“NVH Analysis in Automobiles”

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“NVH Analysis in Automobiles”


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The use of NVH analysis provides essential benefits towards designing vehicles for ride comfort and quietness, an increasingly competitive advantage in today's global automotive market. Requirements for NVH analysis at increasingly higher excitation frequencies is driving NVH modeling promoters beyond practical limits for conventional NVH methods. This paper examines details behind conventional NVH practice, NVH modeling directions for the future, and an alternative to conventional NVH that will allow future modeling targets to be achieved. Automotive manufacturers undergo increasing market pressures to satisfy consumer demand for vehicles designed with improved ride-comfort and quietness. Good management of a vehicle's NVH characteristics helps auto makers produce a more competitive product, especially in luxury vehicle markets. Sources of NVH are dynamic and acoustic response to typical mechanical loads -- those mainly applied from vehicle interaction with the road and operation of the Powertrain. Significant NVH improvements have occurred recently such that vehicle sounds and vibrations previously masked by road noise are becoming a substantial noise source. As such, additional NVH reductions will only occur with design investigation at higher levels of fidelity and precision. Only the NVH laboratory offers such levels today since conventional NVH analysis still has several limitations.




cooling fan etc. or with analytical tools that provide results reflecting human subjective impressions. driveline. NVH is mostly engineering. The field of psychoacoustics is partly concerned with this correlation. and is measured either via "jury" evaluations. gearbox . particularly cars and trucks. vibration.INTRODUCTION NOISE Noise is a audible sound generated in vehicle or any other system including engine. clutches. In some cases the NVH engineer is asked to change the sound quality. This is partly because the human body has its own frequency response. The vibrations can be measured and controlled. adding or subtracting particular harmonics.e. but this does not mean that two noises with the same A-weighted level are equally disturbing. is the study and modification of the noise and vibration characteristics of vehicles. while exterior NVH is largely concerned with the noise radiated by the vehicle. These latter tools belong to the field known as "psychoacoustics. but often objective measurements fail to predict or correlate well with the subjective impression on human observers. also known as noise and vibration (N&V). Harshness is a subjective quality. i. the ear's response at moderate noise levels is approximated by A-weighting.g. e. rather than making the car quieter. tire contact patch and road surface. While noise and vibration can be readily measured. • HARSHNESS Harshness is a combination of NOISE and VIBRATIONS and hence is tactile and audible WHAT IS NVH Noise. The source of vibration can be any part / assembly of the vehicle. 1 . brakes." Interior NVH deals with noise and vibration experienced by the occupants of the cabin. # Noise can be measured • VIBRATIONS Vibration is generated in the driveline and can be experienced / sensed and seen by any person. and includes drive-by noise testing. and harshness (NVH).

and other engine accessories is also fairly common. driveline. and then radiated acoustically into the cabin. Others are generated acoustically and propagated by airborne paths. armrests. including the engine. the seat. while airborne noise is reduced by absorption or through the use of barrier materials. # NOISE # VIBRATION # HARSHNESS . • Necessity of NVH Awareness SOUND IS A PROPAGATING TYPE OF ENERGY.Sources of NVH The sources of noise in a vehicle are many. NOISE IS A UNWANTED SOUND. or the floor and pedals. Some problems are sensed visually . tire contact patch and road surface.such as the vibration of the header rail or rear view mirror on open topped cars. brakes. Many problems are generated as either vibration or noise. Structure-borne noise is attenuated by isolation. transmitted via a variety of paths. Vibrations are sensed at the steering wheel. or the HVAC. alternator.AUDIBLE -TACTILE -TACTILE AND AUDIBLE • Necessity of NVH – CMVR. Noise from cooling fans. These are classified as "structure-borne" noise. CPCB & NCNPC # Noise Pollution # Customer Awareness Of Vehicle Ride Comfort # Marketability #Trend Towards Higher Power And Smaller Size Power trains. and wind. # Sound Quality # Design Optimization # Consistency In Production 2 .


3) POWERTRAIN/DRIVELINE NVH During power generation and transmission some form of noise gets the share due to friction in mating parts such as gears.. transmission.NVH CLASSIFICATION # BY NOISE TYPE 1) ROAD NVH Comprises of the noise generated due to the road contact patch with tyres and their relative motion. # Vehicle Components 1) CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEM Noise of climate control system such as Air Conditioning. 4) SWITCHES They form the most integral part of all cars which generates noise but is only limited to working of very short period only when the operator needed to turn the switch. 2) WIPERS Vehicle wipers also generates noise during working due to rubbing action occurring between the glass and wipers 3) SEAT MOTORS They form the most integral part of modern cars which generates noise but is only limited to a short time lapse. 2) CHASSIS NVH NVH related to the chassis or the main stress line components such as the engine . # By Vehicle Systems 1) BODY NVH NVH related to the body shell of the vehicle only. etc. combustion in engine cylinders etc. 3 . axles. side wind which brushes the vehicle bode at the time of motion. 4) SQUEAK /RATTLE There are some misalignments in various assemblies of various components which creats noise when automobile is in motion. 2) WIND NOISE Noise generated due to the wind . Heating Systems etc.


