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Chlorine in Water

Chlorine in Water

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Published by Ali M. Chehadeh

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Published by: Ali M. Chehadeh on Dec 10, 2011
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12/27/2013

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Chlorine in Water

Abstract
Chlorine is the common chemical used for disinfection of water and wastewater. The main objective of water chlorination is to kill and inactive the pathogens microorganisms. Chlorine gas is soluble in water and hydrolyzes rapidly to form hypochlorous acid: Cl2+H2O HOCl +H++Cl- (forward direction>4& backward direction PH<4) HOCl OCl- +H+ (forward direction>6& backward direction PH<9)

HOCl & OCl- considered as free chlorine, and they are the main disinfectors. It can be seen that the power of HOCl in disinfection is more (20-50) time the power of OCl- . Through this experiment Tap water sample has to be examined in order to measure the total chlorine by an instrument has the same principle as the spectrophotometer.

Introduction
Activity of pathogens (disease causing microorganisms) is present in domestic wastewater with the kinds and concentrations relating to the health of the contributing community. A reduction of pathogens occurs in wastewater treatment, even after chlorination the effluent still contains persistent pathogens. The primary objective of water treatment operations is eradication of pathogens.Chlorine reacts with ammonia in water to form chloramines as follows: HOCl + NH3 HOCl + NH2Cl HOCl + NHCl2 NH2Cl (Monochloramine) NHCl2 (Dichloramine) NCl3 (Trichloramine)

The chloramines formed depend on the PH of the water,the amount of ammonia available,and the temperature. Monochloramine, Dichloramine and Trichloramine are considered as combined chlorine.The total chlorine includes the free and the combined chlorine mentioned before. HOCl has more power in disinfection than OCl- , so in order to get the maximum amount of HOCl ,PH range must be between (4-6).

Objective
-To become familiar with the concept of water chlorination especially total chlorine.

Then as free chlorine residual increases. free available chlorine residual begins to develop (A). beyond it all added residual is free available chlorine. point B is generally referred to as breakpoint. Calibrate the chlorination meter using the 25 ml blank solution.Apparatus • • • 2 small graduated cylinders. . 3. Procedure 1. 3.(1). or ozone. 4. Pipet Chlorination meter Samples 1. 4. residuals develop that yield a curve similar to Fig. When all ammonia has been reacted.Chlorine first react with reducing agents present and develops no measurable residual. Add the DBD chemical and mix. Results and Discussion Results Total chlorine = 0. Put the prepared sample into the instrument and read the total chlorine. the chloramines are oxidized. and oxidation nitrogen compounds form. 2. The addition of chlorine in excess of that required to react with reducing agents results in chloramines formation. DBD (chemical). chlorine dioxide. After that additional chlorine applied to water will result in creating an equal residual.01 mg/l Discussion Chemical disinfection can be done using chlorine. Prepare a sample by adding 15 ml distilled water to10 ml of tap water. but because of high cost ozone is rarely applied solely for disinfection. 2. When chlorine is added to water containing reducing agents and ammonia. 10 ml tap water. 25 ml Blank solution. 15 ml distilled water.

power. Free residual chlorine has an importance in water networks. PH range must be between (4-6) in order to get the maximum amount of HOCl. Conclusion It can be concluded that: 1. 7. Water chlorination is the most common method used for disinfection of water. since pathogens can be found in water pipes. Total chlorine = combined chlorine + Free chlorine. 3. 5.Figure (1): Chlorine-residual curve for break point chlorination Errors in this experiment were due to: 1. Bad quality control. 3. Instrument calibration error. . 4. 6. Chloramines that result can be eliminated in wastewater effluents by the addition of reducing agents such as sulfur dioxide. Free chlorine has a bad effect on human health (carcinogens compound) more than combined chlorine. The main purpose of water disinfection is to kill and inactive the pathogens microorganisms. 2. 2. Residual chlorine resulting from disinfection of wastewater effluents is very toxic to fish. Personal errors when dealing with small amount of samples. HOCl disinfection power is more than OCl. 8.

Appendix -Sample = 10 ml (Tap water) +15 ml (distilled water) +DBD chemical.Notes .01 mg/l Reference • Lab. -Total chlorine reading = 0.

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