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The Evolution of Populations Interactive Question 23.1 In a population of 200 mice, 98 are homozygous dominant for brown coat color (BB), 84 are heterozygous (Bb), and 18 are homozygous recessive (bb). a. The allele frequencies of this population are __ B allele __ b allele. The 98 BB mice contribute 196 B alleles, and the 84 Bb mice contribute 84 B alleles to the gene pool. These 84 Bb mice also contribute 84 b alleles, and the 18 bb mice contribute 36 b alleles. Of a total of 400 alleles, 280 are B and 120 are b. Allele frequencies are 0.7 B and 0.3 b. b. The genotype frequencies of this population are __ BB __ Bb __ bb. The frequencies of genotypes are 0.49 BB, 0.42 Bb, and 0.09 bb (98/200, 84/200, 18/200). Interactive Question 23.2 Use the allele frequencies you determined in Interactive Question 23.1 to predict the genotype frequencies of the next generation. Frequencies of B (p) = _0.7_ b (q) = _0.3_ BB (p²) = _0.49_ Bb (2pq) = _0.42_ bb (q²) = _0.09_ Interactive Question 23.3 Practice using the Hardy-Weinberg equation so that you can easily determine genotype frequencies from allele frequencies and vice versa. a. The allele frequencies in a population are A = 0.6 and a = 0.4. Predict the genotype frequencies for the next generation. 0.36; 0.48; 0.16. Plug p (0.6) and q (0.4) into the expanded binomial: p² + 2pq + q². b. What would the allele frequencies be for the generation you predicted above in part a.? 0.6; 0.4. Add the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype to ½ the frequency of the heterozygote for the frequency of p. For q, add the homozygous recessive frequency and ½ the heterozygote frequency. Alternatively, to determine q, take the square root of the homozygous recessive frequency if you are sure the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of p is then 1 – q. Interactive Question 23.4 a. What is a major source of genetic variation for bacteria and viruses? Mutation, with some recombination. b. What is the major source of genetic variation for plants and animals? Sexual recombination. c. Explain why your answers to a. and b. are different. Bacteria and viruses have very short generation times and a new beneficial mutation can increase in frequency rapidly in an asexually reproducing bacterial population. Although mutations are the source of new alleles, they are so
Suggested Answers to Structure your Knowledge 1. b. Founder Effect h. diploid population is minimal.infrequent that their contribution to genetic variation in a large.5 Fill in the following concept map that summarizes three causes of microevolution. Better Reproductive Success e. Genetic Drift c. Small Population f. Do humans have more or less genetic variation than most species? Less. Why is this allele at such a relatively high frequency in the gene pool of some African populations? Heterozygote advantage – Heterozygotes are resistant to malaria and have a selective advantage in areas where malaria is a major cause of death. we have about a tenth of the variability found in fruit fly populations. However. B and b. A gene locus has two alleles. Better still. population? Diploidy – The sickle-cell allele is hidden from selection in heterozygotes.7 a. Genetic Variation Between Populations Interactive Question 23. a.5 and bb has a relative fitness of 0.S. An equilibrium in which neither allele nor genotype frequencies will change from generation to . Interactive Question 23.6 a. sexual recombination in the production and union of gametes produces zygotes with fresh combinations of alleles each generation. create your own concept map to help you review the ways in which a population’s genetic composition may be altered. Natural Selection b. so Bb must produce the most offspring and have a relative fitness of 1. The genotype BB has a relative fitness of 0. b. Gene Flow d. Bottleneck Effect g. a. What is the relative fitness of a sterile animal? 0 Interactive Question 23. Two humans differ by about what percentage of their nucleotide bases? Humans have about a 0. Why is the highly deleterious sickle-cell allele still present in the gene pool of the U. Interactive Question 23.1% nucleotide diversity. What is the relative fitness of the genotype Bb? The two given fitness values are less than 1. b.8 a.25. What is the Hardy-Weinberg theorem? The Hardy-Weinberg theorem states that allele frequencies within a population will remain constant from one generation to the next as long as only Mendelian segregation and sexual recombination of alleles are involved.
