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Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria Ministry of High Education and Scientific Research Mentouri University Constantine Faculty of Letters

s and Languages Department of Languages

The Efficiency of Using Songs to Learn Vocabulary.

The Efficiency of Using Songs Constantine. The Case of 1 Year Students, University of to Teach
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Research proposal for the partial fulfillment of a Master Degree in Applied Language Studies

Presented by: Supervised by: Mr.Belahouane Farid, Dr. Nacif Labed Miss. Boukerrou Hassiba,

2010 - 2011

Dedications

I dedicate this work to my mother and father, to my brother Khaled, to my sisters Widad and Fouzia, to all my nephews and nieces especially the lovely angel Roqia, I also would like to dedicate it to my life long friends Mohamed, Amin, to my roommates Oussama, Shirif, Abdallah, Abdalmonam, Ilyes and to those whom I love and cherish. Farid Belahouane

I dedicate this work to: The soul of my father whom I owe all my success. I will be always grateful to my tender mother for her never ending love . To my lovely .sister Samira and to my dear brother Lotfi. To my adorable nephew Chawki Khalil khilouand to my little niece Katr el Nadda. To my best friend Meriem.

Hassiba Boukerrou

Acknowledgments

Praise to Allah for giving us the ability to complete this work. We are deeply grateful to our supervisor Dr. Nacif Labed for his great help, precious advice and guidance. We wish to thank the board of examiners for reading our dissertation. We are grateful to miss Boulekroun Mariem and Miss Chalbi Rym. Heartfelt gratitude for all our teachers. Our deepest gratitude goes to all our families for their support and offering us the best conditions for working at ease. Special thanks to our parents for whom we owe all our success. We also wish to thank our brothers and sisters for their help. Last but not least, we thank our friends and classmates for their support and help.

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Abstract

This study aims to explore the efficiency of using songs to learn vocabulary. The main objective is to show that the integration of songs in English Oral Expression classrooms can be beneficial for EFL learners in terms of learning the vocabulary. To gather data for the present research, two tools were used: two questionnaires, second a test. Both questionnaires were administered to a sample of 20 students and 10 O.E teachers in English Department, University of Constantine. The second tool is a test that consists of a pre test and a post test. The first one aims at evaluating learners' vocabulary. The second aims at finding out whether our learners have benefited from songs. The findings have revealed, to a great extent, what was hypothesized that the use of songs for first year students of English is beneficial to learn a new vocabulary.

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List of Tables

Table 1: Age....................................................................................................................... Table 2: Stream of study Table 3: Reasons for studying English............................................................................... Table 4: Level of proficiency............................................................................................. Table 5: Degree of help offered......................................................................................... Table 6: Skills developed in order of importance.............................................................. Table 7: Skills which need to be developed...................................................................... Table 8: Tools usually used to improve English................................................................ Table 9: Students view about the listening materials........................................................ Table 10: Listening materials enjoyed best........................................................................ Table 11: students agreement about their involvement in choosing the listening............ materials Table 12: Students view about songs as a listening input................................................ Table 13: Degree held........................................................................................................ Table 14: Years spent in teaching...................................................................................... Table 15: Yes/No answers.................................................................................................. Table 16: Focus while teaching O.E.................................................................................. Table 17: Tools used in O.E............................................................................................... Table 18: Frequency of integrating songs.......................................................................... Table 19: Reasons of failure in participating..................................................................... Table 20: Difficulties encountered..................................................................................... Table 21: Student view about songs................................................................................. Table 22: Purpose behind using songs............................................................................... Table 23: Students Answers to the word troubles .. Table 24: Students Answers to the word long for. iv

33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 37 37 38

38 40 41 41 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 47 48

Table 25: Students Answers to the word hide away. Table 26: Students Answers to the word beneath. Table 27: Students Answers to the word refrain... Table 28: Students Answers to the word shoulders Table 29: Students Answers to the word skin... Table 30: Students Answers to the word troubles . Table 31: Students Answers to the word long for Table 32: Students Answers to the word hide away Table 33: Students Answers to the word beneath. Table 34: Students Answers to the word refrain... Table 35: Students Answers to the word shoulders Table 36: Students Answers to the word skin.. Table 37: Comparison between pre and post test results.

48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 55 55 56

List of Figure

Figure 01: The Aspects That Encounter the Concept of Vocabulary..

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List of abbreviations

ESL: English Second Language. EFL: English foreign Language. O.E: Oral Expression. L.M.D: Licence, Master, Doctorat.

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Table of Contents Chapter one: The Efficiency of Using Songs to Learn Vocabulary

Introduction..01 1. Listening...02 1.1. Definition...02 1.2. The Importance of Listening..03 1.3. The Nature of Listening Comprehension...04 1.4. The Process of Listening Comprehension..05 1.5. Factors Influencing Listening.....05 1.5.1. Culture.06 1.5.2. Topic....06 1.5.3. Content....07 1.5.4. Physical and Psychological States...07 1.5.5. The listeners Apprehension........07 1.6. Types of Listening..08 1.6.1. Informative Listening...08 1.6.2. Relationship Listening..10 1.6.3. Appreciative Listening..11 1.6.4. Critical Listening...12 1.6.5. Discriminative Listening...12 1.7. Strategies of Listening Comprehension.......13 1.7.1. Top-down Strategies.....13 1.7.2. Bottom-up Strategies....13 2. Vocabulary......14 2.1. Definition ....14 2.2. The Importance of Vocabulary...16 2.3. Steps of Learning and Teaching Vocabulary..16 2.3.1. Steps of Learning Vocabulary......16 2.3.2. Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary.....20 vii

3. Using Songs in EFL Classes......26 3.1. Using Songs to Enhance Learners Desire to Learn......27 3.2. Using Songs to Learn Vocabulary.....28 Conclusion...29

Chapter Two: The Fieldwork

Introduction 32 2.1.The Sample and Randomization. 32 2.2. Tools of Research. 33 2.2.1. The Students Questionnaire.. 33 2.2.2. The Teachers Questionnaire.. 40 2.2.2.1. Analysis of the Teachers Questionnaire. 40 2.2.2.2. Discussion of the Results. 45 2.3. The Test. 46 2.3.1. The Pre-test 46 2.3.2. The Post-test...... 51 Conclusion57 General conclusion58 Bibliography..60 Appendices64

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The Efficiency of Using Songs to Learn Vocabulary The Case of 1st Year Students, University of Constantine

Introduction

Because English is nowadays the lingua franca, the aim of learners is to become fluent speakers of this language. To help them learn English, we see that songs could play a vital role for they are important asset to language learning, and can be used by teachers in the classroom; as well as student interested in extra practice while learning English on their own. Teaching English through songs is believed to improve vocabulary and makes learning a pleasurable activity. The choice of such songs will greatly depend on the students' age, taste and current level.

Statement of the Problem To master a language refers to one's ability to speak fluently that language. To be a fluent speaker means to have a rich vocabulary. What we noticed is that our learners are in desperate need for a way to enrich their vocabulary.

Aims of the Study The objective of this study is to analyse the effects of using songs by English teachers to improve their learners' language. We will try to see how efficient it is to use songs in classroom to teach vocabulary and to expose them to real language.

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Research Questions and Hypothesis Before we undertake our research, we ask the following research questions: Do students benefit from listening to songs to enrich their vocabulary? Do songs help them improve their vocabulary stock and help them use it later? Will songs motivate them to be competent learners of English?

In the light of the previous questions, we hypothesis that: if we integrate English songs in Listening Comprehension courses, learners will greatly benefit from in that they will enrich their vocabulary.

Research Tools and Methodology In the present research, we intend to use two questionnaires and a test. We intend to administer one questionnaire to Oral Expression teachers, and another one for 1st year students. Both aim at finding out teachers' and learners' opinions about using songs. We will administer two written tests in the form of a pre-test and a post-test. The first test aims at evaluating learners' vocabulary (to be chosen later). The second aims at finding out whether our learners have benefited from songs.

Population and Sampling In this research, we will deal with 1st year students at the department of languages from the parent population. A sample of 20 students will be randomly chosen. By randomization we will guarantee that any member of the group would have an equal chance to receive the experiment treatment.

Structure of the Study Our research will consist of two chapters. Chapter One will highlight the importance of the listening skill in language learning. Equally important, we will tackle the different methods used in teaching Listening Comprehension through using songs. Chapter Two will be devoted to the fieldwork.

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Chapter One: The Efficiency of Using Songs to Learn Vocabulary

Introduction..01 1. Listening.02 1.2. Definition...02 1.3. The Importance of Listening..03 1.4. The Nature of Listening Comprehension...04 1.5. The Process of Listening Comprehension..05 1.6. Factors Influencing Listening....05 1.6.1. Culture..06 1.6.2. Topic...06 1.6.3. Content...07 1.6.4. Physical and Psychological States..07 1.6.5. The listeners Apprehension...07 1.7. Types of Listening..08 1.6.1. Informative Listening..08 1.6.1.1. Vocabulary....09 1.6.1.2. Concentration....09 1.6.1.3. Memory.10 1.6.2. Relationship Listening.10 1.6.2.1. Attending....10 1.6.2.2. Supporting.......11 1.6.2.3. Emphasizing....11 1.6.3. Appreciative Listening.11 1.6.4. Critical Listening..12 1.6.5. Discriminative Listening..12 1.7. Strategies of Listening Comprehension......13 1.7.1. Top-down Strategies....13 1.7.2. Bottom-up Strategies...13

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Vocabulary.........14 xii

2.1.

