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j,'

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_rA>- 'L:?)~1

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43.,":JI 0.r.>- )). _;, \ ii· .Jl)~ll ·~_,5..lo..>i ,~..>~I . J)\J\~\ 'J"'IJ.L. ~~\~!.

AI-Hajj,

RiadNachef&Ash-ShaykhSamirkadi "The Al-Qibla

1414A.H.

(1994 AD.)

substantiation of the People of Truth that the Direction of in the United States and Canada is to the Southeast ."

Islamic Studies and Research Division ,The Association of Islamic Charitable Projects, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 2-74 . Almakky, Ghazy & Gohn Snyder . 1994 . " Calculating an Azimuth from One Location to Another" . Manuscript prepared for publication Barmore , Frank E. 1985. "Turkish Mosque Orientation and the Journal of

Secular Variation of the Magnetic Declination", Near Eastern Studies. Barmore, 44 (2) 81-98

Frank E ,1991 ." Where Are We? Comments on on the Concept of the Center of Population". Wisconsin Geographer Vol. 7, pp. 40-50 . Frank E. 1992 ." The Earth Isn't Flat and It Isn't Round Either" , Some Significant and Littile Known Effects of the Earth's Ellipsoid shape" , Wisconsin Geographer Vol. 8 , pp . 1-9 .

Barmore,

Craig,

J. I.

1910.

Map Projection ( Technical Lecture,

1909)

The to the

Theory of Map Projections

with Special Reference Cairo,

Projection Used in the Survey Department. Ministry of Finance ,Survey Dept. Paper 13 . Green Hood, David. 1964.

Egypt:

Mapping .. Chicago .University of Chicago

Press. Heatwale , Charles. King, David A.

1993 ." Which Way is Mecca" Journal of Geography Vol. 93 No . 6 pp. 267-269 . 22 No .

1982 "Faces of the Kaaba" . The Science Vol.

5 pp . 17-20 ,

King,

David A . , and Richard P. Larch . 1992 ." Qibla Charts, Qibla Maps ,and Related Instruments" . Chapter 9 in J . b . Harley and David Woodward ,ed . , The History of Cartography, vol. 2 , bk . 1 , Cartography Societies. Chicago: in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian University of Chicago Press, 189-205 New

Monmonier,

Mark & Schnell ,George A . 1988 . Map Appreciation. Jersey Prentice Hall .

Reeves, E . A . 1929 ."A Chart Showing the true Bearing of Rugby from All Parts of the World: Snyder, John p. 1993. . Geographical Journal73 (3) : 247-48 .

Flattening the Earth - Two Thousand Years of Chicago: AlIttihad University of Chicago Press . 1972 . and . January pp . 25. Information System

Map Projections. The Muslim Students, Tomlin, C. " Qibla Gazzetter" Dana

Association of the United States & Canada. .1990 . Geographic

Cartographic Modeling . New Jersey Prentice Hall .

TABLE 2 GREAT CIRCLE , RHUMB LINE QIBLA ANGLES IN SELECTED WORLD CITIBS BABBD ON SP.EERICAL SHAPB OF TRB EARTH
lAIIIUD£

IXIIMIIII'
Gaffe! aUlA (;I;1IIWfY

CIT
Athens

37 39 52 '3
!)Ii Aot ret

~
'I' 32 45 ]5 56 47 10
U)

.
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 45 00 00 00 I. 43 00 00 00 00 110 110 00 51
I

lO.,.fUDE


Z3
116
,]

..
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
f

, I EAT o
qt.

CI

I:

CLE

t•
qt.

u It
• '11 13 14 26 20

LI•l
(1:Il--' .... ' Dt_

• 211
!)Ii

(11lc-=1 ..... )

Ol.un=. 21,()' 139' 4131 64451 lZ26S 12060

44 211

1]'1

159

240l 1:S6' 4145


64Q

1.ljln;
kl'lln



I I

E
E E

-Bl 136 -13 ~5

~
146 -82 Bl

2S
30

4l 06

TIAI'-CIlI._IA
ARGElTtlA

_t.
longt<oI; lutnO'I

100 74

~
U 15 OZ 30 31 00 '18 01 42 '2 13 ZO 13 lO

oe
14 36 43

12434 12117 ,Zl9 '1'42 4768 3l2S 41122

14

PALEnl10E

J~r"US.IM
c:A Joh&l'WlnCurI

],
26


I

~
]5 2B B6 lO 00 120 99 ]1

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E E E. E

16 '5 '57 14 -Bl

'19 OJ 1'18 20 11 lO 26' '65 III -84


B9

so.:n
IlEPAL

'2'
'14<2
474J.

