Eri Banno t)j!l!f:J}d_l Yutaka Ohno :A!I!f* Yoko Sakane j:JjfllJI-1Chikako Shinagawa .H.

JII�-1-

The JapanTimes

ピーターのスキャン

ELEMENTARY JAPANESE

AN INTEGRATED COURSE IN

GENKI
Eri Banno t/i!l!f:l}dlJ!

Yutaka Ohno ::k!l!fm Yoko Sakane t/itl/M-1Chikako Shinagawa .?nJII$-1-

The Japan Times

Copyright© 1999 by Eri Banno, Yutaka Ohno, Yoko Sakane, and Chikako Shinagawa All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. First edition: May 1999 32nd printing: November 2004

Editorial assistance: guild Illustrations: Noriko Udagawa and Reiko Maruyama Cover art and Editorial design: Nakayama Design Office
Gin-o Nakayama, Mutsumi Sotoh, ond Mosotoko Muromotsu

Published by The Japan Times, Ltd. 5-4, Shibaura 4-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 1 08-0023, Japan Phone: 03-3453-2013 http:// bookclub.japantimes.co.jp/ ISB N4-7890-0963-7 Printed in Japan

:21s:iHi$�""'-O).:::.-;(���-=Mii �

..

��1:: < � ;g L.�ffl L. .. �1:0).&:JZ

��� .. �m��0� .. $$�b���n�mb�ff�L.il.�o *��� 0) J: 5 ttiD 't'' l:Blt& -9 � i 't'. 1: -1 �� � t 1t) 5 �Fa,�� L. i L- t-: b)., .'f: 0)b) lt"'l b'>.0 � .f!I[1J!O)�if;t 1::Jli.-:;· < .:t b)-z'· � t-: t � L: � 1t) i -9 o .: O)�if;t �= J: ? � .. �������-Ltt���L.��L.< .. M.f!l[�<�:21s:�0)���0��t b)-z'· � � t liif§ L- � P i-9 o

:21s:�b).%� L. t::. 0) tJ: � < 0) 1J !.< 0) .l3 b) �j't'·-t o � �= l:Blt& �= 0t-: �

...

:./ -v; -e

Y711--..;(l±\}t5(fmO)ImF'TBJ3�Jv�;:::{j::J\:�j:-Jift��Z:i;t� i l..f-:0 if:. .. 11� ��O)ff���b?�<��'?��••*���v .. *m��mL.���<h �lmE�OOm*�m$��UMO)�� .. ��� .. �fflJt&0)1���m�O)�­ w�� � lv
..

llmilRliD't''�--tilb� 1t) t::. t-:·v'l t::.:l\:1 II:./ ::r. ::y· -1 � 1-v

..

� i't''flJc:. i? � �-·

m� L. �< t-:· � '? t.: *� 1J c IL'b:H? j':) �L� '*' t-- 1.:. �::f * -t 0 ?c L.�.. :®1&�= *
ew�O)l:Bft��0� .. �����0?�rm��oom*�O)m����w0) ��::;& L. t:. 1t •t ,� 1t � i-9 o

Preface

Producing the materials for this textbook involved a long process of surveying students' needs, writing up the results, making detailed revisions to the material based on the surveys, and responding to the reactions and comments of students who used a trial version of this text. It has taken more than four years to complete this project. Our labor has been rewarded, however, because this book is based on our original plan to produce the ideal textbook-one that will enable students to learn Japanese smoothly, while also enjoying lively games and helpful illustrations.

We have an extensive list of people to thank for the completion of this textbook. First, our sincere thanks to Chiaki Sekido of the Publica· tions Department of The Japan Times for seeing this book through the publishing process. Particular acknowledgment goes to Kroko Toka· shiki who helped in the production of Lesson 11 and following, to our colleagues and trainees in the Asian Studies Program of Kansai Gaidai University who attempted the trial version and made invaluable sug­ gestions, to Kaori Tajima for her illustrations in the trial version, to Judy Okawa for translating, and to the teachers whose heartfelt guid­ ance encouraged us throughout the process. Finally, we would also like to express our gratitude to the foreign students at Kansai Gaidai University for providing us with the opportunity to write this book.

=b

<

Ll

A Day in Robert's Life 114 Family Picture 132 Barbecue 150 Kabuki 170 Winter Vacation Plans 190 After the Vacation 210 226 Feeling Ill .::'{.• I� Llthl:::/Preface·································3 :$:�1:-:Jl \"L/Introduction································· 1�/vi_..\-- r � lvCD.J.. a Japanese Writing System······· ············ ··············1a Greetings 6 New Friends 10 Shopping 30 Making a Date 54· 72 The First Date A Trip to Okinawa 96 �6� �� n .s L\'!5 (.

: :f:HI v-I' Lllv Japanese Office Workers ••A -. Iii v>j>? m11� ··�ti-t�� �12� t57 1:::16.::v Travel M6� ·••fLO)T�'/. 7 ct.:: Looking for Friends 304 T anabata Festival 310 �* fJ'/v *"::) �<v)lvl �< l_t)/v2 � 1J'"9- Japanese-English 316 English-Japanese 329 Numbers 342 $Jfj:� Conjugation Chart 344 "/J'? J...�lv0) B §2 r=:> � Sue's Diary The Folktale Kasajizo ..:? V'J::-5 .:c�....C? iJ�i..tvA m7� ms� �9� �1a� ... B * 0) ��±ffil I.t Hiragana 252 257 262 266 270 276 282 287 292 298 .0) � t::...�% (b� � rrffm J: fJ' A. � 7lJ IUv '- r7Y My Favorite Restaurant �/vO) -c iJ�l:J..>t./v m1� m2� m3� m4� m5� . � 7 *J Mary's Weekend .. 7:J ?' 7:J 7. l)��'? t. . v. Mary's Letter . * . .... Itt. Katakana v) h: i? 0) -1t v) iJ� J '- Daily Life � 7 1) �/vO) L.

IJ i90 -T::t-.:)(�{'F�.sJ�1:. rm��-rt::t&. $��!i l&.§C L.£� l "f7��*g*��liD:b•t?mG-::>l"J.:� L.AJ:<i%WJt?n�J:7 �...�<. ¥:21S=8"J�X7! ::r$u\ �* ��� L-�:zJ:i' t?..sJWJl"J."· �-rt?m��:zJ��:zJ··::d-: IJ.-::>-rtp. B::2fs:�O)IZ!Jtsztm CliH < • �39 • �u · �<) ::r1$ kfl-.: B:21S=mLtr�>J.>i9o ��x::rJffill".ff��:: t l:zJ:>� it��v:�t ")-?:: t:zJ���.f'·c-9o �I�·� II �0) 2 ffi!-.15-r·#.*-to A .:: tJ • �.:M!Jrn..:.* IJ�c..: -:J t-:�-c$>�l*9o I�fiiS -��5 I �gi5J ti.��� IJ t IJ �.. �n -r �v:� * -9 o )($�1J -r· ti. c·0) J: -:> �tm1t :b����nt-: IJ 9�:6·�2::-�$�:: t:zJ:�·-r-� *To l�g3J�. �."$�5!7JTlt-)$��FI' · :6�� < �*n -r t-:� �t-: 6?.• HJ�&R:21s:mf tf!v � Jl ti�JJ6?l" B::2fs:��$:�AO)t-: WJO)�t.:�J:. W 6? ti�i l< -r t&.::! J: ? �. B:2js:�.6:>� .E�:b{� £? n� 0) -r·.J: 7t l-r t-:��At.l &. $��:6�8 '��. �JJ�l¥J�.�fj!/Jr b .2fs:mfO)�gjJ�r.l.: ll" < t.A 1-. 1�159:: tJ llifJ < .:���:6�:: n::r�u t1F'�(.:mEifl L.: -:J �:6� -::> -r �v:�< :6).\7/.�. i:�O) cp-r·x tx:zJ� c·O) J: ? �.: �� L. �m:f:b� &. §·�0)�1�0)§{�t-9�� IJE���J lm-E��J l�*i�J :zJ�..g-J3"]�8:.A·*11*� rr�c..::�$� t "f 0)/ft:.J1o�-r· � *9o )0:!0)�BJ3� c· ti��-r·i:+� -r &.-:10 .. J �23�-rWX&B::2fs:m:f0)$�:.� 0) -r·. B::2fs:��1!ll� L.J: 7 · �. ��5 I�g3 • · :)[$1i X$t. lllfi *�.t-:�·:r-tsJ �e:·��WJ td�H'!. "fO)�l.:: C�§�c l'"'CP*9o JEf{i(. r.r{�7 L-* 9o :k$:�1:Ji t t J: IJ.:*t.:: t � fij:j:}j! t ll" " ) * 90 HJJ�& �*� �:flv � J t::t�t-EI�tr t l-r.:: c:b:.ti:k� < ���t · )($�JffiU 1&/t#��KIJ 1�7KJ :zJ:>£?1P'J��n-r�v:�i9o ..J O)��ti.DJT..:mkF1¥J L-. �O)fJJWJ �.� J.�:f±�A.DJT O)fflHt:b) t?fl'i$." ' t� c: � 7J• '8 L-n * -tt !vo :: n t? O)JJi § ti*'*��:@ L--r.:: � \.

�rJ! EI t:t T � -r rxr:tJ 0) cp -c·m!ifi L--r � t'J * T0 �� �:t �t.t��O)$�a��YJ��t:.(ffiO)iQJ{!&) �5F�-r�t:�i-li"lvo 82js:�0)7:7 -l!/ l. �0)1/}-*-�3/f..-"<..(c. �� < It) lvJ iJ�� I) i -:9 0 l$�j0)$0)�-�-f0)�0)8��<1J��I±l-r�iT�.t:tLfb�EJJ.t> tJ * 9 � 1 � t� z �-c·�i�fig>Ju�::l¥�� 0 :fJVF�.:c�J:�-r . %$�J.(""n�msJln��.:t.:{Ji!. .:t§t��.::�37U � -r � fJ.(c·) iJ{� � t..(.d:: 1:m�") 1 :r t.�R-r·J 0)J: -5 �.�t.-10 1k0) ���J -r·J& tJ � t�Y. M�t.:: �lv· c �J 0) J: -5 �.:ij(cYJ. n-r 1.:�)W-e·� iTo i f.:00� -r�2Js:��i:P Glitffl��" cWl��s"J�.:�ic&?-r� '?iTo .:: -r��A��0-r�IJ'iTo . m10•0) r.: -f 0)�0) !. 1ft m ?�*-rii !t �•� �= t:t T �-r ���f:Jt�c� "C�IJ'iT#.:: t� -J n�""")-c·� J: -? 0 m 3 �n� .**�� ���3J �Jit.-.( '? �� < ii-�t>--c � '? iTO)l'·..:.t-J �::lliEiffil* t (9)--c �IJiTo -�� 1**1?51J�:t .:O)•*���Q����I)'i�/vo t.lUt::m5F�-r�IJ iTo it:. �IDW2f��-�O)Jlt5t. .. $�#iJ� .JU0)��3�1'F6**�t...:g.t:t:!:lhf.. 8J 0) EPiJ�--:J It:"�-"(""* 9o CD �.t--c·t.:./.f! §�...:g.:h.:: t. -fO)�O) ���3J c ���J 1:1±1-r < ����t::.:0)7�7-.m�:r-r < t.-� lt1o e:>o� �t-. ._t(. ���t!.� . I�ffi5J �:tl.:{. < '?�� -r § -? **�� -:r � . 9£��1 / r.: � t. � h-r :13 IJ. $�::r3�:t�§l'·§�-t �.�:T CD O)�Ff�.t�.(<B2Js:�#�����J:-5���� "C£>1) 'iTo � � iJ�---:J �.:�. 1E!(� L--r It>�A t �� �. h� J:-5t.tmEY=J �:t .. m3�iJ).(c·t: J: 6�f� t�-�To �T�.JU?'CO) CD t::��� h-r"" i -:9o $���.: �.(:l3. -f0)�0)$�0)f±.:O)��A�� .. rx?tJO)�f&O) r�:�:J?. fx:�l''$/v l''ltC> �$��t. ����-B���--:J��Q · J: -J �.iJl C: &))($�EjJ �lm/v l''iJ.:I�Jl� t:.t�f t tj>�a�-r·To ·�5b •O)R·����Jitt.:0) cf:l"L\ r fi�Jt. ..::..$�i. �*t.t..ffi �-rJ.�..(�2js:**� �:t CD �. .: cnniJfjg-c·To ik.� .O)�t.� h-rv) * TiJ� G.O)*l��m-�..-.(�-rt.= tB -r < Q���= ti * ErJiJ�Nt:r-r c. 3 /i.t:o y :7 �.�:EJ?.)v l'' < f�· � \. ���JO)ft•��liccYJO)a�J#�IJiTo . mlBO)It. ..:: �:tm� t �.::i@.it:.(�t ?i&?.:t-�® �· t �.( tJ�.f�®T6J: -5 �.:n�WRO)$��§�mh�b� · t:.t .(x?t���t::--:Jit>-r t:t.t�0)7:7-e/ l. iJ)t..: 0) CD �!if] It::.: t �lJJ&?i -:r 0 -��� l�mJ t:�:t.iJX��f�A� (t!tf�Fa.. -r.V . 7:7�/}-���'i1J�&-�f.

:� . �« � t> O)l'·9a -1J. 1�*� �-= �J:..: 'f.·IJ�v)t-: '? 9� � t �-= J::-=> '"C. M3��-� �*"li:��G * 90 m 3 �..$..���0)'1'�-=�� �. ��J t �. fJJ*& v «.�/J{ �{5J)5t <i>*-*�G '"C < t! �Po . wtWf­ �t 8<�'li:��Gi9a Ml��V���-. :1J 'li:t:i!f-::> --ct.... -:Jii'Jfi0)$00�0)���-AGk t> O)l''9a Wli�OZJ.::.:7F�nt.../J{� '? * 90)-r·.:C O)�l'Jt 7..:}.J. �i' .Jf... �OZJ..t. iJ:i * v:f � n --c t.......:b IJ i 9 /J). r�:BtJ t p? $�0)$-c·tJ: r ::If'/ J e: WEOZJ.:b�O)l'·.�-�-O)���J: ... (...:1J t> :: O)ffJS5J'�. (i!\/) book E .it.> 0)"'[·.? tJ*tJ: r ::If 7 J e: �}).:A-::> c t_...� t> 0) t> .-2·��?��'li:��Gk� . if7J)�1�9 �t�fliJ:i'� 1J i 9a Ct. * 9o) .) �/ti'tOZJ. * / :i) I ·a .: t 7..-.:1J-r· .f.-.::.J .1f.• B . basis) l\II r. �#��� I�OZJ.. . B:zls:�OX)(*��U. -f 0)��-r·$�*JTI±I1:l$7J:i·t��� n-ct."li:'ffjCA.t... * 9 o �J3. Jt 7.:c 0) J:: ? �rm�Er'-J�WEOZJ..$.. v�IJ)�-r-�b)nt-: 'f.->o ?�*��i t) ""f 0) J:: ? �-= � -::> '"[ 1.$. Y:.:. -JJtJ. �. tJ""fO) J::? �mRX:-r-9 0 -��* r�*��.>O)�IfimOZJ. 7 O)IDcOZJ .. ... i 9a ��-r-�150)t:l$��Ui9/J{..-./ : tt (bool�.:�JII& �Jl.����Jt'·�J: . t>.. < J::? �-= Gc < t!. t> 1fWEOZJ.&!�0)$-c·{�bnt.._ i.:*g2 � n --c �.� t. 1�$0) $ �-= �J: 37 < O)ID'LOZJ.) * 90 017 : * if. -r :t ....J. * cb�ll� ®��0)�� @�RID� ®t®�-=7F�ntd�$�!i!�O)mOZJ.Z�O)�.b � bG t.A t­ O)r�*��.-) * 9o ® t ®-r· 0) LJ:t �. mB:o/G-9-:JJ!t. :1J�if:!�ti.� ( ..v . J:))r}O) t 0) tJ:�� C G '"C*t:ff...: �i . 7-7 f.:�J:WJ!I!iJ).Z '"Cv./Ms./) Japan J..�9a�?���-�nk<f.>O)tJ: lwllmOZJ.t.: .::� <�* {> c �lv) Japanese (�)- . -:Ji '? a:z�s: ��*O)•OZJ. * 9/J)...t < '"C t /Jl i It> i 1± fvo -f n-t:·n0)19i!*ti. Yamamoto .

:��m� l. �l:ti��(J:-fO)t�/Jt..:c. �WiJ�. -fO)!t!�iJ)�/\�ht.)J�t=$�L -c v> � 1 91J{. � ?J�-c. ���� 3 �J.:.tD�� < v:-..tFo.. ���·x$mJ��-�R� -J.:'f¥. :8 0) � cp.JtJ19'J���z::ftE m m��t:: -2i*n -cv :-.--c� <kiifajtJ)'�-lt--c £:b �i�o -�O)·B�. ���·x$�JO)h-�$���=c.'/ -t 1.t���. iJ)/.t. -c L. �Wf.1 L t.lvj �it{jlftL* Lt:o ---:JtJ:.B.�t. -f O)ffu�.:-.ifs:��J& �_tJ:f-c v:-. . �� ID'GM2fs:Jtt.t c:·.:t. m Lh-�Tv :-. llmh-��•J ·�. U'G�i.:·$-��Jt$.m�:t -c <t� � v :-.:�O):i=%�*Ll:Pi�o �ro� < t->fv-c·t.£:b� J: 7 � t 0) �J:. :R� �jl� It� C:'iJ)� L -c t-:.:-. WJ�ij]O)i'lfffl� c WJ�Bij]O)tf0)�1��1 c llbt..1::0 ')' :7 tJ)�:FF �n-c t. ��O)t���Z:: �j:.::.c.@. -c O)J..ffiJ ��0)i£:bv:-.h.t�i�h��•JO)mlB�.:t.t c:·.:t. tfS2�J�. �!i[[ffl�li +irJIIt=¥-f� L* LJ. --c 0)14fro. � 1 �·1 i.1 � .:-..ifs:Jtt.: c � §� c L --c v:-. ����·:X$f.�.c::mfiX L l"l. J: -:5 �= l[..t. f0�.:t.: iJ{.: L -c £:b IJ *�o (. *�.1��JfO) B:.. 19 o -fn1 -r·tz:: i �51i · Jt$�J o Hflv � I J �z:: �J:.:o ��3�R����. -f L l"i5 <**�iJ)IWZ-lt-c £:b �1 �o lm�lf­ �o ���0)�1&�z::�. � 1 �.�i. £::l$::1'IkJ�. i��f&.:o •?ntz::M� ntd&=f:t. i��O)**�.:t. 1iR <.�1'1"� Fo.b IJ iJ)�iJ{fjN '? -c j.:O)o-7=f: f:Jt�c�J: cb <* -r· t :fmWJI¥1 t. ·���ML--c���$��.-���m·���-�-��. .t t 0) ��iJ�. �<Ni�c Ll"f!=xf-l::oy:7iJ)���n cV>i�o - :. ���7 .:t.tiJ)fjN '? l £:b �* -li" fvo i.::l$::)C�:: P'J?G tz:: J t-.�-:)j tml�. ?��O)��iJ)WI� c �n-c E IJ. fJ1k&O)$>m1!t t= tJ:��-r. =¥�.: t.. 1 � o -f w:x r.@-�O)�lffliJ)��0)7Jv 7 7 « '/ Hl�z::W��n -cv� * 9 o �I§· mn�-cn:c·nO)��t:: �� < t-. $�0)��iJ{�.) *9 0 il*��c�J: .b �iJ{/. l&I'LWf.�j � � �· � t-.:t�L.*�o CIJJl>�* f�O)!t!��� :::1 7 b t=m��n -c 1.· c tz::.0 v t. IJ *� 0 U'.. /:t�i. Hflv � ll j �: �. �iffi��m�L l:t->* - 0)�1 r·t:�A.. � 1 �o �l:ti-Mt � :.:t. o-?��m�L*L�o .t· h?h���tL.tff�P:O)**��:1m C --c�=f:tz::tlnl:t-> < .::l$::)(c P'J?£Hz:: ·:H:-.:t. $��0)�j:g�g�L§ i .� J: r - .:g3Z c � -r-��c L -c l_.-� r·�fvtL)<:$�-ifflO)��iJ)WJ� c � n--c E IJ. 2fs:x�J:¥2fs:akJ�=.ifs:Jt-r·O)�tf:\ftlt:}��� n-c t_. -cn�n�BLi�o � /'(-c .t���J:7R.fv-r·.)1 To ��O)fii��. . h?h��mz•�.:t. *Lt..

�n t.:: EIJAilU � n t� El 21-'�::>t-c· ti.:: J: v.:: t iJ)' Gl? fJ � "9 o Xf �.:: J: -r t.:J.: = -:J 0) r�iJ)� -::5 iJ� 1t) �.� �W1* � >'! � .:Jli:v)*1/. �"�.• �.! L. �1* �.FJWJ'(.i1J:>�<�'"C'To 19U : �f4�1* q.$: '? 'L--:J �= -:J �iJ) � �it =F:.:: t iJ)-c· � � "9 o t.t §?til�-�< ::>t�OJ .=g-t. � � � � <--:? '/ � f.$: � ''- � ry ll. ��� J: :2js:)t0) B21-'��i.!i-�Xf � '- � '-- t) '> b s '-- � "- � t-' v .. � � �.v t "9 � .fs:-c·-ttJ� t?.'f �. �.:c J''. 7i:J. IQ � � � � � <"'-?' -:2..:U:: lv t'iJ) f�M�1*J OJit=1*<:Jil� n 'Lv) � "9 o �f4if1$:t.::.:: '? '? iJ:>J? � 0)'"('.t.t=Fi!f�Xf 'L iJ� � fJ � i'J) � � IJ � "9 o !f.

Hopefully. and the Appendix. A. fluency.. reading.. Reading and Writing. Because the Dialogue section of each lesson covers a lot of ne\Y grammar and vocabulary. and complexity so that students using the material would not end up speaking accurately yet in a stilted manner. which is divided into two volumes. students will have at least a basic knowledge of English. and their families. students may feel it is too difficult . speaking. nor fluently yet employ­ ing only simple grammatical structures. By practicing natural expressions and aizuchi (responses that make conversations go smoothly). students are able to understand how sentences are connected and how some phrases are shortened in daily conversation. but it is also effective for high school students and adults who are beginning to learn Jap anese either at school or on their own. A detailed explanation of each part follows. The Dialogue and Grammar section of each lesson is comprised of the following components: enialogue The dialogues revolve around the lives of foreign students living in Japan. their friends. presenting various scenes that students are likely to face in their daily lives. The book is designed mainly for use in uniYersity and college courses. Dialogue and Grammar The Dialogue and Grammar section aims at improving students' speaking and listening abilities by learning basic grammar and increasing yocabulary. because grammar explanations are given in English. and writing) in order to cultivate overall Japanese-language ability. Students can complete the elementary-level study of Japanese in the 23 lessons of this text. Much emphasis has been placed on balancing accuracy.Introduction Aim • I and purpose GENKI: An Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese is a textbook for beginners in the study of the Japanese language. H Structure of the textbook This textbook basically consists of three sections: Dialogue and Grammar. GENKI: An Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese is a comprehensive approach to developing the four basic language skills (listening.

Therefore. some questions combine various topics covered in the lesson. The accent of a Japanese word varies considerably. and by parts of speech in Lesson 3 and following. but students are not required to memorize them. ePractice This section includes questions related to what was taught in each section of the lesson. Words found in the Vocabulary section of each lesson appear frequently in subse­ quent lessons. Necessary explanations for the grammar and vocabulary that are not found in the Practice section can be found in the Expression Notes at the end of each Grammar section. but try to imitate as closely as possible the intonation heard on the accompanying CD. This textbook does not indicate a word's accents.• to understand at first. and its connection with other vwrds. depending on the region. 8) and recorded on the·c D. The exercises with only one answer are marked with students the opportunity to practice on their own. After Lesson 2. eGrammar Grammar explanations are detailed. Words that appear in the Dialogue are marked with an asterisk ( * ). The last part of the Practice section contains Review Exercises. Dialogues are recorded on the accompanying CD. students can naturally build up their Japanese-language ability. so that students can easily study them on their own. the speaker's age (including the genera­ tion gap between speakers). Students are encouraged to practice regularly by_ listening to the CD and carefully noting pronunciation and intonation. Words are listed according to their function in Lessons 1 and 2. all words presented in the text are also found in the Index at the end of each volume. Students at school are expected to read the grammar explanations before each class. This section also fully explains the items found in the Practice section that follows. thus students are encouraged to learn them little by little each day. Don't be overly concerned. providing students with both basic practice and application. the word's paradigmatic form. In addition. For example. allowing . By answering the ques­ tions sequentially. commonly used kanji equivalents of some words (J oyo Kanji) are also listed. and some call for the creation of new phrases based on what was learned in the Dialogue section. however. because the grammar and vocabulary will gradually take root with practice. which incorporate aspects of the lesson as a whole. don't be overly concerned about the accent. evo c abulary The Vocabulary section presents all the new words encountered in both the Dialogue and Practice sections of each lesson.

. as in "Time and age" in Lesson 1. Students should practice ./i\Is. (.t t t �lv) 1\Ir. or Chinese reading. or expressions suitable at certain times or places.:::. Shaded readings and words in each lesson should be memorized. as in "At the station" in Lesson 10.. Hiragana is introduced in Lesson 1. hiragana indicates the kun'yomi. Reading and Writing The Reading and \iVriting section aims to foster comprehension and writing ability by learning Japanese characters and by providing opportunities to practice both reading and writing. Words introduced in the Supplement section are found in the Index of each volume. B .tY) Japan E?f. The others are for reference. Yamamoto (boo�. From Lesson 3.Introduction <IIIII • Supplement Finally.. each lesson contains the following components: Kanji 1ist Each new kanji introduced in a lesson is contained in a list. A practice sheet for each kanji is provided in the Reading and Writing section of the ·workbook." which becomes "ga(k)" when the kanji is used in the word ¥.ft.:::.. while katakana indicates the on'yomi. basis) (3) meaning (7) stroke order (6) total strokes Among the readings shown in (4) and (5). so students don't need to memorize them.. This makes it easy to memorize a few each day. Although some kanji have many readings. This includes expressions related to the topic of the lesson. Such derivative readings are also included in (4) and (5).� (. or Japanese readings for a kanji. some lessons include additional or supplementary information. and kanji in Lesson 3 and following. followed by katakana in Lesson 2. Both kun'yomi and on 'yomi are sometimes altered in compounds of two or more kanji. only those readings that are useful at an elementary level are included. rather than be overwhelmed with so many at once. cp serial number (?) 017 kanji (1) reading (�) compounds including the kanji * (it>') book ·a ?f. the ordinary pronunciation of ¥ is "gaku.l\Y:i) Japanese �*-�!v (�. each with about 15 kanji. For example.

In the English-Japanese Index. such as having students reconstruct a kanji from its various parts or make new words by combining kanji. in hiragana order. They are easy to understand if the student has learned the vocabulary and grammar taught previously in the Dialogue and Grammar section. Finally. . according to the stroke order shown on the kanji list in the textbook. Also included in the Appendix are tables of verb conj ugations as well as sound inflections of the expressions related to numbers. Hiragana is used instead. students will realize the goal of practice-to become more proficient in their use of kanji. readings for comprehension. Appendix Volumes 1 and 2 both contain an Index. Kanji is used for the most commonly used characters. With a knowledge of the previous­ ly learned vocabulary. and writing practice. ePractice GENKI I consists of kanji practice. the readings are short and deal with subjects familiar to the students. Finally. IH Orthography and font The basic text is written in kanji and hiragana.. a corresponding word list is provided. however. Basically. questions about the content of the readings. C . when the J oyo Kanji equivalent would not be necessary for beginning students of Japanese. lists words found in the Vocabulary and Supplement section of each lesson. and writing practice. questions about the content of the readings. grammar. \i\Tord lists are provided for newly introduced vocabulary. ranging from letters and fables to essays and advertisements. the readings are easy to understand but grow longer and more difficult in later lessons. GENKI II contains readings for comprehension. The number next to a word indicates the lesson in which the word was introduced.• writing the kanji repeatedly. and kanji. The Japanese-English Index. composition topics are given for writing practice. English equivalents to Japanese words are arranged in alpha­ betical order. The readings employ various styles of Japanese. composition topics are introduced. those that appear in the official list of J oyo Kanji. By tackling these problems. Kanji practice includes various types of questions. When readings include new words.

However..._ '7 � � rJ b � - --\" -5( 1. but use them only as a learning aid.Introduction <411 • So that students can easily study the Dialogue and Grammar section. ). in order to promote the students' increasing acquisition of kanji. Students will encounter a variety of fonts used for Japanese materials.. where pronunciations of the kanji already presented are not indicated in hiragana.. Greetings and Lessons 1 and 2 are represented in hiragana and katakana. The Japanese in the basic text is set mainly i n the Textbook font. which resembles handwriting and serves as a good model for students.. '-- "- <-- � � t-' � . of the Reading and ·writing section. It is best not to rely too much on the romanizations. and should be aware that the shape of some characters differ considerably. Example: Textbook font Mincho font Gothic font Handwriting � '' � � icJ . depending on the font used. the pronuncia­ tion of every kanji is indicated in hiragana...... Tote especially that with some characters.. as well as by romanized forms. however. Students study kanji from Lesson 3 in the Reading and Vlriting section.. t) 0 '--. '2 � � � (. to lessen the burden on the students and allmY them to study on their own. respectively... Students study hiragana and katakana in Lessons 1 and 2. we find two separate strokes in one style are merged into a single stroke.

. As you can see in the above example. l te (:: to t: na t: m nu " fi:J. represent not just sounds but also meanings. and so on. you will have the skill to transcribe all of the Japanese sounds. All three characters can be seen in a single sentence. and kanji. hiragana has a roundish shape and is used for conjugation endings. Mostly. which has rather straight lines.• ( 7 v t:• katakana h Japanese Writing System ) 1 There are three kinds of characters in Japanese: hiragana. signs. � a \ \ z J u " � e j? 0 '� ir ka � '- ki � L ku < ke tt ko sa *shi -t su -:J *tsu 1!se 2(so f:. kanji are used for nouns and the sterns of verbs and adjectives. ta *chi -t. Hiragana and katakana. the Japanese word for "television" is written in katakana as Tv t:' (terebi). like the alphabet. i r a g a n a Basic Hiragana Syllables There are forty-six basic hiragana syllables. CDH 1. . � Jt �--j�_ � o lJ. represent sounds. is normally used for writing loanwords and foreign names. katakana. For example. and native Japanese words not covered by kanji_ Katakana.!f. function words. Once you memorize this chart. Kanji. which are listed below. tl ne """ (}) no ha t1 u hi I ��' fu he ho I tl I 1 There is another writing system called romaji (Roman letters) which is used for station names.C!ff�!?�- 1 watch television. or Chinese characters.

