CT
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anallysis, wiih an introduction to tensor analysis Theories, ICOncePts, and definitiDflS
49J fu .IY 'worked IProbiems
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t
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Copyright ® 1959 by McGrawHill, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical. photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN 07060228X 2223 2425 26 27 28 29 30 SH SH 8 7 6
Preface
Vector analysis, which had its beginnings in the middle of the 19th century, has in recent years become an essential part of the mathematical background required of engineers, physicists, mathematicians and other scientists. This requirement is far from accidental, for not only does vector analysis provide a concise notation for presenting equations arising from mathematical formulations of physical and geometrical problems but it is also a natural aid in forming mental pictures of physical and geometrical ideas. In short, it might very well be considered a most rewarding language and mode of thought for the physical sciences. This book is designed to be used either as a textbook for a formal course in vector analysis or as a very useful supplement to all current standard texts. It should also be of considerable value to those taking courses in physics, mechanics, electromagnetic theory, aerodynamics or any of the numerous other fields in which vector methods are employed. Each chapter begins with a clear statement of pertinent definitions, principles and theorems together with illustrative and other descriptive material. This is followed by graded sets of solved and supplementary problems. The solved problems serve to illustrate and amplify the theory, bring into sharp focus those fine points without which the student continually feels himself on unsafe ground, and provide the repetition of basic principles so vital to effective teaching. Numerous proofs of theorems and derivations of formulas are included among the solved problems. The large number of supplementary problems. with answers serve as a complete review of the material of each chapter. Topics covered include the algebra and the differential and integral calculus of vectors, Stokes' theorem, the divergence theorem and other integral theorems together with many applications drawn from various fields. Added features are the chapters on curvilinear coordinates and tensor analysis which should prove extremely useful in the study of advanced engineering, physics and mathematics. Considerably more material has been included here than can be covered in most first courses. This has been done to make the book more flexible, to provide a more useful book of reference, and to stimulate further interest in the topics. The author gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. Henry Hayden for typographical layout and art work for the figures. The realism of these figures adds greatly to the effectiveness of presentation in a subject where spatial visualizations play such an important role.
M. R. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute June, 1959
SPIEGEL
.
Parabolic cylindrical coordinates. Fundamental operations with tensors. Invariance. Partial derivatives of vectors. The intrinsic or absolute derivative. Line integrals. Transformation laws of Christoffel's symbols.
. Gradient..
DIVERGENCE
AND
CURL
. Paraboloidal coordinates. The summation convention. Tensors of rank greater than two. covariant and mixed tensors.
82
6. divergence and curl. Curl. TENS OR A N A L Y S I S
.
35
4. Relative and absolute tensors.Contents
CHAPTER
PAGE
1. V E CT 0 R IN T E G RA T ION
Ordinary integrals of vectors. Stokes' theorem. Components of a vector. Green's theorem in the plane. Divergence. Contravariant and covariant vectors. Mechanics. TH E DO TAN D C R 05 S PRO D UCL _____________________________________________ . divergence and curl. STOKES' THEOREM. Covariant derivatives. Associated tensors. Conjugate or reciprocal tensors. Spaces of N dimensions. Oblate spheroidal coordinates.
2. Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. Reciprocal sets of vectors. Tensor form of gradient.
57
. Tensor fields.____________________________________ 135
Transformation of coordinates. Continuity and differentiability.
8 . AND RELATED INTEGRAL THEOREM5
The divergence theorem of Gauss. CUR V I L1N EAR
C 0 OR DIN ATE
S
. Gradient. Matrices. Physical components. Vector algebra. The line element and metric tensor. Surface integrals. Contravariant.. Prolate spheroidal coordinates.
__ _
218
J
. Matrix algebra. Cylindrical coordinates.
. Differential geometry. Differentials of vectors. Angle between vectors. . Related integral theorems. Cross or vector products. Differentiation formulas. Special orthogonal coordinate systems. Space curves.J
The vector differential operator del. Rectangular unit vectors. Unit vectors.
I
5.________________________________________ 166
Physical laws. VE CT 0 R 5 AND
5 C A LA R S. Volume integrals. Scalars. Integral operator form for del.
.
IN DE X
.. 16
Dot or scalar products. The Kronecker delta. Ellipsoidal coordinates. Arc length and volume elements. Formulas involving del. THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM. Scalar fields. Unit vectors in curvilinear systems. Vector fields. Elliptic cylindrical coordinates.
3. GRADIENT. Geodesics. V E CT 0 R D I F FE REN T I A T 10 N___________________________________________
Ordinary derivatives of vectors.
106
7. Permutation symbols and tensors. Christoffel's symbols. Triple products. Laws of vector algebra.
1
Vectors. Symmetric and skewsymmetric tensors. Scalars or invariants. Coordinate transformations._. Length of a vector.
. Bipolar coordinates. Spherical coordinates.
.
The operations of addition. deby the the
p
Analytically a vector is represented by a letter with an arrow over it.
A SCALAR is a quantity having magnitude but~directio'.2. of
2. 1) fining the direction. e. in such case. and its magnitude is denoted by or A. capable of extension to an algebra of vectors. Thus A=B in Fig.Chapter
1
A VECTOR is a quantity having poth magnitude and direction. we shall denote its magnitude by OP. bold faced type. such as A. ~ and any real number. 1. the magnitude of the vector being indicated the length of the arrow. In printed works. force. The tail end 0 of the arrow is called origin or initial point of the vector. Graphically a vector is represented by an arrow OP (Fig.ime. Scalars are indicated by letters in ordinary type as in elementary algebra.
Fig. as A in Fig.l
IOPI. The vector OP is also indicated as OP or OP. Two vectors A and B are equal if they have the same magnitude and direction regardless the position of their initial points. We shall use this bold faced notation in this book.. such as displacement . With suitable definition. or lon]. subtraction and multiplication familiar in the algebra of numbers or scalars are. Operations with scalars follow the same rules as in elementary algebra. 2
Fig.!J. is used to indicate the vector A while or A indicates its magnitude.3).. and acceleration. velocity. 3
1
. and the head P is called terminal point or terminus.i. '
IAI

IAI
o
Fig.g. VECTOR ALGEBRA. ~ ~ t. A vector having direction opposite to that of vector A but having the same magnitude is denoted by ~A (Fig. The following definitions are fundamental.
3). is that vector C which added to B yields vector A. m(A+B)
=
mA+
mB
Distributive
Note that in these laws only multiplication ter 2. Band C are vectors and m and n are scalars. and are denoted respectively by i. For example..
Fig. If A. and k (Fig..5).. Such a system derives

Fig. m (nA)
then
Commutative Law for Addition Associative Associative Distributive Law for Addition Law for Multiplication Law Law is used. The difference of vectors A and B. It has zero magnitude and no specific direction.2
VECTORS and SCALARS
3. Equivalently. A = Aa .j. k. If A = B. products of vectors are defined.
systems
x
We shall use righthanded rectangular coordinate unless otherwise stated..!E!l!:_or zero vec tOT and is represented by the symbol 0 or simply O. If A is a vector with magnitude Afi0. C = A+B.
z

A.. y.
of a vector by one or more scalars
These laws enable us to treat vector equations in the same way as ordinary algebraic equations. All vectors will be assumed proper unless otherwise stated.. This sum is written A+B. 1.B is defined as the. mA is the null vector. 5. A + B = B + A 2. AB can be defined as the sum A+(B).. j. The product of a vector A by a scalar m is a vector mA with magnitude Iml times the magnitude of A and with direction the same as or opposite to that of A. then A . The sum or resultant of vectors A and B is a vector C formed by placing the initial point of B on the terminal point of A and then joining the initial point of A to the terminal point of B (Fig. 5
. . In symbols. In ChapCommutative Law for Multiplication
= Am = (mn)A
= mA+nA
(m+n)A
6. represented by A .. LAWS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA. Le.~ then A/A is a unit vector having the same direction as .
~
Any vector A can be represented by a unit vector a in the direction of A multiplied by the magnitude of A. and z axes of a three dimensional rectangular coordinate system.. A vector which is not null is a proper vector... An important set of unit vectors are those having the directions of the positive x.

THE RECTANGULAR UNIT VECTORS i. A + (B+C) = (A+B) + C 3. mA
4.B . according as m is positive or negative.
4. A UNIT VECTOR is a vector having unit magnitude.
allelogram
The definition here is equivalent to the parlaw for vector addition (see Prob.4). if A+B = C then by transposing A = C .4
Extensions to sums of more than two vectors are immediate (see Problem 4).B. If m = 0. 5.
2yz3j + x2zk
defines
a vector field..z)
= xy2i .
I AI
r
=
=
IA~+ A~ + A~
the position vector or radius vector r from 0 to the point (x. The sum or resultant of Ali. of time is called .
Examples.ectangulS!:L!!.VECTORS and SCALARS
its name from the fact that a right threaded screw rotated through 90° from Ox to Oy will advance in the positive z direction. are said to form a righthanded system or dextral system if a right threaded screw rotated through an angle less than 1800 from A to B will advance in the direction C as shown in Fig. (2) V(x.y .
(1) The temperature at any point within or on the earth's defines a scalar field. A2i. Any vector A in 3 d_t mensions can be repre_:.y.
r
=
Ir I
If to each point (x .z).
y
= Ali + A2i + A3k_
A
=
The magnitude of A is In particular.__ a stationary
surface
at a certain
time
A scalar field which is independent VECTOR FIELD. as in Fig.z)

or steadystate
scalar field . three vectors A. The vectors Ali.6.. A3) be the rectangular coordinates of the terminal point of vector A with initial point at O.5 above..y. In general. defines a scalar field.mE_onent vect~ or simply component vectors of A in the x. A2i and A3k is the vector A so that we can write A
x Fig. AI' A2 and A3 are called the rectangular components or simply components of A in the x.y. y and z directions respectively.
or vector point function
(1) If the velocity at any point (x .z ) of a region R in space there corresponds a number or scalar ~ then ¢ is called a _fcalar function of position or scalar point function and we say that a scalar field ¢ has been defined in R. y and z directions respectively.z) within a moving fluid is known at a certain time. Examples.. Let (AI' A2.z ) is written xi + yi + zk
and has magnitude SCALAR FIELD. do not lie in or are not parallel to the same plane. 7
3
COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR.y .
If to each point (x. i.y . or steadystate vector field.:!. Band C which have coincident initial points and are not coplanar. and we say
of a region R in space there corresponds
then V is called a vector function of position that a vector field V has been defined in R.ented with initial point at the o~ coordinate system (Fig.e.7). then a vector field is defined.
A vector field which is independent
of time is called a stationary
. and A3k are called the .. a vector V(x.
4 mi and direction 61. (b) Analytical Determination denoting the magnitudes of the law of cosines of Resultant. This is the parallelogram law of vector addition. Represent
graphically
(a) a force of 10 lb in a direction (b) a force of 15 lb in a direction
30° north of east 300 east of north.(a)
S
I
Fig. sin j_ OQP
A C
sin j_ OPQ
Then
. By the law of sines. of 5 mi north east. The resultant vector OQ can also be obtained by constructing the diagonal of the parallelogram OPQR having vectors OP = A and OR (equal to vector PQ or B) as sides. (b) analytically. Then vector OQhas magnitude 7.
N
Vector OP or A represents Vector PQ or B represents
Q
Vector OQor C represents the resultant displacement or sum of vectors A and B. heat (e) density (g) volume ({) energy
(e)
(i) (j)
speed magnetic field intensity
(d) momentum (c) scalar (d)
(h)
distance
(i)
Ans. the required vectors are as indicated
above. B. to Angle EOQ=61. C by A. Represent these displacements and determine the resultant displacement (a) graphically. displacement displacement of 3 mi due north. C = A + B. Layoff the 1 mile unit on vector OQ find the magnitude 7. From triangle OPQ.5°. C.
scalar
(g) scalar
(h)
vector
(f) scalar
'scalar
(n
scalar vector
2. state which of the following
(a) (b)
weight calorie (a) vector (b) scalar
(c) specific
are scalars and which are vectors. An automobile
graphically
travels 3 miles due north. B. i. (a) Graphical Determination of Resultant.e.50 north of east.4 mi (approximately). then 5 miles northeast. using a protractor.(b)
Choosing the unit of magnitude shown. we have by
A
A
w::f'E Unit = 1mile
~
s
34 + 1512 55.4
VECTORS and SCALARS
SOLVED PROBLEMS
1. A. This' is the triangle law of vector addition.
N
N
Unit'" 5lb
s
Fig.21
and C = 7.
3.43 (approximately).
1 units =20.5ft and direction
600southofE.. 20 ft 30° north of east.
Thus vector OQ has magnitude 7. or or
A + B = B + A.
i. point of A to the terminal point of C.
0 .
p
c
Unit ~ 5 ft
~
s
Fig. Show that the addition OP + PQ and OP +PR OQ + QR Then PQ + QR OR OR =
of vectors OQ PR
is associative. .
method of addition of 3 or more vectors. OR +RQ
6.43 mi and direction
4. C. C.:.
D = A+B+C. D.
(b)
above.
+ C). D. e. Forces ing?
F l' F 2'
.
Extensions of the results of Problems 5 and 6 show that the order of addition of any number of vectors is immaterial. (a)below. 35 ft due south.
A + (B + C) (A + B) + C
D. At the terminal point of B place the initial
See Fig.(a)
o
R
Fig. Show that addition
of vectors
is commutative.
_:~ R
7.
See Fig.43
5
sin LOQP
=
A sin LOPQ
C
= 0.
either in a plane or in space see Problem 26.707) 7. i. (A + B).
At the terminal point of A place the initial point of B.
(B
i.
D.VECTORS and SCALARS
3(0. 10 ft northwest.
OP + PQ and Then A +B B + A.
The resultant
D is formed by joining the initial
Graphically the resultant For an analytical
N
is measured to have magnitude of 4.
F6
act as shown
on object
P.. i.
paint of C.
A + (B + C)
(A +B)
+ C.e. Find the sum or resultant of the following displacements: A.2855 (45° + 16°35')
and = 61°35' north of east.(b)
5. OQ OQ
Le.e. B. A+B B+A C.
What force
is needed
to prevent
P
from mov
. e.
A + (B + C)
(A + B) + C.
R which is a vector equal in magnitude to R but opposite in direction and sometimes called the equilibrant. I.J. we may start with any vector. then F3. To Fl add F2.l(b)
Fig. Given vectors
A. 1 (a)
Fig.e.
(a)
Fig. 2 (a)
(b)
Fig.c).~(2AB). The force needed to prevent P from moving is . etc.2(b)
. The vector drawn from the initial point of Fl to the terminal point of F6 is the resultant R. Band
C (F'ig . construct
(a)
AB + 2C
(b) 3C . say Fl.6
VECTORS and SCALARS
Since the order of addition of vectors is immaterial.
p
8. R = Fl +F2 +F3 +FLt+F~ +F6 .
band c if necessary. The vectors a and b are called base vectors in a plane. From the manner of construction it is clear that x and y are unique for a given a. Given three sional space. From the adjoining figure.
11. and c. Hence when their initial points coincide they do not lie in the same plane. where x is a scalar y b . b. and a and c. b. band c at O.
. Given two noncollinear termined by a and b.5 units = 163 ml/hr
and direction
33° north of west. they determine a plane. An airplane moves in a northwesterly direction
and SCALARS
at
7
w
125 mi/hr relative to the ground. find an expression
for any vector
r
lying in the plane
de
Noncollinear vectors are vectors which are not parallel to the same line. find an expression
for any vector
r in three
dimen
Noncoplanar vectors are vectors which are not parallel to the same plane. c and r. From the adjoining figure OD = x(OA) OC = y(OB) But by the parallelogram OR
7. From the terminal point R of r construct lines parallel to the vectors a and b and complete the parallelogram ODRC by extension of the lines of action of a and b if necessary. Through the terminal point of r pass planes parallel respectively to the planes determined by a and b. where y is a scalar.VECTORS
9. andr. The vectors x a and y b are called component vectors of r in the directions a and b respectively. How fast and in what direction would the plane Let have traveled W if there were no wind?
wind velocity velocity of plane with wind velocity of plane without wind or
Unit = 25 mi/hr
~
Vb has magnitude
6. and complete the parallelepiped PQRSTUV by extension of the lines of action of a. band c.
A
z(OC)
zc
=
OV + VQ + QR
=
OV + OP
+ OT
or
r
=
x a+y b
+z
C•
From the manner of construction
it is clear that x. Hence when their initial points coincide. Let r be any vector lying in the plane of a and b and having its initial point coincident with the initial points of a and b at O. due to the fact there is a westerly wind of 50 mi/hr relative to the ground. b. OV
OP
s
B
=
=
x(OA) y(OB)
=
OT But OR
=
=
=
xa
yb
where x is a scalar where y is a scalar where z is a scalar.
B
law of vector addition or r
=
OD + OC
=
xa
+yb
which is the required expression._
o
~/
=
= x a. The scalars x and y may be positive or negative depending on the relative orientations of the vectors. Let r be any vector in space having its initial point coincident with the initial points of a.
noncoplanar
vectors
a.
10.
vectors
a
and b. y and z are unique for a given a.
But AB = AP + PB = AP . Prove that the diagonals
of a parallelogram
bisect
each other.
a.
=0
or
(xlx2)a or Xl = x2'
+ (YIY2)b
O. Prove that if a and b are noncollinear
then
xa + yb = 0 implies
x =y =
o.
•
The equation can be written YlY2=O.a.
then Xl =x2'
h =Y2'
=0. Q. then yb = 0. BD = b . contradictions are obtained upon supposing y.t(c + d) = SR and QR = t(b + c) = . a lies in the plane of band c which is clearly a contradiction to the hypothesis that a. Refer to Frg. from which y = O. if a. band
c are noncoplanar.
The we
As a special case. SP = t(d + a). Le. k by the expression r = xi + yj + zk.yb or a = . i. zlz2=0 or
xl=x2.(y /x) b .x = 0. Since Since
BD + a = h. Thus x = 0.
where a and b are noncollinear. xlx2
16. R.
12.BP. a and b must be parallel to to the same line (collinear) contrary to hypothesis.
Then
AC = a + b.8
VECTORS
and SCALARS
The vectors xa.
+ (YlY2)b
zl=z2'
+ (zlz2)c
O. RS = t(c + d). band
c respectively.
a + b + c + d = O.
QR = t(b + c). yb and zc are called component vectors of r in directions vectors a. band c are the unit vectors I. If Xl a + Yl b = x2a + Y2b. in
Let ABCD be the given parallelogram tersecting at P.t(d + a) is a parallelogram.
Let ABCD be the given quadrilateral Then But PQ = t(a + b). which are mutually perpendicular. Yl .i0.e. Then by Problem 14.
Xla + Ylb = x2a + Y2b can be written xla+ylb(x2a+Y2b) Hence by Problem 12. Then xa+yb+zc = 0 implies xa = ybzc or a = (y/x)b .
Suppose x ~ O. a = y(a+b) .
with diagonals
BP = x(b a). if c=O then r must lie in the plane of a and b so the result of Problem 10 is obtained. and P. By similar reasoning. Prove that if a. Le. x = y = t and P is the midpoint of both diagonals. If the midpoints
of the
consecutive quadrilateral
sides
of any quadrilateral
are connected
by straight
lines. PS
Thus opposite sides are equal and parallel and PQRS
. AP = yea + b).
X
17. Since a and b are noncollinear we have by Problem 13. But .
Suppose x~o.Y2 = 0
YI
= Y2'
14. see that any vector r can be expressed uniquely in terms of I. j and k.(z/x)c is a vector lying in the plane of band c (Problem 10). band c are called base vectors in three dimensions. Then xa + yb = 0 implies xa = .
prove that the resulting
is a parallelogram.
15.Ic) below.
13. If Xl a + Yl b + zl c
zl
=
= z2
x2a + Y2b + z2c. + Y = 1 and y .x2 = 0. band c are noncoplanar. j. band
c are noncoplanar
then
xa + yb + zc = 0 implies
X
= Y =z
= O. Then PQ = t(a + b) = .
(xlx2)a Yl=Y2'
where a. S the midpoints of its sides.(z/x)c.
Xl . Also.(y /x) b.x(ba) = (x +y)a + (yx)b. Hence x = O.
then
Xl = x2
and
Yl = Y2 . Le.i 0 and z .
(a + a + a )v = 0.1 = O. r'2 and r'3 be the position vectors of PI' P 2 and P 3 with respect to 0' and let v be the posttion vector of 0' with respect to O.a) = neb .
o
Let PI ' P2' P 3 be points fixed relative to an origin 0 and let r l.e. i. l 2 3 The result can be generalized. AP = ra AB = ba
Since AP and AS are collinear.(a)
Fig. which is of course as it should be. we have for scalars mAP = nPB Solving.(b)
19. it is clear that becomes fl=v+rl'
. the sum of the coefficients of a.
Let r be the position through A and B.VECTORS
and SCALARS
9
position vectors from holds with respect to al + a 2 + a 3 = O. Hence by Problem 18 it is seen that the point P is always on the line joining A and B and does not depend on the choice of origin 0.r 2' r 3 be to each point.
f al + a2 + a3
O.
c
Pl \
\
\ r~
B <. and OA+AP = OP OA + AB = OB or or a + AP = r .e. Since AP and PB are collinear.
f2=V+f2.r) form. We seek conditions under which the equation alf'l + a2f~ + a3r'3 = 0 will hold in the new reference system.t + t .
18.
which is called the symmetric
. Another Method. Show that if the vector equation alrl + a2r2 + a3f3 = 0 origin 0 then it will hold with respect to any other origin 0' if and only if
Let r~.
t
I
. Then the required equation is r = a+ t(ba) or
AP = tAB or r a = t(b a). a + AB = b. Find the equation of a straight line which passes tion vectors a and b with respect to an origin O. band r is 1.(b) below. From Fig.
f
=
(lt)a
+ tb
If the equation is written (lt)a+tbr = 0.
I
r3=v+r3
I
so that
alfl + a2r2+a3r3
=0
o
The res ult al fl + a2 f2 + a3 f3 = 0 will hold if and only i i.
\
"
0'
Fig. r ma + nb m+n or m and n:
mer. i.
through
two given points
A
and
B
having
posi
vector of any point P on the line
From the adjoining fl gure .e.
\
0
v
'\ <.
a = 2. f2' f3 and r4 constitute a linearly dependent set of vectors. b.. otherwise they are linearly independent.3(2i 4j 3k)
= 6i ..
(a) Find the position points P(2.
vectors r 1 and r 2 for the 5. If fl=
that
2ii+k.b. so that aA + bB + cC + .. c.c such
23.. 3i + 2j + 5k
r3= 2i+j3k
and
f4= 3i+2i+5k. Given
(a)
t.. .3k. 22.
find the magnitudes of
r1
=
3i .
.
(b)
2r1 .
A=
A1i+A2j+A3k
2
=
By the Pythagorean
(OP)
theorem.
R
coordinate i. Analytic ally .2j + k..5(i + 2j +2k)
= 4/2.
The vector r4 is said to be linearly dependent on fl' f2.
Since
i.10k 12r 3f
123
5i . are called linearly dependent if we can find a set of scalars.
b
= 1.
r3.. = 0. =
5r
1 = 15i2j+kl
= 1(5)2+(_2)2+(1)2
130.
c = 3
and
r4 = 2r1 + r 2. k.5r8•
(b)
f1+f2+r3 Then
= (3i2j+k)+(2i4j3k)+(i+2j+2k) Irl+f2+f31 = 14i4j+Okl
= 4i4j+Ok = 132
= 4i4j
= /(4)2+(_4)2+(0)2 .
(OQ)
2
= =
+
(QP)
2
where OP denotes the magnitude of vector OP.
We require
a(2ij+k) (2a +b 2c}i
+ b(i+3j2k)
+ c(2i+j3k)
+ (a +3b +c)j
+
(a 2b 3c)k.2j + k.10
20. in other words r1. A = IA~ + A~ + A.
find scalars a. . k are noncoplanar we have by Problem 15.
(c)
r3 = .e.4j + 2k . the resultant of fl and f2 is given by fl + f2
x
=
(2i+4j+3k)
+ (i5j+2k)
3i .2c = 3. cally
(a)
system
(b)
in terms of these
Determine
the resultant
fl = OP = OC + CB + BP r 2 = OQ = OD + DE + EQ
= =
2i + 4j + 3k i .10j . r4 = ar1 + br2 + ef3 . j.6i + 12j + 9k + 5i . (OQ) 2 = (OR)2 + (RQ)2. B.5j + 2k
y
(b) Graphically.and r3 ..3r2 5r3 Then
= 2(3i 2j +k) . Prove
that
the
magnitude is A
A
/A~+
of the vector A: +A~. a+3b+c=2. 2) of a rectangular of the position unit vectors graphically and analytivectors. j.. Similarly.
f2 = 2i . r1+r2+r3. a. Then
(Op)2 (OR)2
+ (RQ)2 + (QP)2
or
A2 = A~ + A~ + A.
Solving. the resultant of f1and r2 is obtained as the diagonal OR of parallelogram OP RQ. etc. not all zero. f2=i+3i2k. 4. 2a + b . On the other hand any three (or fewer) of these vectors are linearly independent.3r2 .4j .3r3 .
a 2b 3c
=
5. C. 3) and
VECTORS and SCALARS
Q(1.
(c)
2rl .j + 5k
21. In general the vectors A.i + 2j + 2k.
Resultantforce R
=
A+B+C
=
(A1+B1+Cl)i+
(A2+B2+C2)j+
(A3+B3+C3)k.
The position vector of P is The position vector of Q is
r1 r1 = xli r2
+ Yl j + zl
k. Forces A.
from r From these it follows /
=!. Find the magnitude of the resultant of these forces.
I. r2 i + 2j + 3k. Band C acting on an object are given in terms of their components by the vector equations A = Ali + A2j + A3k.S.
is a right
_I
triangle with right angle at A.
x
cos
A
=
1.zl) k .
3
6

