTERSOLUTION TO REMOVE UNDISSOLVED CALCIOXIDE. 3 IN A DRY TEST TUBE. EVAPORATESOLUTION UNTIL ALMOST DRY. 2 ADD 10 PER CENT NaOH SOLUTION BY THE DROP UNTIL ALL SALICYLIC ACID IS DISSOLVED. YOU GE"F:_-·~·i---T:.. SNIFF. TANNIC YOU CAN GAIN DRIVElACETIC ACID OWT OF ITS CALCIUM SALif. REMOVE TUSE FROM HEAT. o CALCIUM OXIDE UNTIL NO MORE DISSOLVES. USE LIME FOR MAKING THE CALCIUM SALT-{CH3COO)2Ca. POUR OFF TliE CLEAR LIQUID.-\ SHARP ODOR OF ACETIC ACID. THE ACETATE BREAKS UP INTO CALCIUM CARBONATE AND ACETONE (CH. PHf.

the solid fats melt.. combinations of fatty acids with the alcohol. that is. lard) are solid at usual room temperature. cottonseed.C3H. others are liquid (olive oil. In this.MOST FATS PRODUCED BY PLANTS ARE LIQUID OILS FOUND IN FRUITS AND SEEDS. Some fats (butter. Liquid fats can be turned completely into solid fats by a process called hydrogenation. when cooled. eat is used for your growth. Much of this energy comes from carbohydrates (sugars and starches). The liquid olein in peanut. and soybean oils is made to pick up hydrogen and become a solid fat known as stearin: (C17Ha•3COO). all the things you want to do. (olein) (stearin) SOME OF THE FOOD )'OU . the liquid fats turn solid. That is how veget-able shortenings ami margarine are made. glycerol (glycerin). and. SOIDe of it for giving yau the energy to do. corn oil). But when heat-ed. COO)3CSH. The rest you get from fats . All fats are esters. (C17 Ha. more hydrogen atoms are added to their molecules with the help of a catalyst. +3H~ -.the most concentrated energy foods available.

H. PLACE CUS· TARD CUP IN REFRIGERATOR. Be careful RENDERING FAT "RENDERING" MON METHOD IS THE MOST COM~ OF EXTRACTING FAT. THEN IMMEDlATEL Y DESTROYS IT. FILTER CHOCOLATE-TETRACHLO· RIDE MIXTURE.O DISSOLVE V2 TEASPOON SOAP POWDER OR FLAKES IN 50 ml WARM WATER ADD 10 ml HYDROCHLORIC ACID. TEST FOR GLYCEROL (GLYCERIN) FATTY ACIDS IN A DRY TEST TUBE ADD % TEA· SPOON SODIUM BISULFATE TO 1 ml VEGETABLE OIL AND HEAT GENTlY. THE SMEll is FROM ACROLEIN WHICH IS PRODUCED BY BREAKING DOWN THE GLYCERIN IN THE FAT. DROP THEM IN A TEST lOBE. LET FILTRATE STAND UNTIL CARBON TETRACHLORIDE HAS EVAPORATED AND YELLOW·WHITE COCOA BUITER IS LEFT. PO~ A FEW DROPS ON A PIECE 011 PAPER. 2 IN A CUSTARD CUP. 93 . POUR CARBON TETRACHLO~ RIDE OVER THE CUT·UP CHOCOLATE AND STIR. -'). GLYCEROL lOOSES WATER AND TURNS INTO ILL~SMELLING ACROLEIN: C. THE ALMOST TRANSPARENT "GREASE SPOT" IS A TEST FOR FAT. 1 CUT UP A SMAll AMOUNT OF SUET-THE fAT FROM A PIECE OF BEEf. REMOVE THE RENDERm~OUT SUET.{OH).0+2H.H . WAFT THE IRRITATING ODOR TO~ WARD YOU AND SNIFF CAUTIOUSLY. DROP IT INTO HOT WATER. LET CARBON TETRACHLORiDE EVAPORATE. C. STEARIC ACID IS ADDED TO PAR~ AFFIN IN THE MAKING OF CANDLES. THE NoHS04 SeTS THE GLYCEROL FREE.EXTRACTING FAT SHAVE A SMALL SQUARE OF BAKER'S CHOCO~ LATE OR BIITER CHOCOlATE INTO FINE BITS. AFTER COOLING YOU CAN LIFT OFF THE FAT AS A SOLID DISK. 2 LOOK AT THE PAPER AGAINST THE LIGHT. COVER THEM WITH CARBON TETRAeALORIDE AND LET STAND ABOUT 5 MINUTES. not to breathe fumes.. 1 CRlfSH A COUPLE OF PEANUTS. YOU WILL GET LUMPS OF THE fATTY ACIDS OF WHICH SOAP IS THE SODIUM SALT-MOSTlY STEARIC AND PALMITIC ACIDS. BOIL WATER FOR TEN MINUTES OR MORE.

