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Index of Contents
I. II. III.
Foreword [Pastor Keshomshahara] Introduction Community Assessment 1. Environment Location and Population Climate and Agriculture Ethnic Groups and Government Education and Health 2. Tradition and Law “Things fall apart, not yet” Not taking things apart Importance of Age and the Matrimonial system 3. Skills and Hindrances for Conflict Resolution 4. Focus of Human Rights Problems What are Human Rights?
4 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 9
Internal Networking – Structures and Communication 1. Building Capacity – Inside and beyond the Church Structure Levels Beginning of the Human Rights Desk Mission Statement and Committee of the Human Rights Desk Focus on the Districts Selection process Evangelists as District Coordinators? An opportunity for pastors. Spotlight on gender issues Focus on the parish level Go and Come Structure 2. Partners in Mobilisation Internal Partners (Women’s Department, Youth Desk) and External Partners (DMCDD, Danmission and MHOLA) 13 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 11 12 12 12 13 10 11 11 10 10 10 10
Human Rights and the ten Commandments 9 5. Activities against domestic violence by the Women’s Department 10 V. External Networking 1. Raising Voices (Kampala), KIVULINI (Mwanza) and WLAC (Dar es Salaam) 2. MHOLA (Bukoba) 3. Government / State Authorities Reliable partner to the judicial branch Reliable partner to the Executive branch Judicial and Executive branches step in 4. Other Denominations and Religions
Dipl. jur. cand. theol. Richard Landsberg email@example.com Tel. +49 177 2773107
VI. Mobilisation and Advocacy 1. Starting, Trial and Error, lessons learned? Starting with a “Trial and Error” approach Lessons learned The mobilisation efforts were accompanied by advocacy efforts. 2. Mobilisation 2006/2007 Women’s Department and Human Rights Desk Change Stories with a focus on the impact of cooperating with the woman’s department 2007/2008 Youth Desk and Human Rights Desk Impact resulting from the cooperation with the Youth Desk 2009/2009 Human Rights Desk and MHOLA Impact resulting from the cooperation with MHOLA Future 3. How does the mobilisation chain work? VII. Action; Strenghening of capacity (statistics) and Reconciliation 1. Geographical spread and peaks 2. Theology and some used methods of reconciliation Some examples for used methods in Kagera region
17 17 17 17 18 19 19
Old seminar participants teach young one’s in the seminars Be up to date – Safety planning VIII. Reflection – Monitoring and Identification 1. Baseline Survey Dream Design 2. Impact Analysis – Method Multidimensions of an Impact analysis Focus of this analysis 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 28 28 28
19 20 20 21 21 21 22 XI.
Tool: Most Significant Change Approach 3. Handover of the Coordination Old challenges concerning the stranger factor “You cannot have a cake and eat it!” New challenges concerning the take over from a stranger Motivation and Appreciation Safe spaces for appreciative inquiry Accompanying incentives Limits in appreciation and giving incentives
22 22 23 23
Conclusion and Recommendations
Postscriptum [Teacher Naomi]
XII. Appendices (not in print version)
Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese, Tanzania
enlightenment concerning human rights has enabled the victims to go to the human rights implementers for advice. drunkard-ness and violence.I. Foreword Pastor Keshomshahara In 2004 the Human Rights Desk was established in the North Western Diocese (NWD) with the aim of ending violence. The document shows how human rights activities are founded on the Bible which challenges the Christians to love the neighbour and be concerned with his/her dignity as a human being. Tanzania 5/2009 . The documents shows that human rights are based on the bible which provides us with ten commandments that protect human beings from all kinds of danger. Furthermore. This shows how internal and external networks for human rights are of cardinal importance. The fact that the Human Rights Desk serves people of different religions and denominations cements inter-faith dialogue and unites people to work together beyond religious and denominational boundaries. The stories that were narrated by Human Rights implementers (coordinators) and non implementers (different people from the society) show that many conflicts are related with land issues. indicate that in some cases reconciliation among people with conflicts has been achieved. It is very interesting to note that there has been cooperation between the government and Human Rights Desk implementers in the sense that they work together to solve people’s problems. stories from which the evaluation of the Human Rights Desk is based. the situation that has led to harmony and love in society. be it spiritual or material insecurities. It is my conviction in spite of many challenges ahead of us the situation will be better since what has been done with regard to human rights has brought about positive changes in our societies. Human Rights Desk has succeeded to educate and mobilise people to know and fight for their rights without fear. This means that both ways are nowadays used. it was difficult for many people to understand the meaning and relevance of this desk since they thought that there were no reasons for this endeavour. indicates that there has been positive changes in the soPastor Abednego Keshomshahara ciety whereby victims of violence have been educated to struggle for their human rights at ward tribunals and primary courts plus initiatives for reconciliation. Pastor Abednego Keshomshahara. advocating the weak ones and bringing about reconciliation among people.4. This is a sign of change in the society. 4. There has been cooperation between the Human Rights Desk of the NWD with foreign agencies like Dan-mission and the United Evangelical Mission (UEM) and with the internal actors of human rights like Mama’s Hope Organisation for Legal Association (MHOLA).2009 4 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. The coordinators go to the victims and the victims know where they can go and seek advice for their rights. I welcome the readers of this document to read and acquire knowledge concerning changes that are taking place in the society as far as human rights are concerned. At the time of establishing this desk. Bukoba. While at the beginning the Human Rights implementers used to go where the victims are found to advise them. An approach of hearing stories related to what the Human Rights Desk has been doing in the areas where the NWD operates.
5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. namely “Design” (how do we improve our work?) and “Dream” (what is left undone? more details see below VIII 1). Tanzania 5 . To cover the impact of the last five years of this desk it was decided on an approach which can be well described as being embedded in a technique called “Appreciative Inquiry” (AI) with a focus on “Discovery” (what change has happened?) and “Destiny” (why did the change happen?) . Anthea. The Stages of Change Theory developed by psychologists in 1982 and further refined in 1992 (James Prochaska. Aneth Lwakatare. Our aim was to find out where and how the work of the Human Rights Desk has become relevant for the society in the Kagera region (goal level). We used the “Most Significant Change Approach” which aims at identifying stories that truly draw people out of themselves into a shared arena of thinking and acting together (more details see Reflections Evaluation). Carlo DiClemente and John Norcross) states that change takes place on five stages. The idea to set up a Human Rights Desk was born on the Synod of the NWD in 2002 after the UEM conference in Namibia. Mr. In March 2004 the formation process of the Desk was going ahead with Dr. Finally he begins to get more information and develops an intention to act (Preparation for Action). The individual behaviour change can be scaled up to the community level and for the sake of this evaluation can be adapted to the Work of the Human Rights Desk. Therefore we start with the Community Assessment (equals Pre-contemplation) then go on with the internal Networking mainly dealing with the structure of the Human Rights Desk as a church department. then he begins to wonder if it relates to his life (Contemplation). Introduction The objective was to conduct an impact analysis of the work of the Human Rights Desk in the North-West Diocese (NWD) in Tanzania. Saulo Malauri. Sister Bertha and Esther Kamukulu. Naomi Konyonyi. Anthea Bethge (Dr. The th th namely Dr. At first an individual is unaware of an issue and its consequences for his life (Precontemplation). Finally we get to the Awarenesscreation and Advocacy (bearing testimony) then to the Integration of Action focusing on empowerment and education followed by the reflection focusing on monitoring and “project ownership“. What can be seen from the results of the meetings and interviews is that social change that is connected to the desk indeed took place in these five years. Stories of Change were collected and reflected upon in three meetings by one group of non-implementers (authorities in the society. A baseline survey was conducted in 2008 which covered the other parts of the AI process. Pastor Martin Schmitz-Bethge. We end the documentation by the section Motivation and Appreciation with a focus on the embedded communication structures and incentives. Then we go on with the external Networking with a focus on MHOLA (Mamas’ Hope Organisation for Legal Assistance).II. March 13th 2009) and by two groups of implementers (District Coordinators. By doing this the way is paved for a presentation of what has happened and why it happened. Anthea) moving to Bukoba after being selected by the United Evangelical Mission (UEM) to be responsible for this task. March 18 and Human Rights Assistants March 24 2009). results were deepened by interviews about their involvement as well as open interviews with different actors. Then he acts and thereby tries to find new and different ways of thinking and behaving (Action). He further recognizes the benefits of the behaviour change and maintains it (Maintenance).
km is covered by water bodies with the Lake Victoria occupying the largest part. which are characterized by heavy rains for about 5 hours a day.953 sq. Each ward is split into villages and each village into hamlets. Wasukuma and Wasubi of Biharamulo as well as other tribal groups in Karagwe and Ngara. State attorneys exist on district level. Each district is split into wards also with a ward council and a ward executive officer (called “Protector of the Peace”). of which 29. after that the High Court and last the Court of Appeal. State institutions in the region are organized in four levels. The Kagera region is very rural. Ngara. The main task of these tribunals (in Suahili “barazas”) is to mediate. coffee. Missenyi and Muleba.8 %). Generally spoken the soil is fertile and the vegetation green and lush. Ethnic Groups and Government Widespread ethnic groups in the region are the Wahaya of Bukoba. The climate is pleasant with an average of 20 to 30 degrees throughout the year.885 sq. Much of it is hilly terrain with thick tropical vegetation including forests.2 %) and 64 years and above (2. The region has its long history of sitting together and solving problems calm and relaxed (“sedentary way of life”). Community Assessment 1.5 million people live in an area of 40. The major crops are green bananas. It consists of seven administrative districts (Bukoba municipality and rural. Most of the people depend on their small land. Kigoma and Mwanza regions in the South and Lake Victoria in the East. Biharamulo. The state tries to achieve the installation of at least one police station in every ward. With about 200 000 inhabitants Bukoba is the only larger city in the region (100 000 in the inner city and 100 000 in the municipality). The Ward Tribunals also have the power to pass judgement if mediation fails. The executive officers on all levels are appointed by the higher body and the chairpersons are elected. The court of appeal for land cases is the Land and House Tribunal on district level. the Washubi of Chato and the Wazinza. Environment Location and Population The Kagera region is located in the North Western corner of Tanzania bordering Uganda in the North. Between February and May and between October and December are rainy seasons 6 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. sugar and tea. There are about 110 wards in the area of the North Western Diocese.838 sq. The legal system in Kagera has land tribunals in every village and tribunals for petty offenses and land issues in every ward. Below him are the seven districts with a district council and a councilor. The executive branch is lead by the regional commissioner. Ngara and Karagwe are outside the area of the North Western Diocese of the Evanglical Lutheran Church Tanzania. For other cases such as probate cases Climate and Agriculture Kagera region stands at 3. Rwanda and Burundi in the West. 15-64 years (53. Karagwe. km is land and 11. Tanzania 5/2009 . The age structure 2004 (National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty) in Tanzania is as follows: 0-14 years (45 %). most farmers are peasant farmers.750 feet above sea level and lies just south of the equator. km. About 2.III. The economy depends on agricultural production of bananas. Muleba. Missenyi. Chato).
