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THE BRAINGATE-A BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFERENCE
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The mind-to-movement system that allows a quadriplegic man to control a computer using only his thoughts is a scientific milestone. It was reached, in large part, through the brain gate system. This system has become a boon to the paralyzed. The Brain Gate System is based on Cyber kinetics platform technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. The principle of operation behind the Brain Gate System is that with intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs.The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements, offering the user an alternate Brain Gate pathway to control a computer with thought,just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse.
The 'Brain Gate' contains tiny spikes that will extend down about one millimetre into the brain after being implanted beneath the skull,monitoring the activity from a small group of neurons.It will now be possible for a patient with spinal cord injury to produce brain signals that relay the intention of moving the paralyzed limbs, as signals to an implanted sensor, which is then output as electronic impulses. These impulses enable the user to operate mechanical devices with the help of a computer cursor. Matthew Nagle,a 25-year-old Massachusetts man with a severespinal cord injury,has been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001.After taking part in a clinical trial of this system,he has opened e-mail,switched TV channels, turned on lights. He even moved a robotic hand from his wheelchair. This marks the first time that neural movement signals have been recorded and decoded in a human withspinal cord injury.The system is also the first to allow a human to control his surrounding environment using his mind.
Dept of EC
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THE BRAINGATE 2011 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION THE HUMAN BRAIN HOW DOES THE BRAIN CONTROL MOTOR FUNCTION? WHAT IS BRAINGATE? BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A GENERAL BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE BLOCK DIAGRAM PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION ABOUT THE BRAINGATE DEVICE IMPLANTING THE CHIP A PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE WORKING ANIMAL BCI RESEARCH CLINICAL TRIALS COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES CONCLUSION REFERENCES Dept of EC 3 canara engineering college .
but no longer. war fighters have thoughts that act. MIT. Emory. BrainGate™ collects and analyzes the brainwaves of individuals with pronounced physical disabilities. most devices would be remote/logically controlled. and the University of Utah—has resulted in the development of BrainGate™. a wheelchair. This technology has the capability to impact our lives in ways that have been previously thought possible in only sci-fi movies The concept of using thought to move a robotic device. Instead of paying to go to university we could pay to get a "knowledge implant" and perhaps be able to obtain many lifetimes worth of knowledge and expertise in various fields at a young age. Harvard. Columbia. Researchers are close to breakthroughs in neural interfaces. meaning we could soon mesh our minds with machines. Nature and Wired Dept of EC 4 canara engineering college . When we talk about high end computing and intelligent interfaces. Eventually. Imagine a time when the human brain has its own wireless modem so that instead of acting on thoughts. or when soldiers communicate by thought alone.THE BRAINGATE 2011 INTRODUCTION Picture a time when humans see in the UV and IR portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. a prosthetic. quadriplegics and others suffering from spinal cord injuries and strokes. In the near future. or hear speech on the noisy flight deck of an aircraft carrier. Imagine that one day we will be able to download vast amounts of knowledge directly to our brain! So as to cut the lengthy processes of learning everything from scratch. and improve people’s way of life is about to explode Years of advanced research by world-renowned experts at prestigious universities— including Brown. turning thoughts into actions. or a computer was once strictly the stuff of science fiction. it has the potential to revolutionize the way all of our brains work BrainGate has been featured on broadcasts such as 60 Minutes and in publications including Popular Mechanics. a life-changing technology and device that gives renewed hope to paraplegics. The potential to better communicate. we just cannot ignore robotics and artificial intelligence. interact.
which are responsible of different functions. The brain is undoubtly the most complex organ found among the carbon-based life forms. Cerebral cortex is responsible for many higher order functions like problem solving. The cerebral cortex can be divided into two hemispheres. occipital and temporal lobes. The cerebral cortex can be divided into several areas. The average human brain weights around 1400 grams. The hemispheres are connected with each other via corpus callosum. The most relevant part of brain concerned is the cerebral cortex. They are called frontal.THE BRAINGATE 2011 THE HUMAN BRAIN All of it happens in the brain. parietal. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes. language comprehension and processing of complex visual information. So complex it is that we have only vague information about how it works. Dept of EC 5 canara engineering college .