94 . WHEN OIL IS SHAKEN UP IN SOAPY WATER. AND 10 ml GLYCERIN. 1 -0 one knows who invented it. WHE_iEVER YOUR RANDS get dirty it is an easy matter to get them clean. SEVERAL STORIES HIGH. . THE OTHER END IN OIl.. ~AJlyou need is water and plenty of CH3CH!CH2CH!CH2CH2CH2CH2CH. in turn. STRONG SOAP BUBBLES RESULT WHEN YOU ADD GLYCERIN TO THE SOAP SOLUTION. THE Oil DROPS ARE SURROUNDED BY THE SOAP MOLECULES DIPPING THE OIL-DISSOlVING ENDS INTO THE OIl.but the method for making it was passed down from father to son. Soap has been used for cleaning for thousands of years. /I IN MODERN SOAP PANS. the sodium salt of stearic acid. was boiled with fat to make soap.a lor short. .see page 4-5). 8 THIS IS THE WAY SCIENTISTS BELIEVE THAT SOAP ACTS: ONE END OF THE SOAP MOLECULE IS SOLUBLE IN WATER. 59) or dried seaweed to get soda ash (l\Ta2C03). Very much the same method is used today . CH2CH!CH!CH2CR2CH2CH2CH~COONa . The early soap makers first had to burn wood to get potash (K~C03-see page. 100 ml WATER. a substance more generally known as soap.except that the boiling is done in tremendous soap pans under steam pressure. ONLY A FEW GALLONS OF SOAP COULD BE MADE AT ONE TIME. HERE IS A RECIPE: 5 9 SOAP..IN THE OLD~FASHIONED SOAP KFTTLE.This was treated with lime to make potassium or sodium hydroxide (KOH or ~TaGH . -_. from mother to daughter. THE WATER-SOLUBLE ENDS HOLD THE OIL DROPLETS SUSPENDED. and this. UP TO 100 TONS OF FAT CAN BE TURNED INTO SOAP.Cl1H3~COO.

4 TIE A PIECE OF CHEESE CLOTH OVER THE TOP OF A JAR. POUR 10 rnl OF EACH SOlUTION INTO SEPARATE TEST TUBES. 1 POUR 10 ml OF THE SOAJ> AND DETER· GENT SOLUTIONS INTO SEPARATE TEST TUBES. 1 MElT 109 SHORTENING ("CRISCO" OR SIM. 3 AGAIN. 1 9 J>OWDERED DETERGENT. 3 DISSOLVE 100 9 TABLE S IT IN 300 ml WATER. THE SOAP WlLL "SALT OUT" IN THICK. ADD 15 ml DENATURED ALCOHOL (TO SPEED UP THE ACTION). POUR THIS SOLUTION INTO THE MELTED SHORTENING WHilE STIRRING.ILAR PRODUCT] IN A CUSTARD CUP ON THE WATER BATH. POUR THE HOT SOAP MIXTURE INTO THIS SOLUTION. CONTINUE HEATING AND ST1RRING UNTIL A SMALL SAMPLE DIS· SOlVES COMPLETELY IN % TEST TUBE WATER. POUR THE SAlT SOLUTION WITH THE SOAP CURDS INTO CHESSE CLOTH AND LET SALT SOLUTION DRAIN OFF. 2 SHAKE 5 DROPS OF QIL INTO EACH SOLU· TION. THE SOAP MAKING (SAPONIZATION) IS THEN COMPLETED. SHAKE AND NOTICE THE DIFFERENCE IN THE AMOUNT OF fOAM MADE BY EACH SOlUTION IN THIS "HARD" WATER. 95 . TESTING SOAP AND DETERGENTS DISSOLVE 1 9 OF YOUR HOME· MADE SOAP IN 50 ml LUKE· WARM WATER. NOTE THE DIFFERENCE IN THE WAY THE SOLUTIONS MAKE EMULSION WITH 011. ALSO MAKE SOLUTIONS IN 50 ml WATER OF 1 9 TOILET SOAP.MAKING SOAP MAKE A WATER BATH BY POURING 1 INCH WATER INTO A TIN CAN. CHEESE-LIKE CURDS. TEST EACH SOlUTION FOR ACID AND BASE WITH LITMUS PAPER AND PHENOLPHTHALEIN. 2 DISSOlVE 5 9 SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NoOH) IN 15 m WATER. 1 9 SOAP FLAKES. S FINAllY. ADD 5 ml LIME· WATER TO EACH. SQUEEZE OUT THE WATER AND SPREAD T THE CHEESE CLOTH TO LET THE SOAP DRY. 1 9 SOAP POWDER. AND 1 ml LIQUID DETERGENT. WASH THE SOAP BY POURING TWO TEST TUBES OF ICE·COLD WATER THROUGH IT TO REMOVE MOST OF I SAlT lHAT'S STILL ON IT.