mutation and migration are negligible.12. If a population has the following genotype frequencies. in which morphs present in higher numbers are selected against by predators or other factors. number of viable offspring (Page 464) 2. AA = 0. In a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for two alleles. (Page 456) 3. and no selective pressure operates. is another cause of balanced polymorphism. Diploidy masks recessive alleles from selection when they occur in the heterozygote. Genetic variation is retained within a population by diploidy and balancing selection.65 a = 0. the allele frequencies of a population should remain constant from one generation to the next if the population is large and only sexual recombination is involved. Define the variables of the equation for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. 0. 84% (Page 457) 6.42. Test Your Knowledge MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the one best answer. C and c. Thus. a. Frequencydependent selection. Aa = 0. the genotypes that are most fit produce the most offspring. According to the Hardy-Weinberg theorem. mating is random. 2. The frequency of homozygous offspring is (p x p) or p² and (q x q) or q². Make sure you can use this equation to determine allele frequencies and predict genotype frequencies. B and b.46. What would the frequency of heterozygotes if the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? c. depending on whether the ovum or sperm carries the p or q allele. p² + 2pq + q² = 1. what percent show the dominant trait? d.48 (Page 457) 5. increasing the frequency of adaptive alleles and eliminating less beneficial alleles from the population. 1. In the Hardy-Weinberg equation. Heterozygous individuals can be formed in two ways. the two alleles will be retained in stable frequencies within the gene pool. A = 0. Yet there remains a great deal of variability within populations of a species. In a population with two alleles. Which of the following determines an organism’s fitness? e. 16% of the population show a recessive trait. Genetic drift is likely to be seen in a population . p and q refer to the frequencies of two alleles in the gene pool.4. This Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium provides a null hypothesis to allow population geneticists to test for evolution. Balanced selection maintains several alleles at a gene locus in a population and leads to balanced polymorphism.generation requires five conditions: The population is large. In situations in which there is heterozygote advantage.35 (Page 457) 4. and their frequency is equal to 2pq. Describe some of the factors that contribute to this genetic variability. less adaptive or even harmful alleles are maintained in the gene pool and are available should selection pressures change. Assuming C is dominant to c. It seems that natural selection would work toward genetic unity. b. and aa = 0. what are the allele frequencies? c. the allele frequency of b is 0.
c. directional selection (Page 465) 17. (Page 466) .) How might you explain the persistence of this lethal allele at such a high frequency? c. She gathers seeds from samples at various altitudes. plants them in a uniform environment. Cr = 0. A plant population is found in an area that is becoming more arid. 73 animals were red (CRCR). Gene flow often results in e. You cannot estimate allele frequency from this information. and 13 were white (CrCr). From this she concludes that d. (Page 457) 13. (Page 468) 15.d. A scientist observes that the height of a certain species of asters decreases as the altitude on a mountainside increases. and determine whether the population is in HardyWeinberg equilibrium. which means that b.7. In checking lab records. polymorphism. you find that a surprising 5% of all newborns die from this trait.3. (Page 464) 14. CR = 0. and measures the height f the new plants. The greatest source of genetic variation in plant and animal populations is from b. a reduction of the allele frequency differences between populations. 63 were roan. (Page 457) 12. they are only passed on when they occur in gametes. that is very small (Page 460) 7. they do not directly produce most of the genetic variation present in a diploid population. The existence of two distinct phenotypic forms in a species is known as d. a mixture of red and white (CRCr). d. (Page 459) a. There is some sort of heterozygote advantage and perhaps selection against the homozygous dominant trait. The average heterozygosity of Drosophila is estimated to be about 14%. the height variation she initially observed was an example of nongenetic environmental influence. you discover that the same proportion of offspring have been dying from this trait in this colony for the past three years. Sexual selection will a. Estimate the allele frequencies of CR and Cr. This trend is an example of b. b. 14% of a fruit fly’s gene loci are heterozygous. c. In a large breeding colony of mice. In a random sample of a population of shorthorn cattle. 11. sexual recombination (Page 456) 16. they are most often harmful and do not get passed on. Mice that are homozygous for a lethal recessive allele die shortly after birth. you find that 48% of the mice have a coat color that indicates that they are heterozygous for a particular gene. (Page 457) 10. on average. (Page 463) 9. All of her experimental asters grow to approximately the same height. (Page 462) 8. (Mice breed several times a year and have large litters. In a study of a population of field mice. the genotype ratio is close to what would be predicted from these frequencies and the population is in equilibrium. select for traits that enhance and individual’s chance of mating. Mutations are rarely the cause of microevolution in eukaryotes because e. The average surface area of leaves has been decreasing over the generations. they occur very rarely. What would be the frequency of the dominant allele in this population? e. of all of the above.
Humans have an estimated 1. (Page 464) c. e. maintaining a high variability in a population for traits such as cell surface markers protect against pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. What does that mean? b. (Page 466) 20. Directional selection would be most likely to occur when a. (Page 464) 19. and this founder effect and subsequent genetic drift could have fixed many alleles. All of the following would tend to maintain balanced polymorphism in a population except b. A very small number of mink may have colonized this island. d.18. 23. directional selection. (Page 459) 25. If an allele is recessive and lethal in homozygotes. a population’s environment has undergone a change. you count the offspring produced by each of three different genotypes and determine that flies with the genotype AA have a relative fitness of 1. (Page 465) 22. In breeding experiments with Drosophila. (Page 468) 24. Which of the following is the most probably explanation for this genetic homogeneity? c. the allele will most likely remain in the population at a low frequency because it cannot be selected against when in a heterozygote. Which of these types of selection is mismatched with its example? e. the relative fitness of the homozygous recessive genotype is 0. B.000 olfactory receptor genes. (Page 460) 21. gene duplication. AB. Genetic analysis of a large population of mink inhabiting an island in Michigan revealed an unusual number of loci where one allele was fixed. Both c and d are correct. and O blood groups remains constant in a population (Page 465) . Sexual reproduction may be maintained by natural selection because d. AA flies have a lower fitness than do flies that are Aa or aa. stabilizing – the frequency of A. This is most likely an example of c.
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