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DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES

DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES

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volume 1 highway structures

:
approval procedures
and general design
section 3 general design
part 18
Bd 85/08
strengthening highway
structures using eXternally
Bonded FiBre reinForced
polymer
summary
This Standard covers the strengthening of concrete and
metallic highway bridges, on trunk roads including
motorways, using externally bonded fbre reinforced
polymer (FRP). This Standard does not cover the use
of prestressed plates or other systems in which the
FRP is subjected to sustained long-term loading. This
Standard does not cover the strengthening of prestressed
concrete structures, although many of the issues and
limit states described will also be relevant to the design
of FRP strengthening schemes for such structures.
Design guidelines are provided for fexural and shear
strengthening of reinforced concrete bridge decks.
Design guidelines for strengthening metallic bridge
decks are limited to fexural strengthening. In addition,
general guidance is provided on suitable strengthening
techniques.
instructions For use
1. Remove Contents pages from Volume 1 and
insert new Contents pages dated November 2008.
2. Insert the new Standard BD 85/08 into Volume 1,
Section 3.
3. Please archive this sheet as appropriate.
Note: A quarterly index with a full set of Volume
Contents Pages is available separately from The
Stationery Offce Ltd.
design manual For roads and Bridges
november 2008
design manual For roads and Bridges Bd 85/08
volume 1, section 3,
part 18
the highways agency
scottish government

welsh assemBly government
llywodraeth cynulliad cymru
the department For regional development
northern ireland
Strengthening Highway Structures
Using Externally Bonded Fibre
Reinforced Polymer
Summary: This Standard covers the strengthening of concrete and metallic highway
bridges,ontrunkroadsincludingmotorways,usingexternallybondedfbre
reinforced polymer (FRP). This Standard does not cover the use of prestressed
plates or other systems in which the FRP is subjected to sustained long-term
loading. This Standard does not cover the strengthening of prestressed concrete
structures, although many of the issues and limit states described will also be
relevant to the design of FRP strengthening schemes for such structures. Design
guidelinesareprovidedforfexuralandshearstrengtheningofreinforced
concrete bridge decks. Design guidelines for strengthening metallic bridge
decksarelimitedtofexuralstrengthening.Inaddition,generalguidanceis
provided on suitable strengthening techniques.
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
registration oF amendments
amend
no
page no signature & date of
incorporation of
amendments
amend no page no signature & date of
incorporation of
amendments

registration of amendments
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
registration oF amendments
amend
no
page no signature & date of
incorporation of
amendments
amend no page no signature & date of
incorporation of
amendments

registration of amendments
volume 1 highway structures:
approval procedures
and general design
section 3 general design
part 18
Bd 85/08
strengthening highway
structures using eXternally
Bonded FiBre reinForced
polymer
contents
Chapter
1. Introduction
2. Application
3. Design
4. Strengthening Concrete Structures
5. Strengthening Metallic Structures
6. Materials
7. Installation Inspection and Maintenance
8. References
9. Enquiries
Annex A Flow Chart for FRP Strengthening Design
design manual For roads and Bridges
november 2008
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
1. introduction
general
1.1 This Standard covers the strengthening of
concrete and metallic highway structures using
externally bonded fbre reinforced polymer (FRP). The
viability of the technique when applied to reinforced
concrete has been demonstrated through experimental
studies and numerous practical applications in the
UK and elsewhere. Experience of its application to
metallic structures is more limited and less experimental
verifcation exists.
1.2 This Standard focuses on the use of FRP for
strengthening both reinforced concrete and metallic
beams and reinforced concrete slabs. Design guidelines
are provided for fexural and shear strengthening of
reinforced concrete structures. Design guidelines
for strengthening metallic structures are limited to
fexural strengthening. In addition general guidance is
provided on suitable strengthening techniques and their
specifcation.

1.3 This Standard does not cover the use of
prestressed plates or other systems in which the
FRP is subjected to sustained long-term loading.
However, some general guidance on such
techniques is provided in Clauses 2.17 to 2.19.
1.4 This Standard does not cover the
strengthening of prestressed concrete structures,
although many of the issues and limit states
described in Chapters 3 and 4 will also be relevant
to the design of FRP strengthening schemes for
such structures.
implementation

1.5 This Standard shall be used forthwith on
all schemes involving strengthening of highway
bridge decks on trunk roads, including motorways.
In Northern Ireland this Standard shall be used
forthwith on all schemes involving strengthening of
highway bridge decks on all roads. The use of FRP
for the strengthening of bridge supports is dealt
with in BD 84/02 (DMRB 1.3.16).
Defnitions
1.6 The following defnitions and terminology
relating to FRP are used in this document:
Aramid fbre: A synthetic fbre consisting of a
long-chain aromatic polyamide in
which at least 85% of the amide
linkages are attached directly to two
aromatic rings.
Carbon fbre: Fibres produced from organic
materials such as rayon,
polyacrylonitrile or pitch. The term
is often used interchangeably with
‘graphite’.
composite: Or advanced composite. Alternative
term for FRP, i.e. fbres plus resin.
cure: To irreversibly change the properties
of a thermosetting resin by chemical
reaction, i.e. condensation, ring-
closure, or addition. Cure may be
accomplished by the addition of
curing agents, with or without
catalyst, and with or without heat.
Fabric: Fibres woven into a fabric. Fibres
can be aligned in any direction, with
0°, 45° and 90° being the most
common.
Frp: Fibre reinforced polymer (or Plastic)
comprising high strength fbres in a
resin matrix.
galvanic Also called bimetallic corrosion.
corrosion: Corrosion where two conducting
materials with different
electropotentials are in contact.
Glass fbre: A fbre spun from an inorganic
product of fusion that has cooled to a
rigid condition without crystallising.
laminate: FRP composite in the form of
a plate. Pultruded sections are often
referred to as laminates, but the term
is not specifc to any method of
production.
1/1
chapter 1
introduction
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
1/2
chapter 1
introduction
nsm Frp: Near-surface mounted (NSM), where
FRP is installed into grooves that
have been cut into the concrete.
pre preg: Fibres impregnated with resin and
attached to a backing paper or plastic
release flm.
primer: A low viscosity epoxy resin applied
to the concrete to provide a good
bond (normally stronger than the
surface concrete) and a suitable
surface for the FRP.
pultrusion: A factory method of manufacturing
FRP laminates in long lengths.
Sections currently available include
plates, rods and profles.
putty: A fller, usually an epoxy resin in the
form of a paste, used to fll holes and
surface defects in a concrete surface.
resin: A resin is used to impregnate the
fbres and bind flaments, fbres and
layers of fbre together.
stress rupture: Also known as creep rupture.
Property whereby the material can
fail (rupture) at a stress level
considerably less than the ultimate
stress under sustained loading.
thermoset: A resin that cannot be melted and
recycled because the polymer chains
form a three-dimensional network.
voids: Air bubbles trapped in the resin or
between the FRP and concrete/steel
substrate.
wet lay up: A method of installing FRP by hand.
The dry FRP (fabric or tow sheet) is
impregnated with resin immediately
prior to application.
notation
1.7 The following notation is used in this document:
α Angle between the principal fbres of the FRP
and the vertical
γ
ma
Material partial safety factor for adhesive
γ
mc
Material partial safety factor for concrete
γ
mfε
Material partial safety factor for FRP strain
capacity
γ
mfE
Material partial safety factor for FRP stiffness
γ
ms
Material partial safety factor for steel
reinforcement
ε
frps
Effective strain in the FRP for shear
strengthening
ε
frpu
Characteristic ultimate strain capacity of FRP
λ Parameter used to determine longitudinal
shear at point where reinforcement yields
σ
frp1
Stress in FRP at location 1
σ
frp2
Stress in FRP at location 2
σ
a1
Maximum tensile principal stress in the
adhesive
τ
l
Longitudinal shear stress at the FRP-concrete
interface
ω
f
Parameter used to determine longitudinal
shear at point where reinforcement yields
ω
s
Parameter used to determine longitudinal
shear at point where reinforcement yields
A
frpm
Cross-sectional area of the FRP laminate for
fexural strengthening (mm
2
)
A
frps
Area of FRP (mm
2
) for shear strengthening
measured perpendicular to the direction of the
fbres (see Figure 1.1). When FRP laminates
are applied symmetrically on both sides of a
beam A
frps
is the sum of the areas of both
laminates
A
s
Cross-sectional area of tensile steel
reinforcement (mm
2
)
b Width of the beam or plate spacing in slabs
(mm)
b
frp
Width of the FRP laminate (mm) measured
perpendicular to the direction of the fbres (see
Figure 1.1). For continuous FRP sheet, s
frp
is
taken as 1.0 and b
frp
is taken as cos α
d Effective depth to the centroid of the tensile
steel reinforcement (mm)
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
E
s
Characteristic tensile modulus of the steel
reinforcement (MPa)
E
frp
Characteristic tensile modulus of the FRP
laminate (MPa)
f
cu
Characteristic or worst credible strength of the
concrete (MPa)
f
ctm
Characteristic tensile strength of the concrete
(MPa)
f
y
Characteristic or worst credible strength of the
tensile steel reinforcement (MPa)
f
a
Characteristic strength of the adhesive
F
Ck,max
Maximum anchorage capacity of FRP (N)
F
Ck
FRP anchorage capacity (N)
F
frp
Force in FRP (N)
h Total depth of the section (mm)
k
b
Parameter used to determine maximum
anchorage capacity of FRP
L
C,max
Anchorage length required to develop
F
ck,max
(mm)
L
a
Anchorage length (mm)
s
frp
Longitudinal spacing of the FRP laminates
used for shear strengthening (see Figure 1.1).
For continuous FRP sheet, s
frp
is taken as 1.0
and b
frp
is taken as cos α
t
frp
Thickness of the FRP laminate (mm)
V Shear force due to ultimate loads (N)
V
c
Contribution from the concrete to the shear
capacity (N)
V
frp
Contribution from the FRP to the shear
capacity (N)
V
s
Contribution from the steel to the shear
capacity (N)
V
u
Ultimate shear capacity of FRP strengthened
section (N)
1/3
chapter 1
introduction
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
Figure 1.1 notation for shear strengthening of concrete elements
Volume 1 Section 3
Part 18 BD 85/08
May 2008
V
s
Contribution from the steel to the shear
capacity (N)
V
u
Ultimate shear capacity of FRP strengthened
section (N)
D
s
frp

b
frp

h
FRP Laminates on both sides
d
A
frps
= 2b
frp
t
frp

Figure 1.1 Notation for Shear Strengthening of Concrete Elements
1/4
Chapter 1
Introduction
1/4
chapter 1
introduction
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
2. application
general

2.1 FRP can be used to increase the load
capacity of structural elements as described in
this Standard. A structure shall only be considered
suitable for strengthening using this technique if it
can be shown to be at least capable of supporting
nominal dead load plus nominal superimposed
dead load plus nominal assessment live load, as
specifed by BD 21 (DMRB 3.4) with all partial
safety factors, including those applied to material
strengths, set to unity.
2.2 General guidance on the use of FRP to
strengthen concrete structures is given in the Concrete
Society Technical Reports No. 55
[1]
and No. 57
[4]
.
General guidance on the use of FRP to strengthen
metallic structures is given in CIRIA Report, C595
Strengthening metallic structures using externally
bonded fbre-reinforced polymers
[5]
and ICE design and
practice guide FRP composites – Life extension and
strengthening of metallic structures
[6]
.

2.3 For a particular structure, an economic
evaluation shall be carried out in order to compare
this technique with other methods of strengthening.
This evaluation shall include a risk assessment,
taking into account the performance history of the
proposed techniques. Factors to be considered are
safety, cost, construction methods, environmental
considerations, remaining life and inspection and
maintenance capability.
2.4 FRP systems are available in many forms
including fabrics applied using a wet lay-up process,
and factory produced FRP plates installed using
adhesives. All FRP systems are acceptable provided
they comply with the requirements of this Standard and
have been shown to be appropriate for the application
for which they are being considered.

2.5 Where uncertainties exist concerning the
effectiveness of an FRP system for a particular
application, appropriate experimental testing on
representative specimens shall be undertaken to
prove the technique. Examples where this might
be required include the use of a material with
signifcantly different properties to those used in
previous studies or applications, the use of a new
approach or system, or bonding onto an irregular,
curved or deteriorated surface. The requirements
for, and the extent of, the testing shall be agreed
with the Overseeing Organisation.
2.6 The durability of all components of the FRP
strengthening system shall be considered when
selecting an appropriate strengthening approach.
Information and test results to demonstrate the
long-term performance of the system shall be
sought from manufacturers and suppliers (see also
Chapter 6).
2.7 A fow chart is included in Annex A setting out
the steps to be taken in assessing the suitability of a
structure for strengthening using FRP, together with
references to relevant documents and clauses.
suitability of structure

2.8 The effectiveness of externally bonded FRP
is highly dependent on the integrity of the bond
between the FRP and the surface of the structure
and also on the integrity of the surface material
itself. This interface must be capable of sustaining
the stresses necessary for tension to be developed
in the FRP. For surface profle requirements for
concrete, see Clause 4.25.
2.9 When considering the suitability of a
structure for the application of externally bonded
FRP, investigations shall be carried out to ensure
that the risk of corrosion in the existing member
is low and to determine the soundness of the
structure including any repaired areas. For concrete
structures, BA 35, The inspection and repair of
concrete highway structures (DMRB 3.3.2) gives
advice on special inspections and guidance
2/1
chapter 2
application
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
2/2
chapter 2
application

on suitable tests. In Scotland, advice on special
inspections and guidance on suitable tests for
concrete structures should be sought from the
Overseeing Organisation.
2.10 Externally bonded FRP shall only be applied
to dry surfaces. Remedial measures shall be taken
if surfaces are damp, and leakages stopped. Any
damaged material shall be removed down to a
sound base.
2.11 For concrete structures, expansive rust
products arising from reinforcement corrosion may
disrupt the concrete and eventually cause
de-bonding of the FRP. Therefore, unless repairs
have been carried out, bonding shall only be
considered where half-cell potential measurements
are numerically greater than -250mV with respect
to a copper/copper sulphate electrode.
2.12 For concrete structures, the integrity of
the surface concrete and its associated method of
preparation shall be demonstrated by a series of
pull-off tests, for which the failure plane should
occur within the concrete. Such tests shall be
carried out in accordance with PR EN 1542.
A minimum of fve tests shall be undertaken at
representative locations on each element to which
the FRP is to be bonded. The characteristic value of
the concrete tensile strength may be taken as 70%
of the mean of the test results but not greater than
the minimum test result. FRP strengthening shall
not be used when the characteristic concrete tensile
strength is less than 1.5 N/mm
2
.
2.13 Wrought iron structures may be prone
to delamination. For this reason, wrought iron
structures shall not be strengthened with FRP
without the specifc approval of the Overseeing
Organisation. Guidance shall be sought from
specialist designers in such cases.
2.14 Where FRP is bonded to soffts above
carriageways, the available headroom shall be
checked to ensure that impact from high vehicles
is not likely, making allowance for the presence
of fxings if used. FRP should not be installed on
bridge soffts where there is evidence of frequent
damage from vehicle impact.
inspectability

2.15 The ease of inspection of the installed system
shall be considered in devising the strengthening
scheme and a recommended inspection regime (see
Chapter 7).
2.16 Special consideration shall be taken where
strengthening is required to the top surfaces of
slabs and beams and subsequently buried by the
road surfacing. In such cases it can be impractical
to provide inspection facilities for the plates.
Special care should be taken during bridge
inspections to identify any areas of plates which
may have de-bonded as indicated by local break-up
or refective cracking of the surface in the location
of the plates. Accurate drawings indicating the
location of all plates shall be available for such
inspections (see Clause 7.1). The use of Near
Surface Mounted (NSM) FRP should be considered
in top slab strengthening applications. See Clause
4.2.
prestressed Frp
2.17 The effciency of externally bonded FRP
strengthening can be increased by prestressing the FRP,
or alternatively by jacking up a structure during the
installation of the FRP. Such approaches can enable a
greater proportion of the ultimate strength of the FRP
to be utilised. Only a limited amount of testing of such
systems is currently available.
2.18 When FRP is subjected to sustained long-term
loading, failure of the FRP can occur through creep
rupture at a load level signifcantly below its ultimate
short-term strength. Creep rupture can be prevented by
limiting the magnitude of any sustained loading.

2.19 Guidance shall be sought from specialist
designers and materials suppliers when a
strengthening scheme includes the use of externally
bonded FRP subjected to sustained loading. The
design of such schemes is not covered by the
guidelines given in this Standard, although many of
the issues and limit states described are relevant to
their design.
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
3. design
general
3.1 The design guidelines set out in this Standard
are based upon experimental fndings and current best
practice in the design of FRP strengthening schemes.
They are applicable to the design of strengthening
schemes using both pultruded laminates and fabric
systems. Before undertaking a design, the requirements
of Clause 2.5 should be carefully considered.

