An Introduction to TOGAF

An Overview TOGAF (The Open Group Architecture Framework)
September 2008 – <onSite in Rome>


Overview of EA Overview of TOGAF

Value of TOGAF Comparison with ADM TOGAF v9

Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved.

Overview of Enterprise Architecture
An Enterprise Architecture supports the business by providing the fundamental technology and process structure for an IT strategy. This in turn makes IT a responsive asset for a successful modern business strategy.
Enterprise: Collection of organisations that share common set of goals • Government agency • Part of a corporation • Corporation Large corporations comprise multiple enterprises May be an ―Extended enterprise‖ Including partners, suppliers and customers Drivers: Laws and regulations • Clinger-Cohen Act (US Information Technology Management Reform Act 1996) • EU Directives on the Award of Public Contracts • Sarbanes-Oxley • • • • • More extended enterprises More co-operative IT operations Greater publicity to failures Increase in litigation Audit requirements Architecture: Fundamental organisation of something, embodied in Its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, And the principles governing its design and evolution

Why Enterprise Architecture?
A good Enterprise Architecture enables you to achieve the right balance between IT efficiency and business innovation.

 Effective management and exploitation of information through IT is key to business success  Good information management = competitive advantage  Current IT systems do not really meet the needs of business

• Fragmented, duplicated • Poorly understood • Not responsive to change
 Investment in Information Technology

• Focused on system maintenance • Tactical developments rather than a strategic plan

Enterprise view of capabilities required to execute strategy

Individual Capability Blueprints

Levels of Architecture The levels of Architecture consist of the Business Architecture. Source: The Open Group. Architecting the Enterprise . Information Systems Architecture and Technology Architecture.

who is responsible for them. who is involved and who is accountable? • Value creation through monitoring. and feedback • Increased visibility supporting internal processes and external parties‘ requirements .The importance of Governance The adoption of governance into TOGAF aligns the framework with current business best practice and also ensures a level of visibility.  An Enterprise Architecture is only as good as the decision making framework that is established around it ‖governance‖ framework  The Governance Framework depends on a clear authority structure and the right participants Benefits: • Increased transparency of accountability. monitoring. and informed delegation of authority • Controlled risk management • Protection of the existing asset base through maximising re-use of existing architectural components • Proactive control. concept. evaluation. and component re-use across all organisational business units Governance: Governance looks at the way in which decisions are made. measuring. guidance. and management mechanisms • Process. and control that will support all architecture stakeholder requirements and obligations.

. and make certain that the architecture selected allows for future growth in response to the needs of the business.Architecture Framework Using an architecture framework will speed up and simplify architecture development. ensure more complete coverage of the designed solution.  It should contain a set of tools and provide a common vocabulary.  It should describe a method for designing an information system in terms of a set of building blocks.  It should also include a list of recommended standards and compliant products that can be used to implement the building blocks. and for showing how the building blocks fit together.  An architecture framework is a toolkit which can be used for developing a broad range of different architectures.

Agenda Overview of EA Overview of TOGAF TOGAF v8 Value of TOGAF Comparison with ADM TOGAF v9 Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved. .

TOGAF consists of 3 main parts: 1. The TOGAF Resource Base: a set of resources: guidelines. architecture descriptions. proven method for developing an IT Enterprise Architecture that meets the needs of your business.The Components of TOGAF A set of methods and tools for developing a broad range of different IT architectures.  The key to TOGAF is the Architecture Development Method (ADM) — a reliable. The Enterprise Continuum: a ‗‗virtual repository‘‘ of all the architecture assets: models. 3. evaluate. The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM): explains how to derive an organisation-specific Enterprise Architecture that addresses business requirements. . background information to help the architect in the use of the ADM. It enables you to design. and build the right architecture for your organisation.  TOGAF is an architecture framework — The Open Group Architecture Framework. 2. patterns. templates. etc.

Enterprise Continuum The Enterprise Continuum provides a framework and context for the leveraging of relevant architecture assets in executing the ADM. Guides and supports Guides and supports Guides and supports Guides and supports Enterprise Continuum = Architecture Continuum + Solution Continuum .

Reference Models Technical Reference Model: Reference Models: Focuses on the application platform Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model:  A major challenge in any project is effective communication between all participants  Reference models create the common vocabulary and structure  Use of reference model(s) is essential to identify duplicate functionality and opportunities for infrastructure simplification Focuses on the flow of information at the application level .