Definition .....14

2.2. The Importance of Vocabulary..16 2.3. Steps of Learning and Teaching Vocabulary.16 2.3.1. Steps of Learning Vocabulary..16 2.3.1.1. Encountering New Words...17 2.3.1.2. Getting the Word Form...18 2.3.1.3. Getting the Word Meaning..18 2.3.1.4. Consolidating in Memory Word Form and Meaning.19 2.3.1.5. Using the Word..19 2.3.2. Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary..20 2.3.2.1. Unplanned Vocabulary Teaching20 2.3.2.2. Planned Vocabulary Teaching.21 2.3.2.2.1. Dictionaries...21 2.3.2.2.2. Glossary22 2.3.2.2.3. Translation22 2.3.2.3. Focusing on Form23 2.3.2.3.1. Affixation.23 2.3.2.3.1.1. Prefixes....23 2.3.2.3.1.2. Suffixes 23 2.3.2.3.2. Compounding ...24 2.3.2.3.3. Conversion ...24 2.3.2.4. Focusing on Word Meaning.25 2.3.2.4.1. Synonyms .25 2.3.2.4.2. Antonyms..............................................................................26 2.3.2.4.3. Hyponyms.26 3. Using Songs in EFL Classes26 3.1. 3.2. Using Songs to Enhance Learners Desire to Learn..27 Using Songs to Learn Vocabulary.....28

Conclusion.....29

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Chapter One: The Efficiency of Using Songs to Learn Vocabulary

Introduction Because English is nowadays the lingua franca, the English department is the direction of many learners who freshly succeeded in their baccalaureate exam. English teachers are faced with a much great challenge. They are required to help their students not only to be efficient readers or speakers but also to be active listeners since many of them will need to use English for further study or work in real life. Vocabulary is another challenge that faces teachers since it is central to language teaching and learning. It means that mastering vocabulary, along with grammar, will enable learners to easily produce spoken or written sentences. This will also enable them to communicate with other people fluently and express their opinions or ideas conveniently. Songs, for example, are an important asset to language learning since they can be used by teachers in the classroom; as well as students interested in extra practice or learning English on their own. The songs adopted will depend on the students' age and current level. Whatever the students age and level, using songs to learn English vocabulary makes learning more fun and may improve students listening skill. In this chapter, we will try to shed some light on the theoretical side of the listening skill, vocabulary and use of songs in EFL classrooms. A whole section was devoted to the listening skill; it consists of a definition, the nature, the importance, the strategies, the process and the types of listening. The second section deals with vocabulary. It consists of a definition, the importance and the steps of teaching/learning vocabulary. The last section is devoted to the use of songs in EFL classrooms to learn vocabulary.

1. Listening

Foreign language listening comprehension is a complex process and crucial in the development of second language competence; yet, the importance of listening in language learning has only been recognized recently (Celce-Murcia, 2001). In the past, the role of listening comprehension in language learning was undervalued. But at present, some researchers have devoted attention to the listening skill because they believe that it is an important skill in teaching and learning. For instance, Nunan (1998:01) noted that "listening is the basic skill in language learning. Without listening skill, learners will never learn to communicate effectively. In fact over 50% of the time that students spend functioning in a foreign language will be devoted to listening."

1.1. Definition

It is not easy to give an adequate definition to listening due to the fact that listening is a covert process, complex and hence difficult to investigate. Rost (1994) argues that Listening is less directly observed and less noticeable in both its development and its everyday use and here it is meant that in our daily life we do not give much attention to the listening skill or to the ways that help improving it.

Listening is among the four basic language skills. It is a receptive skill, that is to say, it requires responding to language rather than producing it (Pulverness, 2005:30) in the same scope, Hedge (2000) sees that second language learners are trained to hear English sounds and structures widely through videos, tapes, songs and so forth. Accordingly, there is actually a great interest in oral skills, and the ability to understand and participate in spoken communication is one of several more recent educational focuses. This field has generated a stranger focus on listening in F.L classrooms (229).

Listening is a source of knowledge, values and integration with foreign cultures. For these reasons listening skills are taking a major importance in teaching foreign languages and especially in teaching English as a FL. In our era of fast information, listening skills are a crucial element in the process of acquiring foreign languages. Othman and Vanathus (2004:19) point out that for too long listening has been given little attention in the English language classroom. This could be due to the fact that there has been a back of research interest into listening. Furthermore, listening has often been considered as a passive skill through which learners just pick up. Teachers believe that exposing students to spoken language is a sufficient instruction in listening comprehension .Now; teachers are thinking that it is no more than a passive skill and for listening comprehension learners have only to be exposed to spoken language.

1.2. The Importance of Listening Most students want to be able to understand what people are saying to them in English, either face-to-face, on T.V or on radio and cinema, or on tapes, on CDs or on other recorded medias. Exposing students to one of these will be useful for them. This is especially important since the way people speak is often different from the way they write. Listening is good for students pronunciation, too, in that the more they hear and understand spoken English, the more they acquire the appropriate pitch, intonation, stress, and connected speech. One of the main sources of listening for students is the voice of the teacher, but it is not enough. In effect, it is important for students to be exposed for more than one voice because the more language varieties they listen to, the more their listening

comprehension is improved. (Harmer. 2007:133).

1.3. The Nature of Listening Comprehension Wang Shouyuan (2003) believes that listening is the important skill among the others ; it needs serious attention thats why teachers have to understand the listening process and its nature. In other words, teachers need to comprehend the theory of listening and learn how to put it in clear methodology in order to improve the listening skill of their students and make them understand that listening is the basic aspect of English learning. According to constructivist linguists, foreign language teaching should focus on language form and structure because listening goes with all the four language forms. Teachers have to make their students understand a text or a passage from a small unit to the large one, i.e. they should know how to differentiate between the pronunciation of vowels and consonants then understand the meaning of words and sentences and discourse. In this way, students understand the meaning of the whole text by knowing the different sounds that constitute the word, which in turn, will help them understand the meaning of sentences which contribute in understanding the whole text. functional linguists, who consider language as a communicative tool believe that teaching listening is not just making students hear sounds, words or sentences but to make them develop their abilities to understand the speakers intentions accurately and communicate with others effectively. Accordingly, teachers have to teach their students how to communicate in real situations even by using extra-linguistics features to get the meaning .For example in the past, the Algerian English text books consisted of many units in which there was focus on grammar and writing i.e. each unit was focusing only on one grammatical rule and at the end of it teachers asked their students to write a paragraph by using what they have learnt in grammar. However, in the recent time the English books are more focusing on communication than grammar.

1.4. The Process of Listening Comprehension With the development of language teaching theory, there has been greater emphasis on the process of listening comprehension. Many scholars tried to give an account of this highly complex and important skill. Wipf (1984) asserts that listeners must discriminate between sounds, understand vocabulary and grammatical structures, interpret stress and intonation, understand intention and retain and interpret this within the immediate as well as the larger socio-cultural context of the utterance. Rost (2002) refers to listening in terms of orientations. He defines it as a process of receiving what the speaker actually says the receptive orientation-; constructing and representing meaning the constructive orientation-; negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding the collaborative orientation- and, creating meaning through involvement, imagination and empathy the transformative orientation. Listening, then, is a complex, active process of interpretation in which listeners go with what they hear; link it to what they already know in order to make sense of what is being.

1.5. Factors Influencing Listening Communication as a process includes specific components namely: sources, messages, channel of transmission, the environment of communication and noise. These components may cause the process to fail. Hence, an understanding of these factors is very important to diagnose what causes communication to fail or prevents the listener from comprehending the message.

1.5.1. Culture Culture has a strong effect on foreign language learning and listening comprehension in particular as it is said to be an important factor in communication process. It determines how a group of people communicate, with whom, about what, etc. Samovare and Peter (1985:20) argue that culture and communication are inseparable, because () our entire repertory of communicative behaviours [including listening] is dependent largely on the culture in which we have been raised. Lots of aspects related to communication are related to culture e.g.: turn taking, style and register choice. As an example to show the relevance of culture in the comprehension of messages, lets consider the following exchange. Someone asks someone else do you like ice cream?, the other answers "the pope is catholic". If the listener of this conversation is an outsider, he will never understand what they mean because the response seems irrelevant and, there is no obvious connection between the question and it response. However; if he belongs to the same culture he will get the meaning easily since the response has direct relation to the question. In fact it means it is obvious that I like ice cream.

1.5.2. Topic The topic dealt with while using the listening materials has a strong effect on the degree of listening comprehension. If the listener has a previous knowledge about the topic he/she will not find any difficulty in understanding. if the listener had previous knowledge about the topic, he would find it easier to understand what is being said. But if the listener does not have previous knowledge about the topic, he will have to make efforts in order to understand what he/she listens to. In other words, while teaching listening comprehension, we
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activate first the already existing knowledge, or at least, we provide something close to the topic in hand so as to facilitate understanding.

1.5.3. Content If the speech event to which we attend is contextualised, comprehension is improved. Lets imagine an individual listening to unrelated chunks of vocabulary or utterances, at this stage the listener has to imagine and fill an imaginary context to conceive the speech event better. For a while, the listener thinks that the utterances are linked somehow, or he may force him/herself to create a link if it is possible at all.

1.5.4. Physical and Psychological States Our physical and psychological states like fatigue, headache, illness, pressure, nervousness, anxiety, etc., influence both the ability to listen and speak. If learners do not feel good while listening, or are worried about the listening task and its outcome when it is marked, they may not perform well. Lets take a learner who is having a cold for example, it would be very hard for him to keep up with what the teacher is saying and would rather focus on what is going on inside his body. The same will happen to a learner who is being lectured on atoms and electrons while he is specialised or interested in literary works. So, the physical and psychological states of the listener have a great impact on listening comprehension.

1.5.5. The Listeners Apprehension In addition to the pre-mentioned factors, listener apprehension influences deeply the listening comprehension ability. Clark (1989) sustains that a listeners apprehension along willingness to take part in the communication process may result either in rendering the

person more confident, and thus listening more effectively or less confident, and hence listening less effectively. The listener then, has to know all the factors influencing the listening comprehension ability in order to diagnose the degree of influence, and subsequently to select the appropriate listening materials. Also, such knowledge helps to provide the listener with the required strategy to use that to reduce the influence of a particular factor.