. ).. and b. With a pair of short diagonal strokes ( .· (ji) and -5 (zu) are pro­ pa (i lj pz nounced the same as t (ji) pu pe po and ·f' (zu)._ -tf' ze ge tj' 'go �'' �' zo t. • ma i mz h. . respectively... Hiragana with Diacritical lVIarks You can transcribe 23 additional sounds by adding diacritical marks. zu �J" ... Tl bi }Z " -( de ""' be do (::'' 1' * (..Japanese Writing System . '- gi �' \. ... -/)f ga �. the unvoiced consonants k. The consonant h changes top with the addition of a small circle C). ro wa ib £ n � **o *The syllables l. z. chi. t.. and -? are romanized as shi. I tsu. 2." The romanization is given for general pronunciation reference. respectively.f' ba bu ' bo t:. closer to the English pronunci­ ation. -t?. gu <'' za f!_ da }Z * L: * f zu -. **�is also pronounced as "wo. and h become voiced consonants g.. :fL re .. and have limited use. and which is I I I s. d. mu c I me d) I mo t Jf> ya ra G f) rz yu ry ru yo l .. respectively.

J: myo lj� pya ljvp pyu LIJ: pyo �) � rya f) vjJ ryu f) J: ryo 4. and J: follow after letters in the second column (i-vowel hiragana.� mya 7. .-vp myu h.Js. �=. Examples: S lv ·� "' \ 5. �.. h' t:::.' vjJ gyu . are ''vritten with lv + a hiragana with an initial n sound (tj:.'"'? h' L Note that double consonant n's. The contracted sound represents a single syllable.' J: 'gyo L� sha Lvp shu LJ: sho L� . and are used to transcribe contracted sounds. except "'\) Transcribing Contracted Sounds �� kya �vp kyu �J: kyo 5'� gya \. h' '"'? t:::.a Lvp )U LJ: )0 t� cha t.• 3. the pronunciation of the vowel . f1:>.lv sannen annaz (3 years) (guide) Other Issues Relating to Transcription and Pronunciation A Long Vowels When the same vowel is placed one right after the other. � '"'? katta sakka ha12Qa zasshi (won) (writer) (leaf) (magazine) kata (shoulder) U: '"'? tJ �.Js.vp chu tJ: cho 1:: � nya l:: vjJ nyu t:: J: nyo u� hya Uvp hyu UJ: hyo rl� by a (} vjJ byu rJ' J: byo 7. � lv :tl.. There is another small letter as tt and pp.... Examples: Transcribing Double Consonants --:J. which is used when transcribing double consonants such cf. b. or 0). as in sannen (3 years). Small �.

zsan (aunt) (uncle) cf. p. C ee uu The long ee sound is usually transcribed by adding an "'to an e-vowel gana.f' . for historical reasons. }_." . There are. '1J"' eega � !v (moYie) (big sister) oo B tl � The long oo oneesan sound is in most cases transcribed by adding an -J to an a-vowel lziragana. • • 2 C. s. Example: T ." or the English interjection "uh-uh." 1 �h: onna (woman) sampo (stroll) � ll' maoga (comics) . you do not need to worry too much about its pronunciatiOn. You hear nasalized vowels in French words such as "bon. and b sounds." Followed by k and g sounds.Japanese Writing System � • becomes about t"·ice as long as the single yoweL Be sure to hold the sound long enough. Japanese speakers are normally not aware of the different sound . however.") of an utterance. d.. and h). (Nasalized vowels are shown Followed by n. � is pronounced as "n. Pronunciation of lv (Ia w) (ten) lv "n" is treated like a full syllable. aa zz B t. B ti' � !v obasan � !v o. Vowels to Be Dropped The vowels i and s.it.rv OJ11San Sllllll (grandmother) (grandfather) (number) cf.-alues of lv. and n� � �' li � B � >j: ::> reai (romance) ho (book) z sounds. lv indicates that the preceding vowel is long and nasalized. because the length of the YO\Yel can change one word to another.. �is pronounced as "m. t.:X "'C"T s(u)kides(u) 20ne variety of the �pronunciation merits discussing here. words in which the long vowel is transcribed with an B. � is pronounced as "ng" as in "song." Followed by m. p. depending on the sound that follows it. When it is followed by a vowel or at the end here with a tilde above vowel letters. hooritsu too B. Therefore. (I like it.> � !v obaasan 4-' l'' ' '�' n 1." as in "no. in which :Z is used instead of � \.) or a t the end of an utterance preceded by voiceless consonants. ho\Yever. t. however. hira­ "'· There are a few words. Its pronunciation varies. u are sometimes dropped when placed between voiceless consonants (k. in terms of length.

. Examples: &.. z Q)K atak a n a 7 a 1 z 7 u :L e .• D. and to 'Y are / n as shi... . and give a respectively.A su . f::..tzse ") so � ta *chi 1- *tsu 'J T te to r -T nz na /\ nu y. _ (name) (high) _ _ __ ka_. The pitch patterns in Japanese vary greatly. closer English pronunciation.< mo -f: 3 yo f ya . ne """' / no t hi 7 fu ha -::< ma he * ho mz ' ' .. chi. in Japanese each syllable is pronounced approximately in equal length and stress.IJ� I. 7.f 0 ka j.> � it�i. .. Unlike the English stress accent in which stressed syllables tend to be pronounced longer and louder.\ _ a _-__ _ sa (morning) ___ na ta :ma � . depending on the region of the country.f ki ku 7 7 ke :1 ko � sa y *shi .f-.. Y. Accent in the Japanese Language Japanese has a pitch accent: all syllables are pronounced basically either in high or low pitch. mu b me ..:2 yu 7 ra 1) rz Jv ru v re 0 ro wa 7 7 0 *The syllables romanized tsu.

.... clzu 7-3 cho -=--\? nya -=-. byu ..:z.f' 3 gyo V-\? sha 'l3 slzo Y-\? . ]U Y3 ]0 T-\? cha 7-.A-'Y booru .::.. V shu �3 kyo .::t- ..:z. 3 myo ' t3 lzyo t"-\? o t-\? pya bya c'.a YJ... o t pyu t"3 o t3 pyo byo )3 ryo The pronunciation of katakana and its combinations are the same as those of hiragana.....:z. pa pz pu pe PO �-\? kya � .:z. kyu .. (car) (ski) (suit) (cake) (ball) 7-.:z. .A-t- sukii suutsu keeki if--Jv . 7J- (1) The long vowels are written with Examples: kaa -... -=-3 nyo �� mya ' . i .:z...f'.::z.. respectiYelr. .:z.. except for the follo'\\i ng points.:z..( (zu).f'-\? gya . myu ' . nyu t-\? hya t. hyu ) -\? rya ) Yj'll .f' gz gu �<> ' ge 7' I J :f go -tf za y ]l :X Zll -{! ze '/" zo I I da 5'� *-=f' Jl * 'j'" zu /'\ ba I c' bi bu 7.:y (ji) and ':/ (zu) are pro­ nounced the same as � (ji) and .. gyu .. -"( T de be _.:z. do I'' $ bo ' •. and have limited use.Japanese Writing System � • I I jf ga .

:y 1 7.:z.:z.r Jv =. -r· .. For example. harowiin haiwee mineraruwootaa sherii jeemusu chekku fasshon fi1-ipin kafe kariforunia paatii disuko dyuuku (Halloween) (highway) (mineral water) (sherry) (James) (check) (fashion) (Philippine) (cafe) (California) (party) (disco) (Duke) IS � . 1� '') 7 7 ''/ S/ 3 / 7 71 7 � 7 1 1) t:• / -r· 1 T 1 / � .l'\ U rJ 1 ../ / '\ 1 7 � 1 S/ � lJ .. :A.Jv(2) Additional combinations with small vowel letters are used to transcribe foreign sounds that originally did not exist in Japanese.t . :1 - 7 . Examples: 7 1 7� 7 :t S/ � :.5' - ��b.. Example: if-' .·· .7 (3) The sound "v" is sometimes written with rf.• \iVhen you write vertically. � 1� 77 7 1 7� 7 .-r A or rf 1 --t A . 7' . the word "Venus" sometimes written as �:. .mark needs to be written vertically also..-r 1 - 7J 1) 7 .t 7 Jv ? :t . the ..

会話 火法 編 .

l._. t.b..J-....· · · ...· ....t:.: 0) I -t 0) I � 0) I Shopping ------ :{0 t' 0) + noun t !. O) *!JJR t-> < t.· · · · ..· .....· ..· ·· --. L\c=5�'5 x �i Y -c-r Question Sentences noun1 0) noun2 New Friends ------- Io @ l:i 'IJ'Iv · cv Time / Ag e ·····-----·-······--·-·-·····--········--······-----········---········· 29 f.· · · · ...: .... J: ®=cr � 5 Ll::> 53 Making a Date ------- 5-1- Verb Conj ugation Verb Types and the "Present Tense" Particles Time Reference --.i � /v iP Word Order Frequency Adverbs The Topic Particle �i .· ..: -t ..· . / ...J'L\=50) .tLOJ noun ..: � -t .....: c:· ..Greetings ------ 6 a..: n -t n �n t· n .: noun t noun 0 � � � i � lv In the Classroom 7..< · · · · · ..

.·· .....· ....· .· ...-..-. .· · · · · · ..t'-..< At th e P ost O ff ic e At a Photo Sho p . . . ...· · .. _.· ..· .-c < t ' f: v � f.· .. .. . .. . . c {) ® illfi: �\ '5 • Location s • · · · · · · · · · · · .· · · · · .... ... .�l.lv "I' IP?V'Iv""J.· ..· · ......C M 4 � J ���(1)7..... 130 . -�F � a l\t' t. .......... ... . ... ....· · · · · ...* G J: � -h� ®i§1cfRI) < /f$. .......-...· D/\.::5 A Day in Robert's Life --- I I4 Te-form ----..(biJJ: ..-.-.· .95 A Trip to Okinawa ------- 45i'!t.-.-· . ... . ..iJ� � ----.....· 112 113 . ....· · ·· · · · . X iJ� /b l'J * '9/ v � * 't Describing \ Vhere Things Are Past Tense The Fi rst Date ----- 72 t < f: lv :.-------------.. . D ire ction s ..:: '5 it�Jll�ff 96 Adjectives w � (�)/ � � " � ( �) ·t Degree Expressions '""' * G J: � I'""' * G J: � -h� Counting ®!B�FcDC' ®�Jimc· l. ... IJ\A..· . .-. ... ...· · · ...... ..· ...--.· ...J • � <'::(....t'-..· .. - ...· · · · 94 ®8 V' l. .· · · .x Q ih'5 � <!. .... D a y s/W ee ks/ Month s/ Y ears ... .· · .�j>5 im -:>"" F. ..(..-c {) v � v ) --r· 9 I'""' -c �i v ) �1 * -lt !v Describing Two Activities ----..... ----. ... c!lvCD-8 L\5(.. ......---------..--........· · · -.-..---- .

� At th e Station ·· -. Counting People @''f*0)$7.-.tJ.-----.:: il) �.: t..--.-------· ----------------------------------------------------------------.·------.) � 1J•h �il�� v ) -c -r f.---·· · · · ·----····· ·· ·.: � · -c · @'!RC' X.-----.--···------·· -. LLI Winter Vacation Plans ------ 1 90 Comparison adj ective/noun + (f) '""-' -::::> !.-----· .-r \. � I] t adj ective + � � c: .: fi < .-.--. Kabuki -----.·· · ······-· ·· ····· ·· ···········..:I c:· .-13\ t3\fv tJ'f:Jt: ®'�Dt Fa m i l y ··-. '"'--' h).:: �..)' Pa rt s of th e B od y . fJ'i5\:f!.l(&iO)�JI n' �< u"\>ulv Family Picture -----. � @'� Colo rs--------------------.3.:L- Barbecue ------ 1 50 Short Forms Uses of Short Forms '"'-' � v ) -c · < t � v) !.-----.---------------------------------------------------.--· 2 08 .�: t..1 --l-9 11' �< .-.-.. Te-forms for Joining Sentences verb stem + �.1 89 l1'3 �f*�O)?le .-----.-1-18 1�-�::f.----.132 ----. -�- verb (f)iJWff � t:9 iJf..-.···.1 70 Past Tense Short Forms Qualifying Nouns with Verbs and Adj ectives * t '"'--' -r " ) * -1t lv !.----._.--------. fa]h) and W � f .��9 J.t.

. �� -5 iJ� v ) v ) -r '"9 . '5 -r-tiP Pronunciation of ti umbers GiYing one's telephone number -tt /v -t!.) � lv Referring to the person you are talking to Japanese names tion of number words �) l7 @(��) < t.1v � Feeling Ill -----...2 1 o -.2 46 (_...::: r.Z -::> 1 10 -::> =�r .6-1®ff < I*� \> < 82 @ X OJ W"i ..-.2 I 7 ..i.o tJ iJ{ c -? � J: ? t:t t? T 17.. (]) c:· ---.Z .) I s ti l.... J _ � ..1 04 'l.(_ !: 1.-) ? 'l � � T /t ...·· · · · · · · · · · · · · 22 · ®B* �0)? 5A z: I� 1. < t? � 1. �·A.1'...:_ .'"9 �.· · · · · · · · · · · · · ··· · · · · · · ....39 (��) c ? "f 1 22 cv� < l)!f£ 1.:..· · · · · .00) Expression Notes CD i3 �i J: ? I t..ll .) ...I i3 -h� ..:: t iJ� J? � A � noun noun B 5 · I n t h e Japa ne se C l a ss . On the pronunciaBig numbers -----.__ .-) ? 'l t? ? � � 1.-.c:· G J: -5 ®111ti c11ii � 111v �-5 UJ:?� Health a n d Illness · · · · · · · · · ·· ·· · · · · · · ··· · ·· ·· ···· ·· · ·..f*b(l)®c '\'>� After the Vacation -----.2 2 6 .:..._ ?-=> & _.) �t * � lv -.:_ ..· ·· ·· · · ·· · .l c? t .: F71 7 1)>!/) � t...� @. _ JI_ (2)..1 -1.. T � 160 @� M c Lfi3tO)fJ! iJ{ t.i!it� -----.: ii -----.t..) .-.) *..! 1..t�� j)� @.c. .1 . ---..Z 1..v)/ t: �-�il' C 7:t) ----..� · ...� -tt lv 1.�:'--' . iv J @ti in negative sentences t it .) .-. lJ ..) � � T @1t L...t 1..1.Z '? � � 1.IJ:A. ::: t!lv �.! � C��) JotliJ> I.�v -r ·-t ---.t.� a t�t� �..JtfJf t J: -::> c. f lJ -t � .Z .) 1.o tJ � TiJ{..! ····· 1 98 t.

配 ﹃ ﹂ おはよう 。 こんにちは。 こんばんは。 竺 号 o ぐ 、 おやすみなさ L 。 、 .① 惨会話文法編 主 │ Greetlngs \ �J .

�. Please go and come back. Thank you for the meal. Good evening.r \ lttekimasu.r \ 0 Good morning. Konbanwa. \ . t j t o9) :f L --c o ?. Good morning. �. Ohayoo gozai masu. (polite) Good afternoon . (polite) Excuse me.� j T o Gochisoosama. I'm sorry. \ 0 � -/:. Doozo yoroshiku. Thank you. (before eating) Thank you for the meal. . Thank you. ltadakimasu. Jty � -/:..r \ :f T o .:·· �-.�. f:3_.:_ 10 �= 't l j o .::'' -J ·F J: � L < o Haj i m e m ashite. \ :f To Arigatoo goz a i m a s u . (after eating) How do you do? Nice to meet you. Welcome home. Not at all. Arigatoo.: 10 t J 10 t j 0 Ohayoo. \o t: f ' \. I'm home. � J: ") 7J: t? o � -\" T h 7J: � Oyasuminasai. "'? --c G "'? L � �. I'll go and come back. ltterasshai. \ f::. Good night.:: -) &tJ � -h{ ?.:: -7 0 .� LJ: J: "J o � Li J: -7 . Konnichiwa.Z_ � 7J: � Okaerinasai. T h :f -tt h.{ ?. \ "'? -{ � j T o �. l i e. Good-bye. \. Sayoonara. \.f :3_ 0 Tadaima.:·· �-.. S u m i masen.> . No.o \.

which means "Please go and come back.. \ ..i . l. not until a new day arriYes." Tadaima and okaeri are used when a person comes home. (I .. use the longer versions. Ittekimasu J and itterasshai is a common exchange used at home when a family member leaves. l. \l. The person who arri. (3) means (1) "Excuse me. the choice among which depends on the degree of separation." or "You're welcome. \fl. The person who leaYes says ittekimasu. \. l.. or until they meet again in the other world. l:)(�J: 5 /® 0 ti'c 5 ./ f'-." a negatiYe reply to a question. or until fate brings the two together again.. for example) 9c1J�1:tlv . which literally means " I will go and come back." with which you point out that one is not required to feel obliged for what you have done for them." to show appreciation for what someone has done for you.:. go for the shorter versions. � �.��! .. - E x p r e s s i o n N o t e s CD Ohayoo is used between friends and family mem­ bers.. mata. and they respond with okaerinasai (Welcome home). c!d:: 5 f clb . expecting to see each other again fairly soon) (taking leave from a professor's office.. ) -::> l � £ To (2) l-'?tl. 1t l l.. The rule of thumb is: if you similarly with ari are on a first-name basis with someone.." to apologize for the trouble rou have caused... Sayoonara indi­ cates that the speaker does not expect to see the person spoken to before she "turns a page in her life". £ t." And the family members respond with itterasshai. Sumimasen (leaving home) 1. To give a concrete example.. \ �/l:) fJ' � 0 f <! l.o jaa.\? "C � � 9/1: t't.·es home says tadaima am home right no·w) to the family members.. Sh itsureesh i masu. or "Thank you. \? "C b ? v � l." to get another person's attention. If you would address someone as Mr. is primarily "No. or Ms. while ohayoo gozaimasu is used between less intimate acquain tances.. the social expectation is such that students are to use the longer variants when they speak with a professor.. it is used to express the English phrase "Don't mention it.. In the dialogue.£ To t.. gatoo and arigatoo gozaimasu. (between friends. lttekimasu... There are several good-bye expressions m Japanese... lie "I'm sorry..

It is one o'clock in the afternoon. You see your neighbor Mr. 11. Greet your teacher. Greet them. 1 0 . Someone picked it up for you. 9 . 1. You are going to start eating. 6. You have come back home.p r a c t c e Act out the following situations with your classmates. You have finished eating. 7 . You come to class in the morning. I t is time to go to sleep. You happen to meet your teacher at the convenience store. . 5. 4. On a crowded train. Greet your friends. 3 . You are watching TV with your host family. 8 . You dropped your book. you stepped on someone's foot. It is eight o'clock at night. Yamada. You meet your host family for the first time. 2 . You are leaving home.

. . . . .:: . Takeshi 3 juuniji han desu. 1] ct5t� 6 U l \C=bt2� N ew Fr ie nd s D a o g u e Mary. . talks to a Japanese student.. . . .. Mearii Sumimasen. . .. . �-' " \ � T o gozaimasu. lma nanji desu ka.. ry : . \' - ... . an international student who just arrived in Japan.. tt L : Takes hi . . . . -J Arigatoo . . 4 t:::. .ii) � -h{ t::. . .[� ! � L E S S 0 N .J. .. . . 7 1) Mearii /1) .

.}.' "('To Ee.. 7 1) . Mearii Mary: Excuse me. :. � < -lt 'v \ "('' T1J'o ryuugakusee desu ka. 3 t tt L : Takeshi .. Takeshi: You're welcome. 7 1) Nihongo desu. Takeshi: I see. ." ' -�. cb CT) ' Ano. What is your major? Mary: Japanese. � � 0 7 1) '/-T t... . h � . h � � · � 2 .. Takeshi: Um . I am a student at the University of Arizona. 4 . Soo desu ka. are you an international student? Mary: Yes. What time is it now? Takeshi: It's half past twelve. . { < CT) t. Mary: Thank you. l ma ninensee desu. • 0 11> 7 1..<D t tt L · : Takeshi . h � . Arizona daigaku no Mearii gakusee desu. Senmon wa nan desu ka.}.{ < -1t '. I am a sophomore now.

c.0 . nensee hai teacher. * � tJ.. t :: t . { < "(' .! i_ \.0 ::. L • Words that appear in the dialogue . . \.. . ._ lu 0 c a b u I urn . . -7 --e i" � t t::_ 'f? ' IJ: :l i. ' � t (ichiji) one .l .0 t .t. .Z. ' i? tl . . years old Mr. jin people ex. sai . * IJ: . \ . Professor . .b sen see senmon soo desu daigaku denwa tomodachi namae nan/nani Nihon . .. college.0 (nihon­ jin ) Japanese people � .f . . .0 * "' ' * � .0 t .0 (ni jihan) half \. .. san . \ han bangoo ryuugakusee watashi t t. go kookoo gogo gozen . � \. . . ' (ichinensee) first-year student yes half ex. o'clock o'clock ex. A. major That's right. Jl English (language) yes student language ex./Ms .0 � number international student I b t::.i\1.{ < � \. . . . university telephone friend name what Japan . .v * � CT) * \. now a r y a no ima eego ee gakusee .0 * :_ * t ' \. .0/ i. .·· f. t : * t : t i . year student ex. . \ f. . .Z.i\1.. . t : ti .·· -} * � 11> -} f. \ \. .0 ::. . t : past two tJ. .·· (nihon­ go) Japanese language high school P. \ ::.

vp ) t::· \. { < \..Y 1 -. . \ �-. \ lv -l:t \.A.1) A '' � � T t: ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY /Z 7 J.:y / . • /v tt l. \ "".z u • t: t> T �) �' lv i:J " < "' L � O c c u p a t h• " ' L � " .. ' L h� L L ::. \ fJt < -l:t i. .. \ � lv h � J � .. -r:· "- I> t:.. t: h ::.·· � L c:· :. vp ") ::_·· < M a i o r s i:J• i:J' < ' I> l: 7 :/ / lt /v � I'}> J tt \. "] ::. T .. u � . \ I> kagaku ajiakenkyuu keezai kokusaikan kee konpyuutaa jinruigaku seeji bijinesu bungaku rekishi science Asian studies economics international relations computer anthropology politics business literature history :::J / l:::" .::L . "] -l:t.:t . work. occupation doctor office worker high school student housewife graduate student college student lawyer ::. < :I.• Jl:> � lv \. \ t lv .. T _ . \ F a m i l y okaasan otoosan oneesan oniisan imooto otooto mother father older sister older brother younger sister younger brother h � J � Iv h tl -Z � Iv h t : \. h f..C o u n t r I> .�. \ f. < � 1.S.1..lv ::. * . � i. i. \ t::· \. ? >)• 7 � l) tJ 1 �. \ f. lv o n s shigoto ish a kaishain kookoosee shufu daigakuinsee daigakusee bengoshi job.• lv ::.A r 7 1J 7 e s Am erika lgirisu Oosutoraria Kankoku Sueeden Chuugoku U. \ f. \ t 7 � < -l:t \. \. :...·· L � . Britain Australia Korea Sweden China f..

Sentences without subjects are very common in Japanese.is the Japanese language. wa --.:·· --c·· 1" o Nihongo desu. . � L. then.u Where t : t i .G r a m m a r - X (� Y �g "It is 12:30. ." like the "it.. (I am a student. M the sentence identified as nihongo." These sentences will all be translated into Japanese using an appropriate noun and the word desu.t Y c o ·9 b f::. t: ..z.l A. or the "topic. " "My major is the Japanese language. For example." " I am a student. "('' T o :. It is . Gakusee desu. we can say: ---." and "my major" found in their English counterparts. Japanese speakers actually tend to omit subjects whenever they think it is clear to the listener what or who they are referring to. Suu Kimu desu. Watashi wa -t i · X is Y As for X. it is Y I am Sue Kim." which is later in ( y) major is the Japanese language.� < -lt " \ --c·· -t 0 t : t i lv . -c ·9a t I1J ") t: t t." "I.:·· --c·· 1" o nihongo desu. when it is not clear what is being talked about? To make explicit what we are talking about. --c·· -t o Juuniji h a n desu.l A.stands for the thing that is talked about. one can use the pattern X wa Y desu to identify a person or a thing X as item Y. What are we to do. (It) is half past twelve. X (. --. L t. Note that none of these sentences has a "subject. Similarly. . ) ( y major) is the Japanese language. M I. Senmon wa nihongo desu.

{ < -tt " \ "'{'' -t 0 (I am) an international student. we learn how to ask. nani. " g Question Sentences It is very easy to form questions in Japanese. Basically.!11r. there i s no item that corresponds to "a. v Wa is a member of the class of \Yords called "particles.' \ 1 ( -t!. unlike their English translations "student" and " teacher. nannensee (what year in school). Nan is used immediate­ ji (o'clock). Note also that nouns like gakusee and sensee in the above examples stand alone. Question sentences may also contain a "question word" like nan (what) . s Yamashita san wa sensee desu. ) 1 lt is not customary to write a question mark at the end of a question sentence in Japanese. \Yithout background situations. " as well as "I am/you are/she is a student. and answer. W hat is your major? (N!y major is English. a sentence like gakusee desu is therefore ambiguous between the singular and the plural interpretations." nor i s there any item that corresponds to the plural "-s" at the end of a noun. .:· "'('' -t 0 eego desu. all you need to do is add ka at the end of a statement. - Ryuugakusee desu. nanijin (person of what nationality)." which are preceded by "a./v t /v tj: Senmon wa � /v "'('' "t 1J ' o nan desu ka. Yamashita i a teacher. nansai (how old). it may mean "We are/you are/they are students. ( -tt lv t lv tj: ) (Senmon wa) . ( Are you) an international student? The above sentence. questions using the following question words: nanji (what time). l !ary is an A 'merican. 2The Japanese question word for "\vhat" has two pronunciations: ly before desu or before a "counter" like is also used in the combination Nani nan and nani. Mearii san wa amerikajin desu.>." I n Japanese.(_ � \ . The other form. is used before a particle. Ryuugakusee desu ka. Particles attach themseh·es to phrases and indicate how the phrases relate to the rest of the sentence. ry rp ") !. In this lesson. 2 -t!. is a "yes/no" question. which we will turn to later in this lesson." So is the word no. Note carefully that the order of words i n a sentence may be quite different from what you find in your language.\ \ '" "t 1J • o ' Ryuugakusee desu ka. ry rp 7 I.

� . The phrase Toozai daigaku no gakusee means 3 "(a) student at Tozai University. t "('' T iJ �o (\ \ J ) ( I ma) What time is it now? If> iJ I) \' It is nine o 'clock. \ daigaku no sen see t:.:·' cry ]ji < {t \. Nannensee desu ka." In the phrase Takeshi san no denwa bangoo ( Takeshi's is Takeshi's phone number. What year are you in college? "C'' h. cry t . See how it connects two nouns in the following examples.{.7 Takeshi san no denwa bangoo Takeshi's phone number a college prof essor a student of the Japanese language cr college t : t l . No is very versatile. \ '{'' T iJ � o nanji desu ka.{."' \ --c-. they are i n the opposite order. with any further description placed before it. 0 noun10) noun2 No is a particle that connects two nouns. b t.{. while in the last two.{. N i nensee desu.( J 1) .l: � . but a college student). \ i7 { < cry {t . \ t "C'' T o Mearii san wa nansai desu ka.. The other noun Takeshi san is not the main idea. Mary? I'm nineteen years old.z. tt L � . \ '{'' T o kuji desu. 3 Here is what we mean by the "main idea. \ l lma _. t � 7 � � 7 � '. In the first example below. 1 86 cry 7343 "C'' T o lchi hachi roku no nana san yon san desu.'. t�. it acts like the possessive ("x's") in English.z. � . � \. \ ]ji < nihon n o daigaku in Japan Observe that in the first two examples.Z.{.::-. b ti' . t. '{' T iJ � o ' Denwa bangoo wa nan desu ka. % \. t : t. Japanese seems to be more consistent in arranging ideas here.t . the main idea always comes at the end.'.{. I'm a sophomore. -li.Z. because Takeshi's phone number is not Takeshi.cry --c-· . It What is your telephone number? is 186-7343." The second noun gakusee provides the main idea (being a student) and the first one Toozai daigaku makes it more specific (not a high school. \ nihongo no gakusee � t : t l h. _::'' 7 tj � .{. .\. phone number). the English and Japanese words are arranged in the same order.To J u ukyuusai desu. . it is a phone number. but that is not the only role no can play. the noun denwa bangoo (phone number) is the main idea.f'. How old are you. in the sense that if something .

.) Teacher: :A � A. T JV!r. "Is that so?" or "I see. You may be worried about interrupting some­ thing someone is currently doing. Hai is also used to respond to a knock at the door or to the calling of one's name. Pronunciation of let� The particle �j: is pronounced "zva." It . All other instances of "zva" are written with b. ee is more conversational and relaxed. or sounding rude and impolite for asking personal questions. meaning "Here. In more informal situations.� E x pre 5 5 ion Note 5 (ij\ w ®(]) � Ano indicates that you have some reservations about saying what you are going to say next. (Ee cannot be replaced in this case. You can put i t wherever you can put a noun. as in the following example: Takeshi san no okaasan wa kookoo no sensee desu. Compared to hai. Student: kl:v)o Hai t5c ·91J'� Soo desu ka acknowledges that you have understood what was just said. un is used. lctL VXX� Both hai and ee mean "res" in response to yes-no questions.." should be written with �i. for example." not "ha. � lv ? Sumisu san? T ." as follows. 0�5 1j'fu �JJ2 / . Smith? Here. Takeshi's mother is a high school teacher.noun1 (]) main idea further restriction t A phrase of the form "noun1 no noun2" acts more or less like one big noun..

and if you want to be really modest. M y telephone number is 37-8667.lP� and C 19> -:J � J. you can use the word kyooshi instead. but may sound slightly arrogant./v and �." If you (or a member of your family) are a teacher.: iS �. because the word sensee actually means an "honorable master.. Therefore..iJ)-:::> .> are both commonly used. > -:J � �.::-· all the time.. san yon go no.:. The part that follows it may change shape.. it may be pronounced with a long vowel. They are usually written with lv �i � �.. as �: J..lv. /v. ·�n �i� ...l:. <!" Jv ..1:. Many number words have more than one pronunciation. ? < . > -:J in 1. J: lv is the most basic. It goes both with a given name and a family name.!: -::> in �. itJvitl. 2 J. April).Watashi no denwa ban goo wa san nana no hachi roku roku nana b t l.!: iS . When read out separately.:: Numbers . such as konnichiwa (good afternoon) and konbanwa (good evening).... but pronounced as J.. 0 -li o and tu... as when you give your phone number. �.. t:t t:t is the most basic.!: -::J . 5 . The part that follows this number may change shape too.!: -:J � v > . There are a few exceptions./v.!: . 3 4 � lv all the time. Children are referred to as chan (and boys in . >. but nine o'clock is < C . but usually pronounced as �. roku nana hachi kyuu. > i? . > -:J l�/v (one minute) and J.::·· ? ..::· ? kt 37-8667-c ·-to desu. San is placed after a name as a generic title. The particle no is usually placed in between the local exchange code and the last four digits. When you are reading out each digit separately.. instead of � lvl-. >. In some combinations that we will later learn.. Refer -t! 6 to the table at the end of this book for a general picture. but seven o'clock is L. 1 J... Giving one's telephone number . the number 012-345-6789 is zero ichi ni. C @> ? .. as ....V > and four o'clock is J: C ... > (one-year old).1:.:: � �. it is read as G (as in l. � �� ? is the most basic. O) -c . but pronounced as ? -::> 6 7 8 9 10 in ? -:J . it may be pronounced with a long vowel. \ .. as in J: lv.. but pronounced as C 19> -::> in C @> -::> .. iS C ./v.: all the time. but fourth-year student is J: blv-tt. The word sensee is usually reserved for describing somebody else's occupation. ..!: and .. Watashi wa sensee desu makes sense..1:. as in � �.

