I.

DEFINITION:
is the intentional or unintentional ending oI a Pregnancy beIore 20 weeks gestation,
the point oI viability
kinds
A. Early abortion that happened when the AOG oI the Ietus is only 12 weeks and below.
B. ate- abortion that happened when the AOG oI the Ietus is Irom 12 to 20 weeks.

Major kinds
1. Elective/ Therapeutic Abortion
is an abortion that is planned and is oI personal choice which may be due to protect the
mother`s health and well being.

. $pontaneous Abortion
is a type oI abortion that is due to a Natural cause


II. AU$E$:

Fetus abnormal Ietal Iormation due to either teratogenic or chromosomal aberration.
Maternal due to the Iollowing:
O ncreased maternal age
O $tructural abnormalities in the reproductive tract
O Maternal nIections
O %eratogenic Drugs ingestion
O hronic and $ystemic Maternal Diseases
O Nutritional DeIiciencies






III. Types of $pontaneous abortion and Management

TYPE #AMP
$
BEEDIN
G
TI$$UE
PA$$ED
E#'IA
OPENING
UTE#INE
$IZE
NU#$ING
MANAGEME
NT
%hreatened $light (
with or
without
cramps)
$light to
moderate (
bleeding
ceases)
None losed ommensur
ate with
date
Bed Rest,
sedation,
avoidance oI
coitus,
ultrasound,
observe amount
oI bleeding
nevitable Moderate Moderate to
$evere
None Open, with
membranes
or tissue
bulging
ommensur
ate with
date
Bed rest,
sedation,
transIusion may
be indicated;
observe amount
oI bleeding
ncomplete $evere $evere and
ontinuous
Placental
or Fetal
tissues
Open, with
tissue in
cervical
canal or
passage oI
tissue
$maller than
the date
Bed rest,
sedation;
observe to
determine how
much tissue is
passed, save all
available tissue,
D&E
omplete none Minimal omplete
Placenta
and Fetus
losed, with
no tissue on
ervical
anal
$maller than
the date
observe to
determine iI all
tissue has passed
Missed None; no
liIe Ielt
Brownish
Discharge
None;
prolonge
d
retention
oI tissue
losed $maller than
Expected
No speciIic
treatment
available;
oxytocin may be
used to induce
labor and
delivery
Recurrent
(habitual)
omprehensive
and conservative
care essential in
early months;
cerclage surgery
perIormed

I'. omplications of Miscarriage
O emorrhage with an incomplete miscarriage or in a woman who develops an
accompanying coagulation deIect
O nIection tends to develop in women who have lost appreciable amounts oI
blood.
O $eptic Abortion an abortion complicated by inIection.






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