3.2 Structural elements strengthened with FRP
can have signifcantly reduced ductility when
compared with conventional structural elements
of the same strength. The ductility of FRP
strengthened elements can be particularly low
when their ultimate capacity is governed by failure
modes involving fracture of the FRP or a loss of
composite action between the FRP and the surface
to which it is bonded. The implications of such
limited ductility of FRP strengthened elements
shall be carefully considered, especially in relation
to the structural analysis upon which the design is
based.
3.3 The FRP strengthening system should be
designed for a minimum service life of 30 years.
3.4 The stresses in the structure when the FRP
is installed shall be taken into account in the
design. Such stresses may arise from permanent
and live loads, support settlement or thermal
effects. Particular care is required in establishing
permanent stresses in statically indeterminate
structures and for brittle metallic structures for
which the strengthening design will be particularly
sensitive to the stress in the structure when the FRP
is installed. In such cases, it may be necessary to
undertake tests to establish the permanent stresses
in the structure with confdence. If excessive
vibrations are expected the designer should
consider excluding traffc from the bridge while the
FRP is installed.
properties of Frp

3.5 Characteristic values of the elastic modulus,
strain to failure and ultimate stress of the FRP
material shall be used in design. A characteristic
value is defned as the value below which not more
than 5% of all possible test results may be expected
to fall.
3.6 Care shall be taken to ensure that consistent
properties for the FRP are used in the design and
installation. These should be noted on all drawings and
relevant documents.
properties of concrete and reinforcement

3.7 Characteristic values of steel reinforcement
and concrete strengths may be used. Alternatively,
worst credible values may be derived from test
data where they exist, in accordance with BD 44
(DMRB 3.4.14). Where design values are not
known or are uncertain, tests shall be undertaken to
enable appropriate values to be derived. Guidance
on the assessment of material properties is given in
BD 21 (DMRB 3.4.3).
properties of metallic elements

3.8 The material strengths of metallic elements
may be obtained using BD 21 (DMRB 3.4.3).
Additional guidance is included in the CIRIA
report C595
[5]
.
3/1
chapter 3
design
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
3/2
chapter 3
design
partial safety factors

3.9 The partial safety factors for FRP for the
ultimate limit state shall be taken from Table 3.1 or
Table 3.2. These safety factors shall be applied to
the characteristic values of the material properties.
The values given in Table 3.1 may be used for
Combination 4 loading in accordance with BD 37
(DMRB 1.3.14). The values in Table 3.2 shall be
used in all other cases.
3.10 For the serviceability limit state, the value of
the partial safety factors for FRP shall be taken as
1.0.
3.11 For the ultimate limit state, the partial safety
factors for material strength shall be as specifed in
BD 44 (DMRB 3.4.14) for concrete elements, and
BD 21 (DMRB 3.4.3) for steel elements .
3.12 For the serviceability limit state, the partial
safety factors shall be taken as specifed in
BS 5400: Part 4 for concrete elements, and
BS 5400: Part 3 for steel elements.
3.13 Strengthened cast iron elements shall be
analysed on a permissible stress basis, as described
in BD 21 (DMRB.4.3), with the partial factors for
FRP taken from Table 3.1 or 3.2. The values given
3 in Table 3.1 may be used for Combination 4
loading in accordance with BD 37 (DMRB 1.3.14).
The values in Table 3.2 shall be used in all other
cases.
3.14 The partial factor for the adhesive at ultimate
limit state should be taken as γ
ma
= 5, unless a
project-specifc value is determined and agreed
with the Overseeing Organisation. Adhesive
properties are affected by environment and time
related factors in addition to material variability.
Guidance on the evaluation of project-specifc
partial factors is included in C595
[5]
.
table 3.1 values of partial factors for Frp
materials for the ultimate limit state for
combination 4 loadings in accordance with Bd 37
material γ
mfe
γ
mfε
Carbon 1.15 1.15
Aramid 1.20 1.20
Glass 1.50 1.50
table 3.2 values of partial factors for Frp
materials for the ultimate limit state, excluding
combination 4 loading in accordance with Bd 37
material γ
mfe
γ
mfε

wet
lay up
laminate wet
lay up
laminate
Carbon 1.3 1.15 1.67 1.47
Aramid 1.3 1.15 1.77 1.57
Glass 2.13 1.89 4.14 3.67
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
4. strengthening concrete structures
general
4.1 The guidelines set out in this Chapter are
applicable to the design of strengthening schemes for
reinforced concrete beams and slabs.
strengthening for Flexure
4.2 FRP materials can be bonded to the tension face
of beams or slabs to act as additional reinforcement,
increasing the moment of resistance of the section. The
FRP reinforcement can be either externally bonded to
the concrete structure or near-surface mounted (NSM),
where the bars are installed into grooves that have
been cut into the concrete. The bonding operation can
frequently take place with no or minimal disruption to
traffc and without a need for temporary propping.
4.3 Structures strengthened with FRP to increase
their fexural capacity can exhibit the same ultimate
failure modes as reinforced concrete structures, for
example, compressive failure of the concrete. However,
in addition, their capacity may also be governed by
fracture of the FRP or by the loss of composite action
between the FRP and the concrete, sometimes referred
to as FRP separation, debonding or peeling. Failure
modes in which the FRP separates from the concrete
section have frequently been found to be critical in
experimental studies.

4.4 Design guidelines for ultimate fexural
capacity are set out in Clauses 4.12 to 4.32. Rules
are given to account both for ultimate failure
modes where composite action between the FRP
and concrete is retained and also where it is lost.
Serviceability requirements are set out in Clauses
4.42 and 4.43.
strengthening for shear
4.5 Bonding FRP to the webs of beams has been
shown experimentally to increase the shear strength
of the section. The bonded material acts as external
shear reinforcement. The use of FRP for shear
strengthening is less well established than its use for
fexural strengthening and has been the subject of fewer
experimental studies.
4.6 Structures strengthened with FRP to increase
their shear capacity can fail due to separation of the
FRP from the concrete. The signifcance of such failure
modes is reduced when a beam is fully encased in FRP.
However, it is frequently diffcult to achieve this, for
example where beams are continuously connected to a
deck slab.
4.7 Whenever practicable, shear strengthening should
be undertaken by wrapping FRP completely around
a beam. However, when as in most cases this is not
possible, the FRP wrapping should be applied to the
sides and either the top or underside of a beam. Whilst
not encouraged, bonding to only the sides of beams is
permissible in cases where it is not possible to continue
the FRP around the top or the underside of a beam.
When FRP is not wrapped completely around a beam
consideration should be given to the use of additional
FRP anchorage systems. Specialist advice should be
sought in such cases.

4.8 Design rules for externally bonded FRP
for shear strengthening are set out in Clauses
4.33 to 4.40. These rules have been calibrated
against published experimental data for shear
strengthening using carbon and aramid systems.
The limit states given are also relevant to the
design of shear strengthening using glass fbre
systems. However, there is currently very limited
experimental data on the use glass fbre in this
application and the requirements of Clause 2.5
should be carefully considered before it is used.
The design rules presented are not applicable to
NSM FRP reinforcement.
4.9 In view of the potentially brittle nature of the
shear failure of FRP-strengthened elements, the relative
effectiveness of shear strengthening would be expected
to diminish as the size of the element being strengthened
increases. The extrapolation of experimental results
from small specimens to real structures must therefore
be undertaken with caution. Such a potential size effect
has been taken into account in the design rules in this
Standard.
4/1
chapter 4
strengthening concrete structures
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
4/2
chapter 4
strengthening concrete structures
limit states

4.10 The design of strengthened structures shall
be considered for the ultimate limit states in
accordance with the relevant clauses of BS 5400:
Part 4: 1990 (BSI 1990) as implemented by BD 24
(DMRB 1.3.1), except where amended by other
clauses in this Standard. The appropriate loads and
load factors shall be taken from BD 37 (DMRB
1.3.14).
4.11 The criteria for the serviceability limit states
given in Clause 4.1.1 of BS 5400: Part 4, shall be
followed, except where amended in this Standard.
Flexural capacity

4.12 The analysis of a concrete section
strengthened for fexure using FRP shall be based
on the following:
(i) The strain at any level in the section shall
be determined assuming that plane sections
remain plane.
(ii) The FRP is a linear elastic material, as
shown in Figure 4.1.
(iii) The stress-strain behaviour of the concrete
is as given in BS 5400: Part 4. A rectangular
stress block shall only be used when
considering concrete crushing.
The stress-strain behaviour of the steel
reinforcement is linear-elastic in tension, with an
elastic modulus of 200 kN/mm
2
, until the yield
stress (f
y

ms
) is reached, as shown in Figure 4.1.
4.13 For concrete members strengthened for
fexure, the following modes of failure shall be
considered, assuming that composite action is
retained between the FRP and the concrete section:
(i) FRP rupture; and
(ii) crushing of the concrete.
4.14 FRP rupture should be considered to occur
when the strain in the FRP reaches ε
frpu

mfε
.
Concrete crushing should be considered to occur
when the strain in the concrete at the compressive
face reaches 0.0035. If the section analysis
indicates that concrete crushing occurs before the
steel reinforcement has reached its yield stress,
then the required moment of resistance of the
strengthened section should be increased by 15%.
Figure 4.1 short-term stress strain curve for steel and Frp reinforcement
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 16

Figure 4.1 : Short term stress strain curve for steel and FRP reinforcement *
4.15 For concrete members strengthened for flexure, failure can also occur when
there is a loss of composite action between the FRP and the concrete section. Typically
failures occur through the development of a longitudinal failure plane close to the interface
between the FRP and the concrete or at the level of the main reinforcement. Such
longitudinal failure planes can initiate from:
(i) Ends of FRP
(ii) Shear cracks
(ii) Flexural cracks
(iii) Concave surface profiles.

4.16 The bond behaviour of externally bonded FRP differs markedly from embedded steel
reinforcement. It is possible to anchor steel reinforcement by providing a sufficient
anchorage length such that, beyond this anchorage length, the full strength of the
reinforcement can be developed. However this is not typically the case for externally bonded
Stress
Strain
E
s
= 200 kN/mm
2

E
frp
/ J
mfE

f
y
/ J
ms

J
ms
+ f
y

f
y

2000
Steel in
Tension
Steel in
Compression
FRP
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
4.15 For concrete members strengthened for fexure,
failure can also occur when there is a loss of composite
action between the FRP and the concrete section.
Typically failures occur through the development of a
longitudinal failure plane close to the interface between
the FRP and the concrete or at the level of the main
reinforcement. Such longitudinal failure planes can
initiate from:
(i) Ends of FRP;
(ii) Shear cracks;
(ii) Flexural cracks;
(iii) Concave surface profles.
4.16 The bond behaviour of externally bonded FRP
differs markedly from embedded steel reinforcement. It
is possible to anchor steel reinforcement by providing
a suffcient anchorage length such that, beyond this
anchorage length, the full strength of the reinforcement
can be developed. However this is not typically the
case for externally bonded FRP. Experiments have
demonstrated that the longitudinal shear stress that can
be transferred between the FRP and the concrete is not
independent of the bonded length, as typically assumed
in design for embedded steel reinforcement. In tests on
the anchorage of FRP externally bonded to concrete, it
has been found that beyond a limiting bonded length,
of the order of 50-300mm, there is no further increase
in the ultimate anchorage load-capacity with increased
bonded length. Furthermore, this ultimate anchorage
capacity can be very much less than the ultimate tensile
capacity of the FRP.

4.17 Experimental fndings have indicated that
the maximum force that can be developed in FRP
externally bonded to concrete that is uncracked
under the applied load is limited to the anchorage
force given in Clause 4.27. In cases where the FRP
is externally bonded to a structural element that
remains uncracked under the ultimate load case
for which it is being strengthened, the maximum
force in the FRP must be limited to the anchorage
capacity given in Clause 4.27. Instances where
this requirement may be applicable include
structural members with signifcant changes in
section properties, for example the transverse
strengthening of thin outstands cantilevered from a
bridge deck.

4.18 Failure modes where there is a loss of
composite action between the FRP and concrete
section shall be considered in the design of FRP
strengthening. Such failure modes may be avoided
by limiting:
(i) the strain in the FRP;
(ii) the longitudinal shear stress between the
FRP and the concrete section;
(iii) irregularities in the profle of the surface to
which the FRP is bonded;
(iv) the stress in the FRP near its end (i.e. in the
anchorage region).
Guidance on suitable limits is provided in Clauses
4.21 to 4.29. These limits may be relaxed if
a rigorous analysis is undertaken or based on
experimental results using representative sized
specimens. The likelihood of failure modes
involving a loss in composite action may be
decreased for externally bonded FRP by reducing
the FRP thickness and by tapering the FRP when
multiple layers are used.
4.19 Tests have shown that bolts can be used with
multi-directional externally bonded FRP laminates
to prevent loss of composite action. Where used,
the anchorage strength shall be verifed through
appropriate testing.
4.20 Specialist advice shall be sought in cases
where shear cracks could initiate a loss of
composite action. Such a mode of failure may be
disregarded if the maximum applied shear force
can be carried by the concrete alone, neglecting
any contribution to the shear capacity made by
shear reinforcement.
4.21 The maximum strain in the FRP shall not
be greater than 0.008. This limit will generally
be more onerous than the factored ultimate FRP
tensile strain capacity. The likelihood of failure
modes occurring that involve a loss of composite
action has been found experimentally to increase if
this strain limit is exceeded. The data upon which
this limit is based comes predominantly from tests
using externally bonded carbon. In the absence of
more comprehensive test data it is also required for
NSM FRP strengthening. This limit may be relaxed
4/3
chapter 4
strengthening concrete structures
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
based on experimental results using representative
sized specimens. This would be subject to the
agreement of the Overseeing Organisation.
4.22 The longitudinal shear at the interface
between the adhesive and concrete shall not exceed
the ultimate values given in Table 31 of BS 5400:
Part 4, Clause 7.4.2.3. The longitudinal shear at
the interface between the FRP and the adhesive
shall not exceed 20% of the shear capacity of the
adhesive.
The longitudinal shear shall be checked, at least,
at terminations in the FRP and the position in the
span where the steel reinforcement yields. The
longitudinal shear stress may be determined from:

¸
¸
¹
·
¨
¨
©
§
'
V V
W
x
t
frp frp
frp
1 2
1


for externally
bonded FRP
¸
¸
¹
·
¨
¨
©
§
'
V V SI
W
x p
frp frp frp 1 2
2
1
4


for NSM FRP
where σ
frp1
is the stress in the FRP at the location
of interest and σ
frp2
is the stress in the FRP at a
small distance Δx from the location of interest
in the direction in which the applied moment is
increasing,
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 22

( )
mc mfE
ctm g g
frp
frp
Ck
f h w E
F
¸ ¸
|
t 2
4
5 . 1
2
max ,
+
= (N) *
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

( )
ctm g g
mc
frp
frp
C
f h w
E
L
2
4
5 . 4
2
max ,
+
=
¸
|
t
(mm)

where
frp
| is the nominal diameter of the FRP bar, measured in mm,
g
w and
g
h are the
width and height of the groove in cross section, measured in mm, and E
frp
and f
ctm

have units of N/mm
2
.
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by:

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F [THIS CLAUSE SHOULD BE BOXED]


4.29 The adhesive used in NSM FRP strengthening schemes shall have sufficient strength to
prevent a splitting failure in the adhesive under ultimate loading. This requirement may be
taken to be satisfied if the following criteria are met, in addition to the requirements of 4.28:
-
ctm atm
f f 0 . 5 >
- 12 >
atm
f MPa
-
frp g frp
w | | 5 . 2 5 . 1 s s
-
frp g frp
h | | 0 . 5 0 . 2 s s
where f
atm
is the characteristic tensile strength of the adhesive.


4.30 If the force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region is in excess of the
anchorage capacity then consideration should be given to reducing the thickness and
increasing the width of externally bonded FRP. Alternatively a rigorous analysis of the
development of the force in the FRP within the anchorage region may be used to demonstrate
is the nominal diameter of the
NSM FRP bar and p is the effective perimeter of
the interface at which the longitudinal shear is
being checked. σ
frp1
and σ
frp2
may be determined
from a section analysis in accordance with Clause
4.12.
For NSM FRP, in special cases where the
preparation or condition of the concrete does not
allow the complete concrete interface to be fully
effective in resisting longitudinal shear, specialist
advice shall be sought and the value for p shall
be reduced accordingly. It may be appropriate to
reduce the effective perimeter p to w
g
+ h
g
in cases
where the method of preparing the grooves results
in sides which cannot be assumed to achieve
effective bond with confdence, where w
g
and h
g

are the width and height of the groove in cross
section.
4.23 For sections where the design indicates that
the steel reinforcement would yield or where the
compressive strain in the concrete is such that its
behaviour is signifcantly non-linear, standard elastic
methods for determining the longitudinal shear stress in
prismatic sections should not be used.
4.24 Provided that the stresses due to permanent loads
prior to strengthening have a negligible effect on the
stresses due to ultimate loads, which may assumed to be
the case if the structure is uncracked in the region being
strengthened, the longitudinal shear stress at the location
in the span where the reinforcement yields for prismatic
elements with solid, rectangular sections strengthened
with externally bonded FRP may be conservatively
taken as:

frp
l
frpm
Vt
A h
λ
τ =

provided
7 . 0 >
h
d

where λ is determined from Figure 4.2 for mild
steel reinforcement (up to f
y
=250N/mm
2
) and
Figure 4.3 for high yield steel reinforcement (up
to f
y
=460 N/mm
2
). In Figures 4.2 and 4.3:


¸
¸
¹
·
¨
¨
©
§
J
¸
¸
¹
·
¨
¨
©
§
J
Z
¸
¸
¹
·
¨
¨
©
§
J
¸
¸
¹
·
¨
¨
©
§
J
Z
mc
cu
mfE
frp
frpr
f
mc
cu
ms
y
s
s
f
bh
E
A
f
bh
f
A
and

4/4
chapter 4
strengthening concrete structures
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
Figure 4.2 λ Values for Mild Steel Reinforcement
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 20
Figure 4: O values for mild steel reinforcement
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
Z
s
O
Z
f
= 1
Z
f
= 2
Z
f
= 5
Z
f
= 10 Z
f
= 20 Z
f
= 30

Figure 5: O for high yield steel reinforcement
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
Z
s
O
Z
f
= 1
Z
f
= 2
Z
f
= 5 Z
f
= 10 Z
f
= 20 Z
f
= 30

CHANGE FIGURES FROM 4 AND 5 TO 4.2 AND 4.3


4.25 If FRP is bonded to a concrete surface with a concave profile, the likelihood of FRP
separation failure is increased. Unless justified through a rigorous analysis or experimental
results, the gap under a 1m long straight edge held to the surface of the FRP following
installation shall nowhere exceed 3mm. If preformed laminates such as pultruded plates are
used, the gap under a 1m long straight edge held to the surface of the concrete prior to the
installation of the FRP may be up to 5mm provided the depth of adhesive is varied to
achieved the required FRP straightness after installation. Where fabric systems are used
particular care is required in the surface preparation since such systems will closely follow
the surface profile of the concrete. For NSM FRP systems the grooves should be cut to allow
the bars to be installed straight.

Figure 4.3 λ for High Yield Steel Reinforcement
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 20
Figure 4: O values for mild steel reinforcement
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
Z
s
O
Z
f
= 1
Z
f
= 2
Z
f
= 5
Z
f
= 10 Z
f
= 20 Z
f
= 30

Figure 5: O for high yield steel reinforcement
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
Z
s
O
Z
f
= 1
Z
f
= 2
Z
f
= 5 Z
f
= 10 Z
f
= 20 Z
f
= 30

CHANGE FIGURES FROM 4 AND 5 TO 4.2 AND 4.3


4.25 If FRP is bonded to a concrete surface with a concave profile, the likelihood of FRP
separation failure is increased. Unless justified through a rigorous analysis or experimental
results, the gap under a 1m long straight edge held to the surface of the FRP following
installation shall nowhere exceed 3mm. If preformed laminates such as pultruded plates are
used, the gap under a 1m long straight edge held to the surface of the concrete prior to the
installation of the FRP may be up to 5mm provided the depth of adhesive is varied to
achieved the required FRP straightness after installation. Where fabric systems are used
particular care is required in the surface preparation since such systems will closely follow
the surface profile of the concrete. For NSM FRP systems the grooves should be cut to allow
the bars to be installed straight.