1:. Family name Men Given name vVomen � C: -j Satoo U' � G Hiros h i � -5 . they don't haYe middle names.t. are you Swedish?" should be: �� � � � � � /\ . t.� � /v (j: Haato san wa sueedenjin desu ka. a sentence like "Ms. /v "t"' TiPo . C: t. Professors and doctors are usually referred to with the title sensee. :::. Itoo Tanaka �� -j � Yuuki Masahiro i:t ta lJ..: 'TiPo Haato san.. Naomi Kyooko t -3 * � u' � � J: -3 . anata wa sueedenjin desu ka.particular as kun). :::.: h�tj: L.:: ." anata. !v "C .. . � ? lchiroo Megumi Kumiko <• lJ. � i:t t �j: 'A ? .t "- C' "" Japanese names � \Vhen Japanese giYe their name. Therefore. \Ye use the name and a title like san and sensee to refer to the person you are talking to. - + instead of �\.� lv.: lb Yuuko -t'f � Suzuki Taka h ashi 1. Referring to the person you are talking to � The word for "you. �t lv t.X. Gsually. Instead. rather than as san..: i. I� h 1: j 7 2jc-:.:r. -r . Hart.. When they introduce themselves..·er used in reference to oneself.t I_. is not Yery commonly used in Japanese. they say their family name first and giYen name last.7/ t. they often say only their family name.t iJ) 1.. Here are some typical Japanese names. San and other title words are ne. Kenji < O'J.

@) (a) 45 (f) I 00 (b) 83 (g) 38 (c) I 9 (h) 6 1 (d) 76 ( i ) 24 (e) 52 ( j ) 97 C. t \1> 7 yonjuu � ./ t tP 7 L juuyon juushi � \ t tP 7 rokujuu shi (yo) go t 11> 7 juugo juuroku .Z.25 . (Numbers) Eill -li o / tv " \ zero ree .. san t vp 7 � ..l "l? hachi t 11> 7 tj "l? juuhachi U' � \ hyaku � 11> 7 / \ kyuu ku L l1> 7 � 11> 7 / t 11> 7 < juukyuu juuku L l1> 7 juu t : t 11> 7 nijuu A.Z. Read the following numbers.l "l? t 11> 7 hachijuu � � / L l? nan a shichi juunana L 11> ' 7 � � / t 11> 7 L "l? juushichi � 11> 7 L I1> 7 kyuujuu t./ L / ( J: ) yon _.{.:" � � t l1> 7 nanajuu � < roku t l1> 7 � < t... t � 7 sanjuu 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t: ni t � juuni 7 t: .7 (g) 40 . Read the following numbers.P r a c t c e (D -y.Z. \ "l? ichi I I 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 t .Z. '- t vp 7 J:: .. @) (a) 5 (f) 8 (b) 9 (g) 2 (c ) 7 (h) 6 (d) ( i) 4 (e) 1 0 (j) 3 B.Z.P 7 '1f \ l? juuichi 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 00 � .6 (e) 1 0 + 9 ( f) 8 .J:: . What are the answers? 8J (a) 5 + 3 (b) 9 + I (c) 3 + 4 (d) 6 .5 v 0 1f .:_'' t 11> 7 gojuu J:: . juusan .

ED Example: � � l: "'( T IJ � o ' nanji desu ka. Look at the following pictures and answer the questions. t ichiji t: t niji ��t sanji l t yoji =� t goji CD 0 0 7:> < t rokuji L i? t shichiji Li i? t hachiji < t kuji t vp -J t juuji l: vp ") \ \ i? t juuichiji ~ C) t Vi> ") t: t \ \ i? t t. \ � lma Ex. A : \ \ i? t tJ � ·e-to lchiji han desu. Q : \.0 u1J'Iv (Time) ~ OJ C9 C9 CD \d. (] (1) (4) (2) (3) (C) Q) ------ (5) e) (6) co 0)" Q .i � ichiji han (] juuniji A.

If i> 1::: Robaato B. Pair Work-Read the dialogue below with your partner.l 7 1) . o . (Tel ephone Numbers) Read the following people's telephone numbers.B..r 3. T � Takeshi Suu 7. @ cfvt>(�fv 25 A. � � L t::. . Yamashita 283-9547 � t : tj 1? � /v t7) � IP -) ::·· . 7-.. �t L 4 ..M. Nairobi 9 : 00 P. t::. 0 3. 6J Tookyoo wa Gozen ima nanji desu ka. Answer the questions.t lv tJ: tJ: ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana 951-0326 362-4519 691-4236 852-1032 Mearii 2. . B : 283-9547 "C" T o Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu. \' ./) . A · ::�-lf lv � lv l' --c· -t o sanji desu. 8J Example: . till) Denwa bangoo wa nan desu ka. ') 1 .

1) n t A. --:f.....t Suu san san 3 .. 1:: 4 ...z .'' tJ) h { < -tt 'v \ . student of the University of London 8 . \ - � IV . '1 .. ED 1 . f t t L � A..-t o amerikajin desu.t Robaato san .. - Mearii san wa � h.7 l) . Group Work-Use the dialogue above and ask three classmates their telephone numbers.� A.T 1) it) .t -tt v \ Yamashita sensee (a) national ity Example: /.7. .. "' � lr (b) year in school Examp 1e: /' 7 1) ..� � h...-to C.t tj 7 . .. Hai.A B 283-9547 "'C'' T tlo lj v \ . Takeshi's major 6 . my name 5 .1 /' 7 1) . Mary's friend 7 . --c-.I Mearii san wa *"> h ') � \ I� : � iV� \. .\ __... my telephone number 3 . -tt A.(J) jj' < tt L\ Translate the following phrases into Japanese using (]) (no) .� IV tj . my teacher 2 . teacher of the Japanese language 4 .t Mearii san /1) . � � L f::. D J \ .� A. high school teacher Look at the chart on the next page and describe each person using the cues in (a) through (e).t --c-. nihongo no gakusee 1 . name telephone number ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ® (: (�fu C. . I � Mearii san . � /.f -J sao desu.0 if I � col 1. 'J ninensee d es u .t ::. N i hachi san n o kyuu go yon nana desu ne.1 &!) i> l .. Takeshi -r � 2 .'> i! .t :::. ED Example: student of the Japanese language � t : t i A.. 1 ' ..

. . ·� .(c) age Example: . . � Mearii san .l 7 1) .-t o Mearii san no senmon wa nihongo desu.-r o soo desu. 1.l 7 1) .l 7 1) .. Pair Work-Ask and answer questions using the given cues..t · . ? ·'<" '-: h � < -1t "' ' --c-..� 1v t. Ee. ') . -t "7 --c-. ' "C'' T o Mearii san wa j u u kyuu sai desu.l 7 1) .� lv (J) -1:t lv t lv t. t lv --c· -t h ' o Mearii san wa amerikajin desu ka.. .. .-..•/v :.. . (e) major Example: . * .:. (Japanese teacher) U. (f. < 1. � 4th year 22 U. ..-t o gakusee desu. � .. ? .� lv ..l 1) iJ t lv Mearii san "' ...l "' .� lv . "' .i 7 1) '/-}..� 7 1) .. 47 Tozai Univ. Robert Yamashita sensee Japanese 4th year 22 Tozai Univ.. Example 1 : .. . � lr A it it . .. ') 7 1) . n ( 1::' :..... ? b· o · .i t : ti lv .. of London business U' t: "' .--c-.. h � < (J) :: Mearii san wa Arizona daigaku no "' . Mearii san Hart...� 1) t. COI?.2 .� lv U: t I'P "7 � I'P "7 � \. ? l' . Sue Smith. . '} l\ Mearii san (d) school Example: .) kankokujin Korean ( 1 f 1) J. ? ..l 1/) 1> 'J 7 1) .t 7 .� lv \. of Arizona Japanese en � L ) rekishi history ( :J / 1:' ..._.� lv / 7 .1 -) konpyuutaa /.l "' 7 1) .� lv t. ? ... .lP�t�r..z ) bijinesu B.:' .Z. n amerikajin 4.. \ � .:' At) igirisujin British Japanese 3rd year 20 Seoul Univ. Mary Nationality Year Age School Major American 2nd year 19 Kimura Takeshi Kim.

b. Look at the chart below and describe each person with regard to (a) and (b).r � � yonensee 10.. lie.. t : b lv -tt �t \ -z-.F:.� lv / � lv b lv -tt '-< \ Mearii san sannensee n n � Mearii san wa sannensee desu ka. . �t " L � " " lv --c-. t. tJ' ch � lv okaasan tillJ 2 . · i> 1:: senmon t lv / t:' :. Mearii san Arizona daigaku no gakusee Mearii san ichinensee Takeshi san nihonjin Takeshi san Nihon daigaku no gakusee Takeshi san i" 1 6 ._ � � /v eT) -tt lv Robaato san no .� lv (1) .t 1J .� � lv / t : t rp Robaato san nijuuissai 1 '-< \ "'? � '-< \ Yamashita sensee nihonjin Yamashita sensee Hawai daigaku no sen see @ a5 C: 5 �fv {� i.. '-< \ t 1 � i mooto (a) occupation/ school Example: }.. � l' . i A .Example 2: _I 7 1) .. A . � . i" juukyuusai t..:r. I. -7' / t lv lv / t t '-< " �-.� lv / A ry S u u san T .-to ninensee desu.� � lv / J: .� lv 0 -tt lv Suu san no � � � � senmon t 8. otoosan �1 � lv � _� 7 1J .J t-' L 'fv c9 A. 0 l '\' . }. A . � 1 � lv t. A · '-< " '-< " � .f:. 1. sueedenjin 7. . 0 /" \-.. 1 . o F . t : �t \ � lv oniisan 3 .J' L' l. . . /v {t 'v \ Robaato san 1.'-< " (economics) keezai /. bijinesu � L � T 9 ..-to Mearii san no otoosan wa kaishain desu.

.! t. 0) b � � :: A.\ --c·· -t i.\ :: � t. 4 .! iJ' " ' L � " ' � --c.\ "(" T IJ'o Otoosan wa nansai desu ka. • 0 5 .b t : \. 1 .:· � \I. • J1J � � t. i.(b) age Example: }. t.! � � :: 1_. i.>'< � \ A. U: l A.. \ l � 1_. }. nansai desu ka..! � � :: \. -I!-� \ daigakuinsee (graduate student) .\ "("T iJ'o Otoosan w a kaishain desu ka.-t iJ·o 6 .! iJ • I_.! -tt � -tt " \ --c·· .t i. \ "('' T iJ 'o 7 .. daigakusee desu ka. � ') � � t.\ t ') � t. � ' "C'' T o Mearii san no Mary's host family Occupation/ School n ' "' ' L � "' ' � otoosan (father) kaishain (works for a company) }.\ :: � t. nansai desu ka. • J1J � � t.:· " \ iJ>' < -tt \.: ') . \.! � � � \. � ') :: � 1. Okaasan wa Okaasan wa Oniisan wa Oniisan wa l m ooto wa l m ooto wa sensee desu ka. t : � . � ') :: � }.\ imooto kookoosee (high school student) 1_. }. t IP � ll '? :: otoosan wa yonjuuhassai desu. .• 0 8 .\ t ') � t.1.. kaishain desu ka. i.. }. nansai desu ka. \.) shufu }. \ � "(' T iJ ' o 3 .• J1J :: � okaasan (mother) L 1-P . Answer the questions using the chart above. 2 . \ t ') � (housewife) Age 48 45 23 16 B. .b t : \. � � :: A. otoosan � _?( 7 1) &') /) II \\ - :: A..: ') -t!:.! � � :: 1_. \ "('' TiJ'o . }. :: � oniisan (elder brother) (younger sister) .

\ "'('' T n'o Nansai desu ka. Self-introduction-Introduce yourself to the class. ..�t \ "'('' T o lt \ .4.\ --r...J(J) 1? 7j .i L --c o � 7 1) 7 1) . Onamae wa? • t:'' -:: n' I? Doko kara (\Yhere do you come from?) · · ij . • 7j . Mearii Haato desu. Senmon wa Doozo < -t!. t\ame Nationality Occupation/ School Age Major . o annensee desu ka.i I rna nihon go ninensee d es u desu. n 'l . � I..� * clt.: � . B.\. ]uukyuusai desu... \ n � < . ry ' ' - • / " - !. -tt '.i nfv u � 5 (Review Exercises) A. etc. Senmon wa nan desu ka. Class Activity-Ask five classmates questions and fill in the chart below.:r· · � tj l.\.. Example questions: • i.. . U: ? C\Yhat is your name?) � . T iJ.4.. "'(' T n ' o nan desu ka. tl .i L f: iJ' o kimashita ka. Shi goto wa L _::'' t: (occupation) tj � . r "'(' To I: � -I:J{ gakusee desu.. yoroshiku. Example: Hajimemashite. Arizona dai gaku no '/-T t::' l. .i..

i lv ::--"'C' T o Nihon go desu.:> . and find someone who has the following major. English 4 . A : t: t. econom1cs 3 . business . Senmon wa nan desu ka. Class Activity-Ask your classmates what their majors are. Japanese 2 . name 1 .C. history .

\ yonsai tj: ""? :: 1..\. � \...... L f1> sanjuppun Nansai desu ka.. .. although I: l "" -? � " ' (nijussai) can be used.I Time hours A g e minutes '...Z.z. "'�: . I I 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 juuippun L ¥P -7 '.-) : .) ' .:·· c goji .-). \ sansai ij: ij: � \...\ i? L ichiji '.: . 19 20 30 l \1) -) � \1) -) . . . \ jussai :: lv � \.\. .:·· �.-L .\. L sanji '• � . "' The counter suffix ""' � is used to indicate ". L i? L shichiji ij: ij: . ..\ ""? ...\ i? t �= t � � nijuppun --:> "'�� ...-�: ._ J: L yoji J: .. juunifun � .-�: ..\. \ ""? � I.. juuyonpun ..Z.. < t rokuji .Z. \ nanasai t f1> -) \. L f1> -7 � = t juuniji � .z.-) ' .: ..... . '• ""? .Z. ippun . \ rokusai l' f-P -? � 1.. . juuroppun ""? ..\. yonpun �- L ¥P -7 J: ..z. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I I 12 t: L niji 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t: ).z.: i? * hatachi juuissai J: .z..z. \ issai 5 6 7 8 :: � " \ gosai 9 10 I I 20 � f'P J � I..Z.\.- ) : ..\... \ kyuusai 2 3 4 t: � " \ nisai ..\.. Oikutsu desu ka.\.\.. \ ""? --� : . juuhachifun juuji L � -7 L L ¥P juppun -? . kyuufun L' ¥P -) ti i? . .Z... .y ears old. juunanafun tJ: i? L hachiji tj: happun ""? . / juuhappun kuji < L � \1) -) ..) � . : ..-). / tj: i? .. lv nifun L ¥P -) t: ....) � ' lv gofun ""? L ¥P -7 .. \ tj: f.. hachifun L' ¥P -) tj: ""? . \ hassai *For 20 years old." \.. ' j u ukyuufun juuichiji L � -) �...-). . . li t � (lzatachi) is usually used.. . nanafun L' ¥P -7 ij: ij: "'. .\.z.\.. := .. sanp u n juusanpun '• L ¥P -7 � . . juugofun .z.Z...z. < � I. \ -? � '. roppun L' ¥P -7 . '-- ..) :a .

Z 1v ---c·· "T 0 Sore wa sanzen en desu. .... 7 . .::·· �-· '"' \ :i To Arigatoo gozai masu .l 7 1) .. Mise no hito � n t.:t After shopping..: Mea rii Soo desu ka.....r v 7-.. 7 c::. � ry 1.:: n t.� Menyuu o ..._.. h ry .. ([) "i ... 2� 7'J \l \=50) S h o p p in g D a 0 g u e Mary goes to a flea market. * A man finds a wallet on the ground.L "('To ::.: Takai desu ne. Watashi no saifu desu... \ . ) aa..l 7 1) .. Mary goes to a restaurant. -1:t � V' 'C. Mearii 4 ..: . .:2.. Ueetoresu T '- \G ""? L "(=> '- \ � -1:t o � -=.Z !v ---c·· ""to Are wa sanzengohyaku en desu. � -1:t !vo Sumimasen. ... J: o Kore wa senhappyaku en desu yo...i �.. Mise no hito . lrasshaimase.7 ... . \ < G ---c·· ""t�J·o Kore wa ikura desu ka. a L G � \ \ Yf 'C Shiranai hito . 7 . ..:t r it 7 . Mise no hito "' -t n t.l 7 1) .: n t. .: Mearii "' h ry · ' b t L � � �...i t=· n � � 1.... ---c·· ""t iJ ·o Kore wa dare no saifu desu ka.�..:: n t ....1 4:1: 1v u ""? lf "(=> < ..: Mea r ii 2 T .i � !v -tr 1v . .i � !v � !v ::: v "(=> < .Z 1v ---c·· _...: Mearii * "' J. 5 ....� �� � {!) � � L E S s 0 N . 6 . \ . -1:t � V' 'C.. 4:1: � V' 'C... .....l 7 1) .' ) aa. ano tokee wa ikura desu ka. 9 .... 3 � 7 1) ....c::. sono tokee o * kudasai.x. 'J . 'l \l . • V> I > ') \ ' Are mo takai desu ne..·· 7 -t· o doozo.

It is delicious. Oishii desu yo.b '.. I'll take that watch. Mary: Tonkatsu? Is it fish? \.( 5 7 J. c 1v h. lie. Mary: Then. v Vaitress: Welcome.r v A .Z ' � h' � t � ..000 yen. * kore o 7 8 7 :r. it is not fish. Thank you Yery much.r v A Ueetoresu Mearii j i. Vendor: This is 1.- C /v -IJ• --:J ? Tonkatsu? \ . \Vhat is this? Waitress: Which one? Oh. tonkatsu desu. onegaishimasu.( t' .500 yen. . 0 Dare desu ka.tt -t Sumimasen. -. \ '.b ry � -\t lv o t : < "'('' T 0 . "":) -z-. Mary: It's expensive.-t Aa. '. * * Stranger: Whose wallet is this? Mary: It's my wallet. ) aa.800 yen. Sakana desu ka. Mary: Thank you.fl.. Here's the menu. it is tonkatsu (pork cutlet). .t � . That is expensive. \Yell then. .. Mary: Then.( 7 1 Mearii Ueetoresu '. ib :C :.Taitress: No.. too. Mearii -j .. It is meat. Where is the restroom? Waitress: I t is over there.r v A 1) 4 . Ho\Y much is this? Vendor: It is 3.2 3 7 :r. Mary: Excuse me. Kore wa nan desu ka. . 0 Ueetoresu - �" c-· n -z-. � ib ib . Mary: I see.-t h._ .I. how much is that watch? Vendor: That is 3. otearai wa doko desu ka. \ "'(" T J: 0 - . \ L sakana ja arimasen. I'll have this. -z-.-to Asoko desu. * * * Mary: Excuse me. Niku desu. h' � "'('' T h'o ) 6 .( 7 � � '} Mearii 1 � � c:: ·t T � Doomo. .

1 .. that .: t=.: C') kore sore a re dare kono sono a no dono asoko doko dare * * � CT) .::L .b cr) �--CT) * * * . that .: �· . � 1.. �-.n .(' ( --? 7-/ * t "C iv l � "' -r L /v . ..-T �o: .b ft. clock sweat shirt :. L �. \ I:: It . .v W o r d s * * * * t� fv 0 c a p 0 b u a r y T h a t n t this one that one that one (over there) which one this . i menyuu yasai � � I. * Words that appear in the dialogue .1· � 'h·tJiv t l .J: L I' i lv l!--? enpitsu kasa kaban kutsu saifu jiinzu jisho jitensha shinbun teepu tokee toree n aa pencil umbrella bag shoes wallet jeans dictionary bicycle newspaper tape watch. . \ T h i n g s 1. . ..):/v � tt l. .t r v . F o o d * * * * * J? �../ .( =.' fl. . . over there where who .� � !v ii•--? oishii sakana ton katsu niku delicious fish pork cutlet meat menu vegetable t: < . . . . 1: . (over there) which .b � .: n � ft .

l' :. � J: < C o u n t r i e s I .o . then . yen expensive * t tJ ' \. n � lr � L J: restroom bank n· . .J. 1) tJ IJ· Iv :.. . lv (� � ) J::.· � \ \ ( �-· -? t ""' ( .Z.1) :7-. ':}' h. '' . .. .7 t.A. o) onegaishimasu . library yuubinkyoku post office 1 �.. en takai father mother M * 0 * \. . o) kudasai jaa ( . .· < China b i j ine s u keezai rekishi economics history computer konpyuutaa business }.. 1J if:> � A. \ �-· �. E x p r e s s i o n s * * * * * * " ' � -? L � " ' . . .:J. \ ::. :. .:t. Here it is. irasshaimase L � ib � ) �-. \ < � how much ..i T ( � � ) < t:. . cap book cafe P I * }. � "J � . . \ F a m i l y ' }.Z. doomo . if that is the Welcome (to our store) .' � . .. . .n"" 'L.-7 ·F ( . "'( if:> � \ \ � -? � "'C A. V)l -7 :. . o) doozo Please giye me . okaasan otoosan M a t t e r s ikura . .� nooto pen boos h i hon notebook pen hat. . . -7 a c e s otearai kissaten ginkoo tos hokan 11> -? lf . Thank you.A... . case. � � T Am erika lgirisu Kankoku C h u u go k u U.tJ.t -tt � x. Britain Korea M a j o r s tt \. T "i t J.J. < t_. . n e y n� L : A. r/ �.. . .o: n :J / t..Z.S. please.

. "' /." Here we \Yill learn to use dore in sentences like: t''n "'C"Tn'o Dore desu ka. &�. Kore refers to a thing that is close to you.. L o:> .. .. :.-tn'o How much is this? That is 3..-t o ::. = n u: .G r a m m a r What do we do when we want to talk about things that we do not know the names of? We say "this thing..t X.. watashi no pen desu..-." and so forth... Sore is something that is close to the person you are talking to ("that thing in front of you").t --c-. n tj: h t::. :.::." "that one. .--: /..--c-. the speaker (" this thing here").::.. In J apanese.::.-t o Are wa watashi no pen desu.-t o ::. and are refers to a thing that is neither close to the speaker nor the listener ("that one over there"). 000 yen.-.-.. / --c-..C n Lt Sore wa \. There is also an expression dore for "which. A. sore. and are.--: /.. ..C n tj: Sore wa b t L o:> .t -tf A. :: A. Which one is it (that you are talking about)? . watashi no pen desu.--c-. � -·c. \Ve use kore... = Kore wa n tj: b t L o:> . \ < Kore wa ikura desu ka ...T o sanzen en desu...

Instead. \ < b "{'' -t h · o Kore wa ikura desu ka. if you know that the item in your hand is a \Yatch (tokee).500 yen but do not know which. while the no series must ahyays be follo\Yed by a noun. If you already know that one of several watches is 3. you must use the particle ga and say: (::'' ft. " h. . you can say: That watch over there is 3. and are. if you are talking about a \Yatch that is held by the person you are talking to.In this lesson. (J)/t(J)/'®(J)/ c + . h � � 1j: t: Dore ga "'"' / "{'' -t h > 0 pen desu ka.'(J) noun If you want to be slightly more specific than kore . 000 yen. you can say: That watch is 3. (Note here that the re series must always stand alone. because there is a slight complication \Yith question \Yards like dare.) Thus. instead of: -= n tt \. 500 yen? Dono tokee ga sanzengohyaku en desu ka. Since dono is a question word. And if the watch is far from both the speaker and lhe lislener. sono. How much is this? you can say: How much is this watch? Kono tokee wa ikura desu ka. we cannot use the particle wa with it.500 yen. you can use kono. Sono tokee wa sanzen en desu. just like dare discussed above. 0 Trhiclz one s i your pen? anata no 0 'Z. Ano tokee wa sanzengohyaku en desu. and ana together with a noun. sore. Similarly. \\·e \Yill not explore the full extent to \Yhich the \\·ord dare can be put to use.rords like dare and naui cannot be follo"·ed by the particle wa. you can say: Which watch is 3. Question v. we must use ga .

:: 1v 0 n' tJ'Iv --c-. The question word for "who" is dare._ here. vVe now learn how to ask who something belongs to. and for "whose. yuubinkyoku wa doko desu ka.i" �." we simply add the particle no. -t 1 Whose bag is this? That is Sue's bag..�.. If you are close by.�. 0 kaban desu ka. t:: C1) -= Kore wa dare no n tJ: n �. i . f n tJ: .i" o Sore wa Suu san no kaban desu. t.. we learned how to say things like Mearii san no denwa bangoo (Mary's phone number) and Takeshi san no okaasan (Takeshi's mother)._ (. and doko are words for places . (The post office is) rght over there.To summarize: z: n Clet-) -ttL (let-) ®n Clet-) c:n CtJ-) Z:(J) -t(J) ®(J) c(J) noun noun noun noun (1J' -) ' (let-) (let-) (let-) close to the person speaking close to the person listening far from both people u n known 0 t::fLO) noun In Lesson 1 . .. near you over there where You can ask for directions by saying: Excuse me. ... (Yuubinkyoku wa) asoko desu. asoko... (.f 1v --c-. D Vve will learn j ust one more ko-so-a-do set in this lesson: koko... where is the post office? Sumimasen.z_ . you can point toword the post office and say: We will learn how to give more specific directions in Lesson 4. near me there. soko.

item B is that. has dual citizenship. takaku arinwsen and oislziku arimasen. Note that these two sentences are almost identical in shape." Takeslzi is a Japanese person. Loo. t h. and Oishii desu yo (It is delicious). as in the example above.0 noun =5 B In Lesson 1. mo must directly follo''" J1iclziko san. B too .' � h. Mr. Takeshi san wa nihonjin desu. and item is lhis. In the above example.B · 1' is X. Pallo zva amerikajin demo arimasu. One thing that you should watch out for is exactly "-here the particle is placed. \Ye learned how to say '·Item A is this.." \Ye now learn how to say "Item A is this. To describe the second half of this situation. Pat is a Japanese. has the given property.. lj IJ� < -t!" \. J1ichiko is Japanese. is an American. 0 h. which call for special attention: Are mo be negated by replacing desu ·with ja arimasen. in addition to somebody that has been mentioned. Pat.. is different from the first in that \Ye do not find the particle wa in it. Patto wa amerikajin mo desu. as they both claim that a certain person is J apanese. she is an American. however. A let =5 X X · c·9o c9o 1 A is X. 1' two items shared property g noun Li � ® O �tt/v 2 To negate a statement of the form X zva Y desu. \Ye have mo instead. Yamada is not a student. Are mo takai takai desu ne (That one too is expensiYe). one would haYe to say Lesson 5. Patto mo amerikajin desu. In English. t? ::. but at the same time. where Y is a noun. We will learn about the conjugation pattern of adjectives in . o Michiko san m � h. Jl!Jo is a particle that indicates that that item. because the sentence would mean that Pat. Instead. � j f. too. Not so in Japanese. '''e cannot say. The second sentence.. 1 We cannot use mo to describe a situation like the following: Our friend. This is natural. too . These sentences cannot ja arhnasen and oishii ja arimasen are therefore not grammatical. (Japanese speakers would say. because takai and oislzii are not nouns. there are two sentences that end with desu . t t : t i h. you replace desu with ja a rimasen.o � Yamada san wa gakusee ja arimasen. leither can we say. the \Yord "too" can be placed after the sentence as a whole. "(•' ""t nihonjin desu.) 2 l n the dialogues.. \ L � J6 � j -t!" A.

"Tonkatsu " is not fish./ f. affirmative: negative: (X I�) Y c·9 o (X I�) Y l. is added to a statement if the speaker wants to assure the listener of what has been said. the uncontracted form is more common. In written Japanese. . "t Let me assure you. Smith is British.Ja in ja arimasen is a contraction of dewa. thus. '' "' � T A � A :: /vlj 1 . With yo added. a statement becomes an authoritative decree.: n tj t: < t � � � l -tt lv tlo �\ - Rii san no :: /v Cl) -lt /v t /v t j v)� /v l. If the speaker is seeking the listener's confirmation or agreement to what has been said.Q� ij: t � � � � -tt lv J: 0 sakana ja arimasen yo. yo ( " I tell you"). Ms. depending on the way the speaker views the interaction with the listener. Sumisu san wa igirisujin desu yo. l) ') . � !v . is it? Kore wa niku ja arimasen ne. right? This is not meat. (In case you 're wondering. then ne ( " right?") could be added.} Mr. the above sentence more likely appears in writing as Yamada san wa gakusee dewa arimasen. your major is literature.Q� -:::> tj :: .> ® � *itlvo X is Y X is not Y Statements often end with the tags ne or yo. Lee.J > < "(' T tlo ' senmon wa bungaku desu ne. Another particle.:f 1) A t lv "C'' T J: o Tonkatsu wa "t 7.

explanations. a telephone operator.: <! L . Thus 20. o) kudasai is "Please giye me X. . rather than nijuusen ( =20 x 1._. o) onef{aishimasu sounds item X.000). the restaurant attendant uses it when she is about waiting for you to come forth with item X. o) kudasai._. Japanese uses the marker for tens of thousands (man). . . ." You can use it to (-�)<t:>�t. ._.� request (concrete) items in general. ( . o) onegaishimasu too is a request for item X . change shape after 3 and 8. . . "Counters" whose first sound is h . . is niman ( = 2 x 10.. as in the following examples. Japanese describes that number as 100 x 10.. More complicated numbers can be considered the sums of smaller numbers.000 and 8. ( . ( . asking for your name._. would probably say Onamae o doozo . that is.. " ) . 600.t . In addition to the digit markers for tens (juu). Some counters that begin with s.i!) (-�) < t.000 4 X 1.iect. . Expression Notes (�)\ \. . slightly more upscale than ( . Therefore onamae is "your honorable name.:: � -) � lv * lv J: lv it lv < -? < t.000). ._. hyakuman . 234. o) doozo is used when an offer is made with respect to On the pronunciation of number words .. and understanding.567 - 23 X 10. Note that the words for 300.000 involve sound changes. ( 0 is a politeness marker. o) onegaishimasu can also be used to ask for "abstract objects. and 8. ( . . and thousands (sen). 800. like sen (thousand)..000.") to hand the menu to the customer.V'J:5 l::fA. . It may also be used when a person is (-�)c' -5 � . 3.i'L Ho� * 9 . . which are found in Western languages as well. hundreds ( hyaku). like hyaku (hundred). . ( .:: � -3 ::·· v � ( n i j u usanman) (yo n sen ) (gohyaku) (rokujuu) (nana) 10 l. In the dialogue. 'While the next unit marker in v Vestern languages is one million.000. When used to ask for a concrete ob. generally change shape after 3." such as repairs. Refer to the table at the end of the volume.000 5X 100 6X 7 �� t. It is heard often when ordering food at a restaurant ("I will haYe .r �JR / . Big numbers . 6.t l. for example.

