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BIOS

Bch khoa ton th m Wikipedia

BIOS y l vit tt ca cm t ting Anh (Basic Input/Output System) c ngha l H thng xut nhp c bn. BIOS nm bn trong my tnh c nhn, trn bo mch chnh. BIOS c xem nh l chng trnh c chy u tin khi my tnh khi ng. Chc nng chnh ca BIOS l chun b cho my tnh cc chng trnh phn mm c lu tr trn cc thit b lu tr (chng hn nh cng, a mm v a CD) c th c np, thc thi v iu khin my tnh. Qu trnh ny gi l khi ng. Thut ng ny xut hin ln u trong h iu hnh CP/M, l phn CP/M c ti ln trong sut qu trnh khi ng, tng tc trc tip vi phn cng (cc my CP/M thng c duy nht mt trnh khi ng trong ROM). Cc phin bn ni ting ca DOS c mt tp tin gi l "IBMBIO.COM" hay "IO.SYS" c chng nng ging nh BIOS CP/M. Tuy nhin, thut ng BIOS ngy nay ch mt chng trnh phn mm khc c cha trong cc chip c sn trn bn mch chnh nh PROM, EPROM v n nm gi cc chc nng chun b cho my ng thi tm ra nh cng nh lin lc v giao s iu hnh my li cho h iu hnh. BIOS cng l b phn chun ca my tnh. Mt my tnh c th thiu mn hnh, bn phm, chut, cng, ... nhng khng th thiu BIOS.
Mc lc
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1 Vn hnh ca BIOS 2 BIOS v ch thc (realmode) 3 BIOS nh l phn sn 4 Phn sn trong cc b iu hp 5 c t BIOS Khi ng 6 Tng v gim chc nng 7 BIOS trong thng v 8 Danh mc cc nh cung cp BIOS 9 Xem thm 10 Lin kt ngoi 11 Tham kho

[sa]Vn hnh ca BIOS

BIOS c cha sn (thng dng nn d liu) trong cc con chip nh l PROM, EPROM hay b nh flash ca bo mch chnh. Khi my tnh c m qua cng tc bt in hay khi c nht ntreset, th BIOS c khi ng v chng trnh ny s tin hnh cc th nghim khm nghim trn cc a, b nh, bo hnh, cc con chip c chc nng ring khc v cc phn cng cn li. Thng thng, BIOS t gii nn vo trong b nh chnh ca my tnh v bt u vn hnh t y. Hu ht cc lp t ca BIOS ngy nay c th thc thi ci t cc chng trnh giao din CMOS. B phn ny (CMOS) l ni lu gi cc d liu ci t chuyn bit ca ngi dng; nh thi gian, cc c tnh chi tit ca a, vic gn chc nng khi ng cho b iu khin (controller) no, hay ngay c mt m khi ng my, ... CMOS c truy cp bi BIOS. i vi h kin trc 80x86, m ngun BIOS ca cc my PC v AT thi k u c km Bn tham chiu k thut IBM. Trong hu ht cc lp t ca BIOS ngy nay, ngi dng c th la chn thit b no c khi ng trc: CD, a cng, a mm, USB, hay cc thit b lu tr tng thch. Th tc ny c bit hu ch cho vic ci t cc h iu hnh hay khi ng t CD/DVD khi ng c hay USB khi ng c v cho vic la chn th t ca vic kim tra s hin hu ca cc vt liu (media) khi ng c. Mt s BIOS cho php ngi dng la chn h iu hnh np vo b nh (thng thy kh nng ny trong cc my mi c kin trc 64-bit nh cc h my ch Itanium ca HP chng hn). Mc d vy, thng thy hn, th thao tc ny c tin hnh bi giai on hai ca b ti khi ng (boot loader).

[sa]BIOS v ch thc (realmode)


i vi cc my theo kin trc 8086, khi CPU bt u hot ng n lp tc t ci t vo ch thc v tm n v tr ca ng 16 byte trn nh ca Mega byte ca ch thc ti a ch 0FFFF0h. Chnh ti a ch ny, mt lnh jump s dn ti ni m m BIOS c bt u thi hnh.