Dept of EC 6 canara engineering college . the brain still makes neural signals. hands and legs. Motor neurons carry signals from the central nervous system to the muscles. The part of the brain that controls motor skills is located at the ear of the frontal lobe. which are made by billions of neurons that make electricity whenever they are stimulated.THE BRAINGATE 2011 How does the brain control motor function? The brain is "hardwired" with connections. and by rapidly adapting to new circumstances . Receptors sense things like chemicals. They're just not being sent to the arms. skin and glands of the body. The electrical patterns are called brain waves. light. Other sensors in the skin respond to stretching and pressure. The brain encodes information not by relying on single neurons. Even if paralysis or disease damages the part of the brain that processes movement. gathering and transmitting electrochemical signals over distances as far as several feet. but by spreading it across large populations of neurons. and sound and encode this information into electrochemical signals transmitted by the sensory neurons. Neurons act like the wires and gates in a computer. while sensory neurons carry signals from those outer parts of the body to the central nervous system. How does this communication happen? Muscles in the body's limbs contain embedded sensors called muscle spindles that measure the length and speed of the muscles as they stretch and contract as you move. And interneurons tie everything together by connecting the various neurons within the brain and spinal cord.
which is implanted into the brain. the Braingate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis. or other bodily functions. including the development of human augmentation for military and commercial purposes Dept of EC 7 canara engineering college . The technology driving this breakthrough in the BrainMachine-Interface field has a myriad of potential applications. such as epilepsy and depression." The BrainGate Neural Interface Device is a proprietary brain-computer interface that consists of internal and external sensors. The 'BrainGate' device can provide paralyzed or motorimpaired patients a mode of communication through the translation of thought into direct computer control.THE BRAINGATE 2011 What is a braingate? BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the biotechcompany Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University. such as patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spinal cord injury. Cyberkinetics describes that "such applications may include novel communications interfaces for motor impaired patients.The internal sensors detect the brain dignal activity and external sensors digitise the dignal to feed into thecomputer. In addition to real-time analysis of neuron patterns to relay movement. as well as the monitoring and treatment of certain diseases which manifest themselves in patterns of brain activity. monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs. The computer chip. A potential use of this feature would be for a neurologist to study seizure patterns in a patient with epilepsy.
data acquisition and real time processing systems etc . However. neural encoding and decoding systems.A high performance dsp architecture is used for this purpose. 2. 3.the implant device.The second component consists of spike detection algorithms. feedback can speed up the learning process and improve performance.the signal recording and processing section. The external device that the subject uses may be a robotic arm. This device record action potentials of individual neurons and then represent the neural signal using a rate code . Feedback is an important factor in BCI’s. depending upon the application.a feedback section to the subject. a wheel chair etc. feedback training is essential for the user to acquire the control of his or her EEG response. The first component is an implanted array of microelectrodes into the frontal and parietal lobes—areas of the brain involved in producing multiple output commands to control complex muscle movements.THE BRAINGATE 2011 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A GENERAL BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE BLOCK DESCRIPTION The BMI consists of several components: 1. In the BCI’s based on the operant conditioning approach.an external device the subject uses to produce and control motion and 4. or chronic multi-electrode array. Dept of EC 8 canara engineering college .
just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse Dept of EC 9 canara engineering college . offering the user an alternate "BrainGate pathway" to control a computer with thought. The System consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain and a device that analyzes brain signals. analyze and apply the language of neurons. transmit. brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms. The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements. The principle of operation behind the BrainGate System is that with intact brain function.THE BRAINGATE 2011 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION The BrainGate System is based on Cyberkinetics' platform technology to sense. hands and legs.
The chip is implanted on the surface of the brain in the motor cortex area that controls movement. assembly and testing are intended to meet human safety requirements Dept of EC 10 canara engineering college . The computers translate brain activity and create the communication output using custom decoding software. a cable and pedestal. which connects the chip to the computer. a cable connects the sensor to an external signal processor in a cart that contains computers. its manufacture. a cart which consists the signal processing unit . the entire BrainGate system was specifically designed for clinical use in humans and thus.THE BRAINGATE 2011 ABOUT THE BRAINGATE DEVICE The braingate pilot device consists of a Sensor of the size of a contact lens. The BrainGate Neural Interface Device is a proprietary brain-computer interface that consists of an internal neural signal sensor and external processors that convert neural signals into an output signal under the users own control. Importantly. In the pilot version of the device. with one hundred electrode sensors each thinner than a hair that detect brain cell electrical activity. The sensor consists of a tiny chip smaller than a baby aspirin.