Agenda Overview of EA Overview of TOGAF TOGAF v8 Value of TOGAF Comparison with ADM TOGAF v9 Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved. .

)  Version 8: • An overall structure and core method for enterprise architecture that can be filled out in future years. DoD Framework. FEAF.TOGAF 8 Scope and Goals TOGAF 8 scope covers the development of four related types of architecture: TOGAF 8 Goals:  Long-term: • An industry standard. (not TOGAF or…. not method – TOGAF and…. • ….usable in conjunction with frameworks having products relevant / specific to particular sectors. generic enterprise architecture method…. – Several frameworks have mindshare: • Zachman. Spewak. … – Almost all focus on products. . TEAF.

industry models. system models.The Enterprise Architecture Development Method The EA Development Method… for defining business needs and developing an architecture that meets those needs.…)  Decisions based on: • Competence / resource availability • Value accruing to the enterprise.  An iterative method  Each iteration = new decisions: • Enterprise coverage • Level of detail • Time horizon • Architecture asset re-use: – Previous ADM iterations other frameworks. . utilising the elements of TOGAF and other architectural assets available to the organisation.

Produce implementation roadmap Opportunities and Solutions Identify major implementation projects Technology Architecture Technology supporting the organisation .The Enterprise Architecture Development Method The Preliminary Framework and Principles sets the direction for the architecture as it prepare the organisation for a successful architecture project. In each case develop the baseline ―as is‖ and target ―to be‖ and analyse gaps Architecture Change Management Ensure that the architecture responds to the needs of the organisation Requirements Management Every stage of the project should be based on and validate business requirements Implementation Governance Ensure that the implementation project conforms to the architecture Business Architecture Develop architectures at 3 levels Migration Planning Information Systems Architecture Systems supporting the processes Analyse cost benefits and risk.

business goals. and business drivers . or reference to. or benefit from.Frameworks and Principles To ensure that everyone who will be involved in. this approach is committed to the success of the architectural process Objectives:  This phase prepares the organisation for a successful Enterprise Architecture project • • • • • • Understand business environment High level management commitment Agreement on scope of architecture activities Establish principles Establish governance structure Agree method Outputs:  This phase prepares the organisation for a successful Enterprise Architecture project  Framework definition  Architecture principles  Restatement of. business principles.

Architecture Principles  General rules and guidelines that support the way in which an organisation sets about fulfilling its mission • Enduring and seldom amended • Clearly related back to the business objectives  Value • As drivers for defining the functional and non-functional requirements • To provide a framework within which the enterprise can start to make conscious decisions about IT • As a guide to making choices • As an input to assessing both existing systems and the future directions .

expectations for this project • Required at the start of every architecture cycle  Validates business context  Creates Statement of Architecture work . and Architecture Vision  Develop Statement of Architecture Work and Secure Approval Outputs:  Approved Statement of Architecture Work  Refined statements of business goals and strategic drivers  Architecture principles  Architecture Vision • Sets scope. Business Requirements. Objectives:  Initiates one iteration of the architecture process Steps:  Establish the Project  Identify Business Goals and Business Drivers  Review Architecture Principles. constraints. including Business Principles  Define Scope  Define Constraints  Identify Stakeholders and Concerns.A) Architecture Vision The Architecture Vision is essentially the architect‘s ‗‗elevator pitch‘‘ — the key opportunity to sell the benefits of the proposed development to the decision-makers within the enterprise.

Applications. • their relationships to each other and the environment.B) Business Architecture A knowledge of the Business Architecture is a prerequisite for architecture work in any other domain (Data. and is therefore the first architecture activity that needs to be undertaken. . Technology). Business Architecture:  The fundamental organisation of a business. • and the principles governing its design and evolution  Shows how the organisation meets it‘s business goals Steps: • Confirm context • Define baseline • Define target • Views are important • Validate • Requirements • Concerns • Gap analysis • Produce report Outputs: • Organisation structure • Business goals and objectives • Business functions • Business Services • Business processes • Business roles • Correlation of organisation and functions. embodied in • its business processes and people.