Tradition and Law “Things fall apart. Tanzania 7 .1 %. Due to trial and error processes herbs and psychological procedures were found over generations that are useful and cheap to treat diseases in remote areas. Only about 1 % is enrolled in tertiary education. The Kagera region has mainly an oral tradition in which the law has to compete with tradition through good stories that might be lacking at times. In remote Kagera region the enrollment is even less than the quoted average. then the High Court and last the Court of Appeal. being 67. HIV/Aids. Due to its geographical remoteness from major towns the developmental activities to reform government as well as non-governmental institutions have been few in the Kagera region. one reason being that the state and church lack money to pay more teachers. Also teachers are hardly available because they refuse to be transferred to this region. Referring to primary schools the problem nowadays is one of quality. not yet” In many aspects the law is different from the tradition and thus they compete. African traditional medicines focus also on the client’s environment.1 % in 2004. who are sought for by many clients. One is a world view that prefers not to take things apart. Haya language is widespread in the region. less than the average in East and Southern Africa. Hospitals are run by the state and churches. 70 % of Tanzanians also use traditional medicine. the second is the importance of age and the third the matrimonial system. Enrollment in secondary schools was only 36. Many can not reach or afford their services. Their services are very expensive and their methods include Human Rights violations such as rape and murder. The same is true for infrastructure projects . Nyerere was a teacher by profession. Primary schools teach in Swahili and secondary schools in English. Education and Health Education and Health has been a concern of the state from the beginning of the independence in 1961 and especially in the time of Ujamaa-Socialism under Mwalimu Nyerere (Mwalimu is a Swahili word which means teacher. Not taking things apart Not taking things apart has its advantages and disadvantages. The 2. after that the District Court. Throughout his life Tanzanians regarded him as the teacher of the whole nation). Main health issues in the society is malaria especially for infants. Three aspects of tradition described in Chinua Achebe’s book “Things fall apart” also seem to be true for the Kagera region. malnutrition and unclean water.jurisdiction starts with the Primary Court. Primary school enrollment exceeds 100 % including students that are already old. This is to be seperated from the services of witch doctors. 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese.
. Can you tell me why we call our children “Nneka” meaning “Mother is the head of the family”? We all know that the man is the head of the family and that his family and wifes obey his will. It is democratic because one gets old without contributing to it. It hinders one to be precise or even analytical (meaning taking things apart first) at all. To change conditions for the healing of an individual it often helps not only to talk to the victim but also to the ones he is in contact with. in the knowledge that because of my belief in Jesus I can decide not to get hurt by them. Listen to me carefully. I have seen more of the world than anyone of you. 149f) 8 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. This can increase the fear of the unknown. Things fall apart. Tanzania 5/2009 .. You do not know the answer? There you see that you are still a child. I want each of you to keep in mind what I have to say. Here she is buried.African protestant theology for example developed fascinating concepts about how to understand God’s trinity by emphasizing the sharing aspect.. Laws are changed by the majority of the people... One can be stuck in fatalism. For me the devil and demons are pictures for a complex psychological mechanism that is in everyone of us and we have to cope with.I had six wifes once.. . But on the other hand it makes it hard to bring about changes. In your clan you are an important man. By only relying on your own experiences one might fail to work together with other people to look for new answers. Okonkwo is the main character of the book. He does not belong here. On the other hand it has its disadvantages. Importance of Age and the Matrimonial system “Why is Okonkwo among us today? He started. One might not be aware of the current problems. Referring to the end of the scene: Does it really help Okonkwo who lost his home for seven years to hear that the old man has suffered a lot more? Last but not least having a “rule of age” implies that a “rule of law” does not work.You think that you are the unluckiest person on earth? . A theology of poverty reduction in Tanzania. It further guarantees continuity and integration of experiences in a calm and relaxed way.. It might seem to help to cope with a lack of possibilities but it is a serious danger to society if it leads to not facing the problems of today or even the killing of Albinos.. With the age the mind gets less flexible also. Modern developments in psychology also emphasize the advantages of systemic approaches. Here she waits to protect them.e. Solidarity and participation is thus a precondition for the totality of God (see i. But if the father beats the child it looks for protection on his mother’s land. It is a good precondition for mediations and it fits to the sedentary or sedimentary way of life. Throughout the book the main theme is Okonkwo abiding by the rules of another generation. It is lifeenforcing because everyone likes the benefits from the increased authority. 92ff). Keshomshahara. Evil exists but in each case it is important to look closely and analyse to get rid of it. only this young girl that does not know a thing. It is true. You have many women and children – more children than I have.. . The father posseses the child and his family and not the mother and her family. Now he is depressed. In Kagera region most of the people believe in the devil and demons as characters that walk around. Now I have none.This is not his tribe. This is the reason for saying that the mother is the head of the family. Otherwise one can be hindered to improve. I am an old man and you all are children. A man belongs to the land of his father and not to his mother. that a child is in the possession of his father. But you are still like a child. After being chased away from his tribe for accidently killing a clan member he comes to his mother’s tribe and there this scene takes place. Having the age as a decisive element in the power structure of a society has many advantages. Not the success he had in life or his qualification is important but his age. my child. Don’t you know how many children I buried? (Chinua Achebe. Most people also believe in magic. He was banned and ordered to live on foreign soil for seven years... The scene is powerful because the old man uses all his authority to counsil Okonkwo. Do you think it is your right to be depressed? You have to counsel your wifes and children and bring them back to the land of your fathers. we are only the relatives of his mother..
Problems might get worse. Moses 6. 12. God wants people to live. Around it: Public truth: You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain and You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour [Honesty in public]. The existence of meetings on each level of society and of the “barazas” in the judicial system is very advanced. More recently Professor Cüsemann approached the ten Commandments (2nd Moses 20. 5. God commands us to love our neighbours. God loves us humans. He equips every human with his love. Focus of Human Rights Problems What are Human Rights? Human Rights are based on many different spiritual backgrounds. above all widespread. The “barazas” are flexible in their design and their responses. In the Kagera region the 3. You have the right that your body is protected from harm! No one is allowed to kill one cell of your body without your consent! You have the right that your wife/ husband belongs to you only! You have the right that your children honour you! You have the right to work so that you can enjoy life and freetime and that no one takes away what you worked for! You have the right to be special. the head of a parish. Furthermore in general women are excluded. It tries to guarantee that conflicts should only go to professionals in court as a last resort. As well as the Aramaic part of the book of Daniel the key message can be found in the middle of the story and the rest unfolds from there. Lawmakers and lawyers in Western nations have just started to realize that a smart design does not only rely on judges who upheld the law. the image of God. Settling a dispute is something old men do.8 % of the population is 64 years and above. John 4. Mk 12. no one is allowed to take your place! You have the right to decide on your own what you like and how you like – whom you trust and whom not. spirits or demons]. As a Protestant I will focus on two aspects of the Jewish-Christian background. It remains to say that respect for the elderly is nontheless a very important aspect for peace in society and it is not by chance one of God’s ten commandments (Respect thy Parents!). take one day off for you and others and do not steal [Time and Belongings]. 17) threefold: I freed you from the land of the oppressor [no victim anylonger] then threefold: Do not put your trust on any other God [In Love not in magic. If people are not educated in the laws and in conflict resolution their attempt to find a solution will often not succeed. This was also upheld in church. Traditionally there is only one exception and that is if there is a marriage problem. Moses 19. the Commandment to love your neighbour and the ten Commandments. power I need to be reassured how important I am and that God is the one sharing his power. in the image of God he created him (1. servant be it a man or woman [his friends]. Around it: Protection of the married couple and family: You shall not commit adultery [Integrity of the married couple] and Honour your father and your mother – it is for your own good [Integrity of Family]. Next to these skills there are problems. 2-17 and 5th Moses 5. In this case the sister of the husband is allowed to intervene and to mediate. 1. In general husbands are much older than their wifes. Moses 1. 16b). Tanzania 9 . or his ox or ass [his possessions]! and Freedom (2. Do not depend on anyone else but me [safety].But in Tanzania only 2.Cor 3. Traditionally men are the one who have the money and decide what the woman is allowed to do. he gives us the power to love him and our neighbours (3. Usually the man is representing the family and not the woman. Around it: Respect threefold: Do not focus your life on getting your neighbour’s house or wife [his identity]. Human Rights and the ten Commandments The ten Commandments are designed to make sure that people can live in peace and God’s love enfolds in the society. she moves to his land and clan. Around it: Work and Property: Work. But once I lack 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. Center: Protection from any harm to the person: You shall not kill. without any person or demon being allowed to interfere! People are not aware of these rights and other people do not respect them.6-21) from the middle. The matrimonial system that the father is the head of the family is upheld in the Kagera region. 27). a unique unalienable dignity. Do not try to make an image of me [Remain flexible!]. When I feel powerful I need to focus on sharing. 4. Skills and Hindrances for Conflict Resolution By their sedentary way of life people in the Kagera region empowered themselves in conflict management and they shaped instutions that serve them. 28-31. 18. 5. When a man marries a woman. Just recently and under a lot of complaints the first women were allowed to become a pastor. It is common especially in the older generation that a man has more than one wife. God created man in his own image.