1. 6. Types of Listening While going through different situations, we use different types of listening. We may listen to obtain information, improve a relationship, gain appreciation for something, make discriminations, or engage in a critical evaluation. The type of listening depends on the objective of the listener. These are:

1.6.1. Informative Listening Informative listening is the situation in which the listeners first interest is to understand the message being delivered by the speaker. Listeners are said to be successful ones as the meaning they assign to messages is as close as possible to that which the sender or the speaker intended. Informative listening, or listening to understand, is found in different areas of our lives. Much of our learning comes from informative listening, for instance, while listening to teachers lectures and instructions, what we learn depends on how well we listen. In the work place, we listen to understand new practices or procedures and how well we perform depends on how well we listen. We listen to reports, speeches, and instructions; if we listen poorly, we will not be able to grasp the information needed. At times, careful informative listening is crucial. At other times, careless listening surely results in only

misunderstanding. Whatever the situation is effective, listening needs that you concentrate on the message and its source. There are three main key variables related to informative listening. Knowing these variables may help in improving ones informative listening skills, that is, you will become increasingly successful in understanding what the speaker means.

1.6.1.1. Vocabulary The relationship between vocabulary and listening has never been determined, but it is clear that enriching vocabulary will increase the ability for better understanding. Having a genuine interest in words and language, making a conscious effort to learn new words, breaking down unfamiliar words into their component parts-all these things help to improve vocabulary (Kline, 1996:30).

Another good way to improve vocabulary is to have the ability to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words from the context they appear in. Sometimes, unfamiliar words occur with synonyms: her attractive, winsome personality won us over. At other times, a contrast is drawn: He is usually quite energetic, but today he seemed lethargic.

1.6.1.2. Concentration There are many reasons people do not concentrate when listening. Sometimes, listeners may try to divide their attention. At other times, listeners are preoccupied with something other than the speaker of the moment, and sometimes, listeners are too concerned with their own needs to concentrate on the message being delivered by the speaker. Or, they lack curiosity, energy or interest. Simply, many people have not learned to concentrate while listening. (Kline, 1996:31)

1.6.1.3. Memory It is a crucial variable to informative listening; you cannot process listening without bringing memory into use. More specifically, memory helps your informative listening into three ways. It allows you recall previous knowledge about the subject being discussed, in other words, without memory you would have no knowledge bank. It establishes expectations about what you will encounter, you would be unable to drive in heavy traffic or react to new situations, or make common decisions in life without memory of your past experiences. It allows you to understand what others say. Without memory of the meaning of words, you could not communicate with anyone else, without memory of concepts and ideas you could not understand the meaning of messages.

1.6.2. Relationship Listening The purpose of this type of listening is to help an individual or to improve the relationship between people. Therapeutic listening is a special type of relationship listening. It brings to mind situations where counsellors, medical personnel, or other professionals allow a trouble person to talk through a problem, and it is also used when listening to friends. Although relationship listening requires you to listen for information, the emphasis is on understanding the other person. Three behaviours are keys to effective relationship listening: attending, supporting and empathizing.

1.6.2.1. Attending It indicates that the listener is focusing on the speaker. Nonverbal cues are crucial in relationship listening as they indicate whether you are attending to the speaker or you are not.

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Eye contact is one of the most important attending behaviours, looking appreciably and comfortably at the speaker reflects that you are following what the speaker is saying. In addition to eye contact, we have head nods, smiles, frowns and vocal cues such as uh, huh all these are attending behaviours.

1.6.2.2. Supporting Many responses have a negative or non-supportive effect; for example, interrupting the speaker, changing the subject, turning the conversation towards yourself, giving advice are all behaviours which have an adverse effect on the relationship. Sometimes the best response is silence. Wise relationship listeners know when to talk and when to just listen and, they generally listen more than they talk.

1.6.2.3. Empathizing It is feeling and thinking with another person. An empathic listener is able to go into the world of another person as the other sees, hear as the other hears, and feel as the other feels. (Kline, 1996: 33).

1.6.3. Appreciative Listening It includes listening to music for enjoyment, to speakers because you like their style, to your choices in theatre, T.V, radio or films. Appreciative listening refers to the listener response to the source of the messages. That which provides appreciative listening for one person may not provide it for another. For example, rap music is a source of appreciative listening for me but it may provide something else for another person (Kline, 1996: 34).

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1.6.4. Critical Listening The ability to listen critically is essential in democracy, on the job, in the community, in family, in other words, there is practically no place you can go where critical listening is unimportant. When listening to a message which needs a critical judgement or response, you ask yourself: is the speaker a credible source? One who is both an expert on the subject and one who can be trusted. Remember that the person you are listening to may have a strong personality, but this does not mean that he is credible because he may be knowledgeable in one area but he is not in another area. So, effective critical listening requires careful judgement about the expertness and the trustworthiness of the speaker (Kline, 1996:40).

1.6.5. Discriminative Listening The final type of listening is discriminative listening; it may be the most important type, for it is basic to the four types. By being sensitive to changes in the speakers rate, volume, force, pitch, and emphasis, the informative listener can detect even nuances of difference in meaning. By sensing the impact of certain responses such as uh, huh or I see, relationship listening can be strengthened. Detection of differences between sounds made by different instruments enhances appreciative listening. Finally, sensitivity to pauses, and other vocal and non-verbal cues, allows critical listeners to more accurately judge not only the speakers message, but his intentions as well. Effective listening, whether informative, relational, appreciative, critical or discriminative, requires skill. In some cases, the skills are the same for the various types of listening; in some cases, they are quite different. (Kline, 1996:48)

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1.7. Strategies of Listening Comprehension Listening strategies are set of activities that lead to the understanding of listening input. Such strategies may be classified on the basis of the listeners processing of the input. 1.7.1.Topdown Strategies The listener makes use of background knowledge and context to interpret the heard message. Top down strategies include: Listening for the main idea; here, the listener tries to grasp the general meaning of what is heard.

Predicting; the listener also may predict what is meant by the message by relying on contextual factors. Drawing inferences; the inferences may be also made by the listener. Here, he/she relates what is heard with real referents.

Summarizing; the last step is to summarize the heard message, and get a clearer picture

of the message.

1.7.2. Bottom-up Strategies Are those strategies the listener relies on to get the meaning of the heard message? Here, the listener focuses on the linguistic features of the text such as word, their combination, structure and style etc. Such strategies include: Listening for specific details, a listener looks for specific details rather than a general idea. Recognizing cognates i.e. understand the meaning of words.

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Recognizing word-order patterns; word-order is important for the listener to interpret the heard message.

The comprehension of heard messages by the learners can be facilitated if they make use of metacognitive and socio- effective strategies i.e. top-down strategies. According to OMalley and Chamot (1990) and Vandergrift (1997), metacognitive strategies are very important because they regulate and direct the language learning process. For that, the skilled listeners use more metacognitive strategies than their less-skilled counterparts.

2. Vocabulary Nowadays, teaching vocabulary in EFL classrooms is very important. Lewis (1993) posits that vocabulary should be at the center of language teaching because language consists of grammaticalized lexis not lexicalized grammar (quoted in Laraba2007:125). In other words while learning a language, grammar is not sufficient. EFL learners can convey meaning without using correct grammatical sentences. This is evidence that learning a language goes with knowing its vocabulary more than its grammar.

2.1 Definition It is too difficult to define vocabulary because it is related to different views about its nature and use. Todd (1987) argues that there is no fixed definition. He explains that the word is related to an orthographic, morphological, lexical and semantic aspect. The orthographic word is a written sequence which has a white space at each end but no white space in the middle. this word exists only in written texts, and it has no existence in speech. The morphological word has to do only with the form. The lexical word considers all the possible
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forms that can be related by one meaning. The semantic word considers the distinction between items that may be morphologically identical but differ in meaning. Hatch and Brown (1995) define vocabulary as a list or set of words for particular language, or a list or set of words that an individual speaker of a language might use. According to Lehrer (2000:4-15-16), the term vocabulary refers to the knowledge of words and their meanings. However, this definition is too weak. First, words have two forms: oral and print. Oral vocabulary is those words that we recognize and use in listening and speaking, while print vocabulary refers to the words that we recognize in reading and writing. Second, word knowledge also comes into two forms: receptive and productive. We mean by receptive vocabulary those words that are recognized when we hear or see them. Productive vocabulary is the words that we use when we speak or write. As a result, Lehrer (2000) defines vocabulary as knowledge of words and word meanings in both oral and print language and in productive and receptive forms.

Figure 01. The aspects that encounter the concept of vocabulary [Pilulski, J .J., and S, Templon (2004:02) ]

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2.2. The Importance of Vocabulary Most EFL learners spend many years studying English grammar, but they still cannot speak fluent, natural English. Grammar is only a part of language. There is no doubt that knowing grammar can help one speak and write correctly; however, one needs to have a good vocabulary size to speak and write naturally and effectively. That is why, it would be impossible to learn a language without learning its vocabulary. According to Rivers (1968) language is not dry bones but a living, growing entity, clothed in the flesh of words. Harmer (1991) also believes that if language structures make up the skeleton of language, it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh. This means that the two writers believe that vocabulary is a-if not the most- crucial part in language and meaning cannot be expressed unless words are used. Wilkins (1972) states that if you spend most of your time studying grammar, your English will not improve very much, you will see most improvement if you learn more words and expressions. You can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words. The same view is held by Krashen (1993), who considers vocabulary so important because usually EFL learners face problems in communication with native speakers of the host country not because they do not master grammatical rules, but mainly because their vocabulary repertoire is more or less poor.

2.3. Steps of Learning and Teaching Vocabulary 2.3.1. Steps of Learning Vocabulary Since without grammar very little can be conveyed and without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed (Thornbury, 2002:13), much more attention should be switched by

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language teachers to how learners should acquire new vocabulary. Thus, learners should be provided with a large range of vocabulary so that they will be able to discuss any subject. This can be done through five steps which look essential for learners in their vocabulary learning. These steps are suggested by Brown and Payne.