400 B. 000 40 . 6 0 . 000. Read the following numbers. 000 90 . . 000 80 .. ij: V' "'(=' < nanahyaku i. 000 3 0 . 000 70 . 000 3 .ttfvlJ�5 p r a c t c e CD 9 5 u 1 00 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 (Numbers) I . "t? l � hachiman � 1-P -? V' "'(=' < kyuuhyaku � !-P -? -1t � kyuusen � 1-P -? l � kyuuman A. 000 2 0 .·· u "'(=' < gohyaku ::_'' -1t � go sen ::_·' 1 � go man � � tf "'(=' < roppyaku � < -1t � rokusen � < l � rokuman i. 340 (e) 1 25 ( j ) 3 . 000 V' "'(=' < \. � --c-·-t o Hachijuu en desu. 900 (b) 67 (g) 603 (1) 35 . \ i? l � ichiman � = V' "'(=' < nihyaku hyaku � = -1t � nisen sen �: l � niman � � if "'(=' < sanbyaku � � -1{ � sanzen ��l � san man l � V' "'(=' < yonhyaku J: � -\t � yon sen d: � l � yon man ::. 000 @) *� 1 0 . 000 2 .J. 500 (d) 99 ( i ) I . @) ( a) 34 (f) 5 1 5 (k) 8 . Look at the pictures and answer how much the things are. 000 4 . � lv A : t. 300 (n) 92 .Z. 000 6 . 000 5 0 .J.J. -\t � nanasen t:t t:t l � nanaman u. � tf "'(=' < happyaku tj: � -1t � hassen l:J.i t? t 11> -? . @) Example: Q : � / tj: \ ' < � ··e -t h�o Pen wa ikura desu ka. 000 9 . 000 8 . 000 7 . i. 000 ( c) 83 (h) 850 (m) 64. 000 5 .

./ 7..ooo 1 1 ¥2. -t' 1 ¥2o. ��· tlfJfJ 1 ¥1.. �.oo o 1 (11) l: "C iv L � (10) :.5 oo 1 cs) -�.f-J (2) -h' :: (3) L /v . .tr 1v (9) 1 ¥6oo 1 l: L J: &� 1 ¥3.'' ·' h.) Find out the price of all items. 1 ¥1 ..ooo 1 (12) / .: h.� 2 � . � / --.{_ lv 7.. ooo 1 (6) < -J 1 ¥11 0 1 (7) � �t \ \ (5) 7 ... 50). Enpitsu wa ikura desu ka.. .) � lv / I ¥8 o I (4) t :i lv � I ¥5 o I .7° � . (Don't look at the other picture. 8 (1) ..ooo 1 (13) tl' -J L 1 ¥9. 5oo 1 t: 1 ¥1 o. Pair Work-One of you looks at picture A and the other looks at picture B (p.� '7) . Ex.? t: 1 ¥8. soo 1 C.. Hyaku en desu..

� 0 Sore wa : -: (ttj: """ / i:'' To Kore wa pen desu.ooo 1 A..Picture A j¥1. Answer the questions. � v . Pay attention to � n (kore) and trt (sore).fl.2001 j¥36.: (t tj: iJ iv i:'' T h ' o Kore wa nan desu ka. /\- Example 2: Your friend : You : .0001 j¥10. and items (7) through (12) are near your friend. Items (1) through (6) are near you. @) Example 1: your friend You : � n Li � lv i:'' T 1. .-:r 0 . Your friend asks what these things are. � n tj: t: Sore wa toreenaa desu .oool I ¥s.( - -r �· n - --c. � nan desu ka.

SJ Are wa A : Gb n U: � L Are wa J: IJ· !v "C'' T o BANK 0 0 0 1:1 L i b .. � B.a.i o o Univer-sity o o 0 0 D 0 0 0 D (1) (2) (4) .2 Ex. Look at the picture and tell what each building is. toshokan desu. (?) (� tl#[J (g) Friend 6 (1 Ex. �� u / 1 (2) �� You f�(6� nan desu ka. ry 00 00 00 o o o o o o 0 0 Tozo.

. Card A . Refer to the picture on p.t "" / "(' -t 0 . Example 1 : Example 2 : > (kore). or 650) (ana) (kono).tt for the vocabulary. r ¥2.ft lj 7J: lv "('' -t h > 0 8 J1J n t. D.-. Tell Part II.o Nisen hyaku e n desu.. Kore wa pen desu. \ G "C"T h· o Store attendant : t : -1:t lv V' � < .t lv -z·· -. Ask for the the customer how much each item is..C.: A- Sore wa nan desu ka. 8 .tt (are).t Kono hon wa ikura desu ka. Ask and answer questions to find out the price of each item. � Part I. tft (sore). prices ·of items (1)-(J).100 Ex. Use Z:O) (sono). 0 A ' f . You are a store attendant. .:: 0) ti lv t.:: n t. Pair Work-One of you looks at card A and the other looks at card 8 (p. ' "{'·--to Are wa tokee desu. 51). t-0) appropriately. Pair Work-Point out five things in the classroom and ask your partner what they are using Z: . . You are a customer. ' Example: Customer : . 1.t � tt 1.---Je# /(5) ----'-. or �. 53 A • Gb n u: ij: lv "('' -t h Are wa nan desu ka.

:�Jv=B r. Father w (5) � � �*t. Japanese Mother .: ta=Jv l.. kasa desu./.. dare no • Mearii san no Picture A (1) (2) (3) Switch roles ''"ith your partner. Your partner 8 : . nihonjin desu. Example: Pair Work-Point at each item below (picture A) and ask whose it is. 52) and tell you who it belongs to. Example: Otoosan wa Okaasan mo nihonjin desu.will refer to the picture 8 (p.� /v O) -h ' � •'(-'To : A .: n U: t:· n 0 Kore wa . 1: h' � --c·· -tn'o kasa desu ka. (6) (7) ca� &D @J (8) c n 8 6J Ex.7 1} .lfvc9 Look at the pictures below and describe each picture.

2 .z..� A.� � . l. lie..Z. -r·-t�. 1" 1 Takeshi san wa Toozai daigaku no gakusee desu ka.l: Mearii san wa If> 3> ') \' t: L I .. .800 (3) 22-years old Takeshi Robert (4) � tt " \ tokee I /1) ® � !..J 7 1) . 1) 7J t .� o · Robaato san wa amerikajin desu ka. t . of London students Robert ® � Y U -��� �� �� � � � � � � *tt� A. t.Z..� .Z. kankokujin desu ka. /Z .. Amerikajin desu.. \ -{'' T /. @) Example: Q · . ? .z..:_'' "(·' -f /.Z.i t : ti . � -t!. l. t . t:i 7 . � 0 Suu san no senmon wa keezai desu ka.�o nihonjin desu ka.) 0 (5) vegetable (6) U.. --c·· T �.Z.. . � -tt" . Takeshi san wa 7.f h � 5. 4 . o r ...f . \ �·· \.Z. tj tt \. 0 / '\· . nihonjin ja arimasen.(1) second year Mary Tanaka (2) ¥5. . t . Look at the chart on the next page and answer the questions.Z.Z... � 0 Robaato san no senmon wa nihongo desu ka.� � . j. V.Z. t.n chuugokujin desu ka. � Yamashita sensee wa 7..

. T -h ' o C" .:: � (/) Rii san no (1) " (2) � (3) ' (4) � (5) (6) (7) . - :: � U: o / r·· / t:· " \-hi < r7J -h" < * " \ i:·· -t n'o Rondon daigaku no gakusee desu ka.. .. A. O r \ .0-lt�. history -!-th year ------- B. � -tt. Pair Work-Ask your partner whose belongings items (1) through (7) are. saifu desu ka.:: n t.r :: � tj: J: b � -tl.. " \ .... l ) . Your partner w i l l refer to the p i cture on the next page and answer the questions ..:: � t. � 7 l) q \' Mearii san no n . - :: � r7J :: " \ _.\ \ '"C" T -h ' o ' Robaato san wa yonensee desu ka. Japanese Kim. Mearii san no \' A ' . t: tt L :: � t . /.. If h l: ichinensee desu ka. .. � 7 1) � h q . Mary Nationality School Major Year American U. · o Takeshi san wa T -.. n inensee desu ka... • Ex.J ll 1:·· -r 0 . of London business 4th year � � L t:-l!-..._ lie.) t � � ry j -tt � o saifu ja arimasen. Example: A · . . 9 .�� 1:•' 1" -h· 0 saifu desu ka. . Mearii san wa 8 .. . ·o S u u san wa .. Sue Korean Seoul Univ.7 .:i � 7 1) . c /. ') \' - (J :: � r7J :: " \ .� .:: " n t. Kore wa B · \ " \ X... of Arizona Japanese 2nd year Kimura Takeshi � <L' � t �t L ::. (Japanese teache r) Tozai Univ. � -tt ..{_ .. h q . Yamashita sensee J apanese Tozai Univ. 10. Robert British U. computer 3rd year Smith.:i t : h. Hart." \ -c·· -t t. \ ··c-· -t t. � Rii san no 8 ' . saifu desu.{_ ' Ee..:i " \ 1? h.:i lJ Kore wa q ' :: � (/) � I. \ . .

. Yooko @ * c l1J (J) ftiv u � 5 (Review Exercises) A. Role Play-One student is a store attendant... The other is a customer. Mearii l) Rii ? " l -) .l j � � l) - � . Use Dialogue I as a model.:.

�=�--c " ' L J: < Af'!!!l 1f / r-· 1 ·. .jf' li /. Look at the menu below and order some food or drink.'A l: ..B. 1!" h. . The other student goes to a restaurant.:z. I> \' 1" < '> \' L · / \ / / \ . 7 1 '7-. using Dialogue II as a model. ? -t ..7 1) .. If h h' h - �· n ... S/ . � \\ "? t.L. Role Play-One student is a waiter/waitress.

f "'J Li \ ' < G i:'' T h ' o Enpitsu w a Hyaku en desu.ooo 1 1 ¥7.ooo 1 .Pair Work CD C. ikura desu ka. �======����== A : Example: 7.. Picture B 1 ¥3.soo 1 I ¥9.. lv 7.7oo 1 1 ¥4.

-� � price of items (1)-(5). You are a customer. (3) 1 ¥7. Ask for the �#� 1 1 Ex..:: � ti lv l.Pair Work (D D. . < . Tell the customer how much each item is.:t lv ""(·· To Card B . ��==::::��==���====�=:= Customer : . Nisen hyaku en desu.3so 1 Part II.1 oo Part I. ¥2.i Kono hon wa : Example: Store attendant t ::: -tt lv U' � (1 " \ < ?:. You are a store attendant. �C" T IJ'o ikura desu ka.

r· 7.l / }!/) J. Suu -r � t::. 1) - ') \\ 0 / \ .l 1 1) . I! J? t �1 L t:*lv*" ' Mearii Robaato Yamashita sensee . 7-. ··e-r 0 Mearii san no kasa desu.Example: Picture 8 8 A · ..� A.0) h' � :: n tJ: Kore wa � � ? �\ t · n O) h' � i:'' T h ' o . tt L Takes h i .: dare no kasa desu ka.

.i -{t.I n t h e C l a s s r o o m .f' A_. . Chotto matte kudasai.• ry ./! don't know .' -? '- 'o -----.1 understand. t -? t? . I'P -? < � Yukkuri '- ' -? -z < t..: /.i -? : -z < t. itte kudasai..h-o Wakarimasen. I I . kokuban r v t· terebi t-· t. . -.i �-· mado keshi go m u tsukue Useful Expressions .f:d. '- Moo ichido -? itte kudasai. ------. .:.'o ----.' � '.i L f o -----. < l./ kaaten .j.' � 'o -----./! understood.: Wakarimashita. .' � : '.Please say it again.Please speak slowly.Please wait.• � .! don't understand.f:J 7. .J: '- ' t? �-· � -z < t:.

.. . \ 1. . : -. . \ "( \.b .t l '? .. "(•''t >.:·· l.. l: � ..� lv .:.i J: 7 o _lf. \ "('' T b..b � � /v : � 7 ') - : .@J � Jt l ..� ry l T h ' o Jt* < L IH.�O) m� 5R Making a Date -\':>< t-< 3') D a o g u e (!) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mary and Takeshi are talking... '= � .• J-J.: ..: ..l..t 1 -::> t: ....' ..i �·· '? "C'' Th'o V' ([) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 s 9 �A On Sunday morning.......: : t tt L : ± Hi 8 l..i /v l.t -) ·. l ! .1. \ -? --c � 1 To � 7 1) .b l. .._:: !-) t: � t:'' � B*....t 1 t' it \ \ IJ' h..: !::" .t \ \ I.. B llii B l...: . .:·· �-· �. \ '? "t:. \ "( 1. � B IrA � lv : � 7 ') .e3a l t E s s o N ..i t:... To : f tt L : -c J "(•' T h ' " • • • • L � .Z . : � 7 ') .. B t. I: 1ht 0 B)t .:.i ? �""' l -lt /v o :C 7 "C'' T h ' o l: � it. "'('' � 5� L l To --c·· t .:i *�� t :1t � l To *�� --c·· � w � Jt l To I...t \ ' i. ± Bi 8 t : �@j � Jt l -\:t /v h 'o � l: -. �.: ..:b .(... il! *.i f I. . �. � 7 ') .. .!: = 1 t= \\ . at Mary's host family's. T. o M* ...Z ...(. \M � L 1 T h ' o L •-» "} J: -? �': : t tt L : � 7 ') ..: B � � lv : � 7 'J - " \ --:) "C G -::> L � " \o : . ..{.\ 1 To . ...b � � /v : IrA ::..:·· . \ "'('' T bo �� � 7 'J ..: -c '? "C'' T b o t \.. � 8 l.t 1 U' ! : ? ..

You are early. [ inconYenient] . ometimes see moYies. .Takeshi: :\Iary. I usually study at home. then. . how about Sunday? l\lary: That's fine.-ill you come back? . ha. ) :\Iary: Good morning. Host mother: How about di nner? M ary : I will not eat. Saturday is a little bit Takeshi: Then. Host mother: I see. l\Iary: Good-bye_ . Host mother: Good . . l\Iary: Around nine. I'm going to Kyoto today. But I Takeshi: I see . -\round what time .·e a nice dar. what do you usually do on the "·eekend? Mary: Let's see. Host mother: Good morning. Well.. aren't you? Mary: Yes. . I will see a moYie in Kyoto. (lit.. "-ould �·ou like to see a moYie on Satu rday? :\Iary: Saturday is not a good day.

. my place language lab school Time morning tomorrow * * * * t : t? J: � Zl . house home.* t.fJH�rt&. house. .]' � .i --:::> �1!5t �* when today at about tonight weekend Saturday Sunday ±BI B B ifili B Words that appear i n the dialogue . j? � tt :t? t? f> ::1 .fv .:{_ � t? 7� 1Jt1ifpi[ �{ifpi[ dinner hamburger lunch water home.l: A_.'/ L �@I y 13� :/.>'-? .z.::r.Ro o�� .n: p� 2': V N o u n s o c a b u I a r Enterta inment and Sports * .l:: * ti A_. alcohol green tea coffee Pla ces * .rt y-·· .:: . 1./V 1.z.f � a movie music magazine sports date (romantic.Z_ I.. not calendar) tennis TV video tape.-? j? A_.. .:::. \ I. �·· J: � u · L !'P � . \ .1:. .t.::·· U: A_... tr .f :A . t:· 7v �::·· ::r.f .>' < j.:: � LL 1.JL-.z.:. VCR Foods a n d Drinks if:> � . :t?5� j? >-t'K / breakfast sake.::·· (..

c -? "'(•' -t � "'('' t �-· -? "'(•' -t 1. but . to look at. \ l. � to see. .. -tf A-.v �k �' �-t �� �� e r b s � � "6 � """ � :i_ "6 Ji "6 g u ("-' � ) to speak.l: 1j: -t J: <L' R u . \ i? J: -:> � � � �-· � J: < E x p r e s s * * * o n s That's right.j � q : "t .( not at all usually a little sometimes · often. to watch ("-' � ) I r r e < � * I a r v e r b s to come to do �tudy *. u * -lii:.8 �l!Jt eYery day eYery night . . much =. .l:� � \ v early A d e r b s not much J:i> . ("-' � ) h. to return (destination t : I""-) to listen. t � \ "'( \. to talk (language � I "'C") to read ( "-' � ) j:. � "6 * to get up to eat t """ "6 =. \. Let me see.. ' How about .1 \."6 (destination t: I""-) ("-' � ) ( "-' -t � * ""' A..• X. * /.i � + negatiYe -lf A-. ?. + negatiye ' * * * �� ::k :m:.v e r b s ff < 1� "6 lllj < to go \. ? ..!f. � J: -? -t � v SfH� -t -!> to �) A d j e c t i * * e s good � \� \ . \ (JA. to hear to drink ("-' � ) cry �· t. "6 � < to go back. � * to sleep.. \ < (destination t : l ""-) * 1. . How is . . to go to sleep h.

. ru-verb verb bases dictionary forms present.@ (to eat) �"'* 9 � � fj< (to go) �I 1jTI*9 �I r:r�*ttlv �I fj� �I �"'*ttlv � � �"' iz. There are two kinds of verbs that follow regular conjugation patterns. l• ." Ru-verbs are so called. the "present tense" in Japanese can indicate both the "present" and the "future. . because of the extra vowel i.::: � belongs to the group of verbs called the " ru-verbs. negative stems tabe u-verb ik �"(. For the two long forms we learn in this lesson. because t: you add the suffix ru to the verb base (tabe." The dictionary form of an u-verb like it < can be broken down into the base (ik in the above example) and the suffix u . we will concentrate on the forms. You may find the u-verb conjugations slightly more difficult than the ru-verb conjugations. and an example of each is below. The long forms like 1t � � T and 1t � � -\t lv. to the bases.G r a m m a r 0 Verb Conjugation Verbs in Japanese conjugate. We learn six u-verbs in this lesson: I. are formed with the base plus suffixes .. .. They also appear in various constructions in actual sentences. affirmative present. then. V\Te learn four ru-verbs in this lesson: Another major group of verbs is called the "u-verbs... not the meaning of these Yerbs. you simply add the suffixes masu and masen.. and (3) the present tense negative forms.. 1The use of the term "dictionary forms" i s by n o means restricted t o listings i n a dictionary." (2) the present tense affirmative forms. instead of ru.. For the moment. in the above example) to form the dictionary form. We will learn their uses in later chapters." We will return to this issue in Section 2 below.. or take various shapes. imasu and imasen.Hi : 1t < . Don't be misled by the names given to the long forms too. In this lesson. we learn three forms: (1) the "dictionary forms.

.. t :.<_ 2Things are not as bad as you might expect after reading the above paragraph . or u right before the final . negative stems 9-Q (to do) u u * ttfv u*9 �*9 < -@ (to come) � * iifv These two verbs are also used to form compound verbs. or ru-verbs.will call these parts (same as bases \Yith ru-Yerbs. . e before the final ..A. . you can be absolutely sure that they are u-verbs. we learn the verb . For the sake of ease of reference. to memorize each verb as a set: instead of memorizing just the dictionary happen to end with the consonant If you know the verb classes and the rules that apply 2 to them.. there are two "irregular verbs .!. . which conjugates just like the verb T 6 ... has the vowel e before . and is a " ru-verb. has the same sound sequence. .@ (= a ru-verb) h kaer �m-@ (= an u-verb that ends with -@) ty.) Unfortunately for us..ff < . � .. the logic does not follow in the other direction..ff � j T. and bases plus i with u-Yerbs) "stems. they may be irregular verbs like T 6 and < 6 . o. (We have not learned any such verbs yet. I n addition to ru-verbs and u-verbs. I t is a good form.. r... we \• In later lessons. This is especially important with verbs that end with the hiragana 6 ....ff � . irregular verbs dictionary forms present. if you see the vowels a. try to memorize the dictionary form and the present tense affirmative. therefore. or u-verbs whose bases just verb bases long forms stems mi �. we "·ill haYe many opportunities to refer to the parts like iz� and . because " idea. >'fM! T 6 . In this lesson. on the other hand.. there are ru-verbs and u-verbs that have the Yowels i and h· . I t is important to remember which verb belongs to which conjugation class. . ·�· . " which come before l T and l -1t lv in the long forms. � lr i. like . you know why it is wrong to say x Jt � l T and x ')\i l T. The irregular verbs set aside. affirmative present. but is an u-verb. The key lies in the second from the last syllable in a dictionary form." Note that the vowels in their bases are different in the short (dictionary) forms and the long forms.

particles are often "dropped. or (2) that a person will. w e will be introduced to Yerbs that require particles other than "'(· to express location. Habitual actions: I often watch TV.lvo C. t : . which indicate the 3 relations that the nouns bear to the verbs. 4 l n later lessons. . (1) goal of movement I will not go to school today. A . 0 Particles Nouns used in sentences generally must be followed by particles.::: The particle t: has many meanings. and (2) the time at which an eYent takes place.. In this lesson. I will return home. 4 I will read books in the library. or is planning to. 1 i lr . (. perform these activities in the future." and the "present tense" of these verbs either means (1) that a person habitually or regularly engages in these activities." " will learn more �e about such cases in Lesson 15. but here we '"ill learn two: (1) the goal toward which things move. C · The particle --c indicates where the event described by the verb takes place. 3ln spoken language. and � .<_ Sue will not return home today. These are often called "action verbs. Future actions: I will go to K yoto tomorrow. """'. I will watch TV at home.0 Verb Types and the "Present Tense" In this lesson we learn about a dozen verbs that describe basic human actions.� !v tJ: � a � i? t : IJ� ry j: -1!. we learn four particles: ·c.

"\Yhich "·e "·ill learn about in later lessons. � The particle """'. (Some time words stand alone.oc l -t \ !"� � 1' - 0 I will go to bed at about eleven.::. ." and "in September. " I will not go to school today. "\Yithout the particle 1: tagging along.. 0 Time Reference You need the particle t : "\Yith (1) the days of the week like "on Sunday. �-:� t : . � +.." I will go on SzmdaJ•. . � t = � � t: .· � 1: for 1 : .instead of r : . . like "at 10:42. � The particle � indicates "direct objects.> l 'to I get up at 10:42.Jl J "fo . Note that """'." the kind of things that are directly involved in. cannot be so replaced. 1 - I zcill go to bed at elaeu . �ote that this particle is pronounced " o . the eYent.* :.. :. " I dri11k coffee.. Thus. .. too. .'' . . t'l:>-1 1: ....) Approximate time references can be made by substituting :. I u:ill return home. "\Yhich "\Yill be discussed in Section -! below. Note that this particle is pronounced " e . I watch TV. . or affected by.. ..lt:Ji T * Ia + . I listen to tapes...<.(2) time I u·ill go to Kyoto on Sunday. ." and (2) numerical time expressions. ( t : ) . The sentences in (1) above there­ fore can be rewritten using """'... The particle t: for time references and other uses.. LIll-_:.·· � or :.. indicates the goal of moYement.t A.may replace the particle t : only in the goal-of-moYement sense.

l T h ' can only be construed as a question. \ "C'' T Po � 1. 1. " Unlike words like s L t and . 0 Word Order Japanese sentences are fairly flexible in the arrangement of elements that appear in them.titlJ)t above. moment. these words are sometimes followed by � = ./v . You can use .:fL � t : lJ* ( /. Thus a sentence like � ::. What will you do on weekends? extend an invitation. t . :A � L j -\t /v 'h'o -J . JJ\. plus the question particle) to so used. sentences are made up of several noun-particle sequences followed by a verb or an adjective. " (2) expressions describing regular intervals. it's sli ghtly (inconvenient for me at this moment)." You do not use the particle � = with (1) time expressions defined relative to the present I will come tomorrow.± /v [t <. such as "every day..:� j -\t /v 'h' o to What do you say to having lunch with me? Sounds great. which in turn is often followed by a sentence-final particle such as 1.i -\t !v iJ · ( = the present tense negative Yerb.1'. and personal preferences..· . Among the noun-particle sequences.'-? I.. or l . ever.. Will you pla31 tenn s with me? i j. like "in the morning" and "at night. i? l ---:> C:: o Um.i TIJ>." and (2) the word for "weekend. � ::. When will you go? You normally do not use t : with (1) the parts of a day.·· t. cannot be not as an invitation._'' l.:::.. their relati. .t � j --r 0 I will go back in September. depending on styles.i lv � "t""." and (3) the word for "when.·e orders are to a large extent free. \ \.• .. such as "today" and "tomorrow. :. �. . how· : ! . Generally. I read the newspaper in the morning. emphases. It should be noted that its affirmative counterpart. I watch TV every evening.

In this lesson. A topic phrase. the particle t.i.(Mary is a third-year student). :- time goal . therefore.i E . h..W. however.�·. A-hA--Iti .:" Takeshi does not study much. in other words... looks like the follO\Ying.f.. I sometimes go to a cof fee shop. but seYeral other arrangements of noun-particle sequences are also possible.· . what do you usually do on the weekend? . .:.-. (even-day)..:L �l di topic 4'.Sf� ·r·-. it is such that . J ? � : :t 1 -t-h'o Mary. we also learn two adverbs "·hich describe how infrequent an activity or an event is. t. � :l :·.:=. language).> � ry (not often.� � . -tf �-1£ � (never.{ Yerb I often go back lzome at around seven.f.-:.. 1) ..'-. and � � �-· � (sometimes) to a sentence to describe how often you do something... \Ve see three sentences in the dialogue of this lesson where nonsubject phrases are made topics with the help of the particle t.cry. I f you use -1f � -1£ lv or && � � .'*-c·· -t (My major is Japanese hf.. .: f!k . I t puts forward the item that you want to talk about and comment on. ifa1� L j 'to -Yerb I will study Japanese in the library today."" · . You may have noted that the topic phrases in sentences such as � 7 1) ..: .. hi... you need to conclude the sentence with � -1t � - I do not watch TV at all. : . l < (often). :: . "). J: < .. not very much). and �t.8 time � .:?: 10� il! . need not be the subject of a sentence. : place 8 7.:l �� t. . r .:. are the subjects of those sentences. not at all) and Jr.f:....{.i presents the topic of one's utterance ("As for item X.ht.. Jl ._ --c· tg !::: . H Frequency Adverbs You can add a frequency adYerb such as �.: object ""A. t tt L :?: 10 ti � :: 1 ry Jfa1� L j -\!..� � t.�.10 o -.:L topic frequency L � . These adverbs anticipate the negatiYe at the end of the sentence. .i. a The Topic Particle (� As we saw in Lesson 1.! . ti t " \ "C \ \M � L :: L�z.A typical sentence.

does not stand in subject relation to the verb. 1-T < is a movement in a direction away from the speaker." n < I*� . {lit.) ." "a bit.. but is rather its direct object.± is used m directing the listener's attention and thereby inviting a . I ' m coming. suggestions. It is commonly used J: -:> t 1 -:> -r < f � 1." as " in i:> J: -:> t < t..t k iz"'"' J: � /vo t: How about dinner? I will not eat. O. I n this example.l promotes time expressions as the topic of each sentence.. what do you do on weekends?" " Let me say what I will do today. speaker's viewpoint o c::l:: -::> C: .. you say "I'm coming.ic51:ffv �J.> � !_ for a polite r�fusal.. BJt ::.1 To �\ I'm going � . it means "inconvenient. "a small amount.:Z_ because it sounds too direct. Japanese people don't normally reject requests. fL�i1T � i T is used in bt:l" \' * � is a movement toward the place where the speaker is. In the above two examples.-· t. comment or completion of a sentence. i:> J: -:> t literally means "a little.. t. > .t "l �.> (Please give me a little) and i:> (Please wait for a moment).� E tJ: * :li� t : ff � . or invitations with 1.± lv. Its effects can be paraphrased like these: "Let's talk about weekends. In this ( 1o).> I." and so on.. < Expression N otes ffi � When you move to a place where the hearer is. I will go to Kyoto . You may also note that the broached topic.JI / . " lDt ::_'' tJ: lv tJ: ? l ." "impossible.. Will you see a movie on Saturday.'? Saturday is not convenient.. Saturday is a little bit. t..:: � 1. case. However in the same situation. Ll < Japanese.ti � to Kyoto today..lh." in English.

� h. 1 1 .. J: iL' . 7.. I.L. t::.:f> B.:f> 9 .:f> 8 . (a) Add the appropriate verbs to the following direct objects. � � 6 . -:f> @D --1 .P c '-' d: fJ'Iv l3:1v r a c t c e CD ��mc. Example: 1 . � j -l:t A3 .=. 0) . Change the following verbs into -*9 and -*ttfv. \ < 2.t - library/2:00 (5) 7 v t·· L.:f> :: t � -:f> ::.� J: '? T .:f> 10 ..7° (2) T . }. (1) 7 . 7.) . tl ..: !!k ::: t\ " r-�----_-- coffee shop/3:00 home/tonight college/ every day . � < � � t:: � -J. -/. > � . Look at the pictures below and make sentences using the cues.�1J:�di*9 J. T . T < . A. :A @D (4) :1 .t· t � ../4:30 school/Saturday McDonald's/5: 00 (6) v 8 *� . ti � T 12 .

using verbs we have learned in this lesson.. �Jt h . Look at the pictures below and make sentences using the cues. S.!: J: i..i To / 1. � ._ i.t � �fth .i T IJ'o � l ! rrl. Example: A : B : 0 :$ i'g '"('' � �. \ \r \ i. 5:30 tomorrow Pair Work-Make questions.i -1t /0 o . Sunday (4) return home (5) return to the U. �Jt h .t ._ . go to the post office - go to the post office (1) go to the library (2) come to school 1 : 00 (3) come to the coffee shop 8:30 -��· @ /.(b) Add the place to the above sentences. GJ Example: Ex._ ..\ D. C. L .