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I

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rr
50 5' t<
City

UlllAIIl (IIGUIII '1U L I,., EWES II£J(ICO

26 SO 3S Z5 45 J& 24 SO 5] 53 29 52 45
54


I

,~2S
119 07
-10

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54

ll21 4786 852' '36'6 W,


·5834

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E

.tll$$tA

III)IA

--...
Kenll.
MeXico

19 '15 2lI SO

.~o.etM

p."... City ,.. rh 110 ~

llAlIC!

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Janeiro 22

• • •
I

• •

'11

'15 01

uoe
'4479 l621 31146 ,2TU 4524 '0261 1426 IlZ20 Ill15 9B46 2922 3796 1~16 11321


E E

106 .S6 116 29 266 5' "9 61


]]

'77 19
251 94 132 61 III 62 -62 UO 115 154
-6]

77
81 OZ 43 '2 10 151 1]9 13 21 174 rt

SB 29 21 17 56 29 SO 41 53 32 28 52

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12 45 11 110

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]3 35 32 52 41

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13146 UZl5

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E

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2911 3190 15210 10631

I'OLAIII NE\I ZEALAND

"'.ruw
Ueltl'ngton Washington. D.C.

15 17 53


S

141 35 256 56

sr
00

23
14

U.S.A.

se

"

99

GEODBSIC

TABLE 3 , RXUKB LINE OIBLA ANGLES IN SELBCTBD WORLD BUBO ON ELLIP'l'ICAL SHAPE OF 'l'IIE EAR'l'R
~E'D.ESIC

CITIBS

CIT' _til ... 0<1" .. 1111 ... lerlln 37 39 52 13 "' 34 31 ~ 54 32 45 15 'Il> 47 10 40 26 30 35 00. 00. 00. 00' 00. 00$ 00. 00 00' 00. 00. 00. S Zl 116 13 100 74
SIl

kVl. o , ~ 28 2S 00 00 00 00 00 135 19

(r::llClRteN)

.".w.:e
1402
'128

~le
0
I

(rlla.tNa)

D"~
2400 7')T.l

135 ZS4

'9
18

e
E

-110 59 1)6 "13 l6 09

146 28 6491

:so
05 2200" 13 OZ 30 31 OD
SIl

65
1626

oa

1221a 11051 lZl6 5411 47')2 5321 41S7

81

23

12448

S9

12
1236

lS 28 116 30 OD 120

00 00 00 00

f f

157 0, l' 'S7 4' ~

san"

AFRICA

Joh...-b.> ..

26 27

13 35 261 40 165 133 ·84 41 47 57 01


18

5417 477')
3322

E
f

c.DAll'f

(-teV

50 51 "

16:1 22 119 00 ·70 46~


SIl

00 Ga 00 E

IEXICD
"IUSSIA

_I",

City

192145.9901 55 2S 45 3S 2'
50

oow
37 77 87
II 02

Il1>63 lS15 lSl9


11960

89 177 2S8 94

14501 lSI! 1852 12748

00, 00' 00.


14

42 12 13
20

00

E:

176 28 31 51 02
119 00

00266 00 W

01 28

P......
Parh

City

30
U

110 E

4497
102S0

11Z l' 61 27 10259

IHo ITAt, anLE


MJ$Tl,AlU, J ..... LUilTA POU.ND IIEIo! ZE.UAHD U.S.A.

de

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22
'I

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S3 00.11' 12

Il llJ l8 12

22w
00 E

6747
123 07

3417
1]146

131 28 U l8 13221
13316

33

29 '52 4"5
54

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00

70 S
til 111

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00 00
00

8201 E "32 -66


109 4Q

n
3S
12

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13

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52
04

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~19

9687 "5 t,6


2924.

52
WelllngtM

IS 17 53

00. 00 S 51

21 174

00 U 00

00 00 E 3J

147 ~ 2S6 52 56 29

3186 15200 10649

154 27
-6]

41
D.C.

)6 49

11621

\lwington,

se

rr

99

11348

TABLE 4 GRKAT CIRCLE " RJIUHlI LIlfl! QIBLA ANGLES :IN S'ELEC'f"ED NORTH AHERICAN WEST ·OF GRBEt!WICB, BMBD ON SPHERICAl. SIIAPB OP '!'HE u.JI.TH
(P-at 1)

CITIES

i
nATE
MI CA

I
Cit
Ann • ..-

l~'rTU""(
Y
0

..
59 10 26 10

LO'.'11UDE 0

.
52 37 45 17
]6

CIEAI ~le 51 52 56 18 47 60 48 51 53 <3 S4 52 55 5'. 31 19 43

c re e c s
(1.4: l-.ten;) Dtd ... U1871

I"