Domestic violence is a widespread problem. The leadership did not know how the Human Rights Desk should work. a female politician and a represantative of ACP (Aids Control Programme) 10 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. Building Capacity – Inside and beyond the Church Structure Levels The church structure of the North Western Diocese is in many ways comparable to the state structure. Office of the Human Rights Desk was established. South A. The synod of the North Western Diocese decided to establish a Desk for Conflict Resolution and Human Rights Pastor Dr. The Diocese works on the regional level. IV. The minutes do not mention a certain decision but people remember Pastor Dr. having a PHD in physics. 5. The committee is to be led by a professional and have members that are geographically spread throughout the diocese and can bring inputs from different professions. offering assistance on how to resolve conflicts by then with a main focus on the Balcans. Furthermore there are officials. Beginning of the Human Rights Desk In December 2000 the General Assembly of the United in Mission (UEM) met at Windhoeck. and decided that each member church has to take some action for human rights. Sister Bertha pointed out that the beginning had to be tough. It was led by Julius Mukandara (HUYAWA – Huduma ya watoto) and among others Miriam Blasio. Dr. But Sister Bertha and her team did not back down (see below IV 2). They set bad examples that students learn from (“role models”). Bukoba. a pastor of the Protestant Church in the Rhineland. has been working as feelance consultant and trainer. In schools the students are often beaten or even sexually abused by their teacher. The crime is patricular frequent in the tribe of Sukuma (they have many Albinos) including in Biharamulo district. the government or church that do not fulfill their work as supposed. be it in hospitals.protection of the integrity of the person is especially vulnerable when it comes to women. Tanzania 5/2009 . teacher Alice Kabigumila (who later became the first female pastor). Furthermore even Christians put their trust in witchdoctors. In March 2004 she and her husband Martin Schmitz-Bethge. Each district consists of two to eight parishes and each parish consists of one up to twenty congregations (ward level). The department held about 20 seminars with 30 to 40 women each. Many men were complaining about these seminars and about this “sister” (Sister Bertha) that is teaching their wives about new ideas. The public truth is quite often broken when there is corruption and bribing going on. Rape and worse “Kushutula” (stealing a young woman and marrying her without her consent) is also a common problem. B and C and West). Namibia. It regularly kills the healthy development of a woman as well as it steals her identity. It consists of eight Lutheran members that have meetings three times a year. Fidon Mwombeki (at this time General Secretary of the NWD) successfully pushing for an establishment of the desk. arrived in Bukoba. Activities against domestic violence by the Women’s Department The Women’s Department of the NWD has worked from 1994 to 2006 on domestic violence. North A and B. East. a judge. Many were skeptical that a Human Rights Desk was needed at all. On this level the Mission Statement and Committee of the Human Rights Desk In October 2004 the Committee of the Human Rights Desk met for the first time after being installed by the Executive Committee of the Diocese in July 2004. On the district level the diocese consists of 9 districts (Central. The North Western Diocese made a job description and the UEM international office in Germany cared for the selection process. who tell them limbs of Albinos make you rich. thus stealing money and time from the society (more details for the Kagera region: see IX 2 baseline survey). Fidon Mwombeki Advocacy (Human Rights Desk) in 2002. She. Internal Networking – Structures and Communication 1. Anthea Bethge was selected. She has been trained on conflict resolution by the Oekomenischer Dienst Schalomdiakonat in Germany.
T finally lost his case in the Ward Tribunal. Bangereza’s and Ev. Miriam Blasio (South C [Biharamulo]) and Joyce Justinian (West). Kabobo. Ev. This is quite a change in the design. The mission statement was agreed on by the Executive Council in November 2004. went to the bishop who directed him to his parish pastor. They called the parties and achieved an agreement. Ev. Ev. Today A and T are not close friends again but they greet each other on the street. Ev Kabobo 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. A quarrel happened and T called the police. Evart’s case by informing the district pastor. In Miriam Blasio’s case (South C) a Human Rights District Committee had been established in which Miriam – prior to her selection – had been a member of. Today the District Coordinators are Ev. the pastors that contributed to the impact analysis have not stated it as a problem. Anastela’s story VI 2). Tanzania 11 . Robert’s case in cooperation whereas in Ev. T thinks A has slept with one of his wifes. Kabobo has been the district pastor’s evangelist also before being selected as a district coordinator. It helped to supervise and to make networking. Peace Mutoka (Bukoba). “Now we work together on reconciling parties and another complicated case has already been brought forward”. The conflict arose on a piece of land. Back then A and T had been close friends. Hearing about the complex case he called the District Coordinator Evangelist Kabobo to solve the case with him. By the end of 2006 the Human Rights Desk had contact persons in each district. It makes clear that the Human Rights Desk is about reconciliation (witness to the Gospel). Ev. The in depth feature of the winning story of the Coordinators supports this analysis (see also Ev. But something went wrong. Anastela Lwehabura (South A). the chairperson (elected by the Coordinators) Ev. Peace and Ev. Bangereza had already conducted seminars in their districts. Joyce and Ev. namely Ev. Ev. In 2006 the Executive Council of the diocese accepted the contact persons to be “district coordinators”. In 2006 all Coordinators were approved by the Executive Council of the Diocese also. In the diocese there has been some confusion about this. Being a District Focus on the Districts In March 2005 Evangelist (Ev.were in the first Committee. At that time T decided to go to the church. It is rather the other way round. Ev. He. Ev. Afterwards they were approved by their respective District Committees. Each side claims that the Village Tribunal granted them the land. District Pastor Ev Peace Coordinator involves a lot of effort and time which pastors often need for their parish. Selection process The first contact persons. Ev. The story shows nicely how conflict resolution is not only the task of lawyers but foremost of the church (see also Appendix: Nonimplementers Pastor Ruguma’s story). People who seek justice go to the church. Ev. being an old man. Evangelists as District Coordinators? An opportunity for pastors. Evart Ernest (South B). Thus contributing to the ecumenical decade “Overcoming Violence”. Robert. T instead went to his district pastor Lugumila of the Eastern District. about capacity building in conflict resolution and about being a helping partner in the victim’s struggle for liberation. Phillemon Kabobo (East). Kibumba were selected by their parish and approved by the District Committee and Synods. In Ev. Evart and Ev. Joseph Bangereza (Central). pastors like to use the additional qualifications of these Evangelists. The conflict has deepened when A sent his boys to dig out the trees on a land which T had already sold to a third party. District Coordinators work on district level above the pastors. Ev. Evangelists work on congregation level below the pastor. Being asked. Seven out of nine District Coordinators are Evangelists. Anastela were selected by the District Committee. Pastor Lugumila said that by Kabobo becoming the District Coordinator it has improved his ability to solve conflicts and their relationship. Stivin Kibumba (North B).) Robert Muhimbula became the first contact person in District North A. Evangelists furthermore do not get transferred which guarantees stability. Robert Muhimbula (North A).
But this is not only the case with District pastors and District Coordinators. Focus on the parish level On a proposal of the Human Rights Desk on diocesan level every one of the parishes (49) selected a man and a woman to become a Human Rights Assistant from spring 2007 onward (in total 102 – islands and health institutions got their own). or they accompany victims to places where their conflicts may be solved.” Asked why she picked this story she said: “because it shows our work has reduced the task of pastors. Tanzania 5/2009 . so they both together came and consulted me. Ev. They were about changes in the Ward Tribunals and about a conflict between village leaders. She told me that it could be difficult to make him come. The desk was able to go to the 12 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. he denied all of that and then I also decided to call the wife who was not far. That this is a new development was made clear by Miriam Blasio. When analysing the interviews about their current involvement as well as the most significant change stories they told. one involving a beating husband the other one with a secretary. Furthermore the stories of the female Coordinators each included a most affected victim whereas the men’s stories focused more on changes in society. one being a Muslim the other one Roman Catholic. The reason for that probably is the fact that it is not that new for men to resolve conflicts. Besides this women coordinator’s stories were about adultery. Her sister-in law advised her to take her matter to the HR Desk. much closer to the people. Men told stories about solving disputes between two old men. accepted in this position. The team was complete in February 2008. If you reflect on this point it is also closely connected to the work of a pastor. Peace said it being very happy about it and one has to keep in mind that she is going to become a pastor. Go and Come Structure Spotlight on gender issues The team of the District Coordinators consists of four women and five men. By introducing the level of HR assistants in the parishes. All of the female coordinators emphasized their part in conflict resolutions. She explained herself before him and he accepted that he has been treating his wife badly. so I decided to call him and told him that I was at the Cathedral and that I needed his service in a few minutes. Women told land-ownership cases with orphans and widows as victims. he also asked for forgiveness. Her second point for chosing the story is that it shows that people “have a place to run to when it is urgent”. He is a construction worker. that is because resolving dispute among people had been the task of Pastors and by now we perform this task together. Also a family problem of a Muslim couple was told but its main focus was on the involvment of a Councilor that had been trained in a seminar and afterwards came for help. I told him the true reason of asking him to come. “A husband had started coming home late because of adultery and beating the wife.” Ev. Both went to the District Coordinator to resolve their dispute. I asked her what her husband was doing and whether I could see him that day. The existing exception for women whose brother has marriage problems (see III 3) was used as an example of how also women can perform this task. the outreach became possible to almost every hamlet. The same day they came to me she had not slept in her home because the husband had beaten her badly. Referring to this she said that it is important that the group of Coordinators is gender balanced. Men rather emphasized the supervision of the Human Rights Assistants. Women first have to fight to be The main structure of the Human Rights Desk is a “go” structure. Men’s stories focused on the changes in society and on being accepted and needed by people from other religions and denominations and by politicians. because the pastor’s house or a church building is also a place where people run to when they are in trouble (see more below in: Go and Come Structure). so he came. Peace’s story that also focused on the cooperation between her as evangelist and the parish pastor (see Appendix: discussion of the implementers). it becomes obvious that gender matters. He also decided by himself to write a promising note that in case it happens again the wife could take any legal action against him. the transport of victims and the awareness of the public. Kabobo’s story was also picked because of Ev. Human Rights assistants are called to intervene and they go to the homes of the people who call them.
Wilson of the Kanyangereko parish on March 24th shows what kind of conflicts some Human Rights Assistant have to face: „The dispute is about a married couple. After this first project had been highly appraised by a gender and advocacy review of DMCDD a second project was designed. On the level of the diocese they have a department and office and two employed women.. As a sign of forgiveness the husband gave his wife a female goat. DMCDD’s (DMCDD Danish Mission Council Development Department. on March 15th the second followed. Each of the Assistant Coordinators that was interviewed told a story where people in need came to their house. where all the groups meet with the Bishop. The widespread outreach helped to facilitate the environment for the joint seminars. One day he came home drunk and undressed his wife saying: Today I am going to kill you! He then tied her with a rope. Grace Thomas). Danmission and MHOLA) When setting up a new structure and designing a new service the first partner is always a very important one. This conflict took a long time to resolve. 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. The wife got a chance to run away and some villagers gave her clothes and then she came to me. Then on the parish level there was also a comittee and a chairperson. 1964 an official Desk on the level of the diocese was established and a constitution was written. who wrote an agreement statement which was signed by all. This touching story. Tanzania 13 . He heard from people that his wife committed adultury with another man. told by Ev. We succeeded to have an appointment with all of them. That the homes of the Coordinators are considered to be places for people in need to bring their conflicts and pains. This meeting was also attended by the Village Chairman. Everyone from 13 to the age of 35 is still considered to belong to the youth. He took her naked to the house of the man he was accusing committing adultury with (a distance of 1 km). In the year 2006/2007 the Human Rights Desk co-operated with the Women’s Department. Youth Desk) and External Partners (DMCDD. The same on the district level. The Youth Desk serves a big section of church members.having talked to each of them beforethe husband accepted his mistake and asked for forgiveness.“ 2. this time with Danmission as funding partner and lasting for four years and four rounds of mobilization. I took the task to talk to the husband while Grace was counseling the victim (wife). whenever they have a problem – no matter how small – they consult me. In the following one even at midnight. This touching story shows how both is needed. By now in each congregation there were women’s groups and a committee. village members witnessed this. This is especially true in this case. Since that day I am a close friend of this family. and the wife forgave him. The husband further promised to stop his drinking habit. The selected target group of the HR mobilization were young couples in the villages. a local NGO providing professional legal assistance to women and children. Sister Bertha was the first to contact Danmission (the mission society of the Lutheran Church in Denmark) by writing an application to do seminars for facilitators. Important for the youth is the biannual day of the Bishop. as well as a place to save their lives and integrity became clear in the interviews. So the Desk proved to have an inofficial “come” structure. The desk was sought for by parties in conflict. In 2007/08 the Human Rights Desk cooperated with the Youth Desk of the NWD and in 2008/09 with MHOLA. Although the HR desk has not had any offices outside the diocesan office in Bukoba town. All other women work as volunteers. The Women’s and Children Desk was started in 1953 by Sister Emily a German missionary organizing small women’s group on village and parish level. people always understood the homes of the Assistants and Coordinators as safe havens. I decided to consult the other assisstant coordinator (Bi. On February 9th 2009 the first HR office on district level was opened. as a consequence the wife had moved out of the house and stayed at her home place. the safe haven to come to and the willingness of the Human Rights Assistants to go to the scene of conflict. Partners in Mobilisation Internal Partners (Women’s Department.parties in conflict. The husband was a drinker so he often came home very drunk. It started out as a diaconic service and developed into groups that run their own income generating programms. where Danmission is a big partner in) funding for this round of 2006/07 guaranteed that seminars could be paid by the Women’s Department in cooperation with the Human Rights Desk.