C) Information Systems Architecture Objectives:  The fundamental organisation of an IT system. or in parallel • • Theory suggests Data Architecture comes first Practical considerations may mean that starting with Application Systems may be more efficient Outputs: • Statement of Architecture Work • Baseline & Target Data Architecture • Baseline & Target Applications Architecture • Data and Application Architecture views  There will need to be some iteration to ensure consistency . Data or Applications First? • and the principles governing its design and evolution  Shows how the IT systems meets the business goals of the enterprise Steps: • Data Architecture • Applications Architecture  It is usually necessary to address both • Not always the case. embodied in • the major types of information and the application systems that process them • their relationships to each other and the environment. depending on project scope and constraints  May be developed in either order.

software and communications technology • their relationships to each other and the environment. embodied in • its hardware. Objectives:  The fundamental organisation of an IT System.D) Technology Architecture A Technology Architecture that will for m the basis of the following implementation work. • and the principles governing its design and evolution Steps: • Develop Baseline Technology Architecture Description • Develop Target Technology Architecture Outputs: • Statement of Architecture Work • Baseline Technology Architecture • Validated technology principles • Technology Architecture Report • Target Technology Architecture • Technology Architecture. gap report • Viewpoints addressing key stakeholder concerns • Views corresponding to the selected viewpoints Developing the Technology Architecture .

and benefits of the various projects  Identify the strategic parameters for change  Generate an overall implementation and migration strategy . and the toplevel projects to be undertaken in moving from the current environment to the target Objectives:  Decide on approach • Make v Buy v Re-Use • Outsource • COTS • Open Source  Assess priorities • Identify Key Business Drivers • Review Gap Analysis • Brainstorm Technical Requirements • Brainstorm Co-existence and Interoperability • Brainstorm Co-existence and Interoperability • Implementation and migration strategy • High-level Implementation Plan • Impact Analysis Steps: Outputs:  Identify the dependencies.E) Opportunities and Solutions Identifies the parameters of change. costs. the major phases along the way.

if appropriate) Objectives:    Cost/benefit analysis Risk assessment Technology roadmap . Key business drivers to be addressed that will also tend to dictate the sequence of implementation.F) Migration Approach The objective of the Migration Approach phase is to sort the various implementation projects into priority order. such as:     Reduction of costs Consolidation of services Ability to handle change A goal to have a minimum of ‗‗interim‘‘ solutions Steps: • Prioritise projects • Estimate resource requirements and availability • Perform cost/benefit assessment of the various migration projects • Perform risk assessment • Generate implementation roadmap • Document the Migration Plan Outputs: • Impact Analysis • Detailed Implementation Plan and Migration Plan • Including Architecture Implementation Contract.

G) Implementation Governance All the information for successful management of the various implementation projects is brought together. Objectives:  Defines architecture constraints on implementation projects • Architecture contract  Monitors implementation work for conformance Steps: Outputs: • Formulate Project Recommendation • Document Architecture Contract • Review Ongoing Implementation Governance and Architecture Compliance • Impact Analysis • Architecture Contract • The architecturecompliant implemented system .

H) Architecture Change Management This phase establishes an Architecture Change Management process for the new Enterprise Architecture baseline. Objectives:  Ensures that changes to the architecture are managed in a cohesive and architected way Establishes and supports the Enterprise Architecture to provide flexibility to evolve rapidly in response to changes in the technology or business environment Steps: • Monitor Technology Changes • Monitor Business Changes • Assess Changes and Development of Position to Act • Arrange Meeting of Architecture Board (or other governing council) Outputs: • Architecture updates • Changes to architecture framework and principles • New Request for Architecture Work  .

Agenda Overview of EA Overview of TOGAF TOGAF v8 Value of TOGAF Comparison with ADM TOGAF v9 Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved. .

The Value of a Framework  Provides a practical starting point for an Architecture Project • • • • • • Avoids the initial panic when the scale of the task becomes apparent Systematic – ―Codified common sense‖ Captures what others have found to work in real life Baseline set of resources Foundation architecture in the Enterprise Continuum .

.Agenda Overview of EA Overview of TOGAF TOGAF v8 Value of TOGAF Comparison with ADM TOGAF v9 Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved.

Accenture Platform Accelerator etc. Organisation/Change management. Process architecture and IT Architectures. Accenture frameworks address non-IT architectures for Strategy.  Examples from the Accenture Delivery Suite (ADS)  Numerous sample deliverables and assets in the Knowledge Exchange • • Architecture Continuum Solutions Continuum III. Navitaire.Accenture has a number of frameworks for architecture and methods that relate to the TOGAF While TOGAF is restricted to IT architecture. II. Architecture development method Enterprise Continuum Accenture equivalent  Application architecture & technical architecture workstreams in Accenture Delivery Methods (ADM)  Business Integration Blueprint  Standard Architecture Frameworks  Industry specific assets like Architecture Reference model. Resources Notes: This comparison is deliberately incomplete and is only meant to aid in understanding the TOGAF *Accenture Communication Solutions . TOGAF I. ACS*.