2 "7k ..
cos ~.
28.
11
=
to the resultant
R = r1 + r2 = (2i + 4j .
'V
y
cos
=~
T
'
ex.
2
2
Note that this is the distance
between points P and Q. B = Bli + B2j + B3k. y
13 = 1.
ex
x . = PQ = v(x2 
xl)
2
+ (Y2. then ilarly from right triangles and cos Then which that
Y
=
I:'.zl) . Determine the vector having initial point P (Xl' Y1' zl) and terminal point Q(x2.£. Y 2' Z2)·
for the straight
line passing
through the points
P (Xl'
Yl' Zl) and
.
=
R
=
IR I
13i + 6j . Simrl OBP and OCP.+ 6· 
=
7. Determine a set of equations Q(x2.
The result is easily extended to more than three forces.
triangle
OAP
to the figure.
27.VECTORS
24. Y2.
The numbers cos
ex. ' r
can be obtained.~k
7
I
=
J32 62 ()+()+()
7 7
25. Determine the angles ex.5k) + (i + 2j + 3k) = 3i + 6j . cos ~ = I~I
cos
ex =
Also.2k. cos yare
called the direction cos ine s of the vector OP. C = C1i + C2j + C3k. Magnitude of PQ
!.x1)i + (Y2 . ~ and y which the vector r = xi + yj + zk makes with the positive directions of the coordinate axes and show that cos?
Referring
ex + cos? ~ + cos'' y = 1.
26.
Then a unit vector parallel to Check:
2k
= "7i + "7j
22
7 = 1. cos
Ir I = r
= Ix
2 + y2 + z2 .Y1) j + (z2 . Z2) and find its magnitude.5k. Find a unit vector parallel
Resultant
and SCALARS
of vectors r1 = 2i + 4j .i 7
+
"7
6j
.
=
x2 i + Y2 j + z2 k •
+ PQ
=
f2
or
PQ = f2f1 = (x2i+y2j+z2k)(x1i+Ylj+zlk) = (x2 .Y1) + (z2 .2k
I
=
1(3)2 + (6)2 + (_2)2
R 3· R is R = ~.
Magnitude of resultant
=
122 2 v (Ai + Bl + C1) + (A2 + B2 + C2) + (A3 + B3 + C3) .
since
r
=
xi + yj + zk. t being the parameter.(1)(_2)3
=
9 .
find
¢
at the points
¢(O. a > 0 have magnitude a. 0.(xli + Ylj + zl k)] t [(x2

(xi + yj + zk) .Yl)j + (z . the equations become
29. and r the position vector of any point R on the line [oming P and Q. z)
=
xi + yj + zk. (b) (1.0).(1)(_2)3 + 5
=
+
6+ 8+ 5 5
(c)
¢(1. k are noncoplanar
XXl
vectors we have by Problem 15. of the xY plane there is defined a unique vector
~2
having direction passing through the origin and outward from it.0.2)
= =
3(0)2(0') .
zzl
=
t(z2z1)
as the parametric equations of the line. y.2. 2. Then f.0). y).2. r1 + PR = r
r1
or or
PR
+
PQ
r2
PQ
PR = t PQ where t is a scalar.
y.8 + 5
30. 0) ¢(1. 3)
=
3(1)2(3) . xi + yj of magnitude
At each point (x.2)
(a)
(b)
by
(c)
¢ (x.xy3
+
5.
(c)
V(x.(a)
Fig. J.
y
y
Fig.3). z) (1.
=
t(x2x1).
Eliminating
t. Graph the vector fields (a) V(x. except (0. 2.
(a)
defined
(b)
by: V(x.(0)(0)3 3(lh2)
+
5
=
0
0
+
5
5 19 12
. t [(x2i + y2j + z2k) .zl)k
x1)i
+
(Y2

y1)j + (z2 .yj.(xli + Ylj
(x 
+
zlk)
x1)i + (y .zl)k]
Since I.
=
3x2z . But
t (r
. To simplify graphing procedures.y) = xi + yj. Given the scalar field defined (a) (0.12
VECTORS
and SCALARS
Let fl and f2 be the position vectors of P and Q respectively. The field therefore appears as in Figure (a) where an appropriate scale is used.
YY1
=
t(y2y1).(b)
.y)
xi .r) 2 1
In rectangular or
coordinates
we have.fl = is the required vector equation of the straight line (compare with Problem 19). note that all vectors associated with points on the circles x2+ y2 = a2.
(h) scalar. The vector field is called two dimensional
(c) Since the magnitude of each vector is
is that a fluid is emerging radially from (or proof z.(a) the field has the appearance of a fluid emerging from a point source 0 and flowing in the directions indicated. (c) entropy.(a)
Fig. all points on the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = a2. Determine the resultant placement (a) graphically. 20 miles 30° south of east. Determine the force needed
35.
SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS
31. In Fig. magnitude 304. (g) scalar.C and D (Fig. Find the resultant of the following displacements: A. Given vectors A.
lOOlb
Fig.(a) below. (i) shearing stress. Ans. and the field is therefore called a sink field and 0 is a sink. 40 miles northeast. (j) fre quency. In three dimensions the corresponding interpretation ceeding radially toward) a line source (or line sink).(b). 323 lb directly opposite 150 lb force 36. 50 miles due west.(b) the field seems to be flowing toward 0. to prevent P from moving. (b) electric field intensity.(A . Ans. (a) scalar. 30 miles 60° south of west. (f) scalar. C. This is a three dimensional source field.B.1 mi (5013"7\ direction 25°17' north of east (arc sin 31i1i/74) 33. (f) temperature. (e) vector.9 mi. Which of the following are scalars and which are vectors? (a) Kinetic energy. An airplane travels 200 miles due west and then 150 miles 60° north of west. (d) scalar. direction 21°39' south of west 34.B) dis
B. Ans.(b) below). Ans.
since it is independent
Ix2 + y2 + z2. An object P is acted upon by three coplanar forces as shown in Fig.(b)
. a> 0 have vectors of magnitude a associated with them. (g) gravitational potential. (e) centrifugal force. (h) charge. D.(CD)
(b) ~C + ~(AB+2D). (b) analytically. The field therefore takes on the appearance of that of a fluid emerging from source 0 and proceeding in all directions in space. Show graphically that . (b) vector. Construct
(a) 3A. (d) work.
=
A + B. (c) scalar. magnitude 20. In Fig.VECTORS
and SCALARS
13
one in
(a). For this reason the field is called a source field and 0 is a source. (i) vector (j) scalar 32.2B.
(b) Here each vector is equal to but opposite
in direction to the corresponding
The field there
fore appears as in Fig.
a2.
(b)
IABI
~ IAIIBI. a2 and as . x=2. Show that there exists a triangle with sides which are equal and parallel to the medians of any given triangle. Ans. Determine the tension T in the rope. and fS = 4a . R are midpoints of the sides AB. c are noncoplanar vectors determine whether the vectors fl = 2a. Prove that the line joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel half of its magnitude. If his boat can travel at mi/hr and if he wishes to reach C in the shortest possible time what course must will the trip take? Ans. 3 AD 38.2f2 . Let the position vectors of points P and Q relative to an origin 0 be given by p and q respectively. Ans. Prove that the angle bisectors common point. whose width is 8 miles C which is 6 miles upa maximum speed of 10 he follow and how long 1 hr 25 min. of a triangle meet in a
53. The base vectors a1. A 100 lb weight is suspended from the center of a rope as shown in the adjoining figure. prove that OA + OB + OC = OP + OQ + OR . to the third side and has one
48. If ABCDEF are the vertices of a regular hexagon.
lOOlb
b1. If a. Yes
50.
40.C) }. find x and y such that 3A = 2B.
(a)
If 0 is any point within triangle ABC and P. 42. Show that given vectors show that
(a)
of the forces represented
by the vec
IA+BI
"S
IAI+IBI. construct the parallelogram.3b + c . In the adjoining figure. find the resultant tors AB. f2 = 3a . Prove that the medians of a triangle meet in a common point which is a point of trisection of the medians. Two towns A and B are situated directly opposite each other on the banks of a river and which flows at a speed of 4 mi/hr. Find the direction and speed of the wind. (b) Does the result hold if 0 is any point outside the triangle? Prove your result.
IA + B + C I
'S
IA I + IB I + IC I. Simplify 2A + B + 3C .14
VECTORS and SCALARS
37.2B . 47. b. AE and AF.2 (2A . 51. 49.{A . Linearly dependent since fs = 5f1 . b2. A straight line course upstream making an angle of 34°281 with the shore line. Ans. Ans. If A and Bare 39. A man located at A wishes to reach town stream from and on the same side of the river as town B. The wind is coming from a direction 56°181 north of west at 18 mt/hr . bs by the relations
If F
=
3b1 . 54. If R is a point which divides line PQ into segments which are in the ratio m: n show that the position vector of R
. 100 lb 43. On increasing his speed to 25 ml/hr it appears to be coming from the southwest.b2 + 2bs'
46. Ans. BC. Ans. AC.5b + C are linearly independent or dependent. A man travelling southward at 15 ml/hr observes that the wind appears to be coming from the west. y=l 45. AD. as are given in terms of the base vectors express F in terms of a1.3B . If A and B are given vectors representing the diagonals of a parallelogram. 52. Ans.5b + 2c. Prove that AP and AQ trisect diagonal BD at the points E and F. If a and b are noncollinear vectors and A = (x + 4y) a + (2x+y+1)b and B = (y2x+2)a+ (2x3yl)b.5A3B+C 44. CA respectively. ABCD is a parallelogram with P and Q the midpoints of sides BC and CD respectively. Q.
41.
2k. (2. (b)
16.z) Ans. (a) 36 (b) 11 66.i + 3j + 4k.
condition that the vectors is that the determinant
= Cl i + C 2j + c. be different from zero. (b) the magnitude of the resultant.
=
mlrl ml
+ +
m2f2 m2
+ .
= 4yzs+
3xyzz2+
2. Show that the equation of a plane which passes through three given points A.0. m2 show that the position vector of the centroid is given by
f
respectively
relative
to an origin
0.5k.2i + 4j .
f2
where m. Ans.3k. 7 59. Ans.y) =xiyj. (a) 2ij (b) 15 61. Graph the vector fields defined by (a) V(x.6k can form the sides of a triangle.2).
(b)
(d)
a unit vector parallel
to 3A2B+4C. Given the scalar field defined by ¢(x. Find the coordinates of the centroid. k and find its magnitude. Ans.
Verify that the equation is independent
58. B = .
(b) ¢(0. Determine
PQ in
(b)
B = .2). Prove that any four vectors in three dimensions 63. p are scalars. find IA+B+cl. In each case determine whether the vectors are linearly independent or linearly dependent: (a) A=2i+j3k. 2i . c relative to an origin 0.k. 2. measured in pounds. 1.. Fs = i . B = Bl i + B2j + Bsk.z)
xi+yi+zk
Ix2+y2+z2
.2j .3 and 4 units located respectively B(3. .
(c)
V(x.. Find (a) the resultant of the forces.2. F 4 = 4i3j 2k. The position vectors of points P and Q are given by fl = 2i + 3j . A quadrilateral ABCD has masses of 1.
57. C(1. +
mnfn
mn
and that this is independent
of the origin. C = i + 2j .y.1. If A = 3i .k. The following forces act on a particle P: F 1 = 2i + 3j .2B + 4C
/398
60. . (a) Prove that the vectors A = 3i + j . + + . B=2i4jk. Find
(a) ¢(1.
Ans.2).y. 2. can be written
f
=
ma + nb + pc m+n+p of the origin.
193
(c)
I39s
(d)
3A. (a) linearly dependent. B=i4k. 1/i14.l).
' ••• .3.2j + 4k. C = 4i . 2. (a) 2AB+3C. m n
55. F 2 = 5i + j + 3k. and D(3.j . If r l' r2.•. (b) linearly independent 62.4). C not in the same straight line and having position vectors a. n. b. at its vertices A (1.y) =yixj. B.VECTORS
and SCALARS
15
is given by
r
=
mp + nq
m+n
and that this is independent
of the origin.2)
56. Ans. r n are the position vectors of masses m1. (b) A=i3j+2k. 11i5O
65. terms of i. A = Al i + A2j + As k.
Ans. k
be linearly independent
I~: ~I~ ~ <<
C2
64.6j + 3k. (a) lli8k
= 4i 
3j + 2k. 1).4k. (c) 13A2B+4CI.. C=3i+2jk. (b) V(x. Show that a necessary C and sufficient must be linearly dependent. C=4i+3jk. . j. (b) Find the lengths of the medians of the triangle.
k
(A'B)m. is defined as the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the cosine In symbols.
=
= =
Ax (mB) ~~ and B
where m is a scalar. If
= = =~
(mA)'B k. A· B
= B 'A
commutative Distributive
Law for Dot Products Law
2.
The following laws are valid: 1. If A' B = 0 and A and B are not null vectors.!XB
=~
(Commutative
Law for Cross Products Law
Fails.
~~
Notethat A'B is a scalar and not a vector. . A' (B + C) = A·B + A' C 3.i
=
i + ~j
+ A3k
and A'B A'A
= B1 i + B2i + B3k . m(Ax B) 4. or if A is parallel to B. m(A'B) 4.
o'£e'£n:
If A = B.
wherem 0
is a scalar.j
=
=
=
B
k. denoted by A·B (read A dot B).

B·B then A and B are perpendicular. then
e
of Ax B.
of two vectors A and B. The direction of the vector C = A x B is perpendicular to the plane of A and B and such that A.
=
A
j.)
2.
e
Ax B = AB sin where u is a unit vector indicating the direction sin = 0 and we define A x B = O. The magnitude of Ax B is defined as the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them.:i
= Ax B + AX C
(mA) x B
Distributive (Ax B)m .
=
jxj
=
kxk
0. THE CROSS OR VECTOR PRODUCT
of A and B is a vector C = AxB (read A cross B).
~Xi=q) = Bl i
+~j +
5.
1.
then
16
.
e u. i·i 5. Ax (B + C) 3.k
=
I. In symbols.
then
6. The following laws are valid:
A· B
= AB cos
e.Chapter
:2
THE DOT OR SCALAR PRODUCT of the angle
e
between them. Band C form a righthanded system.
A'(mB) i·j
=
j. If A
=
Ali + A2i + ~ k
lb k .
In A· (BxC) ever. b. AX(BxC)= (A·C)B(A·B)C (AxB) xC = (A·C)B .:bxc '
bx c
b'
a·bxc
c'
axb a·bxc
See Problems 53 and 54. If A = Ali + A'2i + A3k. according as A.
. b. c' are reciprocal a' where a+ b x c 40. Band C do or do not form a righthanded system. Band C as edges. b/. Band C may produce meaningful products of the form (A·B)C. (Ax B) = volume of a parallelepiped
having A. c and a'. then A and B are parallel. A· (B x C) = B· (C xA) = C . B = Bli + B'2i + B3k and C = Cli t C'2j + C3k. and A and B are not null vectors. The following laws are valid: 1. The magnitude of Ax B is the same as the area of a parallelogram
with sides A and B. Ax (BxC)
~ (AxB) xC
(Associative
Law for Cross Products Fails. (A·B)C F A(B·C)
2. The sets of vectors a.
sets of vectors if and only if cxa
. b
=
a'>c
= b'·a =
/ b•
C
= c'·a = c'·b = 0
The sets a. How
RECIPROCAL SETS OF VECTORS. Dot and cross multiplication of three vectors A.The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
17
i
i
k
6.)
4.
7. parentheses parentheses are sometimes omitted and we write A· BxC (see Problem 41).(B·C)A The product A· (B x C) is sometimes called the scalar triple product or box product and may be denoted by [ABC]. b'. A·(BxC) and Ax (BxC). TRIPLE PRODUCTS. or the negative of this volume. then Al A·(BxC)
A2 B2
A3 B3
Bl
3. c and a'. The product Ax (BxC) is called the vector triple product. must be used in Ax (BxC) (see Problems 29 and 47). c' are called sets or systems of vectors if a· a' = b· b' = c· c' =
1
reciprocal
Ii . If Ax B = 0.
of C on A
B· a B·Aa
+ C· a \ B+C + C·Aa
\
\
= B' A
+ C· A
\
\
Then by the commutative law for dot products. Evaluate
(a)
(b) (c)
each of the following.
Let a be a unit vector in the direction of A.
By Problem 3. j + j . Prove that the projection
b is a unit vector
of A on B is equal to A· b.
Through the initial and terminal points of A pass planes perpendicular to B at G and H respectively as in the adjacent figure.
A' (B
\
\
+ C)
=
A' B
+
A' C
\ \
\
\
and the distributive
law is valid. i .3j . \i\\i\ \i \k\
COS
i·i i· k k· j
00 = 90
0 0
(1)(1)(1) (1)(1)(0) (1)(1)(0)
=1 0 0 0. If A = Ali + A2i + Ask
A· B
and
B
=
Bli + B2i + B!3k.
=
+ B'(C+D)
=
A'C +A'D
+B'C
+ B·D
The ordinary laws of algebra are valid for dot products.3
I \ k \ cos
\j\
=
cos 90
(d) (e)
J. k =
= 2i'(3i+k)j'(3i+k)
=
6i'i+2i'k3j'ij'k
6+000
6
6. prove that
A· B
(Ali + A2i + Ask) .
E
4.3+0 = . (B+C)·Aa and (B + C) •A
= = =
pro].3j + k)
(2ij)'(3i+k)
2j.
. Prove
A' B
B·A. then Projection of (B + C) on A
(B + C) . where in the direction of B. a Multipivlng by A.
2. then Projection of A on B = GH = EF
= A cos
e
= A' b
G
H
B
3. Prove
A' (B+C)
=
A' B + A' C. B = AB cos
e
= BA cos
e
= B· A
Then the commutative law for dot products is valid.
5. A .
1.18
The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
SOLVED PROBLEMS
THE DOT OR SCALAR PRODUCT. (Bl i + B2j + Bsk) Ali·(Bli+B2j+Bsk) A1Bli'i +~B2i·j + A2j'(Bli+B2j+B!3k) +~Bsi'k +A2Blj'i + ~k·(Bli+~j+Bsk) +A2B3j·k + AsBlk'i + AsB2k·j + AsB3k'k
+A2B2j·j
. Prove that
(A+B)'(C+D) (A+B)'(C+D)
=
A'C
+A·D A'(C+D)
+B·C
+B·D.(2i . of B on A + pro].
and B· C = (1) (2) + (3)(1) + (5)( 4) = . it follows that A and C are perpendicular and the triangle right triangle.1905 and 8 = 79° approximately.
A = 2i + 2j . A .4k
form a right triangle. A·B=O.
according as (a) two vectors have a common terminal point or (b) none of the vectors have acommon terminal point.j = k. A·A
(A1i
I' A .2j + k.A' C = (3)(2) + (2)(1) + (1)(4) = 0. Find the angle between
A· B = AB cos 8. If A' B = 0 and if A and B are not zero.
B = i . By trial we find A = B + C so that the vectors do form a triangle.2k are perpendicular.k = 1 and all other dot products are zero. the sum or resultant of the vectors (1) + (2) + (3) is zero. 8=90°. A and B are perpendicular Then A·B = (2)(4) + (a)(2)
if A' B = O.
show that Then
A
A2 + A3•
2
2
A • A = (A) (A) cos 0° = A 2.
C = 2i + j . Show that the vectors
A = 3i .
+ A2j + A3k) • (Ai
+ A2j + A3k)
(A 1) (Ai)
+ (A 2) (A2) + (A3 )(A3)
by Problem 6.3j + 2k . r=>: /2 = v A· A = Ai +
A= i
7. then cos8=0 or 8=90°.
8. A=
IA.2 = 4 4 21 0.3j + 5k.
From Problem 9.if
to B. is a
.
+ (1)(2)
= 8 . show that A is perpendicular
If A·B = AB cos 8 = 0.
10.21. taking Then
A=
B = A.2j . Since A· B = (3)(1) + (2)(3) + (1)(5) = 14.
Sometimes
A· A is written A2.2a . Also.
(a)
(b)
From the figures it is seen that the vectors will form a triangle if
(a) (b)
one of the vectors.k
and
B = 6i .
e
=
A·B
AB
9. If A = A1i + A2j + A3k. say (3).
IA2123 A2 + A2 +
is the magnitude of A. is the resultant or sum of (1) and (2).2
o
for
a =3.
11.i = j.The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
+ +
19
=
A1B1
A2B2
A3B3
since
I. Conversely. Determine
the value
of a so that
A = 2i + aj + k
and
B = 4i .
7
A· B = (2)(6) + (2)(3) Then cos
+ (1)(2)
4 (3)(7)
= 12 .
We first have to show that the vectors form a triangle.6 .
= A2_B2
= 0. 9
7k .2j + k) • (~i 999
(1) (i)
!j + 2.2j + k on the vector
B
B = 4i .6c24c1+3c2c3
3c3
o
or or
(1)
2c1 . Prove that the diagonals
OQ
of a rhombus
are perpendicular. Then C is perpendicular
2c1. The cosines cos 0 =6/7.
Then
OQ·RP
= (A+B)'(AB) to RP . z axes respectively.
C·C
= (AB) ·(AB) = A·A + B·B .
"1
be the angles which A makes with the positive A·i A.
Hence OQ is perpendicular
16.
Refer to Fig.2AB cos C
e.(a) Fig.3k and
B = 4i + 3j .
The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
which the vector
A '" 3i .6j + 2k) • i and 0=149°
=
3i' i . (See Prob. Find the projection
of the vector
A == i .i = (A)(l)cosCi '" /(3)2+(_6)2+(2)2
x.2A·B 2 = A2 + B2 .
"1=73.
1J+
A unit vector in the direction B is b =
4i4j
+7k (7)2
B
/(4)2+(_4)2+
4. Prove the law of cosines
From Fig.20
12.B. Chap. to A
Let vector C = eli + c2j and also to B. y.4j + 7k . of
a
= 64. and cos"1=2/7. (b) above.6c2 = 3c3
o
(2) 4c1 + 3c2
=
c3
. 0.
a. 1).6j' i + 2k' i
Then
cos Ci = 3/7 = 0. Determine
a unit vector
perpendicular
to the plane
of A = 2i . Hence.(b) ~
15. 9
4. C·A C'B
+ c3 k
be perpendicular
to the plane of A and B. k)
!) +
9
(1)(2.6° approximately. Find the angles
Let Ci.
cosines of A.
o
Fig.4°.
cos
a '" 7cosa
3
=
(3i .6j + 2k makes with the coordinate
axes.
andy
are called the direction
13. B +C = A or C = A . 9
Projection
of A on the vector B = A· b = (i .4286.B since A=B.k. Similarly.
=
OP
+
PQ
=
A
+
B
OR + RP
= OP
or
B + RP = A
and
RP
= A.(a) below. Then and
for plane triangles. S.)
9
+
(2)(
9
19 9
14. 27.6j .
1 .j .7J + 7 .j
=
A2
and A· k = A3 . Let
r
be the position vector of point P.
20.5k)
6z
2
+
5
9.
6 k)
C
17.1 + 3k (see Fig.r) .1 + 6k and passing through the terminal point of the vector B = i + 5. J)j + (A' k)k.
Then a unit vector in the direction of
is
( 1.
"3'3' C =
1
1 c3 ("2i 1.
A
(A· i)i A·i
+
(A.
0
Since PQ = B . A = plane in vector form.71 .
2i + 3j + 6k
The distance from the origin to the plane is the projection of B on A.(b) above).
Fig. + ~k
= (A· i)i + (A·j)j
A = Ali + ~j
+
(A· k)k.
k) +( . (B .5k
if the applied force is
(magnitude of force in direction of motion)(distance moved)
(Fcose)(r)
F·r (2i . In Problem 18 find the distance
from the origin to the plane. projection of B on A a B·a
=A
A
(i + 5j + 3k)'(~i
7
+ ~j
7
+ _§_k)
7
5. If A is any vector. +A2j·i +A3k.
. Refer to Fig. 1
Solving
(1)
and (2) simultaneously:
c1 =
"2'3'
C
1
_ c2 .(a) below. c3 2"1 C
"3J +
3.
2. A unit vector in direction A is Then. and Q the terminal point of B.(b)
18.i
Similarly.k.(a)
x
Fig.r is perpendicular to A. Find the work done in moving an object along a vector F = 2i . Workdone
r = 3i + 2j .k) • (3i + 2j .
A.. A
is the required equation of the
(i + 5j + 3k) • (2i + 3j + 6k) 35
or
2x
+
3y
+
6z
(1)(2) + (5)(3) + (3)(6)
19. prove that Since Then
A= Ali +A~ +~k.i = Ai
= Ali. In rectangular form this becomes
(xi + yj + zk) ·(2i + 3j + 6k)
or
r :A = B .
Find an equation for the plane perpendicular to the vector A = 2i + 3.The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
21
"3j + k).
lAB cosel
IAXBI2+
24. The commutative law for cross products is not valid.
then
sin
e=0
and
e = 0° or 180°. If Ax B
show that A is parallel
to B. A and D form a righthanded i.
i xj
=
k
(n j xj
(h) i
(i )
0 j
j xk = i k xi = j k xj i xi
(g) i xk = kxi
(c) (d)
(e)
(2j) x (3k) = 6 j x k = 6i (30 x( 2k) = 6 ixk .
=
D
or
AxB
=
22. C
Then D has the same magnitude as C but is opposite in direction.
AB sin BA sin
e e
and direction and direction
such that such that
A.3k = 5k
25.(b) above).
= AB
1Ax
B
sin
e
u = 0. If Ax B = 0 and if A and B are not zero.22
The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
THE CROSS OR VECTOR PRODUCT. B x A = D has magnitude (Fig.
Show that
12 + 1 A • B 12
=
=
1 A 12 1 B 12 . Prove case
that where
A x (B
+ C)
+
AxC
for the to
A is perpendicular
to B and also
C. A x B is a vector perpendicular to the plane of A and B and having magnitude AB sin 90° = AB or magnitude of AB.
Evaluate
(a) (b)
IA'BI2
lAB
2 sineul +
2
A2B2 sin2e A2B2 '"
+ A2B2 cos2e
1 A 121
B
12
each of the following.B x A. A x (B + C) is the vector obtained
. A X C is the vector obtained by multiplying C by A and rotating the resultant vector through 90° to the position shown.
B. This is equivalent to multiplying vector B by A and rotating the resultant vector through 90° to the position shown in the adjoining diagram.e.(b)
A x B = C has magnitude (Fig.(a) above). Similarly.
21. Band
C form a righthanded
system system B x A.
Since A is perpendicular to B.
23.(a) Fig.
BxA=D Fig.3k
=
jxk
=0
(n 2j xi
= AxB
=
6j
=
2k . In like manner. Prove A xB .
parallel and perpendicular respectively to A..
Similarly if C is resolved into two component vectors CII and C1.2k)
X
2i xi + 8i xj .
j k 1
(b)BxA.
find
(a)AxB.+CI1) Ax (B_t+C_t) = Ax(B+C). Hence AXB_t=AxB. this becomes (B+C) x A = BxA + CXA. = AXBl + AXCl = A x B + Ax C
A x (B + C)
and the distributive law holds.
(c)(A+B)
x (AB). = A xC. it follows that
Now Bj and Cl are vectors perpendicular Ax(B_t+Cl) Then
to A and so by Problem 25. Multiplying by I.11
3
4 2