Mr Saulo. thus becoming even more attractive for people in need. That we are working on and for the same thing can also be seen by our Marketing. properties is common in the Kagera region. we always planned to reach.Round 2006/2007 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009 2010/11 Theme Let’s overcome domestic violence Young Couples – let’s overcome violence Righteousness exalts a people Witchcraft is violence – stop it Not yet decided In 2008/2009 the Human Rights Desk focused on “updating the legal system” (Mr. We print broschures together and our (MHOLA) T-Shirts are also orange. But of course the outreach is dependent on the existing structures. Mamas’ Hope Organization for Legal Assistance (MHOLA) is a non-profit and non-governmental membership organization. Our intervention is more direct on the district levels influencing the bylaws. because discrimination of women for example in the field of matrimonial Partner in implementation Women’s Department Youth Desk MHOLA HUYAWA Not yet decided Donor DMCDD Danmission Danmission Danmission Danmission “Just recently we conducted paralegal trainings together and we help out with the legal issues in the Human Rights seminars.” “The intense partnership of MHOLA with the Human Rights Desk has helped not only to bring about change by reconciliation but also to update the legal and the governing system. The partnership with MHOLA helped to improve the quality of the work of the Human Rights Desk. 14 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. To work on issues Dr. So in some cases we have to backup. But convincing them to see this work as a continuous priority has not worked out so far. Despite the fact that counselling is so important to people struggling with legal aspects. Just today during our meeting I had to postpone a talk about a conflict between two Islamic District leaders. MHOLA’s director about MHOLA’s aims. Secondly they are the more vulnerable.” The efforts to mobilize the society to overcome violence could only be that successfull because the Human Rights Desk had strong partners. By reminding the Executives on the Ward level on their mediation skills and the basic human rights they also get inspired again. This is paid for by a monthly fund from the Human Rights Desk. For example the Bukoba Rural District Court renewed their Working guidelines after their training. Tanzania 5/2009 . I am Roman Catholic and have already held a speech on a meeting of the Catholic church. The government has put a lot of pressure on the education of women. Furthermore by the paralegal trainings the Human Rights Desk improves existing structures of conflict resolution in the society. registered in October 2006. By doing this it reduces the costs and creates capacity. We want to add on this by providing health education and contributing to Primary Health Care and Community Based Health Care. Then the youth groups involved and targeted another big proportion of society. Saulo) by performing paralegal training. The Human Rights desk reaches those people at the bottom level. Everyone knows someone in its own family. We ask questions and distribute them so that people have criterias who is making a stand for women’s rights and who is not. which requires us to work with the existing structures.” “We also advocate for a change of laws for example of the marriage acts. Besides providing legal aid and court representation we consider counselling as important. Anthea and me have a weekly meeting. But both partners share their commitment to improve the work of people who settle diputes in society. Therefore this time not a church department but MHOLA became the partner of the Human Rights Desk. focus and cooperation with the Human Rights Desk: “The focus is on working with women. Last but not least DMCDD and Danmission finance the efforts and accompany them (monitoring and evaluation). People are aware nowadays of women rights but still we have not only an increase of Awareness but also of Violations. Empowering women and children improves family and social life in a region. Creating awareness about women’s rights and health as well as capacity building was always our aim. The focused efforts of the hundreds of women groups helped to make a strong start.” The Human Rights Desk in contrast does not focus on changing laws. We keep on influencing Ward leader’s decisions. We do not have enough money or resources to build a lot on our own.
Transportation costs are high right now. Raising Voices (Kampala). MHOLA (Bukoba) A good exception is MHOLA. men and children feel supported. From this time on the cooperation has intensified. It has become a most valuable partner of the Human Rights Desk. 2. By focusing on paralegal trainings in 2008/2009 the involvement of official authorities has intensified drastically.” Mr Saulo Malauri 3. Even though there are many NGOs in the area few seem interested in sharing their ideas and actions and even fewer in combining their potentials.” By April 2008 the Human Rights Desk and MHOLA have agreed on a Memorandum of Understanding for doing together whatever they can do better together. It adds professionalism to the Human Rights Desk. By giving legal advice and education MHOLA helps the Human Rights Desk on each level to perform their task of reconciling conflicts.V. MHOLA on the other hand can profit from the knowledge and outreach of the Human Rights Assistants. Tanzania 15 . External Networking 1. All District Coordinators have shared information with WLAC and trainings were performed together. MHOLA does service delivery for the Human Rights Desk by distributing money of the Victims Rights Support Fund (UEM and others) which makes sure that women can pay the small fees for the Tribunals as well as transportation costs. Beside that not everyone wants to be reconciled or even to talk about the issue. At our new built office I want to dedicate one room to the Human Rights Desk. It has been a good place for education and sharing information for the District Coordinators. The first posters were made in cooperation with them. Most of the time it helps a lot to reconcile a dispute if you can tell the parties what might be the legal consequences afterwards. The Human Rights Desk is seen as a reliable partner for the executive as well as the judicial branch of government in the Kagera region. 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. Coordiators and Staff. KIVULINI (Mwanza) and WLAC (Dar es Salaam) For flyers and learning materials the NGO “Raising Voices” from Kampala (Uganda) has been a major help. Their resource guide had been a good guideline. Most of the Ward Executive Officers attended the five day facilitator training seminars and afterwards in almost all wards seminars were held by them. for example the first input from Mr. When a client comes and tells his or her story the first thing I do is to call the district or Human Rights Assistant if he or she knows the case. “With the HRdesk I think our cooperation will intensify further in sharing motivation and planning. Saulo had been to improve the reporting system of the cases for the Human Rights Assistants and Coordinators. Government / State Authorities Already in 2006/2007 Ward Executive Officer’s as well as Councilors and other political leaders took part in the seminars and became facilitators. KIVULINI (Swahili meaning: “in the shade” or “shelter”) in Mwanza wants to provide safe places where women. but foremost the pictures have been helpful because they fit into the East African context. We hope that the HRdesk will continue to open regional offices. Mr Saulo put it that way: “For me the most important change that has come with the Human Rights Desk that now I have access to people who most of the time know my cases. Thereby I can give legal advice that fits to the facts. such that we can also build new branches in the regions. It has a network of over 20 community-based groups in Mwanza. They work on preventing domestic violence. Right now the Desk follows up how in about every hamlet the topic of “righteousness exalts a people” is discussed. WLAC (Women Legal Aid Center) in Dar es Salaam is giving legal advice to women with a comparable focus like MHOLA.
They came together and the husband confessed that he had beaten her. Altogether we decided to call the couple and the parents of the violent husband. The wife got beaten by her husband for a long a time and finally she decided to come forward to me the Councilor of the area. And until now there has been no problems between this couple. The Dean and Assistant to the Bishop Laurence Nshombo also told his story about a conciliation in a Muslim family. For help I advised her to see Evangelist K. at the same time he was very sorry and promised not to do it again. so they brought the case to Court which succeeded in bringing about change. Some weeks after settling the case. who is the Human Rights Assistant. so they stayed together with relatives. After coming back from Dar es Salaam I was informed that he himself settled the case and reconciled the parties. I told her: I can help you. Other Denominations and Religions). It was training on the job. They found out that the land was sold by the village chairman to a person they did not know. “The disputes I have originates from B. That he later reported his succesfull intervention to the Human Rights Coordinator shows a new attitude towards his job and mutual respect. The problem started when the father of the family got very sick and there was no way of him getting Judicial and Executive branches step in In the change story of judge Shelege the Human Rights Desk intervened and tried to reconcile the parties. Therefore I decided to consult the Coordinators again. I was about to go to Dar es Salaam and did not have the time. but there are experts for resolving disputes even out of court. The children could not stay alone in the village anylonger. After growing old some of them went back to take care of the land. The Councilor’s story showed clearly that the Human Rights Desk being a department of a Lutheran church does not hinder a Muslim councilor to refer a conflict of a Muslim family to them. He could not buy the land back but they found a solution by relocating the orphans to another land. The conflict happened out in the country [in Kyamulaile]. I went to see the Ward Chairman and told him that he is responsible to take care of orphans and to take care of their property in particular. The following case of the Coordinator of the Western District Joyce Justinian shows that a small intervention can be successful if a ward chairman steps in: 16 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. “The story is about orphan children whose parents died when they were young.“ 4. Tanzania 5/2009 . They did not succeed. living in Miembeni (Bukoba). It was selected to be the second most important change story by the non-implementer’s meeting “My story is about a Muslim family. Other Denominations and Religions Working for Justice and Human Rights by counselling and resolving disputes does not stop at the barriers of denominations and religions. so for the first time I rode my motorcycle for a long way and I could not drive it very well. It is a conflict in a Muslim family. a widow from Kyamulaile reported a similar land case. The story shows how a Ward Chairman got inspired to recognize and fulfill his possibility to intervene sucessfully.Reliable partner to the judicial branch The story told by the Dean and Assistant of the Bishop is about a Ward Tribunal working so close together with the District Coordinator of Bukoba that it agrees on three paralegal conciliation meetings (see below 4. Kibumba (North B) proves this Councilor Sufa Banuba point very well for the executive branch. It seemed to be that serious that he decided to call the District Coordinator. Before leaving I consulted the Ward Chairman. Many seminars are held in Mosques. Together they called the husband and the wife. It proves the point of being seen as a reliable partner for the judicial branch. Judge Shelege Reliable partner to the Executive branch The story of the female Muslim Councilor of the District Kassambya which was not only presented in the non-implementer’s meeting by herself but also in the coordinator’s meeting by Ev.” It is not always the dedicated interventions of the Human Rights Desk that help to bring changes. Unfortunately the same problem started again after four months. At the end of the meeting he promised not to do it again and asked for forgiveness from his wife. There are facilitators and Human Rights Assistants who are not Lutherans also. She did not only refer a Muslim family for conflict resolution to the Human Rights Desk but also stepped in to participate herself when it happened a second time. Cooperations with other religions and denominations is day-to-day business. Anglican or Catholic churches. During the appointment they explained to this husband what could have happened to him if his wife had taken him to court the first time.
