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Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 1. Naturally-acquired immunity may be the result of: a. b. c. d. e. 2. transfer of bone marrow from one individual to another. immunization with a vaccine. exposure to an individual who has an infectious disease. a physician administering a gamma globulin shot to someone who has had a needle stick (immunoglobulins). none of the above.
A cytokine will generally only affect a cell having: a. b. c. d. e. a receptor for that cytokine. a CD antigen on its surface. an Fc receptor. a complement receptor. none of the above.
Immunoglobulin classes are distinguished by the type of: a. b. c. d. e. light chains they possess. carbohydrate on their light chains. constant regions in their light chains. heavy chains they possess. none of the above.
The variable regions in the Fab fragments determine: a. b. c. d. e. Fc receptor specificity. conformation of the binding site to the epitope. affinity of the complement receptors. interaction of the Fab with cytokines. none of the above.
Martian immunoglobulin molecules follow the same rules of proportions that are found in human immunoglobulins. If you were told that Martian light chains had a molecular weight of 100 kDa, what would you expect the molecular weight of their IgG molecules to be? a. b. c. d. 600 kDa 10,000 kDa 40,000 kDa 750,000 kDa
monomeric immunoglobulins (two Fab’s). c. e. IgD. page 2 of 9 . 6. IgG. d. none of the above. none of the above.Microbiology 532 e. Immunology Examination J-chains are generally associated with: a. polymeric immunoglobulins (more than two Fab’s). b.
none of the above. c. a trigger of the complement cascade. e. how much you like someone. antigen receptors on immature B cells. b. Fc binding depends on it. signal transduction depends on complement activation. d.Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination 7. IgD antibody functions as: a. An immunoassay generally requires a “second’ antibody which is labeled with an enzyme or radioisotope in order to enable detection of the “first” antibody. a hormone receptor on NK cells. page 3 of 9 . 15. d. d. Immune precipitation occurs due to complement activation and the production of chemotactic factors. Avidity is important because: a. True/False (Please use “a” for true and “b” for false on your answer sheet) 11. Fc receptors on eosinophils. none of the above. none of the above. b. the concentration of complement. 14. none of the above. the amino acid sequence in the Fab regions of the antibody molecule. an ADCC receptor on NK cells. Agglutination occurs only high affinity IgG antibodies. b. c. Affinity is determined by: a. e. Fd receptors. 12. cellular homing mechanisms. Fc-binding by antibodies of the IgE class is associated with: a. interactions between Fc receptors and antigen trigger high affinity antibody production. sensitization of Mast cells and basophils. 9. 8. Avidity is important because it amplifies the binding of low affinity Fab’s. d. Cross-reaction occurs when one or more epitopes are shared by different antigens. 10. simultaneous interactions with antigen results in very strong binding. c. e. c. 13. e. multiple. b. ICAM’s.
b. all of the above. e. none of the above. Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 21.Microbiology 532 16. antibody-like receptors. Fc receptors. ensuring that antigen presenting cells interact correctly with T cells. Plasma cells are the direct result of: a. d. e. 23. 25. B cells recognize antigen using: a. Missing The clonal selection theory predicts that self-reactive clones of lymphocytes are responsible for the presence of immune responses to superantigens. e. T cells produce cytokines that enhance their responsiveness to antigen. is usually a T cell. 20. c. complement receptors. a homing mechanism. produces ICAMs which are critical for diapedesis. Immunology Examination The complement system is generally responsible for the production of substances that cause neutrophils to migrate to the site of and antibody/antigen reaction. binding complement. 17. a and c none of the above. binding antigen on the antigen presenting cell. produces cytokines which influence the NK cell while it is presented antigen. 24. b. c. 22. The MHC-encoded antigen receptors function by: a. c. T cells present antigen to them. d. may be a dendritic cell in the skin. B cells usually require T cell help to mature plasma cells because: a. d. d. none of the above. none of the above. most B cells in the circulation need thymic hormones secreted by the antigen presenting cell to mature to a plasma cell. B cell maturation. e. 18. c. page 4 of 9 . b. 19. CD antigens are not present on the surface of cells that interact with B cells. Complement may be activated in the absence of an antibody/antigen reaction. b. The antigen presenting cell a.