J
'1 1
2
11 +
4 2
k
121
10i + 3j + 11k
Another Method. The usual laws of algebra apply only if proper order is maintained.3j xi . Note that the order of factors in cross products is important.k x (i + 4j .since B+C = B_t+BII+Cl+CII = (Bl+Cl)+(B. (2i 3j k) xCi +4j 2k) 2ix (I +4j 2k) . Also. we have
Since A x (B + C) is the diagonal A x (B + C) = A x B + A xC.j + 4i + 0
= lOi + 3j + 11k
.3j x (i +4j 2k) . Also. using Prob.
e.
i
j
A2 B2
k
A3 B3
Aj
Bl
AxB
(Ali Ali
+ A2j + A3k) x (Bli + B2j + B3k) x (B1i + B2j + B3k) + A1B2ixj + A2j x (Bli + B2j + B3k) + A3k x (B1i + B2j + B3k) + A2B1jxi + A2BQjxj + AQBsixk + A3Blkxi + A3B2kxj + A3B3kxk
A1B1ixi
+ A1B3ixk
28.
AxB
(2i3jk)
x (i+4j2k)
2
=
2
3
=
i
1. If A=2i3jk
(a)
and
B=i+4j2k. 21. the direction of A x Bj is the same as the direction of AXB. Band
= A x B + A x C in the genC are noncoplanar.k x i . with AxB and Ax C as sides. Then B = B~ + B II • If is the angle between A and B.0 + 6i .
e
e. then A x c. then B _t B sin = Thus the magnitude of AXB_t is AB sin the same as the magnitude of AX B.
of the parallelogram
26.4i x k . Prove
that
A x (B + C) where A.12j xj + 6j
k .4kx j + 2kx k
o
+ 8k + 4j + 3k . one perpendicular to A and the other parallel to A.
eral case
Resolve B into two component vectors. and denote them by B~ and B" respectively.The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
23
by multiplying
B + C by A and rotating the resultant
vector through 90° to the position shown.
5j .3k i .
2.5j .
e
I !B!
I
I
Ih
I I
Note that the area of the triangle with sides A and B=~IAXBI·
I
B
31. Prove that the area of a parallelogram and B is AxB
1
with sides
A
I
I
I
Area of parallelogram
h IB I
I
I A I sin
IAXB!.
Then
(A x B) xC
(i
+7j + 5k) x (i 2j +2k)
24i + 7j .5k = .
29.
B=2i+jk.
Another Method.10i . .1).5k.2k)
3i + j .I~ ~I I~ ~I
j
+k
20i
.2k) x (21.
I. 3). the determinant changes sign.2 (lOi + 3j + 11k) = .
R(1.3j .5k.
(A + B)
X
(A .k)
=
1
k 2
1
.3j .22k.(i +4j .
(a)
A
X
B
3 2
~1 11
k21
=i+7j+5k.. 3.k) . If
A=3ii+2k.
~~ 1 = Oi .2k) (A+B)X(AB)
= (3i+j3k)
i
I_~ ~I .j + 2k) x (5j .
1
4 3
21 1

j
I~
2 2 1 + kl~ 1
3
~I
= ..22k.B)
A x (A .2). 1.
(b)
BxC
=
I: .2AxB
.11k.
Then
Ax(BxC)
= (3i . Find the area of the triangle
having vertices
at
P(1.
(b)
Ax(BxC).5k) = 1 ~
~1 5
\ 5
1 = 15i + 15j .B) AXAAxB+BxABXB = OAxBAXBO using (a).
PQ (21)i+(13)j+(12)k PR = (11)i+(23)j+(32)k
=
i4jk 2ij+k
.6j .15k.k) +
(i
+ 4j .i AX (B x C).6j . A XB = .3j .
Comparing with (a).B) + B x (A .3j .7j + k x (i7j+k) k 1 3 7 1
j
(2i .
Q(2.
30.B XA.20i .
find
(a)
(AxB)xC.24
The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
i
(b)
j
4
BxA
(I +4j . Note that this is equivalent to the theorem: If two rows of a determinant are interchanged.
Thus (AxB) xC .
and
C=i2j+2k. showing the need for parentheses in AXB xC to avoid ambiguity.
(c)
A +B AB Then
(2i .
Multiplying by a x .
A x B is a vector perpendicular AxB
to the plane of A and B.e.CxA . or ab sin C sin A a
=
bxc
cxa ca sin B sin C
c B
=
be sin A sin B b
c
34. 6k +"7 . .
to closed polyhedra and in the limiting case to any closed surface.lOj + 30k 15i 10j + 30k 3.j + k)
I
~/I07 .3k
and
B = 4i + 3j . then a+b+c = O. Consider a tetrahedron with faces F«. j
=
2 4
6 3 AXB
k 3 1
=
15i . Show that V1+V2+VS+V4 = O.v. be vectors whose magnitudes are respectively equal to the areas of Fl .Ii. is Compare with Problem 16. band c represent the sides of triangle ABC as shown in the adjoining figure. distance from P to the
The moment M of F about P is in magnitude equal to F times the perpendicular
.
/(15)2+
(10)2+ (30)2
"71 "7J
(3i + 2j . F2 .F3 • F4 and whose directions are perpendicular to these faces in the outward direction.k .6j . area of triangle
= ~ PQ x PR
25
I
I
= k
~
I Ci 
4j .F. 2..
~I
32. Let Vi' V2.
33. .
A unit vector parallel to A x B is
IAXBI Another unit vector. The vectors associated the tetrahedron are
with each of the faces
V3 = ~CxA. Vs .AxB + AXA] This result can be generalized Because of the application we speak of the vector area. " O.6k)/7.k) x (2i .The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
From Problem 3D. face deterof
By Problem 3D. Prove the law of sines
for plane
triangles. b x and c x in succession. Find an expression
for the moment of a force F about a point P. opposite in direction. we find axb i. F2 . the area of a triangular mined by Rand S is ~ I R x s I .
A
Let a. presented here it is sometimes convenient to assign a direction to area and
35. ~ [AXB + BxC + cxA + (CA)X(BA)] ~ [AXB + BxC + CxA + CxB . Determine a unit vector
j
1 4
2 1
1
1
perpendicular
to the plane
of A = 2i .
wand v form a righthanded system. v must be perpendicular to both (. \
?\
_.
38.
The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
Then if r is the vector from P to the ini= rF sin P \
M = F (r sin 8)
e
=
I r XF I
~\
\
If we think of a rightthreaded screw at P perpendicular to the plane of rand F. then when the force F acts the screw will move in the direction of r x F. Prove that the linear velocity v of a point P of the body with position vector r is given by v = w x r.
A· (BxC)
C
= C1i + C2i + Csk
Al Bl
C1
show that
A2 As B2 Bs
C2
c. and let h be the height of the terminal point of A above the parallelogram I .
I. Band C do not form a righthanded I)
value
equal
of a parallelepiped
with sides
I
x
C
In}
=
A· (B
x
C)
system. The vector (. tial point Q of F.c) x r Also.
A· n
<
0 and the volume
=
I A'
(B x C)
I.
B
= Bli + B2i + Bsk. Let n be a unit normal to parallelogram I.c) is called the angular velocity. where (.
'eo.c) x r .26
line of action of F. Because of this it is convenient to define the moment as the vector M = r x F .c) is the vector with magnitude w whose
direction advance is that in which a righthanded screw would under the given rotation.c) x r.c) and r and is such that r. having the direction of B x C.
37. Volume of parallelepiped (height h) (area of parallelogram (A'n)(IBXcl)
A· { B If A. A rigid body rotates about an axis through point 0 with angular speed w.
e)
I
e.B1CS)j + (B1C2B2C1)k]
Al A2 B2 As B3
s. Show that A' (BxC) is in absolute to the volume A. If A
= Ali + A2i + Ask.
Then v agrees both in magnitude and direction with (.
TRIPLE PRODUCTS.
Since P travels in a circle of radius r sin the magnitude of the linear velocity v is w (r sin =: (.1
CD\
Q
36.
C1 C2 Cs
l
. hence v = (.
k A· (Bx C) A· B1 C1 B2 C2 Bs Cs [(B2CsBsC2)i
(Ali + A2i + Ask)
+ (B3C1 .B and C.
i xk + 3j x i . Evaluate
By Problem 38.
(2i3j)·
The result is equal to
I: ~~I
o
1
. The result be interchanged
A· B x C = A x B . if A' B x c = 0 the volume of the parallelepiped and so the vectors must lie in a plane. Prove that a necessary
A'BxC = O. A2 A3 C31 A1 B1 B2 B3
B· (C x A)
C· (A x B)
From Problem 40.The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
(2i .
for the vectors A.
A· (B
xc:
A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3
which states that interchange of two rows of a determinant changes its
By a theorem of determinants sign.kx(3ik)]
(2i .k)]
27
39. Show that A· (B x C) (AxB)·C. A· B x C
and sufficient
condition
C to be coplanar
is that
A· B x C can have no meaning other than
A· (B x C) .3j
+
0)
(i2j3k)
=
=
(2)(1) + (3)(2)
+ (0)(3)
4.
[ix(3ik)
+ jx(3ik)
.
.
40.3j) . B) x C. Prove that
A' (B xC)
B' (C
x A)
C· (A
x
B). The latter however has no meaning since the cross product of a scalar with a vector is undefined.
o. B and C are coplanar the volume of the parallelepiped
=
O.
4.3j) • [3i xi .
A. C is sometimes summarized in the statement that the dot and cross can without affecting the result.
A· (B xC)
=
C· (A xB)
=
(A xB)· C
Occasionally A· (B x C) is written without parentheses as A· B x C.
A· (A x C) (A x A)· C
From Problem 41. In such case there cannot be any ambiguity since the only possible interpretations are A· (B x C) and (A. Band C is zero.3jHO (2i3j)·
+
j .k) x (3i .j xk .
By Problem 38.3kx i + k x k] (2i .i .
42. Prove that
A· (A x C) = O. [(i + j . Note that
37.3k .
B1 B2 B3 A1 A2 A3 C1 C2 C3
1 C2 C3 1C B2 B3 Bl A1 A2 A3
B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 A1 A2 A3 C2 1C. formed by them is zero.
Conversely. we have
A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3
41. formed by vectors Then by Problem
If A. the result is
AnotherMethod. Band
43.
Q and R. so that
=0
(f2fl)X(fsfl)
i. Prove:
(a)
(a)
Ax(BxC)
= B(A·C)
C(A·B).a and R are coplanar.fl' (ffl)'
PSPl
=
fs .fl which all lie in the plane.e. Y.
B =B1i+B2j
C=C1i+C2j+Csk.2) + 5 (y + 1) + 13 (z . i k B1 B2 Bs C1 C2 c.
=
r .a.2). Q and R. 3.
[(X 2)1 + (y + 1)j + (z l)k]
[i + 3j .Y1
Z
x
[(XSx1)1
+ (YSYl)j + (zszl)k]
=0
zl
or.
o. Then the vectors r .28
The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
points P1(Xl. Find an equation for the plane passing through P1. zs). P2(X2.b and c relative to a given origin.1). 1)
rl
and Ps(l.fl'
P2 P1
=
f2 .a and is therefore perpendicular to the plane of F. Consider vectors P1P2 = f2 .fl
all lie in the required plane.A(B·C).fl' Pl Ps = fS .(3. Y2.2. Zl).j + k. Ys.fl and P1 P = r . Then
P Pl
=
2i . z) in the plane. show that a x b + b x c + c x a is a vector perpendicular to the plane of P.1)
=
0
or
11x + 5y + 13z
46.
45. so that by Problem 43
(fa)' (lla) x (c a) ~0
or
(ra)'
(ax b
+ b xc +
c xa)
= O. If the points P. Q a1't:l .y. hence they determine a plane. z) are respectively i + 3j + 2k and r = xi + yj + zk. using Problem 38. c a Let r be the position vector of any point in the plane of P.
(ff1)· P1P· (f2f1) P1P2X P1PS
=
0
0
or
x (rsf1)
=
In terms of rectangular coordinates this becomes
[(xx1)1 + (YYl)j + (zzl)k] • [(x2x1)i xXl
+ (Y2Yl)j + (z2z1)k] Y . b . Find an equation for the plane determined by the points Pl(2.
(b)
(AxB)xC
B(A· C) .
= 3i + 2j 
k.
+ Bsk.Q and R. i + [BSC1B1CS]j
Ax (B x C)
=
(Ali
+ ~j + Ask)
X
(Ali +A2j + Ask) X( [B2CSBsC2]
+ [B1C2B2C1J
k)
. Z2) and ~(xs.
f2
The position vectors of Pl.
fS= 
1.
o
[(x2)i+(y+1)j+(z1)k] 11 (x . have position vectors a. By Problem 43.
Thus a x b + b x c + c x a is perpendicular to r . 11. Let r = xi + yj + zk denote the position vector of any point P(x. 1. not all lying on the same straight line.
47.
Let Then
A=Ali+AiJ+Ask.P2 and Ps do not lie in the same straight line. P2 and Ps.2k] [lli+5j+13k]
x
[3i =
+ 4j + k] 0 30. We assume that P1. P2• Ps and any point P (e .
BCC· A)
Adding. Band from the center 0 of the sphere to P.D(A x B· C) C(A· B x D) .A(B'C)} •D
From Problem 41.
i.The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
29
j
k A3 B1C2B2Cl +A3B1C3)i + (A3B2C3A3B3C2A1B1C2 +A1B2Cl)j
Al B2C3B3C2
A2 B3ClB1C3
(A2B1C2A~2ClA3B3Cl
+ (A1B3ClA1B1C3A2B2C3
Also B(A' C) C(A' B)
+A2B3C2)k
(Bli + B2j + B3k) (Al Cl + A2C2 + A3C3) .e.
By Problem 47(a). Q and R respectively. Let x C} X = A x B. • (C x D) {(AXB)
x B)
(A' C)(B . B.
(AxB)
xY
= B(A'Y)A(B'Y)' =
Let
Y=CxD.
A x (B x C)
BX(C XA) CX(AxB)
B(A· C) .Band
C in (a) by C.D(A' B x C)
By Problem 47(b).(Cli + Cd + C3k) (A1Bl + A2B2 + A3B3) (A2B1C2 + A3B1C3 A2C1B2 A3C1B3)i
+ (B~lCl
C3A2B2)k
+ B~3C3 . (A
X· (C x D) = (X x C) • D.
then
(AxB)x(cxD)
B(A·CxD)A(B·CxD)
51. Note that A x (B x C)
F
(A x B) XC.
then
D(A·BxC).
using Problem 47(b).
Prove:
(AxB)
x(cxD)
= B(A'CxD) Xx(CxD) (AxB) = C(X·D) x (CxD)

A(B'CxD) D(X·C).
48.
(A' B x C) A
.C(A· B) C(B' A) .
sin sin
Prove that
P
p
Q
q
sin sin
R
r C be drawn
Suppose that the sphere (see figure below) has unit radius.
50. then •D = {B(A'C) . r are arcs of great circles.C2A1Bl .
Prove:
(AxB)'
(CxD)
= (A'C)(B'D)

(A·D)(B·C).
Let
PQR
be a spherical
triangle
whose sides sin sin
p. the result follows. (1) (A x B) x (A x C) = From Problem 50. C.~A3B3)j
+ (B3A1Cl + B3A2C2C3A1Bl
and the result follows. the associative law for vector cross products is not
valid for all vectors A. A and B respectively.
Prove:
Ax(BxC)
+
Bx(CxA)
+
cx(AxB)
=
O. D) . q.
= C(A·BxD) Let X=AxB.
49.
(b)
(AXB)XC
= CX(AXB)
= {A(C'B)B(C'A)}
= B(A·C)A(B·C)
uponreplacingA. and let unit vectors A.(A' D) (B' C).
By Problem 47(a).
C(A x B· D) .A(B· C) A(C ·B) .
R and A..bx c
a.show a+ b x c
that if a' bx c f. band c are noncoplanar.
C (B
X=BxC.bx c a.b'.BxC P. if a. C
bxc a' bx c'
=
b'
=
cxa a+ h x c
and
c=
l
a x b .
=
b'·a then
c'a
I
C/.ax b a·bx c
b.
b
0.q.c and a'. (B x C) x (C x A)
.bx c
a vb x c a·bx c bxb· c a+ b x c
(b)
. See
.0.C x
By cyclic permutation obtain
(4)
we
sin p sin r sin Q sin q sin p sin R
s c
a
(5)
C·AxB of (3).b.c' are reciprocal vectors.
0.b x c
a+ b x c b cxa v
a.A(B·CXC) C(A·BXC)
C(A· B «r»
(AxB)·
(A x B· C) (A· B x C)
53. The results can also be seen by noting.r.
(A· B XC)A A. for example. (4) and (5) are sin q sin p sin R sin sinp
Then since the right hand sides equal (Problem 40) sin r sin q sin P from which we find This is called the law of sines
=
sin p sin r sin Q
P
sin Q sin q
sin R sin r
for spherical
triangles.f·b'x
c' = l/V.
=
C(X·A)A(X·C).bx c