2.3.1.1. Encountering New Words It is considered as the main step in the process of learning vocabulary; which means finding sources towards. The learners task is ,thus, to read books, magazines, newspapers, stories, or to practicing crossed puzzles, to listen to songs, or even radio and television. There are some factors controlling the learners acquisition of words. Interests and motivation lead learners to concentrate on some words rather than others. For example, boys interests are more focused on learning names of vehicles, wild animals; girls interests are more directed to learn items which are related to fashion and jewelry, etc. In addition to interests, learners way of learning new words may differ from one learner to another. They always like to acquire words which satisfy their needs. Another factor is the work with interactive video materials. Such words seem to be learnt more quickly than other words in written form of exercises. Also, words which are frequently used by the teacher may increase the learners acquisition. Similarly, single words are easily learnt in their appropriate context. This way of learning is called -accidental learning- where the vocabulary can be leant unintentionally. It is the result of non-planned activities such as dialogues, reading passages and other materials without direct inclusion of memorization, in other words, learning some vocabulary items incidentally. The learner attempts to guess the meaning of the new word throughout the clues available in the text. According to Schmidt (2000), incidental vocabulary learning is the focus of attention on the use of language rather than on the learning itself. However, learning

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vocabulary through crossword puzzles is an intentional learning in which the purpose of the learner is to learn new words.

2.3.1.2. Getting the Word Form The second basic step in vocabulary learning is getting a clear image of the word spelling, pronunciation or both. According to Hatch and Brown (1995:378) this can be done through many steps: (1) relating new words that sound alike in the learners native language (2) using sound symbols from the learners native language to write the sounds of words (3) associating words that are similar to words in the other language (4) seeing a word that looks like another word that the learner already knows. especially when learners are asked to define words. Getting the words form is very important

2.3.1.3. Getting the Word Meaning The third main step towards vocabulary learning is getting the meaning of the word. It is based on some methods and strategies such as asking native speakers or people whom know the learners native language about the meaning of words, relating new words to those the learner already know. The definition of word differs from one situation to another according to requirements needed and the learners level. Advanced learners often look for specific definitions of words to differentiate between near synonyms i.e. words which are close in meaning. However, those learners assume that the meaning of words is mainly found in dictionaries. Another way of getting definitions of words is having a bilingual friend or teacher; this will help the learner to grasp the meaning of words through their clarification.
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Finally, one very common way of the learning the meaning of words is contextualization and putting the words in different situations. The learner then will not find difficulties in guessing the meaning of new words. Although the depth of the words definition may vary, and the sources from which the meaning is extracted may be quite different. Learners must get the meaning of words in some manners, or the word cannot be considered truly learnt.

2.3.1.4. Consolidating in Memory Word Form and Meaning The fourth main step is to emphasize the consolidation of form and meaning in memory. This method calls for the learning of words through their appropriate context so that learners can acquire the word form and meaning at the same time. The most useful ways in this step are playing crossword puzzles, the learner can get the meaning of the word from the context of the clue.

2.3.1.5. Using the Word The last step in learning vocabulary is using the words. Some consider this step not necessary, especially if the aim behind knowing the word meaning is only receptive one i.e. they only want to know the meaning of words in the situation they appear in. However, if the aim is productive, word use is very important to test the learners knowledge of collocation, syntactic restriction and register appropriateness. Consequently, learners need all the five steps in order to enrich their vocabulary and have full knowledge about the word they want. This can be done through different activities, strategies, or techniques that learners apply in each step.

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2.3.2. Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary The interference of the teacher is necessary during classes. Thus, teachers are supposed to adopt some strategies and techniques to deal successfully with unfamiliar words. This includes planned and unplanned vocabulary teaching.

2.3.2.1. Unplanned Vocabulary Teaching Seal (1991:298) defines this term as the "teaching of problem vocabulary that comes up without warning in the course of lesson. Sometimes, students feel that they are in need to know the meaning of a vocabulary item during a lesson, and the teacher sometimes feel that is important to make certain clarifications. In this situation, the teacher will have to explain and exemplify. He suggests three stages in the unplanned vocabulary teaching: conveying the meaning, checking the meaning, consolidating. In the first stage, teachers try to convey the meaning of the target word using different ways such as miming, giving synonyms, using opposites, or translation. In the second stage, teachers have to check that their students have understood the meaning of the unknown word. This may be done by doing some activities to guarantee or test their understanding such as crossword puzzles. In the last stage of this kind of vocabulary teaching, teachers try to consolidate the information by asking the student to put the word in other contexts.

2.3.2.2. Planned Vocabulary Teaching Hatch and Brown (1995:415) refer to this method as intentional vocabulary instruction. To Seal (1991) it is when the teacher goes into the classroom with an item or set
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off vocabulary items that he/she has decided before hand will be taught during the course of the lesson (p.298). He mentioned two types of this kind of vocabulary teaching. In the first step, the teacher tries to predict that certain vocabulary items will be difficult for students to understand. So, he will prepare how he is going to teach them i.e. through his experience, he is able to provide students with the exact information they need. The second type of planned vocabulary teaching can be described as the vocabulary lesson. It can be taught separately as a module to enhance the FL learners stock of vocabulary, or it can be taught in addition to other activities such as reading (stories), listening (songs), discussion dialogues, recording, or solving crossword puzzles. There are many techniques which can be used in teaching vocabulary of a foreign language. We can use dictionaries, glossary; or translation.

2.3.2.2.1. Dictionaries The dictionary gives the meaning of words of language in an alphabetical order. It includes a words spelling, syllables, pronunciation, origin, meaning, etc. the use of the dictionary helps the students strengthen their capacity of dealing with words. It helps them build their vocabulary. In addition, it is a comprehensive source of general information. There are three types of dictionaries which are used by learners to improve learning a foreign language. First, the bilingual dictionary (BD) which is known also as translating dictionary. This type of dictionary translates words from a target language into the learners mother language or vice versa. Second, the monolingual dictionary (MD) is another type which helps the learner to improve his vocabulary. This type of dictionary is usually directed for native language learners. The last kind is the standard monolingual dictionary (SMD) which has been written with the native language in mind. These three categories of
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dictionaries are useful for learners vocabulary acquisition. The dictionary helps the learner to acquire new vocabulary, to enrich his culture about his language and to develop his skills. However, relying only on the actual use of words in all types of speech and writing, dictionaries can have a negative influence on the learner. It can make the learner lose concentration; it can break the sequence of thoughts of the reader.

2.3.2.2.2. Glossary According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, a glossary is a list of special words, expressions, especially those found in particular texts explaining its meaning. The best way for students to acquire new vocabulary is the glossary especially in literature.

2.3.2.2.3. Translation Translation means to give the equivalent of words in a target language from the mother language or another language. It is considered as a valuable means of acquiring vocabulary. It does not need a lot of time, especially in giving explanation to abstract conceptions such as: wisdom, happiness, freedom, etc.

2.3.2.3. Focusing on Form Learners encounter a lot of unfamiliar vocabularies when reading. Most of these words have a relationship with many words that they already know. Consequently, a word is subject to change in its form, this in turn will lead to the change of the word meaning and class. This is what is called word formation which is based on a set of regular relationship; affixation, compounding and conversion, as we can see in the following.
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2.3.2.3.1. Affixation It is the process of adding letters to words in order to change their meaning. 2.3.2.3.1.1. Prefixes A letter or a set of letters added to the beginning of a word in order to form a new one or to change its meaning. It is necessary to make learners aware of the usual meaning of such prefixes as: un, re, ex, and dis for example:

2.3.2.3.1.2. Suffixes A letter or a set of letters added to the end of words to form new words. Nouns related to verbs and marked by suffix: denial, departure, achievement, complexity. Nouns related to adjectives and marked by a suffix: closeness, capability, shyness. Adjectives plus -ish-: reddish, sheepish, sweetish. Words related to nouns: luxury, beastly, cultural.

2.3.2.3.2. Compounding It is the combination of two or more separate words with various meanings in order to create new words which are totally different in meaning from the one which made it:
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Adjective compounds: well spoken, long lasting, absentminded. Verbs compound: become, babysit. A noun compound: there are three kinds Noun+Noun: timetable, teaparty Possessive noun+ noun: fathers car, sisters coat. Prepositional structure: a film of violence. What should be mentioned ,here, is that English is very rich of compounds: nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, etc. but the largest class of compounds is nouns. Sometimes, between the two parts of compounds we find a hyphen, for example, dark-haired, watercooling.

2.3.2.3.3. Conversion It is the process of using an item in different classes without changing its form, and it is called zero affixation . The distinction between these word classes is done basing stress. In other words, it should look at stress marks. For example, subject and subject; conduct and conduct. However, in other cases of conversation pronunciation has also influence on words classification. For instance, advice and advise.

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2.3.2.4. Focusing on Word Meaning Knowing a word means to know its meaning, its semantic value. The latter may help the learners to differentiate between the match between words and their meaning. Semantic relationships are often expressed through the use of synonyms, antonyms, and hyponyms.

2.3.2.4.1. Synonyms Synonyms are words or expressions that have the same or nearly the same meaning as another in the same language. Dictionaries, traditionally, provide lists of words that are more or less synonymous in each country. Hatch and Brown (1995) stated that synonyms could take form of single words. In this situation, synonyms are interchangeable, for instance, the word vaccination is the equivalence of shots. However, native speakers tend to differentiate between the two synonyms in different ways, for example to cease is the synonym of to stop but to cease is much often used in discourse. Furthermore, the mother is unlikely to say to her child cease that rather than stop that. Second, we may also use expressions to indicate synonyms, for example, a level at school is the equivalent of stage or grade.

2.3.2.4.2. Antonyms Antonyms are words which mean the opposite of another word or words. They can be indicated on the bases of some features. For instance, we explain the word to pass by giving it the opposite to fail the same thing is true with long and short.

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2.3.2.4.3. Hyponyms It is often said that the person is easily detected through the family from which he descended. The same case for the meaning of word which can be determined through its family. For example, from the following list: baby, child, teen, doves, old. It is easy for the learner to detect the odd word doves. The other words in the list belong to the same family of the stages of life, while the word doves belongs to the family of birds. Relation of hyponyms refers to the members of the same class. It includes the upper term which is known as super-ordinate, and the lower term which is called hyponym and the relation between hyponyms is called co-hyponyms.

