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Basic Oracle Architecture

Workshop Objectives
Identify high-level architectural components of an Oracle Database Describe the function of each of these components Identify Oracle Database internal data structures Define the mechanisms used when processing Insert/Update/Delete statements

Most people call it a Database


Technically an Oracle Database is broken into two high-level components
1. INSTANCE Non-persistent, memorybased processes and structures 2. DATABASE Persistent, disk-based data and control files

So Why Differentiate?
Most Oracle installations consist of only a single Instance and single Database
Instance

Database

Oracle RAC is Different


Oracle Real Application Clusters allow multiple Instances to interact with a single Database to provide high availability
Instance 1 Instance 2 Instance 3

Database

Instance a Little Closer


An Oracle Instance
Is a means to access an Oracle Database Always opens one and only one Database Consists of memory and background process structures

Picture of an Instance
Instance SGA Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Memory Structures Java Pool Large Pool

PMON

SMON

DBWR

LGWR

CKPT

Others

BackGround Processes

Database a Little Closer


An Oracle Database
Is a collection of data that is treated as a unit Consists of three file types

Picture of a Database
Oracle Database Data Files
Parameter File Password File

Control Files

Redo Log Files


Archived Log Files

Picture of an Instance
Instance SGA Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Memory Structures Java Pool Large Pool

PMON

SMON

DBWR

LGWR

CKPT

Others

BackGround Processes

Memory Structure
Oracles memory structure consists of two memory areas known as: 1. System Global Area (SGA): Allocated at instance start up, and is a fundamental component of an Oracle Instance 2. Program Global Area (PGA): Allocated when the server process is started

System Global Area


The SGA consists of several memory structures:
Shared Pool Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Other structures

There are two additional memory structures that can be configured within the SGA:
Large Pool Java Pool

System Global Area


The size of the SGA is determined by the parameters that set the sizes of the various pools; these parameters are dynamic The SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter sets the maximum size of the SGA (so you can limit it) and is not a dynamic parameter

Thanks Ned!

Picture of an Instance
Instance SGA Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Memory Structures Java Pool Large Pool

PMON

SMON

DBWR

LGWR

CKPT

Others

BackGround Processes

Shared Pool
Used to store:
Most recently executed SQL statements Most recently used data definitions

It consists of two key performance-related memory structures:


Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache

Sized by the parameter SHARED_POOL_SIZE

Library Cache
Stores information about the most recently used SQL and PL/SQL statements Enables the sharing of commonly used statements Is managed by a least recently used (LRU) algorithm Consists of two structures
Shared SQL area Shared PL/SQL area

Size is determined by the Shared Pool sizing

Picture of an Instance
Instance SGA Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Memory Structures Java Pool Large Pool

PMON

SMON

DBWR

LGWR

CKPT

Others

BackGround Processes

Data Dictionary Cache


A collection of the most recently used definitions in the database Includes information about database files, tables, indexes, columns, users, privileges, and other database objects During the parse phase, the server process looks at the data dictionary for information to resolve object names and validate access

Database Buffer Cache


Stores copies of data blocks that have been retrieved from the data files Enables great performance gains when you obtain and update data Managed through an LRU algorithm DB_BLOCK_SIZE determines primary block size

Picture of an Instance
Instance SGA Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Memory Structures Java Pool Large Pool

PMON

SMON

DBWR

LGWR

CKPT

Others

BackGround Processes

Redo Log Buffer


Records all changes made to the database data blocks Primary purpose is recovery Changes recorded within are called redo entries Redo entries contain information to reconstruct or redo changes Size defined by LOG_BUFFER

Large Pool
An optional area of memory in the SGA Relieves the burden place on the Shared Pool Used for:
Session memory for the Shared Server I/O server processes Backup and restore operations for RMAN

Does not use an LRU list Sized by LARGE_POOL_SIZE Can be dynamically resized

Java Pool
Services parsing requirements for Java commands Required if installing and using Java Sized by JAVA_POOL_SIZE parameter

Oracle Process Structure


Oracle takes advantage of various types of Processes:
User Process: Started at the time a database user requests connection to the Oracle Server Server Process: Connects to the Oracle instance and is started when a user establishes a session Background Processes: Started when an Oracle instance is started

User Process
A program that requests interaction with the Oracle server Must first establish a connection Does not interact directly with the Oracle server
User Process Server Process

Connection Established

Server Process
A program that directly interacts with the Oracle server Fulfills calls generated and returns results Can be dedicated or shared server

Picture of an Instance
Instance SGA Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Memory Structures Java Pool Large Pool

PMON

SMON

DBWR

LGWR

CKPT

Others

BackGround Processes

Background Processes
Maintains and enforces relationships between physical and memory structures
Mandatory background processes:
DBWn LGWR ARCn CJQ0 Dnnn LCKn PMON SMON LMDn LMON LMS Pnnn CKPT

Optional background processes:


QMNn RECO Snnn

Database Writer (DBWn)


Instance Shared Pool Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache PMON SMON SGA Database Buffer Cache Java Pool Redo Log Buffer Large Pool

DBWn writes when:


Checkpoint occurs Dirty buffers reach threshold There are no free buffers Timeout occurs Tablespace OFFLINE Tablespace READ ONLY Table DROP or TRUNCATE Tablespace BEGIN BACKUP

DBWR

LGWR

CKPT

Others

Oracle Database Data Files Control Files Redo Log Files

Log Writer (LGWR)


Instance Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache PMON SMON SGA Database Buffer Cache Java Pool Redo Log Buffer Large Pool

LGWR writes:
At commit When one-third full When there is 1 MB of redo Every three seconds Before DBWn writes

DBWR

LGWR

CKPT

Others

Oracle Database Data Files Control Files Redo Log Files

System Monitor (SMON)


Instance Shared Pool Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache PMON SMON SGA Database Buffer Cache Java Pool Redo Log Buffer Large Pool

Responsibilities:
Instance recovery
Rolls forward changes in online redo log files Opens database for user access Rolls back uncommitted transactions

DBWR

LGWR

CKPT

Others

Oracle Database Data Files Control Files Redo Log Files

Coalesces free space Deallocates temporary segments

Process Monitor (PMON)


Instance Shared Pool Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache PMON SMON SGA Database Buffer Cache Java Pool Redo Log Buffer Large Pool

Cleans up after failed processes by:



Others

DBWR

LGWR

CKPT

Rolling back the transaction Releasing locks Releasing other resources Restarting dead dispactchers

Oracle Database Data Files Control Files Redo Log Files

Checkpoint (CKPT)
Instance Shared Pool Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache PMON SMON SGA Database Buffer Cache Java Pool Redo Log Buffer Large Pool

Responsible for:
Signaling DBWn at checkpoints Updating datafile headers with checkpoint information Updating control files with checkpoint information

DBWR LGWR CKPT Others

Oracle Database Data Files Control Files Redo Log Files

Archiver (ARCn)
Optional background process Automatically archives online redo log files when ARCHIVELOG mode is set Preserves the record of all changes made to the database
Oracle Database Data Files Control Files Redo Log Files ARCn Archived Logs

Oracle Data Storage


Oracle keeps all system and user data in two basic storage containers: 1. Tablespace a logical entity known only to Oracle 2. Data Files physical files that may (typically) be seen from the operating system

Tablespaces
Can belong to only one database at a time Consist of one or more data files Are further divided into logical units of store

Data Files
Can belong to only one tablespace and one database Are a repository for schema object data
Database Tablespace
Data File Data File

2 Types of Tablespace
1. Tablespaces required by Oracle for normal operations 2. Tablespaces that contain data and indexes that support your applications

Required Tablespaces
System Contains the Oracle Data Dictionary Sysaux - New to 10g; supports historic monitoring / tuning Temporary Used for disk-based sorting of data (select...fromorder by) Undo Used for transaction consistency during Insert / Update / Delete statements

SQL Statements (IUDS)


Insert Update Delete Select What happens when someone connects to the database and issues one of these statements?

Connect to Oracle What Happens


User Process Connect User/Pwd Server Process

Are User definition and privileges in SGA Dictionary Cache?


If not, try to fetch from the System tablespace If there, validate Pwd and privileges to login Allow connection if all is right; otherwise decline connection

Select What Happens First?


Select * From MyTab Order by 1;

Is this statement in the Library Cache?


If statement cached then it has been recently been parsed and executed If not cached then parse the statement If cached then skip parsing stage and execute statement

Select Parsing the Statement


Select * From MyTab Order by 1;

Does MyTab exist? Does user have Privs to select from MyTab What columns are in MyTab What is the first column in MyTab

Select Executing the Statement


Select * From MyTab Order by 1;

Is MyTab data in the SGA Buffer Cache?


If not, fetch data into Buffer Cache

Sort data in MyTab by the first column


If can sort records in memory then do so If cannot sort in memory then use Temporary tablespace as disk-based staging area

Return records to client process

I/U/D What Happens First?


Insert (a,b,c) Into MyTab;

Is this statement in the Library Cache?


If statement cached then it has been recently been parsed and executed If not cached then parse the statement If cached then skip parsing stage and execute statement

I/U/D Executing the Statement


Insert (a,b,c) Into MyTab;

Validate values to be inserted Execute the statement


Keep DB version of the record in Undo tablespace until Commit or Rollback Record changes in SGA Redo Log Buffer Change records in SGA Buffer Cache DBWn writes changed records to data file(s) as part of buffer cache management

I/U/D Executing the Statement


Insert (a,b,c) Into MyTab; Commit; or Rollback;

If Commit then
LGWn writes Redo Log Buffer entries to Redo Logs Undo entries are invalidated

If Rollback then
Migrate DB version of record in Undo back to tablespace/data file

Archivelog Mode
If Instance in Archivelog mode Redo Log Files are Archived to Archive Logs; which may be used to recover your database in the case of disaster
Oracle Database Data Files Control Files Redo Log Files ARCn Archived Logs

Summary
What we called a Database is really an Instance and a Database. An Oracle Instance is not persistent. It consists of the System Global Area (SGA) and a collection of processes. An Oracle Database is persistent. It consists of a collection of Required and User tablespaces (with corresponding data files) along with other supporting files. Nearly every component of the Instance and Database are mobilized to execute SQL statements.