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**nr1337 November 19, 2004
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Theorem 1. The area of a circle with radius r is πr2 . Proof: The equation of a circle centered at the origin is x2 + y 2 = r2 , where r is the radius. We write y in terms of the variable x and the constant r: x2 y 2 + 2 =1 r2 r y = r y=r 1− 1− x2 r2

x2 r2 By symmetry, the area of a circle centered at the origin is four times the area of the circle between (0, 0) and (r, 0) above the x-axis. We can integrate to ﬁnd the area (A):

r

A = 4r

0

1− 1−

x2 dx r2 x2 , we make the substitutions: r2

To evaluate the antiderivative of

x = r sin θ x θ = arcsin r dx = r cos θ dθ Thus, our integral becomes: 1

the area of a circle with radius r is πr2 . 2 .r A = 4r 0 1− x2 dx = 4r r2 π/2 r 0 1 − sin2 θ cos θ dθ We can use the trigonometric identity 1 − sin2 θ = cos2 θ: π/2 π/2 A = 4r 0 r cos2 θ = 1 − sin2 θ cos θ dθ = 4r2 0 1 2 (1 cos2 θ dθ We then apply + cos 2θ): π/2 π/2 4r2 0 cos2 θ dθ = 4r2 0 π/2 1 (1 + cos 2θ) dθ 2 π/2 = 2r2 θ 0 2 + 2r2 0 cos 2θ dθ π/2 = πr + 2r (sin 2θ) 0 2 = πr 2 Thus.

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