{. switch roles with your partner and anS\Yer their questions. both of you "·ill choose one item in each row of the table and mark it. ' . Pair Work-Guessing game Ask questions and find out the items your partner has chosen. Before you start. 4 . 3 . Tabulate the score. � . You can ask at most two questions with one verb. B : t.Z. 1 .' B : \. Example: A : � 1X t : . ) "' �=tr !t � -t "' � � � ..E. Your partner will not giYe a\\·ay the right answer when you ask a wrong question. In each ro\\·.i T n ' o � . ' � 1t � l To (A guessed what B marked. 5 . you score a point. make a yes-or-no­ question sentence and find out \Yhich item your partner has chosen. ' \..Z ::: "(.. \Vhen you have asked questions about all the verbs in the table.o � \ A : "��� -"1t � .± \. 2 . � 1t � l % . therefore A won.ft � l T n ' o /)' '? ::.. using the Yerb and one of the four items. You \Yin the game if you haYe scored higher than your partner.. If you have guessed correctly the item your partner has chosen. h'') coffee Japanese book I library "' � �ith � -t "' � L � -t I telephone I tennis . '"'-' � 1kh � -t � post office TY sake book date I I I I I school mone green tea newspaper study coffee shop video water magazine I cartoon ( � A-.

� lv t:J:1PI* t = ") � t : 1}� 0 � 'Th'o l.i.� � tj fPJ* t = � � � --JIJ•o lj: h. 66}. Pair Work-Ask your partner what time they do the following things. .� � tjfPJ* t : � . Look at Mary's schedule and answer the following questions.(_ lj: h.J. 65) and I -C (p.d B..l: '.Iv l.:A. 7 1) .l: /)'.t h. B : . 3 .'. A.. . Example: 2:00 @D � . and add the time expressions to the sentences. 7 1) .* t : � � � To l.l: ' 6'? ::. .fi l :-f'J � � --JI.J.0 1DJB�(���*97J' tJ.J.� fv tjfPJ* t : � ::_'' (j fv � 1z ""' � --J h • o 4 .� � lj-'fPJ * t : ::Z .M. A. i .� � tjfPJ* t : � .t: u. Mary's Schedule 7:30 8:00 8:30 12:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:30 7:00 8:00 11 :30 P. 7 1 ) .j.� �.J.i <13 A.l: 'l) t. � T h ' o ": A. Y 1) . BJ get up eat breakfast g o to school 1 . . l: b Your partner's schedule time ) ) ) ) ) ) get up eat breakfast go to school eat lunch g o home g o to bed C.•o '. . ..l: b 2 .� fv tjfPJ* t : :Jt � T h ' o l: h -< iv . 7 1) ..fti L � --Jh'o 7..:lv 6 .C .:O. .J. 7 1) . eat lunch drink coffee play tennis go home eat dinner watch TV study go to bed 5. Look at the pictures in I -B (p..1\.M.. 7 1) .!..J. t.

Make suggestions using the cues below.i -\t /v iJ 'o 7:' 1 .t: -��(h. Example: Ex. Pair Work-Ask your friend out for the activities in the pictures. eat dinner 7 . (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) . Example: drink coffee � BJ 3 .*ttlvtJ\ 0) A. play tennis 6 . . listen to the music B. drink tea at home 2 . study i n the library 8 . talk at a coffee shop :1 - 1:: - � tt h.(!) :::J . see a moYie -1 . come to my house i) .

t � 1z""' � T 1. (Review Exercises) nlvul1>? A. 7...: /.. :-!i � at .h.:·· � -J i? t:: lJi ry � T o .. 8.� 1x h l T h � o 6.:· .t . b� 7 . t-. 6 .fh.-). 5 . ( l: &· .<.:=.IJ. 1. -*JJ -M' � 1z""'( l Th'o · � I: � 7.® ma2i-'��a. � � iJ!?jZ tj: �-. � t : (i) * t:61JO)**� �A.. t � :: l: Lil-LI. t:'' _: "'(''�5£ L � T IJ � o .<. at t :: � :!" n --c-· 8 *� � �5! L l To . *!t� � �ft h � T h ' o � .t \ ' lr .. . '' : ·h- 1.C.z if-' .:: at t :: L L t ::. L•. L J: 3 .:·· � :OC 1 T h' o L: b B. BJt� j\ Mat . Answer the following questions.:ft � l To ..! 1 3 . L: t-.::A.ff � l T h'o .h. Example: � 8 tj: . f : M � L l Th'o � !: : � A.t: . *9 £ L\ 1='!5 fil:/v J:: How often do you do the following activities? Answer the questions using the expressions below.1(..'J � L � T h ' o 5.1� o .-. .1 � .� .:·· ti A...IJ'( 11) _:.!A.: l:: l ! b•A. Tell your classmates what your plans are today/tomorrow/on the weekend.ff � � T h � o 1:: L ! &·A" 4. : : I. -Mat t :: kl � � T h � o 2 ..'J � L � T h � o 2.. 1 . 8 * 0) � � � 8fJ � l T h ' o t: 1! 1. �' l... :::1 .. � @ � ) � T h ' o L . It \ -:J T V t:' � Jt l Th�o ._: t:: .. .. -*JJ .z if-' . � :!" it t :: .. 4 ....

Suggest to a classmate that you do something together over the weekend. speaks French.. watches TV at home.l: .C..A � L l {t lv 'h'o . .i i. Use Dialogue I as a model. name 1 . ± � E tj t:'' 7 1::" .:::. 4 . . .c 7 "('' T'h'o l' � &_. 5 . gets up at 7 o'clock.! . Class Activity-Find someone who . · · · · o A ' .: ?. . J: � : t? J: 1 U -? t: .. plays tennis.A � L 1 B : li " 'o T'h'o A : t � &.. eats breakfast eYery day.. . . (l "('' T 'h'o B : X. E � B � : j. listens to Japanese music.. D.> . " ' " ' i:'' T bo . Example: A : B � lv ti 7 . X. :f B : 8 Hi E !. 3 .. 6 . 2 .:::. .

� t: \ B X: � Iv : � -.1 \' .. � t·f "('' To " �. J::..� t : t :ft 2 l L f::.lp.-t 1J • o V' t: ') � � 7 1} . \ . .(•4• I ld:L/ L E s s 0 N . �JJ 6i)CO) T..�� � f::..j. at Mary's host fam ily's house.i -tt lvo : 7 7 F -t.: "C' t'IJ· o 1 � o �o � � " \ ... IJ'o ::.� The Fi rst Date a o 41 g u e (!) 1 2 3 L Mary goes downtown.F t.1... ::. I � .....: BX � l:: i lv : � --::> . "('' * � t: }j � � : :ft 2 l L f o J.: <b rJ) f-_.. ..•' t: -J o .. • � ' .\ o B5tl® tJ: t:'' -J "C' L t IJ'o ::.J... \ l To {!) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 In the evening... . � 7 1) - : �� -t ..} . ( � /v � � l L f o ::. \'.L t::.. :: B IJ · � � � � '.> .-t J: Jb � IJi t: ") . \o j::. � 7 1) - : t t' " \ l 0 ::...-J L i: --c. lj: l.U :i -tt !v --c.:-.JL-.. � "(-..: !14 "\.± t:'' ... o lj: l.j..j.... r-. l�L� l:: B X: � lv : ib � t.... JL :i -tt !v "C' L t o t::. .). �. IJ i f < � !v �t \ :i L t::. b iJ • � l -lt /vo f3_' 1. '->..�-.: ::. .:j-".... o � B X: � Iv : � 7 1) .. � tv • n· . � 7 1) ...� rJ)ijff ··c-. .....__ � 7 1} . tt L � !v t..

I took many pictures at the temple. Mary: Thank you. I waited for one hour in front of the Haagen-Dazs place. � . Host father: Oh. How ''"as the movie? Mary: I didn't see it. Mary: Hello. why? Mary: I don't know.--c·· -t f. Host father: Were there a lot of people? Mary: Yes. .-'f / y-· ''J 'Y L � � � ..1. you had a phone call a little while ago.i -tt A. � E *.@ 1 2 3 4 5 6 On the phone.f.! :t t L t L .. . Takeshi: This is Kimura.t � ' . 0 Mary: I'm home.i L t::.l'o ::.. / � .T l a CD Mary: Excuse me. d ? L: lrlv � 7 7 F -J. Host father: Welcome home. Here's a souvenir for you. .:. Takeshi. you didn't come today. did you? Takeshi: I went there. is this Takeshi? This is Mary.lv F ---c·.* M 1� i? . 1) 7 :ff � .# "(" T o � t: ? t �t L : ::. ::. l\IcDonald's! Takeshi: McDonald's ..' "? o t �t L � A.7 / y-· ''J 'Y 0) WI "C''. 7 1) - t. t �t L : ::.---c·· L t tlo ::. I went to a bookstore and a temple alone. Mary: iot Haagen-Dazs. t � t L � A. I'm sorry! .�. .ij: � " ' ! / " . l o .:Z '.i L t o ::.: . .---c·· -to 7 7 F -T lv F' · · · · · · -:··60 h...J: o " .. Host mother: Oh..i -tt A. 7 1J . Takeshi didn't come. t �t L : ::. .1. Mary. I also went to a department store. Host father: Thank you. . So. Where is :\1cDonald's? Stranger: It is in front of that department store.

-:J < i."( h{ h picture. � if' .r / '\ A. photograph desk letter cat bread person .� { . r 7 :.l? h. t h' lv * Words that a p pear in the dialogue .tcl * you * . \ t:.--Time yesterday a little while ago * "-' t h' lv hour one hour cf.)? ±� -1-1� {!fp� �A *JL ._� 1tii dog souvenir child rice.. city restaurant * t i lv� � t:. v A.: �-.r 7 \.1-J . \ lv . \ . \.. meal .> � t � \.t 7 Jv department store bus stop hospital hotel bookstore town. \ t � 7 7 'A People and Things part-time job shopping class }.V N o u n s o c a b u I a r y Activities T ll"' / " 1 r h' \.: Places temple park supermarket * r·.:'' lJ: lv * L � L A.t . "( \ \ tf' .

1..]> -) 1.f � � J: -) if' U . .f c:: 0 --e "" <·· G " \ a n d O t h e r E x p r e s s I'm sorry.:6 j: "'? *-� E 1t� E J}c.. . at the time of . (�c?)) :\1onday Tuesday \Yednesday Thursday Friday to meet. . stays at .J") e r b (a person) is in .]> } iZ.lv "'-' C:: * * c::" -J L --c * 7. to buy to write ( � (� � ) f. -J L .J") c� � ) thing (person t : ( "" � ) �) to take (pictures) to wait * b iJ' .:6 1. . a lot o n s about (approximate measurement) * :._. (ptace t:) A d v e r b s * f= < ::.. . . 1k . so.j: � \ \ * t. to see (a person) (person t : ) there is . .:6 .� "f "'? J: -J u· 1r J: -J u· T " \ J: -J u· t < J: -J Z.] > < * * C:: . .f t3.' 0 * fJ. ii_ :Jp � �lJ Hello? (used on the phone) _..v e r b s � -) * � .t t L t L o n w o r d s 7. . ._ J: (�c?)) left ( '""'-' c?)) front ( ""'-' c?)) ( '""'-' c?)) back inside ( '""'-' c?)) on ( '""'-' c?) ) right . � j .y to understand ( �f.� E j(� E Jj � E last \Yeek when . .. .' iJ' G -: together with (a person) why alone L o ( a t 7. therefore many..·tt> � f.:6 R * u \\ .

: ''- f t.��� � \ \t�' f .f Lt : T � M under near next between there here ( "-' 0)) ( "-' 0) ) ( "-' 0)) (A � B 0) ) .

There's a McDonald's over there. ote also that some time expressions (such as and some others (such as &iJ L t ) do not (see Lesson 3).1 1t lvo There will be no Japanese class tomorrow.:.. One.G r a m m a r X 1.i E . when &iJ � l T is used in the sense of an event taking place. Three. � Lt � t.> ry 1 T to say that you have or own somethmg.. ' 1 To There s an international student over there.::: 0 . the thing description is usually followed by the particle 1. or presents. while -z: --t is for description of · an attribute of a person or a thing. Thus. rather than a thing. i .> ry .:: t: fflJ ¥ j:_ 1. like normal verbs and unlike the JiJ � 1 1t lv (I t isn't a TV). Mary s an international student. it calls for the particle t : . the place description usually comes at the beginning of the sentence.7'' introduces. The rule applies to the &iJ � l T sentences as well. Do you have time? 2 * M 7?" � � . the item X.. 7?{ � r: r..Q ' JIJ � 1 1tlv (I don't have a TV).. 3 1 Note the difference between: 7 v t" . Note that JiJ t) 1 -t is different from other Yerbs we haYe seen so far on the following three counts.:$-� 0 7 7 7-. the negative version of 7 v t:-z:·--t... rather than ·e. rather than t. : 3 Note th at the same Yerb "is" in English comes out differently in Japanese: 1:> f . You can also use Jr..7:. When you want to present a person or some other sentient being.. i . the negative ve rsio n of T v t"IJ > JiJ � l T. you need to use the verb " ' .l 7 1) . . other uses of ci:> � 1 T.> ry 1 T when you want to say that there is something at a certain location. Ri 8 t:) come with the particle t:.�( � • 8 . and ' 7 v t t. • 1 TV t: �·A.� lv l J: 'ilf f!F j:_ -z: -To · ' ' 1 T and &iJ � 1 �F ���.l T. the place description is followed by the particle -z:·. .:A.t..1 T7?'o We also use Jr.strictly for descriptions of existence and location.1:. for the place description.l -t when we want to say that an event will take place. There will be an exam on Tuesday...� � y . · f' 21n a minor detail which we will not discuss any further here.7{ JiJ ry 1 -t means "there is/are X (nonliYing thing). 1:::'7?>' � 0 j 1t lvo I don 't have a TV. Two.." The particle 1. You can use Jr.

(place (." The Japanese version looks like X t.-t.� .i. Other useful words describing locations are as follows: location words �� V't. you can use the word t'' -:: (where) and say X t. one can. as in "X is in front of Y. point and say : "? :7 1-· 1.. i. .t { � . right here.:z:-9 o X is between Y and Z.i Y <1) iltr -r-. ? v -3 X to the right of to the left of in front of behind ld: Y 0) f ri.1{1. . Where's 1\!lcDonald's? In response.i -r 0 There's an international student over there. It's in front of that department store.: t :: w � � '/. .:) {thing tJ' ' 15' person There is/ are . ri ght there near you.i �· -:: --c·· -t �J·. U Describing Where Things Are ' Vve learned in Lesson 2 that to ask for the location of item X. ( '7 7 F -T lv F Lt) � 0 7> � - r 0 "Btr "C·· -t o J. we learn to describe the location of an item relative to another item. we will learn to describe locations in more detail.c � :� ''- � } -c·-t o McDonald's is { over there. More specificall y .fJ' 5 X. X ld: Y c Z O)®L \t .:0 *X. v ft: �' 4 t( ct 0 s ri.. 1. of course.1H· t.-jl.c . C9o X is inside on/above underI beneath near next to Y. I n this lesson.' ( -\t l ' \ . ry.

. i L t::.� .. . ru-verb/ u-verb/irregular verb distinctions.:_- - � lv � 1� t. a :.h .tJ: � 0 7 a .:: side by side.. � � � 1� L 1 -tt lv i:'' L t::.± � :ltg 0 c: � � i:'' To The bank is next to the lib rary.-c· To J: . one will need the particle -r·. an item can be J: .: X �4. . h' < .t. I I t : lJ* � 1 L f::. . -c ·i' describe situations where two items (X and Y) are found 't � IJ: r 1 v 0 � � ry "'( To · -- (odd) .1. One can use any of the aboYe location words together with a verb to describe an event that occurs in the place. 0 � � lJ: r 1 v �.t 0 F. o . �·-- The umb rella is under the table.. o J:ri_ Mary returned home at about nine.. I did not study Japanese yesterday. To use these phrases "·ith Yerbs such as 't-� � and �""?. 7 1J . :-: ! -!?f:L I waited fo r Mary in front of the Hiiagen-Dazs place. In contrast.. .: --:A. two people..-"' l" . all apply to the past tense forms as well. .. Past Tense The past tense forms of verbs look like the following. A. and so forth . The telephone is by the restroom. two buildings. For a � � ry sentence to be considered appropriate.: .. _ i:'' T o The restaurant is between the depa rtnzent store and the hospital.stands for the stem of a affirmative present tense past tense negative . 7 1) . .'' 'h 7 1.:: in relation to another item even if they are quite distinct.$.� C: m F. 4 5Both X!J:Y � � � ry -c· i' and X!J:Y � J: Another \YOrd for "near" that is also commonly used is t.� /v tl: :1L a:f :::. items X and Y need to belong to the same category.: :. The various details of formation of the long forms that we learned in Lesson 3 like the . ! o 0 verb."'. !: - .Jf / y· ''! 'J 0 WI --c· /.. � -1 _...± / ' .:: A. . v A. bt:L :ft. � 7 / tJ:f'/ \' .}�1t t. _ n. :ft. where -.

1::: -j ::'\•ff\•IJ'{ I>'( -lt\• s n �i a * 0 B3t@J t n' t : tiA"' ' ' � .. ¥ 0 ¥ .. I took many pictures in K yoto. .-lt l ' o J..: Mr. --e L t::.. . o That was not a Japanese movie. or after the particle � . 1) 1 -l:t lv -c· L t=. at M . .. In Japanese. �1 L � . for "at about a certain time" we have another word ::: . U: )ft 8 f::.The past tense versions of "X IJ: Y --c· -t" sentences look like the following. L . � 1 -1!-lv -c· L t .A..i. Mary waited f or Takeshi there f or an hour. affirmative present tense past tense negative � !J f.?·A.t � 1 � .i -1!. like . \ \ � 1: t>·JV For an approximate measurement. I ate a lot of vegetables.� .. < � !v to the direct object of a sentence. :J.z. Yamashita was a student at Tozai University. 6As was the case with 7As w e learned in Lesson 3. £ L f -ti.* rl3 1� 1? l L t::.i. .. . the present tense L v J. t: >7·. '. not followed by any particle) and usually appears immediately before the verb. 7 1) . =. • The duration of an activity is expressed with a bare noun. --e L t o ::.:: --e t::. written language would more likely have "'C" Ij: J. � .Z..(.\ t:. � . Expressions of quantity m Japanese are rather different from those in English.. o .. you can either place it before the noun. you can add <·· G " ' 7 after ---.' ® � *ttlv � u f-' ® � *ttlv c v t 6 . instead of the contracted form L v J.Z.* M · Such a noun stands alone (that is..lv. if you want to add a quantity word like t::. ti :C .L T � ..

too. . See Lesson 10. Professo r Yamashita went to K yoto yesterday. !] • t: :: *...:A. \' I went to Kyoto yesterday. :.·/. 1::: to connect nouns only. at M <-.ot>f�l �� t. We will learn about connecting verbs and sentences in Lesson 6. _?( 7 1) - :: h. too.:: h.. it describes with whom you do something. sees. .8 �ri Jf:i� � -:.::. ::: ': h. .lJ: . or eats two or more things. . or � in these sentences.. �� t1 � 0) ht. Mary bought a bag. -:..: .G '.:/. t directly marks an item on the list of things or people that have something in common. do something on two different occasions.'�5! L .! < --? � � " ' .f L t� o :. You can also use t when two or more people perform the same activity..:L 7 � �� �: 1t � ..t. tJ:.f L t� o lr Mary bought shoes. We learned i n Lesson 2 that we use the particle t i n reference to the second item which shares a common attribute with the first.: · . -. Or when someone buys. 9 _?( 7 1) .! � I studied Japanese f r about three hours :yesterday. One is to connect two nouns A and I speak Japanese and English.-. < .s The particle C:: has two functions. You can also use t when you go to two places. .:: h.... ObserYe that t replaces the particles l. In both cases.JIR t : fj" � £ L f u C:: I went to Kyoto and Osaka. and so forth. 1 l t: .t: �@] � : {j" � l To J l!Iary will go to Ko rea with Sue.i..=.f L t o .A . 8You can use 9"With" as in "with chopsticks" requires another particle. B. o � 0 7 E *� � . The other meaning of is "together with " .�.

t. s.7 1 . I went to Osaka.ht:L {£. IJ•/ull:/u r. � ? /®? � In the dialogues.$: � � {. .i. V'J:5 (j'fv �J. :Z -.::> at the end of these little words indicates that these words. and her host mother saying J5 -.t :.. tJ•!u "two hours =!eyFa 1-*.::> is used when you have suddenly noticed or remembered something. h{. f -- He went to a party on Sunday. fpfu =b u =b v � tJ L. D / �.f L t� r.ff � :f L t o � -1! "-'L.. are very short. The small -. " You may also hear another word that is used in the sense of across.::> .t Lt is often used in the sense of "across (the street) from X" or "opposite X . 1 1.. If something X O) U'i:r>1t). or farther away from a street and cannot be directly seen because of the intervening you can also describe it as being X.}. J: 7 8 B$ 8 t = t /' � . 1J'Iv!Uv and a half" is li/u (half) appears after the unit word like �r Thus.tJ L.. 0 t :. Some other people use it when they receive a call. -j (. and � are used together with t .ff � . More generally.when they place a call. We put t after th e particle t: i n these sentences. =�mi.::> is like the incredulous "what?" that you use when you have heard something that is hard to believe." which is used only in telephone conversa­ tions.f L t� o '' c· J: 1 U' Robert went to a party on Saturday. t.t = 1f � .:: r. ll:/u t.-J.T 1 . in addition to calling it X 0) 1& 0 .� A. rather than being replaced b y it.t tl ± Bi 8 t : / � ..tJ L.. rather than =-*!eyFa . t. .i � X O) fij . too. Some people use tJ L./ . too. ·t::. we observe Mary's host father saying :Z -._ X 0) -:5 i? . namely. J5 -.i 7t:il!*::M� t : .::> ."' X E x p r e s s i o n N o t e s � � OJiF. is behind X. particles other than tJ:.is "hello.:-11 1:: '' I went to Kyoto last week.m . when pronounced.

p t. \ l T'h�o C<ri L -? 7 . Look at the picture and tell what you see. 6 . � !: · .i:-?.�t5'® � *9 A. � � f-: � 00 (country) t : -M -h { � 0 l T-h'o < !: �� = � ? .!-' fJ' < r a c t c e CD7\. . f!J4� 1I! (zoo) t : -M h�-�. using 08 � * 9 or L '*9. \ l 1" -h ' o 8.th.:: ��1: (classroom) t : t_:' n -h� '. Answer the following questions.:.·- 9. · . � � t-: � � U : -M h { � 0 1 -f h'o \ ' i. B.

_ \ \ . h.A � c1) 7 7 .A IJ" � 0 � T tJ'o (/' -t< • J: i U' :.f?. �Bfl 8 t :-ffi} IJ> � 0 j: T IJ ' o ' 7. Look at Takeshi's schedule for the week and answer the following questions.. i.:: 1 U ' :O: . E Bfl 8 t :'ffi} IJ> � 0 j: T h'o ' ! : "!S .A IJ >' � ry � T tJ'o U' - A : t. .jl . � ry � To 1.J. 5.:· -*.. 2.: 6 .Hi 8 t : :1 L C J: i U' t:• J: i / to . :::: .l "' ' .f. Btl 8 t : 1PJ 1J " � 0 l T 1J . .:Z.A � c1) 7 7 . � Example: Q i f? J: i � Btl E t : 7 7 / .: .A h >'(b ry l T h ' o = . . J: i 1]<.A il{ � ry � T IJ'o -:_. : D. 3. Bfl 8 t : 7 7 / . 4.t 1 . • : l.1 - T A.. .A IJ{ � ry � T IJ'o ± Bfl 8 t : 7 7 .(?) 7 7 ..j. o �1: � · ':.C. Pair Work-Write down your next week's schedule and ask each other what plans you have on each day of the week . 6) School Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday French French English History English History English (TEST) NO SCHOOL NO SCHOOL Computer Computer After School I club activity club activity party date part-time job club activity party test '7 7 7' F \ .f3 !!1l 8 t : � � c1) 7 7 .ih.

' � Si B I ! Your Partner's Schedule *. \ B.. 5 . Look at the picture and tell where the following things are. t i' -) L . Look at the picture and tell where the following things are... � Ill :: -i ... * �+ t: It l ' ''/ !-. 6. 1� 6.1' ± Si B l::" l: i j ' B lli B ! : ? .Bi B fr J: -l tJ Jj<. 8J 1. . ��* "(' A. 2. :. Jli B t ( . / \'A.. ]j � tJ' A_. A./ � - "( A.:.1'4--"l VI> ..(racket) 4. h 5 . �1t!oJ( :. :1 �Bi B :.. ��� � 2 -? 4 . ! . 8J 1 .t: i u- 0 ��mrct c: z: c9tJ' e: v&: n'fu A. A..- . . \ I J: . "'( \.!: ..Your Schedule . :. :.. Jli B -r. /. /v (f--:J 2.. �m .f:.!: .t A...r-:. 3. .1'-' A. 7 7 3 .

Pair Work-Ask and answer questions to find where the buildings are. B Twenty-five years ago...t ' ' .-+ "*' f '"''( �\ 2.� o :: .--1!-' ' 5 . L t -ItA. � r 7!:� u-�� --c·· L t �.fX � 5. . -It • ' : ' ' i:>t:>A.. TOJ . Example: A B : : � III U IF 7 Jv C7) � ij: � . Look at the information about Prof.�0 :: 1> . '(' >P-1 U'I. One student looks at map A. L A. C!.1.� ( ® 1t� (d:= + =mi c l.{.:: i 4 ..: � L 2. .J t= ttlv ttl...: --c·· -t t. Prof. The other student looks at map B (p....: -J .: 1 .w. *. Don't look at the other's map. -!t'' : . n �.w. -!t • ' : -I±A.t A. � r 7!:� Cl).\ 1:: litP5 1:: �I. .� 0 :: t -1!-A.\ A. � r 7t � tj ..A 1f \ 1: \ �1�� ... Yamashita 25 years ago and answer the questions.:r-1:�� --c-· L t �.: -J .r. � r 7!:� Cl).lA.t . 3 . Yamashita was twenty-two years old senior at a college good student Q : � r 7t � tj *.� o :: 'i' :1 L I'::: -ItA.L A. *� l...�o --c· -to Map A Ask where the following places are.:· 1'1 L f -!!. tj� � --(· L t �. 1 .. -ItA.-It • ' t�' '"'' < -1± 1 ' his major-Japanese history Example: 4 .¥ � (college student) --c·· L t �.: L t:-1!-A--1!-'' � .l . 93). t j * � "'(' L t �. . �� tj �-.C.�0 :: 1' 1 l 1 ..r .� -.

000 I I I ¥ 1 0 . �. use the item and one of the four prices. 4. \ . t. 3.� :: tJ:' -7 L � v . 1.� . 5. A : X. -h� o B : 1. � P3 . 000 ¥20.-t. Tabulate the score. 000 ¥ 8 .B.. make a yes-or-no-question sentence and find out which price your partner has chosen.. (" L t::. 000 ¥ 25 . Pair Work-Guessing game Ask questions and find out the prices your partner has chosen.. 500 ¥ 3 . you score a point. You win the game if you have scored higher than your partner. When you have asked questions about all the items in the table. \ \. \ C. � . Before you start. Example: 8 : 7° v -e· / � t. 300 ¥ 2 . \ � .:C (?) 1./. 600 ¥ 3 .· ti' � t -'(-> S � j: -tt � --c-· L t::. 000 ¥ 2 . IV :· -\!' IV .. • t J' � "'(·· L t o ::.i 1. 000 * �+ � .::. � fi3 t -'(-> S � j: -tt � "C" L t::. Your partner guesses what you got.• ti' � "'(·· L f IJ� o ::. Example: A : . o A : . 000 ¥ 1 . 000 ¥ 2 . . 500 ¥ 1 7 .:Z. 000 ¥ 3 . switch roles with your partner and answer their questions. o . t. 2. -1.. 4 .� 1i. 1J ' o ' • "> . 000 ¥ 600 ¥ 1 . 400 ¥ 6 . 000 ¥ 4 . both of you will choose one price in each row of the table and mark it. 000 ¥ 1 0 .1� t�f � ti .::. Your partner will not giye away the right answer when you ask a wrong question.• ti' � t.P3 --c-· L t::.:t 4 .!. Answer your partner's questions. .. In each row. \ �. IV 1. 000 ¥ 1 . : :.. 000 ¥ 1 5 .- ¥ 5 . You can ask at most two questions with one item.: � 4 >t 4 . If you have guessed correctly the price :rour partner has chosen. Pair Work-Suppose you got one thing as a birthday present and choose it from the items on the next page.

J: t: n .F:. tJ: 13 B1f 8 t : @ :a: tit "C'' � 5! L � L t:: o lf-:>. The pi ctures below show what Mary d i d last week. � � 7 .. b � 5. jt.· B .: A. T � 13.® � BiB r�1CJ1£ u* u t�tJ' (j::> � 5 u t . --c·· L t:: :: 4 .* u t. tJ: � i" 2. < � 6. n· < 12.:: and -*ttfvc u t .J: � (I � l � b·A- --.�.J:(. Change the following verbs into . · . c: � 3 . � < 14.:: Example: SJ f """ � :: t """ � :: � � f """ � L f :: :: t """ � -lt h_.. n· 7 1 0 . .:A. � � s. (/) t_. bn· � 1. Te l l what she did. Example: � 7 SJ 1) - � h_. iJ' � � 15. Monday (1) Tuesday (2) Wednesday in the library (4) Friday at home at school at a coffee shop (5) Saturday (6) Sunday at a friend's house in Kyoto at a department store .t i Ex. � 9.