one to implant the BrainGate and one to remove it. one of the study doctors will see the patients at least once a week for six weeks. MRI scans will be done to find the best place on the brain for the sensor. and wound care in the hospital for 1 to 5 days after surgery. then monthly and as needed. Doctor will drill a small hole into the skull and implant the sensor using the same methods as in the monkey studies. some blood tests. Before surgery. Patients will receive post-surgical care including a CT scan.THE BRAINGATE 2011 IMPLANTING THE CHIP There will be two surgeries. A PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE WORKING Dept of EC 11 canara engineering college . Under sterile conditions and general anesthesia. patients will have daily baths with antimicrobial soap and take antibiotics. A nurse will also check the patients regularly and will always carry a 24-hour pager. there will be several precautionary measures in order to prevent infection. The skin around the pedestal will need to be carefully monitored during the study. In addition. After surgery. Detailed instructions will be provided so that the patient’s daily care provider can help with skin care.
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THE BRAINGATE 2011 ANIMAL BCI RESEARCH Several laboratories have managed to record signals from monkey and rat cerebral cortexes in order to operate BCIs to carry out movement. Other research on cats has decoded visual Signals CLINICAL TRIALS Dept of EC 14 canara engineering college . Monkeys have navigated computer cursors on screen and commanded robotic arms to perform simple tasks simply by thinking about the task and without any motor output.
to control a cursor on a screen and to open and close the hand on a prosthetic limb just by thinking about the relevant actions. COMPETATIVE ADVANTAGES Dept of EC 15 canara engineering college . Mr. After several months. even while talking to people around him. a 25-year-old Massachusetts man who has been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001. he could also operate simple robotic devices such as a prosthetic hand. Braingate is currently recruiting patients with a range of neuromuscular and neurodegenerative conditions for pilot clinical trials in the United States The experiments that began with Mr. which he used to grasp and move objects.THE BRAINGATE 2011 The first clinical trial was done on a person called Matthew Nagle. been continued in three more patients . Nagle could read emails and play the computer game Pong. These experiments were success. so far. Nagle have. He was able to draw circular shapes using a paint program and could also change channel and turn up the volume on a television.
its potential to be used in an interactive environment. In addition. The BrainGate Neural Interface System has not been approved by the FDA. There are no estimates on cost or insurance at this time.Currently available assistive devices have significant limitations for both the person in need and the caregiver. the switches must be frequenly adjusted which is a time consuming process. There is also a worry that devices such as this will “normalize” society. even simple switches must be adjusted frequently. while still being perfected. where the user's ability to operate the device is not affected by their speech. what is possible with the hands of a non-disabled person. accuracy and precision that is comparable to. The BrainGate System may offer substantial improvement over existing assistive technologies. eye movements or ambient noise. For example.THE BRAINGATE 2011 The BrainGate Neural Interface System is being designed to one day allow the user to interface with a computer and/or other devices at a level of speed. these devices are often obtrusive and may prevent the user from being able to simultaneously use the device and at the same time establish eye contact or carry on conversations with others Potential advantages of the BrainGate System over other muscle driven or brain-based computer interface approaches include: its potential to interface with a computer without weeks or months of training. or even faster than. but has been approved for IDE status. Dept of EC 16 canara engineering college . and the ability to provide significantly more usefulness and utility than other approaches by connecting directly to the part of the brain that controls hand movement and gestures DISADVANTAGES The disadvantage of the BrainGate System is that at this time. As the device is perfected this will not be an issue. a process that can be time consuming. which means that it has been approved for pre-market clinical trials.
WITH A BRAINGATE YOU CAN: • Turn on or off the lights on your room • Check and read E-mails • Play games in computer • Use your PC • • Watch and control your Television Control a robotic arm In the next two years. Cyberkinetics hopes to refine the chip to develop a wireless version No need for a plug Safe Less visible Dept of EC 17 canara engineering college .THE BRAINGATE 2011 CONCLUSION The invention of Braingate is such a revolution in medical field. computers or wheelchairs. The remarkable breakthrough offers hope that people who are paralysed will one day be able to independently operate artificial limbs.
howstuffworks.com (13-3-2011) http://www.cyberkineticsinc.com (13-3-2011) Dept of EC 18 canara engineering college .wired.wikipedia.THE BRAINGATE 2011 REFERENCES • • • • • http://www.com (12-3-2011 ) http://www.com (12-3-2011) http://www.org (12-3-2011 ) http://www.bbcnews.
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