You would hardly think of eating hair and nails. and oxygen. Vlhile most other foodstuffs. ALMOST AT the proteins also contain nitrogen and.every meal. furs and feathers . BRING TO A BOIL POUR . FILL CUSTARD CUP HALF FULLOF WATER." IT CAN NOT AGAIN BE MADE SOlUBLE. 96 . consist of carbon.IN EGG IS CALLED ALBUMIN PROUININ EGG (. for the most part. we look forward especially to the proteins: ham and eggs for breakfast. albumin in egg.B.. TH!S METHOD IS USED IN COOKING.IN THE EGG WHITE THAT IS LEFT. IT COAGULATES INTO A F1Rllt. steak or chicken for dinner. CRACK AN EGG.B. many of our desserts are protein prod-en ucts .~" SHAKE 5 rnl EGG WHITE WITH 5 ml WATER. IT IS CAllED "POACHING. has this estimated formula: C696Hlm. hamburgers or frankfurters for lunch.RING TO A BOIL THE HEAT CAUSESTHE ALBUMIN TO COAG~ ULAH. ADD 5 rnl D." SHAKE 5 rnl BEATEN EGG WHITE WITH 5 rnl WATER.yet these are all proteins. hydrogen. sulfur.from ioe cream to Jell-O.O~ooN 19051S' Not all proteins are edible. Their molecules arei'giants' compared with the molecules of oilier chemical compounds. One of them. such as carbohydrates and fats.EAT WHITE WITH FORK.ENATURED ALCOHOL THE ALCOHOl CAUSeS THE ALBUMIN TO COAG· ULATE OUT IN WHITE 'FLECKS. We drink milk mostly for the sake of its proteins... SEPARATE WHITE FROM YOLK BY lmING WHITE HOW INTO A CUP WHILE RETAIN· ING YOlK IN EGG SHELL. WHITE MASS. E . IT HAS BEEN "DENATURIZED.(CO~ 'TI rnso 01 PAGE 99) THE PROTEIN .

K WITH 5 ml CARBONTETRACHLORIDE TO FIND OUT IF IT CONTAINS FAT.DROP IN SMAll PIECE OF COAGULATED EGG WHITE. 3 HEAT THE M. PROVING THAT ALBUMIN CONTAINS SULFUR. 2 ADD HOUSEHOLD AMMONIA. 2 CONTINUE HEATI G . YOLK AND WHITE BOTH CONTAIN AlBUMIN. FORM HNO. LET CARBON TETCHLORIDE EVAPORATE. VAPORS SMELL OF AMMONIA AND TURN wrrrso RED UTMUS PAPERBLUE. WHITE GOES IN SOLUTION. _MilK. HEAT.ALBUMIN MUST CONTAIN NAND H. CARBON REMAINS. Be careful not to breathe fumes. - ALBUMIN IS FOUND IN EGGS. CHICKEN. TION. GREASE SPOT REMAINS. TKE YELlOW ALBUMIN TURNS BRIGHT ORANGE. 1 2 DROP A SMALL PIECEOF COAGULATED EGG WHITE INTO A EST TUBE.YOU GET A WHITE COAGULA. AND KNO. TESTCHEESE. IN THE END. COVER IT WITH 5 ml 10% NoOH SOlUTION. -2 POUR A LITTLEOUT ON PAPER. UMA BEANS THE SAME WAY.THE ITEMS ON THE TOP OF THESE TWO PAGES AU CONTAIN PROTEINS. NaHSO . DISSOlVE 1h TEASPOON SODIUM BISUlFATE IN 5 ml WATER. HEAT.IXTURE. AND GRAIN. POUR A FEW DROPS OF THE EGG WHITE SOLU· TION ONTO A BRIGHT SILVERCOIN. ALBUMIN THEREFORE CONTAINS CARBON..WOOl. HEAT. ADD ~ TEASPOON POTASSIUM NITRATE. IT ALSO CONT AlNS OXYGEN..-NITRIC ACID. BLOOD. TESt FOR SOLID WHITE PROTEIN EONTAIN? I IN TEST TUBE. WHAT DOES ALBUMIN CONSIST OF? T PLACEA SMALL PIECEOF COAGULATED EGG WHITE ON A PIECE OF TIN. 97 . THIS COlORS THE ALBUMIN YELLOW. 1 SHAKE 5 ml OF THE YOI. IN A FEW MINUTES SILVER COIN TURNS BROWNISH-BLACK FROM SILVER SULFIDE. AMMONIA IS NH a.