Enterprise Architecture Framework: Methodology for EA Planning: 5 Deliver and Govern Iterate? Create Roadmap Refresh 3 Create Vision and Confirm Opportunities Diagnose Current Capabilities 4 Blueprint Future State 1 Launch Enterprise Architecture Initiative Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved.Enterprise Architecture Framework and EA Planning Methodology Accenture believes effective Enterprise Architecture is driven by Business and IT strategy. It links long-range strategy to day-to-day execution. 2 30 .

31 . Expectations and Concerns • Enterprise Architecture Project Approach • Project Plan • Prioritized Business Imperatives • Technology Imperatives • Technology Guiding Principles • Value & Issue Hypotheses Responsible: • Enterprise Architect Participating: • • • • • Business Architect Application Architect Information Architect Technical Architect Project Manager Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved. • Define technology imperatives. Inputs: • Statement of Work / Contract • Corporate/Business Mission Statement • Corporate/Business Vision Statement • Corporate/Business Values • Corporate/Business Strategy • Business Imperatives • IT Mission Statement • IT Vision Statement • IT Strategy • Inventory of ongoing and planned IT initiatives • Company Information – High level facts • Guiding Principles • Known Issues Deliverables: • Risk Mitigation Plan • Stakeholder Goals. Launch Enterprise Architecture Initiative Activity Confirm Scope. • Derive initial hypotheses on areas of pain and opportunities based on the technology imperatives.1. • Identify key business opportunities and capability challenges. Strategies and Imperatives Develop/Confirm Technology Imperatives and Guiding Principles Objectives: • Capture the project scope. Approach and Objectives Understand Business Context. approach and objectives with project sponsor to develop the project approach. • Define and prioritise key business imperatives.

technology. financials and processes • Gain consensus on assessment findings with project sponsors and stakeholders resolving all points of contention Inputs: • Ongoing IT initiatives • Stakeholder Goals.g. surveys will be used to analyse application health. • Agree upon data collection techniques. Process and Information) Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved. etc. tools. organization. Expectations and Concerns • Enterprise Architecture Project Approach • Application Inventory • Existing Architecture documentation • IT Organization Chart • Existing Architecture documentation (Technology.2. * If available for given industry Deliverables: • Enterprise Architecture Assessment Pack • EA Project Approach • Current Capability Assessment Job Aids: • Technical Quality and Functional Quality Surveys • Data Collection Templates • Diagnostic Tools • Data Collection Checklist Responsible: • Enterprise Architect Participating: • Business Architect • Application Architect • Information Architect • Technical Architect • Project Manager 32 .) • Develop a point of view on the existing applications.. templates and surveys with project sponsor (e. Diagnose Current Capabilities Activity Prepare For Assessment Assess Current Capabilities Validate Capability and Environment Discovery Objectives: • Understand the assessment boundaries and availability of information. Application. information.

Create Vision and Confirm Opportunities Activity Create Vision Create Business Capability Blueprints Identify and Prioritize Opportunities Validate Opportunity Discovery Objectives: • Create a business capability blueprint that is a pictorial representation of the major future capabilities of the enterprise. It will be a key to identify and prioritize opportunities for change. • Identify high-level opportunities for change that directs the enterprise towards its business goals. It‘s design and organisation should be driven by an operating vision and the business and technology imperatives.3. Deliverables: • Operating Vision • Business Capability Blueprint • Opportunity Summary • Opportunity Definition • Opportunity Prioritization Matrix • Quick Win Opportunities Responsible: • Enterprise Architect Participating: • • • • • • Business Analyst Application Architect Technical Architect Capability Lead/SME Industry Lead/SME Project Manager 33 . It should be based on industry best practice and Accenture thought leadership. • Validate the opportunities with the client sponsor and stakeholders. and that is aligned with the business capability blueprint. The prioritisation of opportunities will be the basis for creating the future roadmap and plan for value realization at a later stage. Inputs: • Industry Best Practices • Accenture Thought Leadership • Business Imperatives • Technology Imperatives • Technology Guiding Principles • Current Capability Assessment Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved. and identify quick-wins. It will form the basis for the application and technology blueprints to be created at a later stage. Prioritise the list of opportunities.