a.
C)
then
(B x C) x (C x A)
xc
A) 
x c
C(A·BxC) Thus (A x B) . b/..30
A unit vector perpendicular that (1) becomes (2) (3)
The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
to AxB and AXC is A. Let
A (B
By Problem 47(a).Q.and e ' are noncoplanar
(a)
a·a
b/· b c·c
I
I
a·a
b·t{ c·c
I
a·b·
bx c a+ b x c ex a
a.so or
sin r sin q sin P A sin r sin q sin P of p.
52.
= b'·c = 0.
if a b x c
v
V
. Prove:
(AxB)'
(BXC)x(CxA) XX(CxA)
=
(A·BXC)2. that a' has the direction of b x c and so must be perpendicular to both band c. From (a) and (b) we see that the sets of vectors also Supplementary Problems 104 and 106.f·b
=
b'a'
= b'
a' bx c
=
0
Similarly the other results follow. from which i· b = 0 and i· c = O.bx c
1 1
.
1.B. Given the vectors
b"b a'c
(c) (d)
I
a/=
C/. 1
a'.
axb c·a·bx c bx c a+b x c
c . a.
2).D (A • B x C)
D
=
A(B· Cx D) A·BxC Then
B(A·CxD) A.2) and (3.
r
=
a a+b x c
r+ b x c
+
r v ex a b
a vb x c
+ c
r·axb
a vb x c
bxc r·(a. are formed by the vectors A = 3i + 6j . Determine the angles arc cos 7/175. Then Let A = a. if a. (a) 90° (b) arc cos 8/21 = 67°36'
and B = 4i3j+k.arc cos 23/75 or 4.
(r
a) a +
of the reciprocal
vectors
of Problem
53 as
(r.
a = 2.4j .(A2B).If and d are also noncoplanar. Then from part (c) it follows that
(d)
By Problem
a. 48°12'.6/7 61. If A
Ans.k).
=i
+ 3j . Evaluate:
Ans.
(c)
(b) . For what values of a are A = ai .6
56. Two sides of a triangle of the triangle.bxc)a (r •
+
>
cxa r·(a. (c)B. band c are noncoplanar a.(cxa)x(axb)
(a x b). arc cos 23/75. 90° or 36°4'. tf x d f:
0. B = b. b=
cx a .1) makes with the coordinate axes.j + 3k.2k and B = 4i .
43. arc cos 1/3 or 48°12'. (a) 0 (a)
PROBLEMS
(2i . Show that
any vector
r can be expressed
in terms
r
From Problem 50.
(c) 1
(b)
(I 
2k)' (j + 3k). (b)Vl4
=
4i . Ans. 90°
62. 70°32' 60.2j + 4k. 72°8'. 5 v3/2.k and B = 2i + 3j . Ans. (c)6
57. Find the angle between: (a) A = 3i+2j6k Ans.4k perpendicular?
Ans.
=
axb
V
Then
i_. Find the direction cosines of the line joining the points (3.
=
bxc
v
.5.33. (b x c)x(c x a)
V
3
~
1 V using Problem 52.bxc)c
a) a
+ (r
tf ) b
+ (r'
d) c
SUPPLEMENTARY
55. Show that the parallelogram is a rhombus and determine the length of its sides and its angles.
(b)
C = 4i2j+4k
and D = 3i6j2k.
a
54. arc cos /26//75. (a)10
(d) 13A+2BI.2j +k and B = 2ai +aj . Ans. arc cos 2/3.
B(A' C x D) .
(d)Vi50
find:
(e) (2A+B).3/7.6/7 or 2/7.2.1.
k· (i +
n.bxc)b
+
axb r·(a. Ans.6k.b') b + (r
c!) c .tfxd
=
(bxc).
58. so that .3. 1
59.BxC
+ C(A·BxD) A·BxC
C = c and D = r.
V
c
. The diagonals of a parallelogram are given by A = 3i .j + 3k)· (3i + 2j .b x c f: O.4) and 0. (e)14
(a)A·B.3/7. 53°56'. arc cos 2/3. 2/7.2k and B
(b)A. 180° .A(B' C x D)
C (A • B x D) . Find the acute angles which the line joining the points (1.The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
31
(c)
a
. 107°52'
.
Let F be a constant vector force field.3. 68.
Ans.
(c)
I(A+B)x(AB)I. B '" (i+2j+2k)/3 and C '" (2i+j2k)/3
± (3i+4j)/5
are mutually orthogonal unit vectors. y. Let a be the position vector of a given point (xl' Yl' zl)' and f the position vector of any point (x.2. Ans. 77. or a sphere with a as diameter. (b)2ij. Find the acute angle formed by two diagonals of a cube.3j + 6k on the vector
i + 2j + 2k . (b) (ra). (c)8i4j+4k.
Ans. zl/2) and radius ~ Ix~ + Y~+ z~. (a) rn '" p . a '" 0. Find the area of a parallelogram having diagonals A '" 3i +j . (c) (ra). find a unit vector perpendicular Ans.1. (b) What is the distance from the point (1. (b) Alx + ~y + Asz '" Ap 75. 15 70. center at (Xl.2j4k are the position vectors of points P and Q respectively. Ans. (d) (4i+j2k)x(3i+k).Yl. Evaluate each of the following: (a) 2jx(3i4k).2k and B '" i .
«f)35i35j+35k hold simultaneously
81. (c) A'(BxC).1) to the plane? Ans. ±(i2j2k)/3 66. 73. (b)25i+35j55k. (c) (2i4k)x(i+2j).j + 3k and B '" 2i + j . Let r1 and f2 be unit vectors in the xy plane making angles a and ~ with the positive xaxis.4.32
The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
63. (b) (i+2j)xk. (a)v195.4) in a force field given
69. Find a unit vector parallel to the xy plane and perpendicular to the vector 4i . (c) Sphere with center at (x1/2. 1 to both A and B. If A '" i .2k.r '" O. z).
513
. Given that A'" 3i +j +2k and B '" i .
80. (b) Express the equation of (a) in rectangular coordinates. (d) (A xB)· C.a I '" 3.
and P and Q are the midpoints of its diagonals. and B'" 2i+3j+k.1. r 2 '" cos ~ i + sin f3 j. (a) (rB)'(AB) '" 0 or 2x+3y+6z ~ 28. but if only one of these conditions holds then B f. (e)2illj7k 79. where n > A/A. If A = 3ij2k Ans.1) by F '" 4i3j+2k.3k . (b) By considering fl' f2 prove the trigonometric formulas cos(a~) = cos a cosf3+ sina sin~. (e)40i20j+20k.
65.3). Ans.Zl) and radius 3.1) Ans. (a) Prove that r 1 '" cos a i + sin a J. (a) 5126.
AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 '" AC2 + BD2.3j + 4k. (a)8i6k. ygon in this force field is zero. (a) Find an equation for the plane passing through Q and perpendicular to line PQ. (f) (A xB)(B· C) Ans. Describe the locus of r if (a) If . (b) 5 78.
(A+2B)x(2AB). (d)i10j3k.
Find the projection of the vector 4i . find: (a) IAxBl. (d)20.
Show that the work done in moving an object around any closed pol
71. find: (a) I(AxB)xCI.3j + k on the line passing through the points (2.
8/3 and (2. Find the work done in moving an object along a straight line from (3.2k.
74.3j + k . Y1/2. Find the projection of the vector 64. B '" 2i + j .
2i . If A '" 4i . (a) Sphere. 82.
67. cos(a+~) '" cos c cos~sina sin~ 76. Let ABCD be a parallelogram. (c)20. to (2. prove that AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 '" AC2 + BD2 + 4PQ2 of the preceding problem. Show that A'" (2i2j+k)/3. (b)3v'iO. (a) Find an equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector A and distant p from the origin. (c)2Vi95
(b)
(e)
(2i+jk)x(3i2j+4k). Ans. (e) (AxB)x(BxC) (b) I A x (B xC) I. Show that if A.2j . Prove that an angle inscribed in a semicircle 72.f 0 and both of the conditions (a) A·B '" A·C and (b) AxB '" AxC then B '" C.
arc cos 1/3
or 70°32' Ans. (b) Plane perpendicular to a and passing through its terminal point. C necessarily.k and C = i + 3j . Ans. If ABCD is any quadrilateral This is a generalization Prove that
is a right angle.
Let points P.l. of the vectors A. Use Problem 75 to derive the formulas sin (CX . 100.3k and B = i.k .2)
[2= i+3j+4k Ans.j + 2k.r =
are arcs of great circles. Let PQR be a spherical spherical triangles. If A = 2i +j .
A x (B xC)
(AxB)xC
is
(Ax C) x B = O. Find the linear velocity of a point P on the body whose position vector relative to a point on the axis of rotation is 2i3j+k.
a =4
X1
Y1 Y2
z1
z2
A·BxC
x2
(a. Find the constant a such that the vectors 2ij+k.2) and (3.1. and 5(1.7j . an origin O.The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
83.4) R(l.1. 5i .
or (b) two
Ans.
98.2k
Find the moment of F about the point
87. 1. Ans.4). show that either (a) A.2. A'a 89.0). Given points P(2.3) and (4. . Ans.8j .3j + 4k. A force given by F = 3i + 2j . Prove that (AxB)·(CxD) bisectors
of a triangle
to the opposite
sides
(extended if necessary)
of the sides of a triangle
meet in a point (the circumc enter of the tri
+ (BxC)·(AxD) triangle
+ (CxA)·(BxD)
= O.
whose sides p.
Dis
95. Prove the law of cosines for
101. 7
whose edges are represented
91. Band C are collinear. Prove that the perpendiculars from the vertices meet in a point (the orthocenter of the triangle).
+ 
5v3('+'+k) 3 1J
85. Band C are COllinear. R5.c
C c by A 2i .
cos p
cos g cos r + sin g sin r cos P of the letters. Prove that the perpendicular angle). i+2j3k and 3i+aj+5k are coplanar.
33
~v'i65
84.2). 1.(3) = sin ex cos
t3 
cos a sin
t3.3.1).3).g. BxC = 0.3). Find the shortest distance 97. 2i .2k. distance
3 between lines PQand
Q(l. find a vector of magnitude 5 perpendicular A tis
.1.2j + k .l). 3
and r3= 2i+j2k
relative
to
to the line joining (2.Q and R have position vectors r1 = 3i2jk. (2. Find the area of a triangle with vertices at (3.14k 88. or (c) all of the vectors A.2.]
with analogous formulas for cos q and cos r obtained by cyclic permutation [Hint: Interpret both sides of the identity (AxB)·(AxC) = (B'C)(AA)
. Prove that a necessary and sufficient condition that cuss the cases where A' B = 0 or B' C = o.bxc) 2A' BxC A'b B·b C·b A'c
n . Prove that (A' BxC)(a. find the shortest
Ans. Ans.4. Find the volume of the parallelepiped C = 3i .4. The angular velocity of a rotating rigid body about an axis of rotation is given by lIJ = 4i +j . Find the distance from P to the plane OQR. (1. Simplify (A+B)' (B+C)x (C+A). Band C are coplanar but no two of them are collinear. 99. If A.(AC)(B·A).1. 96. Ans.
to both A and B.
90.2). 92.4k is applied at the point (1.
sin (a+
S)
= sin a cos
t3
+ cos a sin
t3
86. B = i + 2j .a
Ca
n . 312 from (6. Ans. Ans. b x c)
94.
j •k .j .k .
106. 103.34
102.xb' .+1k 1
3"1
b'=
8. Find a set of vectors reciprocal A ns. b'. b.
J3" =
5k prove that
I
~ av
I
b x e"
xc
c
axb a' bxc b '"
• cxa
I I I
a· b x c
I'
c
.+. h
ax h a. Prove that the only righthanded
=
hx c a' bxc' selfreciprocal
cxa a· bxc
'
sets of vectors are the unit vectors
t.bxc
t
0
a'
105. blxC'
104. 3"1
and
7. c and a'.+.2k.
.J. If a. c' are such that a/'a '" b"b '" c'·c '" 1
a'· b '" a'. b. If a'=
The DOT and CROSS PRODUCT
to the set
2i +3j .. c '" h'· a '" h'· c
prove that it necessarily follows that
= C'· a =
C
I
c.
J3" ~ a+b
a
7k
.
3 3"'
2.J. c.
. Prove that there is one and only one set of vectors reciprocal
to a given set of noncoplanar vectors a. i .i + 2j + 2k .
Chapter
3
ORDINARY DERIVATIVES OF VECTORS.
SPACE CURVES.
defines x. y. Then ~: y=y(u). then r(u) and specification of the ~
r(u)
joining the origin 0 of a coordinate
= x(u)i
+ y(u)j
+ z(u)k z as f nctions of u. we can consider its derivative this deriva~~e exists it is denoted by ~. Then ~R _ R(u +~u) .R(u)
where ~u denotes figure).
dv
=
dt2
d2r
represents
its acceleration
a
35
. the limit will be a vector in the direction of the tangent to the space curve at (z . If
rection of ~r(see
t. z). If in particular R(u) is the position vector system and any point (x. z) and is given by dr dx dy. dt
which the terminal point of r describes along the curve. rand
As u changes.R(u)
~u ~u
u
lIR '" R(u +lIu) .uo
~u
if the limit exists.uo
lim ~r = dd
uu
r
u
exists. ~:
x
represents
th€ velocity
v with Similarly. with respect to u. If
In like manner higher order derivatives
are described.
an increment in
(see adjoining o
The ordinary derivative
of the vector R(u) with respect to the scalar u is given by dR du lim R(u +~u) R(u)
t. Let R(u) be a vector depending on a single scalar variable u.r(u) is a vector in the diadjacent figure). y.
the curve. z=z(u)
z
= r(u +~~u . the terminal point of r describes a space curve having parametric equations x=x(u). Since dR is itself a vector depending on u. dz i + ) + k du du du du If u is the time
t.
z) t:. A(x+t:. y +t:.
z) 
A(x. dA dB + ·B du du dB du
+ dAx B
of a scalar u. du {AX(BxC)}
d
=
A x (B x dC) du
+ A x (dB x C) + dA x (B x C) du du
The order in these products may be important.u) = ¢(u).::. o
dz
.
DIFFERENTIATION
FORMULAS.x.u I
< 8. du (A x B)
Ax
du
5. 11m y. ¢(u) is continu!::. R (u)
!::.u) = R(u).A(x.z)
. R2(u) and R3(u) are continuous at u or if lim R(u +t:..
PARTIAL DERIVATIVES OF VECTORS. z for example.
Similarly. Band C are differentiable vector functions ¢ is a differentiable scalar function of u .
~c
dA + ·BxC du c
6.y. _i_ (A
du
+ B)
2..u)
..y 
!::.z
A(x. _... B) du d
3.
_~cc~
d du(A'BXC)
__~_ •..z)
!::"xo
Isx
if this limit exists.
A vector function R(u) = R1(U)i + R2(u)j + R3(u)k is called continuous at u if the three scalar functions R1(u).. The partial derivative of A with respect to x is defined as .y.y .
A scalar or vector function of u is called differentiable of order n if its nth derivative exists. A function which is differentiable is necessarily continuous but the converse is not true. z).z)
t:. Equivalently. and
1.R(u)
I
<
whenever
I t:. ous at u if for each positive number
E
A scalar function ¢(u) is called continuous at u if lim ¢(u +t:.y.. y... dA dy dA
lim
A(x.y. If A. then we write A = A(x...36
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY.y.¢(u)1
<
E
whenever
I t:.:::___
dc dB + A'XC du du ____:.. 11m tsz. 0
z +t:. Equivalently. A(x.u I
< 8. If A is a vector depending on more than one scalar variable... then dA dB + du du A. o
is continuous
at u if for each positive
number
E
we can find some positive
E
number 8 such that
I R(u +t:. y. Unless otherwise stated we assume that all functions considered are differentiable to any order needed in a particular discussion.
A'Bx
.. o
we can find some positive
number 8 such that
I¢(u+t:. z) .u)
.u ..u . 
d (A . say x.
y +6y) = ¢ (x. y) if lim ¢(x +6x.+ ·B
oX ox Ax oB Ox
oB
oA
2.
calculus
a
\/
\
A·. Thus if A and B are functions
. .
\.dx
OA'~~
+ =.
_2_(
oz
OA) oz
_2_(
oy
OA) Ox '
2( 02A)
Ox o2A ox oy
=
OZ2 02A oyox '
If A has continuous partial derivatives order of differentiation does not matter.y) nitions hold for vector functions.OB oy Ox
+
oB
OA.
then
I. for example.y). oy Ox
Thus..x
(A x B)
2
+ OAX B
Ox
13.. (A'B) ox
are similar to those used in elementary of x.
__Q_ ( OA) ox Ox ' _2_(OA) Ox oy o2A o y2 o2A .~. If the scalar point on C.
oA
oB Ox
oy
+ . or if for each positive number E we can find some positive number
8 such that I ¢ (x +6x. d(A·B) 3. then we have seen that ~: is a vector in
the direction of the tangent to C... y +6y) ..
6yo
D..B} Ox
A'~
oy Ox
+ . then ~: is a unit tangent
u is taken as the arc length s measured
vector to C and is denoted by T (see diagram below). For example.
of the second
order at least.xO
I
<
E
whenever
16x
I
< 8 and
16y
I
< 8. Similar defi
For functions of two or more variables we use the term differentiable to mean that the function has continuous first partial derivatives. x y. d(Ax B) If
A
= A·dB
+ dA'B + dAx B
dA
= Ax dB
=
r.z).z then.y.. 7'~"'''""'_"".VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
are the partial derivatives of A with respect to y and z respectively if these limits exist.y. for example..dz. y) is called continuous at (x.
For example.
2..
DIFFERENTIALS
OF VECTORS follow rules similar to those of elementary
calculus.. Z .dy
)
~/
DIFFERENTIAL
GEOMETRY involves defined
a study of space by the function
curves and surfaces.
If C is a space curve from some fixed The
r(u).. (The term is used by others in a slightly weaker sense.
then
=
oA =.
.~"""""~~
A(x.¢ (x.) Higher derivatives
o2A o x2 02A OX oy
=
can be defined as in the calculus. ..1.
(A'B) oyox
0
{(A'B)} oy Ox
2
o
0
~{A.~
+ =..
I
. the for
Rules for partial differentiation of vectors scalar functions.e.
oA
Ox
oy
+ ·B
oy Ox
02A
etc.
37
The remarks on continuity and differentiability for functions of one variable can be extended to functions of two or more variables.
o2A o Z2 03A Ox OZ2
__Q_ ( OA) oy 0 Y . etc. ¢ (x.
the coordinate system moves and is known as the moving trihedral. If N is a unit vector in this normal direction. the acceleration of the object. N.KT. a. The rectifying plane is the plane through P which is perpendicular to the principal normal. The
of C and is given by ~:
of dT at any given point on C is normal to ds the curve at that point (see Problem 9). Then ~:
=
KN.= liT
=
TN
where T is a scalar called the torsion. Fundamental to this study is Newton's famous law which states that if F is the net force acting on an object of mass m moving with velocity v.
MECHANICS often includes as kinematics. where a is
. It follows that directions T. This coordinate system is called the trihedral or triad at the point.
The quantity
is called the radius of torsion. value. Ifm is constant this becomes F
=m
dv de
=
ma.38
rate at which T changes sure of the curvature direction
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
with respect
to s is a mea. is called the binormal to the curve. As s changes. then d F = (mY) dt where mV is the momentum of the object. it is called the principal normal to the curve. The normal plane is the plane through P perpendicular to the tangent. where
K is called the curvature of C at the specified point.
a study of the motion of particles along curves. this study being known In this connection some of the results of differential geometry can be of
A study of forces on moving objects is considered in dynamic s. A set of relations involving derivatives of the fundamental tively as the FrenetSerret formulas given by dT ds
= KN
vectors dB ds
T.
A unit vector B perpendicular to the plane of T and N and such that B = T xN.
The osculating plane to a curve at a point P is the plane containing the tangent and principal normal at P. Nand
B is known collec
dN
ds
TB . The quantity p = 11K is called the radius of curvature. B form a localized righthanded rectangular coordinate system at any specified point of C.
y(u).
magnitude of velocity at t = 0 is magnitude of acceleration at
t
+ (6)2 '"
137
= 0 is /(1)2 + (18)2 = /325.
y = 2 cos 3t.
(a) (b) (a)
are x
= e ". A particle moves along the curve x = 2t2.
Determine its velocity and acceleration at any time.
J+
z(u+6u)
6u

z(u)
k
=.sin t icos
tj
(e)
= l(cost)2 + (sint)2 = /(sint)2
+
(cost)2
+ (1)2
v2
1
(d)
d dt
2
=
3.
find
(a)
~~. Find the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration The position vector r of the particle is Thenthevelocityis and the acceleration is v
=~
at t
eti
=
0.
dR du
dR
dx • r!:Jr_ • dz k du I + du J + du .
dr dt
=
i+
6k
i
18j.J.
(a)
(sint)i
dt
+ (cost)j
dt d dt (cos t)i
d
d + (t)k dt 
cos t isin
tj +k
(b)
"it(dt)
d
dR
d d dt (sin t)j + dt (I)k
.uo lim /J.
where x.
(b)
iR
dt2'
2
(e)
. A particle moves along a curve whose parametric equations where t is the time.
dt
= eti
6sin3tj
+ 6cos3tk 18sin 3t k
etl
18cos 3t j Then
1(_1)2
(b)
At t
=
0.du
dx.~. dt
.
1+
y(u+6u)
6u
. components of its velocity and acceleration at time t = 1 in the direction i .
R(u +6u)
lim /J. Given R
dR dt d2R dt2 . If R(u) = x(u)i th t +y(u)j +z(u)k. prove
a
.
du
J
+ dz
du
k
2. ~t~'. Y = t2 .. + 2 cos 3t
j
r
= xi + yj + zk =

+ 2 sin 3t k.uO
.R(u)
6u [x(u +6u)i
+ y(u +6u)j
+ z(u +6u)k]
6u
[x(u)i
+ y(u)j
+ z(u)k]
x(u+6u)
6u
.
sint i +
d
cost
j
+ tk.3j + 2k. z = 2 sin 3t.VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
39
SOLVED PROBLEMS
1.
1
+ dy.5.uO lim /J. z = 3t .
.4t.~~"
(d)
.dR.
Find the
4. where t is the time.y
and z are differentiable
functions of a scalar u .x(u).
Y = 4t .
To show that it has unit magnitude we note that
I~ I ds
since
(ds)2
=
1. Thevector z
= z(s).
6. show that dr/ds is a unit vector tangent to C.
dt
T
dr/dt ds/dt 41 + 4j + 2k 1(4)2 + (4f
(b)
At t = 2.() dt dt
2
Ii4
dt dt _1_ [4ti dt + (2t4)j + 3kJ
114
4i + 2j + Ok. z
=
2t2

6t .
A tangent vector to the curve at any point is
~
=~
[(t2+1)i
+ (4t3)j
+
(2t26t)k]
=
2tl
+
4j
+
(4t6)k
The magnitude of the vector is
I~:I =
/(2tf+(4)2+(4t6)2. where s is the arc length of C measured from a fixed point on C.
y=y(s).2r . the unit tangent vector is
T
+ (2)2
7. If r is the position vector of any point on C.3j + 2k)
16
Ii4
Acceleration
d d = . A curve C is defined by parametric equations x = x(s).3j + 2k) (4) (1) + (2) (3) + (0)(2)
2
/14
114
114
114
7
5.
dr ds
=
d. !:J: j + k dz + ds ds ds
is tangent to the curve
x=x(s).
Unit vector in direction i _ 3j + 2k is
i .
(a)
x
=
t2 + 1.6) k V(2tf + (4)2 + (4tdr ds
6f
I~I dt
= ~.40 =
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
Velocity
dr dt 4ti
__cf_[2t2i + (t24t)j dt + 3k
+ (3t5)kJ
+ (2t4)j
=
4i 
2j + 3k
at
t
= 1. z = z(s).3. (xl+Yl+zk) ds
=1
dx . prove:
(b) iu(AXB)
d du
(A' B)
A. y = y(s).
7
Then the component of the acceleration in the given direction is (41 + 2j + Ok)' (i .3j + 2k
114
+ (3)(2)
Then the component of the velocity in the given direction is
(4i . T
Then the required unit tangent vector is Note that since
=
2t i + 4j + (4t .2j + 3k)·(i . (a)
(b)
Find the unit tangent vector to any point on the curve Determine the unit tangent at the point where t = 2. dB + dA'B du du
l
r
. If A and B are differentiable (a)
!
functions of a scalar u.
(dX)2 + (dy)2 + (dz)2 from the calculus.3j + 2k /(1)2+ (_3)2+ (2)2 (4)(1) + (2)(3)
i ..
c"u'O 6u
6u
6u
du
du

d (A' B) du
A. If A=5t2i+tjtSk
and B=sinti
cos e I.dB+dA'B
dt
dt t3k)' (cost i + sint j) cos t Then 5t2 cos t + lOt sin t + t sin t .cos t (5t2l) cos t + llt sin t
+
(5t2i
+ tj 
(lOti
+j

3t2k)'
(sint
icost
j)
5t2 cos t + t sin t + lOt sin t Another Method.
(5t21) cos t + llt sin t
.dB + dA.t cos t)
d (b) dt(Ax
B)
Ax dB
dt
+ dAx
dt
B
i 5t2 cos t
j
k _t3 0
f +
lOt
sint 1
k 3t2 0
sin t
cost
.lm A. dB + dA.
(b)fe(AXB). this becomes j
+
k dAs du
AxdB
As
dBs du
dA1 du B1
~
du
du
+
dA xB du
B2
Bs
8.
A.VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
d
(A +6A)'(B +6B) A'B
41
(a)
(A·B)
du
lim c"uo lim c"uO
6u
A·6B + 6A'B + 6A·6B
6u
+ 6A'B + 6A.
(C)ie(A'A).B
6B lim A. d dt (A.
&
6u
du
du
j t(AXB)
A_ du
k
USing a theorem on differentiation i Ai dB1 du j A2 dB2 du k
of a determinant. B) A· B = 5t2 sin t ~ (5t2 sint t cos t. find (a)~t(A'B).B
du
du
(b)
L(AXB)
du
lim c"uo lim c"uO
(A + 6A) x (B + 6B)

AxB
6u
Ax6B + 6AxB + 6Ax6B
6u
+ 6AxB + 6Ax 6B Ax dB + dAxB
lim Ax 6B 6u c"uO Another Method.
(c) rxv = a constant vector.42
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
[tS sint i .A dt
=
2A. o.3t2cost)i 3t2sintj (tScost t cos t)k] . A dA
A· A dA A
= =
constant. 2A. B. B x du
e
dA. A particle moves so that its position vector is given by r = cos cot i + sin cot j where w is a constant.dA+ dt
dA. 
e+
du
dA 'B
e where
A. Prove
d de dB (A' B x e) = A' B x + A' .dA dt 3t2k) = lOOtS + 2t + 6t5 25t4 + t2 + t6
2 (5t2i + tj Another Method.(V· .A
=
+ (_tS)2
=
(25t4 + t2 + t~
lOOtS + 2t + 6t5. dA dt
=
• de
+
de'
=
O.
By Problem
d V dV dV di( • de x d(2)
2
12.x du du du functions of a scalar u.. If A has constant magnitude show that A and dA/dt
Since A has constant Then Thus d ) di (A' A
A' ~~ 0
are perpendicular
provided
I dA/dt I .
By Problems 7(a) and 7(b).. B x du dA.x ) 2 dt dt dt '
10. Evaluate
d dv d2y .
magnitude. Then
tSk) • (lOt i + j (5t2)2 =
+ (t)2
t
A.
and A is perpendicular
to ~~ provided
IdA I ~ dt
x '
0
. e are differentiable
d A • (B x e) du
A' 
d (B x du
e)
dA + _.sint)kJ sint lltcost)k
+ (lOt cost
+ 3t2sint)j
+ (5t2sint
=
I 5~2 sint d d/AXB)
kotSI cost
_tS cos t i 
tS sin z j + (5t2 cos t 
t sint)k
Then
d (c) di(A.A)
A.
.
9.
10. (b) the acceleration a is directed toward the origin and has magnitude proportional to the distance from the origin.tS cos t j + (5t2 sint + (tSsint Another Method. AxB [3t2costi . Show that (a) the velocity v of the particle is perpendicular to r. B x du
A • [B x de du A' B x de du
+ dB x
du
eJ + e+
e e
+ A' dB x
du
11.
A)
di(A
dA dt
i. [w
sinWt i + w cos coz cos Wt)
jJ
(cos Wt) (w and r and v are perpendicular.___!! + dAx dB _ dt2 dt dt
[dAx dt
dB + U x BJ dt dt2
2
14. Prove:
_rj_(A x dB dt dt
dB dt dA XB) dt
!I(AX
_
dA x B) dt .
13. the motion is that of a particle moving on the circumference of a circle with constant angular speed w. is the centripetal acceleration.
2A·dA dt Then dA dA 2A· de = 2A dt or
and
2AdA dt
A• dA _ A dA dt dt
Note that if A is a constant vector
A· ~~
=
0 as in Problem 9. it is directed magnitude is proportional to I r I which is the distance from the origin. The acceleration.(a)
V=
*
VECTOR
DIFFERENTIATION
43
=
w sin
r vv
cot i +
w cos
i
cot j
Then
[cosWt
+ sinWt
jJ .w2 sinwt
j
Then the acceleration is opposite to the direction of r. Le.
dA dt
A·A Another Method.
. (c) rxv
toward the origin.
Its
=
[cosWt
i + sinwt
jJ
j
x [w
k
sinwt
i + W cos cor
jJ
w k.
cOSWt
sinwt w cos Wt
o
0
w sin cot
Physically. Since d dt (A. Show that
A.
A dA dt
d
2
).
a constant vector.
sin Wt) + (sin Wt)(w
=
0
dv
dt
_w2
cos Wt i .e.
!I(AX
dt
dt
dB) dt
2
Ax 4. directed toward the center of the circle.
cos x)j
02A

2x siny k
.
This is true in general if A
3
16. y.z)
=
xy2z
and A
=
xzixy2j+yz2k.i. Y = 1.e.Q(x2 siny) k Ox
4x i + (xyexy
]_(OA)
+ eXY . the order of differentiation .y.y cosx)j
oy
+ ~_ (2x cosy)k
VJ
4x i + (xyexy + eXY .Ox has continuous partial derivatives of the second order at least.cosx)j
_Q_(4xy _ 4x3)i Oy
ey ex
02A
=
+ _Q_(yeXY . t where x.12x2)i + (y2eXY + y sinx)j
+ 2 cosy k ~y (x2 siny) k
0
_Q_ (2x2) i + _Q_ (xexy Oy Oy
. Let F depend on x.
is immaterial.'\
oXOy
2
_Q_
Ox
(OA)
Oy
=
_Q_ (2x2)i
Ox
+
_Q_
Ox
(xexy . z .
17. + of dz
dt Ot Ox dt
oy
dt
oz
dt
.sinx)j 2x siny k

. z = 1 this becomes
4(1)2(1)i

2(_1)4 j
=
4i 
2j.sinx)j

0. y and z depend on t. Prove that dF of + of dx + of 4x. If A
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
0:(2x2yx4)i (4xy4x3)i
+ :x(eXYYSinX)j + (yeXYycosx)j
+ :x(X2COSY)k + 2xcosyk
2X2 i + (xexy .1). If ¢(x.sinx)j

x2 siny k
_l_
Ox
(4xy .1.
find +(¢A)
Ox
ez
at the point (2.4x3) i +
l_ (yexy
Ox
.
Note that

Or Ox
oy .44
15.y cos x) j + ~x (2x cos y) k
0
(4y .
If x =2.
Z = 4t and find (a) the unit tangent T.t)j + F. then ds = K N.(x. N.t)i
dF1 i + dF2 j + dF3 k (ClF1 dt + dF1 dx
et
ex
+ eF1 dy +
dy
~zl
0
dz
Ji
+
[eF2 dt + eF2 dx dt dX
+ eF2 dy + eF2 d z J j
dy dZ
+
[eF3 dt + eF3 dx
et
ex
+ eF3 dy + eF3 dzJ k 'Oyez +
eF3
(i
eF2 (eF1 i + j
et
et
+
'oF. (c) the binormal B.
'0.
(a)
Since T· T = 1.KT.
N. Tx dN = 0 ds ds'
so that dB = TxdN
ds
+ dTxN
ds
= TxdN
so that T is perpendicular to ddsB. We call N the principal curvature and p = 11K the radius of curvaturt
(b)
LetB=TxN. (b) the principal normal N.
ds
+ KNXN
= TxdN.
normal. curvature K and radius of curvature p.ez dt ex dt ey dt
DIFFERENTIAL
GEOMETRY. Le.
19. so that ~: is perpendicular to Band is thus in the plane of T and N _
TN. Y = 3 sin t. Band T.z.
ex +
+k)dx ex
j
eF3
+
eF (eF1 i + j 2
ey
ey
+k)dy ey
(i
eF1
eF2
'ez
ez
+~
eF3
k)dz
'OF dt + 'OF dx + 'OF dy + 'OF d z ez et ex ey and so
dF dt
'OF
~
+
'OF dx + 'OF dy + 'OF r!!_ • .
.z. Then
F = F1(x.
is perpendicular to T. K the
dT If N is a unit vector in the direction ~T. + F2(x.t)k.
then dB =
ds
Since T.z.
k)dt
eF1
ex +
+
J
eF2 . it follows from Problem 9 that T • dT ds
= 0. I. ~. B form a righthanded system. T the torsion.TNxT = KT + TB = TB .
(c)
Since ~~ is in the plane of T and N and is perpendicular to T. Prove the FrenetSerret
formulas (a) dT '" KN. torsion T and radius of torsion CT • The space curve is a circular helix (see adjacent fignre ).y.
ds Then T· dB = T. N = Bx T.
(a)
t = z/4. ds
(b)
dB '" TN. Sketch the space curve x = 3 cos t.
The position vector for any point on the curve is
.e. it must be parallel to Wecall B the binormal .
18.VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
under suitable assumptions Suppose that
dF
45
of differentiability. y = 3 sin (z/4) and therefore lies on the cylinder x2 + y2 = 9. so do N.y. ds
(c) dN ds
TBKT. dN dT dB Then ds nx ds + ds x T = BXKN .
ds
But from B' B = 1 it follows that B' ~: = 0 (Problem 9).y. and CT = l/Tthe radius of torsion. Since the curve has equations x = 3 cos (z/4).
K3 N X T + K ~: NXN)
. Show that
2
p2'
T
2
T
dr
ds ds
=
'
ds?
dr
=
dT
ds
=
KN.3 sint i
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION + +
3 sint j 3 cos t j t
+
4tk
ti!
+ 4k
1(3 sint)2
ds dt Thus T
I~I dt
ds
3 .
dr ds KN so that
K
and
dT
ds and the result follows since
=
I dT I
ds
p =.
y
=
y(s)..
(c)
B
TXN
..
"5
3
cost
4 5
"5
4
..cos t isin
tj .1cos 5
J
ds
. =
='
+
(3cost)2
+ 42
4
5
dr
dr/dt ds/dt .l_ cos t i
3
sm t
.
{g cos t'f
N
K
+ (
sint)2
=
23
5
and
3
25
ds
dT
1 dT ds k
..
K
21.46
r Then dt 3 cos t i . cos t J
+
1k 5
.sint sin t j .
=
I ds I dT
KN. !!.
dr= ds3
3
K dN
ds
+ dK N ds
N)
K(TBKT)
+ dK
ds
N
KTB _ K2T + d K N ds
ti!. Prove that the radius
of curvature
is given by
p
[d_~)2
ds2
222
of the curve with parametric
ds2 ds2
equations
x =x(s). smt
1
=
M.
z
=
z(s)
+
(~Jl + (0.!. . dB ds
o
dt
dB
~ cos t i T(costi
+~
=
4
dB/dt ds/dt
25 cos t 1
_! cos t i + __! sin t j
25 25
TN
sin t j)
.. .)2] 1/2 .cost
3 5
.sinr
.
ti ~ sint j
(b)
dT
dt
dT
dt . =
x(s) i
The position vector of any point on the curve is r Then But dT ds
T=
+
y(s)j
+
Z
(s)k.B ._! x
ds2
cs ds
3
3
T'KNX(KTBK2T
+ ~:
T· (K2 TN x.
+
25 Sin t J
4.