[sa]BIOS nh l phn sn

ROM c BIOS

BIOS i khi c gi l phn sn v n l phn tch hp trong mt h thng phn cng. Trc nm 1990, BIOS c lu gi trong cc con chip ROM v do khng th thay i (ngoi tr phi c cc thit b c bit i phn mm cho con chip BIOS). Do BIOS ngy cng phc tp v nhu cu cp nht tr nn ngy cng cao, phn sn BIOS nay thng c cha trong EEPROM hay trong b nh flash ngi dng c th cp nht chng d dng hn (qua a mm, USB, hay cc CD khi ng c). Mc d vy, nu cng vic cp nht BIOS c tin hnh vi sai st hoc khng c tin hnh trong thi gian di th c th dn n tnh trng my tnh hay thit b khng s dng c na (do BIOS b hng hoc khng tng thch vi i hi mi ca h iu hnh). trnh hng hc BIOS, mt s bo mch chnh loi mi c thm chc nng lu gi li mt phin bn BIOS c. Ngoi ra, hu ht cc BIOS cn c mt khi khi ng m chng l mt phn ca ROM c chy trc tin v khng th i mi c. Khi m ny s kim nghim xem cc phn cn li ca BIOS c cn hot ng hay khng (thng qua cc thao tc nh l checksum, bm (hash),... v.v.) trc khi thc thi chng. Nu khi khi ng ny tm ra hng hc, th n thng s t khi ng t mm cho ngi dng c th th i mi BIOS li. Cc nh hng sn xut phn cng thng xut bn cc cp nht BIOS ci tin sn phm ca h v sa cc trc trc trong phin bn c.

[sa]Phn sn trong cc b iu hp
Mt my tnh c th c nhiu chip c phn sn BIOS. BIOS ca bo mch chnh thng ch cha m truy cp cc thnh phn c bn ca phn cng nh bn phm, a mm, cc b iu khin ATA (IDE), cc giao din nhn tnh USB (USB human interface) v cc thit b lu tr. Thm vo , cc b iu hp c cm thm vo my, chng hn cc loi b iu khin SCSI, RAID, NIC v cc bo video, thng c BIOS ca ring mnh vi mc ch hon thin hay thay th m ca h thng BIOS cho chnh cc b phn . Trong nhiu trng hp, khi cc thit b c s dng bi cc b iu hp cm thm v c trc tip tch hp trn bo mch chnh, th ROM cm thm c th cng c lu tr nh l mt khi m ring bit trong con chip BIOS chnh. Phn ny c th c cp nht mt cch ring bit ty theo BIOS "cm thm" (i khi cn c gi l "option ROM"). Cc bo cm thm thng ch i hi c thm BIOS nu chng:

Cn c s dng trc khi c mt h iu hnh (ngha l chng c th c dng nh l

mt phn ca qu trnh ti cc khi ng mi (bootstrap) ca h iu hnh (chng hn nh cc ci t RAID cho cng trn cc b iu khin RAID Array cn c tin hnh trc khi ci t h iu hnh), v

Khng qu n gin hay qu chung chung trong hot ng. (V nu qu n gin hoc qu

chung chung th c th tin hnh trc tip qua BIOS chnh.)

Cc h iu hnh c nh DOS, cng nh cc b ti khi ng, c th tip tc s dng BIOS x l vo ra d liu (thng qua cc ngt BIOS (BIOS interrupt) m thng thy nht l INT 13h). Mc d vy, hu ht cc h iu hnh ngy nay s trc tip lin lc vi cc thit b phn cng bng cch s dng trnh iu khin (device driver) ca chnh cc phn cng truy cp chng. i khi cc BIOS cm thm ny cng c gi bi cc h iu hnh hin i, nhm thc thi cc thao tc c bit chng hn vic khi to cho cc thit b . Trong khi khi ng, tm ra a ch ca ROM m rng c nh x vo b nh chnh, cc kin to ca PC BIOS s c qut b nh thc t a ch 0xC0000 n a ch 0xF0000, ni trong gii hn 2 kilobyte tm ra hai byte ch k (signature byte) c gi tr ln lt l 0x55 v 0xAA, nm ngay sau hai byte s l mt byte cho bit s lng ca cc khi 512 byte m ROM m rng chim ch trong b nh thc. BIOS sau s thng dng lnh jump nhy ti offset (khong cch/a ch tng i) c ghi ngay sau byte cha kch thc ni trn. T y, cc m ROM m rng s ly quyn iu hnh v gi cc dch v BIOS cung cp mt giao din cu hnh cho ngi dng, ng k cc vector ngt cho cc ng dng sau khi ng, hay hin th thng tin khm nghim. i vi cc h thng UNIX v Windows/DOS, c mt s tin ch dnh cho vic c phn sn BIOS ti a ch http://www.linuks.mine.nu/ree/.