In their fight for justice the Muslim family was referred to the Human Rights Desk of the Lutheran Church and the Dean of the Lutheran Church also stepped in to support them. After a consultation about this issue between Sister Bertha and Dr. where Peace and I partly participated. She said that she could not express herself before the Tribunal. So the Tribunal. one could say a “trial and error” approach. In role plays seminar participants were asked to perform one of the forms of violence. It did not start with a baseline survey but with seminars to listen to the concerns of people and where they get help. so Peace was ready to go with her and give her the voice. Mosque in the country ney for the medical expenses. The young brother sold the land without his sister in law knowing. Starting. She got advise from an unknown friend of her that the only help the friend could offer was to escort her to Peace. He confessed the story but told that he does not have and will not get that much again to pay it back. Thus it is a blessing that the Human Rights Desk does not only help people of their own denomination and religion but everyone who is in need. Flyers and posters were distributed and the contacts in the districts intensified. It got obvious that making efforts to restore justice is a task of all people. Before the cooperation with the Women’s Department in the end of 2006 Dr. He thought that his brother would die soon and then he could keep the rest of the money. the Human Rights District Coordinator of Bukoba. The wife and the one who bought the land came together. emotional and economical). On each of the four posters the man is the perpetrator and the woman the victim. So the Tribunal made another paralegal appointment and talked to the brother. The first seminar was conducted in November 2004 with leaders of institutions and pastors. who directed her to the Ward Tribunal. The experiences from these pilot seminars helped to shape the facilitators’ trainings in the end of 2006. Men felt discriminated and raised complaints. Lessons learned One problem that came up involved the first posters. But it did happen that the medical expenses were much larger than what he got from the sell.” A tribunal agrees to call on the parties for a third time even though legally the Muslim family had no right. At the end of the paralegal conciliation the one who bought the land was ready to give his land back but only if in return he would get the money. Two incidents that are not to be expected but still helped to restore justice. Despite having to start with a legal conciliation the Tribunal agreed on a paralegal conciliation. She agreed to the advice and was taken to Peace. The Tribunal explained how important the land was to the family to the one who bought the land in a third appointment. Trial and Error. she decided not to print a fifth poster but to demand that one group 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. The rightful new landowner who already made efforts to come to court agrees to give away part of his land. lessons learned? Starting with a “Trial and Error” approach As indicated above the start has been tough also due to no existing plans or role models. Tanzania 17 . Anthea’s method involved a community assessment approach by going to the people. His younger brother decided to sell the piece of land. believers and non-believers. In 2005 pilot seminars in institutions and congregations were run by the Desk and by the contact persons. The case shows that to restore justice VI. So he agreed on giving a part of the land back to the family for free. After the wife got to know that the land got sold without her permission even though it was the only land they had and depended on. Even after the medical treatment the father did not get well and then the wife also got sick. Peace and I participated in resolving the case.to the hospital because they had no money. physical. Anthea. The problem remained: Who should pay the money? They found out that the brother who sold the land did not spend all the money for the medical treatment. which belonged to his brother and spent the moDean Laurens Nshombo and Sr Bertha more is needed than abiding to the law and following the right procedure. Mobilisation and Advocacy 1. The first four posters – adapted from Raising Voices showed each one form of violence (sexual.
This might be one reason why Dr. Jesus was the one going to people in prison to reconcile them with society and the society with them. It goes hand in hand with the recognition that all forms of violence are also done to men. so the probate case was heard on one day and the same day decided. Well. The two coordinators who went to WLAC shortly after chose the cloths. In the meeting of the District Coordinators in August 2007 it was decided to buy uniform cloths for suits for all coordinators. It was after she got these information she consulted the Ward Executive Officer for help who directed her to me. Anthea selected “blessed are the peacemakers” Mt 5. Today many like to wear both the T-Shirt and Ev Anastela 18 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. Further the T-Shirt issue had an intersting preface and a follow-up.34. Usually this might be a problem for identity but in this case it fits to the message of the Human Rights Desk. Without the Human Rights Identity Card the Magistrate might not have given in that quick. that was just considered as accompanying advocacy efforts can be. M) of her late husband’s estate. a widow was chased out by the clan after her husband died. The gentlemen got suits. M -knowing that the widow had support from the HR Desk. By now people wear them everywhere in the region. But the district coordinators insisted that they were needed. we waited for hours until we got to see the Magistrate who told us the cases was already closed. He then finally agreed that the proper procedure was not followed in appointing the administrator. black with white stripes. Ev Kibumba In October 2007 the money for the first 1000 T-Shirts was available. By himself (Bw. The appointed administrator is an assessor of the Primary Court. The chairman of the coordinators had advised the colour to be a dark red and a longer text was proposed. M was not happy with the order given by the Magistrate. People in society also have to accept you The mobilisation efforts were accompanied by advocacy efforts. no dark red could be found so in consultation with a pastor in the shop Dr. He wanted to know who I am and I showed him my HRDesk Identity Card. Knowing the right solution is in many cases not enough. the fish and of course the pastor’s dress. Anthea went to buy umbrellas and heard that “orange” could be a problem she made sure to take a coordinator with her. M) he came and asked for forgiveness from the widow. Marketing in Europe and the US is about having a short and precise theme. Despite the lack of joint decision making the orange TShirts were and are very successful. The follow-up was that the next time Dr. Anthea at first was not keen to have suits. and the court declared he was the legal administrator. The story shows how important “stuff”. following that he made an order directing the clan members to conduct anotherproper. T-shirts. The preface was about the Coordinators chosing the nicest dresses they could get. Without consulting the widow the clan members had a meeting in which they appointed one of them to be the administrator (Bw. umbrellas or identity cards. Therefore Dr. The Human Rights Desk is a church department and the church has its strong “corporate identity” attributes like the cross.clan meeting.9 and in the next round “Righteousness exalts the people” Proverbs 14. above it the suit. After listening to her I decided to go with her to the Primary Court. One complaint that came up later was that it makes people look like prisoners. Follow up: Bw. She was arrested by the police and I bailed her out.” From the beginning it proved very valuable to be open to listen to the proposals of the Coordinators. How important an Identity Card can be shows the follwing story presented by a Human Rights Assistant: “My story is about a probate dispute. Tanzania 5/2009 . I told him that I am conversant with the probate procedure (learned from the seminar conducted this year) and that I know that in this case the procedure was not followed correctly. she forgave him.decided to withdraw the case. Each movement needs its marketing for advocacy and identity reasons. Bw. so as revenge he conspired with the widow’s neighbour and opened a case against her that she has destroyed her neighbours crops. Anthea decided to select orange. The message is about being a truthful witness to the gospel.always had to come up with a scene where the woman is the perpetrator. the ladies got skirts and jackets formal enough to see any government official up to the president of the republic.
5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. One time I was outside and looked: men were pealing bananas. In many occassions (132 counted) a third step. But on this day it rained a lot. As usual lunch was cooked outside. The follow up also shows that continous support for the weak makes the case against perpetrators. They only got some advice and enough money for each participant to eat and drink on the seminar. Sister Bertha told. Dr. Now and then it is possible that women and men free themselves from traditional beliefs about their roles in society. Because it was the women us who conducted the service the men helped outside and cooked. She was inspired and with the money from the DMCDD they conducted 9 (in each church district one) one-week-facilitator’s trainings for 450 participants from September 2006 to February 2007. Anthea had already visited Sister Bertha. So she wrote an application to Danmission to make new seminars on domestic violence. Some new seminars were conducted by the participants of the facilitator’s seminars. The Danish Mission Council Development Department (DMCDD) granted a fund to start new seminars. Traditionally a woman was not allowed to sue a man. The baseline survey showed that today there is an awareness that it is a form of violence when the husband resists to consult his wife before making important decisions for the whole family. The 9 facilitators’ seminars were experienced by both Sister Bertha and Dr. Even more often participants planed and used Change Stories with a focus on the impact of cooperating with the woman’s department Judge Shelege told her story about a wife suing her husband. 359 village seminars have been conducted. One follow up was a congregational meeting in Nyabugera (in the socially “difficult” South of the Diocese) with people of different tribes present. Afterwards the second step followed. Anthea went to the North. This is done by the participants themselves who get into small groups to prepare their own seminars. In Ev. Anastela’s story a woman also sues a man. A hot debate erupted which made all people present decide to go on for another day even without getting any food. The wife who takes a stand against her husband in public and the men who peel bananas are exceptions and not a new rule. Fine clothes and Identity cards help the Coordinators of the Human Rights Desk to be accepted.” The stories are examples for changes in the society concerning the division of labour between man and women. They asked her about a cooperation with the Human Rights Department. Mobilisation 2006/2007 Women’s Department and Human Rights Desk Sister Bertha of the Women’s Department had realized that to provoke a change in society on the issue of domestic violence it is important to work with men and women. 2. Dr. But Sister Bertha was suggesting to do facilitators’ trainings and let them conduct more seminars. parish and district helped to ensure that these seminars were announced in church and run correctly. Sister Bertha agreed on working with Dr. The cooperation also helped to change the atmosphere. especially the far outreach of the Women’s department which has groups headed by a committee and a leader in every congregation. People talk about the importance of rights and break with traditions which can be exemplified by the first short story. And it worked. “On World Prayer Day me and Dr. this time to get her property rights (see below 2007/2008). Dr. this time with women and men. Anthea was successful in convincing DMCDD that it is not a good idea to focus on establishing new peer groups but rather to inspire the existing one’s to improve. “come togethers” like funerals or weddings to raise the topic of domestic violence. The church structure. evolved by itself meaning without any financial support. A very important part of the trainings was to plan the further steps of mobilisation. This was only the first step. so we could not start earlier. Anthea. Tanzania 19 . Anthea as great experiences with spiritual moments. Anthea remembers talking with Sister Bertha who suggested a plan to reach every congregation. namely educative follow-up events.as someone who is legitimate to give the answer. Anthea answered that she will be retired before completing this plan. Dr. the facilitators’ seminars were conducted.