.t.:. Tuesday. J .Si 8 t :M � L 1 L t -h'o ::. Example: 1 .J: �Wi 8 t : j:. Example: ::.:... o T . Look at the pictures in B and answer the questions. 5 .A.:.• Q : .J: ± W 8 t : j.� � t. 7 1) . .± 7](.. 7 1 ) ..... ) . . 7 1) .l. -h'o 1"� ' :. '.1. 1f ::. . 7 1) . !li 8 t : �-· . 3.± �Wi 8 t : �-.:Z..±J](.J: j( Si 8 t : . " .:: "("� f::' "t t : 4 '. . 5 . :t � .. \ l L f IJ'o ::. : · / . 7 1) .± }j � 8 t : � :�" n --c·-�7� L j L t -h'o A : l..I. 7 1) . etc.. Hi 8 t : "3( -1t � t : rr � 1 L t �.� t.._. 7 1) .. IJ ' o � . 7 1) . ' l L f -h'o ::. 1 A � :!" tg --c·-�7� L 1 L t::. 7 1} . . 6 .± � � iz"'"'.klli 8 t :1PJ � L 1 L t -h'o ::.:: --c-..1. .J: ..�* � :f" � l L f::. 7 1) .1.t.): 1 . 7 1) .1..-._ .1. _: . -9=..� � l. l ED 1 . 6 . _.' . ·.C.: !. . .� 1v t.. . � L 1 tr/. Q : . 7 =.1.:: . .. 4 .:.:. ..?·4 . ._....:: .f. .4n � L l L t -h 'o ::. .. -: :.:. A 2 .� � l.:.� � l.J: .± .."'.. .I. .:. . 7 1) ./· "'.I. ED 3 .� /v l.� � t. � .� �· ? • 0 3 . (.::z.:. . \ '"'::) �@! � Jt l L f IJ'o ::... Pair Work-Ask what your partner did on Monday. Si 8 t : 8 *A_ O) � f:' "t t : 4 '.. .:_ .:..± Jl lli 8 t : �® � Jt j L t::. --... j' � ( .± E !Ii 8 t : Jt �t . A : Jt j -tt lv --c·· L t::.!.! -1 :.1. ...� . �7� L j L t o ::.J h E. . -h ' 0 :. : .I.. : � � "":A. � \ ' . � L i L t� o B : . l:: t h ..� lv t. _A � L l L f IJ 'o D.� 1v t..l L t::.. .::·' t.� !v t. o .: .'"\: ..:. . �. _r 1 J ' -:. . -5 .. :.± }j Hi 8 t : 1PJ � L l L f::.t : rr � j L t::._ :: t t.� � l.:A.� � t.. . . ( .A. / 1) .=. . -h'o : 2 .i '. ::.. Q : .:. -h 'o .� � {j: \. .')" s� Look at the p ictures above and answer the questions.f. . 7 1) . ../. .1.� � l..J: i :..

� A.\ � L t o :: 1'It'' (b) f:: tt L � A. Example: :: A : -T-1� 0* / � .: .l -J i? --r· 8 *-� � � L j: T o 1: Ill.l ±Hi 8 t: 7 lv -' " 1 r � L � To :: ..tj ::: e P3 "C'' To '1: /J'<(>(i..: .. t.. (a) S l f:: .: .l �..I:: .h. --c-.. ifa5! T � .l 8 BI 8 t : 7 Jl . � � ffa 5� L � To !: li/v . �::. Compare sentences (a) and (b).l f:: t t l � A. lr � :::1 .!: :. .-. } } . ::y-_ r � -t � ® :J . !V•I:� t: � t:'' � s � ry -tf h. ' 4 .tJ' .:· !. . S � ry � .:Jv:-:1 (b) � 7 1) . . �::. (a) t:: t t L � .1 \ jf.1 8 7. (a) � 7 1) .@ � Jt � ' i. 7-. ask your partners how often they did the following activities when they were a child or in high school.:i 3 .fX O) * l < *.J: l. � -tt A. t.o-i i/1-.l 'v \ .l 8 *� � >fa 5� L � T o 1: Ill.A.� h. and change sentence (b) using :0 ..* � :t < ' b'h b· ---.r � h...'Y � T � 3 ..\ � . � -tt ...=b�ch*9 (J) A.Z.JV l\ .: I!A. --r L t o · :: �11.- . � ��� t : .i� (b) � 7 1) . :. \ ' b h. � 7 1) .t ::: a P3 i:' To .l ::: e P3 --c·· To t : V'<-( i. J: < �!C h � L t:: o .A .l iJ' ti .!: i If 4 .:.. � 7 1) .l * g-f � Ji �.' .� h.. (a) t tt L � h.-. 6 . ::: :.Jio ..\ � L t:: o b· 2 .t. f.L t :: 6 .:· .\ 1. 1 .1 � . (a) 0 . . -lf h. t.0 -T1ttO)B�� < �1d:�ch* u t::.fv (b) :::1 .:. Example: (a) / \ / .-.t 1 .:� 5 .{.:t.. t.ft � j: 1:!:. �::_· j: i . t : % \ \ � T o .L f o :: 1t/vl....:: c:=o C::� 1�/v J.ff < . t.� Mt h � L t i7 'o .� A.:Jv:. +#..z. t.: i i.J: B : t.l::: . � Ji 1. . LL t : .X. (b) Jb l f:: . l.: · ..Z.ft � � 1:!:.'"""' � L t :: 5 ..� h... -' " 1 r � L j: T o t: "'..i k . . !lA.. (b) � 0 -) . :.: !::' !.-. :: (b) t tt L � h. t : % \ \ � T o . LL t : .� A.. Pair Work-Using the expressions below. t. t..: .··e L t:: o .js:.h. (a) 7t: 1!.I:: . t. B:k. tj .'·�<.. --c-.fX --c-· 8 *-� � � L j: To .�:1 �8 l < 2 .

6J m tt � lv ·:r T . (2) (3) (4) go to a party (5) (6) (7) (8) IJ' J: 7 (f t < J: 7 (f (9) ®!® --�.. 0 ... - t *� i:'' i" o . =.t.• ( -tr.B...1: <-. Describe the pictures using =5. \ student (1) � <V � {=' ..

. Pair Work-A and B want to play basketball together. Ask each other what the other is doing and decide on what day you will play basketball.4L.&·4 <·· G \ '. 1 .. ��' -.Q·h .! 1 • ! : <. 4f a . -lt /v lJ ' o B : \ \ \ \ "(-''ttl o A : lf-::> . J: ( :Zz f::· � �:4'-** � .. t. Answer the following questions. � l 'tlJ'o . .: 4 L .. The following is A's schedule for this week.Jl :i 'tlJ'o M �4 L t> 4 . 3.&·4 ir l: i J ' TUE WED THU FRI SAT PaW-�� (12..JtzH£ L :i 'to · ' L � .'!> t : t: -. ) ___ _ . � (J) 7 8 .5' p. (Review Exercises) :tt lvu�? A.&· t� \ .l: i a tJ: �-· 7 J1 a1f U' B SUN ---c·· 't lJ · 0 ---=4 � ·�i : J1 B1f a i 1"-::> .tJ: 1v � �� :1 -r 1. . f : 0 7 . � f: L "' l 4 B.@ * ccY'JO)�� ! l " � : t..-7 ' �· -:: "(•'BJt _::·· t. J: < t::· n � JE}.) Play the roles of A and B with your partner. 2.f ..&·4---=4 ��i (}.. Example: A's Schedule "T ''J r (basketball) � L :i A : / \ 7.> ( :: /v il � l L �� lJ'o t: � Jl.l: v ' tJ: �:lit --c. L . -M"a� M Jfa?£ L :i 't lJ'o .: ..t lv � iz� :i L t� l. (B's schedule is on p.. i(. f1'\. L 0 5 .. -:·. "( \ '-M" *.. 4f a ' -M"a� �:� � :i 't lJ'o � ·A. 93.

� I H J: ._ ._ ..Jo .9 1 � . v A � 7 / Example: A : B's Schedule '/ /" A 7 ' � (basketball) � L j: SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT * /v f.t 6 p.:: �· T IJ ' o B .I'Y\ .Example: A : : ..-- -the I ibr�r. fr\ eV\ d 15 1o-.<. .1 c:·· '? "C'' T IJ ' o :.. \ \._9 Stw. --- lr l: 1 !f 5h opp 1nj Di nn er --in Os o.t 7 Jv 0 t 7J: ry --c·· -t o Map B Ask where the following places are.!/ �� .: . ..: ._ � I!J tj: (:'' ... • o 8 : \. . \ "('' T tlo A : 1'-?J: 1 fJ Hi E t.. house . ko. 5..

:: (d:£ ¢=:1 I.L o c a t i o n s �. '!! 7o .J't!.� Lf !v (}) 9 >::: II · J:.') t£ c 5 � J: 5 g h.

<..(U? 20 27 l :l:!'P11 :1 :t.::.J ) � < I.:�-P7J. 11 12 19 l:tt>7:_.J lfi) ( Jt � �) the day before yesterday the week before last the month before last the year before last h t t It \ � 0) -) � J: I I l (B'f 8 ) (4' 8 ) -tt /v L ry 7 ( 7t �) ( 4'�) -tt lv �t'"'J ( 7t f. I :t.::...z.. 1 _.J:-jif \ \-?.D a y s/W e e ks/M o n t h s/Y e a r s Days 8 Bll 8 t :?J:7V: i }j lrl 8 11-?J:-jif j(Iql 8 lrJ:7V: 7]<.tt>?\ \�! :1. t:t.&· 4 5 6 ':J:V)h· l:�-P7l?.-?....&· l:tt>1::..t :t..r?! :� 9 �i?h· l:tt>?L't:>! :-t.J ) last month ::_ lv �t·"'J ( 4' Jj ) this month G �t .t. t t L t : h· �t'--? . f.(! :t. )1 ) :?: lvhi"'J ( . t:t..<. f..Iql 8 t<J:7V: �Ri a :.. I :t.t·\ 'n' -?\ 't..f. :_.J ) L: 11> -) '.z...t-?.::=.J ) - -December Time Words Day Week Month Year t.f.' tl lv C *.t:s l :l:tt>7Li1?! :� 7 .·r:s 8 :::_::'/). anuary � : hi"'J ( . 13 14 21 15 16 18 l:�-P?<t :t.n.}j ) ----J.. }j ) ::_·· h ""'J (..J ) (� *�) the week after next the month after next .z. b lv (�*�) the year after next today Ji) L t � tomorrow Ji) :?: -? i: the day after tomorro\r this week G '. 22 23 24 31 25 26 28 29 30 ::-.' L vJJ 7 C� *.&• :_ l:tt>1J.t.i � -tt lv -tt lv L rp -J ( .""'J (. Months '.' � h''--? ( +..f.f..'t :t:..i"'J ( --l: f... (. I :t:�-P7J:?1.."'J :?: G '.� ) next year :?: G �t ..&· l:tt>7l :l :t.&· I :t:I'P1 Lt?l :t.Ji"'J L � /...±1?!:t. h · f. � ) last year yesterday 7 j last week :: /v L ry 7 :: t L (+if) this year G '.J )----July t.J ) -November (� Jj ) t ry 7 t : h' '--? ( + .r.tt>?:_.' tt.' � I.t. tt'"'J C *.. l:tt>1!.Iql 8 -j\ \J:-jif :.' --? ( + J1 ) ' February March April May June August September October L h' "'J ( 1ZB J1 ) ' \ h''"'J (7L f.l � hi--? (-'"..f.7' 10 17 l:l1>7\ '�!:-t.. ± Ri B �'J:-jif .J ) next month � J: b lv ( -t. I :l:!'P7::.' L I'P -7 C *-�) next week :?: G '.J ) L: vJJ -7 /.!:7.&· l:l:w?' 't.::.�t>1 (1 :t.&· 2 7·v:>IJ' 3 J:?.

\ �� -{''i"bo '{A.. -t . fv lJ: A Jf ...i A.: L '\"> JtJ .! '\' .... \...:I1'1 X.1 -tt" fv o -c+ P3 --c· -t 0 ". .. -c + P3 -lJJ -=t. ' i:J:IJ{ � i:J:. \ \...: t.t - *-:fn : � ry 1 L J: -7 h" o lv : "C" t .� fv i:J: �. :.. + P3-w-=t. A._ � . 0 / '\' ..· � :l:�-!�1.. � L \ JIJ ry 1 -tt" /v h "o t. .� -tx :... sj Tr i p t o Oki nawa D a o g u e (!) 2 Robert and Ken are vacationing in Okinawa.n. J: -? � � \ \ "C" i" b o ..}it lv : "C '7 ·-e-t b o "'(" t .:¥' 1} A 1 "('' \... 1 ..}.... � "? --c l \ "Q ...1:7.7 1 / h{�f � 'T "C'' -t 'T 0 7 8 JiJ L f :: it � ' "? L . i.'/ IJ�-�T � "('' i" h"o -tt .w� "' \ L 1 -0..:: tx B ..� \ .c n h · � ... :-· -? \: 1 :.:i'>i· {[) 3 4 At the post office..E s s 0 N . \ \ � "('' i"h "o 0 ..t A.·t:op"i...... nb· · -t 0 ...� .}.� 4 it lv : * * 5 it lv : 0 / �.. ...

tj: IJ>' � . t lt L : : 'P/ \ � :: � fu .. 6 7 &tJ � � � < &tJ � � -tt .:. . too.z. . thank you for the postcard.® 1 3 4 On Monday at school.. · Robert: �ice weather. � ... \Yas the airline ticket expensive? Robert: No. it wasn't so expensiYe.: . Ken: Yes. 0 �tf'�i ct)�� tJ: � --c t 2 n " \ "'(' L t J: o : n .:. o t:. o t i < t �� 7J.fr . :. How was your date. Robert? Robert: I like surfing. And one 50-yen stamp...To Rll: 1t. • * Ken: What kind of sports do you like. the trip? Robert: Yes.. please. tJ � IJ> � J o :QR{ttj:� L IJ � -? f "('' TIJ�o ' � 1 .. ... But it is a little hot Robert: \ Vow. Shall we do it together tomorrow? Ken: But isn't it difficult? Robert: No. The sea was very beautiful in Okinawa... X:. Takeshi? Takeshi: . Robert: Then.. .. How much is a postcard to Britain? Person at the post office: 70 yen. ::kilf 2 --c-.#l c1) -lJJ 1'f t J: � h -? t --c·· :.. h'o t It L :. . :0 � � . I like the sea very much. J: h � -? t --c·· 't :fd. --(· L t:. :h :• ' --r .. beautiful sea! Ken: Let's swim .Z.-? --c·· t l· . :·1-:> t tt L : :. Did you enjoy. Takeshi: Good. X:. Takeshi: Robert.. Th'o • " \ " \ X:.r tJ: �-.. two 70-yen stamps. I t L � ... Robert: Excuse me.Z. : t . L f:.: ..: i f !f> o . c1) :r· . please.

J? l.' \. \ " ' f IJ'f L �. \ ::. \ *"' new hot (weather) hot (objects) busy (people/ days) large interesting frightening cold (weather-not used for objects) fun small bming old (thing-not used for people) difficult * f Cl) l " ' ::. G L " ' . � t:. t L JS " ' ·It L " ' *�"' oo 'En ' l'tii I. A. t::.l' � v ::: -J � "'-.!(> T h � J: ::: -) • * * �1-r-ll :g�& 1� 1*-h 4tZ1t e c airplane room I (used by men) * holiday. \ --? l G � �. \ }. v) -!> \. absence travel * L\ * a d i t v e s � t::. t "'-.V _N o * * o c a b u sea I a r y u n s -) 7:1� -? "'C -tt .. }. t Cl) ::.. � Cl) 7:J. .i i>.. t Cl) t... \ > * <t' Ti>' L " ' * Words that appear in the dialogue ..7 1 / L .b "'? \ \ � "'::) \. day off. 1.!(> ti• < .. t J: -) if r "A r *!!! iz"'-4� �j:_ E postal stamps ticket * surfing homework food birthday test weather drink postcard bus * "'( A.p < t::_· �. .

. energetic quiet fond of. J: <·· (person t:) to ride.. Not to worry._.. to board to d o . clean healthy. to love liYely handsome not busy..v e r b "(' l..[. :{) beautiful.... as far as (a place). � G \ ' ( IJ: ) :· t · \ T � C lJ: ) : t : �� �I...� � L '-' ' � T '-' ' f .: t : d 0 t h e r -*t t : p r e s s o n s together and then It's okay.... .. cheap (thing) v e s � '-' ' disgusted with. to like to hate very fond of. ( � ) · T � ( IJ: ) t �.. ( IJ: ) ' ( . very what kind of .. R u ...( lJ:) ... : . till (a time) -c n �J· G t · \ \ l J: -j �).. to dislike * * / \ � h '-' ' ( IJ: ) tJiv � ( �) L -r -�. -�.• tt � a n to go out E x \ ' -? L .. · t t � A d v e r b s * * * ili -/... .. to have a lot of free time .r1j" b ( lJ: ) V' J. Everything is under control. .. t o perform ( t:) ( �) ..�·) U - * v e r b s to swim to ask * � < 0) � �� j:. -�... � �IJ· ( . [counter for flat objects] to (a place). kind (person) � "' ' inexpensiYe...a d j e c t c£ � G '-' ' ( IJ: ) * easy (problem).

" and the other type " 'd. past d3 =5 Lt-31J'-=> t c =. 'd.:-adjectives: � n \.: b " ':7't � �·· 1 L f -lth..: b " \ :7't � --r::·-t o Prof essor Y amashita is a scary teacher.. \ ' lr an interesting movie ". polarity (affirmative and negative).G r a m m a r 0 Adjectives �. You will want to be very careful here. 1. 'B t L � " ' B. just as verbs do. One type is called " �.'' . � .: -adjectives. \-adjectives �. �d 1:: a beautif ul picture . Japanese adjectives conjugate for tense (present and past).t L t � -'.-'. ' There are two types of adjectives in Japanese.:!-" I took a beautif ul picture in K yoto. .-1±-•' � T :7't� U: .:!-. The two types of adjectives follow different conjugation patterns. L <> L h.' h � C0 '7 .-it'' : I saw an interesting movie yesterday. '-adjectives: and t:t are their last syllables when they modify nouns . :9 It was interesting.w � JL . a scary teacher -'d-h. 17/ "' v 5t !t. \ �· � � L <> L h. d3=5 Lt-3 < ® rJ *itlv It is not interesting... d3=ts Lt-3 < ® rJ *ttlvc Ltt=. d3=b lt -3 L \ present affirmative negative d3 =ts Lt -3 L n:-·9 It is interesting.t L t� o .{. and so forth..*. '. '-adjectives change shape as follows.' ' I. It was not interesting. 'B t L � " ' � @I i. because the pattern is rather complicated.. 1:: 0 * t� ---c·' � n " t: � � � tl. 7j: :7't � an energetic teacher Prof essor Y amashita is an energetic teacher.adjectives ..

L t. some speakers prefer an alternative paradigm. adjectiYes conjugate fairly regularly. She was not healthy. where ·r---t is inert in both polarities. such as the following: affirmatiYe present past "" ' ' ''-c· -t.i {t h. as discussed in Lesson 4.3[ 1J f.> � � *tt fv � u t ::. 3[ ( f J:) present 1-Jiv t! n3[cSI The final syllable Jj: is dropped in these long forms of lj: -adjectives. 3 She is healthy.f. 11' --::> negative "" 11 ' ? t: -c T · "" t -c· i' : 3 As "" -c· L t: -c -t · "" l: -f> t:i..affirmatiYe and the negatiYe polarities: (}. :n::.--c. t L J:. The only irregularity worth noticing at this stage is the behaYior of the adjectiYe '. � 1J' -::> t �·51 L\L\� ·SI affirmative negative � < � � * ttfv � < 65 0 *ttfv�· u t ::. the chart looks like the following: 2 There actually are alternate forms. 11' ? t: -c· -t negative "" l: -f> � \ \ -c· -t . negative 111v .. J: • ' and J:: \ ' -c·-t." 1 while ( B t L l:> ) < . Unlike verbs.' is L \ L \ (irreg ular) present actually is exactly the same as the conjugation table of --c·-t which follows a noun. � lj f.' (good). past present "" • ' -c·--t < � • ' -c·--t < t:i. :n::..> ry .: is " negatiYe +past. past 111v t! :n::. 1-tlu t! :n::..' '. For these affimatiYe "" speakers. affirmative -- fd:-adjectives The conjugation pattern of lj: . It past ::.) IJ' "'? t.> 65 � *ttfv 1-Jiv '<! She is not healthy. but they are much less frequently used than \ ' \ ' and with l. ). 1 Some speakers follow a more regular conjugation.' '.adjectives is much more straightforward. The first syllable of '.. 3[ � u t::. " It is interesting (and confusing) that the idea of past tense is encoded differently in the changed to J: in all forms except the dictionary form and the long present tense affirma­ 2 tive form.: ·c-i" is "past+ affirmative.. She was healthy. adjectives.

:: lv l. t . however. You may want to be cautious using Let us note three more things about 1-t � ( 1j: ) and � G " ' ( t: ) before we go on.:.1 . and � G " ' ( 1J ) (to be disgusted 9 fiT� (fc£) I� b L \ (t c:J:) In this lesson. if you common than the combinations of J!f � ( 1J ) and � G " ' ( . but I don't like meat. The item that is liked or disliked can also be a person. .-r o .-t and ::k � G " ' "'C"T. respectively.· ) and the degree modifier T T these words in reference to your preference for a specific person. Thus. Professor Yamashita dislikes fish. l: E 1: { likes dislikes } 1 . when Japanese people want to say that they neither like nor dislike something.. T _ ·. -e't'o <· � . X Y.: � -�. One. they usually say: Three..-t and � G " ' --c·· -t.� lv t. : can replace -�. .! / ::: v *'-� o:> 7 7 .A 'h��t � "C" T o T Robert likes his Japanese classes. to dislike). � �J: � G . we learn two t: . T 1-t � -r-.� /v (l) .. � "'( Two. For example. ::kJtt � -r-. IJ:Jf.. and a person or a thing on the other hand that is liked or disliked. you can use the intensified forms of t . o ._ [. the particle tt is used instead of -�. these two terms usually appear with the 4 particles IJ: and IJ:. the complex particle (!) . The meaning of these adjectives is relational.J 7 1) . like or dislike something (or somebody) very much.j. .: � -�. you can use 1-t � 1J and � G " ' t: as modifiers of nouns.L fL. because J!f � -t 5 --c·· -t is usually taken to be an admission of one's romantic interest. to which we will turn shortly.J 7 1) . = t It L � lv IJ: .:-» � "C'To = Takeshi is in love with Mary. Thus. you can say I neither like nor dislike (it). :�r � -c·-t .ljH. namely.adjectives that are very important from the grammatical T with.II point of view. Jn the expression of romantic or familial affection.-r r_(- I like vegetables.t-» � -c ·-tt. h/. things like: T 4 5 1n contexts where you are contrasting two or more items. They are J!f � ( t:) (to be fond of. T .:. In sentences. to like). and you need two terms: a person to like or dislike something on the one hand.:. . These forms are more t·.

�" i J: 7o J: ��}. -9-T � � Takeshi likes coffee a lot. .� 1X. � . T --r'-t o 0 .::=. >: c .>· 0 Lee bought three stamps. words often come af lJ .{.. " which you can use to suggest a plan of -#t t: � --�t --c·· Jta1! L . t� .t . t �t L � . ..<� 7 J. This room is a little hot. ermented soy bean delicacy). rather than bef ore.. \ \ .: M Kim hates natto (a Japanese f s.i *\ � � " \ --c·· -t f# \ . the items counted in a sentence. j L � .-h { ::k.<. . n'l v --:. the Japanese expression for J: -) or � L J: -) -h' and you "let's .i L t� 1.� � ? "'( item number � A. tJ: � -? � 7 J.." you can add "degree adverbs" � like � "( (a little.. j. Two. J: -::> want to say things like "yery hot. for example.::f L. Take a long form of a verb and replace the ending with � l will get action." and "a little hot. Instead of having sified forms.� . T : � "( t added to them.cry* hf:L T � t.� G " ' ( 1J: ) (hate).{. the words used for counting people are different from the words used for counting books. tt � ( 7J ) and � G " ' ( 1j:) have their own intenT "'' *-tt � ( 1j:) (like very much) and *.. tJ: ::z .i L ' ' -? L t 1:: L! Let's study in the library together.. The sea was very beautif ul in Okinawa.!i '{•' ::1 . t·. One.l:: . .t -r v t:' ··e-t 0 This is my favorite T V program.. . we use different number words for different kinds of items. tJ: -w -t.{. B lf you Degree Expressions t (very) and t.= tL tJ: �L.�o Shall we drink cof fee at a cof ee shop? f B Counting There are two important things you should know about counting items in Japanese. number ter. slightly) before adjectives.tx 1i " \ .

. l: "t? J: -j v B Hi B �i1't t_. o = t: "t? J._:::....� iJ> ( i. for books.:=.fJi o . . lt > is used when we describe people and is not ''""!.. tt l..h .:-a�tJ'(f A .tx_. and so forth.: �-.The number word. Takeshi is busy.. for sticklike objects.t) ..fbi I arn busy on Sunday. since the subject "I" is omitted in the sentence. Tok)'O is busy I lively... 1t > l'·9 �}. you should use �. and the "counter" tt. Note that the sentence below is also acceptable. is made up of the numeral . . v >l''9 . When you want to say that Tokyo is busy.1 \ \ OJ:: -5 l:ffv �JJI / .:=. ) J B HI B �i C:fM:J:)·tt l. � T.. )/(.A. d:) •lt l.:t.. :::. This counter is used for sheets of paper and other flat objects.>' used for places. j \ � ::: A. t t . There will be other counters in later lessons-for people.� l\tfJ' Ex pre 5 5 i o n N o t e 5 rtf\ \JV .

> � 1 -lt !v V' ! L � JiJ � ! -tt !v 3 . \ V' 1 � � � -\'=' i" \ &. � I.. \ \. &. "'? 1 � � \. t. tf !v � � 4 .' I... 2 . �.t. \ -t. \ � 1 1 .· f 'IJ• L �. 1 . 9. 7 . Look at the pictures below and make sentences. . � if'L I. . ED Example: -\'=' T .:: b 'v \ 8 .. \ 7 .. . \ \ 5 .IJ� L .. -\'=' T .P r a c t c e CD �L. (1) (2) (3) . ED Example: t h' I. \ i:'' T tt'!v � � 1 . . L f-h· � � if'L \ \ /j: / -tj. \ 4 ..· .. Change the following adjectives into the affirmatives. \ 10. V' 1 � B. t :h· . � {. \ ::. � t. \ 8. L f � 'IJ• 9 .. \ 6.£. \ t·f !v � i:'' T 3 . \ 11. \ 2.' \.. � : �t -'{'=' iJ' � 1 0 . \ � I.:: O) * 't+ t. \ \ 1.. 5 . \ 6 . \.. JiJ t � L I. ij: C. t L . � � t::.> "':) I.t � 'v \ "'('' T o 1:: .:_ O) * 'tf t.. Change the following adjectives into the negatives..:.. IJ· .l: !£ \ J!> � 1 -\t /v o 1:: I t ' ' f> i" Ex. \ t:..c9 't. \ -. \ ::..1J' A. Example: . l\ � I.

..± � n "' ' �----to �.t . 0�""i� tj: � \.--th·o 3 . � '(> "f '(> E.. \. .. Answer the following questions.$.. . \ �" T h'o 1 : !il v L� 6. f: 4 .± � tl "' ' t � Ji:> � � � f� :.. Jt � � . Example: Q : 8 . -j f. U' l � . f.�·.. fi�� tJ: � fl 'v \ �" T h ' o ... 0fi�� t. Example: � n "' ' � � :ft.flr L "' ' �-.±D 1: tlA. \ \. 5 . * � tJ: :k � 'v \ �' T h 'o IJ'? ::.(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) ::r:A-1./ioo 2 0 3 0 I 0 � 0 ' 0 4 0 s 0 JO 0 9 0 8 0 I (12) (13) :r�lI X 2 X 3 x 4 X 5 )( 0 / /00 1 '1 )( 6 X JO )<.$. 0 �""4� tJ: * 'v \ �'' T h'o t : !. 8 .:: tJ 'v \ 4 . � "' ' L "' ' 7 . bt:L " -'(> 2 .. Pair Work-Make affirmative and negative sentences with your partner. q I< g X D. it 0fi� � t. .. srz.{. 8 : : t i A... ::_· t. \ -tr 5 • 1'51 l" \ f IJ· : 3 . :.z t... � 0 :7 7 . \ L \./ 00 / ..$. � 8 .._ ...

L 7 7-. L -r t. � -t � \ 6 . food-delicious 3 . �h CJ) �� . hotel-not big 4 . Change the following adjectives into the past affirmatives. B t L . food-not expensive 2 . 2 . Pair Work-Make your own sentences on the topics below using adjectives. This is what Robert wrote down about the trip to Okinawa. restaurant-not quiet 6 .:. Example: 1 . � ' 9.-i 'j: nt�L 5 .. � t.� 1.T..fJ' A. � ij: · t: �-. Change the following adjectives into the past negatives. � U: � L < � � l -tt lvo � � L � ' i:·· -t o t fr : l. surfing-interesting ..•· L � ' tt'lv � i:·· L t:: 3 .F.' � \ 4 .i ""� 4 .1 � 1. 2 . sea-beautiful Example: 7 . 8 . CD �fJ' -=> t� c'9 t. � '"'::) � \ 7. � � L � ' 6.:L -'! !. � \ � \ C.� ij: � n � ' ij: 1 1 . * * '. � ' f t. Example: 8J � T� ' t-f lv � ij: -7 -7 � T < � � l -tt lv i:·· L f:: tt' lv � t_ � � � l -lt lv i:" L t: 3. Example: 8J t:: t. hotel-new 5 . Look at the memo and make sentences.i hf. �l d.J� � \ -7 -7 t 1. � \ � \ 5 . �h CJ) 1BJ l.1 � -? t:: i:" -t :: t-flv � ij: 1 .i �. 8J Ex. '"'::) i G ij: � ' 10. Okinawa-hot 1 . U' i ij: B. and tell your partner.

t. Example: A is Robert .: -t.. � t: �t:f.t. A and B are talking about A's vacation.") "C'' T h • o �·· '7 --c·· L t 7J • o i> ? :1 1J • -? f "{·'"to . @) (3) tElM Example: Ex..7 '/ � ) very hot scary very boring not fun not cheap (5) �. substituting the underlined parts..L ft.t> !. B : A : � "{ t · . Pair Work-Use the chart below and practice a dialogue with your partner. " t : .ff � l L t o % .fJ' C: ltl\ A. ----+ A : 1:f.D.: '(>T l"i �. Robert (1) Mary (2) Takeshi (3) Sue went to Okinawa saw a movie stayed home ( '7 i? t: � \ � ) went to a party went to flea market ( 7 1) . * -t+ ----+ (1) . Yamashita @ �L \B��tc9� f. Look at the pictures and make comments o n them.: Ex.7 Jv (2) 7 v �::· L<><t' ' ' (4) A en:: (5) A v �:: (6) lBJ i? (7) ��}j_ . (4) Mr.? .