..
~I. 20
24 09 96 96 99

II lila

tr

IE

(~II--)

DI.tanlCe" 117117 ,m2 112n 15683 11169 '062l 12166 120ll ,,639 13548 1S911 11720

U 3l ]9 )7 40 42

16 45 '7 52 28 21 52 06 29 47

13
81,

,.,
IL

Atl.nt. .. ltl..".. hrt::el~ Itooelllllton _ton

"
II 16 '6 59 Ol 38
]0

101

"50' '05711 13162


11))4

76

'00

CA

'22
118 71 87
81,

sa
SO 25 39 21 05
]0

sa
2' 211 07 5' 09

"
52 )9 46 24 Ol 21 25 26 59 '8 22 57 5'. ZO 40 <3 12 11

MA

2S 22 35 SO 37

l000z 11147 ,1142 107'10 '2429 '2295

'02 '00 99 10' 95 98 '01 91 102 ·119 ·119 91 100 94 98 101 96

Il 011
OIl

Clnc~~tf Clevebnd

rx

DaUu

co
MI lie OIlY II

_.
Oetrott Nilo 1_ r_.

ChI'A9G

"
39

"
12 )9 42
]6

AI 96

..
U

"
19 04 IS 4J 18 45 39 19 07

sa
43 17

'04
13 7'1
79

59 02 47 52
05

22
57 2S 30 24
)5

57 0' 01 15 18 06 29 42 45 43 52 25 ]1 51 10
]6

,OBZS
11011 '055'.
151607

,,._...boro
H_iltM

lin.
11)81, 11156 luoa 13sn 12538 12177 12977 111117 15123 121)76 15S71 12259 lUl5 IlOll

43 19 21 29
41

20
30 22 26 )7

'55 '57 95 01 81 94 &4 115 84 118 119

·20 -23
45 45 5'. 4] 50 26 5'

01
IX I'

Honolulu
KOOI-ton

51 2'
],

'4391

37 53 4Z 24 15 37 46 28 55 32 10

City

,,400
11521 11786 101191 1]091 11214 ,)424 11163 11687 12184

1;a74

'L
IS

.1.d:&onVlll~ City

]0 30 42
]6

0'
IV

L_'"
L••

04

"
01 20 50 IS 23 37

30 38
]]

y~.

" 10
02 0] 04

OIl 29 14 22 11

IT
CA

lex I I'ItOl"l loe I.nge:les Mad'; son Nt ..


i

38 )4 '1 25
29

911 43 05 101 92 9' 10 19 16 10

23
47 56

"'
fL L'

46
~6

eo
90

Meo;, Orleans

5~

'9

17

r'A

TABLB 4 (Continued)
CP.,ge 2)

lAl.1UDf
crAft: III ...

..

CIT 'ort.

.
06
22

LO.'ITUDE

..
73 79 79

.
39
51

CII;AT

hie 51 54 54 42
55

..
29
50 51 14 la

creer

tlUMI
hi.
101

n:1I_ON)
10lQJ 1OSl0 1OS10 12256 11612 13225

.,.....,.

..
1a
,a 17 39 42

LI•( rrll_""") D'otonoe


10\162 11318 1131a 1~

4C
hUt

45

59 OJ OJ
31

DOT
IY

It'epn

4J U 35 28
Sl

06
OS

I~
102

.f~r.
otl_ Orlondo

fall.
City

J4 26
42 12 51 15 51 '5

26
04

or
FL
A1. ClJE

28 32
27

91 8'
112 11

96 93 95
lOS

22
04 12

38

tzzse
15008 10441 1!4]() 15555 12568

HloenlJII ......_ City

ze
30 D9 41 22 26
06 21 40

30
60

OJ
24

06 40
01

46 31 38 38 40 29 32
31 41 43

46
32

9TM
10146 13064 11551) lZ5Q8 12111 13518 13175 12135 .031a 10496 11971) 11618

VA
CA

lId-..! Sac,.~to st.


LOY"

71
12. 90 Itl

26 29
12

56
.9 47

Z5 38

99
91 98 9ft

34
31 45

""
LII' CA

SAlt lake City


C«I Antcnt
0

zs
31 53 39

53 29 09
2'

28
43

]() 11 17 51 33

"

"
32

.4488 13902
15556 157M 1489D 11056 11320 14801 12179

"'

25
42

911 III
122 122 16 79 123 SO

9'1
94 96

4C
37 39

Son 01_ San Francfaco SHute tyr ......