1) Direct infiltration: 2) Improper sealing .ANALYSIS Interior Noise of Vehicle One of the most decisive selling points for passenger car is the level and quality of interior noise. support bearing. It gets transmitted inside the vehicle by. Like exterior noise engine is the main source of vehicle interior noise. loops in the exhaust system 5) Drive shafts. rear axle drive shaft Noise Contributions from Various Systems # Fan and Radiator Assembly –10% # Drive Line –14% # Engine -21% # Intake System-14% # Exhaust System –32% # Structural Components.10% # Miscelleneous-3% Automotive Noise Sources-Levels and Frequency Bands 5 . Holes in the lower dash panel 3) Structural vibrations 4) Engine mounts.

Noise Sources-Levels  Actual Testing Of PASS BY NOISE of a VEHICLE 6 .

their amplitude varies considerably. or broadband. The work might also involve design fine-tuning to meet market expectations. such as engine noise. examples include tweaking an automobile door latching mechanism to impress a consumer with a satisfying click or modifying an exhaust manifold to change the tone of an engine's rumble. Analysis of sound and acoustics plays a role in such engineering tasks as product design. such as road noise or wind noise. Aircraft designers are also using acoustic instrumentation to reduce the noise generated on takeoff and landing. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation range from a handheld sound level meter to a 1000-microphone phased array. IEC. such as whistles from antennas. In the past magnetic or DAT tape recorders were used. Instrumentation Typical instrumentation used to measure NVH include microphones. and ISO. Most of the acoustical measurement and instrumentation systems can be broken down into three components: 1) Sensors 2) Data Acquisition 3) Analysis 7 . The integrity of the signal chain is very important. Tonal noises often have harmonics. The y axis is logarithmic. although they look like tonal problems on any one spectrum. Many NVH facilities will have semi-anechoic chambers. normally. and process control. product design can require modification of sound level or noise for compliance with standards from ANSI. Here is the noise spectrum of Michael Schumacher's Ferrari at 16680 rpm. Some resonant systems respond at characteristic frequencies. showing the various harmonics. production test. and rolling road dynamometers. and uncelebrated. machine performance. For instance. typically each of the instruments used are fully calibrated in a lab once per year. accelerometers and force gauges.Tonal versus broadband NVH can be tonal. Here. Typically signals are recorded direct to hard disk via an Analog-to-digital converter. The x axis is given in terms of multiples of engine speed. or load cells. and any given setup is calibrated as a whole once per day. Therefore. but in response to random excitation.

Brüel & Kjær. the dynamic range is 20 log (Vmax/Vmin). Expressed in decibels. free-field.A. and LMS. anti-aliasing filters. Some well known vendors include Prosig. each with their own correction factors for different applications. and other signal conditioning. and random-incidence. and input configuration.S. The three main groups of microphones are pressure. Other sensors include hydrophones for measuring sound in water or accelerometers for measuring vibrations causing sound.Sensors The most common sensor used for acoustic measurement is the microphone. as prescribed by the Nyquist sampling theorem. Sound & Vibration has a selection guide detailing the difference between microphones. G. Thus. Dynamic range is a common way to compare performance from one instrument to another. filtering. a device with an input range of ±10 V and a dynamic range of 110 dB will be able to measure a signal as small as 10 µV. For example.R. many devices come with antialiasing filters. Measurementgrade microphones are different than typical recording-studio microphones because they can provide a detailed calibration for their response and sensitivity. sensor excitation. OROS. 8 . National Instruments. Other well known microphone suppliers include PCB Piezotronics and Brüel & Kjær. taking into account the range of the sensor. the input range and the specified dynamic range are important for determining the needs of your instrumentation system. This signal conditioning may include amplification. Another consideration is the frequency range of the instrumentation. It should be large enough to cover the frequency range of signal interest. Dynamic range is a measure of how small you can measure a signal relative to the maximum input signal the device can measure. which cut the maximum frequency range of the device to a little less than one-half the maximum sampling rate. To prevent aliasing. Data Acquisition Data acquisition hardware for acoustic measurements typically utilizes 24-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs).