DlPTHE . CHEESE IS SPECIAllY TREATED CASEIN.E CAS.SEINGLUE SOFTEN .K? 1 POUR THE VINEGAR·MIXED WHEY INTO A CUSTARD CUP AND BRING IT TO A BOil. SPREAD OUT THE CHEESE CLOTH TO LET THE CASEIN DRY. FILTER THE WHEY. POUR THE CURDLED MILK INTO THE CHEESE CLOTH. '* 98 . POUR Yz CUP SKIM MILK {O. ADD ONE TEST TUBE fUU. THESE ARE ALBUMIN COAGULATED OUT BY THE HEAT. TEST THE FILTRATE WITH FEHLING SOLUTION (SEE PAGE B5).PROTEIN IN MILK MILK IS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF PROTEIN. SPOONS SKIM MILK POWDER AND V2 CUP WATERjIN.4 ml WATER . YOU WILL SEE TINY WHITE FlECKS. I. MAKING CA. WHITE CURDS. THE RESULTING SMOOTH PASTE IS AN EX· CELLENT GWE FOR PAPER AND FOR WOOD.EIN Al. KEEP THE LIQUID.F WHITE VINEQAR TO THE WARM SKIM MILK.. POUR THE CALCIUM OXIDE MiX· TURE INTO THE CASEIN WHILE STIRRING. FOLD CHEESE CLOTH UP AROUND T E CASEIN. MILK SUGAR GIVES RED Cu20 PRECI..O. WHAT ElSE IS.BAG IN WA· TER AND SQUEElE SEVERAL TIMES TO WASH OUT WHEY AND VINEGAR. LET LIQUID (WHEY MIXED WITH VINEGAR) RUN OUT. HEAT GENTLY UNTIL IT FEELS JUST SUGHlL Y WARM WHEN YOU TEST IT WITH A FINGER.PITATE..N MIL. SHAKE UP 1 9 CALCIUM OXIDE IN .EAVY.TO A CUSTARD CUP. TIE A PIECE OF CHEESE CLOTH OVER A JAR. SQUEEZE TH. THE PROTEIN IN MrLKIS CALLED CASEIN . THE CASEIN SEPhRATES IN H.R MIXTURE OF 8 TEA..MOST DRY.4 9 CASEIN WITH rnl WA HR.

" When GOaled. LIQUID WILL TURN REDDISH-VIOLET. 99 . casein in milk.coagulates . THE DILUTED HYDROCHLORIC ACID DISSOLVES THE CALCIUM SALTS IN THE BON. ACID.. LET STAND FOR 3 DAYS.the whey. it remains in a liquid form that is called a "sol. the casein is separated from the liquid part of the milk .it is another kind of "solution" called a "colloidal dispersion. Gelatin behaves in a peculiar manner with water. ALB _HI. it turns into a jelly-like form called a "gel. In cheese making. it atays transparent and almost liquid. As long as egg white is kept cool.GELATIN IS A PROT"EIN GELATIN IS MADE FROM ANIMAL BONESAND HIDES. and gelatin." TEST FOR LIQUID PROTEINS MIX 5 ml OF LIQUID TO BE TESTEDWITH 5 ml 10% SOLUTION OF N~OH. EXTRACT THE GELATIN IN THE OSSEIN BY BOILING IN WATER_ . It is then pressed and stored until ripe. you get what looks like an almost clear solution.into a solid white mass which 'you can not again "dissolve" in water. CASEIN . The chemist's term for this change is "denaturation"the egg white has changed its nature. . DROP IT IN A TEST TUBE.Casein is another protein that goes into your diet. But what happens when you heat it~ You know from frying or boiling an egg: It hardens . some of it you eat (ice cream and cheese).E. white. COVER WITH 3 ml HYDROCHLORIC ACID IN 12 ml WATER.Egg white contains around cent albumin . but in hot water it "dissolves" readily. GELATIN . LEAVING A flEXIBLE SUBSTANCE CALLED OSSEIN. pure proteins: albumin in eggs. The flavors of cheeses are caused mostly 'by esters created during the ripening. AB long as you keep this dispersion warm. forming a colloidal dispersion. see pages 100-101." For more about colloidal dispersions. But this is not a "true" solution such as you get when you dissolve salt or sugar . REMOVETHIGH BONE fROM AN UNCOOKED CHICKEN LEG. SCRAPE IT CLEAN OF MEAT. 13 per When you shake up egg white with water. 3 FILTERTHE SOLUTION. In GOld water it merely swells.Gelatin is a protein made from animal skins and hones. Some of the casein you drink (milk).from Latin olbus. IT BECOMES JELLY-LIKE. horns and hooves. ON COOLING. ADD TWO DROPS or A 2 % SOLUTION OF COPPER SULFATE (1 9 IN 50 ml WATER)." Proteins-Continued You are certain to be familiar with three common. WASH OFF THE. IT HAS TURNED FROM "SOL" TO "GEl.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.