03. Using Songs in EFL Classes

After knowing the importance of vocabulary in learning a language and the advantages of using songs in EFL classrooms, we will discuss another aspect of using songs in an EFL class. In effect, many researchers discussed the role of using songs to learn vocabulary and believe that songs are one of the most powerful teaching tools to enhance students vocabularies.

3.1. Using Songs to Enhance Learners' Desire to Learn

After knowing the common problems that face EFL learners, Teachers have to find a tool to enhance the learners' desire to learn the language. It is obvious that a student is always a student no matter how old he is. Students learn better when they have the feeling that they are making progress. This happens when the atmosphere in the classroom facilitates it. There

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is a variety of activities that create this kind of atmosphere. It appears then that one of the best ways of doing it is through using songs. Songs are one of the most charming tools that the teachers can easily use in classrooms. Songs propose a change from habitual classroom actions. They can be exercises to teach a variety of language matters such as sentence patterns, vocabulary, pronunciation, rhythm, adjectives, and adverbs. According to Rivers (1987) they are the means in the course by which educational topics are presented successfully. They are valuable resources to expand students' abilities in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Sricoban and Metin (2000) have found that songs can develop the four skills. While used inside the classroom, a song can serve to improve the pronunciation of the different words found in its lyrics, and thus enhance speaking and listening. It can also enhance reading and writing if the lyrics are presented to learners who are asked to read them aloud or to do some writing tasks on them. This means that the development of the four skills is well balanced. As a result students can master English effectively and easily. Lo and Li (1998) argue that songs provide new atmosphere to EFL classrooms since they break classroom routine, consequently the four skills can be enhanced. Several authors as Adamowski (1997), Little (1983) and Monreal (1982) have advanced the belief that songs provide enjoyment and develop language skills. King (1996) summaries the advantages of using songs to the EFL learners, he states that songs can be used to: Present a topic, a language point, lexis: if the teachers aim is to teach his students assimilation in English, he could-for instance- present his learners with a song where assimilation is used. Practice a language point, lexis: used whenever the teacher wants his learners to practice a number of new words. In such cases, repeating those specific words as they are used in a song will be highly beneficial.
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Focus on common learners errors in a more direct way: if learners, for example, have a particular problem pronouncing a word, the teacher may provide them with a song where that word is used so they hear it and repeat it till they master it. Encourage extensive and intensive listening: especially when they are used in the language lab which depends on students level and needs. Stimulate discussion of attitude and feelings: songs, most of the time, deal with emotions and feelings. They ,therefore, provide a good starting point to make learners discuss their attitudes and feelings with others. Provide a relaxed classroom atmosphere: using anything different will in itself motivate learners and break the routine. Consequently, learners will be more at ease participating and dealing with each other and the teacher.

Bring variety and fun to learn: using songs to teach the language is highly

recommended since they are motivating in themselves and provide fun and pleasure for both teacher and learners.

3.2. Using Songs to Learn Vocabulary

Songs present opportunities for developing automaticity which is defined by Gatbonton and Segalwitz (1988:473) as a component of language fluency which involves both knowing what to say and producing language rapidly without pauses. The repetitive style of the song is seen as an activity where students create their own lyrics based on their interest. In other words, they use vocabulary they learnt from the song in similar contexts at first, and then extend their use to whole new contexts.

In the same vein, Baddeley (1990) believes that a combination between rhyme and meaning has a great effect on retention. He argues that many of us can still remember lines
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from songs taught in our first year in a foreign language class.(1990:246).as best example to support this view is what happens in traditional Islamic schools where teachers used to teach Quran to kids by combining rhyme with meaning because they know that the retention of the verses will be easier. This view is also shared by Buttner (2007) who states that whenever people learn songs they tend not to forget them.

To Schmitt (2000), too, students learn much vocabulary explicitly through direct instruction and attention i.e. teachers usually try to draw attention to their students about any word that seems new for them. However, learners need opportunities to learn vocabulary incidentally or indirectly i.e. teachers may use songs to acquire vocabulary intentionally without students being aware of. In effect, by exposing learners to many examples of words used in meaningful contexts, songs create such opportunities for indirect vocabulary learning.

Conclusion Words are the basic unit of language form. Without a sufficient vocabulary, one cannot communicate effectively or express ideas. Having a limited vocabulary is also a barrier that prevents students from learning a foreign language. If learners do not know how to expand their vocabulary, they gradually lose interest in learning.

We tried to deal with the problem of the lack of motivation and boredom as far as learning new vocabulary is concerned. We were looking for practical ways to make classes livelier and help students acquire English vocabulary in a more interesting way that led us to the topic of songs.

For the last two decades, EFL methodology has been actively considering the possibility of using music and songs in class. Songs are considered to be an effective tool for
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language teaching. Previously, we strongly believed that songs can be used to develop listening or singing only. However, in the majority of publications dealing with the topic, songs are recommended for teaching phonetics, grammar, speaking skills, and what is the most important for us songs appear to be a great tool for expanding the vocabulary of students.

Having done some research we found the topic of teaching vocabulary through songs very appealing. Bearing in mind our students needs and expectations, the subject seemed to be also relevant. We have always believed that teaching vocabulary is one of the most important elements of teaching English. Furthermore, we are strongly convinced that by using successful techniques and appealing tools (for example songs) to teach new vocabulary items, students will find words easier to remember and will become more motivated in class. By engaging in a pleasurable experience, learners are relaxed and their inhibitions about acquiring a second language are lessened.

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Chapter Two: The Fieldwork

Introduction 32 2.1.The Sample and Randomization. 32 2.2. Tools of Research. 33 2.2.1. The Students Questionnaire.. 2.2.1.1 Analysis of the Students Questionnaire.... 33 33

2.2.1.2 Discussion of the Results 39 2.2.2. The Teachers Questionnaire 40 2.2.2.1. Analysis of the Teachers Questionnaire 40 2.2.2.2. Discussion of the Results. 45 2.3. The Test. 46 2.3.1. The Pre-test 46 2.3.1.1. Description of the Pre-test............................ 46 2.3.1.2. Description and Discussion of the Results of the Pre-test 47 2.3.2. The Post-test... 51 2.3.2.1. Description of the Post-test... 51 2.3.2.2. Description and Discussion of the Results of the post-test 52 2.3.2.3. General Discussion of the Results of the Post-test. 56 Conclusion57

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Chapter Two: The Fieldwork

Introduction We devote this chapter to the practical part to investigate the effectiveness of using songs as a teaching material to enhance students acquisition of vocabulary. It is concerned with the description of the sample, the tools used and the analysis of the data obtained from both teachers and students questionnaires. The questionnaires used serve as a guideline to collect data about the affective side of learners and teachers techniques for learning vocabulary. Two tests have been administered, a pre-test and a post-test. They were used to gather empirical data of students application of songs. Moreover, our analysis will be followed by a discussion of the results obtained.

2.1. The Sample and Randomization The subjects of the sample are chosen from the 1st year LMD students of English at Mentouri University, Constantine. Among all the groups of first year students, group 03 was chosen randomly by the researchers to conduct the experiment. 20 subjects have been given a test and a questionnaire. They have been chosen on the basis of the homogeneity of their answers. This means that the papers analyzed have been those of the subjects who answered most of the questions. We chose our subjects from the first year students because, at this level, they are in their first stage of learning language . They still do not have a rich repertoire i.e. they are in the stage of building their repertoires. They most probably learn these new vocabularies from the songs that were presented to them during the experiment.

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2.2. Tools of Research Three main tools have been used to test our hypothesis and to answer our research questions are: a students questionnaire, a teachers questionnaire and a test.

2.2.1. Students Questionnaire The questionnaire is a written tool that presents respondents with a series of questions or statements to which they are to react either by writing out their answers or selecting from among existing answers. Students questionnaire was delivered in April, 2011 to 20 students chosen randomly among the whole students of the group.

2.2.1.1. Analysis of The Students Questionnaire 1. Age Age Number 18 1 5% 19 10 20 6 21 1 5% 22 2 Total 20

50% 30%

10% 100%

Table 1. Age Of the total respondents (N=20), 50% are 19 years old; 30% are 20 years old; 10% are 22 years old and 5% are 18 years old.

2. From what stream did you come?

Streams Number

Sci/Maths 2 10%

Management/ accounting 0 0%

Literacy 14 70%

Other s 4 20%

Total 20 100%

Table 2. Stream of study


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Of the total participants(N=20), 70% came from literacy stream; 20% came from other streams;10% came from a scientific/ mathematic stream; against nobody who came from management/accounting stream.

3. Was studying English ? Causes Number Personal choice 17 85% Imposed by parents 1 5% Dont know 2 10% Total 20 100%

Table 3. Reasons for studying English

Of the total informants (N=20), 85%say that studying English was their personal choice;10% say that they don not know; 5% say that it was imposed by their parents.

4. Which of the following best describes your level of proficiency in English? Level of proficiency Number Very high 2 10% A little above average 7 35% Average 11 55% Very low 0 0% Total 20 100%

Table 4. Level of proficiency Of the total respondents (N=20), 55% their level is average; 35% their level of proficiency is a little above the average; 10% say that their level of proficiency in English is very high; against nobody who has a very low level of proficiency. 5. To what extent did Oral Expression help you improve your oral proficiency? Degree of help offered Number Very much 13 65% somewha t 3 15% Dont know 1 5% Not very much 3 15% Not at all 0 0% Total 20 100%

Table 5. Degree of help offered

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Of the total respondents (N=20), 65% say that Oral Expression helps them very much in improving their oral proficiency; 15% say that they somewhat get help from Oral Expression; the same percentage say that Oral Expression doesnt help them very much; 5% say that they don not know to what extent Oral Expression helps them improve their oral proficiency; against nobody who says that Oral Expression does not help at all in improving oral proficiency.