The word "acoustic" is derived from the Greek word ακουστικός (akoustikos). Art. industrial production.ACOUSTICS Artificial omni-directional sound source in anechoic acoustic chamber Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of sound. ready to hear"[1] and that from ακουστός (akoustos). The Latin synonym is "sonic". medicine. as in many other fields of knowledge. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician. while letting the word "acoustic" refer to the entire frequency range without 8 . science and technology have provoked one another to advance the whole. which in turn derives from the verb ακούω (akouo). liquids. and speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture. The application of acoustics in technology is called acoustical engineering. So it is no surprise that the science of acoustics spreads across so many facets of our society .music. "heard. audible"[2]. craft. "I hear"[3]. it became conventional to identify these frequency ranges as "ultrasonic" and "infrasonic" respectively. After acousticians had extended their studies to frequencies above and below the audible range. meaning "of or for hearing. and solids). Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world. architecture. ultrasound and infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases. warfare and more. There is often much overlap and interaction between the interests of acousticians and acoustical engineers.


Third Octave Analysis FFT Frequency Response Function Color Map Investigative techniques Techniques used to help identify NVH include part substitution. and partial coherence. using Fourier transforms to convert the time domain signals into the frequency domain. modal analysis.ACOUSTIC ANALYSIS Audio and acoustic analysis includes: fractional-octave analysis. acoustic intensity. Wavelet analysis. rig tests. lead cladding. sound-level measurements. statistical energy analysis. and transient analysis. Results are viewed on waterfall displays. power spectra. Most NVH work is done in the frequency domain. frequency response measurements. and subjective evaluation of signals modified in real time are also used. colormap displays. and octave graphs. 9 . transfer path analysis.

These early prototypes are very expensive. or improving the balance of a rotating mechanism. or using active noise control. Deciding which of these to use in solving a particular problem is the challenge facing the NVH engineer. reducing the source strength. as in making a noise source quieter with a muffler. a multi-body model should be established. These are needed early in the design process as the solutions often need substantial modification to the design. Sub frames. for example above 1 kHz. as for example with foam noise absorbers.Computer-based modelling NVH needs good representative prototypes of the production vehicle. interrupting the noise or vibration path. Specific methods for improving NVH include the use of Tuned mass dampers. 2. In some circumstances. In contrast. or 3. so there has been great interest in computer aided predictive techniques for NVH. adding sound deadening or absorbing materials. a SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) model should be established. Sometimes these work. say. One example is the modelling works for structure borne noise and vibration analysis. 10 . Back-of-envelope calculations are very useful. 25-30 Hz. retuning exhausts and Intakes. When the phenomenon being considered occurs below. for example the idle shaking of the powertrain. modifying the stiffness or mass of structures. forcing in engineering changes which are much cheaper when made early. when the phenomenon being considered occurs at relatively high frequency. absorption of the noise or vibration energy. for testing. substantial changes in vehicle architecture may be the only way to cure some problems cost effectively. modifying the characteristics of elastomeric isolators. Typical solutions There are three principal means of improving NVH: 1. balancing. with barriers (for noise) or isolators (for vibration). or tuned vibration dampers.


ear drum). vibration is undesirable. uneven friction. when trying to reduce noise it is often a problem in trying to reduce vibration. or "pressure waves". Sine (onefrequency-at-a-time) tests are performed to survey the structural response of the device 12 . For example the motion of a tuning fork. For higher frequencies. one or more "input" or "control" points on the DUT are kept at a specified vibration level.g. electrodynamic shakers are used. For relatively low frequency forcing. Examples of this type of vibration include a shaking washing machining due to an imbalance. Examples of this type of vibration are pulling a child back on a swing and then letting go or hitting a tuning fork and letting it ring. More often. etc. Two typical types of vibration tests performed are random. Other "response" points experience maximum vibration level (resonance) or minimum vibration level (anti-resonance). etc). Alternately.and sine test. Generally.g. usually with some type of shaker. wasting energy and creating unwanted sound -noise. Careful designs usually minimize unwanted vibrations. Sound. or any mechanical device in operation are typically unwanted. or the cone of a loudspeaker is desirable vibration. vocal cords). The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road. For example. these pressure waves can also induce the vibration of structures (e. The study of sound and vibration are closely related. Such vibrations can be caused by imbalances in the rotating parts. the vibrational motions of engines. Vibration is occasionally "desirable". necessary for the correct functioning of the various devices. with order of magnitude being dependent on the actual mechanical system. Hence. the reed in a woodwind instrument or harmonica. Types of vibration Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set off with an initial input and then allowed to vibrate freely. are generated by vibrating structures (e. springs. or the vibration of a building during an earthquake. electric motors. The mechanical system will then vibrate at one or more of its "natural frequencies" and damp down to zero. transportation vibration (caused by truck engine.VIBRATIONS Vibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. In forced vibration the frequency of the vibration is the frequency of the force or motion applied. Forced vibration is when an alternating force or motion is applied to a mechanical system. Vibration testing Vibration testing is accomplished by introducing a forcing function into a structure. road. a DUT (device under test) is attached to the "table" of a shaker. servohydraulic (electrohydraulic) shakers are used. the meshing of gear teeth.