very log. c. b. none of the above. T cells can buy a round of beer at the bowling alley. b. True/False (Please use “a” for true and “b” for false on your answer sheet) 31. c. Monocyte maturation. providing non-specific T cell stimulation. c. a form of cell adhesion molecule. due to memory cells. c. e. very short due to the lack of antigen presenting cells. Apoptosis is a process by which: a. forming an antigen depot. c. e. c. the assays for detecting a primary response are not as sensitive. e. activating antigen-presenting cells. Cytokines are: a.Microbiology 532 b. page 5 of 9 . none of the above. soluble “messages” having antigen. a preprogrammed death process is activated. e. The lag phase of the anamnestic response is: a. d. none of the above. necrosis is activated in target cells. d. e. 28. all of the above none of the above. b. a type of ELISA analysis. b. there are no memory cells involved in the primary response. The lag phase of the primary response appears longer than the secondary response because: a. none of the above. Immunology Examination T cells maturation. 26. very short. d. d. due to the presence of accessory cells. Dendritic cells present antigen to target cells. d. very short when dendritic cells are absent. e. b. 27. complement proteins are not present in the serum during the primary response. of the lack of cytokines. Affinity maturation is the result of an active selection process for cells that produce the best antibody. 30. hormone-like proteins that are used for communications between cells. d. 29. Adjuvants function to enhance the immunogenicity of antigens by: a. NK cell maturation. none of the above.
Mast cell degranulation occurs as a result of cross-linkage of IgE Fc receptors on Mast cells. 35. 38. page 6 of 9 . Protective antibodies often block receptors used by pathogens to specifically to host cell and tissue surfaces. 37. 33. Fc and complement receptors on phagocytic cells bind opsonized bacteria and pull them into phagocytic vacuoles. 36. Immunology Examination The innate mechanisms of host immunity play a role in the defense of the body only after specific defense mechanisms have failed to defend the body. 40. Desensitization injections are thought to suppress suppressor cell activity and reduce IgG synthesis in atopic patients. Opsonization enhances the ability of Mast cells to engulf bacteria by coating the bacteria with substances against which that cell has receptors.Microbiology 532 32. Atopic individuals are people who tend to make excessive amounts of IgG antibodies. Missing Genetic factors associated with atopy only support a tendency to be atopic and do not predict a specific allergy. 34. 39.
d. neutrophil diapedesis is difficult in the presence of chemotactic factors. the presence of Fc receptors. Why? a. c. b. none of the above 46. short half-lives of the activated complement components. c. d. Complement damage is generally highly localized due to: a. the natural affinity of complement for antigen presenting cells. Neutrophils are the primary cellular infiltrate in an antibody-mediated hypersensitivity because: a. neutrophils respond to the chemotactic associated with complement activation. Hemolytic disease of the newborn (Rh incompatibility) is the result of: a. the presence of certain bacterial components. very low concentrations of the inactivated complement components in serum. Serum from an B positive. Rh negative patient agglutinates red blood cells from a patient who is Rh negative. c. b. the concentration of immune complexes in the serum drops rapidly at the end of serum sickness symptoms. e. the presence of specific antibody/antigen complexes. page 7 of 9 . the inability to activate the system in the presence of IgG antibodies. none of the above. an Rh negative mother conceiving an Rh positive child. Free antigen causes the activation of the complement system and the protease activity of one of the complement components degrades immune complexes. an Rh positive mother conceiving an Rh negative child. e. The target of the complement activity is determined by: a. b. b. c. What is the likely blood type is the second patient? a. During serum sickness. they present antigen to T cells. Antigen presenting cells rapidly bind all of the complexes in their MHC-encoded receptors. d. b and c. d. such as LPS. 42. ABO incompatibility. an Rh positive mother conceiving an Rh positive child. none of the above 44. e. e. It can’t be determined from the information provided. none of the above 43. e. Immune complexes are rapidly cleared by the body. b. b. they are capable of mediating ADCC. c. c. d. Type A Type B Type O Type AB 45.Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 41.
none of the above page 8 of 9 . Immunology Examination The immune complexes bind to Mast cells and are destroyed. e.Microbiology 532 d.
e. they are highly specific for the invading pathogens that avoid innate defenses. are poorly immunogenic. c. continuous protection in the absence of a specific immune response. The substances trigger the complement cascade and cause neutrophils to accumulate and to serve as antigen presenting cells. are given special honors due to their outstanding achievements. are hidden from detection by the immune system. they provide immediate. none of the above 49. c. tend to be processed less efficiently by antigen presenting cells. d. resulting in a larger total antigenic size which can then stimulate an immune response. e. e. d. How do these substance induce an immune response? a. Adaptive host defense mechanisms are critical to the protection of the body because: a. c.” the microorganisms activates the alternate complement pathway. These low molecular weight substances react with liver enzymes and are difficult to eliminate. b. the microorganism is not recognized by the innate host defenses. none of the above. b. none of the above 50. b.Microbiology 532 47. These substances bind to other drugs in the body and then stimulate Mast cell degranulation. Autoimmunity may occur following an infection when: a. 48. d. they are the first line of defense of the body. These substances bind to tissues and cells. d. Antigens in immunologically privileged sites: a. e. the microorganism encounters the innate host defense mechanisms. b. Immunology Examination Contact dermatitis generally occurs against substances that are considered to have a molecular weight too small to induce an immune response. they utilize pre-committed antigen presenting cells that have already been induced by other immune responses. c. the microorganism mimics self components and “breaks tolerance. none of the above page 9 of 9 .
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