Another focus that evolved was the cooperation with Muslims. Anastela by pointing out that looking at the general concept of the desk the provoked changes in wedding issues were more profound. The husband then wanted to marry another women and he started beating the wife often. knowing that the wife would leave and he then would be able to marry. next day they chase her out and stay and sleep together with somebody else but this has decreased in some way. Impact resulting from the cooperation with the Youth Desk The problem of marrying without letting the parents know and stealing the woman (Kuleya 20 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. It’s so good to be taken serious”. The wife then left their home. Anastela’s (South A) story. Bangereza supported him. 394 village seminars were conducted. concerts and even a whole show with magicians always was performed (South A). They now know their obligations in marriage. The seminars were in many cases very energetic with a lot of songs. In Bukoba a senior Muslim woman teacher even led the evening prayer. ad-hoc choirs. One day they stay and sleep together with someone. Evart supported Ev. Tanzania 5/2009 . Marrying without letting the parents know. an expert in Christian-Muslim relations from Ruhija College. she came for help to the district pastor who then informed me about the conflict. Anastela had already ended her story with the following statement: “In general. “My story is about a dispute between a husband and wife who had lived together some period of time but they were not married yet.and Kushutula) was made aware in the community and victims got help. monitoring and evaluation. the dicussion and the arguments for picking that story and by Sister Bertha’s story from the group of the non-implementer’s. Sister Bertha’s long story originates from Ikimba (District Bukoba rural) and is about the same constellation. The target group were young couples in the villages. many couples got married after the seminar. in connection with the theme to overcome violence. Ev. Ev. In the Northern B District also the Catholic district commissionar of Missenyi attended the seminar and pushed forward that if government agencies lack good governance people should call him. dancing. The seminars we conducted to young couples were a success. Anastela’s story came in second place but with three of the coordinators’ still argueing that her story was the most important one of all. in Ihangiro young men have the habit of staying and sleeping with the women they want. Ev. Some of the facilitator’s trainings had a session with Pastor Joas Kahesi. Kuleya (with the consent of the women) and Kushutula (without the consent of the women) has decreased because of the seminars. This can be seen through Ev. Also in this case the wife knew what to do because of the seminar and went to the Social Welfare Office.” Ev. we all together decided to make an appointment with the victim and her husband. our aim was to reconcile the parties which did not succeed and it was clear that none of them was ready for conciliation. She got parts of the shared property and the husband was allowed to marry.” We use all talents 2007/2008 Youth Desk and Human Rights Desk In 2007/ 2008 the Youth Desk cooperated with the Human Rights Desk and organized 9 (in each district one) one-week-facilitator’s trainings. The Youth leaders mobilized the youth to come to the seminars. Pastor Jackson Mushendwa was the Youth Coordinator this year and the cooperation with the Human Rights Desk worked as well as the cooperation with Sister Bertha the year before. Also the non-implementers raised this issue. We then all agreed that conciliation of the marriage failed and that the wife should get her rights to some properties they had together. A quote from Youth leaders: “Finally there is a project taking up our issues and involving us youths leaders in planning.
Evart (South B) per SMS to Dr. Kibumba’s story (V 3) and by the Dean’s story (V 4). Today he confessed his mistake. apart from one seminar which was boycotted by the local leaders who came and demanded sitting allowances. Right there the second application was prepared.2009/2009 Human Rights Desk and MHOLA In 2008/2009 the Human Rights Desk is cooperating with MHOLA (Mamas’ Hope Organization for Legal Assistance) to conduct paralegal trainings for Ward Executive Officers. Story from Ev. a place were people tend to be richer than elsewhere. He returned the boy who is in 7th grade right away so that there would be a better understanding from now on. People celebrated with shouts of joy. After some hours of discussion the seminar was cancelled – without paying allowances. By April 2009 the third step has started. Step two after the 5-day-trainings were 110 one-day seminars in the wards. After a gender policy review visit from Denmark in early 2007 the team was impressed by the way gender issues were approached through the HR Desk. Selina described that in a case that can be best solved on a legal way she would go to MHOLA otherwise to the Human Rights Desk. Anthea and her team focused on improving gender relations and overcoming violence which hurts men and women alike. All hamlet chairpersons were invited to the ward seminars and there they were asked to invite the HRdesk to their hamlets. The focus has not been on the bad man Impact resulting from the cooperation with MHOLA The winning story of the Non-implementer’s has been Selina Modest’s story.” d) responsible organs are overseen and therefore perform their duty as supposed and e) is a story about experts involvement (expertism) and thus the HRD working hand in hand with MHOLA. Peace in Bukoba. Grace Sanson Ev Kabobo Selina Modest Future After the first round Dean Laurence Nshombo. Sister Bertha and Dr. Contrary to many women empowerment projects Dr. run by the participants of the trainings. The last paralegal training was run in February 2009. Hundreds of these meetings have been run and hundreds more are planned. The impact on working together with executive and judicial bodies was already described above by the Councilor’s story also brought forward by Ev Bangereza (V 3). These have all been run. It also showed that c) is not included in the story because Selina Modest is Lutheran. Ev. All Ward Executive Officers (WEO) and three members of each Ward Tribunal (WT) were invited to their respective trainings. Kabobo who is responsible at the place where Selina is living right now in Katoma. Here is a moving story from one of these hamlet meetings. On the whole they might reach 2000 hamlets. Anthea Bethge visited Danmission in Kopenhagen. Denmark in May 2007. After the teaching and answering of questions we got this story: A man whose brother had died had taken away by force the widow’s fourteen year old son and lived with him. The in depth feature further added that the contact was made by a lady telling her about the Desk in the Ward Tribunal. It was picked because it: a) includes a most affected victim b) shows the strong network of the HRD c) the acceptance in the society which is not even limited by denominational or religious differences 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. by Ev. The widow was very happy. It consists of 2-hour public meetings in the hamlets (level below village). It was most important to the Non-implementer’s to point out these changes that have occurred due to the Human Rights Desk. She shed tears of joy because of this development. Tanzania 21 . But d) was also nicely put by Selina pointing out how fair she felt treated by the Tribunal. Because her child had already started to be enstranged from her. thus ensuring quality. The fact that the Human Rights Assistants are eager to work with others and do not have to solve each case on their own has been the topic of other stories too (see the Ward Executive stepping in above V 3). Peace talked with her and handed the case over to Ev. She directed her to Ev. The in depth feature on the story showed to what high degree the cooperation of the Human Rights Desk with MHOLA is mutual and transparent. She further realized that for her plea to pay an advocate as well as her plea to write to the Court to fasten the process (which is paralegal) the Human Rights Desk would be the right contact partner. members of the Ward Tribunals and Human Rights parish assistants. This happened in Bukoba municipality. Anthea on March 23rd in 2009: „Today we had a session in the Public Hamlet Meeting Nyabure in the Kata Kasharunga. The 9 district coordinators are sent to check on some randomly chosen hamlet meetings to see how well the paralegal trainers do.
evangelists. This is especially true in Kagera region where many bad role models are still in place. With the help of financial support and supervision people who usually do not have the strength to conduct a seminar are empowered to do so. How does the mobilisation chain work? Taking into account that all Human Rights Assistants and District Coordinators as well as the ones conducting village seminars do not get paid for what they do it is important to ask why do so many people get involved even though many times they do not even get a soda? In my opinion the presentation of the work shows that for the ones conducting village seminars the following system is crucial (for the Coordinator’s see Motivation and Appreciation in the end): It works by inspiring people to become emancipated.e.do to improve their lives the seminar will be a success. many times leading to violence. They decided on a cooperation in a special advocacy effort at the end of 2009. Tanzania 5/2009 . advertisement) the church (represented by the Human Rights Desk with the help of local pastors. They usually take place close to their homes. and 132 reported follow-up events took place. From March16th to 19th 2009 the Human Rights Desk and HUYAWA had a joint seminar of the District Coordinators in Ilemera. so friends and relatives can appreciate the work. That way the seminar is experienced as their own. The winner’s team might get a goat as an award. Round two is to be finished and round three and four with three steps each are ahead in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 under the coordination of Naomi Kanyonyi the present Human Rights Assistant who takes over on May 1st 2009. Besides others (i. The religious communities will be reached by choirs singing songs and showing sketches which will mobilize the communities in religious gatherings and during half time. the power to act and the power to organize. The topic to “overcome violence” is everybody`s concern because everyone has to cope with aggressions. Geographical spread and peaks 2004-2006 Networking outside and inside the church was done and pilot seminars were conducted. Thereby small sums of money lead to more self-reliance. who wants to abuse the woman but on structures that create unhealthy dependencies. When someone can achieve that people share their insights about what to 22 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. which includes women. Action. A structure is only stable if the society enforces it. Strenghening of capacity (statistics) and Reconciliation 1. 359 one day facilitator’s seminars each also inviting local leaders. transparency and correction under safe conditions. youth and women groups) facilitates the “supervision” meaning emotional support. The second project was granted which consists of four new rounds of mobilisation (2008/2009/2010/2011). (104 seminars took place in non Lutheran settings). 2006/2007 (Women’s Department) 9 five day facilitator’s trainings with 450 participants. So the approach is twofold: have a religious and a secular voice against the violent practices of witchcraft. Close to 15 000 local leaders were informed and mobilised 3. On the global 16 days to overcome violence from November 25th to December 10th 2009 the two partners plan to conduct football championships in every ward (about 110) with the theme “Overcoming witchcraft”. VII. It is of utmost importance that the groups organize the seminars by themselves.