such as road inputs to a moving automobile. Vibration analysis The fundamentals of vibration analysis can be understood by studying the simple mass– spring–damper model. calls for multiple exciter testing. Vibration isolation Subframe vibration isolation graph: force transmission on suspended body vs. Test Method 527.under test (DUT). Vibration isolation is the process of isolating an object. released in late 2008. Please refer to the references at the end of the article for detailed derivations. A random (all frequencies at once) test is generally considered to more closely replicate a real world environment. from the source of vibrations. even though most real-world vibration occurs in various axes simultaneously. Note: In this article the step by step mathematical derivations will not be included. but will focus on the major equations and concepts in vibration analysis. The mathematics used to describe its behavior is identical to other simple harmonic oscillators such as the RLC circuit. frequency for rigidly and compliantly mounted subframes. The mass– spring–damper model is an example of a simple harmonic oscillator. 13 . MIL-STD-810G. Most vibration testing is conducted in a single DUT axis at a time. even a complex structure such as an automobile body can be modeled as a "summation" of simple mass–spring–damper models. Indeed. such as a piece of equipment.

As a result of such a feedback system. a considerably stronger suppression of vibrations is achieved compared to ordinary damping.0 -25 Hz Noise . > In the vibration spectrum. Active isolation Active vibration isolation systems contain.20KHz. which amplifies the signal. and an electromagnetic transducer. at the cost of introducing additional low frequency modes which may cause the low frequency behavior to deteriorate. Vehicle Ride Comfort > Ride comfort in a vehicle is a subjective perception normally Associated with level of comfort experienced during traveling in a vehicle. and in the front subframes of some cars.Passive isolation Passive vibration isolation systems consist essentially of a mass. The acceleration (vibration) signal is processed by a control circuit and amplifier. along with the spring. This doubles the high frequency attenuation rolloff. Ride . This splits the system with an additional mass/spring/damper system. a feedback circuit which consists of a piezoelectric accelerometer. > Perceived ride is cumulative effect of many factors. The graph (see illustration) shows the force into the body for a subframe that is rigidly bolted to the body compared with the red curve that shows a compliantly mounted subframe. Above 42 Hz the compliantly mounted subframe is superior.25Hz . Subframe isolation Another technique used to increase isolation is to use an isolated subframe. Then it feeds the electromagnetic actuator. spring and damper (dash-pot). 14 . > Ride is a tactile and visual vibrations. but below that frequency the bolted in subframe is better. a controller. This is commonly used in the rear suspensions of cars with Independent Rear Suspension (IRS).


APPLICATIONS NVH test equipment are used for various applications such as: • • • • • • • • Engine noise vibration testing Acoustic performance testing Sound power testing Pass by noise testing Telephone testing Environmental noise measurements and noise field mapping Structural dynamics and vibration testing Occupational health and safety ADVANTAGES OF NVH TEST • • • • Real-time multi-analysis is possible in one test run Results obtained are accurate and precise Report generation is made easy Shorter lead times. and hence improved productivity 16 .


. .CONCLUSION The need to improve product quality and differentiate from the competition. concerns about human health and safety combined with stringent regulations. create a viable market for NVH. The significance of a highly scalable NVH solution like direct frequency response is that engineers will be able to model at increasingly critical frequency levels within a wider hearing range of occupants. This market has a huge potential and it can be expected that this market would grow for the next couple of years.. 18 .


MSC/NASTRAN Numerical Methods. M. 111-116. 2. "Frequency Window Implementation of Adaptive Multi-Level Substructuring." Journal of Vibration and Acoustics.. "Understanding NVH Basics. pp.. April 1998. No. J. 1996. F.. K. Body Design and Engineering. Vol. 2.REFERENCES 1. pp. 20 . W. 409-418. F. Bennighof. A. and Wolf. CQAV Ahmednagar Reports . 120. 20." Proceedings of the International Body Engineering Conference.Komzsik. and Kaplan. 1998. 4.VRDE NVH Test Lab (National Center For Automotive Testing)NCAT Division 5. Su. Version 70. Vol.. Duncan. 3.. L.