Simple indigestion- Ruminal Atony

• The simple accumulation of excessive quantities of relatively indigestible feed may physically impair rumen function for 24-48 hr. • The disease is common in hand-fed dairy and beef cattle and rarely seen in sheep Causes 1. It may be predisposed by late pregnancy, old age, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, exhaustion, lack of water. 2. Sudden ingestion of excessive quantities of highly palatable feeds such as corn or grass silage; or excessive quantities of relatively indigestible, poor-quality roughage during winter. 3. During drought, cattle and sheep may be forced to eat large quantities of poor-quality straw, bedding, or scrub.

Simple indigestion- Ruminal Atony
4. Sudden change in feed: - Using spoiled or frozen feeds, - Introducing urea to a ration, oral antibiotics and sulpha - Turning cattle onto a lush cereal grain pasture, - Introducing feedlot cattle to a high-level grain ration. Ingestion of placentas by postparturient cows. Ingestion of plastic bags, skin, clothes, dust, sand, licking of hair and wool (phytobezoars) It may follow ruminal acidosis caused by excessive fermentation or putrefaction of ingested feed.

5. 6. 7.

Phytobezoars

Pathogenesis
• Any change in diet may result in change in ruminal pH (Acid or Alkali) that result in ruminal activity and change normal flora • Protein putrefaction in the rumen led to excess histamine release that agravate ruminal atony

Clinical Findings:
It depend on the type of animal affected and cause of the disorder. • Silage overfeeding cause: Anorexia and a moderate drop in production in dairy cattle. The rumen is usually full, firm, and doughy; primary contractions are absent, but secondary contractions may be present. The feces are normal to firm in consistency but reduced in amount. Temperature, pulse, and respiration are normal.

Clinical Findings:
• Excessive feeding of grain results in: Anorexia and ruminal stasis. The rumen is not necessarily full and may contain excessive fluid. The feces are usually soft and foul smelling. Animal is bright and alert and usually begins to eat within 24 hr. Recovery usually is spontaneous within 24-48 hr.

Diagnosis and DD.
• • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. History of a change in the nature or amount of the diet. Signs of rumen atony. Diseases of similar signs should be ruled out a: Traumatic reticuloperitonitis :The systemic reaction and painful responses to deep palpation of the xiphoid ketosis :The history and the ketonuria Displaced abomasum: Tinkling sound and steel band effect on auscultation- percussion technique. Vagal indigestion and abomasal torsions become more readily detectable as they progress because they have a longer course, Grain overload is distinguishable by its greater severity and the pronounced fall in the pH of the rumen contents. Phytobezoars cause partial or complete anorexia and scant feces; on rectal examination, distended loops of intestine and the firm phytobezoar masses are palpable .

Treatment
I- Correcting the suspected dietary factors. II- Restoring Ruminal contraction:  Adminst. of Ruminotoric drugs e.g. Neostgmin  Administration of 20-40 L of warm water or saline followed by vigorous kneading of the rumen, may help restore rumen function  If the activity of the ruminal microbes is reduced, administration of 4-8 L of ruminal fluid from a healthy cow will help. III- Correct ruminal pH:  Magnesium hydroxide PO seems to be useful when excessive amounts of high-energy feeds have been ingested.  If too much urea or protein has been ingested, acetic acid or vinegar may be administered PO. • Spontaneous recovery is usual

Ruminotorics
Agents and mixtures that promote forestomach function (fermentation and motility). Formulations that contain glucogenic substrates, minerals, cofactors, and bitters (e.g, nux vomica). The mild laxative and antacid effects of MgOH may be beneficial in acid indigestion. Mineral oil (1-2 L) or dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS, 90-120 mL in 1-2 L of water) administered PO or via nasogastric tube followed by gentle ruminal massage can be helpful in promoting the dissolution and passage of impacted fibrous ruminal contents. DSS can markedly depress rumen protozoa; thus, ruminal transfaunation should follow the use of this agent in ruminal hypomotility

Ruminal drinkers
• Chronic indigestion developed in calves because milk is deposited into the rumen as a result of failure of the reticular groove reflex during drinking. • The disease is most common in bucket-fed calves, • The milk retained in the rumen ferments and produces acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactate; the pH in the rumen falls; and dyskeratosis of the ruminal mucosa develops. • Affected calves show inappetence, ventral abdominal distention, and poor growth. • They pass sticky, clay-like feces that may adhere to the tail, perineum, and hindlegs.

Ruminal drinkers
• Fluid-splashing sounds, audible on auscultation over the left flank while the calf is drinking, are diagnostic. • Rancid-smelling fermented material can be obtained by stomach tube from the rumen. • A ruminal pH of <6 leads to systemic acid-base disturbance. • Treatment consists of removing the fermented material and flushing the rumen with saline. • inducing vigorous sucking activity with the fingers before feeding milk. • Calves that relapse should be fed by nipple-bottle or weaned.

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