Participants and Coordinators make extra efforts to reach especially remote areas. Reconciliation is about making aware that a new creation is possible. Two evaluations of extern groups (Betania groups and Evangelists) show a strong mobilisation success. It is important to point out that this often goes against our moral beliefs especially in cases where a close relative got raped or killed. The crime rate in these areas is shoking. therefore. fourth “Reparation and healing” and fifth “Building new relationships”.in the seminars. Some examples for used methods in Kagera region Old seminar participants teach young one’s in the seminars Many times young men think that to have a successful marriage they have to be the powerful ones and also beat their wifes. He died for the perpetrator (see Eberhard Juengel. It may be that in Bukoba municipality not every region is reached. if any one is in Christ. The baseline survey shows that the urgent need to take action in the domestic sector has decreased in contrast to rights violations in the governance. If one accepts one’s own mistake and repents a new relationship is possible. As an old church ritual it consists of five stages. not counting their trespasses against them. Peer groups of young 2. who through Christ reconciled us to himself and gave us the ministry of reconciliation. In this way the Human Rights Desk works as a witness to the Gospel in Christian ministry. health and education sector (see below XI 2). Firstly “Breaking the silence and bearing the truth” secondly “Repenting”. Because of him Christians have the expectation that it is possible to make a new start no matter what a person did. All is from God. The seminars were the first to raise the issue of overcoming violence. in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself. The way people come to a reconciliation usually involves a process which can be understood as a liturgy. Unplaned follow-up events took place also but were not counted. God makes his appeal through us. Cor 17-22). 2007/2008 (Youth Desk) 9 five day facilitator’s trainings with 452 participants. So we are the ambassadors for Christ. god making his appeal through us” (2. behold. planned follow up events were combined with the Youth celebrations in each parish and district as well as altogether on the day of the Youth with the Bishop. It is best learned by practicing it. Evagelists and also Human Rights facilitator’s focus on resolving disputes and creating new relationships between the perpetrator and the victim. That is why the scene above out of the 2nd Corinthians starts in verse 16 with: “From now on. 109 one day facilitator’s seminars in each ward (one dissolved) each inviting all hamlet leaders and member of the ward tribunals took place and hundreds of the expected 2000 two-hours hamlet meetings have taken place so far. Some 30km through the wilderness it had been an adventurous effort of 20 facillitators who run four village seminars. All congregations of the NWD were reached and one third of the seminars were performed elsewhere by non-Lutheran facilitators. 2008/2009 9 five day paralegal facilitator’s trainings with 500 participants. thirdly “Asking for and granting forgiveness”. In February 2008 a special effort was made in South A to reach the outback. Like Christians pray every day in the Lord’s prayer: “Forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespassed against us. but the islands in lake Victoria and the Kakunyu ward in the far west of Misenyi district at the Ugandan border (you reach that place by driving 1 hour through wilderness) there is a 100 % coverage. Rwigembe parish. Das Evangelium von der Rechtfertigung des Gottlosen als Zentrum des christlichen Glaubens). the new has come. 394 one day facilitator’s seminars each also inviting local leaders (77 seminars took place in other churches or mosques and 65 in non-religous contexts).that 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. he is a new creation. a guided spiritual journey before God and led by the Holy Spirit. is. Tanzania 23 . Even criminals came and attended the seminars after realizing that it was not the police but the church who had arrived.” Jesus Christ died for our sins. Pastors. Theology and some used methods of reconciliation “Therefore. Each of us becomes an ambassador for Christ. By being a victim and working for reconciliation with the perpetrator. the old has passed away. and entrusting to us the ministry of reconciliation. we regard no one from a human point of view”.
then by education and last in the domestic sector. In the education sector the most heard advise was that teachers should be held accountable and be transferred frequently as well as that NGOs should help. the envisioning results that the society is calling for (not only what is left undone but also what might be). secondly in the clan and thirdly by religious leaders. to perceive those things that give life (health. This can be done by selecting an affirmative topic. society: health. Who takes the small children? Where do I go? Through which door? Whom can I go to? and so on.men strengthen this picture. These two first objectives focus both on the issue what still has to be changed in Kagera region. Baseline Survey The baseline survey “Violence in various sectors of society in Kagera region” was a methodolically strict survey including interviewing a sample size group (400) with a questionnaire and focused group discussions (involving 52 persons) and analysis of documents. Reflection – Monitoring and Identification For Monitoring and Evaluation it is important to focus on Appreciative Inquiry (AI). “Inquiry” means the exploration and discovery of new potentials and possibilities. vitality and excellence) to living systems to increase in value. success and potentials. VIII. The three most experienced forms of violence are abusive language. “Appreciative” means to affirm past and present strengths. in our case it could be “to have a continous strong effort in overcoming violence” by the Human Rights Desk. education. Results in b) were that in general in most cases help is not sought for with the lowest numbers in the field of domestic violence (here help is sought for in more cases than in all other sectors). called the four D’s. corruption. The planned input was about improving communications in conflict. no sharing of the income and no possibility to share decisions in the domestic sector. Many times referring on their own experiences they were the most persuasive advocates and thereby good new role models. In the health sector most people advised that the ministry of health should improve its services and that health co-workers who do not care should be made accountable. In the domestic sector most people supposed that confilcts should be solved in the Ward Tribunal. Results in general were that there should be more consultations about family problems in the community. So “safety planning” was taught. Be up to date – Safety planning In September 2007 meetings of all nine district Human Rights Committees were held. Design Further objectives were c) to receive advice from the population to overcome violence and d) to improve services of the Human Rights Desk and MHOLA. followed by violence health. gender discrimination and careless teachers in the education sector. Human Rights Desk has focused on the first two issues with the baseline survey and on the second two in this Documentation and Evaluation. The AI process can then focus on Dream and Design as well as Discovery and Destiny. seminars for couples and seminars on good governance for leaders as well as religious seminars to overcome violence in the community. In the governance sector the advise was to held leaders accountable and to be more attentive in choosing them. 1. Tanzania 5/2009 . laziness and bribe in the health sector. Dream It had the objecives a) to identify the extent and quantity of the problem of violence in four sectors of 24 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. governance and domestic and b) to find out what help is sought for by the society. It asks for the dream that can become reality. In the education sector to the headmaster and the parents. But it became clear that victims are encountered who needed immediate support while staying in the conflict. In the domestic sector to the clan. In the governance sector to the superior leaders. bad governance and bribe in the governance sector. In the health sector most of those who sought for help went to leaders of institutions and the village. Both objectives focus on how to change the design to improve (come closer to an ideal design). Men are in general less aware of violence than women. Results in a) were that the extent of violence in the governance sector is viewed the highest. Therefore when young men support this thesis in a seminar it proved to be very successful when the seminar leader asks the old men and women what they think about the thesis. the head of the village and right afterwards with the same numbers to the religious leaders and the Ward Tribunal. It is an exercise where two people sit together and imagine themselves at the place where the conflict will reappear. no money for the household. Later the ideas are shared. Then they ask each other what can and has to be done to improve the situation. sexual abuse.
Anthea to her sponsors DMCDD and Danmission that were also used in this documentation as well as in the baseline survey. To do things right is fine. and more about learning how the outcomes were shaped. One may be very effective but not relevant. At first the synod decided to take action for conflict resolution and human rights. how relevant your action were. Anthea Making judgements about activities one has to keep in mind that one may be very efficient but not effective. Each time has its needs and to meet those needs has to Pastor Ruguma be the focus. between being driven by specialized people and by stakeholders). between internal and external. Setting up Mr Tinkamwesigile and Dr. 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese.deza.pdf) an emphasis may be put on each line between extremes (between an indicator based and open question based. The NWD made a job description for Dr. People might understand the message of the seminars but the message does not help them to settle disputes or to cope with their aggressions or the violence of others. Goal and objective was specified by the mission statement. meaning on counting seminars and on a judgement about how effective an activity was taking into account what you have learned so far about mechanisms in the society. two with stakeholders and one with leaders in the community. in the beginning lets say after six months you go back to the mission statement and your new knowledge about the community and you predict the impact you had. meaning how far you contributed to the intended goal. This was the development objective.ch/ressources/resource_ en_23569. The analysis can be internal or external. Therefore the focus has been on an open question approach. Anthea on the ground of competence. All starts with intensions. The other four people (including me) are external. So the focus was more on the stakeholders. The focus was less on accountability Mrs Lydia Mulokozi and Ev Evart her programm for a year with this in mind was the output. Our focus was performed in between internal and external. Tanzania 25 . It is not supposed to be a thesis about how things went. Evart was part of the committee. If you a imagine an evaluation star (see www. between learning and accountability.admin. The regular 4-monthly Diocesan evaluation meeting checked whether the activity plan was well executed. Anthea with some general objective. We had three rounds. Then activities could begin. meaning experience and readiness to put in their efforts to get insights into the relevance of the work of the Human Rights Desk. but to do the right things is for sure far more important. Dr. Anthea checked what the reactions were and if her 4-mothly activity plan matched with her objectives. Impact Analysis – Method Multidimensions of an Impact analysis An analysis can focus on different levels of results. Here in this study the focus is on the impact. Only after some time. An example would be that many seminars were held but people did not understand the message. By getting an awareness of the community she could further improve her plans. This is to be presented on the example of the establishment of the Human Rights Desk. The chairperson of the Human Rights district coordinators Ev. Between specialised people and stakeholders. Improvements usually mainly focus on outputs and outcomes. Activities were implemented. Indicator based approaches have already been performed mainly by the reporting system of Dr. Focus of this analysis An analysis can have different focuses. This analysis was supposed to support a documentation on the Establishment of the Human Rights Desk with insights about its impact.2. The steering committee was selected by Dr. the goal.
To be able to cope in such a new situation you are dependent on becoming integrated in the society. Good conditions for new close relationships. The takeover is accompanied by positive and negative expectations: The 26 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. Added to this you have the difficulty to be left alone. The stories of the bible are a good example for this. In November 2008 the Executive Council decided that on the first of May 2009 teacher Naomi will be the one to take over the coordination of the desk. Canada or Australia). Stories can deal with complexity and context and can carry hard messages that can be remembered. the US. To cope with a different language and a different society you are forced to ask and learn a lot. Furthermore being a Mzungu it is easier not to play by the rules of the society. But on the other hand it sometimes does indeed help when somebody from outside comes and asks questions. It can be a vicious triangle of not acceptance. Tanzania 5/2009 . Because she is a teacher she had to get permission from the government to be “rented” by the North Western Diocese which was granted in February 2008. In rules that hurt and create dependencies it helps to go against authorities. Anthea to let the NWD identify. In our invitation we asked each invited member to bring one story of this kind. Therefore you are likely more open to share with other people. An office assistant and accountant is looked for right now and is expected to start in July 2009. “You cannot have a cake and eat it!” What adds to the difficulties are unhealthy expectations in the society. At first you do not have friends or a tribe you belong to so to survive you are forced to share. Before being convinced that she is the right person Dr. a foreigner. It aims to identify stories that are unique and cover strengths and passions. New challenges concerning the take over from a stranger On April 30th Dr. to share and you cannot hide. Dr. Furthermore many will use the cultural argument pretending they are coming from on another “star”. All implementers also told how they got involved in the work for the Human Rights Desk and what their current involvement is.Tool: Most Significant Change Approach To reach this objective we decided to use Rick David’s and Jess Dart’s most significant change approach. Some people do not accept the fact that both at the same time does not work. On a seminar she had given a speech on “Rights and duties of married women”. In November 2007 teacher Naomi Konyonyi was selected to be the Human Rights Assistant Coordinator. An example is the expectation of money while at the same time the condemnation of control. The specific wording of our request concerning “most significant change” was decided upon in the steering committee. Besides confidentiality the method is focused on one question: Give us a story about what in your opinion is the most important change that is connected to the existance of the Human Rights Desk!. 3. Handover of the Coordination In May 2007 after the first term of their contract the UEM agreed on the proposal of Dr. So it takes time to find spaces where you feel safe and comforted. a stranger. They did so in small groups and then discussed them in the forum and had to decide themselves for one story. employ and train a new coordinator. stories that truly draws people out of themselves and into a shared arena of thinking and acting. a Mzungu (Swahili word for white people from Europe. Anthea will hand over the coordination of the Human Rights Desk. The District Coordinators were inverviewed seperately from the group meeting. From this time on she has been working as the Human Rights Assistant. It is supported by the question: Why is this story significant to you? On a second step the group of implementers/non-implementers was supposed to select the most important one. Old challenges concerning the stranger factor The Human Rights Desk was established by Dr. One expects the good planning but one does not want to let someone to set your priorities. On the other hand also in the Kagera region wrong perceptions about foreigners that hurt them most of the time based on misunderstandings are upheld. not being open to integrate the foreigner and the same time the expectation of enjoying privileges. Besides this you are forced to ask. Anthea was very skeptical about the issue that a foreigner can have a positive impact on on a field like community violence which is very much embedded in cultural and historical contexts. Anthea Bethge. Anthea had met her already in 2006. The group of Human Rights Assistants did not pick one story. One expects advantages while at the same time condemns its side effects. This way you get a fresh look on society. Instead after everyone told their stories the two listeners had to tell what they appreciated in the story they heard. Many times you also have a network at your home country which can make you independent and is a “last resort” security.