4/5
chapter 4
strengthening concrete structures
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08

4.25 If FRP is bonded to a concrete surface with
a concave profle, the likelihood of FRP separation
failure is increased. Unless justifed through a
rigorous analysis or experimental results, the
gap under a 1m long straight edge held to the
surface of the FRP following installation shall
nowhere exceed 3mm. If preformed laminates
such as pultruded plates are used, the gap under
a 1m long straight edge held to the surface of the
concrete prior to the installation of the FRP may
be up to 5mm provided the depth of adhesive is
varied to achieved the required FRP straightness
after installation. Where fabric systems are used
particular care is required in the surface preparation
since such systems will closely follow the surface
profle of the concrete. For NSM FRP systems
the grooves should be cut to allow the bars to be
installed straight.
4.26 Suffcient anchorage shall be provided
beyond the point at which the FRP is no longer
required to ensure that any force in the FRP
developed within this anchorage region can be
sustained. The force in the FRP developed within
the anchorage region may be determined by
undertaking an analysis of the strengthened section
at the point where the FRP is no longer required in
accordance with Clauses 3.4 and 4.12. A minimum
anchorage length of 500mm shall be provided
when the FRP is terminated within a span.
4.27 For externally bonded FRP, the maximum
anchorage force may be assumed to be given by:
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 21

4.26 Sufficient anchorage shall be provided beyond the point at which the FRP is no longer
required to ensure that any force in the FRP developed within this anchorage region can be
sustained. The force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region may be determined
by undertaking an analysis of the strengthened section at the point where the FRP is no
longer required in accordance with Clauses 3.4 and 4.12. A minimum anchorage length of
500mm shall be provided when the FRP is terminated within a span.


4.27 For externally bonded carbon fibre FRP, the maximum anchorage force may be
assumed to be given by:

mc mfE
ctm frp frp
frp b Ck
f t E
b k F
J J
5 . 0
max ,
(N)
where
0 . 1
400
1
2
06 . 1 t

frp
frp
b
b
b
b
k
and b
frp
and t
frp
have units of mm and E
frp
and f
ctm
have units of N/mm
2
.
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

,max
2
frp frp mc
C
ctm
E t
L
f
J
(mm)
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by :

»
»
¼
º
«
«
¬
ª

max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F (N)


4.28 For NSM FRP, the maximum anchorage force per bar may be assumed to be given by:
(N)

where
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 21

4.26 Sufficient anchorage shall be provided beyond the point at which the FRP is no longer
required to ensure that any force in the FRP developed within this anchorage region can be
sustained. The force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region may be determined
by undertaking an analysis of the strengthened section at the point where the FRP is no
longer required in accordance with Clauses 3.4 and 4.12. A minimum anchorage length of
500mm shall be provided when the FRP is terminated within a span.


4.27 For externally bonded carbon fibre FRP, the maximum anchorage force may be
assumed to be given by:

mc mfE
ctm frp frp
frp b Ck
f t E
b k F
J J
5 . 0
max ,
(N)
where
0 . 1
400
1
2
06 . 1 t

frp
frp
b
b
b
b
k
and b
frp
and t
frp
have units of mm and E
frp
and f
ctm
have units of N/mm
2
.
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

,max
2
frp frp mc
C
ctm
E t
L
f
J
(mm)
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by :

»
»
¼
º
«
«
¬
ª

max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F (N)


4.28 For NSM FRP, the maximum anchorage force per bar may be assumed to be given by:
and b
frp
and t
frp
have units of mm and E
frp
and f
ctm

have units of N/mm
2
.

The anchorage length required to develop this force
may be assumed to be given by:
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 21

4.26 Sufficient anchorage shall be provided beyond the point at which the FRP is no longer
required to ensure that any force in the FRP developed within this anchorage region can be
sustained. The force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region may be determined
by undertaking an analysis of the strengthened section at the point where the FRP is no
longer required in accordance with Clauses 3.4 and 4.12. A minimum anchorage length of
500mm shall be provided when the FRP is terminated within a span.


4.27 For externally bonded carbon fibre FRP, the maximum anchorage force may be
assumed to be given by:

mc mfE
ctm frp frp
frp b Ck
f t E
b k F
J J
5 . 0
max ,
(N)
where
0 . 1
400
1
2
06 . 1 t

frp
frp
b
b
b
b
k
and b
frp
and t
frp
have units of mm and E
frp
and f
ctm
have units of N/mm
2
.
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

,max
2
frp frp mc
C
ctm
E t
L
f
J
(mm)
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by :

»
»
¼
º
«
«
¬
ª

max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F (N)


4.28 For NSM FRP, the maximum anchorage force per bar may be assumed to be given by:
(mm)
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the
anchorage force is given by:
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 21

4.26 Sufficient anchorage shall be provided beyond the point at which the FRP is no longer
required to ensure that any force in the FRP developed within this anchorage region can be
sustained. The force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region may be determined
by undertaking an analysis of the strengthened section at the point where the FRP is no
longer required in accordance with Clauses 3.4 and 4.12. A minimum anchorage length of
500mm shall be provided when the FRP is terminated within a span.


4.27 For externally bonded carbon fibre FRP, the maximum anchorage force may be
assumed to be given by:

mc mfE
ctm frp frp
frp b Ck
f t E
b k F
J J
5 . 0
max ,
(N)
where
0 . 1
400
1
2
06 . 1 t

frp
frp
b
b
b
b
k
and b
frp
and t
frp
have units of mm and E
frp
and f
ctm
have units of N/mm
2
.
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

,max
2
frp frp mc
C
ctm
E t
L
f
J
(mm)
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by :

»
»
¼
º
«
«
¬
ª

max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F (N)


4.28 For NSM FRP, the maximum anchorage force per bar may be assumed to be given by:
(N)

4.28 For NSM FRP, the maximum anchorage
force per bar may be assumed to be given by:
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 22

( )
mc mfE
ctm g g
frp
frp
Ck
f h w E
F
¸ ¸
|
t 2
4
5 . 1
2
max ,
+
= (N) *
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

( )
ctm g g
mc
frp
frp
C
f h w
E
L
2
4
5 . 4
2
max ,
+
=
¸
|
t
(mm)

where
frp
| is the nominal diameter of the FRP bar, measured in mm,
g
w and
g
h are the
width and height of the groove in cross section, measured in mm, and E
frp
and f
ctm

have units of N/mm
2
.
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by:

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F [THIS CLAUSE SHOULD BE BOXED]


4.29 The adhesive used in NSM FRP strengthening schemes shall have sufficient strength to
prevent a splitting failure in the adhesive under ultimate loading. This requirement may be
taken to be satisfied if the following criteria are met, in addition to the requirements of 4.28:
-
ctm atm
f f 0 . 5 >
- 12 >
atm
f MPa
-
frp g frp
w | | 5 . 2 5 . 1 s s
-
frp g frp
h | | 0 . 5 0 . 2 s s
where f
atm
is the characteristic tensile strength of the adhesive.


4.30 If the force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region is in excess of the
anchorage capacity then consideration should be given to reducing the thickness and
increasing the width of externally bonded FRP. Alternatively a rigorous analysis of the
development of the force in the FRP within the anchorage region may be used to demonstrate
(N)
The anchorage length required to develop this force
may be assumed to be given by:
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 22

( )
mc mfE
ctm g g
frp
frp
Ck
f h w E
F
¸ ¸
|
t 2
4
5 . 1
2
max ,
+
= (N) *
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

( )
ctm g g
mc
frp
frp
C
f h w
E
L
2
4
5 . 4
2
max ,
+
=
¸
|
t
(mm)

where
frp
| is the nominal diameter of the FRP bar, measured in mm,
g
w and
g
h are the
width and height of the groove in cross section, measured in mm, and E
frp
and f
ctm

have units of N/mm
2
.
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by:

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F [THIS CLAUSE SHOULD BE BOXED]


4.29 The adhesive used in NSM FRP strengthening schemes shall have sufficient strength to
prevent a splitting failure in the adhesive under ultimate loading. This requirement may be
taken to be satisfied if the following criteria are met, in addition to the requirements of 4.28:
-
ctm atm
f f 0 . 5 >
- 12 >
atm
f MPa
-
frp g frp
w | | 5 . 2 5 . 1 s s
-
frp g frp
h | | 0 . 5 0 . 2 s s
where f
atm
is the characteristic tensile strength of the adhesive.


4.30 If the force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region is in excess of the
anchorage capacity then consideration should be given to reducing the thickness and
increasing the width of externally bonded FRP. Alternatively a rigorous analysis of the
development of the force in the FRP within the anchorage region may be used to demonstrate
(mm)

where
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 22

( )
mc mfE
ctm g g
frp
frp
Ck
f h w E
F
¸ ¸
|
t 2
4
5 . 1
2
max ,
+
= (N) *
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

( )
ctm g g
mc
frp
frp
C
f h w
E
L
2
4
5 . 4
2
max ,
+
=
¸
|
t
(mm)

where
frp
| is the nominal diameter of the FRP bar, measured in mm,
g
w and
g
h are the
width and height of the groove in cross section, measured in mm, and E
frp
and f
ctm

have units of N/mm
2
.
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by:

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F [THIS CLAUSE SHOULD BE BOXED]


4.29 The adhesive used in NSM FRP strengthening schemes shall have sufficient strength to
prevent a splitting failure in the adhesive under ultimate loading. This requirement may be
taken to be satisfied if the following criteria are met, in addition to the requirements of 4.28:
-
ctm atm
f f 0 . 5 >
- 12 >
atm
f MPa
-
frp g frp
w | | 5 . 2 5 . 1 s s
-
frp g frp
h | | 0 . 5 0 . 2 s s
where f
atm
is the characteristic tensile strength of the adhesive.


4.30 If the force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region is in excess of the
anchorage capacity then consideration should be given to reducing the thickness and
increasing the width of externally bonded FRP. Alternatively a rigorous analysis of the
development of the force in the FRP within the anchorage region may be used to demonstrate
is the nominal diameter of the FRP
bar, measured in mm, w
g
and h
g
are the width and
height of the groove in cross section, measured in
mm, and E
frp
and f
ctm
have units of N/mm
2
.
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the
anchorage force is given by:
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 22

( )
mc mfE
ctm g g
frp
frp
Ck
f h w E
F
¸ ¸
|
t 2
4
5 . 1
2
max ,
+
= (N) *
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

( )
ctm g g
mc
frp
frp
C
f h w
E
L
2
4
5 . 4
2
max ,
+
=
¸
|
t
(mm)

where
frp
| is the nominal diameter of the FRP bar, measured in mm,
g
w and
g
h are the
width and height of the groove in cross section, measured in mm, and E
frp
and f
ctm

have units of N/mm
2
.
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by:

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F [THIS CLAUSE SHOULD BE BOXED]


4.29 The adhesive used in NSM FRP strengthening schemes shall have sufficient strength to
prevent a splitting failure in the adhesive under ultimate loading. This requirement may be
taken to be satisfied if the following criteria are met, in addition to the requirements of 4.28:
-
ctm atm
f f 0 . 5 >
- 12 >
atm
f MPa
-
frp g frp
w | | 5 . 2 5 . 1 s s
-
frp g frp
h | | 0 . 5 0 . 2 s s
where f
atm
is the characteristic tensile strength of the adhesive.


4.30 If the force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region is in excess of the
anchorage capacity then consideration should be given to reducing the thickness and
increasing the width of externally bonded FRP. Alternatively a rigorous analysis of the
development of the force in the FRP within the anchorage region may be used to demonstrate
4/6
chapter 4
strengthening concrete structures
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08

4.29 The adhesive used in NSM FRP
strengthening schemes shall have suffcient
strength to prevent a splitting failure in the
adhesive under ultimate loading. This requirement
may be taken to be satisfed if the following criteria
are met, in addition to the requirements of 4.28:
• f
atm
≥ 5.0 f
ctm
• f
atm
≥ 12 MPa

Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 22

( )
mc mfE
ctm g g
frp
frp
Ck
f h w E
F
¸ ¸
|
t 2
4
5 . 1
2
max ,
+
= (N) *
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

( )
ctm g g
mc
frp
frp
C
f h w
E
L
2
4
5 . 4
2
max ,
+
=
¸
|
t
(mm)

where
frp
| is the nominal diameter of the FRP bar, measured in mm,
g
w and
g
h are the
width and height of the groove in cross section, measured in mm, and E
frp
and f
ctm

have units of N/mm
2
.
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by:

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F [THIS CLAUSE SHOULD BE BOXED]


4.29 The adhesive used in NSM FRP strengthening schemes shall have sufficient strength to
prevent a splitting failure in the adhesive under ultimate loading. This requirement may be
taken to be satisfied if the following criteria are met, in addition to the requirements of 4.28:
-
ctm atm
f f 0 . 5 >
- 12 >
atm
f MPa
-
frp g frp
w | | 5 . 2 5 . 1 s s
-
frp g frp
h | | 0 . 5 0 . 2 s s
where f
atm
is the characteristic tensile strength of the adhesive.


4.30 If the force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region is in excess of the
anchorage capacity then consideration should be given to reducing the thickness and
increasing the width of externally bonded FRP. Alternatively a rigorous analysis of the
development of the force in the FRP within the anchorage region may be used to demonstrate

Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 22

( )
mc mfE
ctm g g
frp
frp
Ck
f h w E
F
¸ ¸
|
t 2
4
5 . 1
2
max ,
+
= (N) *
The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by:

( )
ctm g g
mc
frp
frp
C
f h w
E
L
2
4
5 . 4
2
max ,
+
=
¸
|
t
(mm)

where
frp
| is the nominal diameter of the FRP bar, measured in mm,
g
w and
g
h are the
width and height of the groove in cross section, measured in mm, and E
frp
and f
ctm

have units of N/mm
2
.
For shorter anchorage lengths, L
a
< L
c,max
, the anchorage force is given by:

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
max , max ,
max ,
2
C
a
C
a
Ck Ck
L
L
L
L
F F [THIS CLAUSE SHOULD BE BOXED]


4.29 The adhesive used in NSM FRP strengthening schemes shall have sufficient strength to
prevent a splitting failure in the adhesive under ultimate loading. This requirement may be
taken to be satisfied if the following criteria are met, in addition to the requirements of 4.28:
-
ctm atm
f f 0 . 5 >
- 12 >
atm
f MPa
-
frp g frp
w | | 5 . 2 5 . 1 s s
-
frp g frp
h | | 0 . 5 0 . 2 s s
where f
atm
is the characteristic tensile strength of the adhesive.


4.30 If the force in the FRP developed within the anchorage region is in excess of the
anchorage capacity then consideration should be given to reducing the thickness and
increasing the width of externally bonded FRP. Alternatively a rigorous analysis of the
development of the force in the FRP within the anchorage region may be used to demonstrate

where f
atm
is the characteristic tensile strength of the
adhesive.
4.30 If the force in the FRP developed within the
anchorage region is in excess of the anchorage capacity
then consideration should be given to reducing the
thickness and increasing the width of externally
bonded FRP. Alternatively a rigorous analysis of
the development of the force in the FRP within the
anchorage region may be used to demonstrate that
extending the FRP further into the anchorage region will
enable the required anchorage force to be developed.
However, if such a rigorous analysis is undertaken,
particular care should be taken if the FRP is extended
into a region where the concrete is likely to be cracked
at ULS.

4.31 If the FRP extends into areas in compression,
buckling of the FRP might occur, resulting in a
loss of composite action. Where it is necessary to
extend the FRP into an area in compression, the
possibility of buckling should be considered.
4.32 It is recommended that when several strips of
FRP are required these should be applied next to each
other rather than in layers. If it is necessary to install
multiple layers of FRP then, unless proven by rigorous
analysis or experimental testing, the maximum number
of layers should be limited to three for pultruded strips
or fve for cured in-situ fabrics.
shear capacity

4.33 For concrete members strengthened for
shear, the following modes of failure shall be
considered at the ultimate limit state:
(i) FRP rupture;
(ii) FRP separation from concrete;
(iii) excessive shear-crack widths (resulting in
a loss of effectiveness of the concrete in
carrying shear through aggregate interlock
and friction).
These failure modes may be avoided by limiting
the strain in the FRP. Guidance on suitable limits is
provided in Clause 4.37.
4.34 The shear capacity of the FRP strengthened
concrete section, V
u
, shall be determined by adding
the contributions from the concrete, steel and FRP,
ie.
V
u
= V
c
+ V
s
+ V
frp
The contribution from the concrete and the steel
may be determined in accordance with BD 44. The
area of any longitudinal FRP reinforcement shall be
ignored in the calculation of the shear capacity of
the concrete section. The combined contributions
from the steel and FRP shall not be less than
0.4bd (N).
4.35 The maximum shear stress shall not exceed
the limits specifed in BS 5400: Part 4.
4.36 The contribution to the shear capacity from
FRP with principal fbres at an angle, α, to the
vertical is given by (See Figure 1.1):

Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 24
4.36 The contribution to the shear capacity from FRP with principal fibres at an angle,D, to
the vertical is given by (See Figure 1.1):

,max
( )
3
( cos sin )
C
frp
frp frps frps
mfE frp
n
d L
E
V A
s
H D D
J

where L
C,max
is determined in accordance with Clause 4.28 and n is taken as zero, except
when considering FRP separation from the concrete as described in Clause 4.37, when it
should be taken as zero for a fully wrapped beam, 1.0 when FRP is bonded continuously to
the sides and bottom of a beam and 2.0 when it is bonded to the sides of a beam only.


4.37 To prevent FRP rupture, FRP separation from the concrete and excessive shear crack
widths respectively, the effective strain in the FRP, H
frps
, shall not be greater than the
minimum of:
(i) H
frpu
/ 2J
mfH

(ii) 0.64
mfE ctm
frp frp mc
f
E t
J
J

(iii) 0.004
unless a rigorous analysis is undertaken or based on experimental results using representative
sized specimens, with the agreement of the Overseeing Organisation.


4.38 Where individual strips are used the centre to centre spacing, measured along the span,
shall be less than 0.75 times the effective depth of the section to prevent a shear crack
forming between strips, i.e. s
frp
< 0.75d. (See Clause 4.36)

*

4.39 When shear is applied to a concrete beam or slab associated tensile forces are developed in
the longitudinal reinforcement. These are additional to forces due to bending. Adequate
longitudinal reinforcement and FRP should be provided to sustain these additional tensile forces.
This requirement may be satisfied by ensuring that the reinforcement and axial FRP extend a
distance d beyond the point at which they are required for bending alone.

where L
C,max
is determined in accordance with
Clause 4.28 and n is taken as zero, except when
considering FRP separation from the concrete as
described in Clause 4.37, when it should be taken
as zero for a fully wrapped beam, 1.0 when FRP
is bonded continuously to the sides and bottom of
a beam and 2.0 when it is bonded to the sides of a
beam only.
4/7
chapter 4
strengthening concrete structures
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08

4.37 To prevent FRP rupture, FRP separation
from the concrete and excessive shear crack
widths, the effective strain in the FRP, ε
frps
, shall not
be greater than the minimum of:
(i) ε
frpu
/2γ
mfε

(ii)
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 24
4.36 The contribution to the shear capacity from FRP with principal fibres at an angle,D, to
the vertical is given by (See Figure 1.1):

,max
( )
3
( cos sin )
C
frp
frp frps frps
mfE frp
n
d L
E
V A
s
H D D
J

where L
C,max
is determined in accordance with Clause 4.28 and n is taken as zero, except
when considering FRP separation from the concrete as described in Clause 4.37, when it
should be taken as zero for a fully wrapped beam, 1.0 when FRP is bonded continuously to
the sides and bottom of a beam and 2.0 when it is bonded to the sides of a beam only.