TOf'U'Ito VIlteOU'tler

25
18 11

CA

46 36
03 39 18 42 18

....
III'

32
04 '0

lO 09
23

13
14

101

56 54
16

54 34
41

c.T
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41
49 26 42

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.~
16

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1~ 102

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56 36
56

04 03
02

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\leat Pal •• etch \lfndsor

"
07
10

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52

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92
'01

46
26

83

'01123

"720

GEODBjJIC naT

'rABLB 5 RII1JHB LIn OIBLA OGLEa IN 8BLEC'l'ED NORTH AKBllICAlf CITIBB OF GRBBNW:ICII, BASED OK ELLIPTICAL SImPE 01' 'l'BB BARR
LATITUDE

stATE

.,
IIA CA

e,,,
Am Arbor

..
16 45 \1 52 21! 21 52 06 29 4T '19 10 26 10 58 24 21! 07 51 D9 58 48 17
20

lO.CITUOl
0

,42 33 39 37 40 4lt

III 114 76 122 M 71 87 84 81 96 104 83 79 79 ISS '57 95 91 81


94 84

41

. . . _I.. ,_ .
,,~oDESIC

(,_,)
52 37 45 17 36

IIU"I qle

l I•E

(en_oro)
DI.t:.-ce

(lll.c.et .... ) Dflltlnl:lt

5.
52 56

~.
19 45 S4 45 20

101 96

.7 22
(16

.11109 lZ3Oi. 11292 15112 12192 1~2 121M> 12045 liMO


,

...
tL
M
I

Att ...

21 36

1.1520 IOS96 UI81 11353 10019 11166 11161 10809 124411 1231S 10841 11029

.. hl.".e
&erteLey .L~il'llQt;~

.00
96 99 102 100 99 101

16
59 03 38

18 47 60
UI

39
49

_ton

'L
011 011

,:111._
Clnctrnui

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35
43

"
39 32 39 42 36 43 ,9 21 29
41

~
IS 00 2' 51 56 56 D9 18 58 23 36 40 31 47 20 25 46

co

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lie l1li1

Detroh

-,
DoH .. ililo ( .......

:so
41

35 50 37 22 57 25 $0 24 35 37 53 42 24 IS 31 46 21! 55 32 '0

51 53 '3

21 00 19 22

Cle¥eland

"

47 59

os
9S

usn
13937 11742 11745

"
19 04 15
4J

~
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02
47. 52 OS 51 21 31 39 38 3l

101 21 97 102 -89 -89 93

Greensboro ... Hten

~
S4 -20 -22 45 45

58
15 22 57 53

.. .....
n
IA FL

.,

losn
15175

"'OS
1nl2:

30 22 26 51
41

Monotutu

Ie 45 39 19 07 41 10 02 03 04 46 56

14_
12593
11419

16835 13595 12561 12297 13001

..,

low. Chy
.I.eQDlWllle

30 39

~
43 50 26 51 23 07 56 '9

100 17
94 9S 101 96
98

11539 11805 10910 13110 11233 13443

38 40 29 11 45

••
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fL UI

C:lty

04 01 20 SO 15 21 17 13

~
,n
'CA

l._lng L .. Vegalii

'2
36 38
J1,

IIsse
15150 12098 15590 l22eJ 12255 IlPS6

115
84

oa
29

le.lngtM
Los Angeles

118 119

M.:Iison
MI_i leW

'1 25 29

22
11

"

os
101 92
94

oa
16 I~

~
31 II

,"82
11705 12203

eo
911

Or-leans

04

oa

TABLE 5 (Continued)
(P_ 2)

LAI.TUDE

STAn
If

CIT'

.
06

lO.CITUDE

.
73 79 79

..
39 51 26 04 38 211 30
0'1

..
_te

CEQD£SIC «(11_ .... ' Dt.t.-.ce

••

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..
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05

U II •

t I ._ E «(11_ .... >


Dfrtro<e

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tift
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City

4!)

4S
06

'i9 03 CI3 31 22 04 12 24 29 I~ 53 29 09 24

sa
54 54
Q

24 4S 45 001 Il !7 18 19 l' 08 26

,eml
10S211 112275 lIMO 13244 9734 10764 n084

101'82

Z2 l' 26
Q

1I118 lin"

.1.... ,.. htt. 0111_

n
3S

es ze
32 27 48 J2 l' 31 '5 25
Q

VT 81 112 71 77 121 90 111 98 117 122 122 76 79 III 80 8l

"

,_
10466 11451 15543 tUO'i lUIS 13926 15583

orl_
"-'Ix _City 11Sacr-nto Sit:.
Louie Cft_l'

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