that some professional expertise in conflict resolution might be lost and international contacts will be more difficult. the vernacular language. It is the District Coordinator’s task to supervise and support the Human Rights parish assistants. Furthermore this time the conditions are good because by the time taking over teacher Naomi will have been an assistant for one year. This creates uncertainty often accompanied by a bad feeling at first. This challenge is met by the Human Rights Desk (see Appendix: our structure 2008). The negative ones include that new personal relationships have to be built within the network of peacemakers. In bridging the “acknowledgement gap” the Christian church is very strong because it does not only teach about Jesus who was reborn but also about Jesus who died on the cross. It is typical that a Human Rights Desk has to struggle with being accepted and acknowledged. With time passing and them experiencing the advantages aknowledgment will set in. The Human Rights Desk at the German parliament struggles with a similiar issue. room and a counseling atmosphere. Having a second mediator can do that by giving advise Safe spaces for appreciative inquiry The setting to reassure safe spaces for appreciative inquiry has been established. That is one reason why it is so important to come as a team to do conciliation. nor can a bad tree bear good fruit. And she will much more easily understand the motives of people in conflict.positive ones include that the services and interventions of the HR Desk will be even more fitting to the culture and context. “A sound tree cannot bear evil fruit. By having this in mind we can reassure each other that misery and injustice does not prevail. Scaling it up to the level of structures and departments the Human Rights Desk has to be especially attentive to reflect on its actions in a safe setting and to work with incentives. But the time in between has to be bridged. On the whole positive expectations and a certain thrill of new ownership seem to pervail. 18-20). Tanzania 27 . The District Coordinator’s meet with the staff three times a year in their convention. Helping to resolve a conflict by invervening is regularly not accompanied with someone directly appreciating it. The new coordinator can be approached speaking Kihaya. Usually both sides have to agree on a new way to deal with a conflict. and support. One-to-one contacts happen on an irregular basis. IX. These are not only “think tank” meetings that follow up on opportunities and problems but also peer counsellings. But it can also already be experienced on a personal level. The establishment of the Woman’s Desk might be an example to follow. the staff of the diocese and 10 outsiders twice a year in the Human Rights District Committees. depending on need. Motivation and Appreciation The remaining challenge is to stay tuned and even improve where possible. Thus you will know them by their fruits” (Mt 7. The 102 Assistants meet with the Human Rights Coordinator of the district once a year in their conventions and with all parish pastors of the district. 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. To create safe spaces for reflection needs time.The facilitators are coordinated and supported by the 102 Human Rights Parish Assistants. The staff of the Human Rights Desk gets advice and evaluations from the Diocesan Committee for the Human Rights Desk three times a year. A time where insights and networks were shared. Therefore it is of utmost importance to have transparent structures and clear responsibilities on each level. their District Coordinator.
Except on the level of the diocese no salaries are paid. She then invited them to go with her and talk to the sister and the woman in the kitchen. One is about getting the facts straight. The second time Dr. To mention some: The Facilitators get a training with good food. But it is important that expenses are paid and losses compensated. The work of the desk has focused on the Christian message of reconciliation which is twofold. In the center of the lord’s prayer is ”forgive me my trespasses. a study tour once a year where they get around and can do networking. The problem when I become a victim of violence is to sort out what was done to me and where I contributed to this. The rule of age in the society was used to serve the rule of law. which did work. Jesus considered himself as the servant for everyone and we are supposed to do the same. The work was focused on working with existing structures. People who have overcome violence get their say and thus new role models evolved. The first time he came he could listen to them openly discussing structure. The starting time of Dr. Voices of the weak in the society became heard. By inspiring peoople to set up their own seminars the mobilisation efforts were very successful. For the good performance they also got once a special bonus of 50 USD. The District Coordinators are sent on study tours in other districts and even outside the country. That learning does not stop once you got successful shows the follow up in the T-Shirt issue. Tanzania 5/2009 . To have a setting for learning by trial and error (identifying mistakes. Conclusion and Recommendations From the beginning the focus was not on building a desk as an institution but on counseling and caring for those who seek for justice. It will remain of utmost importance that the limits are met with transparency and the readiness for trial and error. This has helped the Human Rights Desk to be accepted in its limits. The aim is to forgive yourself and others in the ways one and the others have been wrong. Churches are very conscious about the fact that their teaching is about God becoming human and not human becoming God. confessing them and not doing them again) is one of the great advantages of church instituctions. In the church Pastors and Evangelists work together to resolve conflicts. Anthea answered by calculating openly how much money for each participant was planed. Saulo told in his interview that for him transparency was a key experience with the Human Rights Desk. On seminars no sitting allowances are paid. He has not experienced this willingness to share in any other organization. the three yearly meetings. X. After a participant suggested th th that the food should be improved Dr. Peace to look for the right colour. Anthe did not go alone but with Ev.and money issues. People became inspired to work together. a Tshirt and teaching material. In 2009 they got motorcycles for transportation. Thereby new ways to live and work together with more pleasure and success for man and woman evolved and are used today. Here counselling sets in to help the victim to Limits in appreciation and giving incentives The structure remains one of volunteers working together. But more importantly they get respect when running seminars in their surroundings. T-Shirts and umbrellas. On all meetings and seminars participants re compensated their individual transportation costs. Anthea had just heard that someone from the NGO MHOLA wants to come by and he was invited to the meeting of the District Coordinators. a position including IDCard. 28 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. The Assistant Coordinators get the same trainings. as I forgive those who trespassed against me”.Mr. For transparency I can recount the experience on the Human Rights Desk/HUYAWA seminar on March 16 to 19 . Accompanying incentives Accompanying incentives have also been established on each level of the Human Rights Desk. Dr. Anthea had been a time for trial and error and thus a time of improvements. be it in the church or the society to meet the challenges of today.
parish and village. in the state and the world! 5/2009 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. Remain in the system of not paying sitting allowances or salarys! (Mt 10. Laws consist of experiences what is right and wrong in a society. The fight for justice is the main task of any judicial branch. Thus the impact of the Desk for Conflict Resolution and the Protection of Human Rights can be best descrilive in peace again. The paralegal training contributed a lot to this effort. region and in the diocese.8-11) Mind that generousity and incentives are important in a structure that mostly depend on volunteers! Continue to be strong in counseling and supervision! Giving feedback from the desk which stories help them the most makes it possible to find the best stories for reporting and applying for new projects! Continue to be a learning organisation (updating) that meets its limits with transparency! Continue to see the conflict of today as a resource for a better tomorrow! Be the salt of the earth and do not fear to fight injustice in your own family (Lk 12. By going their way through the government bodies they reasure the fact that society does care about injustice. Furthermore in many cases they can find a cause for their suffering. By reflecting on the legal situation the experience of sorting out what is right or wrong in the individual conflict can be used. especially MHOLA.52f). congregation and hamlet. district. clan. The Human Rights Desk is viewed as a reliable partner by the branches of government in Kagera region. Victims of violence do not feel left alone and many can recognize a cause of bed with pastor Keshomshahara’s words as an anti virus programme for the society in the Kagera region. They do not feel alone also because they have a male or female Human Rights Assistant in their parish to go to. A new support structure for the victims was established. Recognizing the complexity of this task the Human Rights Desk was smart not only to work spirtually but also to get together with legal experts. ward. The other one is that reconciliation is about “a new creation”. This openness helped to be able to recognize and enforce the existing structures that work for peace in the society. By “not giving in” victims can overcome violence and help others not to become victims. The Human Rights Desk oversees responsible organs to perform their duty as supposed. meaning new relationships with less dependencies. So far it thus helped to update the judicial and the executive system and also the church system in their efforts of counseling and conflict resolution. Thereby church opens itself to the society.their suffering. no matter if they have money or not or if they are a church member or not. Tanzania 29 . They get counseling and are accompanied and supported in their quest for justice. The stories showed that two facts seem to be true in many cases nowadays. It’s major focus has been on working with existing structures to meet the challenges of today. The conflict can also be a chance to find new ways of dealing with one another.
As this study shows we have already got a grassroot network of facilitators in all parishes of our Diocese who are able to facilitate seminars about overoming violence. 2. Baseline Survey. We don’t know when the changes will happen in society to abolish violence. We are very grateful to him. 3. Among them are our very able District Coordinators. Questionnaire in Kiswahili. Sister Bertha’s long story. but they also demand to be payed. Overview of Collected Stories. Naomi XII. The problem is still so big and every day we get new cases.XI. My big joys are: 1. Appendices (just in online version on ssrn. Selina’s story in depth. discussion of the non-implementer’s. How can we develop the network with other organizations and the collaboration with the government? Up to now they provide no financial support to seminars and when we use their facilitations. Postscriptum Naomi Kanyonyi Future coordinator of the Human Rights Desk from May 1st 2009 onward It was a great pleasure for us to have Richard Landsberg with us for five weeks and to evaluate the impact of our work together with him. Without his energy. How can we look after this big network of voluntary co-workers who get no allowances? The District Coordinators and their Assistant Coordinators are committed to their work. they need to be payed allowances. Tanzania 5/2009 .com/abstract=1394974) Pastor Ruguma’s story. Our structure 2008. The Human Rights Desk of NWD is already well known in the communities. 30 Documentation and Impact Analysis of the Work of the Human Rights Desk in the North Western Diocese. our Assistant Coordinators and many other facilitators from all sectors of society. his methods and his interest in our work we would never have done this joint effort and we would never have got this documentation of our work and its impact in society. I as the future coordinator of the Human Rights Desk have mixed feelings concerning my new responsibility and the development of the desk as a whole. My big challenges are: 1. discussion of the implementers. So many people come to us in order to get reconciliation and we have many local partners who help us. Mungu atusaidie – God help us. 2. May the Human Rights Desk continue to do its Christian ministry in our society of Kagera. as we take over this new responsibility.
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