[sa]c t BIOS Khi ng


Nu ROM m rng mun thay i cch thc khi ng h thng (chng hn t mt thit b mng hay t mt b iu hp SCSI m BIOS chnh khng c m iu vn), n c th dng API ca c t BIOS Khi ng (BIOS Boot Specification -- BBS) ng k kh nng ny ca mnh -- Trn cc NIC, kh nng ny thng c gi l Thc gic bng LAN (wake up on LAN) ngha l qua mt mnh lnh truyn qua mng, ta c th khi ng mt my tnh c m BIOS h tr chc nng ny). Mt khi cc ROM m rng ng k dng cc API ca BBS, ngi dng my c th la chn trong s cc chc nng thm vo ny khi ng qua giao din s dng ca BIOS. y cng l l do ti sao cc BIOS s khng cho php ngi dng vo c giao din s dng ca BIOS cho ti khi tt c cc ROM m rng hon tt vic t thc thi v ng k phn ca chng vi API ca BBS.

[sa]Tng v gim chc nng


Cc h iu hnh c nh DOS dng BIOS thc thi hu ht cc thao tc xut nhp trn my PC. Vi s xut hin ca cc h iu hnh mi hn nh Microsoft Windows, Linux, BIOS gn nh c bn ch dng cung cp ci t khi ng phn cng v khi ng mi. Mt khi chy c, h iu hnh t khi ph thuc vo BIOS.

Trong nhng nm gn y, nh cc h thng thit k nh ACPI, BIOS nhn thm nhiu chc nng phc tp, chng hn cc kha cnh ca qun l nng lng, cm nng (hotplug), qun l nhit ... v.v. iu ny dn ti i mi trch v ca BIOS thng qua cc nh sn xut h iu hnh, v phc tp ca m BIOS cng tng ln.

[sa]BIOS trong thng v


Hu ht cc nh cung cp bo mch chnh PC mua quyn s dng mt "ct li" BIOS v b cng c t cc hng thng mi, ni to ra v bo tr cc "ct li" . Sau , cc nh my sn xut bo mch chnh s iu chnh BIOS ny cho hp vi phn cng ca h - v l do ny, vic cp nht cc BIOS thng c tip nhn trc tip t cc hng ch to main.

[sa]Danh mc cc nh cung cp BIOS



American Megatrends Inc. Phoenix Technologies Award Software International MicroID Research (MRBIOS) Insyde Software (Insyde) General Software (General Software)

[sa]Xem thm

Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) LinuxBIOS l mt n phn mm min ph nhm thay th cc BIOS thng thng. Input/Output Base Address Advanced Configuration and Power Interface machine code microchip BIOS boot devices BIOS Interrupt Calls Interface T kim tra khi ngun bt (POST)

[sa]Lin kt ngoi

UEFI homepage OpenBIOS homepage LinuxBIOS homepage Adrian's Rojak Pot's The Definitive BIOS Optimization Guide Motherboard BIOS Flashing Guide BIOS Hot Flashing Guide BIOS-Kompendium Homepage == BIOS-Info, BIOS-Forum, Selling/programming:

(E)EPROMs & FLASH-EEPROMs ("BIOS Chips")

Biosflash homepage - BIOS Chips Sale + Programming BIOS Agent The BIOS Boot Specification BNOBTC - BIOS Tool collection - (All?) BIOS Tools in one collection Video BIOS Hot Flashing Guide How to flash a BIOS Award bios identification page Wim's BIOS Page How to bypass BIOS passwords Breaking Through The BIOS Barrier Book On BIOS Optimization for PCs

[sa]Tham kho

Winn L. Rosch. "Hardware Bible". SAMS. ISBN 1566861276