Blueprint Future State Activity Summarize Blueprint Requirements Develop Blueprints Process Information Application Technology Validate Enterprise Architecture Objectives: • • • • • Comprehensively describe the EA model from multiple dimensions. Deliverables: • • • • • • Business Capability Blueprint Key Architecture Requirements Process Blueprint Information Blueprint Application Blueprint Technology Blueprints Inputs: • • • • • • Business Imperatives Technology Imperatives Technology Guiding Principles Opportunity Summary Current Capability Assessment Business Capability Blueprint Responsible: • Enterprise Architect Participating: • • • • • Business Architect Information Architect Application Architect Process Architect Technical Architect Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved.4. Describe the key characteristics of each of those dimensions Understand the linkages between all the model elements Enable consistent development of systems and solution in line with business imperatives Validate and gain consensus on all blueprints with sponsors and stakeholders. 34 .

Detailed Tasks Example Activity Develop Blueprints Process Information Application Technology Validate Enterprise Architecture Blueprint Future State Summarize Blueprint Requirements Develop Application Blueprints Task Identify and define applications Identify application building blocks Define application interactions & association Determine Application characteristics and styles Create application blueprint Objectives: • Describe the business application assets needed by the enterprise in support of its business imperatives and business capabilities • Provide a structure and form to organise and integrate the application assets to deliver specific service • Enable automation of business processes and organisational interactions with internal and external stakeholders • Enable the organisation to review its portfolio of business application investments and identify new investment areas that would enable the attainment of its business objectives. Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved. 35 .

What are the key technologies required to support the application? b. portal. etc) i. Is the user base of the application global or local? If it is global. Is it necessary for the application to be available 24 X 7 to its users? What are the operational hours for the application? g. Based on the functional characteristics. How often is the data refreshed for the application? Is it batch processes or is it real-time OLTP? h. and style (e.g. What are the key impact to the current architect as a result of introducing the new technology / application? c.g. Things to consider while going through this step are: a. 36 . should it have a thin client or a fat client? Or should the application be available from the internet to internal and external users? e.Task Detail – Develop Application Blueprints Develop Application Blueprints Task Identify and define applications Identify application building blocks Define application interactions & association Determine Application characteristics and styles Create application blueprint Detailed Task Steps: ►Determine Application characteristics and styles The purpose of this step to determine the characteristic. think about how it can meet the functional requirements of the business capability. both functional and technical. web services. Depending upon the user base of the application. batch. OLTP. determine the technical characteristics of the application. flat file. building blocks and application interaction information that was identified in the previous steps. XML. Are Service Level Agreements required for the application? Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved. What is the anticipated life span of the application? f. should application support multiple languages? d. How does the application tie up to the databases and other data sources identified in the information blueprint? What is the information exchange format (e. HTML. When determining the characteristic and style of an application. etc) of the application based on the capability requirements.

. Create Roadmap Activity Define and Integrate Opportunities into Initial Plan Develop Implementation Plans Validate Plans Finalize Business Case Objectives: • • • • • Develop roadmap or transition plan that defines the program necessary to implement the future state blueprints Derive a business case for the program and initiative to provide economic justification for all planned activities Create change management plans that will be required to startup.5. and navigate the roadmap Validate and gain consensus on Roadmap Deliverables with sponsors and stakeholders Transfer ownership of blueprints and roadmap to program managers that will drive the ensuing implementation Inputs: • • • • • • Business Capability Blueprint Process Blueprint Information Blueprint Technology Blueprints Application Blueprints Opportunity Summary Deliverables: • • • • • Program Roadmap Project List Project Plan Business Case Communication Plan Responsible: • Project Manager Participating: • • • • • • Enterprise Architect Business Architect Process Architect Information Architect Application Architect Technical Architect 37 Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved. govern.

.Agenda Overview of EA Overview of TOGAF TOGAF v8 Value of TOGAF Comparison with ADM TOGAF v9 Copyright © 2008 Accenture All Rights Reserved.

. • Architecture Value Realisation – use of enterprise architecture during normal operational services to realise the business benefits that were envisioned when the architecture was developed. • Architecture Management – management and governance of the enterprise architecture.Plans for TOGAF Version 9  Six domains: • Business Context – the enterprise context for EA work • Architecture Development – development of an enterprise architecture. • Business Transformation Planning – use of enterprise architecture to drive a program of change throughout the enterprise • Architecture Deployment – implementation of the enterprise architecture and the Transformation Plan. via the various projects in the Transformation Program. and the change in scope of the overall enterprise as it evolves over time.

ADM Mapping to TOGAF 9 .

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