~ sint i 5
+
i
cos t j
+ "5k.
."5
dT/dt ds/dt stnce Then From
dT ds
K
d(
+~
25
cos t j
+ .
I ~: I
= /(we obtain
=
I II N I
K
=
K
as
23 5
K?
O. smr 1
4 "5
.! k)
5 25
..
or
20..
= KN .
2t j 2t2 1
+
+
2t
+
k
+
2t2
l+2t2
Now
dB dt TN T
K=T
2t
1 .VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
The result can be written
T
47
I
X [(XIl)2
I
Y Y Y
z
Z Z
I
=
+
(yll)2
+
(ZIl)2Jl
x
X
II
1/
II
III
1/1
lit
where primes denote derivatives
with respect to s.2t )j 1
+
2tk
+
2t2 k
Then
B
TxN
1 1
+
2t
2
2t 1
2t2 2t2 1
2t2 i .
t
3
find
k. Given the space curve
(a)
x = t.
Z=
i
t3.
To
=
+
2j 3
+
2k
No =
+
2k
Bo =
2i 
3
2j
+k
/
.
2t2
Since
TN.
23. Y = t2.
(b)
the torsion
T. Then from Problem 22. Find equations in vector and rectangular form for the (a) tangent.
N=
1.2t )j 1
+
+ 2t k ] .
22.
I dT I
ds
+
(2 _ 4t2)2 (1 + 2t2)!i
+
(4t)2 (1
2
+
2t2)2
(b)
From (a). binormal to the curve of Problem 22 at the point where t = 1.
(a)
the curvature
K. principal
2i j 3
(b)
principal
normal.2t2 1 + 2t2
dB ds
1+2?
dB/dt ds/dt 4t i
4ti
+ (4t2 .4t2)j
(1 K =
+
4tk
+
2t2)3 = 1(_4t)2
Since
= KN. by using the result of Problem 20.
we find
T
=
2 (1
+
2t2J2
Note that
for this curve.
Let To' No and Bo denote the tangent. dT
K ds
2ti
+
2 (1 .
[ .2)j
(1

4t k
+
2t2)2
and
+
(4t
2

2)j 2t2)3

4tk
(1 dB ds
+
Also.2t i
+
2 (1 .
The position vector is Then
r = t i + t2 j +
i
dt
ds dt
dr
i
+
2t j
+
2t2 k 1(1)2
I dt I eft
ds +
dr
M=
t dr/dt ds/dt 4t k) (1
+
(2t)2
+
(2t2)2
1
+
2t2
and
T
+
2tj + 2t2 k 1 + 2t2 4t i
dT dt
(1 + 2t2) (2j
(i + 2tj + 2t2 k)(4t)
+
(2 (1
+
2t2)2
+
2 4t )j 2t2)2
+
4tk
Then
dT ds
dT/dt ds/dt dT ds

4t
i + (2 . and
(e)
normal and binormal vectors
at the required point.
2/3) 2(x1)1(y1) + 2(z2/3)
The adjoining figure shows the osculating. intersect and define the point (uo' va) on the surface. we obtain a point on the surface.
24.1
z . If r is the position vector of any point in this plane and ro is the position vector of the point t=l.2(y1) + 1(z2/3) of
(a). Chapter 1). 0.
l(x 1) + 2(y 1) + 2(z . then rro is perpendicular to Bo' the binormal at the point t=l.
v)
represents
a surface. as shown in the adjoining figure.2/3
These equations can also be written in parametric form (see Problem 28. In rectangular form the equations become respectively.1 2
=
Y 1 =r
=
z . where sinv
j
(b) Show that
(c) Determine
represents
a vector sinv
normal to the surface.
(a) Show that
the equation ~~ x ~~ r
=
r
=
r(u. surface. As u varies.
.
Then:
Equation of tangent is Equation of principal normal is Equation of binormal is form. The required equation is (r ro) . r = r(u. (b)
(b)
to the tangent vector at the given point. The rectifying plane is the plane which is perpendicular to the principal normal at the given point. Find equations
(c) rectifying
in vector and rectangular form for the (a) osculating plane. We speak of the pair of num
. Thus curves u = Uo and example. represent curves on the surface.v).e.2/3
.
v
The curves u = uo' u = up '" represent definite curves on the surface.48
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
If A denotes a given vector while ro and r denote respectively the position vectors of the initial point and an arbitrary point of A. No = O.
Similarly v
= vo'
v
= vi'
= "o. plane to the curve of Problems 22 and 23 at the point where t = 1..
x..for
By assigning definite values to u and v. (rro)' Bo = O. The normal plane is the plane which is perpendicular the required equation is (rro)' To = O. (b) normal plane.
a
a unit normal to the following
>
0: k
acosu
i + asinu
+ aCosv
(a)
If we consider u to have a fixed value. 2(x1) .
and
(a)
The osculating plane is the plane which contains the tangent and principal normal. therefore.
ro = i +
J +~
k
these become respectively
x 1
y. v) represents the surface S thus generated. 0. Then r = r (u.ro) x No = 0 (r ro) x Bo = 0
In rectangular
1
+
Y j + z k.
25.2/3 2'
x 1 2
=
Y 1 =z
=
1'
z . say uo' then r = r (uo ' v) represents a curve which can be denoted by u = uo' Similarly u = u 1 defines another curve r = r(ui.v) represents a curve which moves in space and generates a surface S. with r = xi 2
2
(r ro) x To = 0 (r .
Then
(c)
and
(c)
0. i. normal and rectifying planes to a curve C at the point P. then Iro is parallel to A and so the equation of A is (rro) x A = O.
which is a sphere of radius a. z = a cos v from which it is seen that x2+ y2 + z2 = .
(b)
Consider point P having coordinates (uo' "o ) on a surface 5. it follows that n cosu sinv
i
+ sinu sinv
j
+ cosv
k
is the outward drawn unit normal to the sphere at the point (u. The vector er I eu at P is obtained by differentiating r with respect to u .VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
49
bers (u. 2).a2 sinu
(u. Since r = a n. For further discussion of curvilinear coordinates see Chapter 7. it follows that er/eu at P represents a vector tangent to the curve v = va at P. z
= u2 + v2
be parametric
of the surface. . as shown in the adjoining figure. it follows that these vectors are tangent to the er er surface at P. v) as defining the curvilinear coordinates on the surface. From the theory of space curves.
The position vector to any point
.a2 sinv
cosv
k
a vector normal to the surface at any point
A unit normal is obtained by dividing
~~ x ~~ by its magnitude.
I ~:
x ~:
I'
given by
a2 {
_a2
sinv sinv
if if
sinv sin v
>
<
0 0
Then there are two unit normals given by ± (cosu sinv i + sinu sinv
j
+ cos v k)
±n
It should be noted that the given surface is defined by x = a cos u sin v. If all the curves u = constant and v = constant are perpendicular at each point of intersection. y = a sin u sin v.
26. Since er/eu and Clr/ev represent vectors at P tangent to curves which lie on the surface 5 at P.
Let x = u. Hence it follows that eu x ev is a vector normal to 5 at P. erl ev at P represents a vector tangent to the curve u = constant = uo. I. y on the surface is
=
v. keeping v = constant = "o .
(c)
er eu er ev
a
sinu
sinv cosv
i
+
a cosu
sinv cosv
a sinv
a cosu
i + a sinu
k
j
k
Then
xeu
er
er ev
a sinu
sinv cosv
a cos u sin v
a sinu
o
a sinv
a cosu _a2 represents cosu
cos v
sin2 v i . we call the curvilinear coordinate system orthogonal. Find
an equation
for the tangent
plane
to the surface equations
z
= x2 + y2
at the point
(1.v). v) •
sin2 v j . Similarly. as shown in the adjacent diagram.
But
d dt(rxmv)
rx
rx
d dt (mv) d
dr + dt x
mv
"it (mv) +
v x mV
r x dt Jj(rxmv)
d
d
(mv)
+ dH
0
i. For a special case of this problem see Problem 12.
MECHANICS
27.2). Show that M = dH/dt. Velocity v or
v
magnitude of v multiplied by unit tangent vector
T
=
vT a dT dt dT ds dv dt ds d at (vT)
K N ds 
Differentiating.2k)
2i+2j+k
The position vector to point (1.(i .
dv T dt
KvN
2
+
v
dT dt
vN
dt
dt
dt
p
a
=
tiE T
+
v (vN)
p
tiET+v N
dt
P
This shows that the component of the acceleration is dv/dt in a direction tangent to the path and v 2/p in a direction of the principal normal to the path. then r x F = M is the torque or moment of F about O. 2(x1)
+
2(y+1)
+ (z2)
=
0
or 2x 
2y 
= z=
0
2.2k
at the point (1. The position vector to any point on the plane is
R
=
xi+yj+zk
Then from the adjoining figure.1. and p is the radius of curvature.
~~ = j + 2vk
= j .
28.2i + 2j + kJ
Le.
M
=
rxF
rx
d at
(mv)
by Newton's law. a normal n to the surface at this point is
n
= dr du
x
dr dV
=
(i
+ 2k) x (j .mv and v is the velocity of the particle. But by Problem Then
18(a).1. N is its unit principal normal.
M
dt
H is called the angular momentum.50
Then ~~
= i + 2uk
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
= i + 2k.2) is Ro = ij + 2k. where H = t x. Show that the acceleration given by
a of a particle
which travels dv T + v dt pN
2
along a space curve with velocity v is
a
where T is the unit tangent vector to the space curve.
where u= L and
v =l
By Problem 25.e. If r is the position vector of a particle of mass m relative to point 0 and F is the external force on the particle.
.j + 2k)] • [. RRo is perpendicular to n and the required equation of the plane is (R.Ro) • n = 0 or
[(x
i +yj +
z
k) . The latter acceleration is often called the centripetal acceleration. The result
Note that the result holds whether m is constant or not.
F2.
~
ask + a4i asi + ~.••
masses
ml. 'What would be the time derivative of A for an observer who is fixed relative to the XYZ coordinate system? '
(a)
If ~~
If
x
and
~~ 1m denote respectively show that there exists
the time derivatives a vector quantity". . e
finds out that he and his coordinate system are actually rotating with respect to an XY Z coordinate system taken as fixed in space and having origin also at O.
+ A
(2)
7ft f
I
dim
I
+
A
1
di + A <!1 dt 2 dt
s dt
dk
Since i is a unit vector. Demonstrate the operator equivalence
'" + '" x
To the fixed observer the unit vectors i. An observer stationed at a point which is fixed relative to an xyz coordinate system with origin 0. as shown in the adjoining diagram.VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
51
states that the torque is equal to the time rate of change of angular momentum.
••• .
with external forces Fl. then a4 = . Hence such an observer would
dAs
dt
dAl
Tt
dA
i
+
dA2
Tt
dA
j
+
k
Le. t· t b dAl• nva ive 0 e dt
1
+
dA2•
dt
J+
dAs dt
k
. observes a vector A = Ali + A2j + Ask and calculates its time de. H = L m r x v k n dH k=l k k = L rkx Fk is the total torque.Fn' For this case.
~
+ aej
From
= 0.• . j
t!1
j '" O.a1 •
i. Then di (3) alj + a2k dt Similarly.k compute the time derivative of A as
dA
(1) dt
actually change with time. He asks.j. r2.k=O
dj
and
as=a2. and
4!. .k=O
and
ae = as'
Then di
dt
de
and
.
(4) (5)
~ dt dk dt
t. k=l t
n
m2. dildt is perpendicular to i (see Problem 9) and must therefore lie in the plane of j and k.rn
M
is the total angular momentum.
~
j
Similarlyfrom
i·k=O. dk di l'dt + Jj. and the result is M = d as before.
dAI f de
(b) Df
(a)
=
dAI dt
Dm
+ ". dk dj dt + Jj.
J'
. This result is easily extended to a system of n particles having respective and position vectors rl.
t h La er.
dk dt
from j·k=O.
But t .
.
.
mn
29.
m
of A with respect such that
to the fixed
and moving systems.
. differentiation yields from (3).xA in the fixed and moving systems re
Let Df and Dm be symbolic time derivative operators spectively. t!1_ =
~
a4
from (4).
derivative
in moving system. For this case we must interchange subscripts m and f and also change Cdto . If this is done. of course. a1
= Ws the determinant
j
becomes
k
where Cd = Wli + w2j + wsk.

aQ_ = W2. Thus the fixed observer can think of himself as really moving with respect to the other.
(b)
vector
of the moving system
By definition
DfA
dA dt
If
= derivative
in fixed system
dAI dt m From
(a).52
+ A dk s dt which can be written as
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
i
k
Then if we choose
a3
=
W 1. The quantity Cd is the angular velocity with respect to the fixed system. be interchanged.
29 be the position vector! = Dm! of the particle.
of particle relative
Vmif
=
velocity
of moving system relative
Then (1) can be written as
(2)
or in the suggestive
notation v
(3)
Plf
=
v
Plm
+v
mlf
Note that the roles of fixed and moving observers can. + Cdx r Using the operator notation of
Let vector A in Problem Problem 29 (b). Determine
the
(a) velocity
and
(b) acceleration
of a moving
particle
as seen
by the two observ
ers in Problem
(a)
29. (2) becomes v
Plm
=v
Plf
Cdx!
or
v
Pif
v
Plm
+ Cdx!
so that the result is valid for each observer. we have
(1)
D!
f
=
(Dm + (Ux)r of particle
But
velocity velocity Cdx! =
relative
to fixed system to moving system to fixed system.
.
30.Cdsince the relative rotation is reversed.
and shows the equivalence
of the operators
D f == Dm + Cdx .
Cd) xr
+ Cdx(Cdxr) to fixed system to moving system.a W sin W t i + a W cos W t j + b k constants. a=18sin3ti18cos3tj.
(d)
v'5
x = 2 sin 3t.
j
of particle relative of particle relative
D~ r Then and we can write
2Cd xDmr + (DmCd) xr + Cdx(Cdxr) acceleration of moving system relative
to fixed system
For many cases of importance Cd is a constant vector. of both sides of (1). 32. find (a) de'
(b) i + 2j. b. la2w2 + b2

lal=18 where a. i.tk.w are
33. + Cd x)(Dm.
Y = a sin co t .r acceleration acceleration
2
+ (Dm. then Newton's second law becomes
(4)
where Dm denotes. r + Cdx r) + Cdxr)
2
53
Take Dj
(Dm.(d) I iR I dR d(2
at t=O. (b) 7j+3k. The earth is not exactly an inertial system and this accounts for the presence of the so called 'fictitious' extra forces (Coriolis. the rotation proceeds gular velocity. mo
SUPPLEMENTARY
31. d/dt as computed by an observer on the earth.k.(Dm.r Dm.
Z
Find the velocity and acceleration of a particle which moves along the curve z = 8t at any time i » O. systems which are either fixed or which move with constant velocity relative to a fixed system.B).tant k. dl A+B.r
+ Cdxr)
+ Cdx(Cdxr)
+ Dm. etc. (c)
iR (b) d(2'
I de I . Ivl Find a unit tangent vector to any point on the curve x = a cos Wt.
tj + (2t+1)k d (b)dt(AXB).
= bt
34. If the mass of a particle is a constant M. Then Dm. . using the operator equivalence established in Problem 29(b).
PROBLEMS
(c)
dR + In(t2+ l)j .Cd = 0 and
with constant an
The quantity eration. y = 2 cos 3t.
Ans.
'and B = (2t3)i + j . and F is the resultant of all real forces as measured by this observer.r
Dm.
2Cd x vm. If A = t2i d (a)dt(A.
. The theory of relativity due to Einstein has modified quite radically the concepts of absolute tion which are implied by Newtonian concepts and has led to revision of Newton's laws.r + 2Cd xDm. (d) i + 6j + 2k
(c)l.
12. Ans. i.e.r + Cdxr) Dm.
(a) i . Find the magnitude of the velocity and acceleration. Ans. If R = eti
Ans. 10.(Cdxr)
+ CdxDm.VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
(bi The acceleration
of the particle as determined by the fixed observer at 0 is Djr = Dj(Djr).r or Let Dr
2 2
+
Cdx(Dm. v=6cos3ti6sin3tj+8k. I (d)di(AX )dB d (c)dt Tt
find
at
z=L.e. Then DlDm. The last two terms on the right of (4) are negligible in most cases and are not used in practice.) which must be considered.
(a) 6. is called the Coriolis
acceleration
and Cd x (Cd xr) is called the centripetal
accel
Newton's laws are strictly valid only in inertial sys tems .
_l)i 
2t
1 + t2
2tj
1 + t2
1
(b)
K
(t2 _
+
(t2
+ l)k
V2(1+C)
.
is a solution
of the dif
ferential equation
40. theory. the equation
eA 2 eA ~ +or r dr
2~ c at
1eA
This result is of importance in electromagnetic
DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 47. and
at u~O. Prove that .
2
(c)
Ij_J_ dt2
+
4r
=
O.
4'
J. and (e) the
1 _ t2 i + _j
=
(1 .54
35. dt
Ans. If A = cosxy i + (3xy . 
cosxy
1
.x2k.
2
vw2 
a2
t)
if
a2_
w
2
<
O.
•
Y = Cl sin t d2A dx dy' 2k. d ~ + 2 0J_ + 5r = O.
r=: and i = v I.'ric)
46. z=t+t3/3.
C2 cos t dA dy dx . wand c are constant scalars
. y=t2. satisfies the partial differential poe.y)
45. Show that
r = e t(C1 cos 2t + C2 sin 2t). where a and ware
con
(b) r
(c)
eat(C1 sin
eat(C
l
vw
2
r
+ C2t)
if
a2 t + C2 cos a2 .
icu (t
r
2
.8j show that H = e Ax (Cl sin >ty + C2 cos A.
38.(t+4)j Ans. Find
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
d C = 2i + 3j .
?/
at (1..
.
2
cosxy
A = ey dx exey
7l
( = .t2) i + 2t j + (1 + t2) k
V2(l
1
+ t2)
(d) B
(c)
N
= . is 22 2 2 t t (a) r = eat(C e~ t + C e~ t) if a2 _ w2 > 0
1
2
=
0.
=
(t t+2)i
2
3
+ (12t~j
39. If C1 and C2 are constant vectors and A. If A = sinu i + cosu j + uk.
where Cl and C2 are arbitrary constant
vectors.2x2)j Ans. ~:
2
(3x + 2y)k.xy cosxy (AXB)
Inxy) i .
42
•
Solve
dY dt'
=
X
dX = _ Y .3costk. (a) T normal N.
2
find A given that A=2i+j + (t4sint)k
and ~~ = i3k
att~O. + smxy + 3J
2xz3 j + xz2k
and B = 2zi + r J . 30i + 14j + 20k
2
+ 3etj .
2
43.2). If A(t) = 3t2i .3k .~ = O. Ans.sinu j .
A
= 6ti24t j+4sintk. Show that the general solution of the differential equation ~ ~ + 2a ~ + w2r stants. 2 dA dl = x
find
dA
= y sinxy i + (3y4x)j
2
t
Cy'
d2A d2A dx2' dy2'
sinxy i + 3xj dA ex dy find
2
dA ex2 = y 44.
X = Ca cos t + C2 sin t .cJ2 = 0.0.
l_ (A. .
d
2
att=O. dt dt
where Cl and C2 are constant
vectors. 7i + 6j . find du (Ax(BxC))
B = cosu
i. find dt2 (AxB)
37.
4i . equation ~:~ + ~. satisfies
A=
' where Po
1S 2
a constant vector.is a constant scalar.3k. If A = x2yzi Ans. (d) the binormal B. (c) the principal torston r for the space curve x=tt3/3. Find (a) the unit tangent T. If ~t~ Ans. Ans. dA dx' = x
I. (b) the curvature K.6k 36. dB ds ds
ddAs B) if A and B are differentiable • + (t22t)k and B(t) = sinti
functions
of s.k .
(e) T. y = [(x). Show that the FrenetSerret determine
Cd.arc tans
Find (a) T.
T
=
=
8)
cos
+ 2 sin 12 cos 8 . Find the curvature and radius of curvature of the curve with position a and b are positive constants. The curve lies on the plane
x .!_. (a) Tangent: r
normal and (e) binormal to the curve x +~k) or
x = 3.
Co>=
T + KB
can be written in the form ddTs= Co>xT dN = Co>N.
Show that the equations of the tangent paint t = to can be written respectively
(b)
line.2 cos
x " 8 .4
t t_ i:z
2
8/2
8.
and
T
for the space curve
=t
3
called
+
9t2
+
1
50. Find equations for the (a) tangent. r = ro + t Bo' where t is a parameter.3y + 3z
=
5. Find
K
(j)
x = t. (d) Ans.
Y
=
3 sint.
i+v2sj+s2k s2 + 1 l2si + (1s2)j s2 + 1 + I2sk
(d)
(e)
K=
s2 + 1
v2
N
T=
12
s2 + 1 s2 + 1
(g)
0"=
s2 + 1
v2
s2 i l2s j+k (e) B = s2 + 1 49.12 rxr
for the space
curve r
= r (t)
•
(b) If the parameter
t is the arc length s show that
T"
dr ir ·x2 ds
ds ds3 2 22 (d rids)
ir
56.
p
if a = b . dB ds
formulas
T
Ans. (f)
p.
=
3 cost. 4 "5 t.VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
55
48. Y = t 3 9t4
2 .
K
J. ds
=
Co>xB and
54.
(a) (b) T
K. (e) B .
y = il2ln(s2
s by the equations
Z
+ 1).5" t. (b) N.
becomes
cle of radius a and its radius 53.·rx"f" 1''.
O.
Z
of a plane curve with equations
= 0.
T=
of the curve
x
2t + 1 t_ 1' Y
=
=
t + 2.

K K
T
for the space curve . a curve in the xy
p
[1 +
(y ')2] 3/2
Iy"l
vector
r = a cos u i + b sin u
52. principal r = ro + t To. 55.
60.
If Q = x ('. Interpret the case where a = b • Ans. x . Prove that the curvature of the space curve note differentiation with respect to t. principal
t(~j
normal and binormal to the space curve r = ret) at the r = ra.
Le.
Z
=
47t+
.
59. z = 4 sin (8/2) . Show that the radius plane is given by of curvature =
="''=. the given curve which is an ellipse.
(a)
r=r
(t)
is given numerically
by
K
=
I Ir x'r'l r'1
3'
where dots de
Prove that
T
=
r. z = 4t at the point where t = TL Ans.sin 8.
=
3i
+ 47tk+
Y
3 = . y
(3 + cos
=
1 .
(g) 0". 8 sin 8/2
Explain your answer.Ir 1
Q
3'
T
Q·T
Q2 .
58.
A space
curve is defined in terms of the arc length parameter x = arc tans. where
a cir
=
(a2
sin2
u
ab + b2 cos2
u)3/2
= .
Find the torsion Ans. Find Ans. 57. Z
P
=
12
the twisted cubic.cos
=
t/6
8._
T
= 0.
=s . and
r
show that
K
.
of curvature
p
=a. Show that for a plane curve the torsion 51. + t No.
du
dr.2). v)
is
n
=
where E. 3x . z = 2 .y . normal.2173 If a particle has velocity v and acceleration
Find the
67.
r
= r (u.
p¢
+ 2P¢
. x = 3t + 3. and G are defined as
A particle moves along the curve r = (tS .(a)yz+l= 0. vector of a particle moving along a space curve always lies in the osculating
70. Find equations for the tangent plane and normal line to the surface Ans. y
=
411:. where t is the time. (a) Find the acceleration of a particle moving in the xy plane in terms of polar coordinates (b) What are the components of the acceleration parallel and perpendicular to p ? Ans. Find an equation for the tangent plane to the surface z =xy at the point (2. 16. v curvilinear
is F=O.4t)i + (t2 + 4t)j + (8t2 .z
=
6
64. Find equations for the (a) osculating plane. F. z
=
O. Show that r x v = h where h is a constant vector. (b)y+z7= 0.:it 5'
S . Ans.dr dV'
G _ dr.dr
. Prove that a unit normal to the surface in Problem 62.
a along a space curve. An object is attracted to a fixed point 0 with a force F = f (r) r.
where
E = du .0 _p¢2)
(b)
+ 2P¢)
¢] j
P
p¢2.3.3ts)k.dv
(b) Prove that a necessary
and sufficient
condition that the u.t.
61. 4z
3x
+ 2y . Prove that the angular momentum is constant.
(a) Show that the differential
of arc length on the surface r ds2 = E du2 + 2F dudv
(du)
=
r(u. (a) r
(P.1. Ans.
65. magnitudes of the tangential and normal components of its acceleration when t = 2. y = 1 .2t
= x2

y2 at the point (3. where r is the position vector of the object relative to O. (c)x=2 62. called a central force..6). z=3t+tS at the point where t=1. MECHANICS
66. dU
dr
dr
=
dr2
F
_
. prove that the radius of curvature of its
path is given numerically by p
=
Ivxal
68.56
(b) (c)
VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION
Normal:
r
=
3i
+
411:j
+ti
+tk)
or or
x
X
=
3
+ t. (b) normal plane and (c) rectifying plane to the curve x=3tt y=3t2.v)
is given by
+ Gdv2 dv
coordinate system be orthogonal Ans. Tangential.i5 t
' z = . 69. Y
= 411: +.¢).
Binormal: r = 3i
+ 411:j + t(~j
=
3 . 63.
=
[(p_p¢2)COScp