6. List in order of importance the skills you developed in Oral Expression course? Skills in Interacting Interacting Listening Listening Speaking Speaking order of Listening Speaking Interacting Speaking Interacting Listening importance speaking listening speaking interacting listening interacting Number 1 1 1 5 5 7 5% 5% 5% 25% 25% 35%

Total 20 100%

Table 6. Skills developed in order of importance

Of the total respondents (N=20), 35% listed them as speaking, listening, interacting; 25% listed them as: listening speaking, interacting; another 25% listed the skills as: speaking, interacting, listening; 5% listed the skills as follows: interacting, speaking, listening; another 5% listed them as: listening, interacting, speaking and5% listed the skills developed in order of importance as follows: interacting, listening, speaking.

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7. Pick up the most important skills you think you need to develop?
Skill Speaking Reading Listening Speaking Speaking Speaking Speaking Listening Writing Total which Writing Interacting Writing Listening Reading Reading Speaking needs to Reading Listening Listening Listening Reading be developed Number 2 1 1 3 3 2 6 1 1 20 % 10% 5% 5% 15% 15% 10% 30% 5% 5% 100%

Table 7. Skills which need to be developed

Of the total respondents (N=20), 30% listed (speaking, reading, listening); 15% listed (speaking, interacting, listening); another 15% listed (speaking, writing, listening);10% listed only reading as the only skill which needs to be developed; 10% listed speaking and listening; 5% listed only reading; 5% listed (listening ,writing reading); 5% listed only listening and reading, and finally 5% listed (writing, speaking, reading ).

8. To improve your English what do you usually use?

Tools

Songs T.V

Books ; T.V

Songs, Books; Others 1 5%

Songs, Books, T.V 3 15%

Songs

T.V

Number %

3 15%

2 10%

6 30%

2 10%

Songs, Books, TV; Others 2 10%

Songs, T.V; Others 1 5%

Total

20 100%

Table 8. Tools usually used to improve English

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Of the total respondents (N=20), 30% use only songs; 15% use songs and T.V to improve their English; 15% use songs books and T.V; 10% use books and T.V to improve their English; 10% uses only T.V to improve their English; 10% use songs books, T.V and other methods like translating short stories from Arabic or French into English; 5% uses songs books and other tools like chat;5% uses songs , T.V, and other methods .

9. What do you think about the listening materials you had in Oral Expressing this year? Students view Number % Interesting 2 10% Stimulating 0 0% Enjoyable 1 5% Boring 2 10% Others 15 75% Total 20 100%

Table 9. Students view about the listening materials

75% of the total respondents say that they did not use any listening material; 10% say that they see that the listening materials interesting; 10% consider them boring; 5% consider the listening materials enjoyable; against nobody who considers them stimulating.

10. What listening materials did you enjoy best? Listening materials Number Dialogues Songs Reports 2 10% 5 25% 1 5% Storytelling 1 5% Others 11 55% Total 20 100%

Table 10. Listening materials enjoyed best

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55% of all the informants said that they didnt enjoy any of the materials because simply they did not have none of them; 25% enjoyed songs; 10% enjoyed dialogues; 5% enjoyed reports; 5% enjoyed storytelling.

11. Do you prefer to select the listening materials?

Options Number

Strongly agree 7 35%

Agree 10 50%

Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 3 0 0 15% 0% 0%

Total 20 100%

Table 11. students agreement about their involvement in choosing the listening materials

50% of our respondents agree on selecting the listening materials; 35%strongly agree on selecting the listening materials by themselves; 15% undecided about that; against nobody who disagrees or strongly disagree on selecting the listening materials by themselves. 12. List three listening materials you would like best to have in Oral Expression course? Our respondents answers differed from one student to another but the majority of the answers were: songs, dialogues, plays, storytelling, watching documentaries, watching

movies, reports and listening to poems.

13. What about songs as a listening input? Options Number Like very much 13 65% Like somewhat 5 25% Dont know 1 5% Dislike somewhat 1 5% Dislike very much 0 0% Total 20 100%

Table 12. Students view about songs as a listening input

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Of the total respondents (N=20), 65% like very much using songs as a listening input; 25% like that somewhat; 5% dont know about it; 5% dislike somewhat songs as a listening input; against nobody who dislikes very much using songs as a listening input.

14. If you like listening to songs in Oral Expression course, what are the benefits you got? The majority of the answers were: Knowing new words and their pronunciation Improving pronunciation and learning new idioms Learning how to listen carefully

2.2.1.2. Discussion of the Results While going through a deep analysis of students questionnaire, we notice that respondent ages range between 18 to 22 years old ( Table 1). Being freshmen makes students not aware of the right ways that help to improve their language skills, be it the speaking skill or the listening one. Respondents level of proficiency is generally average ( Table 4), therefore, they think that they are in need to develop much more the three skills: speaking, listening, interacting, this is clearly demonstrated in Table 6 (7, 35%). Also, 13.65% of students (Table 5)

acknowledge the help offered by Oral Expression in order to improve their level of proficiency. Results of Table 8 show that songs are the main tools that 6, 30%students use in order to develop their English. Thus, they like to choose their listening materials by themselves.

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This is demonstrated in Table 11 (10, 50%) agree on choosing the listening materials by themselves. 13,65% of our respondents (Table 12) prefer using songs as a listening input, because they find it easy to learn English through songs and they help them learn to listen carefully and learn new vocabulary items. This can be inferred from students answers to question 14.

2.2.2. The Teachers Questionnaire The teachers questionnaire is an 11-item questionnaire which has been administered to 12 teachers, currently teaching Oral Expression module at the department of foreign languages, University of Mentouri Constantine. It mainly aims at providing certain insights into the teachers background, standpoints, and attitudes about particular issues.

2.2.2.1. Analysis of the Teachers Questionnaire 1. Which degree do you hold? Degree PhD Magister B.A 10 83,33% 02 Total 12

Number 0 0%

16.66% 100%

Table 13. Degree held

Of the total respondents (N= 12), 83.33 % hold a magister degree; 16.66 % hold a B.A degree; against nobody who has a PhD degree.

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2. How long have you been teaching English? Period spent in teaching Number 2 years 3 years 5 years 9 years Total

4 33.33%

6 50%

1 8.33%

1 8.33%

12 100%

Table 14. Years spent in teaching Of the total informants (N=12), 50% have been teaching English for 3 years; 33.33% have been teaching English for 2 years; 8.33% have been teaching for 5 years; 8.33%have been teaching for 9 years. 3. Do you consider listening skill more important than speaking? Option Number Yes 3 25% Table 15. Yes/No answers 75% of the respondents consider the speaking skill more important than listening While 25% see the opposite. No 9 75% Total 12 100%

If yes, can you be more precise about your answer? Those who said that the listening skill is more important than speaking justified their choice by giving the following arguments:

Listening to native speakers can improve speaking. The more students listen the more they learn new vocabulary, intonation, etc. Students need to listen first in order to have an authentic English input

which will in turn help them speak later (output ).

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4. When you teach Oral Expression do you focus on? skill Number Listening Speaking Both 0 0% 0 0% 12 Total 12

100% 100%

Table 16. Focus while teaching O.E

100% of our respondents focus on both speaking and listening; against nobody who focuses only on listening or only on speaking.

5. What kind of tools do you likely use in Oral Expression course? Tools used Songs Videos Role playing Presentation Discussion Number % 2 16.66% 1 8.33% 1 8.33% 3 25% 3 25% 2 16.66%

Table 17. Tools used in O.E Of the total respondents (N=12),25% use (presentation, discussion); 25% use (songs, role playing, presentation; discussion); 16.66% of teachers use all the tools (songs, videos, role playing, presentation; discussion); 16.66% use (videos, presentation; discussion); 8.33% use only discussion, and finally 8.33% use (songs, videos, discussion).

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6. Do you integrate songs in your class?

frequency number

Always 1 8.33%

Often 3 25%

Rarely 3 25%

Never 5

Total 12

41.66% 100%

Table 18. Frequency of integrating songs

Of the total informants (N=12), 41.66% never integrate songs in their classes, while 25% answered that they rarely integrate songs. The same results were obtained by those who often integrate songs, and only 8.33% say that they always integrate songs in their classes.

7. Do you think that students failure in participating in the O.E course is because of?

Reasons of failure Poor listening Lack of vocabulary Teachers behaviour Others Number %

2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 16.66% 8.33% 16.66% 25% 8.33% 8.33% 8.33% 8.33% Table 19. Reasons of failure in participating

25% of the total informants say that the failure in participating is due to poor listening, lack of vocabulary; 16.66% say that the students failure in participating in Oral Expression is due to the teachers behaviour. 16.66% say that it is due to (lack of vocabulary, teachers behaviour, and other reasons). 8.33% say that the failure is due to (poor listening, lack of vocabulary, teachers behaviour). Also 8.33% say it is due to (lack of vocabulary; other reasons); 8.33% say that it is due to (poor listening, luck of vocabulary, teachers behaviour; other reasons); 8.33% say that it is due to (poor listening, luck of vocabulary; other reasons);

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8.33% say that it is due to only lack of vocabulary. Some of the other purposes that teachers think that they contribute to the students failure are: The topics are not inspiring or not interesting Lack of practice Lack of interest and bad classroom equipment Lack of self-confidence 8. Which difficulties do you encounter when using songs? Difficulties Number Classroom Timing Students management control 4 6 2 33,33% 50% 16.66% Table 20. Difficulties encountered Total 12 100%

Of the total informants (N=12), 50% encounter the difficulty of timing when using songs; 33.55% encounter the difficulty of classroom management; 16.66% encounter the difficulty of students control.

9. How do they find songs? Songs are Number Pleasurable Stimulating 9 2 75% 16,66% Difficult 1 8,33% Boring 0 0% Total 12 100%

Table 21. Teachers view about songs

75 % of our respondents say that their students find songs pleasurable; 16.66% answered that they find songs stimulating; 8.33% say that students find songs difficult, while nil answered that students find songs boring.