·) /classical music ( :7 7 ':/ ''/ :7 ) �) 5.!vi)'( T .1{:9-f � "C'' T n 'o . Drinks: sake/ green tea/ coffee * If you neither like it nor dislike it. Answer the questions using the given cues..b ) T t�·. Answer the following questions.. School Work: test/Japanese class/homework ''/ 3 .Y 7. 2:::' /v � ik.� /v tj: � 7Ji'-9.:t -) /skating ( 7. B.F o 2 . Music: hard rock ( / ' . Foods: meat/ � --:::> 2::: 7 (fermented beans)/ice cream ( 7 1 7. T 1 . you can use � �. 2 .--e t � � \ ' "(· t � ry .. (J) T i_ l \ ·t 5.. 2:::'' /v � 'A f. Example: A B : : _?( 7 1) ..- 3 . 7 :7 ) /jazz 1 .'. 2:::" lv � 1<:�4h7J� � � "C''Tn'o !. 1:< T '� :9-f � "{" T / ::k-9-f � "{'' T 0 ( V . _?( 7 1) - (1) 'A - kind beautiful interesting energetic A. Pair Work-Choose the items from the following categories and ask your partners whether they like them. 2:::'' /v � � � 7. .. ?) -..B. h4h7J��t � -r·--tn'o (/) t..1{:9-f � "C'' T n ' o /. 2:::'' /v � �® 7.f � -r-·-tn�o 4 . 7 1) .o ./ iJi':kf � "{'' T n 'o 4 . T tj: \. 7 o t: :7 'A ) /skiing ( A. Sports: aerobics ( J.. (3) f tt L Ex.i -\t A-. : f :. EIJ ::.

i.. : � 3 . U: iJi' � � p: ") lr 5 .. t : &fl < -\t/..i.. Was your watch expensive? 5. j7� <� f.t J? �t ' L " ' --c·· -t J: o 6. �..7 ::. :t \ \ .{ s ry � T tlo : @ * ccY')O)-� (Review Exercises) fl..:· !. f:!j: ---? 9.i.7 L � L J: J o 1 . Is your room small/ clean? 7.Jvl.-\t\' . Was your high school big/old? 4.\ ' "'C' T tlo � � (. 1. ") i? t : I}� . 0 ID!.. + . 6 . J: 8 .f· l 7o 1 . Change the following into * v � ? sentences..:. � � � � . 4 . a --c·· -t l o S 0 v .AP5 A. I s your bag new? 6.. Were you fine last week? 3.ilj:" � 8 "*-� � �* L � L 1: lih- . t : :* . � \.:.(f�' • t:flr 4 .z. IJ·. 1t .l r A 1. Example: *... Is your teacher kind? .: . s L t U: 1t.A.�o B : -t." ' --c·· -t tlo J? � � � x� � L � t' � <" � l 7 T.J. . Bt "{'' T tlo l:wi 1: t: 3 .--.t 2 . V\'ere you busy last week? 2.. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. 0) B. Bjt@I � JL .. s L t l.: f. 7.i.: Cl) fe3 *! ti � L " ' ---c· -t t1 o L. J. Pair Work-Make follow-up suggestions using * v � ? tJ'. A : *. � �t .0 �00i��* u &: 5 :ZL' 'IJ ' 'aj A.t. L ? L h1:: F \" 7-. @) Example: 8 "*-� � Wlr i' :: llh. ill T. : 5. \ "{" T tlo h? 2 .

�0 :::.. .�0 :::. Role Play. .� t : {T � � L f lJ�o .:· n � 1t � � L t �. Explain to your class where you went.. Class Activity-Show and tell Bring pictures you took on a trip.. buy some stamps and postcards. other students will ask i n detail about the trip. < G --e L f 1. 'Z l v � �1t. etc. :R � t J: �· -J --e L t �. how it was.: -) � �? .B.i! t.fl 0 -t}J 1f tJ: " \ :. C. Example questions: :::. �-.�0 :::.. what you did.Using Dialogue n as a model. And later.

. .. " . � � j: T -h � o --.letter .M-. ' ' . Useful Vocabulary + EZ > j t" (' � �0 counter postcard parcel airmail insurance registered mail -w -=t ---. -. < -.J: -h� � ..f 1f. . ::: l:w i.How many days will it take? E li + P3 � : l... L_l�_JL_l_l_l_J .stamp J... please..fj( < t::.. IV � .>· Ci t: 61J ..Give me three 50-yen stamps. IV bl. ... please? Gb � E P3 ·{'To l:w? i. -c M 8 <.. � -1.G \ ' -1. . It will be 150 yen. -j ( -j( J'IV 1*-� I..:: n..... .. Another 100 yen.) �' jSlm'-< ' L j: To :< IV .·U'IV f. .... L ::. . -. s m •• .. � i!l!.' �. please.. IV U'(><i..t � j: To "-" IV ! : ..aerogramme surface mail special delivery M�1f. ' . ::.J: ' ' . jS mJi \ \ L j: T 0 ' t h e p 0 5 t O f f i c e ------ Can you take care of this.: --:J"? h 7 D 7'' 7 L..>' Make this (an airmail)..>:. please.A t Usefu l Expressions bl. i L l #• ----.. .. t.:. \ \o --... . Postcard Stamps .� DDDDDDD �--.. · li + P3 -fJJ -=t � . lh-< ::.. i ( f --? : � �71 a m li 17 IV . .. U'IV (�Jt�1f. ' ' ..

r c ��ft.. Would the glossy finish be all right? Customer : tj: \ 'o Yes.g f..:. \o Please bring this receipt.panoramic 7L5R � � : -j ---- glossy finish mat finish 7[. I'd like a reprint..�. Useful Vocabulary ---- reprint JJU� -----.E.f..: j .. ---.battery �q� � � . please.print 7-. Thank you.. Shop clerk : Please fill in your name and telephone number here.I L t: < -?lr 1� \ \ft" --( 7J � 7 -.!"A.negative iJ I 7.. � 24{X� � � i-rl!..i·? :it < : . E <?) ..:·· �-... U" l.. .:·A.:==. Shop clerk : tj: \ 'o 7t5!?. IJ � � tj: + . -----. ..t . t : . ------- 1± J:. fi \ ' L i To -...� � }.{.A t a P h o t o Customer : W T h...slide ---- . h !. h � � .:.5R f. A.t date/time something is ready 7 1 Jv £. � \ ' L i To S h o p ! t:ll)' Excuse me.7 1 F. . Customer : All right.: <?) iJ I � � � � � # "? --c � --c < t: : � : t �.:!_ \ \ � T 7° 1) / r ---. i -tt fvo �Jt � :i L }. If -----.:-� t:>b· It will be ready at three o 'clock on the 15th..disposable camera L .. � � --c·· J: � L \ ' --c·· T i?' o '(> : �T ( : Certainly. Shop clerk : i � :i L Jt W '(> ! ifA.t: \ ' --:::> --c·· � i T i?' o . ' i L t o Thank you very much.r . Customer : Shop clerk : 1± J:. --- receipt .: � � h� 'C 7 .development F � / 7 7 ---.• It A.. ----film 24-print roll "'(. * --c·· T 0 When will it be ready? L n l:t:>-l :· ! : � 2 A..

Lf � � lv .a t.4 t t ' � r 7t � : 2'. .� @ On the bus. 7t � � �Jz f-t-. � --c-· L t:: ho .z..c.(•6 = I L E s s 0 D J \.... 1:: -j ?.:: i t "\'=> � � 4..... .f. h 0 -:::> --c � --c < t::....r � lv� � � --c < t · � " \0 7 7 A "C.z.z. .:> [.! L t -1t A.. � �Hi 8 � .t �fzf4-. . A. 8 tj ....1 To - .��fv 0) .) N .:.I' : � C1) � i' h .. .-1±<' Lf o /' . � � �-.. G o � t ' !:-t:> --::>n� ([) After class.1 L t:: :.. A.. � �iG . .�Th -? '' "( < t: � \ \0 B tJ � � ..t ·) l)' l .l -7 . :: �:1*-.o 0 / '\ ..2-. � "(''T IJ'o :.J-...11..� \..:t * � : �J*-::> --c � � ?� L i -t ..: � . A. . : o" c L t -lt A.!-l <' .. � C1) � �' }.� )J\.< t::.:k. : l."3 .r A 0 / '\....� � A.. ��HJ£ ""'-rr � . 6� Robert's Life D a o g u e (D In the class. \ 1.fd_o '\'T "'""" h-. _ r � . A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 o / . .� A... � ff � .. 0) � .· � " \ tl o � 8 1�" ' .O..t lri.t i '-" 1 \ .. f t \ ._ _ r � lv � A. ·.:. 0 L 7>A. 0 ::: C1) / ..z._ .1 T J: .8 A Day i n l \t.• G . .f L f 1.< . \ "('' T J: o � 0 IJ { � "3 o T <·· � L . \ 1.lv 0 / '\... ..f -tt lv l o v-lt ._.._._ � t t -:::> ::: 7 --c·· ... 1 2 3 B tJ � � .. 1 '\' :i � r :Jt:j:_ : c-ltA...:.1 -t .I' :A A.� : .QI "C tj " \ tt .1 T 1J.h ... or.._z A 0 / '\ ' · i_ X. V'li'· 'A.:::t. : 0 / '\' ..to -t <·· Ft ry l i'IJ' G o .A tj rtn��..· � " \ 0 : -? � J: 3 4 5 " \ 1 � r :Jt j:. --c-.... o " . :. � . \ i.d ir L ! � t� t hT � n .1 -tt .�.z.. A.. ::.� � L t 7 A I' IJ{ � 0 l T J: o :: 0 /' \' - I' i_ -? o 11 A..

. Prof. we will have a test tomorrow. Prof.. Robert: .. · ��� � # t? � L ·# . shall I carry your bag? Old woman: Thank you. please read the next page. You cannot sleep in the class. Take this seat.. Robert: I understand.� -? "C'' T n 'o � ' t• -? t -t . . .. ma'am. Robert: Yes. . Robert: Is that so? Then. • � J: -? n'o 0 Prof. :... 0 Old woman: Excuse me. t � �. I forgot to bring the textbook. Yamashita: Please bring your textbook with you. you had a hard time today. I'll return it soon. please wake up. I'll get off soon. Does this bus go to the city hospital? Robert: Yes. May I borrow your notebook later. Sue: Robert. it does. thank you. Robert: Thank you. We use it everyday. Robert: Really? Sue: Yes. . Yamashita: Robert. (Thafs why you didn't know about it. I'm sorry.) Robert: Well then.z.h. I'll go home and study today.-. Old woman: No. l {t . Sue? Sue: Yes. You were absent from the class last Friday.. Robert: Mr. Yamashita: Robert.. Yamashita. Sue: Robert.

• (seat �:) * -) 1� -) +m -J ( """-' � ) (person/ task � ) "( "'? t!. . .... 1 . T �tT L� j:.....V N o u n s * o c a b u I money a r y -�-�-- j:.i " \ � �� 13 ('' to hurry to return (things) (person � : thing � ) to turn off. 1. .b � . � g �: A.v e r b s .� L � t : t "'? � ... � .-� $ �W<J FJt 'b )'.:.l � f .• tl j:.. * v e :k� tough (situation) U .. '"'? 1.it j:.. }it g grandmother.a d i e c t ct t " '""-� ( 1j:) ::.. · � t � J: -) IJ· L J: . to play. ( """-' � ) * Tb � ::. Chinese character textbook this week Municipal Hospital next video game electricity train baggage page �� * 1. � to take a bath �T W T i n� �� :ft "'? t tJ ::. --c-. t "'? t tJ ::. to erase to die to sit down to stand up to smoke to use to help j:. to spend time pleasantly " ' � ('' * IJ· i.Ji� � -c-.L>. j:. l t:• window night next week next year J: � � *� *1¥- i? �t ' L I1> -J i? lt \ t. -) ' * Words that appear in the dialogue . �!t� * * L h � tf' J: -) " ' � 7 v t>'f. � T -J ::. �: t. .. old woman bath kanji.� � * * 't � �fi.Ll6 � � � .. . � � -) ::. ..:: � L \1> -J �'"'? � ��4� A. t.

to close (something) �) "'(•' . h' 0 ..< * d 0 t h e r E x p r e s s later on (do something) late because .f . to get off to borrmY ( "'"' �) ( (person t : thing � ) ._. to instruct ( . - v e r b s to open (something) to teach. t --::) � T �' to carry.._._... * * -t <·· t. to lem·e behind I r r e g u l a r --::) ft --c < .f? � h· �t . --::) tt . to bring (a person) to bring (a thing) ('"'-' � ) t -:::> -r < ... . . L�.: '7 --c·· -t That would be fine. ...\_... �) to make a phone call (person ('"'-' � ) �:) t o forget. · I'P -:::> < 0 right away * � --c·· -t h · Really? slowly.._.. \ .. .. .. G * tt -:::> . l:) ( ... a n ("-' � ) o n A d v e r b s * it � --c-· J? -t.._. * to enter ( .. s 1� --c·· i!! < .. ._.\. That wouldn't be necessary. * * (person l : thing � ) J? 0 .. * v e r b s 1! n --c < � H= -? --c < .tj: \. . unhurriedly . to turn on ( . �) J? L . to hold �) * (1) (2) to be absent (from ..Z . ) ("-' � ) to rest R u it �t . � '7 --c··-t .. leisurely.

the rule for u-verbs is divided into five Le U -verbs come in several groups. . ru-verbs. is an u-verb. If the vowel is either { . oru } c� = always u-verbs { . but there are many important verbs in the minority. to use them in: making requests (" . . u . eru . . . . based on the final syllable of their dictionary forms.") The conjugation paradigm of te-forms is fairly complex. among their various uses. o. without any exceptions. please. we will learn. or u. u-verbs with final 5 . ru-verbs As far as te-forms are concerned. ::>. . If the vowel is i or e. rbs ru-. but not always. .. " Te-forms are a very important part of Japanese grammar. . .") giving and asking for permission ("You may . and ·� � (to return). . The rule of thumb for determining which verb is which is to examine the vowel before the final � syllable. u-verbs. -- -- 1 As we discussed in Lesson 3. . uru that end with {> do not. ru-verbs . as we need to learn separate rules for subrules. aru . . ("I did this and did that. . . we observe that u-verbs that end with � will have a small -?. the verb. . . First. . the verb can be either an u-verb or a rzt ·Yerb.G r a m m a r H The main topic of this lesson is a new conjugation of verbs called the " te-form . the rule is very simple: Take � off and add "C . than u-verbs in the iru and eru camp. with ru-verbs./May I . and � . Statistically speaking. � (to enter). :�· . ") stating that something is forbidden ("You must not . some verbs that end with the hiragana ¢ are ru-verbs and some others are a. there are many more such as A. . . and irregular verbs. In this lesson.. � -::> L" ffl -::> L j. . zru }= often. Furthermore. ) " Te-form · • • • forming a sentence that describes two events or activities.

t T) are totally different con­ structs in the u-verb camp.. - 9Efvc �. than to apply the conjugation rules on the spot. i rregular verbs Note that te-forms and stems (the forms you find before .4 .'-< ' . thus coming up . Refer to the verb conjuga6· tion table at the end of this volume.. It is J: J: 6· 6· probably easier. A common mistake is to assume that the simple paradigm provided by the ru-verbs (iz"".3\ - ®i:-- 9E� �..t -t-• '-< ' "( .u-verbs with final it. and � �it ®i: J: - �fvc · illifv c J: -- illf.3\... .'-< ' "( (see 4?. l u-verbs with final (' � <' 1< ii5J:- � u-verbs with final 9 The irregular verbs T � and < � . as in 1t < -:l: � . with unwarranted forms such as x 4?. ."( and iz"".t T ) covers the u-verbs also. at this stage of learning. and compound verbs built with them. .t T) and h h x �)i-4 "( (see �� .t T). . -- u-verbs with final < �< tJ· - There is an important exception in this class: rr< l\ � "? -c rr-. . to memorize each verb as a set. conjugate as follows.

) / - r � 1-tr � --c . :. To deny somebody permission to do something." which describes an activity that is permitted. . . which only connects nouns. . . I will borrow her notebook and xerox it. \ \.Use a verbal te-form together with < t � " ' to make a polite request to another person : : "please do . i-.J·. a te -form . by itself. you can use the te-form plus tJ: " ' � t i -{t lv . you can turn it into a question sentence. . In other words. T h :i -1:t !v o � J: "? � � . No. To ask for permission. :1 t:o . you may not see the textbook. as in describing a sequence of events or actions ( " I did this and then I did that"). ( Tell me. " 2 -"li >?· L l <fkf4. will you? . L --c < t�. (Note that two verbs cannot be joined by � . you may. \ . """ "'C t " ' " ' ''C -t i.� "' 'o = Excuse me.. . l . !<li Jr L l 7.) A verbal te-form plus t " ' t. for me. \ "('' T IJ ' o May I see the textbook? Yes. <7) 7 - / � lif "' ' 't j :.i . \ It . \.i -1:t /v o 4. I?· L l �f4.{. 1t:' � � r� �t . '"f 'T means "you may do . Please teach me a little. I need your advice. the te-form does the work of "and" with verbs.' � "' 'o Please listen to the tape that goes with the textbook. \. < t3.L ! To .c �� O pen the window.i \. 2If you are talking to a very close friend or a member of your family. can be used as a request. � Jt "( t :t. <fkf � Jt "( t. \ \. B Describing Two Activities You can use a te-form if you want to combine two or more verbs.

1J:� ry � -tn· G . L .+a � . t. the verb in the te-form describes the manner in which the action described by the second verb is performed. ...tj: � \. .t: 1: }.f± t : . and so forth.. .) ��A4:! � hf n --c . -"' A. I go to work by bus.!·!. j � �0 � t7J 1.. for example.-�!1 To cb L t 7 . The te-form of a verb can also be used to connect a verb more "loosely" with the rest of a sentence. l. :ft.: A. (Because) we will have an exam tomorrow. " � L ·J: 7 -h' is also used in the sense of "let me do . ....1·\' / '\' _A t : *-:::> '{ . ( Today I got up at six and studied.. IJ:�B..fr � j To L '<" • ' A sentence that ends with -h ' I? (because) explains the reason or the cause of a situation...!-:-'i . -t. you can offer help by saying: I'll do it. >fa1£ L j . .fr -:::> '{ ... Lt o � � ':t t : . " in offering assistance.) � ! 1 �· L t I am sorry for not bringing in the textbook.(...·.JtftM� L l To :. and I am sorry. (situation)o (explanation) 1J' 6o 3 ht�L iL.. (I take a bus to work. the te-form describes the situation for which the apology is made. a proposal.A t : * ry j: L J: ?> J o :9 7 � . In the first example belo. Thus the first example above can also be paraphrased as : We will discuss this further in Lesson 9.. (I left the book at home.::. \ '{'' T h ' � o r ��· Let's go by bus. / '\' ... � L t 7 7. .A -: � IJ>' cb ry j: T h ' � o I will study this evening.. ... -"1" L • .:-<. f:..A.tJ +Il>t>Ya1£ L j: .(. If you see somebody having a hard time opening the lid of a bottle. li'A..t 'i tL � * � : � � i: . .. . Let's go to the cafeteria and have lunch. In Lesson 5 we learned � L J: 7 -h· meaning "let's ...: -. ( Because) taxis are expensive. � _:'' tl � � �""' j L J: l o <t:"1 \' � . %. In the second example. 3 The explanation clause may also precede the situation clause.

" · d5 . Therefore.i\"> very sorry/Thank you very much). You can also apply this rule to .!f! < / !j! \t ) ." they have different ·� �� usages. or with '9 1}.:):j:? J&1 * h: �i. When used alone. depending on the situation.� t: On weekends. and Jl! < mo difies verbs.}) t -:5 or c· -:5 {) '9 1J.. c -:? <b functions in many ways... i -lt lv (I am · of t -:? <b <b lJ -/. you can just say c -:? <b instead of saying a long sentence.� �� E x p r e s s i o n N o t e s f-i\ \V Jl! ill < /i!IL \IIIJJ• Although both -� \t) and � < mean "late. It's late. · 8� I went to bed at one o 'clock yesterday.... J!! \t) modifies nouns to� J•. or works as a predicate. it is an abbreviation (Thank you very much). as m t• -:? {) <b � -/.Or to a person who is carrying a heavy bag: Shall I carry your bag? UJc5 1:flv �J. :J3 in such words simply adds smoothness and nuance of social refinement. I went to bed late yesterday..:· �. t.}) t -:? your gratitude or regret./ . Many words that begins with :J3 can also be used without it. * -lt lv..R .. + � z:·· 0 iJ:g � 'L .. Some people use c -:5 {) as "hello" or "good-bye.t lv �lit« * '9 L:»-:i L: 8 8-t' . as in c -:? <b '9 1}. * -lt lv. IH"> l. when you want to show • C 5 t> .) � -b� t :3 .:8"" . without changing the meaning of the words. . I get up around 10:00 a and eat late breakfast. J!! It ) � . t• -:? <b is normally used with J. since Jl! \t ) is an adjective and � < is an adverb.

to stand up . < .:t!t. • < 5.:.f \ \ "('' l t. > . to go to a hospital 1 1 ..• . __ 13 . 11. to return your book 6 .f 10 "'('' �t L -c I. > t.:{_ . t ""' .. :: " \ o · !H : C. ti t: -t 7 .f .f <·' t: -? -c L� L 10 -c-\ \ .• < te-form .P *c r a c h � -c 9. to teach you kanji 2. to bring a drink 7 . 7 --? '6 -? -c 10 -c-- < \ \ -c <·' \ \ "('' (repeat twice) T L -c u-verb te-form � -? < � � L -c < t::. to bring a friend 12. Let's sing a te-form song! (Battle Hymn of the Republic) £ill . 10. to call you tomorrow 3 . L � 15.• \ \ "( u-verb � "? '•' � . �7 � lv t: � -? -c l 10 -c-1.P 2 .f .' ® A. Example: 1 . � "? 1 2 . \ \ . to open the window 5 .? -c t: '6 \ \ . -h · 7 8. to come with you 9 . s . 3 . t c e CD ��rmrt"L < t.. s . tl '6 B.f <·' 4 .' .P l . £ill 2 . to write a letter 4 . I. to wait for you 8 .. I. l t: -t . What will you say when you want someone to do the following things? Example: to speak slowly -----7 £ill 1 .:. to drink tea 10 . \\ < 6 . t: '6 14.)� � � t -t � . := h � -"5 -----7 Change the following verbs into te-forms.

� t t � l? 3. .. � ' 4 . 1 .t. Example: Eill 7 v t:• � Jt � . \ I.f :: � '?& 7 i" 2. ill < !)� � i.� ?) " \o � B pretends to drink coffee.h->l' ( i> � �i· " IJ. Ask your host family for permission to do the following things. Pair Work-Make your own request.z. -w� � Jk 'j 1-. -c-A�L 'tMi � t.z. � �t � . 7 v I::'' 1f. � T � . � 7 v C:'' � Jt "C t I. t� t.1: <> ' 8 .D..\ < 7 . :t t. . What would you say i n the following situations? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) E. r h 'i: l 5 . You are staying with a host family. � g � = A. such as "Please stand up" and "Pl ease take a picture.� tz � "(" < t�. \ "C'' T IJ �o ... R.� � 1t n --c < � � -:> 6. Example: A : �- t. 'k t . CD T v t::: 7d: � "L =b L 'L' c91J'/T v t::: 7d:� z: r� L ' ':t*ttlv � � A.¥JL }." and ask your partner to act it out.

You are at a friend's h ouse. an d you feel somewhat un comfortable . * 9 ®<! d5 (]) A.. Y ou h ave arrived at a classroom. Y ou h ave run into a celebrity. 4. C onvenient ly. 6.o 'i T @tijtg�z:. What would you say in the following situations? Make sentences with -<:t. You are in class. You w ant to smoke in a c offee sh op. you h ave a camera with you. 9."'? "'C tj \' tt � -lt h. 7. Tell the class what we can and can't do at school and at a host family's house. but you cannot phrase it in J apanese . Tell your child not to do the following things using the cues in A. You are a strict parent. You are in c lass. ED D. Ex ample: o•-. 8 . ED Example: �Jt� � "'C.: �� "'C'' t� tJ'-: � *. C. :J -l::. Y ou and y our friend are in a dar k room. The air is stuffy. :::J-t::-��ctJ. Look at the pictures below and combine the pictures using te-forms.� 1x� � T o �� � � (1) oo DO oo . 3. You feel sick and want to return home. You want t o ask your teacher something. 5. an d suddenly remember that you need to make a phone call.L' L Yc91J'. an d there is someone sitting nearby. You have forgotten to do the h omew ork . You realize you need t o go t o the bathroom as soon as possible . 2. 1.B. You are sure you can brin g it in tomorrow.

(\1 I.:o f:.P:t �-{'''"to t::.. . 3.). J. \ _.i:\\ ® J�'A r:� �* �o (J) B�FJJ7. -c..J{:k.1'® �*it fvfJ' bo t. &) 0 v A r 7 / t: 1t � j: L t.� h.. � 0 7 � 7 A � 1*. 6.\ \. Add reasons to the following sentences.o . }$\ g t:A 6 . kt�''t t:% 7 1:: t h 5.._ L '(> n 4.... j: L t. -\::t/vl•P·) 7t. 4..: a 5.. 1.. �lf!._lv \' 2.h.Z. 1J'Iv A. 1. :k¥ t:1t < t::\ 'I)'( .: o '<>i' (name of a friend) 1..(2) (3) (4) (5) B. Change the following into te-forms and make the rest of the sentences. kt�''t 0 7 't t:ff < t: t l\ 2. &) 0�@ � JL j: -1t . j:. J 't t:l)�. r l 3. � Ft ry ... i..."l. (. ..�tj:k� ·-e L t.

B.J'. : : ---:.� L "'( "C'3n'o r-·h A : &9:! ry J?�iJi'Jb B : bf:L i> ry :!-tt lvn' t.� u* u� 5tJ' It Pair Work-Propose to do the following things.f 3 o :. f:. � A : bf:L :ft. using * v J: ?f.f -tt lva B : �-. tJ: -¥A h - : . l� - ·9. t . 3.·tt� 6.ff � . ·tt L " "'C"3n' t. 4...' 1.o 5.::··tJ: lv � iZ""':! �- -tt lvo . -=t1� � -r -? t:: 4.{-tf /v-tf /v J9 ry . t:&fl < 7.z.¥A. *-� lJ: E *-��>fa�! L .:£. J?�7.f -tt Iva i> ::. !:: 10.¥A .! -tt lvo '''hh. 7!:. � � M &tJ � .� I> 2.::·· tJ: lv � 1Z"'"" f: .:> t: a B � lv tJ:? � 1 •·M' ' o :ft. � L t� Li V' :i --c·· 3o 3. �*' (name of a movie) � Jt :! 3o Ln>'il '? l-.\ 'L•!)1 \\ 0-rl/t:::�. Pair Work-Ask each other why you think the following. " 1: llh. � � mnt � :.@) Example: T v e:·· � iff 3 It . �Ji��� L �-LA.! -tt" lvo 6. Example: -M :: U: lv � iZ""' .:-l-1 7 . rvc·���t�I> �.ff �:! L t::. (name of a restaurant) t:. 1t��7.:> i> 2. � t7) �. ����t�� �: t "? L ikh���f�-?"'C < � � t(7) L t. *�' (name of a place) t:.

Role Play-Play the roles of A and B with your partner. 0 JiJ L t:: tj�t:·t:. '' �1. but you need to study for a test tomorrow. You have a big t est in J apanese and need your textbook to prepare for the test. You just bought a brand-new car an d don't want anyone to use it.:.·o �-· 7 L -co t:: {.. You need i t today because you want to watch it together with another friend.�h�J!J ry . You are going on a trip tomorrow.@ * ccY'JO)*l� (Review Exercises) n1vt.. (3) 3-A 3-B You are asked to return your frien d's vi deo today.L t t. but yo u for­ go t to bring it. j?� � f€} ry b•tl b· -( t "< \ "< \ ''C"Th'o 0 t.1 Th' Go �t. ht. 0)�� a ··c---th· Go B : --c--t._j: � �IJ>'. atzrrt:rr � . (2) 2-A 2-B You los t your J apanese t extbook.i ��0 &. You want to return it tomorrow.l: l"i U' (1) 1-A 1-B You have a date tomorrow and want to borrow a car from yo ur friend. You don't have money to lend to your friend. L t::.-�? A. .�-c··-tt. A. A : B A T.. Yo u asked your friend to return your video to day . h·n t. Exam ple: Example-A Example-S Yo u are short of money and want to borrow some money from your fri end.

o "("f..: "' \ 4...-h' <ti.. :k!f: t:M�f� "? --c � :i ...:: --c--� t.. 1..(4) 4-A You are now in your friend's house. �o") "�"'C.."h'o � Jj. 9.: � t � :.0 l.. "i:'I. J: \ �Jl!. ffi. t:*.�0�*' M� L :i _.0 �·': L 6.0 Ltb·l.0 5.L."h'o lr h b· � '? ""f 1:: 10.A�1*-hl. -71�0*....-. ."? --c t T "' \--c--. UA.¥! � � h :i L t::.: (Answer with I::L�irl.t::....-.. �--. . You see a cake that looks very delicious. 4-B You just baked a cake for your mother's birthday. 1[ llt 0 t? --c-.. A...-h' o .�o") 2.-h' o \ T1�0*."h.· �: (Answer with "� "'C.... t�r ..Lt!)1 .L" t:.. J: \ :77.: �t Lt!)"lj" '"'? .:: �*....: l::'t L•o<f::'·' 1:::...: A.. Your friend is in your house now.1• <..IJ'< '"-'1.. �·ft""'('' J: < *�11§. >:.� . 7't�..f' :i L t:..."h'o '(>-) ... J: \ h�:: � � 4"-1�\r l L f::...·I. -71� 0*. 11. hT h-'2 o 8. You loYe cakes.-.L<' ?> 7.0 l . Answer the following questions. B.. J: \ M� L :i L f::...

it <?) .� h':�l.-1::.-----JI I .ry . · Uf:'. § <1>1t� � ..ti:: {.b t: abh{ 6 n L/v..b {.s .___ I 9 L___ �I _ -"'? V'l::.b t: abh{ 6 !.:b it <?) . �' 6 :!: (go straight) (turn right) (turn left) ----.Dir e ctio n s Useful Expressions _jL _jL irFh. 4lt u-t:.:h - (cross the street) (left side of the street) (right side of the street) .:-- .i .&q U'f:""Jf.i.:·i .i (turn right at the first signal) (turn left at the second corner) �::.ti:: t : aH 1.fo :::.ry .ti:: t: aH h { 6 n 1.ijlj h. "':) § <?) )1} � .

... --J § 0) � �::lot: rtB 1.D i rections (north) !: L (west) (east) (south) * * * A : T 7:1.�tq I...<... The post office is on the right side of the street..to f�1�?oj IJ: (:::'' ... .: "C''TfJ�o Excuse me.j -lf h. �.i -? -t <.h t: (b ry j -t J: 0 Go straight and turn right at the third corner.=.C'iJ'. where >'Pi (ffv��( is a post office? ¥) b· � B : .l.: <::: 7 :.:-? "C \\ h? h. 1t-? --c... \0 >'Piiflv-"�< tJ: ." \ j To Thank you very much. 0) . A : 2:::''-) b Jb ry 1. !i' j < t::' � fl\ 1�)6J it ::lo ..