4.37 To prevent FRP rupture, FRP separation from the concrete and excessive shear crack
widths respectively, the effective strain in the FRP, H
frps
, shall not be greater than the
minimum of:
(i) H
frpu
/ 2J
mfH

(ii) 0.64
mfE ctm
frp frp mc
f
E t
J
J

(iii) 0.004
unless a rigorous analysis is undertaken or based on experimental results using representative
sized specimens, with the agreement of the Overseeing Organisation.


4.38 Where individual strips are used the centre to centre spacing, measured along the span,
shall be less than 0.75 times the effective depth of the section to prevent a shear crack
forming between strips, i.e. s
frp
< 0.75d. (See Clause 4.36)

*

4.39 When shear is applied to a concrete beam or slab associated tensile forces are developed in
the longitudinal reinforcement. These are additional to forces due to bending. Adequate
longitudinal reinforcement and FRP should be provided to sustain these additional tensile forces.
This requirement may be satisfied by ensuring that the reinforcement and axial FRP extend a
distance d beyond the point at which they are required for bending alone.


(iii) 0.004
unless a rigorous analysis is undertaken or based
on experimental results using representative sized
specimens, with the agreement of the Overseeing
Organisation.
4.38 Where individual strips are used the centre
to centre spacing, measured along the span, shall
be less than 0.75 times the effective depth of the
section to prevent a shear crack forming between
strips, i.e. s
frp
< 0.75d. (See Clause 4.36)
4.39 When shear is applied to a concrete beam or
slab associated tensile forces are developed in the
longitudinal reinforcement. These are additional
to forces due to bending. Adequate longitudinal
reinforcement and FRP should be provided
to sustain these additional tensile forces. This
requirement may be satisfed by ensuring that the
reinforcement and axial FRP extend a distance d
beyond the point at which they are required for
bending alone.
4.40 Alternatively, one of two different
approaches may be used depending upon whether
strengthening is required for shear and fexure or
for shear alone. At sections requiring strengthening
for shear and fexure, the area of FRP required to
resist the ultimate applied bending moment should
be increased by the following factor:
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 25

4.40 Alternatively, one of two different approaches may be used depending upon whether
strengthening is required for shear and flexure or for shear alone. At sections requiring
strengthening for shear and flexure, the area of FRP required to resist the ultimate applied
bending moment should be increased by the following factor:
1
2
frp
V
F
ª º
« »
« »
¬ ¼

Where, at the section being considered, V is the shear force due to the ultimate loads
and F
frp
is the force in the longitudinal FRP due to bending determined from a section
analysis in accordance with Clause 4.12.
If strengthening is required for shear only (i.e., if no longitudinal FRP is required to
strengthen the beam or slab to resist the ultimate bending moment) then:
i. The area of longitudinal steel reinforcement which is effective in resisting flexure
should be determined by reducing the area of steel in the tension face by an amount
equal to:

2( / )
y ms
V
f J

ii. The ultimate bending capacity of the beam or slab should be rechecked using this
reduced area of reinforcement to ensure that it is still has adequate capacity to sustain
the ultimate applied bending moment. If not, then longitudinal FRP should be added
to increase the moment capacity of the beam or slab.


Fatigue


4.41 No fatigue check is required for FRP itself. If the existing structure complies with
relevant fatigue requirements then no further fatigue check is required.

Serviceability

4.42 The strengthened structure shall conform to the general serviceability requirements
given in Clause 4.1.1 of BS 5400: Part 4. However, provided the structure has been
performing satisfactorily in service with no evidence of cracking and the future loading to be
carried by the structure is not significantly increased then the serviceability requirements for
Where, at the section being considered, V is the
shear force due to the ultimate loads and F
frp
is
the force in the longitudinal FRP due to bending
determined from a section analysis in accordance
with Clause 4.12.

If strengthening is required for shear only (i.e.,
if no longitudinal FRP is required to strengthen
the beam or slab to resist the ultimate bending
moment) then:
(i) The area of longitudinal steel reinforcement
which is effective in resisting fexure should
be determined by reducing the area of steel
in the tension face by an amount equal to:

Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 25

4.40 Alternatively, one of two different approaches may be used depending upon whether
strengthening is required for shear and flexure or for shear alone. At sections requiring
strengthening for shear and flexure, the area of FRP required to resist the ultimate applied
bending moment should be increased by the following factor:
1
2
frp
V
F
ª º
« »
« »
¬ ¼

Where, at the section being considered, V is the shear force due to the ultimate loads
and F
frp
is the force in the longitudinal FRP due to bending determined from a section
analysis in accordance with Clause 4.12.
If strengthening is required for shear only (i.e., if no longitudinal FRP is required to
strengthen the beam or slab to resist the ultimate bending moment) then:
i. The area of longitudinal steel reinforcement which is effective in resisting flexure
should be determined by reducing the area of steel in the tension face by an amount
equal to:

2( / )
y ms
V
f J

ii. The ultimate bending capacity of the beam or slab should be rechecked using this
reduced area of reinforcement to ensure that it is still has adequate capacity to sustain
the ultimate applied bending moment. If not, then longitudinal FRP should be added
to increase the moment capacity of the beam or slab.


Fatigue


4.41 No fatigue check is required for FRP itself. If the existing structure complies with
relevant fatigue requirements then no further fatigue check is required.

Serviceability

4.42 The strengthened structure shall conform to the general serviceability requirements
given in Clause 4.1.1 of BS 5400: Part 4. However, provided the structure has been
performing satisfactorily in service with no evidence of cracking and the future loading to be
carried by the structure is not significantly increased then the serviceability requirements for

(ii) The ultimate bending capacity of the beam
or slab should be rechecked using this
reduced area of reinforcement to ensure that
it is still has adequate capacity to sustain the
ultimate applied bending moment. If not,
then longitudinal FRP should be added to
increase the moment capacity of the beam or
slab.
Fatigue

4.41 No fatigue check is required for FRP itself.
If the existing structure complies with relevant
fatigue requirements then no further fatigue check
is required.
serviceability

4.42 The strengthened structure shall conform
to the general serviceability requirements given
in Clause 4.1.1 of BS 5400: Part 4. However,
provided the structure has been performing
satisfactorily in service with no evidence of
cracking and the future loading to be carried by
the structure is not signifcantly increased then the
serviceability requirements for cracking may be
deemed to be satisfed. The limitation on stress in
the reinforcement under service load given in
Table 2 of BS 5400: Part 4 will ensure that the steel
does not yield under service loads.
4/8
chapter 4
strengthening concrete structures
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08

4.43 Defection at serviceability loading can
be calculated using elastic analysis and cracked
or uncracked section properties as appropriate.
Defections shall be restricted to a level that will
not impair the appearance or functionality of the
structure. This can be ensured by limiting the
maximum defection to the effective span/250. If
the structure has been performing satisfactorily
in service and the future loading to be carried by
the structure is not signifcantly increased then the
serviceability requirements for defection may be
deemed to be satisfed.
detailing
4.44 Mechanical systems and transverse overlapping
FRP may resist failure modes involving a loss in
composite action between the FRP and the concrete
sections. Such approaches are currently the subject
of research and are permitted with the approval of
the Overseeing Organisation and provided their
effectiveness has been substantiated through testing.
Bolting is not appropriate for uni-directional FRP
systems. However, tests have shown the bolting can
provide effective anchorage where multi-directional
FRP laminates are used.
4.45 If FRP is bonded to the top surface of slabs or
beams and subsequently buried by the road surfacing,
a protective system should be provided to prevent the
FRP being damaged if the surfacing is removed. Such
a system could include studs, with a thickness greater
than that of the FRP, bolted to the structure adjacent to
the FRP laminates.
4/9
chapter 4
strengthening concrete structures
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
5. strengthening metallic structures
5.1 Externally bonded FRP may be used for
strengthening metallic structures constructed from cast
iron or steel. Wrought iron structures should only be
strengthened in accordance with Clause 2.13. Bonding
of FRP to metallic structures can be advantageous since
the need for welding can be eliminated. Strengthening
of metallic structures using FRP has received less
research attention than concrete structures and there
have been fewer practical applications.
5.2 Detailed guidance on the design of FRP
strengthening for metallic structures, based upon current
best practice and knowledge, is included in CIRIA
Report C595
[5]
. It is recommended that C595 be used
in conjunction with this Standard for the design of FRP
strengthening schemes for metallic structures.
5.3 The behaviour of FRP-strengthened metallic
structures differs markedly from FRP-strengthened
concrete structures. For example, for concrete
structures the adhesive strength generally greatly
exceeds the strength of the surface concrete, so the
design is typically governed by the behaviour of the
surface concrete. However, for metallic structures the
behaviour of the adhesive itself can govern the capacity
of the strengthened member, and requires detailed
consideration in the design.

5.4 The coeffcient of thermal expansion of
FRP can differ signifcantly from that of metallic
elements. As a result differential thermal expansion
can lead to signifcant stress concentrations at
the ends of externally bonded FRP plates and at
any other geometric discontinuities. Such effects
must be taken into account in the design of FRP
strengthening schemes for metallic structures by
considering the timing of the operation and the
range of effective bridge temperatures likely to be
encountered. Temperature loads shall be taken from
BD 37 (DMRB 1.3.14), with cast iron structures
categorised as Group 2 structures in Figure 9 of
BD 37, unless a rigorous temperature analysis is
undertaken.
5.5 Although not covered by this Standard, externally
bonded FRP could potentially also be used to enhance
the fatigue life, shear capacity, bearing capacity or
buckling resistance of metallic elements or to enhance
the capacity of connections. When considering such
strengthening schemes, guidance should be sought from
specialist designers and materials suppliers, and the
appropriate design approach agreed with the Overseeing
Organisation. Because of the limited experimental
work that has been undertaken into such strengthening
applications, it may be necessary to undertaken testing
on representative specimens to prove the effectiveness
of the technique.

5.6 Cracked metallic structures shall not be
strengthened using FRP without the agreement of
the Overseeing Organisation. Guidance shall be
sought from specialist designers in such cases.
strengthening for Flexure
5.7 FRP materials bonded to the tension fanges of
beams increase the effective area of the tension fange
and therefore enhance the moment of resistance of the
section and its stiffness. The bonding operation can
frequently take place with no or minimal disruption to
traffc and without a need for temporary propping.
5.8 Structures strengthened with FRP to increase
their fexural capacity can exhibit the same ultimate
failure modes as conventional metallic sections, for
example, local buckling of the compression fange or
lateral torsional buckling. However, in addition, their
capacity may also be governed by fracture of the FRP or
by the loss of composite action between the FRP and the
metallic section, because of failure of the adhesive joint.
5.9 A particular complexity in the design of FRP
strengthening for metallic elements is that the behaviour
of the adhesive joint and of the anchorage region near
the ends of the FRP strengthening cannot be analysed
making the assumption that plane sections remain plane,
see Clause 5.18. This assumption may, however, be
used in undertaking sectional analyses away from end
regions, see Clause 5.13.
5/1
chapter 5
strengthening metallic structures
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
5/2
chapter 5
strengthening metallic structures
limit states

5.10 The design of strengthened steel structures
should be considered for the ultimate limit states in
accordance with the relevant clauses of BS 5400:
Part 3: 2000 (BSI 2000) as implemented by BD 13
(DMRB 1.3.14), except where amended by other
clauses in this Standard. The appropriate loads and
load factors should be taken from BD 37 (DMRB
1.3.14).
5.11 The criteria for the serviceability limit states
given in Clause 4.2.2 of BS 5400: Part 3, should be
followed for steel elements, except where amended
in this Standard.
5.12 Strengthened cast iron elements should be
analysed on a permissible stress basis, as described
in BD 21 (DMRB 3.4.3).
section capacity and stiffness

5.13 The evaluation of the fexural capacity and
stiffness of a metallic section strengthened using
FRP should be based on the following:
(i) The strain at any level in the section may
be determined assuming that plane sections
remain plane.
(ii) Account should be taken of the stresses in
the structure when the FRP is installed (see
Clause 3.4).
(iii) Differential thermal expansion of the FRP
and metallic elements should be taken into
account.
(iv) The FRP is a linear elastic material, as
shown in Figure 4.1.
Guidance on the analysis of FRP-strengthened
metallic sections is included in C595
[5]
.
5.14 The following modes of failure shall be
considered:
(i) FRP rupture;
(ii) rupture of the metallic element;
(iii) global or local buckling of the element; and
(iv) rupture of the adhesive.
5.15 FRP rupture shall be considered to occur
when the strain in the FRP reaches ε
frpu
/ γ
mfε
5.1.6 For cast iron elements, rupture shall be
considered to occur when the stress in the metal
reaches the limits specifed in BD 21 (DMRB
3.4.3). Yielding of ductile materials such as steel is
acceptable at ultimate limit state.
5.17 It has been found that FRP strengthening
can result in global or local buckling becoming the
critical failure mode for an element. Global and
local buckling in steel elements should, therefore,
be considered in accordance with BS 5400:
Part 3: 2000 (BSI 2000) as implemented by BD 13
(DMRB 1.3.14) using the transformed properties
of the FRP-strengthened section. Guidance on
the evaluation of the buckling properties of FRP-
strengthened metallic elements is included in the
ICE design and practice guide
[6]
and CIRIA report
C595
[5]
. Buckling of FRP-strengthened cast iron
elements should be considered using Clause 5.2.8
of C595
[5]
.
5.18 The adhesive joint shall be checked at
the ends of the FRP strengthening and at any
discontinuities in the structure or changes in the
FRP thickness to ensure that it has suffcient
capacity to sustain the stresses due to:
(i) live loading; and
(ii) differential thermal expansion.
The analysis of the adhesive joint shall be based
upon the elastic analysis approach set out in
C595
[5]
, unless an alternative approach, such as one
based upon fracture mechanics, is agreed with the
Overseeing Organisation. The principal stress in
the adhesive shall satisfy the following condition:
σ
a1
< f
a
/ γ
ma

5.19 If the FRP extends into areas in compression,
buckling of the laminate might occur, resulting in
a loss of composite action. Where it is necessary
to extend the FRP into an area in compression, the
possibility of buckling should be considered.
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
adhesive Joint

5.20 The analysis of the adhesive joint shall take
account of any lack of straightness in the FRP.
Requirements for the straightness of the FRP as
installed shall be specifed by the designer. It is
generally recommended that a limit be used based
upon the gap under a 1m long straight edge held
to the surface of the FRP following installation
nowhere exceeding 3mm. For moderate sized
plates the effect of this lack of straightness will be
small, although this may not be the case for thick
stiff FRP plates.
5.21 For FRP-strengthened steel elements in
which yielding occurs at the ultimate limit state,
account shall be taken of the effect of the yielding
on the stresses developed in the adhesive joint. In
particular, account shall be taken of the effect of
the yielding on the longitudinal shear stresses in the
adhesive.
anchorage

5.22 Suffcient anchorage shall be provided
beyond the point at which the FRP is no longer
required, to enable stress development in the
FRP and provide robustness of the design. In the
absence of a rigorous analysis, the anchorage
length may be based upon the approach given
in C595
[5]
with the stress development length
determined using an elastic analysis of the adhesive
joint.
The anchorage length that is required beyond the
position at which strengthening is no longer needed
may be taken as the section depth.
Fatigue

5.23 No fatigue check is required for FRP itself.
If the existing structure complies with relevant
fatigue requirements then no further fatigue check
is required provided the installation of the FRP
does not increase the stress ranges experienced
by fatigue sensitive details and the stresses in the
adhesive at the plate ends due to live loading are
small in relation to those due to thermal effects.
serviceability

5.24 The strengthened structure should conform
to the general serviceability requirements given
in Clause 4.2.2 of BS 5400: Part 3. Defections
should be restricted to a level that will not impair
the appearance or functionality of the structure.
This can be ensured by limiting the maximum
defection to the effective span/250. If the structure
has been performing satisfactorily in service and
the future loading to be carried by the structure is
not signifcantly increased then these serviceability
requirements may be deemed to be satisfed.
5.25 For steel structures, yielding shall not occur
at FRP strengthened sections under serviceability
limit state loading unless agreed with the
Overseeing Organisation.
detailing
5.26 Stresses in the adhesive may be reduced by
increasing the width of the FRP and by tapering the
FRP near the end of the strengthening. Alternatively,
mechanical anchorage systems may be used. As the
width of pre-manufactured FRP plates is increased, the
diffculty of expelling the air under the plate during
installation also increases. Special consideration should
therefore be given to this issue for pre-manufactured
plates with a width in excess of 300mm.

5.27 When a carbon fbre based system is used to
strengthen a metallic structure, galvanic corrosion
can occur. To eliminate the risk of galvanic
corrosion on such schemes, a glass fbre insulating
layer shall be interposed between the carbon fbre
and metallic substrate to electrically isolate the
FRP. The effectiveness of the system must comply
with the requirements of Clause 2.5.
5/3
chapter 5
strengthening metallic structures
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
6. materials
6.1 The manufacturer or supplier of an FRP system
shall provide test data and evidence of the properties
and performance both of the materials and the
application method to demonstrate its suitability to the
satisfaction of the Overseeing Organisation.
Frp
6.2 FRP products are manufactured in many different
forms including:
(i) FRP sheet with fbres orientated in one or more
directions. These are saturated with resin and
bonded to the member on site;
(ii) FRP sheet pre-impregnated with resin (prepreg)
with fbres orientated in one or more directions
and boded with additional resin;
(iii) uni-directional factory impregnated laminates
formed using the pultrusion process and supplied
in standard thicknesses (normally 1 to 2mm) and
widths (typically 50 – 120mm);
(iv) multi-directional laminates with variable
thickness (normally 1mm – 30mm) and width
(normally 50mm – 500mm);
(iv) pre-formed shells manufactured to size and
bonded to the member.
These products may be manufactured with different
types of fbre. The fbre types suitable for strengthening
concrete structures are aramid, carbon and glass. Further
details of FRP products and manufacturing processes
are given in TR55
[1]
.
adhesive

6.3 Any adhesive may be used provided
it satisfes the requirements for strength and
durability, and is appropriate for the installation
method. The adhesive shall be suitable for the
environmental conditions to which it will be
exposed during both installation and service.
Special consideration is required if the adhesive
will be subjected to high temperatures or if it will
be submerged in service.
6.4 Epoxy based adhesives have been used most
commonly in FRP-strengthening of concrete structures,
both in experiments and practical applications, and
their use is recommended. Their durability has been
established over a period in excess of ffteen years for
steel plate bonding. Further information on adhesives is
provided in [1], [2] and [3].
Fixings
6.5 All materials used in fxings shall be of a non-
corrosive nature, with durability consistent with that
of the FRP system and the requirements of Clause 3.3.
All fxings shall be compatible with the composite
materials.
6.6 Coatings may be used to provide additional
protection or surface fnish. It should be noted, however,
that these may interfere with future inspections. Any
coating used should be fully compatible with the FRP
material.
6/1
chapter 6
materials
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
7. installation inspection and
maintenance
7.1 The effectiveness of FRP strengthening is highly
dependent upon the quality of installation.
7.2 Where innovative materials or systems are
proposed, a trial panel strengthened using the proposed
materials and method of application should be
constructed in order to demonstrate to the Engineer that
all aspects of the installation scheme are practicable,
including the preparation of the surfaces, application of
resin, installation of the FRP and curing.
7.3 For all schemes, consideration should be given
to the use of procedure trials to prove the method of
application and quality of installation.
preparation of concrete surfaces

7.4 The concrete surface shall be prepared so
that the FRP is bonded to a sound surface with no
protuberances, laitance or contaminants. Damaged
areas, cracks wider than 0.2mm and porous areas
shall be repaired and any holes flled. The prepared
surface should be dust free and dry prior to
installation of the FRP.
preparation of Frp surfaces

7.5 FRP surfaces shall be completely free of
dirt, dust, grease, moisture or other contaminants.
For prefabricated plates and laminates, suitable
preparation methods may include light controlled
mechanical abrasion or removal of a peel-ply
provided during manufacture.
application of Frp

7.6 The environmental conditions during
installation shall not be detrimental to the long-
term performance of the FRP system. The FRP
shall not be installed unless the environmental
conditions, including temperature and humidity,
are in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations.