(P¢+2P¢)sincpJ sin cp + (P¢
i cos
+ [(. Prove that the acceleration plane.2z = 4.
written V¢ or grad ¢. of V. is defined by
+ _Q_j + _Q__k:. Physically.y. curl V or rot V.. z) = J.Chapter
4
THE
VECTOR
DIFFERENlIAL
OPERATOR _Q_i
DEL.y.z) be defined and differentiable at each point (x. y.y..e.
Then the divergence
Let Vex. written V·V or div V.z) in a certain region of space (I. y. this is the rate of change of ¢ at (x. z) in tJmaUection a. It is useful in defining three quantities which arise in practical applications and are known as the gradient.
THE
Let ¢(x. is defined by
V'V =
(:x
i
+ :yj
+ :zk)'(J. Then the gradient of d».
V:..
THE DIVERGENCE.
If Vex.
THE CURL. is defined by
GRADIENT. the divergence and the curl.k)
Note the analogy with A· B
=~
B1 + A2B'2 + A3B3'
Also note that V· V f V· V .e.
(l_i + _l_ j + ox oy Note that V¢ defines a vector field. z) is a differentiable vector field then the curl or rotation of V. V¢
=
:z
0
k) ¢
The component of V¢ in the direction of a €nit vector a}s given bylV¢ :R)andis called the directional derivative of ¢ in the directiona. The operator V is also known as nabla.i
+ ~j
+ T.
written V. ¢ defines a differentiable scalar field).z) in a certain region of space (i. written V x V.y. i_Q_ + j_Q__ + k_Q_ ox oy oz ox oy oz This vector operator possesses properties analogous to those of ordinary vectors. V defines a differentiable vector field). is defined by
VxV
=
(_Q_ i + _Q_
ox oy i
j
j
+ oOz XCV1i + V'2j k)
k
+
V3k)
_Q_
ox
_Q_
oy
0
oz
V1
V'2
V3
57
. i + ~ j + ~ k be defined and differentiable at each point (x.
V A
In Formulas 912.02 ox
~
+~ oy2 + oy2
L
L
of
is called the Laplacian
operator.. V'A +V·B
grad ¢ + grad 1. DIVERGENCE 0
oy V2 ( oVS oy

and CURL d
+ ox V1 _Q_ oy V2 ( oV2 _ OV1)k Ox oy
0
Oz Vs oV2 ). then or or or grad (¢ + 1.
Consider two rectangular coordinate systems or frames of reference xyz and x' yl z' (see figure below) having the same origin 0 but with axes rotated with respect to each
z
Z
I
other. V'(A+B) 3. A point P in space has coordinates (x.
.
O.
=
divA
=
+ div B curl A + curl B
=
VxA + VxB + ¢(V'A) + ¢(VXA) 
curl (A + B)
= =
(V¢).j.j.
~ 1
i
__Q_ Ox Vi +
__Q_ oz Vs
k
( oV1 Oz 
TxJ
OVS) . and ¢ and 1.) 2.A (\!¢)XA
= B·(VxA)
=
A·(VxB) B(\!'A) (A. V x (A +B) 4. O.j. z ).
INV ARIANCE. z) or (x: Z/) relative to these coordinate systems.
12. A) . y.V2¢

+ (A.y. The equations of transformation between coordinates or the coordinate trans formations are given by
y:
(x.
where lj"/?" i. k = 1.V)B + A(\!'B) + Ax(VxB)
(B.3.58
GRADIENT.f.2. V x (V x A) = V(V. V(A'B) 9.
If A and B are differentiable vector functions.y. \! x (V¢) 11. V'(¢A) 5.:)
P. yl and z' axes with respecttothe x. Vx(¢A) 6.
FORMULAS
INVOLVING
V.
of the curl of A is zero. y. Vx(AxB) 8.
+
Note that in the expansion
of the determinant
the operators
_Q __Q_ Ox ' oy'
_Q_ d oz must prece e ~.
(x. V(¢ + 1.V)B
+ Bx(VXA) +~ OZ2 + oz2
where 10. it is supposed that ¢ and A have continuous second partial derivatives. V· (V x A)
= =
ox2 2 2 V .
Vs .y. and
x
x
.j.z)
"
I
X
I
lux
+ 112y + liS z
(1)
yl Zl
12iX + 122Y + 12s z IS1x + IS2 y + Iss z
y
.are differentiable scalar functions of position (x. V· (V¢)
= =
V¢ + V1.
The curl of the gradient The divergence
2
cp is zero.V)A .j. V'(AxB) 7.) div(A+B)
=
1. represent direction cosines of the x'.V)A
(B.
z)
is called
an invariant
if A(x.y .z) = ¢'(x: z '). 7 and 8.
I
I
I
In Chap. x2+l+ Z2 is invariant under the transformation of rotation (1).
\7¢
1
. For example.y. z axes (see Problem 38). This will be true if
y:
or vector field
A(x. since X2+y2+Z2 = . we must have ¢(x. find \7¢ (or grad ¢) at the point (1.GRADIENT.2 X +y +z
y: y:
y:
y:
y:
A (x:
Similarly.z)
=
=
Al(x.y
0
2
32
Z )
6xyi
(3x2_3jz2)j
2lzk 2(2)3(1)k
6(1)(2)i 12i 
+
9j 
{3(d3(2)2(dh 16k
.
It can be shown (see Problem 41) that the gradient of an invariant scalar field is an invariant vector field with respect to the transformations (1) or (2). a~) relative to the x' y' z' coordinate system.y .y3z2. the divergence and curl of an invariant vector field are invariant under this transformation. If ¢(x.y..Z)1
I .2 .z) = ¢'(x: z '). 1).
equations of transformation
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
systems are not coincident
59
the
In case the origins become
of the two coordinate
l11X + l12Y + l~z
+ a~
(2)
l21x + l22Y + l23Z + a~ l~J1x + l32Y + l33z + ab
where origin 0 of the xyz coordinate system is located at (a~. If ¢(x.y. while equations (2) define a rotation plus translation. a. 2.y.0 2 Oy (3x y

.
I
I
.y.0 2 Ox (3x y
+
.z) while ¢' (x: z ') is the temperature at the same point P with coordinates (x: z').2 .y.z)]
I
I
I
I
.y..y.y.z) evaluated at a particular point should be independent of the coordinates of the point.y .z) or (x: y: z') are used. Physically a scalar point function or scalar field ¢ (x . a vector point function z").z)
=
3x2y . we call ¢(x.y. Similarly.z)k
J .z and x: z' are related by the transformation equations (1) or (2).z) an invariant with respect to the transformation.z) is the temperature at point P with coordinates (x.y z)
32
+ k oz (3x y .y z)
32
+
J
.y.
SOLVED PROBLEMS
THE GRADIENT
1. I
+ Aix. The transformation equations (1) define a pure rotation. Thus the temperature at a point is not dependent on whether coordinates (x . The transformation (1) is also called an orthogonal trans formation. Then if ¢ (x . more general transformations
are considered
and the above concepts
are extended.1
+ A3(x. where x. A general linear transformation is called an affine trans formation. Any rigid body motion has the effect of a translation followed by a rotation.
60
GRADIENT. Find 'il¢ if
(a)
(a)
¢ = in \ r \. and ¢=In
r==xi+yj+zk.j
Oy +
+ ~z k)(FG)
a .Q.
~'il In (x2+y2+ z2)
!{i_Q_
Ox
In (x2 +y2 + z2)
r
r2
(b)
'il¢
xiyjzk (x2+y2+z2) 3/2
r r
3
'il(lx2+y2+Z2)n
::
'il(x2+y2+z2)n/2 +
i_Q_
Ox
{(X2+y2+z2)n/2}
j_Q_
Oy
{(x2+y2+z2)n/2}
.
Then Ir\ ==Ix2+y2+z2
\r\
== !In(x2+y2+z'').i
Ox
+.0G Ox
+
.
(a) 'il(F+G)
(b)
'il(FG)
=F
'ilG + G 'ilF where F and G are differentiable
sca
==
(_Q_ i + _Q_
Ox Oy i :x (F+G)
i of
j
+ _Q_
oz +
k)(F+G)
j ~ (F+G)
+ k ~z (F+G)
+
j oG
Ox
1
+
i oG
Ox
l
+ +
l
.. Prove (a) 'il(F+G) = 'ilF+'ilG. of Ox
+
. of oy
k of Oz
+
.
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
2.Q. y and z . lar functions of x.y (FG)j +
~ (FG)i
+ :z (FG)k
(FoG Oy + + G OF)j oy G( of i + of Ox + (FoG Oz
j + of
(F oG + G OF)i Ox Ox
+ G OF)k oz k) F'ilG + G'ilF
F( oG i + oG j + oG k) Ox Oy oz
Or
Oz
3..
(b)
¢=} . of oy
oy
1
+
k of Oz
l
+
k oG Oz k oG Oz
.0G Oy
+
»r
(b) 'il(FG)
+'ilG
(.
But d¢ i. + J + 2k ..y. ~: .GRADIENT.
6..2.(i . Let ¢(x.
6.8
where 6.
at two neighboring
z+6.
8. then "n n1 v r = nr r 1•
=
= r r 1 where
~
Show that V¢ is a vector perpendicular
to the surface
¢(x. P to Q.
dr
so that
V¢
is perpendicular
to d t and therefore to the surface. z+6.e.3).
Then a unit normal to the surface Another unit normal is ti
+ 4j + 4k
=
1
1(_2)2 + (4)2 +(4)2
3
1.2.3j + 8k)
+ 8(z2)
=
0
or

3(y+l)
=
O.y.y.
=
dx i +
=
=
O¢dx Ox 0
+ O¢dy
Oy
+ O¢dz
dZ
=
0
or
<O¢i Ox
+ O¢j + ~¢k)...8
'=
ds
d¢
and interpret
physically. Then dr
Let r = xi + y j + z k be the position vector to any point P<x.8
¢(x+6.¢ 6..3).3j + 8k.s~O
Q.~j . 2.
y+6. z) on the surface.z)
points
p(x. dy j + dz k lies in the tangent plane to the surface at P.
7. z+6.
2i
V (i'y + 2xz) =
(2xy + 2z) i + x2 j + 2x k = 2i
=
+ 4j + 4k
at the point (2.
3 3
.. Find an equation for the tangent plane to the surface
2xz23xy4x
'=
7 at the point (1.1.z) and Q(x+6. Find a unit normal to the surface
x2y + 2xz
'=
4 at the point (2.x.z)
'=
c where c is a constant.
1} 2x
+
j
{ %<X2+y2+?)
n/2 
<xi + yj + zk) nrn2r r 1 is a unit vector in the direction r.
Then a normal to the surface at the point (1.z)
y+6.j
+ 2k)] • (7i .8 is the
(b)
Evaluate Show that
Since points. Prob.z) be the temperatures of a certain region.y.y.<dxi
Oy oz
+ dyj + dzk)
o
V¢.
(c)
V¢.
y+6..
lim ~:
6.
between points P and Q and
(a)
6.y.y.2).¢ 6.1.
6.18.z)
Interpret distance
physically
the quantity
between points P and
b.) Then the required equation is
[(x i
+ yj +
7(xl)
z k) . DIVERGENCE
n/2
and CURL 1} 2y
n/2 1 } + k{ %<i'+y2+Z2) 2z
61
i { %<X2+y2+Z2) n(x2+y2+z2)n/21 n(r2)n/21r Note that if r .
(a)
and ¢(x+6.8 is
the distance
between these
the average rate of change in temperature per unit distance
in the direction from
.
The equation of a plane passing through a point whose position vector is ro and which is perpendicular to the normal N is (rro)· N = O.jk
having direction
opposite to that above..2)
is 7i .y.2. (See Chap.x.x.z) ¢(x.¢
~:
is the change in temperature represents
6.
1) in the direction
10.
2i . 'i/¢.%k)
16 + 1.1).j . Then the maximumvalue of ~~ takes place in the direction of \7¢ and its magnitude is
1 'i/¢ I.
4XZ2 at (1. This is also called the directional
of ¢.
+ ~z
j + <x2y + 8xz)k
8i . 6¢ Then d¢
ds
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
= ~: &: + ~.
By Problem 8(c). (a) In what direction from the point (2.2.62
(b)
GRADIENT.
Then by Problem 9.1) is the directional (b) What is the magnitude of this maximum? \7¢
\7(x2yz3) 4i
derivative
of ¢
=
'?yz3
a maximum?
=
2xyz3 i + x2z3 j + 3x2yz2 k
.+ 20 3" 3 3
"3
37
Since this is positive.j . <%i
i
j . the maximum directional in the direction of. ~~
derivative.
is the component of 'i/¢ in the direction of this unit
9.
6y
+ ~~ 6z
+ infinitesimals of order higher than &:.
ds
Note that since ~ is a unit vector.tk.
This projection will be
a maximumwhen 'i/¢ and ~: have the same direction. i.j .
.j .2k
1(2)2 + (_1)2 + (_2)2
Then the required directional derivative is 'i/¢ • a
= (8i . Show that the greatest rate of change of ¢. Find the directional 'i/¢
\7(~yz
derivative of ¢ =x2yz+
+ 4x?) = (2xyz + 4z2)'i (1.
From the calculus.6y
+
and 6z
O¢ &: lim _ISSo Ox & O¢ dx
or
Ox
ds
O¢ dy + Oy ds
+
O¢ oz
dz ds
P
'¥!d¢
ds
represents the rate of change of temperature with respect to distance at point
derivative
in a direction
toward Q.4j + 12k
at
(2.1).10k
at
The unit vector in the direction of 2i a
j .
(c)
Ox
O¢ dx
ds
+ Oy ds + oz ds
o¢ dy
o¢ dz
( o¢ i + O¢ j + o¢ k)
Ox
Or
oz
• (dx i + dy j + dz k) ds ds ds
=
\7¢.2k.10k).e.2k
is
~i
=
2i . ¢ is increasing in this direction. ~ vector.
11. the vector \7¢.1.1.
takes place
=
\7¢.2. and has the magnitude of.
¥s
is the projection of \7¢
in
the direction ~:.
16 :: 63 = 6/21
0. T :: .5819.4j
(b) the magnitude of this maximum is
=
1(_4)2 + (_4)2 + (12)2
= v176 =
12.1.
e=
arc cos 0. hence the angles themselves are equal. and let T be a unit tangent to the ellipse at P. will be reflected from the ellipse to focus B.c)
to any point
P(x. \l(R1 +R2) is a normal to the ellipse. thus the acute angle
.5819
13. so that R = V(xa)2+(yb't+(zc't. Let P be any point on an ellipse whose foci are at points A and B. it is seen that the equation of the ellipse is R 1+ R2 = p. hence By Problem 5. the cosine of the angle between VR2 and T is equal to the cosine of the angle between \lR1 and T.1.
where
e is
the required angle.
0 I
and
cos
e=
8/21 .(\lR1) • T.
(4i . A normal to x2 +y2 + z2 \l¢1 A normal to z \l¢2 (\l¢1)' (\l¢2)
at the point is the angle between the normals to the surfaces is 2x i + 2y j + 2z k 4i 2j + 4k
=
9
at (2. Then (xa)i l(x_a)2
then
+ (yb)j + (zc)k + (y_b)2 + (z_c)2
R R
is a unit vector in the direction R .
Show that
\lR
is a unit
R
= If fA =
If fA and r p are the position
(xa)i
+ (yb)j
+ (zc)k. Let R be the distance
vector in the direction
from a fixed point AP = R. for
. at focus A. Prove that lines AP and BP make equal angles with the tangent to the ellipse at P.2j + 4k /
I 4i IS
2j .2).2)
= = = =
\l(:i' +y2+z2)
= =
cos ::
x2+y2_3
or x2+y2_z
=
2xi
3 at (2. Light rays (or sound waves) originating example.
)J·
Since \lR 1 and \lR2 are unit vectors in direction R:1 and R2 respectively (Problem 13). Find the angle between
the surfaces
X2+y2+Z2
=
9 and z =X2+y2_3
at the point (2. as shown in the figure below.2j + 4k)· (4i .
(a) the directional
derivative
is a maximum in the direction / \l¢ /
= .y.b.k) 4
/ 4i .GRADIENT.k
I
cos
e
=
54 25 .
DIVERGENCE
and CURL V¢ +
63
12k. at the
The angle between the surfaces point. vectors
A(a. Since an ellipse is the locus of all points P the sum of whose distances from two fixed points A and B is a constant p.2j .1.2) + 2yj k
is
\l(x2+lz)
=
4i 
2j 
k Then
I \l¢1/ I \l¢2/
16 + 4 
e.4i . The problem has a physical interpretation. [\l(R1 +R2 T :: 0 or (\l~).
a i + b j + c k and xi + y j + z k of A and P respectively.
14.z).
Let R 1= AP and R2 = BP denote vectors drawn respectively from foci A and B to point P on the ellipse. 411i.
64
THE DIVERGENCE
GRADIENT.yj
2
+ '..
(a)
V¢
Then V·V¢
(b)
V·V¢
(i
e
ex
e + j ey + ....zk)'
e
(x2zi

2y3z2j + xy2zk) e 2
e
+
6y2z2
ey(2YZ)
32
+
ez(xyZ)
2xz 
+
xy2
=
2(1)(1) _ 6(_1)2(1)2 + (1)(_1)2
3
at (1....
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
15..2
0
(i
e¢ ex +
e¢ + j ey e e¢ () ez ez V2..1.
find V'A(or
div A) at the point (1.
V'A
=
(!i
ex(XZ)
+ '. Prove that
2 V (t)
=
o. Given
(b)
¢=2x
3
lz
4
•
(a) Find
Show that V·V¢
2 = V ¢.1). 2 2 e where V == ex2
+ ey2 + ez2 denotes the Laplacian
e
2
e
2
operator.
. ez e e¢ () ey ey .1).1..
'f'
e¢ + k) ez 2 e¢ ex2
e C¢ () ex ex . 2 o
(ex2
+
+ ey2 + ez2)
A" 'f'
17...
16. 2
0
e + k).
2%2 y2 _ z2 _
(x2+ y2+ z2)5/2
Similarly. If A =x2zi

2y3z2j +xy2zk.f.
V·V¢(ordivgrad¢).
. (r 3 r)
.1 + :::. (B1i + B2j + Bsk) i dx dy dz
= V'A + \7·n
(b)
V.z (cpA3)
+ o¢ A + '" OA2 Oy 2 '+' Oy +
ocp A + '" dAl dX 1 '+' Ox
Oz
d¢ A
3
+ '" dAs '+' Oz
d¢ Ai + _' A 2 + _ oeb ocp A 3 + '+'(oAl A. The equation equation.3r 5r. DIVERGENCE
(/ J2(/2 1 2 2)
and CURL
2z2_ X2 _ y2
65
2y2 _ Z2 '.(
ox oy dz
A'11 + A 2j + A sk)
(\7¢).(Ali +A2j oy oz + ¢('i/'A)
OA2 +) OAs +Oy dz
+ Ask) +
".k ).yj
+ ./CPA2)
+ . B + cp(V·
A).(:::. (CPA) =
=
V· A
+
(Vcp)'A
\7. O.GRADIENT.
(CPA)
V· (¢Ali
+ CPAd + cpAsk)
0:
(cpA1) + . r + 3r3
= 0. Prove:
(a) (b)
V· (A + B) \7.x
i + . Ox oy oz Ox (~CPi ox + ~CPj + OCPk).
(rs)
r
= O. d .
V
2
cP = 0
is called
Laplace's
equation.
It follows
that
cP =
l/r
is a solution
of this
18.zk).
.(Ali+A2j+Ask) + (_Q_ + _Q_j + _Q_k).
using Problem
4.+.
Let cp Then
= r3
and A = r in the result
of Problem
l8(b).
'i/.d.J + .X2 (X2 +y2 + Z2) 5/2
y
v x +y +z
and
(X2 +l
+ Z2) 5/2
Then by addition.
d d d dx (Al+Bl) + dy (A2+ B.A
19.> + dz (As+ Bs) dAl dA +++++ 2 dx dy dAs dz dBl dx dB2 dy OBs oz
(. Prove
'i/.
66
GRADIENT, DIVERGENCE
and CURL
From Problem
18(b), with
cp
= U and A = \7v,
\7·(u\7V) Interchanging
=
\7.
(\7U).(\7V)
+ U(\7·\7V)
=
=
(\7U).(\7V) + V \7 U.
2
+ u\7 v
2
U and V yields
\7.
(V \7U)
(\7V). (\7U)
Then subtracting,
(U \7V) 
\7.
(V \7U)
\7.
(U \7v  V \7U)
(\7U).(\7V) U \7 v
2
+ u\7 v
V \7 u
2
2

[(\7V).(\7U)
+ v\7 uJ
2

21. A fluid moves so that its velocity at any point is v(x,y,z). Show that the loss of fluid per unit volume per unit time in a small parallelepiped having center at P(x,y,z) and edges parallel to the coordinate axes and having magnitude 6x, 6y, 6z respectively, is given approximately by d iv v =
v.«.
y
x
Referring
to the figure above,
x component x component x component
of velocity of vat
v at P of face AFED of face CRCB
Vi Vi vi ~ ClV1 fu 2 Clx + 2:_ Clvi fu 2 Clx
(v1 
center
approx ,
of v at center
approx.
Then
(1) volume of fluid crossing (2) volume of fluid crossing
A FED
per unit time
CRCB per unit time
(Vi +
(2) 
Clv ~ fu) 6y6z 2 Clx 1 Clv __ 1 ux) 6y6z. 2 Clx
1
1\
Loss in volume per unit time in x direction
(1)
Similarly,
loss in volume per unit time in y direction loss in volume per unit time in z direction
=
Clv Cl; Isx Clv
Clz3!'ox
/':"y /':"z
6y /':"z.
Then,
total loss in volume per unit volume per unit time Clv1 ClV2 OV3 (++ )
Ox
Oy oz 6x/':"y/':"z
uxuyuz
1\ ..
1\
II
=
div v
\7.v
GRADIENT,
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
67
This is true exactly only in the limit as the parallelepiped shrinks to P, i.e. as !'ox, 0,y and 0,z approach zero. If there is no loss of fluid anywhere, then V· v = O. This is called the continuity equation for an incompressible fluid. Since fluid is neither created nor destroyed at any point, it is said to have no sources or sinks. A vector such as v whose divergence is zero is sometimes called solenoidal.
22.
Determine
the constant
a so that
the vector
V
0=
(x
+ 3y) i +
(y  2z) j
+
(x
+ az)
k is solenoidal.
A vector V is solenoidal
if its divergence + (y2z) Oy a
is zero (Problem 21). + (x+az) oz
V'V
Then
=
(x+3y) Ox
0 when
o
0
0
1+ 1+a
V.
V
= a +2 =
=
2.
THE
CURL
23.
If A
0=
xz3 i  2x"yz j + 2yz4 k , find (_2_i Ox + _2_j + _2_ k ) oz Oy
V x A (or curl A) at the point (1,1,1).
2x2yz j + 2yz4 k)
V"xA
=
X
(xz3 i 
k
0
Ox xz
3
0
Oy _2x2yz
0 elz
2yz
4
(2z4 + 2x2y)i
+ 3xz2 j  4xyz k
3j + 4k
at (1,1,1).
24.
If A
0=
x2y i  2xz j + 2yz k , find
curl curl A.
curl curl A
=
V"x
(V x
A)
k
V"x
0
Ox x2y
0
Oy  2xz
0
oz 2yz k
o
Ox 2x +2z
o
Oy
(2x + 2)j
o
25.
Prove:
(a) (b)
V"x(A+B) V x (cpA)
0=
0=
V"XA + VxB (V¢) x A + CP(V x A).
68
GRADIENT,
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
k
[~
(As+Bs) 
;z (A2+B2)1i
+
[;z (Ai+Bi) +

;x (~+Bs)Jj
[ox (A2+B2) [OA2 _ OAih ox oy +
o
0 Or (Ai+Bi) ] k
[OAs oy
_ OA2h oz + [OBs
+
[OAi oz
_ OAsJj ox + [OBi Oz
+
Or
_ OB2J i Oz
_ OBsJ j Ox
[OB2 _ OBi Ox Oy
h
'YXA
+ 'YxB
(b)
'Yx (¢A) i k
i
j O¢
k O¢ Oz As
= ¢('YX A)
+
O¢
Ox Ai
Or
A2 x A.
¢('Yx
A)
+
('Y¢)
GRADIENT,
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
69
26. Evaluate Let A
V· (A x r) if V x A =
A:1 i + A2 j + i
=
O.
As k
,
r=
x i + Yj + z k . k
Then
Ax
r
A:1 x
A2
As
Z
y
(ZA2  yAs)i
+ (xAs  zA:1)j + (xAs
dAs dX
+ (yA:1+
xA2)k
and
V· (A x r)
dx (ZA2  yAs)
d
d dy
 zA:1) dAs
dZ (yA:1  xA2)
d

y
+ x
Oy
dAs dX
x()
ClAs Cly
ClA2 + Clz
y()
dA:1 dz
+ + (
z()
ClA2 dX
dA:1
dy
+ (ClA2 dx
dAs [ xi + yj + zk] . [ (
dy
ClA2  )i dZ If
dA:1
Clz

)j
dAs dX
 )k
ClA:1
]
dy
r.(VxA)
=
r
v
curl A.
VXA=O
this reduces to zero.
27. Prove:
(a)
(a)
V x (V¢) = 0 (curl grad ¢ = 0). =V
x(
(b)
V· (V x A) = 0
(div curl A
= 0).
V
X
(V¢)
Cl¢ i + d¢ Clx dy
j
j
+ d¢
dz k
k)
Cl
dx
d dy d¢ dy
dz (dy
2
Cl
dZ
d¢
dz
d¢
dx
[ d d¢ Cl/ Clz ) (
d d¢.
)]
1
+
2
[d
dz (dx
d¢
)
Cl d¢]. Cl/ ~)
+ (
J
+
[d d¢ Clx(dy
)
d Cl¢] d/ Clx)
0
k
2 Cl ¢ Clydz
 )1
d ¢. dz dy
+ (
d¢ Cl2¢.  )J dz dx dx dz
2 2 Cl ¢ Cl ¢  )k dx dy dy dx
=
provided we assume that ¢ has continuous second partial derivatives so that the order of differentiation is immaterial.
k
(b)
V·(VxA)
V·
V
dx
d dy
d dz
• (dy
[dAs

dA2. dA:1 dz )1 + (dz + ()
dAs
dx
dAs
)j
+ (dx
dA2
dx
dA:1
dy
)k
]
()
d dAs dx dy
dA2 dz
d dy
dA:1
dz
dx
d dA + () 2 dz
dA:1
dy
(I".
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
o
assuming that A has continuous second partial derivatives.
But
.x
z
r)j
+
r'x!.)l
C cz
y fer)
z fer)
cf Cy
cf. \J x (r fer))
itr»
V
X
(x f(r)i
+ y f(r)j +
j
z f(r)k)
k
C cx
x fer)
(Zy:::.y r)1
!.CAl ) cAs Cx Cz Cx
.
=
(C x C)m
=
O.70
GRADIENT.
2
j
\J x ('ilx A)
k
"i/x
c Cx Ai
c Cy
A2
c Cz As
+
cAs _ CA2)i "i/x [ (Cy Cz
(CA1_CAS)j Cz Cx
+
(CA2 Cx k
_
CAl )kJ Cy
C Cx
C Cy CA2
C cz cAs
Ty
cAs
Tz
Tz =ax
OAl
=ax Ty
CA2
CAl
[~( C~ _ CAl) Cy Cx Cy
+ [~(
_ ~ (CAl _ CAs)Ji Cz Cz Cx ~(CA2 _ CA1)Jj cx cx Cy
cz
+
CAs _ CA2) _ Cy cz C [ (.z!..y (y r.
r
.
!. cf
r
an
d