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10. When using songs what are your purposes? Purpose Fun Grammar Vocabulary Others Number % 2 5 2 1 1 1 8.33%

16.66% 41.66% 16.66% 8.33% 8.33% Table 22. Purpose behind using songs

Of the total respondents (N=12), 41.66% use songs to teach vocabulary. 16.66 % use songs for (fun, to teach vocabulary); 16.66% use songs to (teach vocabulary and for other purposes); 8.33% use songs for (fun, to teach vocabulary and for other purposes) also 8.33% use songs to teach (grammar and vocabulary), and finally 8.33% use songs for (fun, to teach vocabulary and grammar). Other purposes that teachers aim at while using songs: Improving the listening skill and training students ear on the English language Getting more exposed to the foreign language.

2.2.2.2. Discussion of the Results The majority of the respondents have the magister degree and they have been teaching English for no more than 3 years with some exceptions who have been teaching for 5 or 9 years as it is shown in table 13, 14 (3years 83.33% and 5 or 9 years 8.33%). This gives the impression that they do not have enough experience in teaching, and as a result they are not knowledgeable about some of the methods and techniques used in teaching- using some of the techniques include the use of different tools such as songs. Thus, lack of experience has an impact on the methods and tools used by the teacher.

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Teachers give much more importance to speaking skill rather than the listening skill, and they spend most of the time focusing on the speaking skill of their students. Because they think that if they focus on the speaking skill, students will be able to learn English if they are good only in speaking. In fact, teachers have forgotten that for being good speakers students, first, have to be good listeners. Actually, a comparison between the results of table 14 and 15 raises a contradiction as all the respondents (100%) say that they all focus on both listening and speaking while their answers were totally different when they were asked about which of the to skills is considered more important.

The negligence of teachers to the listening skill clearly appears when they were asked about the kind of tools they likely use in Oral Expression course. As the results show, they tend to work on enhancing students speaking skill rather than their listening one by using exhaustively tools like (presentations, discussions) and the results of table 17 confirms that (5, 41.66%) never use songs in their classes. What should be mentioned ,here, is that the small number of teachers who consider integrating songs in Oral Expression course beneficial for students are well informed about the types of problems that students may face while listening to a song, and they are knowledgeable about the benefits gained from songs, in terms of vocabulary or grammar as it is shown in table 18 and 19.

2.3. The Test 2.3.1. The Pre-test 2.3.1.1. Description of the Pre-test In the pre-test, the researchers devoted one session to explore the hypothesis in hand. That is to say, the experimenters selected randomly a group of 1 st year English students since

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they are in stage of building knowledge of vocabulary. Students at a higher level would have better mastery of the language and would therefore find the target words quite easy. The experimenters gave students seven different words taken from three songs of the Beatles which are: troubles, long for, hide away, beneath, refrain, shoulder and skin. The Beatles were chosen since their language fits the students level i.e. they are neither difficult nor easy. The selected songs are: Yesterday, Yellow Submarine and Hey Jud. Students were then asked to put those words in meaningful sentences to see whether they are already aware of their meanings. The aim of this task is to make sure students do not know the words so that the results of the experiment would not be biased.

2.3.1.1. Description and Discussion of the Results of The Pre-test 1st word: troubles = problems N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 18 00 02 20 90 00 10 100

Table 23. Students Answers to the word troubles The table shows that the majority of students answered correctly (90). This means that they were able to guess the meaning of the word, and put it in the appropriate context. (10) represents the rate of students who didnt answer i.e. they didnt write anything concerning this word.

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Despite the fact that the word is simple and seems known for the majority of students who got the correct answers, (10) of them did not answer. This implies that either they do not know what the word means, or they were just negligent. 2nd word: long for = miss N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 9 01 10 20 45 5 50 100

Table 24. Students Answers to the word long for The results show that (45) of students have correctly answered, only one student (5) who wrongly answered i.e. he /she misunderstood what the word means. (50) of students did not answer. This means that they were unable to get the meaning of the word.

3rd word: hide away = conceal N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 13 00 07 20 65 00 35 100

Table 25. Students Answers to the word hide away The majority of students (65) got the right answer which means that they understood the meaning of the word. Whereas; (35) of students were able to guess the meaning that is why they failed to write a sentence.

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4th word: beneath=under N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 00 03 17 20 00 15 85 100

Table 26. Students Answers of the word beneath We can notice from the table above that all the students were not able to get the meaning. For that reason, they left this word without an answer (00), or they responded that they didnt have any idea what it means. Few students (15) gave wrong answers. The meaning those students proposed is either next or near. e.g. 01: -my house is situated beneath the beach. e.g. 02: - she found pleasure in sitting beneath me e.g. 03: - children always want to sleep beneath their mothers.

5th Word: refrain= to prevent from doing something N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 00 04 16 20

00 20 80 100

Table 27. Students Answers to the word refrain The results show that all students failed to get the meaning of the word (00 ).that is why the rate of students who did not answer is very high (80). The remaining ones (20) have wrongly understood the meaning of the word. For these two students the interference
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occurs since they have understood that the word has the same meaning of the French word refrain that means-the verses that are repeated in songs-.for the other ones they understood that the word means something repeated. We can explain that these two students get the meaning through the form of the word since it begins with the prefix re which refers to something repeated. There examples are: -01- he refrains the bac exam. -02-the director had called me in order to refrain my interview. -03-refrain is the verses repeated between stanza. -04-i like a refrain from an old song.

6th Word: shoulders = either of the two parts of the body between the top of each arm and the neck N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 18 0 02 20 90 00 10 100

Table 28. Students Answers to the word shoulders The table shows that the majority of students answered correctly (90), this means that they were able to guess the meaning of the word by putting it in the appropriate context. (10) represents the rate of students who didnt answer i.e. either they didnt not know what the word means or they were just ignorant.

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7th Word: skin = the natural outer layer that covers the body N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 20 00 00 20 100 00 00 100

Table 29. Students Answers to the word skin The results were expected because its a word commonly used by students. All students (100) were able to get the meaning of the word by putting it in correct context. This means that they are aware of its meaning.

Conclusion The analysis and the interpretation of the target words that were taken from three different songs of the Beatles lead us to say that students were not familiar with some of these words. Furthermore; we can notice that students try to get the meanings of these unfamiliar words due to interference or by getting the meaning through the form of the words.

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2.3.2. The Post-test 2.3.2.1. Description of the Post-test The researchers divided their post test into two parts. One session was devoted to the listening task as an activity used to carry out their test. The experimenters asked the same 20 students to listen to the three songs from which the target words were taken from. Then, they made a discussion to explore the theme of these songs to find out whether they understood what the songs are about. Their aim was not to investigate their listening skill, but to know how students react when using songs in classroom. Students were motivated and the atmosphere in the class was enjoyable since they asked the experimenters for the permission to sing the songs loudly.

2.3.2.2. Description and Discussion of the Results of the Post-test The experimenters devoted only 30 minutes to the post test. They asked the same students to do the same task that was done in the pre test. In other words, they asked them to put these words in meaningful sentences. The aim of the post test is to show the degree of influence of using songs to learn vocabulary. 1st word: troubles = problems

N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 20 00 00 20

100 00 00 100

Table 30. Students Answers of the word troubles


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The table shows that all students answered correctly (100). This means that they were able to guess the meaning of the word and put it in the appropriate context.

2nd word: long for=miss N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 20 00 00 20 100 00 00 100

Table 31. Students Answers to the word long for The results show all students have correctly answered i.e. they get the meaning of the word.

3rd word: hide away = conceal N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 19 00 01 20 95 00 05 100

Table 32. Students Answers of the word hide away From the table above, we can notice that the majority of students (95) got the right answer which means that they understood the meaning of the word. Whereas, only one student (05) did not answer. This may be due to the lack of concentration since he/she wrote two sentences about the word refrain instead of only one.

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4thword: beneath=under N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 20 00 00 20 100 00 00 100

Table 33. Students Answers to the word beneath The results were very striking since all students were able to get the meaning. This implies that they have really benefited from the songs.

5th Word: refrain= to prevent from doing something N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 20 00 0 20 100 00 00 100

Table 34. Students Answers of the word refrain The table shows that all students succeeded in getting the meaning of the word. That is why the rate is very high (100). This implies that they understood the meaning of the word after using the songs i.e. learners problem of vocabulary acquisition can be removed by using songs.

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6th Word: shoulders = either of the two parts of the body between the top of each arm and the neck N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 20 00 00 20 100 00 00 100

Table 35. Students Answers to the word shoulders The results were not surprising since the target word was known to them even before using the songs. All students, therefore, answered correctly (100).

7th Word: skin = the natural outer layer that covers the body

N Correct answer Wrong answer No answer Total 20 00 00 20

100 00 00 100

Table 36. Students Answers to the word skin The results were expected here again. All students (100) were able to get the meaning of the word and put it in a correct context. This means that they are aware of the meaning of the word before using the songs.

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2.3.2.3. General Discussion of the Results of the Post-test

in the pre-test answer The target words Troubles long for hide away Beneath Refrain Shoulder Skin Total 90 45 65 00 00 90 100 55.71 00 05 00 15 20 00 00 5.71 10 50 35 85 80 10 00 38.57 100 100 95 100 100 100 100 answer 0 answer

in the post-test answer answer 0 answer

00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

00 00 05 00 00 00 00 0.720

99.28

Table 37. Comparison between pre and post test results The results strikingly change from the pre test to the post test. They show striking progress from (55.71 to 99.28) concerning the right answers. Since there is a progress, obviously there is a decrease in the number of students who gave wrong answers (from 5.71to 00) as well as the number of students who did not answer at all (38.57 to 0.720). This leads us to say that songs have contributed in the acquisition of new words such as beneath, refrain, long for and hide away. All the previous results are clearly shown in Table 37. Analyzing the students pre test has revealed that first year students can benefit from songs. Since, they enjoy learning and they can develop a certain amount of acquisition of words in term of meaning and spelling and pronunciation. Therefore, the learners memorization is asserted. The difficult words which students were unable to understand in the pre-test are purposefully inserted in the post-test. Surprisingly, there was a striking improvement in terms
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of comprehension of words meaning such as the words beneath and refrain(from 0 to 100%) long for and hide away as it is shown in Table 37. This leads us to say that it is undoubted that songs have contributed in the acquisition of new words, and increased students familiarity with them in terms of meaning, spelling and pronunciation. To sum up, the results have proved that most of teachers of Oral Expression do not use songs in their class; nevertheless, it has been proved that is a good tool for teaching vocabulary. Thus, teachers are not aware of the advantages of this activity in developing the students knowledge of vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation as far as the listening skill is concerned

Conclusion This chapter has been devoted to the experimental part of this research work. We have described all the research tools together with the sample of students and teachers involved in the experiment, and we have also discussed the findings yielded by the two research tools. The findings have exhibited that our hypothesis is valid. Stated differently, the use of songs as a means for enhancing learners stock of vocabulary is very efficient. Having listened to the three songs, students managed to grasp the meanings of most of the target words which was not the case before being exposed to the songs.