7.7 The installation procedure shall be devised
and implemented to avoid the formation of voids
that affect the overall integrity of the bond between
the FRP and the concrete, or between layers of
FRP.
7.8 For fabric systems, suffcient resin should
be used to ensure that all fbres are fully wetted.
For pre-formed FRP laminate strips, the adhesive
thickness should not be less than 1mm nor greater
than 5mm. Typically the adhesive thickness should
be between 1.5mm and 2.5mm.
7.9 Installation should only be undertaken
by operatives experienced in the use of the FRP
system.
Quality control

7.10 Records shall be kept throughout the
installation of the FRP system detailing the date
and time of installation, references to uniquely
identify the FRP installed, environmental
conditions, sampling undertaken, inspections and
test fndings.
7.11 An independent testing authority shall
be appointed to carry out an examination of the
workmanship and the testing of the materials.
7.12 Tests shall be undertaken to demonstrate that
the properties of the installed FRP are consistent
with those used in the design. Such testing should
include tests on the adhesive, the FRP laminates
and to confrm the adequacy of bond between the
FRP and the concrete.
7.13 Consideration should be given to installing
additional FRP to facilitate long-term monitoring and
future testing.
7/1
chapter 7
installation inspection and maintenance
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
7/2
chapter 7
installation inspection and maintenance

7.14 Following installation a survey shall be
undertaken to identify any voids. The fndings of
this survey shall be reported to the Overseeing
Organisation together with proposals to address
any voids identifed. At present, it is recommended
that a light tapping test is used for this survey.
More sophisticated methods are currently being
developed and they should be considered once
their application has been proven, subject to the
agreement of the Overseeing Organisation.
in-service inspection and maintenance

7.15 A comprehensive manual of procedures for
inspection and maintenance of the strengthened
structure shall be prepared including requirements
for long-term monitoring and testing. The manual
shall include all relevant technical literature
relating to the products used, installation records,
drawings, test fndings and photographs of critical
details. Procedures for minor repairs should also be
included.
7.16 Inspections shall take place every six months
for at least two years after completion of the works.
The frequency of further inspections shall be
agreed with the Overseeing Organisation after a
review of the inspection reports.
abnormal loads
7.17 If a signifcant abnormal load is routed over a
structure that has been strengthened, consideration
should be given to undertaking an inspection of the FRP
strengthening before and after its passage.
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
8. reFerences
Bibliography
[1] Design guidance for strengthening concrete
structures using fbre composite materials,
Technical Report 55, Concrete Society,
Crowthorne, 2004.
[2] A guide to the use of structural adhesives.
Institution of Structural Engineers, London, 1999.
[3] Mays, G.C. and Hutchinson, A.R., Adhesives in
Civil Engineering, Cambridge University Press,
1992.
[4] Design guidance for strengthening concrete
structures using fbre composite materials,
Technical Report 57, Concrete Society,
Crowthorne, 2000.
[5] Strengthening Metallic Structures Using
Externally Bonded FRP, ciria report c595,
ciria.
[6] Design and Practice Guide for FRP Composites
– Life extension and Strengthening Metallic
Structures, ice.
standards
British Standards Institution (1990). BS 5400:
Part 4: 1990. Steel, concrete and composite bridges.
Code of practice for design of concrete bridges, British
Standards Institution, London, UK.
PR EN 1542: Products and systems for the protection
and repair of concrete structures – Test methods, the
pull-off test.
design manual for roads and Bridges
DMRB 1.1: BD 2: Technical approval of highways
structures on motorways and other trunk roads.
DMRB 1.3: BD 24: Design of concrete highways
bridges and structures, Use of BS 5400: Part 4: 1990.
DMRB 3.4: BD 37: Loads for highway bridges.
DMRB 3.4: BD 21: The assessment of highway bridges
and structures.
DMRB 3.4: BD 44: The assessment of concrete
highway bridges and structures.
DMRB 1.3.16: BD 84: Strengthening concrete bridge
supports using fbre reinforced plastic.
DMRB 3.3.1: BA 30: Strengthening of concrete
highways structures using externally bonded plates.
DMRB 3.3: BA 35: The inspection and repair of
concrete highway structures.
8/1
chapter 8
references
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
9/1
chapter 9
enquiries
9. enQuiries
All technical enquiries or comments on this Standard should be sent in writing as appropriate to:

Chief Highway Engineer
The Highways Agency
123 Buckingham Palace Road
London G CLARKE
SW1W 9HA Chief Highway Engineer

Director, Major Transport Infrastructure Projects
Transport Scotland
8th Floor, Buchanan House
58 Port Dundas Road A C McLAUGHLIN
Glasgow Director, Major Transport Infrastructure
G4 0HF Projects


Chief Highway Engineer
Transport & Strategic Regeneration
Department for Economy & Transport
Welsh Assembly Government
Cathays Parks M J A PARKER
Cardiff Chief Highway Engineer
CF10 3NQ Transport & Strategic Regeneration
Director of Engineering
The Department for Regional Development
Roads Service
Clarence Court
10-18 Adelaide Street
Belfast R J M CAIRNS
BT2 8GB Director of Engineering
november 2008
volume 1 section 3
part 18 Bd 85/08
anneX a Flow chart For Frp
strengthening design
Volume 1 Section 3
Part X BD 85/08




page 40
ANNEX A : FLOW CHART FOR FRP STRENGTHENING DESIGN


Identify need
for strengthening
Check structure
capacity
(Clause 2.1)
Check headroom
(Clause 2.14)
Check structure
condition
(Clauses 2.8- 2.11)
Identify suitable
FRP strengthening
techniques
(Clauses 2.4-2.6)
Economic
appraisal
(Clause 2.3)
Undertake
pull-off tests
(Clauses 2.12, 2.13)
Specification and
Design
(Chapters 3-6)
Installation
(Chapter 7)
In-service
Inspection
and Maintenance
(Chapter 7)





a/1
annex a
Flow chart for Frp strengthening design

design manual For roads and Bridges

volume 1, section 3, part 18

Bd 85/08

the highways agency

scottish government

welsh assemBly government llywodraeth cynulliad cymru

the department For regional development northern ireland

Strengthening Highway Structures Using Externally Bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer
Summary: This Standard covers the strengthening of concrete and metallic highway bridges, on trunk roads including motorways, using externally bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP). This Standard does not cover the use of prestressed plates or other systems in which the FRP is subjected to sustained long-term loading. This Standard does not cover the strengthening of prestressed concrete structures, although many of the issues and limit states described will also be relevant to the design of FRP strengthening schemes for such structures. Design guidelines are provided for flexural and shear strengthening of reinforced concrete bridge decks. Design guidelines for strengthening metallic bridge decks are limited to flexural strengthening. In addition, general guidance is provided on suitable strengthening techniques.

volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08

registration of amendments

registration oF amendments amend no page no signature & date of incorporation of amendments amend no page no signature & date of incorporation of amendments

november 2008

registration of amendments volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 registration oF amendments amend no page no signature & date of incorporation of amendments amend no page no signature & date of incorporation of amendments november 2008 .

9. 4. 2. 6. 8. 5. 7. Introduction Application Design Strengthening Concrete Structures Strengthening Metallic Structures Materials Installation Inspection and Maintenance References Enquiries Flow Chart for FRP Strengthening Design Annex A november 2008 . 3.design manual For roads and Bridges volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 highway structures: approval procedures and general design general design strengthening highway structures using eXternally Bonded FiBre reinForced polymer contents Chapter 1.

FRP composite in the form of a plate. Fibres produced from organic materials such as rayon. Fibres woven into a fabric. However. To irreversibly change the properties of a thermosetting resin by chemical reaction. In addition general guidance is provided on suitable strengthening techniques and their specification.1 This Standard covers the strengthening of concrete and metallic highway structures using externally bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP). The use of FRP for the strengthening of bridge supports is dealt with in BD 84/02 (DMRB 1. The viability of the technique when applied to reinforced concrete has been demonstrated through experimental studies and numerous practical applications in the UK and elsewhere.16).6 The following definitions and terminology relating to FRP are used in this document: Aramid fibre: A synthetic fibre consisting of a long-chain aromatic polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings. Alternative term for FRP. Definitions 1. condensation. or addition. ringclosure.19. although many of the issues and limit states described in Chapters 3 and 4 will also be relevant to the design of FRP strengthening schemes for such structures.17 to 2. and with or without heat.e.2 This Standard focuses on the use of FRP for strengthening both reinforced concrete and metallic beams and reinforced concrete slabs. polyacrylonitrile or pitch. Cure may be accomplished by the addition of curing agents. 45° and 90° being the most common.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 1 introduction 1. Fibre reinforced polymer (or Plastic) comprising high strength fibres in a resin matrix.3. The term is often used interchangeably with ‘graphite’. introduction general 1. Or advanced composite. i. with or without catalyst. Also called bimetallic corrosion. 1. Corrosion where two conducting materials with different electropotentials are in contact.3 This Standard does not cover the use of prestressed plates or other systems in which the FRP is subjected to sustained long-term loading. 1/1 Carbon fibre: composite: cure: Fabric: Frp: galvanic corrosion: Glass fibre: laminate: november 2008 . Fibres can be aligned in any direction. i. Design guidelines are provided for flexural and shear strengthening of reinforced concrete structures. implementation 1. 1. Pultruded sections are often referred to as laminates. 1. fibres plus resin.5 This Standard shall be used forthwith on all schemes involving strengthening of highway bridge decks on trunk roads. Experience of its application to metallic structures is more limited and less experimental verification exists. Design guidelines for strengthening metallic structures are limited to flexural strengthening. including motorways.4 This Standard does not cover the strengthening of prestressed concrete structures. In Northern Ireland this Standard shall be used forthwith on all schemes involving strengthening of highway bridge decks on all roads.e. with 0°. A fibre spun from an inorganic product of fusion that has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallising. but the term is not specific to any method of production. some general guidance on such techniques is provided in Clauses 2.

A resin that cannot be melted and recycled because the polymer chains form a three-dimensional network. A filler. Sections currently available include plates. A low viscosity epoxy resin applied to the concrete to provide a good bond (normally stronger than the surface concrete) and a suitable surface for the FRP. fibres and layers of fibre together. A method of installing FRP by hand. The dry FRP (fabric or tow sheet) is impregnated with resin immediately prior to application. A factory method of manufacturing FRP laminates in long lengths. When FRP laminates are applied symmetrically on both sides of a beam Afrps is the sum of the areas of both laminates Cross-sectional area of tensile steel reinforcement (mm2) Width of the beam or plate spacing in slabs (mm) Width of the FRP laminate (mm) measured perpendicular to the direction of the fibres (see Figure 1. rods and profiles.0 and bfrp is taken as cos α Effective depth to the centroid of the tensile steel reinforcement (mm) pre preg: primer: pultrusion: putty: resin: stress rupture: thermoset: voids: wet lay up: As b bfrp notation 1.7 α γma γmc 1/2 The following notation is used in this document: Angle between the principal fibres of the FRP and the vertical Material partial safety factor for adhesive Material partial safety factor for concrete d november 2008 .chapter 1 introduction volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 nsm Frp: Near-surface mounted (NSM). where FRP is installed into grooves that have been cut into the concrete. usually an epoxy resin in the form of a paste. A resin is used to impregnate the fibres and bind filaments. For continuous FRP sheet. used to fill holes and surface defects in a concrete surface. Also known as creep rupture. Fibres impregnated with resin and attached to a backing paper or plastic release film. γmfε γmfE γms εfrps εfrpu λ σfrp1 σfrp2 σa1 τl ωf ωs Afrpm Afrps Material partial safety factor for FRP strain capacity Material partial safety factor for FRP stiffness Material partial safety factor for steel reinforcement Effective strain in the FRP for shear strengthening Characteristic ultimate strain capacity of FRP Parameter used to determine longitudinal shear at point where reinforcement yields Stress in FRP at location 1 Stress in FRP at location 2 Maximum tensile principal stress in the adhesive Longitudinal shear stress at the FRP-concrete interface Parameter used to determine longitudinal shear at point where reinforcement yields Parameter used to determine longitudinal shear at point where reinforcement yields Cross-sectional area of the FRP laminate for flexural strengthening (mm2) Area of FRP (mm2) for shear strengthening measured perpendicular to the direction of the fibres (see Figure 1. Air bubbles trapped in the resin or between the FRP and concrete/steel substrate. Property whereby the material can fail (rupture) at a stress level considerably less than the ultimate stress under sustained loading. sfrp is taken as 1.1).1).

0 and bfrp is taken as cos α Thickness of the FRP laminate (mm) Shear force due to ultimate loads (N) Contribution from the concrete to the shear capacity (N) Contribution from the FRP to the shear capacity (N) Contribution from the steel to the shear capacity (N) Ultimate shear capacity of FRP strengthened section (N) tfrp V Vc Vfrp Vs Vu november 2008 1/3 . sfrp is taken as 1.max (mm) Anchorage length (mm) Longitudinal spacing of the FRP laminates used for shear strengthening (see Figure 1.max FCk Ffrp h kb LC.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 1 introduction Es Efrp fcu fctm fy fa FCk.1). For continuous FRP sheet.max La sfrp Characteristic tensile modulus of the steel reinforcement (MPa) Characteristic tensile modulus of the FRP laminate (MPa) Characteristic or worst credible strength of the concrete (MPa) Characteristic tensile strength of the concrete (MPa) Characteristic or worst credible strength of the tensile steel reinforcement (MPa) Characteristic strength of the adhesive Maximum anchorage capacity of FRP (N) FRP anchorage capacity (N) Force in FRP (N) Total depth of the section (mm) Parameter used to determine maximum anchorage capacity of FRP Anchorage length required to develop Fck.

1 Notation for Shear Strengthening of Concrete elements Figure 1.Vu Ultimate shear capacity of FRP strengthened section (N) chapter 1 introduction volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 Afrps = 2bfrp tfrp d h sfrp bfrp FRP Laminates on both sides Figure 1.1 notation for shear strengthening of concrete Elements 1/4 May 2008 1/4 november 2008 .

2. 2. Factors to be considered are safety. For concrete structures. see Clause 4. The inspection and repair of concrete highway structures (DMRB 3.8 The effectiveness of externally bonded FRP is highly dependent on the integrity of the bond between the FRP and the surface of the structure and also on the integrity of the surface material itself. 55[1] and No. For surface profile requirements for concrete. an economic evaluation shall be carried out in order to compare this technique with other methods of strengthening. All FRP systems are acceptable provided they comply with the requirements of this Standard and have been shown to be appropriate for the application for which they are being considered. together with references to relevant documents and clauses.9 When considering the suitability of a structure for the application of externally bonded FRP. The requirements for. Information and test results to demonstrate the long-term performance of the system shall be sought from manufacturers and suppliers (see also Chapter 6).volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 2 application 2. 2. suitability of structure 2. environmental considerations. A structure shall only be considered suitable for strengthening using this technique if it can be shown to be at least capable of supporting nominal dead load plus nominal superimposed dead load plus nominal assessment live load. construction methods. application general 2.3 For a particular structure. 2.1 FRP can be used to increase the load capacity of structural elements as described in this Standard. or bonding onto an irregular. curved or deteriorated surface.7 A flow chart is included in Annex A setting out the steps to be taken in assessing the suitability of a structure for strengthening using FRP. as specified by BD 21 (DMRB 3. remaining life and inspection and maintenance capability.25.4 FRP systems are available in many forms including fabrics applied using a wet lay-up process. BA 35. This interface must be capable of sustaining the stresses necessary for tension to be developed in the FRP.5 Where uncertainties exist concerning the effectiveness of an FRP system for a particular application. the use of a new approach or system. appropriate experimental testing on representative specimens shall be undertaken to prove the technique.2 General guidance on the use of FRP to strengthen concrete structures is given in the Concrete Society Technical Reports No. and the extent of. General guidance on the use of FRP to strengthen metallic structures is given in CIRIA Report. This evaluation shall include a risk assessment. and factory produced FRP plates installed using adhesives.2) gives advice on special inspections and guidance november 2008 2/1 . C595 Strengthening metallic structures using externally bonded fibre-reinforced polymers[5] and ICE design and practice guide FRP composites – Life extension and strengthening of metallic structures[6]. investigations shall be carried out to ensure that the risk of corrosion in the existing member is low and to determine the soundness of the structure including any repaired areas. including those applied to material strengths. cost. 2. 2. 57[4].4) with all partial safety factors. taking into account the performance history of the proposed techniques.6 The durability of all components of the FRP strengthening system shall be considered when selecting an appropriate strengthening approach. set to unity. 2. the testing shall be agreed with the Overseeing Organisation.3. Examples where this might be required include the use of a material with significantly different properties to those used in previous studies or applications.