Cf cz
=
t'.\J A + \J(\J·A). Prove
V
x (\J x A)
.
+ (x r. where m is a
28.
Then the result
(z
r
f'y
.
cJz
+
(XZ)J
cf Cz
cf. snm'1ar 1 .
29. and the results (C x Cm)
Note the similarity between the above results scalar and C· (C x A) = (CxC)'A = O. Cx
+
(yx)k
cf cx
cf Cy Cy
LJ.
x r)k
o.= y.z. Find
curl (r fer)) curl (r
where f (r) is differentiable.
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
71
If desired.
From Problem 47(a).
prove
Cr) =
!. the labor of writing can be shortened in this as well as other derivations components since the others can be obtained by symmetry.
A and B precede the operand C.
Note that the formula (1) must be written so that the operators the formalism fails to apply. otherwise
30.
If v
= Cr)x r.GRADIENT. k
curl v
V'xv
V' x (Cr)xr)
x y z
k
_Q_
Ox
_Q_ Oy
oz
o
2Cr) . Chapter 2.
. The result can also be established
(1)
by writing only the i
formally as follows.curl
v where Cr) is a constant
i
j
vector. (A"B)C
A x (BxC) A
=
B(A·C)
Placing
=
B
= V'
and C
= F.
Y + 2z.Y + 2z)k
(b)
Assume
= V¢
O¢i + O¢j + O¢k
Ox Oy
oz
Then Integrating
(4)
(1) ~~ (1) partially
=
x + 2y + 4z. If v·E=O.b .2
Vu=
0
ot u
2•
2
vx
(V x
E)
= V x (_
OH)
Ot
Similarly.
oE
showthatEandHsatisfy
_.72
Then
(i)
GRADIENT.
where
it». A field which is not irrotational is sometimes called a vortex field.
(3)
o¢
oz
4x .2)k
This equals zero when a =4.
x 2
2
¢
=
+ 2xy + 4xz + f (y • z)
Similarly from (2) and (3). for example.
32.z)j 4x +cy +2z
(c
+1)i
+ (a4)j
+ (b.
The equation
~
Ox2
+ Ou + ~
Oy2
Oz2
~t~
0
is called the wave equation.z. z )
is an arbitrary function of y and z. (a) A vector V is called V is lrrotatlnnal. b = 2.
oH
t'7
vXH"'~.
This problem indicates that the curl of a vector field has something to do with rotational properties of the field. with respect
(2)
i:
= 2x . This is confirmed in Chapter 6.
curl V
VxV
o
Ox x +2y +az
o
Oy bx3yz and + (2x .3y .3y .
.
V x (v' x H)
=
V x (OE) Ot
But
V
x
(V x
H)
The
2 2
given equations
2 2
are related
to Maxwell's
equations
of electromagnetic
theory.3y . If the field F is that due to a moving fluid. while if curl F = 0 in the region there would be no rotation and the field F is then called irrotational.
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
=
~V x v
=t
curl v.c so that
(x + 2y + az)i
+ (b» .
31. (4x
Find
constants
a.
VXE=~. (b) Show that V can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar
k (a) =
irrotational
if curl V == (see 0
Problem
30).
t'7
V·H==O. then a paddle wheel placed at various points in the field would tend to rotate in regions where curl F f 0.. keeping y and z constant.
MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS.
to x. c = 1 V
V
=
(x + 2y
+ 4z)i
+ (4x .z)j
+
+ cy +
2z)k
function.
for example.
34. A vector field V which can be derived from a scalar field ¢ so that V = V¢ is called a conservative vector field and ¢ is called the scalar potential.
•••
are its components.
33..27a). Formally.GRADIENT. ¢ ¢
DIVERGENCE
3y2 yz
and CURL
73
(5)
(6)
2xy
2
yz
+ g(x. V· (V¢)
= O. still further generalization leads to triadic s which are quantities consisting of 27 terms of the form alll ii i + a211 ji i + .. A quantity of the form
(Note that ij. From Problem 27a. In general if V x V = 0. then V x V = 0 (see Prob. Note that conversely if V = V¢. A dyadic is a generalization of a vector. then we can find ¢ so that V = V¢..
An array of these nine compo
~1 ~1 ( ~1
is called a 3 by 3 matrix. ij. Give a possible Assume
definition
of grad B.z)
4xz
+ z2 + h(x. Then
V¢ is solenoidal (see
Problems 21 and 22). (5) and (6) shows that there will be a common value of f(y..
¢ satisfies
Laplace's
equation V ¢
=
0.
~2.y.
.z)
is any solution
of Laplace's
2
equation.
By hypothesis.
dB3 + 1 'k
dx
+ dB1 dy
ji
+ dB2 dy
jj
+ dB3 Oy
jk
+ dB1ki
dz
+ dB2kj
Oz
+ dB3kk
Oz
The quantities ii.y)
=
22
x2
+ Z2 + 2xy + 4xz

yz
Note that we can also add any constant to ¢. we can define grad B as
B = Bl i + B2 j + B3 k.
Comparison of (4). etc.Z )
_ 
2+
X2
z.
2
h(x.y). V x (V¢)
=
0 so that V¢ is also irrotational. A study of how the components of a dyadic or triadic transform from one system of coordinates to another leads to the subject of tensor analysis which is taken up in Chapter 8. Le. Show that solenoidal
if ¢(x. are called unit dyads. is not the same as J L)
is called a dyadic nents in the form
and the coefficients
all.Z) so that
30/ 22
¢ if we
3y2
choose
=2+
3y2
z
2
g (x
.
then V¢ is a vector
which is both
and irrotational.
k
to the terms of j .
dBs + Tzk)
. AVB
of VB
as given in Problem 34. + A3(Tzl
(Tx1 + TxJ
Txk)
dBs
dB1• dB2 . according to the symbolism established
=
(A1i +A2j A1 dB1 .i
i .
=
(Ali Ad
+A2j
+Ask)'(~i
+ ~yj
+ .
=
(Ali
+ A2j + Ask)'~
=
Ali·~
+ A2j·~
+ Ask·~
As an example.
(c)
Is it possible
to
Then. If we give meaning to these as follows i·allii i .
distributive
law to hold.
V) cP
=
d d d (A1 dx + A2 dy + As d)
cP
Note that this is the same as A·VcP. consider i· W. (b) Give write this as A· VB without ambiguity? (a) Let A = Ali + A2j + Ask. Let a vector
~ =
GRADIENT.
+Ask).k)j al1i a12j 0 0 since since since since i .a12ij. Then. +
=
Ali. formally. This product is formed by taking the dot product of i with each term of wand adding results.
(c)
Use the interpretation in Problem 35. etc. A·V
a possible
meaning
to (A.VB dB2 . Typical examples are i· aliii.74
35.i
1 1 0 0
i j
t.VB
+
Ask.VB dB1. f . then + A2(a21i+a22j+a23k) + AS(aSli+as2j+assk) + (Ala13+A2~S+Asllss)k
A1(al1i+a12j+alSk) (Alall+A2a21+AsUsl)i
+ (Ala12+A2~+A3a32)j
which is a vector./)
1
dx
+A_Q_+Ad 2 dy
e dz
is an operator. (a) Interpret the symbol A'V.VB
+
A2j.
(b) Formally. i· aS2kj. using (a) with
cP
replaced by B
=
Bl i + B2j + Bsk.
(A
For example.
+ aslki
asskk
Give a possible Formally. DIVERGENCE and CURL
A be defined + a12ij definition assuming A'~ the by A = Ali + ~di + A2j + Ask + a22jj and a dyadic + a23jk ~ by + as2kj +
allii
+ a13ik of A' ~.
36. dBs + A2(Tyl + TyJ + ~k)
+
TzJ
dB2.~ and k· ~ .a12ij i • a2lii i 'a32kj and give analogous interpretation A·W al1(i·i)i a12(i • i)j ~l(i·j)i as2(i .V)B. i· ~d i.
see Problem 36 (e)
.GRADIENT. (a) (A'V)¢.xy)A Ox Oy Oz x2(_ 2xy j + z2 k)
0
0
0
=
20A xOx
2
+
yz
OA
Oy
xy
OA
Oz
+ yz(2z i _ x j)
xy(2y i + 2xz k)
For comparison of this with B· VA.
j
k
2
2yz
xy
xz2
¢
0 Oy
0
Oz
. B = x2i + yzj .
+ Oy
O¢.
(e)
(B.x2y j + xz2k) 8xlz4 _ 2x4yz3 +
• (4xyz3 i + 2x2z3 j + 6x2yz2k) 6x3yz4 the result
(A'
Comparison with (a) illustrates
V) ¢
= A·
V¢. (d) (AxV)¢. It follows that (A' B guity provided the concept of dyadics is introducedwith properties as indicated. (e) A x V¢.i2yj + xz2k.given in part (b).
vr)
=
A. DIVERGENCE
and CURL
75
which gives the same result as that . If A = 2yzi .
find
2yz :x (2x2yz3) (2yz) (4xyz3) 8xy2z4 _
_

x2y
:y
(2x2yz3) +
+
xz2 :z (2x2yz3)
(x2y) (2x2z3)
(xz2)(6x2yz2)
2x4yz3
+
6x3yz4
(b)
A'V¢
(2yz
• 1
2
X
Yj
+ xz
2
k)·
( Ox 1
O¢. (e) (B.
vr R
without ambi
37..V)A. (b) A·V¢.xyk and ¢ = 2x2yz3.V)A
2
(x + yz .(x y+ xz2)i Oz Oy
2
O¢
O¢
+
(2yz
O¢
Oy
+
:i'y
O¢
o)k
.
J
+
~k)
o¢
(2yz i .
(1)
xIiI
58).kl) kl (j. d¢. Chapter 2). r. the two systems. j)
(kl.76
(e) Ax
GRADIENT. k in succession.jl)j' (k·l)
+ +
(i .1
(j'i)i (k • i) i l
(j'.
INVARIANCE 38. Two rectangular xyz spect to each other.
A = (Ail)il + (A·j')l + (A'kl)k l
Then letting A = i.i ) l
l
+
+
(il) l
(j.
(2)
{
I'
jl
= =
(iil)il (j oil) i (k.
Then
+
yll
+ /k
l
=
xi
+ yj
+'zk
Now for any vector A we have (Problem 20.
J'.
Then letting A
I
.
39. kl we find
the required transformation equations. + d¢ k) dx 1 + dy J dz
2yz
xy
2
XZ
2
d¢ dx
d¢ dy
d¢ dz
Comparison with
(d)
illustrates the result (Ax V)¢
= A x V¢. k') kl (k'k ) l kl
111 i' 112i l l
+ +
121j'
+
+
131kl kl
l22 jl
~
+ l32
i
l
+
l
+
h3 i
+
~3l
133k'
substituting equations (2) in (3)
(1)
and equating coefficients of
t'. I SInce r = r .j)j
+ +
k'
[31 i + [32 j
. Prove
111i 121i
+ 112 j + 113 k + 122j
+ ~3k
+ 133k
A
kl
131 i + 132j
A
For any vector
we have
iI. and xlyl z' coordinate systems having the same origin are rotated with reDerive the transformation equations between the coordinates of a point in
Let rand r' be the position vectors of any point P in the two systems (see figure on page . k' in succession.
(i
l 
i) i
+ +
+
(i'.
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
V¢
(2' 1 yz
2·
X
Y J + xz
j
2 k)
x
k
( d¢
. k) k (k • k) k l
[11 i 121i
+ 112j + [13 k + ~2j + 128k
+ l:J3k
J
.1
=
j'.
=
(A·i)i
+ (A·j)j
+ (A·k)k.j)j
+
j
/ (i • k) k (jl.
GRADIENT.j. j.
p=l
±
l""". If cp(x.
and 0 if m 1= n .y. By considering be proved for m=2 and m=3 • By writing
r. j.3.i. prove that gradcp is a vector invariant under this transformation.
. k. the required result follows.y.i
=
1
(l11 i' + l2d + l31k') • (l11 i' + l21j' + l31k')
lii
i·j
+ lil + lil
o o
(l11i' +
l21i' + l31k') • (l12i' + l22j' + l21l22
+
l:J2k')
l11l12
i·k
+
l31l32
(l13i' +
(ll1i' + l2d + l31k') • l11l13
+
lroi' +
l:J3k')
l21/23
+
l31l33
j. Prove that 1). lAn
Y'"
Y
The symbol 0mn is called Kronecker's
41. k.j
=
0mn'
and k· k the result can
8
mn. By hypothesis CP(x.
s'.
t. we have
Ocp Ox ocp Oy ocp oz
ocp' Ox' Ox' Ox ocp' Ox' Ox' oy ocp' Ox' Ox' oz
+ + +
ocp' oy' oy' Ox ocp' oy' oy' Oy ocp' oy' oy' Clz
+ + +
ocp' oz' oz' Ox O¢' oz' oz' Oy ocp'oz' Clz' Clz
Ocpl ocp' ocp' Ox' l11 + oy' l21 + oz' l31 ocp' ocp' ocp' Ox' l12 + oy' l22 + oz' l32 ocp' ocp' O¢' Ox' l13 + Oy' l28 + 0/ l83
Multiplying these equations by i.1 lpm lpn 1.
= {I if m=ti the result can be written
0 if m=n symbol. where m and n can assume any of the values
of Problem 38.
+ OCPk
To establish the desired result we must prove that
OCPi Ox
+ OCPj
Oy
oz
Ocp'" Ox' I
(3)
+
ocp'" oy' J
+ oz'
ocp'
k'
Using the chain rule and the transformation equations
of Problem 38. k respectively.
40. adding and using Problem 39.z) = cp'(x'. z').z) is a scalar invariant with respect to a rotation of axes.2. From equations
(2)
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
77
3
1 if m
= n. i.
These establish the required result where m=1. k.
10i . z
58. 1 ¢(r) = (13 Ans.1.3. and ¢==2zx3y.
r
1
(2 . find ¢(x.r) e 1' r
51.2.2. find
Y.
53. Evaluate
48.5.1.1)
in a direction
.1).
3)
r
= 2l r . f '(r) r .'
+ ~). 4x2yz =5 '\ x2=~=z5 4 2 1

z = x2 +y2 at the point (2.
Ir
Ans.2.16k. . 7ijllk 44.
Find ¢(r)
such that V¢ = ~ and ¢(1) = O.
V(3r2 .xy . 376/7 63. 2i + 4j .y. Find the unit outward drawn normal to the surface Ans.
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS
42.. If A = 2x2i . Find equations for the tangent plane and normal line to the surface Ans. toward the point
or x=4t+2
'
y=2tl
62.z) 52. If A(x.2xyz3) i + (3 + 2xy .y + Z at the point 0. find (a) 4i + 9j +k.2)

=
4.1. dt
=
dU .
2/93
43.78
GRADIENT. Ans. 20/9 of P
3x2lz
at (2.t where x .k
=
x2 + y2 at the
±12i
59.1.z . show that dA
G
=
G"lF
G
2
FVG
if G f. If A is a constant vector. Prove
\3.4'.
y.
=
2 y/x 2 2 x z +e and G = 2z Y . = y. prove that
54. prove V(r. at the point (1.y . If V Ans.6).3j + 6k.x2yz3 + 3y + (3/2) Z4 + constant
3x2yz2) k .4).2). z=t+5 2i . Ans. r6/3 + constant Ans.2)
in the direction
=
4e 2X. Find the directional derivative of ¢ = 4xz3 Ans.3z + 1 = 0
xz2 + x2y
=
Z
1 at the point 0.2k)/3
(x _1)2
+ l + (z + 2)2
9 at the point (3. 5. Prove V(f_)
= Ali
of
Ot A.
61.3yzj +xz2k Ans.
find V¢ and \ V¢ \ at the point (2. If F Ans. (b) 8j
(a)
and (b) V(FG)
45.
if ¢(1. functions of t.5).z are differentiable
dF
dt 55.y.Y .
+ VF' dr dt
=
+ A2j + A3k. Find a unit vector which is perpendicular to the surface of the paraboloid of revolution point (1. find A'V¢ V(F+G)
Ans. Find an equation for the tangent plane to the surface Ans.y . If U is a differentiable function of x . If V¢ = 2xyz3 i + x2z3 j + 3x2yz2 k.x2z3) j + (6z3 xy2 .
60.5).
Ans. If ¢ ==
2xZ4 
x2y. (2i + j . If F is a differentiable function of x . Find the directional derivative (3. r
3rr
V f(r) =
47.
find U. Find V \ r 46.0. O. prove VU. 2x .
and AXV¢
at the point (1. A) 56. If Vu 49.2).z . =
(y2 .1.1).4j .z) 57.y.
71.Vtj..z) be functionally related through the equation F(u.xy2z j + 3yz2 k ) . find grad div A. v = x2 +y2 + z2 and w = xy +yz + zx Ou oz ov oz Ow oz k and ¢ = 3x2yz.1) has a maximum of magnitude 64 in a direction parallel to the z axis.3.v. find (a) 4. Ans.w) = 0 is Vu' Vv x Vw = O.w).1).w with respect to x. a = 6.2. Evaluate 74. If F 76. a = 5/2. Show that a necessary and sufficient that u and v are functionally related by the equation F(u. (c)V'(¢A). In the direction of the vector 4i . (c) I. If ¢ = 3x2z . arc cos
vd v'2J
14
xy2z
=
3x+z2
and 3x2l+2z
=
1 at the point (1.z).
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
79
What is
64. b = 24. Prove 75.
fer) = A + Blr where A and B are arbitrary constants.0).
69. Evaluate
div (2x2z i . This determinant is called the Jacobian of U..1. 6 r3 Ans.y.w) or I( u.2y evaluate Ans.1. + 2V¢.3r4 Ans. (b) ov Ox Ow Ox Ou Oy ov Oy Ow Oy
are functionally
related.2r3 r
. (d)V.
Ans. Prove V (¢tj.1).
= 3x2y. In what direction from the point 0. (d) 6 Ans. (grad V)J . n(n+1)rn
2
Ans.
Ans.
Ans.2z3

6lz
V (In r).GRADIENT. V [V. 73. find V (a)V'A. c =8 66.) = ¢V tj. Ans.v. 78.
find V(V'F) div v
at the point (2.6j + 2k.V ¢.z) x.c so that the directional derivative of ¢ = axy2 + byz + CZ2x3 at (1. Find the acute angle between the surfaces Ans. prove that 222 77.y. Find the values of the constants a.
21
= arc cos
v6
14
= 79°55'
67. (b)A'V¢. If
Cc1
a».
= tan
IX +y xy
are functionally
related.z u = x +y + z .2).y.2) is the directional derivative of cp = 2xz _y2 a maximum? the magnitude of this maximum? Ans.3y .y.2.(Vcp). + tj. (b) Express Vu' Vv x Vw in determinant form.v) = 0 is that Vu x Vv = O.v.
2r4 .
2
= dr2
d2f
2 df + . (b) 15.byz 4x2y + z3 = 4 at the point (1.
.y2z8 +4x3y + 2x . Evaluate 81. Evaluate 80.
grad [(grad U).. V·[rV(l/r3)J.z) and w(x. If U
=
O.
(b)
condition
Determine whether
(b) Yes (v
u
u)
=
arc tanx + arc tany
and v
=
Ans.32k
is a constant vector and v = Cc1xr. b = 1
(a +2)x
will be orthogonal to the surface
68.2
82. Find the constants a and b so that the surface ax2 .x\z at the point (1. If A = 3xyz2i + 2xy3j . (a) Let u and v be differentiable functions of x. y and z. (a) Show that a necessary and sufficient condition that u(x.y.
6z + 24xy .
(c) Yes (u v2w
(c) Determine whether Ou Ox Ans.
2
=
0)
70.y.
Ans. Evaluate
V· (r3 r ) .
(6yz212x)i
+ 6xz2j + 12xyz k
79.
2
(r/r2)J.

(3x yz)i
+ (xz8+y4)j
2x3?k. Ans. (a) Prove V fer)
Ans.
4xz ..
V
= x?
. If A = t /r .
l/r2
V rn =
=
2
2 where n is a constant.1. 2m
65. (x.5.z and is written ~ (u. r dr
(b) Find fer) such that
v fer)
=
O.b. . v(x.2xyz + 6yz 2
72.6i + 24j .V.
83.
(b)5i3j4k. Ans.
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
A = 3y4z2 i + 4X3Z2 j + (3x3y
3xy)j
3x2y2 k is solenoidal. Compute the divergence field and explain the physical significance of the results obtained.
is a
II
sink field ".
(d) the operator (x2rz
find
I . (e) Vx [(VF)x(VG)].).
a
=
A = (axy_z3)
i + (a2)x2j
+ (1a)xz2k
have its
4
(cP
grad
cP)
= O. B'= /i . Find cf.80
84. find (a) V [(VF). such that A
102. (c)VX(.B). (4lz2
=
(2x2 + 8xy2z)i
+ 2x3z)k
is not solenoidal
but
B = xyz2
A is
86. 95. (e) (V·A)B. Find the most general differentiable function f (r) so that Ans.1. = xyz. If A = x2zi + yz3j .12xyz)i + (4xyz . is irrotational.\7XA).1. and curl of each vector
94.6x2z)j
(b) (e)
(e)
curl grad (CPA) (e)O
at the point (1.curlAJ. If F = x2yz. (e) (A·\l)B.yzj + 2xk and cP = 2x2+yz.z)j + (3xz2 . (d)V[A.z
+ y2z3) i _ (2xyz2 + yz4) j + (4x2z + 2xz3) k
96. Graph the vector fields A = xi + Yj and B = Y ix r. (a) 4x3z + yz4.3xy2.V). Prove 'V(A'
B) = (B. Prove curl
a will the vector
Ans.(VxA) = (B''V)A 
.2). (a) (2lz + 3x2z .6x2y)k
0 (x2z 24xyz)i 
(12x2z + 2xyz)j 0
+ (2xy2 + 12yz2 +x3)k
91. + (2xl +x3 . Prove 99.(V'G)] Ans.
92. (b) (A·\l)c/J.Y j Ix2 + y2
f (r)
r is solenoidal. . Ans.xyk and cf.3xz2j + 2xyzk.xi . If U and V are differentiable
V = .
100.3xy2 (same as (a)).A·('VxB).
12j + 16k. Prove that the vector 85. find (a) Ax ('Vcf. For what value of the constant curl identically equal to zero? 93. cf.y)k Ans. G = xy3z2.yz + constant
=
'Vcf. B(V'A) + (A.yz4)j + 2x2z k. 90. is solenoidal. find (a)VxA. = 3x2y + xz:Jl . (e) 2y2z3 i + (3xy2 . B = 3xi + 4zj .x2yz2 j + 2x3z k)_Q_ + (y3z3 i _ y2z4
Ox
j
+ (3xy3i (e) (2xy2z
+
3xy2zj

6X2Yk). prove that Vu x Vv
89.V)B + A('V.3xyk.
scalar fields. If A = 2xz2 i . If A = yz2i .
. (b) curl (CPA). Ans. Show that A = (6xy +z3)i + (3x2 . (a) A· (\lcf. Show that the vector field 88.
.).yz j + 3xZ3 k and cP = x~z. (d) B·'VxA. Evaluate
Vx(r/r2).. 98. (e) ('VXA) x B.1).'V)v V'(AXB) = 18i = ~'Vv2 J
at the point (1. (b) 4x3z + yz4 . A
GRADIENT. Find Ax(VXB) and (Ax'V)RB Ans. (a)i+j.12xz2)j + 32xz2 k (d) 24x2z + 4xyz2 97. (d) B(A.. (c)5i+3k. Prove Ax(VXB) (v. 87.if (AxV)xB
A=xz2i+2yj3xzk = 4j + 76k
and B=3xzi+2yzjz2k.
Ans. (b) V· [(VF)x (VG)] . Prove 'VX(AXB) 101.
Plot and give a physical interpretation.
= B. fer) = Clr3 where C is an arbitrary constant. Show that solenoidal. vx ('Vx v ).V)A
+ (A''V)B
a x (VX
A) + Ax (VX B). (a)5x2yz2i +xy2z2j + 4xyz3k (b) _5x2yz2 i + xrz2 j + 4xyz3 k (same as (a)) (e) 16z3 i + (8x2yz . (d)2i+j+8k. (b) (Ax'V)cf.
(a) 4ii . 114.
(b)
2Z2
No. find V. Show that under a rotation
V
115.1).
(a)
(b)
Is there any ambiguity
in
r. i .y .(<I>' ) = (r· <1». if the operations are 110.y'.z in terms of x'. (b) Is it possible to write the result Ans.y. give a possible significance to (A x V)B at
109. Ans.jj (b) Yes. If A and B are invariant under rotation show that A' B and A x B are also invariant. (a) Given the dyadic ~ = ii+jj+kk. assumed
Vx
= . writing r .1
V'E constant.y. Solve equations Ans. Prove that ¢ (x . ¢ = In (air) 104.GRADIENT.
111. 112. is a scalar invariant under a rotation of axes .<I>r = 1 repres ent geometrically? • • Ans. (a) If A = xz i j + yz2 k and the point (1. (3) of Solved Problem 38 for x. Show that solutions to Maxwell's equations
H 1 dH dE Vx E = V· H = 0. x = 111 x' + 121 r' +
lsi
Zl.
103. Show that the Laplacian
=
i_Q_ + j_Q_ + kl_ Ox Oy oz
.
Find ¢ such that
E = . If A and Bare 105.lox'