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General Conclusion and Recommendations As a basic component in the English language, vocabulary is a very important aspect of oral and written communication that can be taught in different ways depending on the teachers backgrounds and students preferences. However, the learning process can be affected by students motivation. This factor was found to have strong effects on learners achievement, and as a matter of fact, songs can raise students motivation as well as provide an enjoyable atmosphere to learn. Our dissertation goes in two chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the theoretical part in which we tried, in a first section, to give an overview about the importance of the listening skill as one of the basic elements that influence successful communication. Then, we devoted another section to the discussion of the importance of vocabulary since meaning cannot be expressed unless words are carefully and appropriately chosen and used. The third section is concerned with the efficiency of using songs in EFL classroom, and the positiveeffect it has on the listening skill and the acquisition of vocabulary. The second chapter deals with the practical part. We tried to investigate the efficiency of using songs to learn vocabulary. We carried out an experiment to answer the question whether teaching a foreign language through the use of songs helps students learn vocabulary. In other words, it aims at finding out whether songs are beneficial for EFL students to learn vocabulary. The results yielded indicated that students were able to understand the meaning of the target words though the results of the pretest showed the opposite. In other words, students learned those words after being exposed to them through the songs. This means that learners problem of vocabulary acquisition can be solved by using songs. The above results could help us confirm our hypothesis.

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The use of songs as one of the tools for boosting students vocabulary awareness proved to be very efficient. From the insights we have drawn from this research, we can offer a number of recommendations for teachers of oral expression and listening comprehension.

o First, teacher should use songs in their listening comprehension sessions to teach vocabulary. o Second, teachers should make their learners aware/understand that songs help them learn how to pronounce words as native speakers do. o Teachers should use songs as a recreational activity for they provide an enjoyable atmosphere inside the foreign language classroom. Last but not least, we hope that our work has added a plus in the realm of teaching and learning. We also hope that our findings will contribute to the enhancing of vocabulary learning with our learners.

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Lewis, M. (1993). The Lexical Approach: The State of ELT and The Way Forward. Hove, Language Teaching Publications. Lehrer, K. (2000). Theory of knowledge.2nd Edition. Boulder; Westview Press. Laraba, S. (2007). Developing Vocabulary Strategies in Learning of English at University Constantine. (Level unpublished). Little, J.(1983). Pop and Rock in The ESL Classroom.TESL Talk , 14,40-44. Lo, R & Li, H.C. 1998. Songs Enhance Learner in Involvement. English Teaching Forum, 36, 8-11, 21 Mc Donough, J, & Shaw, Ch. (2003). Materials and Methods in ELT, a Teachers Guide. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishing LTD Monreal, M.E. (1982). How I Use Songs .English Teaching Forum ,20,44-45 Mueller, G. A. (1980). Visual contextual cues and listening comprehension: An experiment. Modern Language Journal, 64, 335-340 Murphy, T. 1992. Music and Songs. Oxford University Press Nunan, D. (1998). Approaches to Teaching Listening in The Language Classroom. Paper presented at the Korea TESOL Conference, Seoul O'Malley, J. M. & A. U. Chamot (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pilulski,J.J.,and S,Tempelton .(2004). Teaching and Developing Vocabulary: Key to Long- Term Reading Success. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Rivers, W.M. (1987). Interactive Language Teaching .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Appendices

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Appendix 01 Teachers Questionnaire:


Dear teacher, please answer the following questions as thoughtfully and specifically as possible. Please, you will tick () the corresponding answer, or fill in with information where necessary. 1. Which degree do you hold? PH D Magister B.A

2. How long have you been teaching English?................................................years. 3. Do you consider listening skill more important than speaking? Yes No

4. If yes, can you be more precise about your answer? . 5. When you teach oral expression, do you focus on? Listening skill Speaking skill both

6. What kind of tools do you likely use in oral expression course? Songs Video Role playing Presentation Discussion

7. Do you integrate songs in your class? Always Often Rarely Never

8. Do you think that students failure in participating in oral expression course is because?
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Poor listening

Lack of vocabulary

The teachers character

Others (please specify)... 9. Which difficulties do you encounter when using songs? Classroom management 10. How do they find songs? Pleasurable Stimulating Difficult Boring Timing Students `control

11. When teaching songs what is your purpose? Fun Others (please specify) .................................................................... Grammar Vocabulary

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Appendix 02 Students Questionnaire

Dear student, please answer the following questions as thoughtfully and specifically as possible. Please, you will tick () the corresponding answer, or fill in with information where necessary.

1. 2.

Age: From what stream did you come: -Management/Accounting. -Literacy

-Scientific /Math

-Others :( please specify).. 3. Studying English was: A personal choice Imposed by parents dont know

4. Which of the following best describes your level of proficiency in English? Very high A little above average Average Very low

5. To what extant did the oral expression help you improve your oral proficiency? Very much somewhat dont know Not very much. Not at all

6. List in order of importance the skills you develop in oral expression course? Interacting Listening Speaking

7. Pick up the most important skill you think you need to develop?

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a.

b.

c.

8. To improve your English do you usually: Listen to English songs Read books Watching TV

Other (Please specify) .

9. What do you think about the listening materials you had in oral expression this year? Interesting Stimulating Enjoyable Boring

Other (Please specify). 10. What listening materials did you enjoy best? Dialogues. Songs Reports Story telling.

Other (Please specify) 11. Do you prefer to select the listening materials? Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree

12. List three listening materials you would like best to have in oral expression course? a. b. c.

13. What about songs as a listening input?

Like very much

Like somewhat

dont know

Dislike some what

Dislike very much

14. If you like listening to songs in oral expression course, what are the benefit you got it? (Please specify)
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Appendix: 03 Songs Lyrics


Test one: Yesterday All my seemed so far away, Now it looks as though they're here to stay, Oh, I believe in yesterday.

Suddenly, I'm not half the man I used to be, There's a over me, Oh, yesterday came suddenly. Why she Had to go I don't know, she wouldn't say. I said, Something wrong, now I yesterday. Yesterday, Love was such an easy game to play, Now I need a place to . , Oh, I believe in yesterday. Why she Had to go I don't know, she wouldn't say. I said, Something wrong, now I . . yesterday. Yesterday, Love was such an easy game to play, Now I need a place to , Oh, I believe in yesterday. Test two:
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Yellow Submarine In the town where I was born, Lived a man who to sea, And he told us of his life, In the land of submarines, So we sailed on to the sun, Till we found the sea green, And we lived the waves, In our yellow submarine, We all live in yellow submarine, yellow submarine, yellow submarine, We all live in yellow submarine, yellow submarine, yellow submarine. And our friends are all , Many more of them live next door, And the band begins to play. (Trumpets play) We all live in yellow submarine, yellow submarine, yellow submarine, We all live in yellow submarine, yellow submarine, yellow submarine. (Full speed ahead, Mr. Barkley, full speed ahead! Full speed over here, sir! All together! All together! Aye, aye, sir, fire! Captain! Captain!) As we live a (2) Every one of us(every one of us) has all we need,(has all we need) Sky of blue,(sky of blue) and sea green,(sea of green) In our yellow(In our yellow) submarine.(submarine) ( Haha! ) We all live in yellow submarine, yellow submarine, yellow submarine, We all live in yellow submarine, yellow submarine, yellow submarine. We all live in yellow submarine,
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yellow submarine, yellow submarine, We all live in yellow submarine, yellow submarine, yellow submarine.-mm-mm-mm

Test three: Hey Jude Hey Jude, don't make it bad Take a sad song and make it better Remember to let her into your heart Then you can start to make it better Hey Jude, don't be You were made to go out and get her The minute you let her under your Then you begin to make it better And anytime you feel the pain, hey Jude, Don't the world your shoulders For well you know that it's a fool who plays it cool By making his world a little colder

Hey Jude, don't let me down You have found her, now go and get her Remember to let her into your heart Then you can start to make it better

So let it out and let it in, hey Jude, begin You're waiting for someone to with And don't you know that it's just you? Hey Jude, you'll do The movement you need is on your Na na na, na na, na na na na, yeah Hey Jude, don't make it bad
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Take a sad song and make it better Remember to let her under your Then you begin to make it better Better, better, better, better, better, oh!

Rsum

La prsente tude vise explorer l'efficacit de l'aide de chansons pour apprendre le vocabulaire. L'objectif principal est de montrer que l'intgration des chansons en anglais dans les cours d'expression orale peut tre bnfique pour EFL apprenants en termes d'apprentissage du vocabulaire. Pour recueillir des donnes pour la prsente recherche, deux outils ont t utiliss: les deux premiers questionnaires, d'autre part un test. Les deux questionnaires ont t administrs un chantillon de 20 tudiants et 12 enseignants de l'Expression Orale au dpartement d'anglais, de l'Universit de Constantine. Le second outil est un test qui consiste en un pr-test et un post-test. La premire vise valuer le vocabulaire des apprenants. La dernire tend savoir si nos apprenants ont bnfici du vocabulaire utilis dans les chansons. Les rsultats ont rvl, dans une large mesure, ce qui a t mis l'hypothse, savoir que l'utilisation des chansons pour les tudiants de premire anne de l'anglais est bnfique pour apprendre un nouveau vocabulaire.

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. : . . . , . .

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