Any damaged material shall be removed down to a sound base. advice on special inspections and guidance on suitable tests for concrete structures should be sought from the Overseeing Organisation.chapter 2 application volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 on suitable tests. the integrity of the surface concrete and its associated method of preparation shall be demonstrated by a series of pull-off tests. failure of the FRP can occur through creep rupture at a load level significantly below its ultimate short-term strength.10 Externally bonded FRP shall only be applied to dry surfaces.5 N/mm2. 2. 2. expansive rust products arising from reinforcement corrosion may disrupt the concrete and eventually cause de-bonding of the FRP. although many of the issues and limit states described are relevant to their design. bonding shall only be considered where half-cell potential measurements are numerically greater than -250mV with respect to a copper/copper sulphate electrode. 2. wrought iron structures shall not be strengthened with FRP without the specific approval of the Overseeing Organisation.1). Remedial measures shall be taken if surfaces are damp. and leakages stopped. making allowance for the presence of fixings if used. The design of such schemes is not covered by the guidelines given in this Standard. 2/2 november 2008 .19 Guidance shall be sought from specialist designers and materials suppliers when a strengthening scheme includes the use of externally bonded FRP subjected to sustained loading. for which the failure plane should occur within the concrete.2. In such cases it can be impractical to provide inspection facilities for the plates.17 The efficiency of externally bonded FRP strengthening can be increased by prestressing the FRP. The characteristic value of the concrete tensile strength may be taken as 70% of the mean of the test results but not greater than the minimum test result. prestressed Frp 2. FRP strengthening shall not be used when the characteristic concrete tensile strength is less than 1.15 The ease of inspection of the installed system shall be considered in devising the strengthening scheme and a recommended inspection regime (see Chapter 7).16 Special consideration shall be taken where strengthening is required to the top surfaces of slabs and beams and subsequently buried by the road surfacing. Guidance shall be sought from specialist designers in such cases.14 Where FRP is bonded to soffits above carriageways. 2. or alternatively by jacking up a structure during the installation of the FRP.12 For concrete structures. Creep rupture can be prevented by limiting the magnitude of any sustained loading. the available headroom shall be checked to ensure that impact from high vehicles is not likely. In Scotland. 2. Therefore. FRP should not be installed on bridge soffits where there is evidence of frequent damage from vehicle impact. A minimum of five tests shall be undertaken at representative locations on each element to which the FRP is to be bonded. Such tests shall be carried out in accordance with PR EN 1542. For this reason. Such approaches can enable a greater proportion of the ultimate strength of the FRP to be utilised.11 For concrete structures. 2. The use of Near Surface Mounted (NSM) FRP should be considered in top slab strengthening applications. Special care should be taken during bridge inspections to identify any areas of plates which may have de-bonded as indicated by local break-up or reflective cracking of the surface in the location of the plates. Accurate drawings indicating the location of all plates shall be available for such inspections (see Clause 7.18 When FRP is subjected to sustained long-term loading. See Clause 4. inspectability 2. 2. Only a limited amount of testing of such systems is currently available.13 Wrought iron structures may be prone to delamination. unless repairs have been carried out. 2.

Alternatively. 3.4. 3.5 Characteristic values of the elastic modulus. If excessive vibrations are expected the designer should consider excluding traffic from the bridge while the FRP is installed. especially in relation to the structural analysis upon which the design is based.14). properties of metallic elements 3. Where design values are not known or are uncertain. Such stresses may arise from permanent and live loads.5 should be carefully considered. the requirements of Clause 2.4. in accordance with BD 44 (DMRB 3.4. november 2008 3/1 . 3. The ductility of FRP strengthened elements can be particularly low when their ultimate capacity is governed by failure modes involving fracture of the FRP or a loss of composite action between the FRP and the surface to which it is bonded. The implications of such limited ductility of FRP strengthened elements shall be carefully considered. Additional guidance is included in the CIRIA report C595[5]. properties of concrete and reinforcement 3.8 The material strengths of metallic elements may be obtained using BD 21 (DMRB 3.6 Care shall be taken to ensure that consistent properties for the FRP are used in the design and installation. support settlement or thermal effects. properties of Frp 3.1 The design guidelines set out in this Standard are based upon experimental findings and current best practice in the design of FRP strengthening schemes. it may be necessary to undertake tests to establish the permanent stresses in the structure with confidence.2 Structural elements strengthened with FRP can have significantly reduced ductility when compared with conventional structural elements of the same strength. These should be noted on all drawings and relevant documents. worst credible values may be derived from test data where they exist. design general 3.4 The stresses in the structure when the FRP is installed shall be taken into account in the design.3 The FRP strengthening system should be designed for a minimum service life of 30 years.3). tests shall be undertaken to enable appropriate values to be derived. Particular care is required in establishing permanent stresses in statically indeterminate structures and for brittle metallic structures for which the strengthening design will be particularly sensitive to the stress in the structure when the FRP is installed. strain to failure and ultimate stress of the FRP material shall be used in design. They are applicable to the design of strengthening schemes using both pultruded laminates and fabric systems.3). 3.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 3 design 3.7 Characteristic values of steel reinforcement and concrete strengths may be used. In such cases. Guidance on the assessment of material properties is given in BD 21 (DMRB 3. Before undertaking a design. A characteristic value is defined as the value below which not more than 5% of all possible test results may be expected to fall.

89 wet lay up 1.1 or 3.3.14 γmfε laminate 1.1 may be used for Combination 4 loading in accordance with BD 37 (DMRB 1. The values in Table 3. These safety factors shall be applied to the characteristic values of the material properties. as described in BD 21 (DMRB.14 The partial factor for the adhesive at ultimate limit state should be taken as γma = 5.9 The partial safety factors for FRP for the ultimate limit state shall be taken from Table 3. with the partial factors for FRP taken from Table 3.4.1 or Table 3. the partial safety factors shall be taken as specified in BS 5400: Part 4 for concrete elements.13 γmfe laminate 1. 3.15 1.57 3.13 Strengthened cast iron elements shall be analysed on a permissible stress basis.14) for concrete elements.14).14). 3.2 values of partial factors for Frp materials for the ultimate limit state.15 1.4.67 3/2 november 2008 .2. The values in Table 3.20 1. and BD 21 (DMRB 3.2 shall be used in all other cases. Adhesive properties are affected by environment and time related factors in addition to material variability. the partial safety factors for material strength shall be as specified in BD 44 (DMRB 3.10 For the serviceability limit state.1 may be used for Combination 4 loading in accordance with BD 37 (DMRB 1.1 values of partial factors for Frp materials for the ultimate limit state for combination 4 loadings in accordance with Bd 37 material Carbon Aramid Glass γmfe 1. 3.3) for steel elements . 3.2.67 1. table 3.47 1. the value of the partial safety factors for FRP shall be taken as 1.3 2.50 γmfε 1.15 1.chapter 3 design volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 partial safety factors 3. and BS 5400: Part 3 for steel elements.20 1. Guidance on the evaluation of project-specific partial factors is included in C595[5]. The values given 3 in Table 3. 3. excluding combination 4 loading in accordance with Bd 37 material wet lay up Carbon Aramid Glass 1.2 shall be used in all other cases.50 table 3.15 1. unless a project-specific value is determined and agreed with the Overseeing Organisation.11 For the ultimate limit state.3.3 1.0.12 For the serviceability limit state.77 4.3). The values given in Table 3.4.

40.5 Bonding FRP to the webs of beams has been shown experimentally to increase the shear strength of the section.7 Whenever practicable. However.4 Design guidelines for ultimate flexural capacity are set out in Clauses 4.32.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 4 strengthening concrete structures 4. The design rules presented are not applicable to NSM FRP reinforcement. sometimes referred to as FRP separation.1 The guidelines set out in this Chapter are applicable to the design of strengthening schemes for reinforced concrete beams and slabs.12 to 4.8 Design rules for externally bonded FRP for shear strengthening are set out in Clauses 4.5 should be carefully considered before it is used.42 and 4. 4. The extrapolation of experimental results from small specimens to real structures must therefore be undertaken with caution. These rules have been calibrated against published experimental data for shear strengthening using carbon and aramid systems. increasing the moment of resistance of the section. The significance of such failure modes is reduced when a beam is fully encased in FRP.9 In view of the potentially brittle nature of the shear failure of FRP-strengthened elements. The limit states given are also relevant to the design of shear strengthening using glass fibre systems. their capacity may also be governed by fracture of the FRP or by the loss of composite action between the FRP and the concrete. The use of FRP for shear strengthening is less well established than its use for flexural strengthening and has been the subject of fewer experimental studies. The bonding operation can frequently take place with no or minimal disruption to traffic and without a need for temporary propping. 4.6 Structures strengthened with FRP to increase their shear capacity can fail due to separation of the FRP from the concrete. Rules are given to account both for ultimate failure modes where composite action between the FRP and concrete is retained and also where it is lost.2 FRP materials can be bonded to the tension face of beams or slabs to act as additional reinforcement. Such a potential size effect has been taken into account in the design rules in this Standard. november 2008 4/1 . bonding to only the sides of beams is permissible in cases where it is not possible to continue the FRP around the top or the underside of a beam. When FRP is not wrapped completely around a beam consideration should be given to the use of additional FRP anchorage systems. when as in most cases this is not possible. 4. Serviceability requirements are set out in Clauses 4. Specialist advice should be sought in such cases. The FRP reinforcement can be either externally bonded to the concrete structure or near-surface mounted (NSM). However. However. However. shear strengthening should be undertaken by wrapping FRP completely around a beam. for example. 4. Failure modes in which the FRP separates from the concrete section have frequently been found to be critical in experimental studies. strengthening concrete structures general 4. where the bars are installed into grooves that have been cut into the concrete. compressive failure of the concrete. 4. The bonded material acts as external shear reinforcement. strengthening for Flexure 4. the relative effectiveness of shear strengthening would be expected to diminish as the size of the element being strengthened increases. for example where beams are continuously connected to a deck slab.43. strengthening for shear 4. in addition.3 Structures strengthened with FRP to increase their flexural capacity can exhibit the same ultimate failure modes as reinforced concrete structures. there is currently very limited experimental data on the use glass fibre in this application and the requirements of Clause 2. it is frequently difficult to achieve this. Whilst not encouraged. 4. debonding or peeling.33 to 4. the FRP wrapping should be applied to the sides and either the top or underside of a beam.

4.13 For concrete members strengthened for flexure.15 For concrete members strengthened for flexure. as FRP is 1 Section 3 Part XFigure 4. The appropriate loads and load factors shall be taken from BD 37 (DMRB 1.1. except where amended by other clauses in this Standard. (ii) 4. assuming that composite action is retained between the FRP and the concrete section: (i) (ii) FRP rupture.1 of BS 5400: Part 4.1.0035. except where amended in this Standard.11 The criteria for the serviceability limit states given in Clause 4. 4.3. with an elastic modulus of 200 kN/mm2.1. shall be followed. until the yield stress (fy/γms) is reached. Flexural capacity 4. FRP fy / ms Steel in Tension Steel in Compression Stress fy ms + fy 2000 Es = 200 kN/mm2 Efrp / mfE Strain Figure 4. If the section analysis indicates that concrete crushing occurs before the steel reinforcement has reached its yield stress.1 : Short term stress strain curve for steel and FRP reinforcement 4/2 november 2008 4.14 FRP rupture should be considered to occur when the strain in the FRP reaches εfrpu/γmfε.1). then the required moment of resistance of the strengthened section should be increased by 15%. A rectangular stress block shall only be used when considering concrete crushing.10 The design of strengthened structures shall be considered for the ultimate limit states in accordance with the relevant clauses of BS 5400: Part 4: 1990 (BSI 1990) as implemented by BD 24 (DMRB 1. The stress-strain behaviour of the steel reinforcement is linear-elastic in tension. as shown in Figure 4.1 short-term stress strain curve for steel and Frp reinforcement Figure 4. the following modes of failure shall be considered. Concrete crushing should be considered to occur when the strain in the concrete at the compressive face reaches 0. shown in BD 85/08 (iii) The stress-strain behaviour of the concrete is as given in BS 5400: Part 4. Typically failures occur through the development of a longitudinal failure plane close to the interface * .14).chapter 4 strengthening concrete structures volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 limit states 4. and crushing of the concrete. failure can also occur when there is a loss of composite action between the FRP and the concrete section. TheVolumea linear elastic material.12 The analysis of a concrete section strengthened for flexure using FRP shall be based on the following: (i) The strain at any level in the section shall be determined assuming that plane sections remain plane.3.

Guidance on suitable limits is provided in Clauses 4. as typically assumed in design for embedded steel reinforcement. This limit may be relaxed november 2008 4/3 . 4. the stress in the FRP near its end (i.e. failure can also occur when there is a loss of composite action between the FRP and the concrete section. neglecting any contribution to the shear capacity made by shear reinforcement. 4. Where used.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 4 strengthening concrete structures 4. Concave surface profiles.27.27. Such a mode of failure may be disregarded if the maximum applied shear force can be carried by the concrete alone. irregularities in the profile of the surface to which the FRP is bonded.20 Specialist advice shall be sought in cases where shear cracks could initiate a loss of composite action. 4. beyond this anchorage length. These limits may be relaxed if a rigorous analysis is undertaken or based on experimental results using representative sized specimens. the longitudinal shear stress between the FRP and the concrete section. the anchorage strength shall be verified through appropriate testing. This limit will generally be more onerous than the factored ultimate FRP tensile strain capacity. Furthermore.29. the maximum force in the FRP must be limited to the anchorage capacity given in Clause 4.21 to 4. 4.19 Tests have shown that bolts can be used with multi-directional externally bonded FRP laminates to prevent loss of composite action. in the anchorage region). In cases where the FRP is externally bonded to a structural element that remains uncracked under the ultimate load case for which it is being strengthened. there is no further increase in the ultimate anchorage load-capacity with increased bonded length. the full strength of the reinforcement can be developed.21 The maximum strain in the FRP shall not be greater than 0. Flexural cracks. Such longitudinal failure planes can initiate from: (i) (ii) (ii) (iii) Ends of FRP. It is possible to anchor steel reinforcement by providing a sufficient anchorage length such that. Shear cracks. of the order of 50-300mm. 4.16 The bond behaviour of externally bonded FRP differs markedly from embedded steel reinforcement. The data upon which this limit is based comes predominantly from tests using externally bonded carbon. In tests on the anchorage of FRP externally bonded to concrete. 4. Such failure modes may be avoided by limiting: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) the strain in the FRP.008. this ultimate anchorage capacity can be very much less than the ultimate tensile capacity of the FRP. The likelihood of failure modes involving a loss in composite action may be decreased for externally bonded FRP by reducing the FRP thickness and by tapering the FRP when multiple layers are used.17 Experimental findings have indicated that the maximum force that can be developed in FRP externally bonded to concrete that is uncracked under the applied load is limited to the anchorage force given in Clause 4. The likelihood of failure modes occurring that involve a loss of composite action has been found experimentally to increase if this strain limit is exceeded. However this is not typically the case for externally bonded FRP. Instances where this requirement may be applicable include structural members with significant changes in section properties. In the absence of more comprehensive test data it is also required for NSM FRP strengthening. it has been found that beyond a limiting bonded length. Typically failures occur through the development of a longitudinal failure plane close to the interface between the FRP and the concrete or at the level of the main reinforcement.18 Failure modes where there is a loss of composite action between the FRP and concrete section shall be considered in the design of FRP strengthening.15 For concrete members strengthened for flexure. Experiments have demonstrated that the longitudinal shear stress that can be transferred between the FRP and the concrete is not independent of the bonded length. for example the transverse strengthening of thin outstands cantilevered from a bridge deck.

This requirement may be wherebe satisfied of the following criteriaresults taken to the method if preparing the grooves are met.2 and 4.2. where wg and hg f atm 5. in addition to the requirements of 4. w g and h g are the is the nominal diameter the NSM FRP bar and p is the effective perimeter of section. max Lnot preparation or condition of the concrete does C .0 frp frp frp where fatm is the characteristic tensile strength of the adhesive.7 L L mc mc f atm 12 MPa 1.5 where λ is determined from Figure 4. measured inf mm.4. which may assumed to be the case if the structure is uncracked in the region being strengthened. FCk . 4. and E and f width and height of the groove in cross frp ctm E the interface at which the longitudinal shear is 2 A frpr frp As y have units of N/mm . The longitudinal shear at the interface between the FRP and the adhesive shall not exceed 20% of the shear capacity of the adhesive. mfE being checked.chapter 4 strengthening concrete structures volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 based on experimental results using representative sized specimens.28: in sides which cannot be assumed to achieve effective bond with confidence. 4 2 h g f ctm mc (mm) d h > 0. measured in mm.3. standard elastic methods for determining the longitudinal shear stress in prismatic sections should not be used. in may beFRP strengthening schemes shall have sufficient strength to reduce splitting failure in the adhesive cases prevent a the effective perimeter p to wg + hg inunder ultimate loading.29 reduced accordingly.5 E frp frp for externally mfE mc bonded FRP for NSM FRP E frp wg frp 2 4 wg 2 h g f ctm (N) *τ l = λVt frp Afrpm h provided The anchorage length required to develop this force may be assumed to be given by: 2 1 frp frp1 4p L C .0 frp wg hg 2. rectangular sections strengthened with externally bonded FRP may be conservatively taken as: Volume 1 Section 3 The longitudinal Part X BD 85/08 shear shall be checked. at terminations in the FRP and the position in the span where the steel reinforcement yields. Clause 7.24 Provided that the stresses due to permanent loads prior to strengthening have a negligible effect on the stresses due to ultimate loads. frp is the nominal diameter ofof the FRP bar. The longitudinal shear stress may be determined from: 2 1 4. max cases where the special 2 FCk [THIS CLAUSE SHOULD BE BOXED] LC . σfrp1 and σfrp2 may be determined ms and s f from a section analysis in accordance with Clause f For shorter anchorage lengths. 4.max . the anchorage force fis given by: bh cu bh cu 4.5 5.2 for mild where σfrp1 is the stress in the FRP at the location steel reinforcement (up to fy=250N/mm2) and of interest and σfrp2 is the stress in the FRP at a Figure 4.0 f ctm are the width and height of the groove in cross section.23 For sections where the design indicates that the steel reinforcement would yield or where the compressive strain in the concrete is such that its behaviour is significantly non-linear. a a For NSM FRP. max allow the complete concrete interface to be fully effective in resisting longitudinal shear. the longitudinal shear stress at the location in the span where the reinforcement yields for prismatic elements with solid.22 The longitudinal shear at the interface between the adhesive and concrete shall not exceed the ultimate values given in Table 31 of BS 5400: Part 4. In Figures 4.12.5 2. max x 4 . La < Lc. inFCk .3 for high yield steel reinforcement (up small distance Δx from the location of interest to fy=460 N/mm2). specialist advice shall be sought and the value for p shall be The adhesive used It NSM appropriate to 4. This would be subject to the agreement of the Overseeing Organisation.3: in the direction in which the applied moment is where increasing. at least. max t frp frp 2 frp1 x frp 2 1 . 4/4 november 2008 .

4 0.4 0.25 0.2 0.3 Figure 4.15 s Figure 5: 1.2 0.05 0.3 λ for High Yield Steel Reinforcement 4.3 0.4 1.1 0.6 1 0.05 Figure 4. th november 2008 4/5 separation failure is increased. th 4.2 0.8 1.Part X BD 85/08 Volumesection 3 volume 1 1 Section 3 part Part 18 Bd 85/08 X BD 85/08 chapter 4 strengthening concrete structures Figure 4: values for mild steel reinforcement f 1.6 1 0.05 = 30 f = 20 f = 10 f values for mild steel reinforcement f =5 =2 =5 1 = 30 f = 20 f = 10 f ff = f f =2 =1 0.4 0.1 0.8 0.25 .6 0 0.8 1.8 0.8 1.8 1.3 CHANGE FIGURES FROM 4 sAND 5 TO 4.25 0.1 0.2 AND 4.6 1.25 0.2 AND 4.2 0.2 0.8 Figure 4: 1. If FRP is under a to a concrete surface with a concave surface of the gap bonded 1m long straight edge held to the profile.6 0 0.2 0.2 1.25 If FRP is bonded to a concrete surface with a concave profile.15 0.8 1.6 1 1.6 1.25 0. Unless justified through a rigorous anal results.2 0 0.15 s 0.4 0.15 s 0.2 for high yield steel reinforcement f λ Values for Mild Steel Reinforcement = 30 f = 20 f = 10 f =5 f f Figure 5: for high yield steel reinforcement f =2 =1 =2 =1 = 30 f = 20 f = 10 f =5 f f 0 0.3 0.3 0.2 1.4 1.1 0.2 0.05 0.3 CHANGE FIGURES FROM 4 AND 5 TO 4.6 1 1.