. If fer) irrotational.V¢
and such that
prove that
A x B is solenoidal.l
0/
V'
operator is invariant under a rotation. Ans.z and c is the velocity of light. is Irrotational.
prove that f(r)r
106. c Ot c~' is a function of x. <I>r? (c) What does r.
DIVERGENCE
and CURL
81
¢(a) = 0 where a> 0 .
'
satisfy the equations (3)VA=l
c
2
Ot'
c
2
d ¢=_47TP 2
Ot
d
2
ot
A
2
108.
Z = /13 x' + 123 y' + 133 Z'
113. called the vector and scalar potentials (l)V'A+lO¢=o
c
respectively.y.
.
= 47Tp
are given by
where
p
E
= V'+' '+'
(2)V¢_l
1_ dA
c
Ot'
2
H
= Vx
A
where A and ¢. 107.z) is an invariant differentiable vector field with respect to a rotation of axes.
Y = /12 x' + loz2y' + 132 z". prove that (a) div A and (b) curl A are invariant scalar and vector fields respectively under the transformation.
is aifferentiable.1.ij + 3ik .I_]_ +
J
·/l
Oy'
+
k. (b) curl V = 2i + j + 3k? If so. Is there a differentiable vector function V such that (a) curl V = r. If A(x.z) = x2 + y2 + z2
l
B
as A x (VB) by use of dyadics ? 4ji + 3kk suitably performed. r = x2 r
+y2 +z2. where ¢ is an arbitrary twice differentiable function. evaluate r·(<I>·r) and (r·~)·r.
Z'.xy j + y3 k. (a) No. Show that E = rlr2 is irrotational. (b) V = 3x j + (2y x) k + V¢. (c) Sphere of radius one with center at the origin.
e. Then
+ Rs(u)k be a vector depending u. t. R2(u). Rs(u) are
if
Ri(u)du
+
if
R2(u)du
+k
J
Rs(u)du
=
is called an indefinite
integral of R(u).
this integral
In general. For methods of evaluation of line integrals.
Let r(u) = x(u)i + y(u)i + z(u)k.
82
. integrals can be defined in terms of limits of sums as are the integrals of elementary calculus. If C is a closed curve (which we shall suppose is a simple closed curve. where r(u) is the position vector of (x. Let A(x. this line integral represents the work done by the force. see the Solved Problems. where u = Ui and u = U2 respectively. If A is the force F on a particle moving along C.)Iveis called a line integral. any integral which is to be evaluated along a C1.
We assume that C is composed of a finite number of curves for each of which r(u) has a continuous derivative. where A Such
In aerodynamics and fluid mechanics represents the velocity of a fluid.
J
in a specified R(u)du
=
Let R(u) = Ri(u)i + R2(u)i on a single scalar variable Interval.y.Chapter
5
ORDINARY INTEGRALS supposed continuous
OF VECTORS. Then the integral of the tangential component of A along C from Pi to P2. where Ri(u). a curve which does not intersect itself anywhere) the integral around C is often denoted by
f
A·dr
=
f
Aidx
+ A2dy is called
+ Asdz the circulation of A about C.
as a limit of a sum in a manner analogous
to that of elementary
LINE INTEGRALS.
The following theorem is important.
J
If there exists
R(u)du
=
J
a vector S(u) such that R(u)
fu (S(u»).
= S(u) + c
The definite integral between limits u=a
where c is an arbitrary constant vector independent and u=b can in such case be written
Ib
a
R(u)du
=
fb
d: (S(u») du
=
S(u)
+c
a
I:
=
S(b)

Sea) in
This integral can also be defined tegral calculus. written as
IP
Pi
2 A·dr
=f
A·dr
C
=1
Ai dx
C
+ A2 dy + As dz
is an example of a line integral.z).y.z) = Aii + A2i + Ask be a vector function of position defined and continuous along C. define a curve C joining points Pi and P2. then
d: (S(u») du of u.
this does not pose any real problem since we can generally subdivide S into surfaces which do satisfy this restriction. VOLUME INTEGRALS. In such case See problems 1014.
A vector field A is conservative if and only if V'xA=O.
i i
'P1 V
P2
A· dr is independent
of the path C in R joining P1 and P2•
A· dr
=
0 around any closed
curve C in R.
To evaluate surface integrals. where ¢ (x.
2. Then
Iff
V
AdV
are examples of volume integrals or space integrals such integrals. C2. The notation no confusion
#
is sometimes
can arise ~he notation
1
S
used to indicate
integration
over the closed
surface
S. it is convenient to express them as double integrals taken over the projected area of the surface S on one of the coordinate planes. The integral
II
S
A·n dS
is an example of a surface integral called flux of A over S. see the Solved Problems.z) is singlevalued and has continuous derivatives in R. 1. Consider a closed surface and as they are sometimes called. b1 ~ y ~ b«. Let one side of S be considered arbitrarily as the positive side (if S is a closed surface this is taken as the outer side).
If
s
¢ n dS. an exact differential. However. Then dS = n dS.
z
Associate with the differential of surface area dS a vector dS whose magnitude is dS and whose direction is that of n.
If
S
Ax dS
where ¢ is a scalar function. Other surface integrals are
the
y
If
s
¢ dS.VECTOR INTEGRATION
83
THEOREM. For evaluation of in space enclosing a volume V. = A1 dx + A2 dy + A3 dz = d¢. This is possible if any line perpendicular to the coordinate plane chosen meets the surface in no more than one point.
.
Let S be a twosided surface. such as shown in the figure below.y .
SURFACE INTEGRALS. If then
C1 ~ Z ~
A = 'i/¢ everywhere in a region R of space. A unit normal n to any point of the positive side of S is called a positive or outward drawn unit normal. defined by a1 ~ x ~ a2. or equivalently A = 'i/¢. Where
may also be used. Such integrals can be defined in terms of limits of sums as in elementary calculus (see Problem 17).
In such case A is called a conservative A· dr
vector field and ¢ is its scalar potential.
i
+
~5 j
3k
12
2
(uu )du 3 2
1
2
+ +
j
f:
4 2
2u du
3
+k
f12 2
1
3 du 65i
i(!!_1£_)1 2 3
j(1£_)1 2 1
+ k(3u)!
=
+
1 5j 2
3k
2.
2
(b)
From (a).j
2

_ 3(2)k
3 [( 12 _ 1 )i + 14j 2 3 2
3(1)k
+ c]
ti
Another Method. If R(u)
(a)
=
(u 
U2) i
+ 2u j .3 cos 2 t i
+ jf(4cos2t4)dt+ +
(2 sin 2 t .
.84
VECTOR INTEGRATION
SOLVED PROBLEMS
1.
Integrating.
if6sin2tdt .
3
find (a)
f
f
R(u) du
and
(b)
J2
1
R(u) du .
v
i
J
12cos2tdt
+
j
J
+
8sin2tdt 8 t2 k
+
kf
16tdt
6 sin 2 t i Puttingv=O Then so that v dr dt when t=O. The acceleration
of a particle
at any time
t ~ 0 is given by 8sin2tj
a If the velocity
= ~.
0
=
3i
+ OJ + Ok + C2 and C2 = 3i. find v and r at any time.
=
12cos2ti
+
16tk
v and displacement
r are zero at t =0.
R(u) du
(!L_!L)i (!L!!_)i
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3
+ +
2J 2J
4 u.
3uk 3u k
+
Cl
i
+
C2
j
+ C3k
+c
wherec
is the constant vector
Cl i + C2j + C3k.
f2
1
R(u) du
=
(!L _ !!_)i
2
3
2
3
+ +
!L. = 6sin2ti 6sin2ti r = we find
+
4 cos 2 t j
+ Cl
0 = Oi + 4j + Ok + Cl and Cl= 4j.3k.
u4.4 t) j
kfSt'2dt
+~
tk
3
+
C2
Putting
r=O when t=O.
+ (4cos2t4)j
+ (4cos2t4)j
Integrating.j
4
2

3u k
+c + cJ _
I
1
[( _2 )i t3 2
3
t.
rx~
= c. hence the force is directed toward 0 and
the particle is always attracted
If fer) force at O. Then the approximate area swept out by the radius vector per unit time is tr x ~: .3 cos2t)i
+ (2 sin2t 
4t)j
+
~t3
k.VECTOR INTEGRATION
85
Then
r = (3 .
(c)
In time 6. mrx
dr
dr
2
Then
=
f(r)rxri
o
=0
since rand ri are collinear and so r x ri = O.
f
d2A Ax ~dt
dt
=
f
d (Ax dt
dA )
dt
4.
toward O. where c is a constant vector.r. Thus d2r d dr r x dt2 = 0 and de (r x de) Integrating.
(d)
Interpret physically the cases f (r) < 0 and f (r) > O.
(a) (b) (c)
Show that r x ~~
=
c where c is a constant vector. ri is a unit vector in the direction r. hence the instantaneous time rate of change in area is
r
t::.
!L(AX
dt
dA) dt
AXd A
2
dt2 dt
+
dA x dA
dt
dt
Integrating.r Lr x 2
6.to
.t
=
Lr x 2
dt dt
=
Lrx v
2
where v is the instantaneous velocity of the parti
x
. Evaluate
fAX ~~
dt . or tr x 6. t the particle moves from M to N (see adjoining figure).r .
> 0 the force is directed away from 0 and the particle is under the influence of a repulsive
A force directed toward or away from a fixed point 0 and having magnitude depending only on the distance r from 0 is called a central force.
3. Describe how the results obtained relate to the motion of the planets in our solar system. (Compare with Problem 3). lim
6. Interpret the result in (a) geometrically.
Multiply both sides of m d
d
2 2 '"
(a)
r
t
fer) ri by r x . The equation of motion of a particle P of mass
d~ m dt2
m
is given by fer) ri
::::
where r is the position vector of P measured from an origin 0.
2
(b)
If
f (r) < 0 the acceleration
~t~ has direction opposite to ri. The area swept out by the position vector in this time is approximately half the area of a parallelogram with sides rand 6. and f (r) is a function of the distance of P from O.
d
But since h is a constant vector. For Kepler's third law see Problem out equal which he laws ena36.86
cleo The Quantity 8
VECTOR INTEGRATION
=
tf x ~
=
tr x v
=
is called the areal velocity.
dt
dv
xh

eM rl
r2
xh
eM
dr1 rl x (rl x )
dt
. Let m and M be the masses of the planet and sun respectively and choose a set of coordinate axes with the origin 0 at the sun. a planet moves areas in equal times. Then the equation of motion of the planet is or assuming the influence of the other planets to be negligible.:2fl
28 =
h
eM
(2)
Now r = r rl. drl) I1 dt
eM
drl
dt
= =
0 (Problem 9.
P
where p is an arbitrary constant vector with magnitude p.
we have
h
2
=
GM r + r p cos
h
2
GM + P cos
e
h /GM 1 + (p/GM) cos
e
.(v x h)
e is
2
+
r
p cos
e e
and
the angle between p and I1'
=
(r x v) . which states that any two objects of mass m and M respectively are attracted toward each other with a force of magnitude
F
=
GM:. 8
=
Areal Velocity Since r.
dt
xh ft(VX
di(VX h) =
h)
GM
so that
~:1
GM r
Integrating.
(d)
A planet (such as the earth) is attracted toward the sun according to Newton's universal law of gravitation. which we take as the xy plane in the figure above.
around the sun is an ellipse
with the sun at one focus. This result and that deduced empirically from volumes of data bled Newton to formulate his universal law
5. from which
r·(vxh)
vx h
GM rl + p
eM rGM r
rl + r· p
+ r rl.eM
using equation (3) and the fact that dv ri" ~:
[(rl. h = h· h
=
h2.
r
where r is the distance
between
objects
and
e
is a universal
constant. around the sun so that its position vector sweeps of Problem 5 are two of Kepler's famous three laws compiled by the astronomer Tycho Brahe. Show that the path of a planet
From Problems
(1) 4(c) and 4(d).
According to part (c).8
tr x
*
From part (a). Chapter 3).
=
constant
0. and Since r.
dv
dt rxv
. These of gravitation.
(3) dt
dr
r
h
dt + di
=
drl
dr
r1 so that
r
rxv
rl x 
(r
dt
dr1
+ dt Il)
dr
From (1). the motion takes place in a plane.
1
C
A·dr
from (0.z=t3. the polar equation of a conic section with focus at the origin and eccentricity E is
r
=
1
+
a E cos
e
where a is a constant.
\J
and (1. d z = 0 while Then the integral over this part of the path is .0.0) to (1.0.1) correspond to t=O and t=1 respectively. it is seen that the required orbit is a conic section with eccentricity E = p/GM.0).1.28t
6 + 9)
60t
dt
=
5
(b)
Along the straight line from (0.
L
points (0.0) x = 1. 14yz dy (dx i + dy j + dz k)
[(3x2+6y)i
(3x2+6y) dx 
+ 20xz2 dz
Then
Ifx=t.0) y= 0.
the straight
fa
(a)
A· dr
=
. A·dr
=
fl(3t2+6t2)dt t=o

14(t2)(t3)d(t2)
+ 20(t)(t3)2
d(t3)
J1
9t2
dt 
28t
6
dt
+
t=o jl(9t2_28t6+60t9) t=o Another Method. z = 0. Alonge.1).0.
evaluate
ing paths
'=
C:
to (1.1. dx = 0. I.14yz j + 20xz2k].VECTOR INTEGRATION
87
y
From analytic geometry.0.0. z'= t3• the straight lines from (0.0.0) and (1.0)
then to (1. z = 0.1)
along the follow
t .0)
to (1.__. parabola or hyperbola according as E is less than. If A
(a) (b) (c) x
'=
(3x2+6y)i

14yzj
+ 20xz2k.0. equal to or greater than one. dy= 0.
and then to (1.1.0) line joining (0. ThEm A=9t2i14t5j+20t7k A·dr = J\9t2 t=o r=xi+yj+zk=ti+t2j+t3k dt 5
i
C
and
and
dr=(i+2tj+3t2k)dt. The orbit is an ellipse.
Comparing this
with the equation derived.J.
i .
=
0
.0) to (1. .' J\3(1)2+6y)0 y=o 14y(0)dy + 20(1)(0)20
t
varies from 0 to 1.y=t2.1. Since orbits of planets are closed curves it follows that they must be ellipses.14t5 j + 20t7 k)· (i + 2tj + 3t2 k) dt
il
(9t2 .1). dz = 0 while x varies from 0 to 1.
Ellipse
T
= 1 + E cos
a
e
LINE INTEGRALS
6.1.1.0. Y '= t2. Then the integral over this part of the path is
fl
x=o
(3x2+6(0»)
dx 
14 (0)(0)(0)
+ 20x(0)2 (0)
1
Along the straight line from (1.0).
f1
z=o
(3(1)2+6(1))
0
14(1) z(O) + 20 (1) z2 d z
f1
z=o 20 3
20z2 d z
20z3 3
\1
0
3"
20
Adding.
y = 2x2.7/6.2). Then the parametric equations of C are (1.
=
fa
I.2) correspond to t = 0 and t = 1 respectively. the value of the integral would have been 7/6 instead of . Then
= t. If F = 3xyi to (1.0. we can take
fa
First Method.(dx i + dy j 3xy dx 5z dy
+ dz
k)
fa
+ lOx dz
5 (t3) d(2t2)
3 (t2 + 1) (2t2) d(t2 + 1)
+
10 (t2 + 1) d(t3)
t=l
12 (12t5 + 10~ + 12t3 + 30t2) dt 303
8.
C
r
=
xi + y j .0) and
Second Method.
y=t.
evaluate
1
C F·dr
F·dr
where C is the curve in the xy plane.5z j
+
lOx k
fa
F· dr
=
fa
f2
(3xy i .1) Then the integral over this part of the path is
x = I. z=t3 from t=l to t=2.
z=t. from (1. I.dr
C
A·dr
1+0+
23 3
(c)
The straight line joining (0.
Then
(3xy i .
.88
VECTOR INTEGRATION
Along the straight line from (1.

y2 r. dy = 0 while z varies from 0 to 1.0).5z j + lOx io.1.
Then
fa
=
f1
t=O
(3t2+ 6t) dt 
14 (t) (t) dt
+
20 (t)(t)2
dt
f1
t=O
(3t2+ 6t 14t2 + 20t
3)
dt
3"
13
7.y2 j) • (dx i + dy j) 3xy dx y2 dy x
Let x = t in y = 2x2. Y= I.1.
I
C
Substitute
F·dr
y= 2x2 directly. from (0.
Total work
3xy i .
(2x
2 )2
=
J1
x=o
d(2x2)
=
J1 3 5)
(6x _16x
Then
dx
x=o
Note that if the curve were traversed in the opposite sense.1) is given in parametric form by x=t. dx = 0.
Points (0.e. y = 2t2.0)
Since the integration is performed in the xy plane (z=O). Find the total work done in moving a particle in a force field given by F along the curve x =t2+1.
i
A.
Y= 2t2.0) to (1. 3x(2x2) dx 
where x goes from 0 to 1.0) and (1.2) to (0.1.
Find the work done in moving a particle once around a circle C in the xy plane.y.
(a)
If F '" 'iJ¢.
=
f
(x.18IT. Y1. z1) and (x.
i
F·dr is independent of the path C joining any two Then
points. If C were traversed in the clockwise (negative) direction the value of the integral would be .
By hypothesis.VECTOR INTEGRATION
89
9.
Thus
. show that the work done in moving a particle from one point Pl '" (Xl' Yl. if the circle has center at the origin and radius 3 and if the force field is given by
F (2xy+z)i
= (2x y)
+
i
(X+y_Z2)j
+ (3x ..y. show that there
exists a function ¢ such that F
(a)
= \!¢.y . Z2) is independent of the path joining the two points. Wecall this the positive direction.
if
(b) Conversely.
Workdone
+ ~: k) • (dx i + dy
+
j
+ dz k )
o¢ dy + o¢ dz
Oy oz
Then the integral depends only on points Pl and P2 and not on the path joining them.z). or say that C has been traversed in the positive sense. which we take as (Xl'Yl. where ¢ is singlevalued and has continuous partial derivatives.z)
¢(x.z)
respectively. This is true of course only if ¢ (x . Zl)
F·dr
is independent of the path joining (xl.y.sin2 t 2 a
=
18n
In traversing C we have chosen the counterclockwise direction indicated in the adjoining figure.z)
(xl>
n. F F·dr
l
1
+ (x
+y)j
so that the work done is + dyj]
[(2xy)i (2x _y) dx
+ (x+y)j
+ (3x2y)k]'
[dxi
Jr c
f27T
t=Q
+ (x +y) dy
y
Choose the parametric equations of the circle as x = 3cos t .2y)k
+ and dr
(3x2y+4z)k
= dx i + dy j
In the plane a=O.y . Z 1) in this field to another point P2 == (X2' Y2. Y = 3sin t where t varies from 0 to 2IT(see adjoining figure). zl) and (x .
r=xi+yj
=
3 cos t i + 3 sin t j
10. Then the line integral equals [2(3cost)3sintJ
[3sint]dt
+
r Jo
27T
(9 
9sintcost)dt
=
9 127T 9t .
1
F· dr is independent
of the path C joining any two points.z) is singlevalued at all points P1 and P2•
(b)
Let F
= F1i
+
F2i
+
F3k.
(a)
(b)
(a)
If F is a conservative
Conversely. 0 (I. we may choose
&
Taking the limit of both sides as Similarly.
~~
so that
(V¢
o. Thus curl F = V x V¢ = 0 (see Problem 27(a).
)(.
Since this must hold irrespective
of ~~ .j
+ ~~k
=
V¢.z)
l
=
F· ~~ .
~
We must prove that F =
Tz
eF'2
Tz
eF1
Tx
eF3
.z)
+ F'2dy + Fsdz
Since the last integral must be independent of the path joining (x .y .z) in the force field F is
.y.
j
k
e ez
(b)
If
VxF
= 0. Proof using vectors. Yl. z) Fldx
(x. y.i..x. if
field.e. z) 
¢(x. It
follows that if F = V¢ then F is conservative. we 0.zl)
d F·. of the path.! ds ds F).z) Fl.
prove that
curl
F = Vx F =
0 (I.y .
)Pl
(P'2 F.z) and (x+ih. the path to be a straight line joining these points so that dy and dz are zero.z) ox have
y. ¢(x. z)
Fl dx
& .
y.
11. field. then by Problem 10.Y'Z)
(xioY1..:
(x.
prove that
F
is conservative. z ).dr
is independent
of the path C joining Pl and P'2.y.y.z)
F·dr
=
1
(x+lIx.
eF'2
eF1
~
V¢
follows as a consequence
The work done in moving a particle from (Xl.y. But d¢ _ V¢. we can show that Then F If
.z)
(x.dr ds
By differentiation. y. z) F·dr
=
(x+lIx.. we have F = V¢ .90
VECTOR INTEGRATION
¢(x+0.x.
If F is a conservative field. then
If the line integral is independent . Chapter 4). Then ¢(x+0. z) ¢(x. Zl) to (x .
Tx
of this.
y. ~~
y.y.
=
e¢ ey = F'2 and e¢= Fs· ez
=
~~i +
=
Fli+F'2j
+Fsk
~.
then
e ex
e ey
0
and thus
Fl eF3
F'2
Fs .. then F is called a conservative and conversely.y.
VxF =
F
is irrotational).dr ds ds
(X.e. F = V¢.
F
is irrotational).
z)
Fl(x.y.2.
(a) Show
that
F = (2xy + Z3) i + x2 j + 3xz2 k
(c) Find
is a conservative
force
field.z)
dy
+
F3(x.Zl) to (x.4).
j
k
a
Now
'ilXF
0
dx
2xy
a Oy z3 x2
dz
3xz2
o.z).
12.y.y.n. Zl) and (x .z)
dz
where C is a path joining (xl.
zl)
+
l~ Ir~
(x.y.1) to (3.y.Yl.y. Then
It follows that
dF2
dz
(x.y. Yl.y.Z)
dx
+
F2(x.Zl)
+ F2(x.z) the work done along this particular path.zl) to (x.zl) to (X.Yl. that a force will be conservative is that
From Problem 11.y. a necessary curlF = 'ilXF = O.
zl) dy
+
dF1 dy (x. z
dz
Then
F
aCPi ax
+ acpj
ay
+ O¢k
Oz
'ilCP.z) ».y.
+
Thus F is a conservative
force field.1. Yl.z) and call CP(x.z)
dz
T (x.VECTOR INTEGRATION
91
fa
cp(x.y.z)
dz
F2(x.
Thus a necessary
and sufficient
condition that a field F be conservative
is that curlF=
'ilxF= O.zl)dy
+
i
i~
dx
Z
1
dF3
(x. zl)
+
Fl(x. Let us choose as a particular path the straight line segments from (Xl.y.y .y.
(a)
the work done in moving an object and sufficient condition
in this field from (1.
(b) Find
the sca
lar potential.z)
I zl
dF rx
2
z
F1(x.y.
.
(2) and (3) respectively.z) g(x.z)
= xz3.l.
we find from (l).2.
¢(l. g(x. Second Method.y.
h(x.1)
=
¢(3.z) h(x.z)
=
=
x2y 
+ xz3 + constant.y. f(y.1.
F·dr
is independent
of the path C [oining (Xl.dr
a¢ dx ax
a¢ + dz
ez
=
d¢
Then
d¢
F·dr
(2xy +z3) dx
+
x2 dy +
+ 3xz2 dz
(2xy dx + x2 dy)
(z3 dx + 3xz2 dz) d (x2y + xz3)
d (x2y) and
+ d(xz3)
¢
(c)
Work done
2
31(3.92
(b)
VECTOR INTEGRATION
First Method.4)
x y + xz
(1. From part (b).z).4)
202.z)
x2y x2y
+
xz3 xz3
+ + +
f(y.
¢ ¢ ¢
These agree if we choose be added any constant.y.
Using the method of Problem ¢(x.z)
3 (x 2 Y 1 + xz 1) x 1 +
IX
x2 y Y 1 x2y
11
IY
2 X Yl xy
2
+
xz3
1

X
11
3
z3
+
x2y X
2
x2y + xz
:3
1
+
xz3
xz3
1
3 + xz
x:Y1
Xl zl a¢ + dy ay
Y
+ constant
Third Method. By Problem 10. F = V¢ or
3
(1)
ex
e¢
= 2xy + z
(3)
C¢
az
Integrating.1)
202
Another Method.y) so that
= 0. Thenworkdone ¢(x.2.
.
F·dr
V¢. Since F is conservative.Zl)
and (x.Yl.y) = x2y
¢
= x y + xz
2
3
to which may
fa
l1(b) .
(b)
be an exact differis an exact dif
Show that (y2zS cosx .
(b)
Le.x4z + constant.
15. F '" V¢ and so
F· dr = V¢. dr
is independent
of the path joining any two points P1 and P2 in a given
P1
F' dr
=
0 for all closed paths in the region and conversely.4xsz) dx
+
2z3y sinx
dy
dz
By any of the methods of Problem 12 we find
¢ '" y2zS
sinx .
and so Conversely if V x F = 0 then by Problem 11. Prove that if
region. an exact differential. prove that
of constant
mass m
where VA and VB are the magnitudes of the velocities
of the particle
at A and B respectively.
F = (y2zS cosx4~?z)i so that by part (a)
(lzs
+ 2zSysinxj
+ (3lz2
sinxx4)k + (3lz2
and VXF sinx
4 _X )
is computed to be zero.
sinx dy
+
(3y2z2
sinx . Suppose a particle to move in this field. Let F be a conservative force field such that F = . by hypothesis.4xsz) dx + 2zSy ferential of a function ¢ and find ¢. F1 dx + F2 dy + Fs dz = d¢.
14.y and z are independent variables. Conversely if
P1A~BP1
f
f
F' dr
F·dr
P1AP2
f
=
0.VECTOR INTEGRATION
93
13.V¢. (a) Show that a necessary and sufficient condition that Fl dx + F2 dy + Fs dz ential is that V x F = 0 where F = Fli + F2j + Fsk. the~ F·dr
+
J
F·dr
f
F·dr

F·dr
o
so that.x4) dz
(a)
'O¢dx
+ 'Oy dy +
'O¢
O¢ 'OZ dz.
Fl = 'Ox
rI.
an exact differential.
Let P1APQ_BP1 (see adjacent figure) be a closed curve. Then
f
F·dr
Pi AP2BPl F·dr P1AP2
J J
=
F·dr

F·dr P1BP2
J
P1AP2
J
F·dr
+
P2BPl
J
F·dr
0
since the integral from P1 to P2 along a path through A is the same as that along a path through B. Suppose Fl dx + F2 dy + F3 dz = d'f/ = 'Ox since x.
Then
O¢
Thus VXF=VxV¢=o. dr = d¢.
. then
f
i
P2
F.
d¢
cosx . If A and B are any two points in space.