0 4/6 For shorter anchorage lengths.max (mm) a 1m long straight edge held to the surface of the For shorter anchorage lengths.diameter measured in force is give For shorter of N/mm . La < Lc.12. La < Lc.L LC . the anchorage force is given by : november 2008 La La 4. measur measu where frp the of the (N) offrp isgroove in crossdiameterof the FRP bar.4 and 4. max (N) be up to 5mm provided the depth of adhesive is For L C . kb 4. frp g f atm 55.0 part 18 Bd 85/08 (N) (mm 4 (mm) w w g g 22 h g f f ctm hbe ctm 4.max . in addition t f atm E frp t frp mc ctm LC . La < Lc. the and bfrp and tfrpfrp t frp units of mm and Efrp and fctm have units of N/m E have mc gap under a 1m long straight edge held to the LC . A minimum anchorage lengthEof E frp mc frp 500mm shall be provided when the FRP3. (N) Ck . where frp is the nominal diameter of the FRPmeasured in mm. max where where where E frp Efrp ftctm f ctm t frp frp 0 5k b 0 . This requ L L .max L C . 4. max width whereand height of the groove in crossof the FRP bar.06 1.5 k.26 Sufficient anchorage shall be provided frp beyond the point at which the FRP is no longer E frp 2 w g 2 h g f ctm 4 22 frp FCk . measure is the nominal diameter section.2885/08 BD 85/08 Part BD Part X force per bar may be assumed to be given by: Volume 1 Section 3 Part X BD 85/08 2 4.max . the likelihood of FRP separation may be assumed length required to develop this force may b The anchorage to 400given by: failure is increased. The force analysis ofdeveloped within the anchorage region anchorage length required The the anchorage may be assumed no given of longer at the point analysis of FRPstrengthened section atin pointminimum FRP is to belength2by: 2to develop this force may b required in accordance is no longer 3..5tofrpbe given by: force maysplitting gfailure in the adhesive undermet. width and heightnominalgroove theof the FRP bar.25 If FRP is bonded to a concrete surface with The anchorage length required0to develop this force b frp 1 be a concave profile. max La 2 La increasing the width of externally bonded FRP. max [THIS CLAU LC . anchorage force is given by: For shorter anchorage lengths.5 frp w . L 2< L . in addition to under ultimate loadin 4. max L C .0 h 5..max .. in addition to the require atm and bfrp and tfrp have units of mm and Efrp and fctm have units of N/mm2. kb kb 1. 4. measur width and and fctm have units of N/mmcross section.12. max (N) w g 2255 frp 1.L max a Lmax shall have suffi 4.0 1. the maximum where is the nominal diameter of the FRP bar.5 (mm) L 500mmanchorage length of 500mm FRP is terminated within a span. max anchorage capacity thengconsideration should be given to reducing the thickne 2. Alternatively a rigorous analy (N) frp .max a C .0 frp MPa 1f5 frp 12w g 2. the anchorage have width Efrp height of the groove in 2.29 The adhesive used in NSM FRP strengthening schemes sha frp taken be be satisfied if the following criteria The units of N/mm2.29 The adhesive used in NSM FRP strengthening schemes sha f 5.max the anchorage f LC . the anchorage f LC .anchorage region mayin developed within the anchorage region may length required tomfE mc The force in the FRP the FRP developed within this anchorage region be determined required to ensure that any force be determined by the The anchorage length required to develop this force mayforce may b develop this be assumed t The anchorage can be The may be the FRP by undertaking anan analysis of thestrengthened section at the point wheredeterminedis no to develop this force undertaking in the FRP the strengthened section sustained. w anchorage force may be anchorage force may frp assumed to be given by: be assumed to be given by: . mc 4 4 . atm frp g frp FCk FCk . max chapter 4 strengthening concrete structures kb where 1. L C .29 The adhesive used inmax L a a strengthening schemes [THIS CLAU a FCk FCk .06 b frp b frp 1 1 400 b frpb frp 1.06 b frp 2 0 .4 terminated within a span.06 2 2 b b 1. For L c. the maximum anchoragebar may be assume Volume NSM FRP. L FCk shorter ofmaxN/mm 2 [THIS For shorterFanchorage lengths. the 2 f ctm concrete prior to the installation of the FRP may anchorage force is given by: La La FCk shorter anchorage lengths. may to a splitting failure in haveanchorage length required to develop this force preventassumed to be given by: the adhesive are met. max L c. the anchorage 400 taken to be satisfied if the following criteria are met. If preformed laminates E anchorage lengths. max particular care is required in the surface preparation since such systems will closely follow the surface Volume 1 Section 3 4. max varied to achieved the required FRP straightness La La after installation.0 frp h 5. ctm 2 prevent aunits of N/mm .27 For externally bonded carbon fibre FRP. mm.27 For externally bonded carbon the maximum the maximum anchorage force may g 4. max LL Cmax C.12.max . max a c.lengths. L < aa < L.max .0 f ctm frp (mm)ffatm 12. in the adhesive under ultimate loading splitting failure and b and t frp have units of and and Efrp and fctm have adhesive used in NSM FRP strengthening schemes sh 4.29 The f atm 12 MPa and bfrpfrp and thave units of mm mm Efrp and fctm 4.5 in the FRP . 1.developed within the anchorage region is in exc force 2 FCk FCk . minimum longer required in accordance with Clauses isAand 4.E frp 5 (N) required to ensure that any force in the FRP w g frp2 h g f ctm 4. fibre FRP. assumed to be given by: FCk .27 For externally bonded FRP.0 if the following criteria are satisfied taken to be1satisfied fif2 the following criteria are met. the gap under For shorter frp t frp mc a c. measured in mm. BD 85/08 PartX BD85/08 NSM X4.max (mm) (mm) surface of the FRP following installation shall The anchorage 2 f ctm required to develop this force may be assume length nowhere exceed 3mm. max .max shall be provided when the shall be provided 4 .30 If the 1. La < Lc. a 2 have units of N/mm . the anchorage force is given 12 MPa f atm by : 2 f ctm where fatm is the characteristic tensile strength of the adhesive. La < Lc. the anchorage force is giv FCk . max L C .26 Sufficient anchorage shall be in the FRP developed within FFCkmax sustained. measu La 2 L have units anchorage have units CkofN/mm2. in addition w taken to be frp 5.b b frpb frp (N) (N) mfE mfE mc mc bar. max FCk . wg and hg are in cross and width section. max anchorage longer be 4 page 21 4. page 21 mfE mc sustained. A whereanchorage length required to develop this force may The anchorage length required frp frp accordance with Clauses 3.max. the maximum anchorage force per bar may profile of the concrete.0 f ctm atm MPa 2. NSM FRP 2 FCk FCk .max . max 1 .28 For NSM FRP. . Unless justified through a rigorous analysis or experimental results. max the adhesive2under ultimate loading. measur where theisthe nominal section.4 and the by undertaking an where the the with Clausesrequired 4. andand height of the groove in cross section. max LCCmax C . For NSM FRP systems Volume 1grooves should be cut to allow the bars to be Part X BD 85/08 3 the Section 3 Volume1 Section 3 Section Volume 11Section 3 theFRP.5w g 2 h g f ctm4frp 2 (mm) L C max 2 (mm) frp w gfrp 2 h g f ctmmc E when the FRP is terminated within a span.5 is no 4 anchorage shall be region can be FRP frp E longer mfEw mc 22 h g (N) w g h (N)f ctm FCk .5 .max E frp t frp 2 f ctm (mm) mc For shorter anchorage lengths.5 assumed. CLAUSE SHOULD .5 k b b frp b b frp 1 400 b frp E frp t frp f ctm mfE mc volume 1 section 3 1. max [THIS CLAU prevent a splitting failure in L C . E frp 4 mc 2 and bfrp and tfrp have units of mm and Efrp and fctm have un b * 4455 . C . measured in mm. the . La < Lc.max ultimate loadin The anchorage length required to develop thisprevent abe. 2 heightunitsanchorage lengths.0 f LC .where assumed to be given by: FCk .28 For maximum anchorage force per For Part X installed straight. the anchorage 2 FCk FCk .26 Sufficient within this anchorageprovided beyond the point at which the 1. The force in the FRP developed within 1155 . L < L such as pultruded plates are used. max frp developed E frp f ctm g g (N) required to ensure that any force provided beyond the point at which the FRP is noregion canmfE mc4 this. Where fabric systems are used (N)(N) 2 FCk FCk .0 L La For shorter anchorage alengths. max L C .

excessive shear-crack widths (resulting in a loss of effectiveness of the concrete in carrying shear through aggregate interlock and friction).33 For concrete strength to prevent athe following in the splitting failure criteria are met. α. (i) frpu where LC. Guidance on suitable limits is provided in Clause 4. 4. if such a rigorous analysis is undertaken.a the anchorage force is given by: LL . the effective strain insides FRP.37 To prevent FRP rupture. except when Clausebe taken asn is taken fully wrapped beam. to reducing from the and anchorage capacity then consideration should given tothe contributionsthe thickness and anchorage region is in excess of the anchorage capacity increasing the increasing the width of externallyto bonded the Alternatively a rigorous analysis of theof the of externally reducing FRP. Alternatively a rigorous analysis development of the force inwidth FRP within the anchorage region may be used to demonstrate of the force in the of externally thickness and increasing the the FRP within the anchorage region may be used to demonstrate development Vu = Vc + Vs + Vfrp bonded FRP. 4. to the FRP with contribution to the shear capacity from FRP with principal f the vertical is given by (See Figure 1. steel and FRP.max is determined in accordance with Clause 4.30 If the force in the FRP developed within the anchorage capacity then consideration should bebe given reducing the thickness concrete. lengths.28 and zero for a as zero.34 4. shall no minimum of: beam only.0 f ctm are met.0 frp These failure where fatm is the characteristictensile strength of of the adhesive. sufficient strengthened for strength may 4.37. adhesive under ultimate loading. Vu. the maximum number of layers should be limited to three for pultruded strips or five for cured in-situ fabrics. the concrete section. considered at the ultimate limit state: f in 5.29 The adhesive used inin NSM FRP strengthening schemes shall have sufficient strength to 4.29 The adhesive used NSM FRP preventThesplitting failure in have adhesive under ultimate shall haveThis requirement to be a adhesive used shall the sufficient 4. This requirement 2. shall be determined by adding 4.28: f atm 5.31 If the FRP extends into areas in compression. ie.0 when it is bonded considering FRP separation from the concrete as to the sides o described in Clause 4.1): vertical is given by (See Figure 1.4bd (N).36 The contribution to the shear capacity from 4. FRP separation from concrete.0 when FRP 4.max should 4. where fatm is the characteristic tensile strength of the adhesive.35 The maximum shear stress shall not exceed Volume 1 Section 3 the limits specified in BS 5400: Part 4. frps. resulting in a loss of composite action.0 2. Where it is necessary to extend the FRP into an area in compression. V frp frps Afrps (d n LC .0 5.0 f ctm • fatm ≥ 5. If it is necessary to install multiple layers of FRP then.0 fctm f atm 12 MPa f atm 12 MPa • fatm ≥ 12 MPa 1. frp g hg h 5.30 If the force in the FRP developed within thethe anchorage shear capacity of the theofstrengthened 4. max [THIS CLAUSE SHOULD BE BOXED] shear capacity strengthening concrete structures 4. FRP separation from the is bonded continuously to the sides and bottom of concrete and widths and 2.64 mfE f ctm mc 4/7 E frp t frp .0 frp frp the strain in the FRP. 1. max a [THIS CLAUSE SHOULD BE BOXED] 4 chapter LC . the anchorage force is given by: have units anchorage FCk volume 1 sectionFCk .37.29 strengthening schemes in NSM FRP strengthening schemes loading.5 frp w g 2.5 frp • 1. buckling of the FRP might occur.32 It is recommended that when several strips of FRP are required these should be applied next to each other rather than in layers. the possibility of buckling should be considered.30 If the force in the FRP developed within anchorage The region is in excess the region is in excess of FRP concrete section. then consideration should be given bonded FRP. max L For shorter anchorageL a lengths.max . max C a 2 LC .36 The principal fibres at an angle.0 when FRP is bon the sides and bottom of a beam and 2. unless proven by rigorous analysis or experimental testing.max .1): E frp mfE 4. The combined contributions particular care should be taken if the FRP is extended from the steel and FRP shall not be less than into a region where the concrete is likely to be cracked 0.For shorterof N/mm2.max ) 3 ( cos s frp sin ) when L whereconsidering FRP separation from the concrete as described in Cl is determined in accordance with C.5 frp • (i) (ii) (iii) FRP rupture.28: to be taken to if the following criteria are met.28: prevent a satisfied if shear. This requirement may be be requirements of 4.28 and n is tak /2 mf november 2008 (ii) 0. Part X BD 85/08 4. at ULS. Alternatively a rigorous analysis of the development of the force in the FRP within the The contribution from the concrete and the steel anchorage region may be used to demonstrate that page extending the FRP further into the anchorage region will22 may be determined in accordance with BD 44. max 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 FCk FCk .5 frp w g 2. ignored in the calculation of the shear capacity of However. the following modes of failure shall taken may besatisfied be satisfied if the following criteria in addition to the requirements of 4. modes may be avoided by limiting where fatm is the characteristic tensile strength the adhesive. when it should be taken as zero for a fully wrapped beam. atm addition to the requirements of 4. La < Lc. La < Lc. 1. in addition to themembers taken to besplitting failure in the adhesive under ultimate loading.0 when it is bonded to the the of a a beamrespectively. 4. The page 22area of any longitudinal FRP reinforcement shall be enable the required anchorage force to be developed. max 2 L L C .

does not yield and force the force in the longitudinal FRP shearFfrp is due to the ultimate loads and Ffrp is due to bending determined from a section analysis in accordance with Clause bending the force in the longitudinal FRP due to4.38 Where individual it is still has the moment capacity of the beam or slab shall be less than 0.75 times frp effective (See of the then longitudinal FRP should be added to 4. the area should bending moment should be increased by the following factor: satisfactorily in service with no evidence of be increased by the following factor: cracking and the future loading to be carried by the structure is not significantly increased then the V serviceability requirements for cracking may be 1 2 Ffrp deemed to be satisfied. at the section being considered. the strengthening for shear applied bending momentof FRP required to resist the ultimate been performing provided the structure has applied resist the ultimate and flexure.41 Fatigue No fatigue check is required for FRP itself. determined from a section analysis in accordance with Clause 4.40 Alternatively. with the agreement of the Overseeing (ii) The ultimate bending capacity of theensure that it is stil reduced area of reinforcement to beam Organisation.36) increase the moment capacity of the beam or Fatigue slab. strengthen the beam or slab to resist the ultimate bending moment) then: 4/8 should be determined by reducing the area of steel in the tension face by an amount november 2008 i.0 when it is bonded to the sides of a beam only.39 When shear is applied to a concrete beam or slab associated tensile forces are developed in the 4. Adequate 4.12.75d. V is V the ultimate loads Where. with results using representative sized Organisation. atat the section being considered. theis the shear force due tounder service loads.75d.12. The ultimate bending capacity of the beam or sla ii. the section being considered. V is the she and Ffrp is the force in the longitudinal FRP due to b If strengthening is required for shear only (i.e. for shear and flexure. the FRP. measured along the span.38 Where individual strips strips are usedcentre to centre spacing. If the exis 4.42 The strengthened structure shall conform to the gene is required.. serviceability structure is not significantly increased then th carried by the 4.75 times the effective depth shall section to prevent a shear crack to centre spacing. Adequate longitudinalto forces due to bending. Serviceability check is required If the and axial FRP extend a to sustain these additional tensile forces. for FRP itself.e.64 in the tension face by an amount equal to: equal to: E frp t frp mc (iii) 0. provide Part X beyond the point at which they are required for BD 85/08 performing satisfactorily in service with no evidence of crac bending alone. FRP separation from the concretelongitudinal FRP shear crack strengthen and excessive is required to Clause 4. shear and flexure or in alone.. sfrp < 0.the beam or slab greater the ultimate bending respectively. of the ultimate applied bending moment. when it volume 1 section 3 chapter 4 1 strengthening zero for structures should be taken as concrete a fully wrapped beam. At of BS 5400: Part 4.V frp mfE frps Afrps s frp ( cos sin ) strengthening for shear and flexure. if n be strengthen the beam or slab to resist the ultimate ben (i) εfrpu/2γmfε mf (i) The area of longitudinal steel reinforcement (i) frpu / 2 i. (See Clause 4.36) be less than 0.e. If not. except V when considering FRP separation from the concrete as described in Clause 4. depthClause 4.. to sustain the are used the the centre 4. may be satisfied by ensuring that the distance d beyond 4. the effective effective strain εin . then l reduced area of reinforcement to ensure that to increase adequate capacity 4.e. frps. If not. At sections requiring strengthening strengthening is required for area of FRP required to for shear Clause 4. These are additional relevant fatigue requirements then to forces reinforcement. i.37 To prevent FRP rupture. forming between strips. one of two different approaches may betousedgeneral serviceability requirements given page 25 the depending upon whether for shear alone.42 The strengthened structure shall conform strengthening is required for shear and flexure or 4. 1.37. measured along the span. is required for shear only (i.12. the area of FRP requi bending moment should be increased by the following facto where LC.e. However.1 of BS 5400: Part 4. the strain in the FRP.41 No fatigue reinforcement and FRP should be provided longitudinal reinforcement and FRP should be provided to sustain these additional tensile forces. shall not frps If then: minimum greater than the minimum of: of: moment) strengthening is required for shear only (i. Where.40 Alternatively. sthe < 0.37 To prevent FRP rupture.004 V 2( f y / ms ) unless a rigorous analysis is undertaken or based unless a rigorous analysis is undertaken or based on experimental results using representative on experimental the agreement of the Overseeing sized specimens.1sections requiring However. or slab should be rechecked using this the ultimate applied bending moment. if no longitudinal FRP is required to If strengthening * section to prevent a shear crack forming between strips. if no from the concrete and excessive shear crack shall not be to resist than the widths widths. The effective in resisting steel reinforcement whic which isarea of longitudinal flexure should should be determined by reducing the be determined by reducing the area of steelarea of steel mfE f ctm (ii) (ii) 0. The area of longitudinal steel reinforcement which is effective in resisting flexure equal to: .39 When shear is applied to a concrete beam or slab associated tensile forces are developed in no further fatigue check longitudinal reinforcement. one of two different page 24 approaches may be used depending upon whether 4. These are additional the longitudinal due to bending. This the reinforcement existing structure complies with relevant This requirement may be satisfied by ensuring that fatigue requirements then no further fatigue check requirementthe point at which they are required for bending alone.0 when FRP is bonded frp 2 F continuously to part 18 Bd 85/08 the sides and bottom of a beam and 2.1.1.max is determined in accordance with Clause 4. reinforcement and axial FRP extend a distance d Volume 1 Section 3 given in Clause 4. 4.28 and n is taken as zero. i. specimens. FRP separation analysis in accordance with 4.004 (iii) 0. The limitation on stress in the reinforcement under service load given in Table 2 of BS 5400: Part 4 will ensure that the steel Where.

Such a system could include studs. This can be ensured by limiting the maximum deflection to the effective span/250.43 Deflection at serviceability loading can be calculated using elastic analysis and cracked or uncracked section properties as appropriate. If the structure has been performing satisfactorily in service and the future loading to be carried by the structure is not significantly increased then the serviceability requirements for deflection may be deemed to be satisfied. Deflections shall be restricted to a level that will not impair the appearance or functionality of the structure.44 Mechanical systems and transverse overlapping FRP may resist failure modes involving a loss in composite action between the FRP and the concrete sections. Such approaches are currently the subject of research and are permitted with the approval of the Overseeing Organisation and provided their effectiveness has been substantiated through testing. november 2008 4/9 . 4.45 If FRP is bonded to the top surface of slabs or beams and subsequently buried by the road surfacing. detailing 4. Bolting is not appropriate for uni-directional FRP systems.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 4 strengthening concrete structures 4. with a thickness greater than that of the FRP. tests have shown the bolting can provide effective anchorage where multi-directional FRP laminates are used. bolted to the structure adjacent to the FRP laminates. a protective system should be provided to prevent the FRP being damaged if the surfacing is removed. However.

based upon current best practice and knowledge. 5.13.8 Structures strengthened with FRP to increase their flexural capacity can exhibit the same ultimate failure modes as conventional metallic sections. When considering such strengthening schemes. 5. 5.5 Although not covered by this Standard. guidance should be sought from specialist designers and materials suppliers. 5. This assumption may. unless a rigorous temperature analysis is undertaken. strengthening for Flexure 5. their capacity may also be governed by fracture of the FRP or by the loss of composite action between the FRP and the metallic section. strengthening metallic structures 5.13.18. Bonding of FRP to metallic structures can be advantageous since the need for welding can be eliminated. Wrought iron structures should only be strengthened in accordance with Clause 2. in addition. 5. so the design is typically governed by the behaviour of the surface concrete. It is recommended that C595 be used in conjunction with this Standard for the design of FRP strengthening schemes for metallic structures. Strengthening of metallic structures using FRP has received less research attention than concrete structures and there have been fewer practical applications.1 Externally bonded FRP may be used for strengthening metallic structures constructed from cast iron or steel. The bonding operation can frequently take place with no or minimal disruption to traffic and without a need for temporary propping. local buckling of the compression flange or lateral torsional buckling. is included in CIRIA Report C595[5]. externally bonded FRP could potentially also be used to enhance the fatigue life.4 The coefficient of thermal expansion of FRP can differ significantly from that of metallic elements.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 5 strengthening metallic structures 5. because of failure of the adhesive joint. Guidance shall be sought from specialist designers in such cases. .3 The behaviour of FRP-strengthened metallic structures differs markedly from FRP-strengthened concrete structures. for metallic structures the behaviour of the adhesive itself can govern the capacity of the strengthened member. However. however. Because of the limited experimental work that has been undertaken into such strengthening applications. for concrete structures the adhesive strength generally greatly exceeds the strength of the surface concrete. Temperature loads shall be taken from BD 37 (DMRB 1. be used in undertaking sectional analyses away from end regions.2 Detailed guidance on the design of FRP strengthening for metallic structures.3.7 FRP materials bonded to the tension flanges of beams increase the effective area of the tension flange and therefore enhance the moment of resistance of the section and its stiffness. with cast iron structures categorised as Group 2 structures in Figure 9 of BD 37. Such effects must be taken into account in the design of FRP strengthening schemes for metallic structures by considering the timing of the operation and the range of effective bridge temperatures likely to be encountered. see Clause 5. 5. shear capacity. For example. see Clause 5.6 Cracked metallic structures shall not be strengthened using FRP without the agreement of the Overseeing Organisation.9 A particular complexity in the design of FRP strengthening for metallic elements is that the behaviour of the adhesive joint and of the anchorage region near the ends of the FRP strengthening cannot be analysed making the assumption that plane sections remain plane. bearing capacity or buckling resistance of metallic elements or to enhance november 2008 5/1 the capacity of connections. and requires detailed consideration in the design. for example. As a result differential thermal expansion can lead to significant stress concentrations at the ends of externally bonded FRP plates and at any other geometric discontinuities. However. it may be necessary to undertaken testing on representative specimens to prove the effectiveness of the technique. and the appropriate design approach agreed with the Overseeing Organisation.14). 5.

The appropriate loads and load factors should be taken from BD 37 (DMRB 1. unless an alternative approach.14). and differential thermal expansion. buckling of the laminate might occur.8 of C595[5]. Guidance on the evaluation of the buckling properties of FRPstrengthened metallic elements is included in the ICE design and practice guide[6] and CIRIA report C595[5]. Account should be taken of the stresses in the structure when the FRP is installed (see Clause 3.chapter 5 strengthening metallic structures volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 limit states 5.4.17 It has been found that FRP strengthening can result in global or local buckling becoming the critical failure mode for an element.11 The criteria for the serviceability limit states given in Clause 4. as shown in Figure 4.14) using the transformed properties of the FRP-strengthened section.13 The evaluation of the flexural capacity and stiffness of a metallic section strengthened using FRP should be based on the following: (i) The strain at any level in the section may be determined assuming that plane sections remain plane.6 For cast iron elements. The principal stress in the adhesive shall satisfy the following condition: σa1 < fa / γma 5.15 FRP rupture shall be considered to occur when the strain in the FRP reaches εfrpu / γmfε 5.3. Buckling of FRP-strengthened cast iron elements should be considered using Clause 5. resulting in a loss of composite action.19 If the FRP extends into areas in compression. therefore.10 The design of strengthened steel structures should be considered for the ultimate limit states in accordance with the relevant clauses of BS 5400: Part 3: 2000 (BSI 2000) as implemented by BD 13 (DMRB 1.12 Strengthened cast iron elements should be analysed on a permissible stress basis. Yielding of ductile materials such as steel is acceptable at ultimate limit state. (iii) (iv) global or local buckling of the element. 5. be considered in accordance with BS 5400: Part 3: 2000 (BSI 2000) as implemented by BD 13 (DMRB 1.2. rupture shall be considered to occur when the stress in the metal reaches the limits specified in BD 21 (DMRB 3.1. as described in BD 21 (DMRB 3. should be followed for steel elements. 5/2 november 2008 .3). except where amended by other clauses in this Standard. is agreed with the Overseeing Organisation. The analysis of the adhesive joint shall be based upon the elastic analysis approach set out in C595[5]. such as one based upon fracture mechanics.3). (ii) (iii) (iv) Guidance on the analysis of FRP-strengthened metallic sections is included in C595[5]. 5. The FRP is a linear elastic material. except where amended in this Standard. section capacity and stiffness 5.3. the possibility of buckling should be considered.3.4). Differential thermal expansion of the FRP and metallic elements should be taken into account. 5. 5. Where it is necessary to extend the FRP into an area in compression. 5. Global and local buckling in steel elements should.14 The following modes of failure shall be considered: (i) (ii) FRP rupture. and rupture of the adhesive.18 The adhesive joint shall be checked at the ends of the FRP strengthening and at any discontinuities in the structure or changes in the FRP thickness to ensure that it has sufficient capacity to sustain the stresses due to: (i) (ii) live loading.14). 5.4.2 of BS 5400: Part 3.1. rupture of the metallic element.2.

As the width of pre-manufactured FRP plates is increased. Deflections should be restricted to a level that will not impair the appearance or functionality of the structure.5. The anchorage length that is required beyond the position at which strengthening is no longer needed may be taken as the section depth. 5. account shall be taken of the effect of the yielding on the longitudinal shear stresses in the adhesive. a glass fibre insulating layer shall be interposed between the carbon fibre and metallic substrate to electrically isolate the FRP. although this may not be the case for thick stiff FRP plates.21 For FRP-strengthened steel elements in which yielding occurs at the ultimate limit state. The effectiveness of the system must comply with the requirements of Clause 2. yielding shall not occur at FRP strengthened sections under serviceability limit state loading unless agreed with the Overseeing Organisation. This can be ensured by limiting the maximum deflection to the effective span/250. the difficulty of expelling the air under the plate during installation also increases. In the absence of a rigorous analysis. november 2008 5/3 .26 Stresses in the adhesive may be reduced by increasing the width of the FRP and by tapering the FRP near the end of the strengthening. account shall be taken of the effect of the yielding on the stresses developed in the adhesive joint.23 No fatigue check is required for FRP itself.24 The strengthened structure should conform to the general serviceability requirements given in Clause 4. To eliminate the risk of galvanic corrosion on such schemes.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 5 strengthening metallic structures adhesive Joint 5.20 The analysis of the adhesive joint shall take account of any lack of straightness in the FRP. Requirements for the straightness of the FRP as installed shall be specified by the designer. detailing 5. 5. If the existing structure complies with relevant fatigue requirements then no further fatigue check is required provided the installation of the FRP does not increase the stress ranges experienced by fatigue sensitive details and the stresses in the adhesive at the plate ends due to live loading are small in relation to those due to thermal effects.22 Sufficient anchorage shall be provided beyond the point at which the FRP is no longer required. 5. the anchorage length may be based upon the approach given in C595[5] with the stress development length determined using an elastic analysis of the adhesive joint. For moderate sized plates the effect of this lack of straightness will be small.2. In particular.27 When a carbon fibre based system is used to strengthen a metallic structure. to enable stress development in the FRP and provide robustness of the design.25 For steel structures.2 of BS 5400: Part 3. anchorage 5. If the structure has been performing satisfactorily in service and the future loading to be carried by the structure is not significantly increased then these serviceability requirements may be deemed to be satisfied. It is generally recommended that a limit be used based upon the gap under a 1m long straight edge held to the surface of the FRP following installation nowhere exceeding 3mm. mechanical anchorage systems may be used. Alternatively. Special consideration should therefore be given to this issue for pre-manufactured plates with a width in excess of 300mm. serviceability 5. galvanic corrosion can occur. Fatigue 5.

multi-directional laminates with variable thickness (normally 1mm – 30mm) and width (normally 50mm – 500mm). (ii) (iii) (iv) (iv) These products may be manufactured with different types of fibre. carbon and glass. and their use is recommended. 6. The adhesive shall be suitable for the environmental conditions to which it will be exposed during both installation and service. Further information on adhesives is provided in [1].4 Epoxy based adhesives have been used most commonly in FRP-strengthening of concrete structures. [2] and [3]. both in experiments and practical applications. pre-formed shells manufactured to size and bonded to the member.3. and is appropriate for the installation method. Special consideration is required if the adhesive will be subjected to high temperatures or if it will be submerged in service. Further details of FRP products and manufacturing processes are given in TR55[1]. Frp 6.6 Coatings may be used to provide additional protection or surface finish. Their durability has been established over a period in excess of fifteen years for steel plate bonding. november 2008 6/1 . materials 6. All fixings shall be compatible with the composite materials.3 Any adhesive may be used provided it satisfies the requirements for strength and durability.5 All materials used in fixings shall be of a noncorrosive nature. that these may interfere with future inspections. uni-directional factory impregnated laminates formed using the pultrusion process and supplied in standard thicknesses (normally 1 to 2mm) and widths (typically 50 – 120mm). FRP sheet pre-impregnated with resin (prepreg) with fibres orientated in one or more directions and boded with additional resin. adhesive 6. however. Any coating used should be fully compatible with the FRP material.2 FRP products are manufactured in many different forms including: (i) FRP sheet with fibres orientated in one or more directions. It should be noted. These are saturated with resin and bonded to the member on site.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 6 materials 6. The fibre types suitable for strengthening concrete structures are aramid. Fixings 6. with durability consistent with that of the FRP system and the requirements of Clause 3.1 The manufacturer or supplier of an FRP system shall provide test data and evidence of the properties and performance both of the materials and the application method to demonstrate its suitability to the satisfaction of the Overseeing Organisation. 6.

application of Frp 7. preparation of Frp surfaces 7. or between layers of FRP. inspections and test findings. including temperature and humidity. installation of the FRP and curing.3 For all schemes.7 The installation procedure shall be devised and implemented to avoid the formation of voids that affect the overall integrity of the bond between the FRP and the concrete.5mm and 2. laitance or contaminants.2 Where innovative materials or systems are proposed.4 The concrete surface shall be prepared so that the FRP is bonded to a sound surface with no protuberances.8 For fabric systems.10 Records shall be kept throughout the installation of the FRP system detailing the date and time of installation.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 7 installation inspection and maintenance 7. 7. a trial panel strengthened using the proposed materials and method of application should be constructed in order to demonstrate to the Engineer that all aspects of the installation scheme are practicable. For pre-formed FRP laminate strips. Quality control 7. 7. cracks wider than 0. The FRP shall not be installed unless the environmental conditions. november 2008 7/1 . sampling undertaken. For prefabricated plates and laminates. preparation of concrete surfaces 7. The prepared surface should be dust free and dry prior to installation of the FRP.11 An independent testing authority shall be appointed to carry out an examination of the workmanship and the testing of the materials. application of resin.13 Consideration should be given to installing additional FRP to facilitate long-term monitoring and future testing. grease. sufficient resin should be used to ensure that all fibres are fully wetted. dust.2mm and porous areas shall be repaired and any holes filled.9 Installation should only be undertaken by operatives experienced in the use of the FRP system.6 The environmental conditions during installation shall not be detrimental to the longterm performance of the FRP system. 7. references to uniquely identify the FRP installed. 7. environmental conditions. 7.5 FRP surfaces shall be completely free of dirt. Typically the adhesive thickness should be between 1. 7. 7. installation inspection and maintenance 7. suitable preparation methods may include light controlled mechanical abrasion or removal of a peel-ply provided during manufacture.1 The effectiveness of FRP strengthening is highly dependent upon the quality of installation. moisture or other contaminants. the adhesive thickness should not be less than 1mm nor greater than 5mm. Damaged areas. Such testing should include tests on the adhesive.5mm. including the preparation of the surfaces. 7. consideration should be given to the use of procedure trials to prove the method of application and quality of installation. are in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. the FRP laminates and to confirm the adequacy of bond between the FRP and the concrete.12 Tests shall be undertaken to demonstrate that the properties of the installed FRP are consistent with those used in the design.

14 Following installation a survey shall be undertaken to identify any voids. The manual shall include all relevant technical literature relating to the products used. 7. Procedures for minor repairs should also be included.chapter 7 installation inspection and maintenance volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 7. subject to the agreement of the Overseeing Organisation.17 If a significant abnormal load is routed over a structure that has been strengthened. The findings of this survey shall be reported to the Overseeing Organisation together with proposals to address any voids identified. installation records. At present.15 A comprehensive manual of procedures for inspection and maintenance of the strengthened structure shall be prepared including requirements for long-term monitoring and testing. it is recommended that a light tapping test is used for this survey.16 Inspections shall take place every six months for at least two years after completion of the works. consideration should be given to undertaking an inspection of the FRP strengthening before and after its passage. abnormal loads 7. The frequency of further inspections shall be agreed with the Overseeing Organisation after a review of the inspection reports. in-service inspection and maintenance 7. 7/2 november 2008 . More sophisticated methods are currently being developed and they should be considered once their application has been proven. test findings and photographs of critical details. drawings.

UK. A guide to the use of structural adhesives. Crowthorne. Design and Practice Guide for FRP Composites – Life extension and Strengthening Metallic Structures. Technical Report 57. Design guidance for strengthening concrete structures using fibre composite materials. reFerences Bibliography [1] Design guidance for strengthening concrete structures using fibre composite materials. London. A. ciria. Institution of Structural Engineers. British Standards Institution. 2000.volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 8 references 8. DMRB 1. Mays. London. november 2008 8/1 . DMRB 1.1: BD 2: Technical approval of highways structures on motorways and other trunk roads. DMRB 3.R.4: BD 21: The assessment of highway bridges and structures.C.3: BD 24: Design of concrete highways bridges and structures. Concrete Society. the pull-off test. Strengthening Metallic Structures Using Externally Bonded FRP. Crowthorne. 1999. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] standards British Standards Institution (1990). 2004.4: BD 37: Loads for highway bridges. and Hutchinson. Adhesives in Civil Engineering.1: BA 30: Strengthening of concrete highways structures using externally bonded plates. BS 5400: Part 4: 1990. concrete and composite bridges. Code of practice for design of concrete bridges. G.3.4: BD 44: The assessment of concrete highway bridges and structures. DMRB 3. Concrete Society. ice.16: BD 84: Strengthening concrete bridge supports using fibre reinforced plastic. design manual for roads and Bridges DMRB 1. DMRB 3. ciria report c595.3.. 1992. PR EN 1542: Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures – Test methods. Steel. Cambridge University Press. DMRB 3. Technical Report 55. Use of BS 5400: Part 4: 1990.3: BA 35: The inspection and repair of concrete highway structures. DMRB 3.

Major Transport Infrastructure Projects Transport Scotland 8th Floor. Major Transport Infrastructure Projects Chief Highway Engineer Transport & Strategic Regeneration Department for Economy & Transport Welsh Assembly Government Cathays Parks Cardiff CF10 3NQ M J A PARKER Chief Highway Engineer Transport & Strategic Regeneration Director of Engineering The Department for Regional Development Roads Service Clarence Court 10-18 Adelaide Street Belfast BT2 8GB R J M CAIRNS Director of Engineering november 2008 9/1 .volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 chapter 9 enquiries 9. enQuiries All technical enquiries or comments on this Standard should be sent in writing as appropriate to: Chief Highway Engineer The Highways Agency 123 Buckingham Palace Road London SW1W 9HA G CLARKE Chief Highway Engineer Director. Buchanan House 58 Port Dundas Road Glasgow G4 0HF A C McLAUGHLIN Director.

3) Undertake pull-off tests (Clauses 2.2.4-2.1) Check headroom (Clause 2.6) Economic appraisal (Clause 2. 2.13) Specification and Design (Chapters 3-6) Installation (Chapter 7) In-service Inspection and Maintenance (Chapter 7) november 2008 a/1 .8.Volume 1 Section 3 Part X BD 85/08 volume 1 section 3 part 18 Bd 85/08 annex a Flow chart for Frp strengthening design anneX a Flow chart For Frp ANNEX A : FLOW CHART FOR FRP STRENGTHENING DESIGN strengthening design Identify need for strengthening Check structure capacity (Clause 2.12.11) Identify suitable FRP strengthening techniques (Clauses 2.14) Check structure condition (Clauses 2.

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