: 2:::...•Lh. 7J D a o g u e 1 2 3 4 G) S ue is showing a picture of her family to her roommate...} 1} 7J0%::f±t:ffJ�"(\..t··r·:th�-�ry �Th·�� lh'�t-:�JLt:*� 4 -lt" .r.l'?::.: --c· t � 1? J: -::....:: :: .. -t-7"C"Th'o }.0t \\--:> L.! �� A-:: .'(: >::1: "' �Th' o """"? $q t:M t L "C "' �-lt �Co ''.r \ "C"Th'o ..1 "' �To � 'J r.....: "") �� s ht?� : 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 h· b" \" '--c· T Po A .:=.. Michiko..E":hi} L "C J>tl lt.: ").0h'o -*f \r \ \r \ "C''T Po A-:: . A h 1? � : A A-:: .00�}![� /"t"C "' � To L<>Lh.00��0�Jt --c·-Th'o .n--C"To �{X0!3ift.r\� To ........Z_I. Jv t: 1:£.. h 1? ..z..I'"L<· -:>t ht>� A :Z :Z o -kip t. �-< L.:. T \'.�.7 --c·T h.�.... o � -::. L f...0� �M � L"C "'1..:: n t.i#.�\' ht>� -t.r \ l. h.i�h{P�h· tt"(l. --c " ' �T Po A ([) A p hone ri n gs in Sue an d M i c hi ko's room.�"(''To 'J :.r\� Lf-:o . � *..i X "C''To 7. 1"1�1Ji-_. � �iii h { " ' �TPo t:J.. hi?�: �nU:A-:: ..t L.:: t:{T-? "( t l...-::..{.\� To i....(•1 1J' 0 s s E IL %n�O)�� Family Picture it t:< G-\':> Gfv N ..0 --c··" \ � To .Ctj: �-·fl "(''Th 'o �.

He is three years old. so if you like. I \Yas wearing glassses \Yhen I was in high school. 1" <·· ft � l 1"o l\Iichiko: Is this your family picture. Michiko: You are cute. l\Iichiko: He is tall and handsome. Michiko: I see. Sue: Yes. Michiko: Which is you? Sue: This. there is a cat. She liYeS in Seoul now. She has one child. But he is a little fat. Is this your elder sister? Sue: Yes. l\ly sister is married. . would you like to come to see it? Michiko: That sounds good. I haYe an interesting Yideo. Oh.t\. Robert: :\lichiko. Sue? Sue: Yes. He works for an American company. Robert: I see. Michiko: We'll come right now. Sue: This is my father.6 o. what are you doing nO\Y? Michiko: I'm not doing anything especially. Is it all right if Sue comes with me? Robert: Of course. I am looking at Sue's pictures. because he eats a lot.. lvo L � � .r t f?.

\ -fkt. place of origin car convenience store }/�. dining commons (my) father T-shirt t?t? T-£- T S/ � '/ � § eye glasses * &�)hip - H!Hft e c L\ a d i t v e s d6 t:::.h'" \ Jd:h"V' < \.-3 * )(. t' h'"\ i! I.\ t:h""\ .:\. a b u a r y o u n s d!Jp (my) older sister apartment younger sister song younger brother man older brother older sister woman company family hair brothers and sisters country.� @] � 1Zx :)( cafeteria.\ tall short (stature) long fast short (length) U:�"' h. h''1t \.\\.ht:.O)A_ %. j?t:-)t .h�$ �lv -f.Z�Iv .h /vt:O)V't: h'"\ L "'(-> h' ?c'' < h·h. � :J / t:'' .h)(.'Flt.1•-:.h t:" \� lv * �O)A_ .:O)LJ't: .t"\ t -) t: -) t:::.\ h'b\.htl.�lv .V N * o c �iF � � If.::. smart..f± �� � � .h"� " \ j�t.\ < t: < .E.\\. clever (conjugates like "\"\) great-looking (conjugates like "\"\) cute * * -fl:-IJ>'t-:. * * � J: -) t::-�.t.\ �.\ YtJ!h''"\"\ bright. � h""\"\ 1.. L J: < t:-."\ • Words that appear in the dialogue ...

lb-b{tl�) �:f. in particular of course if you like tJ>' * tj: t: t + negative . t::.fct. � -/.. t. ii. t? . . � to sing to put on (a hat) L:f.{._. .> ): :f.\. � -c '- .' to get to know I know I do not know -tt.. anything [counter for people] one person two people not .:: A. . to put on (glasses) to put on (clothes above your waist) to work for C'""' t::--:> � &') -c '. � :f. * "'"".{...f1 W kind conYenient U -v e r b s � t::.·�t:f. �o-? "C'-'i -t �0 ry i -lt . --c��. ry * V'�ry � ) .a d j e c t iv e s L h--1!---:::> ( tj:) . Li < to liYe waist) ( '"'"' t: t .' i i") to put on (items below your to gain weight "? * � ) .--:::> t: + negative * t t:> .•-? t::. -l. �:f.Z. A dv e rb s a n to get married d 0 t h e r Ex p r e s sio n s but not .. t: . L-?"C'-\lT LryJ-1!-h* �0 :f. J: -t to be on the heavy side R u -v e r b s * (.. .' 1 T) to lose weight to be thin Ir r e g ula r * �t-? . � ) . * l -/. -t :f.

-r--" ' 1 You can also use a -to Takeshi is reading a book in English. t.. � L'.' �. The te-forms of these verbs are never used together with the helping verb 1. � --c 1. So far we only have Ji> � and to say about them in this section. you are an English language teacher (but are not necessar­ ily in class right now).f�-?.' .i. Many verbs belong to Group 2.�' � and � � that we learned in Lesson 4 does not apply to this helping verb � -c �' �: you can use -c �' � both for living things and for inanimate objects.t "'h. vVhich of these two senses a given verb is used in is to a large extent determined by the semantic characteristics of the verb. means either of the follow1 mg: (a) an action in progress. or (b) a past event that is connected with the present.� 5§1 L "C '-' " . t::. you are teaching English right at this moment.' �.t A.� �'it . (1) verbs that describe continuous states (2) verbs that describe activities that last for some time (3) verbs that describe changes that are more or less instantaneous We have not seen many Group 1 verbs. we have a sentence describing an action in progress. The verbs we have learned so far can be roughly divided into three groups based on their semantics. so we will have nothing the te-form of a verb in this group is followed by the helping verb 1. . They include verbs such as �""'-.t 1 � \\ :_· t. 7- : � .:!: i' o � \ . When � l 1.{. 1 The � distinction between .Z.Z.. J: Sue is studying right now. and .' �. t. The first example below therefore has two interpretations: one.' �.Z." when followed by the helping verb 1. and two.� .t � � (}) *.G r a m m a r A • verbal "te-form. tt L � .i T sentence to describe what a person does by occupation..

1 Q·A. much as the English translation "I died for an hour" which . In most cases you can determine \Yhether a verb belongs to Group 2 or 3 by checking if the verb \• II•} tn 1# .!It��. :t ·' : Professor Yamashita knows English..·t . verbs such as � � �.-. describes the result of a change.k-"G -7 (is overweight) -7 . :k-? "'C I.\. ?f. (is thin) bf:L My younger brother is very thin. 7 'A--< A. Here are some more examples of Yerbs that are commonly used in th e work. 1 . .-. \ 1 -t 0 . such as . 1f < . J-.IJ. tj: * � � �o ""'? L :". indicates a past occurrence of a change which has retained its s ign ificance "C "' {> until the present moment ..�1 --c t -f-> -tt --c '-' ' .l. \Vith these "C " ' {> It. *�.f.i To .:.) L UU:.' .IJ to Group 3. t� ""'? --c I. If you get married.lU i • �� I read a book for an hour yPsterday. L 1) -�A-. for example.).• lt-.i -to JV!ary studies Jap�.hi Lf.t.nr:L ft.\ l To -f->-tt-"G -f-> -1:!.6•.b -h· �. i!tt"'C < �. 3 4 Professor Yamashita is married.:.:l 4>/':l • .4 is also odd. 3In Lesson 9.. li frn:y is studying Japanese v 0 (right now).".t.A. .(. I I atn teaching English (right now).--c I.r. jRT.o (Ungrammatical.� }' J.'!> .\. ft. 0 ��tj: � t-. allows for a phrase describing duration. JV!ichiko is seated near the window.i To 2Among h ""'('" J£�. 0 Sue has a lot of tnoneJ•.. ��. ote that the sentence does not mean Professor Yamashita is getting married. y our status changes from being s ingle to being married... t • ·�� l Q·J{.�.. . . :.t-• .:o X � hf. tJ: * � � � � --c '. i$n�.: thus belongs to Group 2. we will observe that this result of a change reading is actually not restricted to verbs in 4 Group 3. fti� �. or *tiil� v erbs. (knows) '<':! tL r 7t 1:. but can be associated with those in Group 2 in certain contexts.. L --c �. �o-"G L �p ""'? l --c I.. tj: h � � t:: b·h < � A_.1. 0:1l.� . .l.:$. L -_. \ l T . Compare.� es. Group 3. *. Verbs in Gr oup 3 describe changes from one stat e to another .!A. _.±"t? J: ""'? � Tom is a little overweight. � A-. .� � the verbs we haYe learned so far. and ?f. ��T�.. :± -h' �t �.ti-*M?tt: 1 L f:. 2 T {>. tJ: a. J!t�.· I teach English.. for example.� iz-? "{I.aHa.���?! L --c '-' ..\. '- .i�0-7-'*M-*��.. "'""'"C " ' {> frame- N= -:J L A - � A_. . �-lt�. In other ·words. t"l-:>"'C < �. ��belong to J.

- lilly older sister works for a Japanese company..3Z:�ii .. 'o/ l�H:tf "'? "'C \\iTo \' ( \� !< ::. t:fh50 --c �. JS X� h. .t "'C''\\iTo !. \* IJ t:: He was eating. . ��. t. The helping verb "'. 50 � ?� "(\\. � 1v 0� ti-& �. �3($ ti a *-04�. �� 1i.Jj0:1i. past He is not eating. affirmative present negative �"'\<:l..:: < Somebody has gone to I is in China. f/. \ � i>i:l 1:1!.f.±. not movements that are currently in progress. j. � ( wears) ��"(\\. \� indicate the current states that result from prior movements. You may want to be careful with what the following sentences mean.i 1:: 1 (lives in) My father and mother live in Tokyo. (is awake) Dad is up and awake. Not: She is going to China. J'. -t 1i. �-"'<:t-'*tt. 7 ') . t: He was not eating. a note on conjugation.4. Somebody has come over to visit.. Thus we have long forms as in the following example.H. \ --c. �·!. '*9 t= �"'\"Ll. Not: Somebody is coming over.>·l•L�· ?� -to Note that verbs like IT < and *. conjugates as a ru-verb..·-t 0 1. � �"(\\... h. Thus IT-? "C "'.tP-).>•7..t tt T � -t" 'J � � "'C \\ � To r 1':- Mary is wearing I wears a T-shirt. Finally.>• Tom's hair is long. belong to this group.t ti� � "'C \\iTo �1 . j... and * "C "'.lv -c· u t:: �-"'\ <: l. ��\5. l?t:L �d -t -n: f/.A..� h.8 .. '*ttfv t= He is eating. l.50 (works for) �t. t: II To describe somebody who has long hair. .t "('' \\ � -t X�� tiJft. one could say: r J.

0 tj: + X..._ If � nn * � "' A :: .. which can be used to combine two elements to form longer sentences.: liflvt.::'v\ Person A has a body part which is . . he has lo. ''"e also haYe: is tall i>f� if•iJ>.\\-\ . \ ii� iJi''v . but to descriptions of a person's physical attributes in general. The te-form of an "\-adjective is formed by substituting < "C for the final "\.ng hair. L \-adjectives: irregular: t. c·9 (.'i� .A. (=As for Tom.. we discussed the use of verbal te-forms to join sentences. § .. "\.' ..) �lv � ? ? ? ? L\L\ �.3[ ( t. �..J..) This applies not only to discussions of the length of one's hair.•. l.f?l.-- �<<: �<<: :n:.3[c �lv� r:: - S*. . The te-form of a lj:-adjective and a noun+ --c·-t sequence is formed by adding --c·· to the base or the noun..J. -adjectives: noun + c9: �· 3i:L \ ]'[.But in fact it "\YOuld be far more natural in Japanese to say: Tom has long hair.J.lv S*Ac· liffvljfv- .and �-adjectives and "C"T after nouns also have te-forms. In idiomatic collocations. hl iJ>. \ � V"( \ is short is bright/smart 0 Te-forms for Joining Sentences In the last lesson.

_ '.. a verb stem+ r:n< L\ If a person moves to another place in order to do something. t"> \">f }.�.. T-F�.:· ""'A. " ' L" \ --c-·-to 5t�--c-·. li:l Counting People .. stems: f-"'C*9) 'Ch(*9) etc. h-it t: The food at that restaurant is inexpensive and delicious.:A.lTJ consisting of a verb. t L. "C'\ 1: 1!4L4 1!9+ fi& <· G " \ --c··-to . "\ --c-·-to That person is always energetic and fun to be with.Yo people" are irregular: -A.!' 1:: � The "counter" for people is A.t..d . and so forth.i"' \"::) t U'l:: ItA. .. 5 IJ' • • Mary has come to Japan to study Japanese.r t:ln-ti'lv � j!(" \lt:rr � l L t:o I went to a department store to buy a bag.i i' from the verbs' present tense long forms. • }.:< 7 1).� O)m 0)1Z""4� tt � < --c. its object.t. Stems. .· !. � and :::-A. \'>.: purpose of movement 11::: ¥� ��� tJ'� { �y< } The purpose of movement can either be a noun like 1i" '�� (shopping).i Lt:%4-it•• � T �� lj 8 +A.l 8 +t:l8 +� � �1! L1t:* 1 L t:o !: !1/v t: f. are the part you get by removing ._. . or a phrase . (.. . . as we learned in Lesson 3. we can describe their movement and its purpose this way: destination of movement { } Ithe /'\.� lvt... but "one person" and "t.::4l:>O?!'\• Professor Yamashita is a Japanese and he is about forty years old.. � O)A. Verbs describing the purpose of a movement must be in their stem forms..-.

Sports: to play tennis 7.=:. .ht�L person 1J'' X� L '*9 {L.) �t:!v (ll9A. I went to Tokyo to have fun last weekend.. 0�51:ffv � J. The place expressions are often followed by t: t. I often played with friends.<...There is one Swedish student in our class.A.C1)h·<1f•• '. ry (::. after the noun and the particle !:� -h�-. When I was a child. To count people in a class.'1 \\ l To ��1Ji'-J-. You must not play around until late.<. L:.7 /'-/�9 ./ 30t - I'- E x p r e ss i o n N o t e s fO\ � �.) L t?t:!v/��t:!v (-tA.) t vp -) t: !v (-t-A.) .Q .'C ry one person two people three people four people fiYe people six people seyen people eight people nine people ten people -FJJ-. you can add '"""'A.' }.1'1::.. �9 . and say: I . < t: !v (�A. Please come and see us.1\..(-A..liA.) � vp -) t: !v (JLA. C1) 7 7 At: (LJ:) A rJ ..A.. -f' :/ J-..:r. v..) tj t?t: !v (. to play basketball Games: to play Yideo games to play cards "A 7 'Y 1- �9 .3\� ��means "to play..o." "to spend time pleasantly.) ) t::.::r:·::1-�� t. Note that "to play" as used below requires different words.<.1." or "to pay a social calL" . A �9 . ) :: !vt:!v (.Q Music instruments: to play the guitar .\J T'h'o ·::.A.Q 7 v t• 7-L.) .: .i instead of t: in this type of sentence..Q .) :::_•' t: !v (.::..J2 . for example.

8 .:\1.::\I. 6 5. Example: 2 P. 6 A.7 1) - :: lv t.: t: J.: .=.: 1.: r a c t c e CDiDJ1d: uc:L '*91J' A .-M� L "'(\\� Lf:::. 2..J:I. --7 A : �1k. 4..::\1. o .JJ:.-h�o B : . 3. Pair Work-What were you doi n g at th e followi n g ti mes y est er day? Be as specific a s po ssi bl e (wh ere.P f. .:\I.-UI.wt::. 8 . "'C "' \ � To .i 7 v t:· � Ji. 12:30 P.. 10 7. an d so on).. t:· � � �� � --c-. 11 .h (2) (4) (5) (6) (8) (lO) (11) B.·. with whom.··.� '� L "'C " \ � L t:::. 6.: .· DL P. P.M. P. Look at th e pictures below an d an sw er t h e qu estion s.l\1... BJ A : /.

.·h. X� A. J: 0 s:X:c!fvrctc� r:iifvc'l... 8J Example: Q : }. M�L -z�.± �-·.' £ Th'o Father Mother Sister Brother lives in Seoul lives in London lives in N. Example: m o/ �!vt.£ To �1 T 1. }.lJ=-.cV) --c �..±.:: t:1i !v -z·· \' £ Tt.�l\ l:liA- 4.. works for an American company high school teacher works for a bank.. All other stu dents guess what the person is doing an d raise their han ds when they recogn ize the action ....£-th· (f "?.:A. This is Sue's family. One of the students m i mes the sentence ...:!: 6. � � /vt..' 9.. :.·A. :krp �!v h� t-. The teacher g i ves a sentence card to each stu dent.?· �.' £ Th'o �?l::: lt�.::t:1i!v"f'\ '£Th� T �5:k�L -z�.j:Th�o hi. }.:A.\£ Th�o �. not married 48 years old 45 years old 27 years old 18 years old B..±1PJ�-z-·Tt..X�h...f.£Th' J.)L�!v !:� \ }.' £ Th'o }. � �!vU�5:kt} L --c �. 5. 1.... }. T . � � /vtj-FJ"�"('' Th'o �it: .±T .:·\\ � .:z.Lt: �-·..±��L-z�.:a.� T 3. 7. Class Acti vity -Let's play chara des . '*9tJ' c? � A.. Pa ir Work-Ask about your partner's family and fill in the blanks below..Y.Z.. }... \£ ni. The person t hat gets the most points is the winner.±-FI � L --c 1. t. }.' h..£ Th�o hi. <... �1 I•?. (./...-qt�!v .. :!t$ �!vtj �--.�i?�. 1) 7J t:1:£!v"(''l.t. married student..�o �..:A. -. A : }.�l.± �'4i} ··e�$ \ '-z·· �.C.�1� \\b-lt: ��!v ��!v .!.:: t: 1i !v -z·· \. }...X::!v �1 }. 1.�rr�!vt..-.±1PJ� L-z�.. �.• 0 2 . 1PJ Jl "'(•' ..�o h·••L<> ">� 8 .-3-:7t:fi!v"'C··�. t:i/..X�!vt.-qt �!v t.·. .X�!vt. }..± a *-0%. Answer the following questions.-' £ To f..�.

t.- :.tj1PJ � �"{\\j:Th�o . Look at the picture below and describe each person.i J./-/. \'•!.tj�IJ>'-&'-'"'f'Th�o 10. "? "{\\.iTh�o .Z.'tt"Lt.( � tj\\"{\'j: -th�o �:1: :.l: L &·.l"( 9.EB�.'"'C '..J•� � t�-?"{"'\.\j:Th�o . Example: &·7.\"'(''TIJ�o .l: L&·. eJIJ�. \ "'C"-th�o .J: L&·b 6 .. 5. A..'. eJIJ�.�:: 1.J: L&·b t.. r1'.1. .J>'. J. J.J.. �h').tj&f>I..0 tj2\. -'(>../-\' '..EB�/0tj:./ � � "'C \'. � 1.i-tt 10o 7. C..® WEBt!fv(ctf.Z. 4.tji.. Look at the picture and answer the questions. m � 10 tj T :.i To :/..i -to ""'1 to . 3 .Z.i -th� o 2. t.Z.:&' B. 6] A : tj\ '� J. -\1: i. ' * 9 (Describing People) t>ae tc. 6Jll � .f-J � h�tt"{'.' � tj'.. The rest of the class guesses who the student is.. m � 10 tj �-tt --c \' ./ 7.! &·7..!? .l: L&·. 'C>.i t. m � . .:&· 7. J. Class Activity-One student describes another student without mentioning the name.i -th�o ->C> .h t.h t 8. 6JI]�. eJIJ � /0tj § IJ>'.0 u��f·h>'1� \..\1 'v '--c··-t o T �-\' '/ � � "{ 'v ' .

@) Example: my n ext.."to L I(. m y house 4.® 7\:�lct'JT u < c: ��ttL' c9 1:::�\ tJ�< ®1:::6 A.long & n ot interesting .tall & kind ----') <:: t:t � 0 A. classes 5 . my Japanese class 5.A. 7 .. Looking back on your childhood. { � < -c -<t f:b· . p eople of my country .±:f..L. "' "C''T o - bt:L {1 0 'v. Example: my roommate ----') bt:L {1 0 Jv. - �.. �- B.li" f�:?· ""�1::. J apanese people one of my f am ily m em bers 6 . . ry 1:t 1.1.• t:t �n�. @) ----') r:\ .Jt-lJJ "C'' L t� o Ll(.r. �""'. {1 C7) 00 C7)..'!f: .• t:t I'!(.lively & f un -small & cute 2.r' . my t own . myself C..-lt-? 1 .:::�.L.. Describe the following items using two or more aqjectives.tt�J·t:t/7::.( .kind & interesting 6..A .Jt -lJJ "C'' � t L . U'� �1::.b·l(.! �J{ 1.door neighbor .-\tlv 1: (Bullet Train) - 6 . L 1(.t !.!""'? i! \ '/ --:1(. �-� " '/ 1.� it� t:t / t: �--� I.Jt w -c-... - :ffr L \'/ � tL \' t:t * '* t._ bf:l i>l:.. Example: 7::.. l>f:? �n\. -c---r o 2.. :f. . Make sentences using two adjectives. m y friends . 4.r t.1 {\'\'/ t�:!JJ 1. < .quiet & nice .± :f. r /'�. 3 .. sch ool 7 ..r (roommate) t.r ' " ' .-lt -? ""::) j: � t:t " '-c-. .( . - i-in * � \ \/ �: y f" I.old & not clean . h omew ork -difficult & tough 8.1.1' -? ::: LT . t .. t� t t L � A-.t:f•J ( �. make sentences using the given cues..z. my c ountry 4.. my hom etown 2 .1 . . -It-? 1.±.t:t/��L�.. 3 ."t 1.±:ffr L < -c. my teacher -big & scary 3 .. � \\ !H' :ffr�f"�-! L !(. �t.� A-.r 5..

t lrlv - * � 11§' � � n· 1zx - ll'? � ::_''t.). � .. 4.i' lo .-.� ...IV LL 2 . :::1 / t:•.. �? � n· � 1z"".::.'d!:: h .� 1{-) 7. @D Example: Jf:.'.r 9. @J:!tg 3.· f.L - �� � �x_.. IJ/v < !:: L . ��� �"'? ::· '( lv t: - � 1k <t· "> B..• . 4.).:: i - < . IIIJ . 7'/�.L.0 B9Hlru�5ef��1"�*9 .Z. �=rr � l l f::o �=-fr � iTo .i . to tl>i �1!J&J U'lv.t1 3. �= 2 .. � (Kabuki) � Jt.ff � iTo - 1.. :::1 - 10. J>. Sue is going to the following places to do the things below..:: 8.]:!itt: !:: L .• . ** �= � i :. .t< - -I:JJ-=J.M� �: t. @. 5.t h·lv t:rr � 1 To . lP1 �tx ..Lil.. - i'Qi .. LL<f-... - 7...).!t:.-::> �1{-) n· ::: r. L � (!::" 1 -r·-7o � &j .tl\ 1f � l\ A.M� �!1 � - 1. For what purpose would you go to the following places? 1.Z.t �t: < t:l}� � l To I.:. ::k¥ t: t�"n' t=*-l l f::o �' ® �(7)g����3l:OJAti'foJAL '*91J' � � ak� o� u��� Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. Make sentences like the example. \ \ . .:: i . � � Jt �:.

\j: T h'o " -{> .Js:. ..7. .Q>'-FJ A\.... \ j: T h 'o �. \A_. . if: L "('. 8.\� Th 'o lr7:..:J(.:. <> t.i T h'o 6 . �·. 9.. .�0)7\':..:· {l'J(.(. :1!1(. 8 . .�::. \.: :.h "M A.J(. . --t: h.' � -t i" h • o 2. *'�1l� L --c '.: 0)��& t: � O)A_.fvGIP5 Answer the following questions./ j:.. .1. � � .: t: 1i.-. A_.:A.:-1..� � �0-? .... E.{.z.: 0)��& t: 3. Class Activity-Show a pi cture of your family to the class and describe it.'-' l T h'o lih. r. .L'i> t L f::.$.tl • :.: 0)��& t: �7]>'-fk \. tl.i. �iJXO)*.. 4.: t: ifJ 60 --c '-' :f i" h · o �?� {.:.' :.:..:-1 -J-1� 0)*.Q>'-FJA. " .{ --...(. § ��Jlt � {�-? "( '.. ti �··.(. j:...:: 7 �.z.\ l B. h'o "( \.0)� � �0-? !:!!.-•�: .z.. � �.: �·t l:c· �::::. h'o L f::.J(. \ l . ::.: :t?::: 2 .{. !: 4.'� T h'o 8. �-· . 5.\ � T h'o 7 .. --e '.: L t.lJ:�E--FJ�ft"C'-'� "Til·/li'-'"C'-'.!:J(.fs-. (natwnahty) c. 1.'-'l T h'o fPIA. 5><: � �'1 ':-dt:• · .:"i:h.Qi'-FJ A\.: 0 ��& t: 5t � t: A...7. " ' � T h • o � (¥A.. ®*c�O)�� A. JL�h'.

) .Parts of the Body &0(§) tt (liN) � L (X.

z.:\ and sisters.tj li. and .: .:b � .I? I'> X....t'l -t To My older brother lives in Tokyo.it: ��A. � 'l�.Z..l?l:\.. Tanaka? B "t [formal] [informal] JL tj J!Cijn : 1i.tA.: Hi.f.. . 1 ��-. B : [formal] X ljli. ��..j:.Hl ..bX�� :.t: . : l•n?:. � I I .I? Lf .. !::-j . $!:�A. f-� --c-· To : t: 1 : . several words are used for spouses.�A.. t� lv �.b:li$ ��when you talk to your older brothers tli..JL �. .:.o -:·.. l•:t 5(.l?l:\.5(.I? :It$�� i>!:i!: :It$ ht'l :It$� ./:K.Z. f!' :?% *(See below.1.5(.(l)J.X � h... Father Mother Older brother Older sister Younger brother Younger sister Husband \iVife Grandfather Grandmother Child I I I I I .1: I:: "i !-li "t . Big Brother.. '717.?1:•• Where does your older brother live.!1 * * * A : mt:F �.1:..t'tn'o to �.��' How old is your father..) ..X:�A. l:A.Z. What is it.1?-f�A.. e.Z.'Ir �-) �·A. Mr. � if_A.J(. f-�''("To �? t.. .. 1 't... ljJtt * t: 1i. A..:. h 5L � A..) *(See below. �\ A : mt:f�.. for husband. Taro? . t�?:..C1J}.Family Someone Else's Family I. . :fll� � .!?��� 0.tjt:''_:t:{i.. Own Family B: Informal Situation A: Formal Situation X ::..�."� ....:b �A. I I I II. Tanaka? My father is 50 years old. The younger brothP. ..... � \ .:. �1*1/� h•'l'·' ?j :fllX . Mr.. ... -n-�::lv. �A. lri.JL�.rs and sisters are called by their names. :k�. � . \' [informal] h X � h. i>!:-il: �� A.-tj-FJ�--c-·-tn·o f: (J."'(··�. h. J. and for wife.Z. � �-)� ..< L . � l. i:. . A. Younger brother: Older brother: J:.\�A..::·' .1:.�� .. !. ..\�� B tr .--c·· " ' j ...I:.. -Ji?Cl)-f *Depending on each person. --c··" ' j To Note that you can use ..��A. .. and so on.:\.C1JJ:.g.

.: 6 ��&>) j: L J: 7 lJ>o tJ) j.- � L 1-tt-lvh.:c: � 7 h·o 7 1PJt \..o �-:t"f:'Ttlo Mh.. gj J \-I'Z=t:-=r.\1.:: t::.....l#J...tJ/.o tt lv�lvlj ? ttlv�lvl..� �lvl.. i.Barbecue a o g u e (D 1 2 3 4 5 6 At school.1 1...� i. ch Lt::.:: t::. h· � i .\���\. """' 4" ..!T�<1)iJ{�t�i"'-Th'o l:.:: 1.� h 1? :...iJ{*� TlJ>o � ht?:..{j. ttL : ht?:...t�--? i""'� i L J: :!/.:: ..i ry -t 0 /'\-...l/JvF\'1 �l.. t::..\� �1. ttL�lv.\"(''Ttlo f�tl..\l To �·t: h t ([) 2 Robert is cooking at the barbecue.4'-"C'Ttlo 0/'\-.1·.d 1' ry.)� � i--?"C"'� Lt::.:: t::.!=· \ hlv � : *-1� ! .. ' o l( \ � "? "'( T h j: -tl:-/vo t f> j... hlv � "f:'/ --\..ttL: ht?:.. J:.(M8• I L E s s 0 N ..:1..)--?' l t::·tx j �"\ "('' < t::·::: "\0 � 7 1) : �of 7 8 9 � J 1} - - ::: lv t *-� � i -? i" " j L t::.. J: < \ � "f:·1-F � i To '*" �< * * 5 0/'\·.. ::...ttL: 77-t?:..)' 1.{....

.Michiko: Takeshi. Takeshi: Too bad. cut the tomatoes. Shall I bring something? Michiko: I think nothing is needed. Takeshi: How about Ken? Michiko: Ken said he had a part-time job. Mary said that she would come. Robert? Robert: Yes.. Mary: I'm sorry for being late.. 0 Michiko: You are good (at cooking). . I think Mary will come. . would you like to haYe a barbecue party tomorrow? Takeshi: That's nice. please... too. Everyone: Well then .. Who will come? Michiko: Sue and Robert will come. * * * Robert: Shall we start? Michiko: Don't dlink yet. Cheers! . Do you like cooking.. I often cook at home. Michiko: Shall I help you with something? Robert: Well then. I I \It I 'l I .

?::: 1±* *. · U: L * .v e r b s Ji) I}) � f �).j.* t=lv . . poor at .:t± � �� ��)J �� �t :: .i �t \ L I1> 1 G 1.) � rP . \ �f--? f ct * • �i! *� v e s J:Jf- eYery week next month a d i e c t L J: -J f' ( � ) ""-.: A. t::. famous (� �� ) r .1 . ( � ) \1J 7 6>) � \ ( iJ ) skillful.j\ ..n: P r::l � V N o u n o c a b u I a r y s the day after tomorrow � :: -? 1: � I}) �.� t �7\: 7 g7 it rains to wash to say \\ 1 * Words that appear in the dialogue .b :A j. * weather forecast place tomato summer something party barbecue chopsticks r? r * � "'? � t: � > / \ ... � .f 7 < ' � J - m ram office worker camera karaoke air this morning this month job.. work. fPJ�> t::' \ \ � f < -tt \ \ j-'' 1 :A ::J "'( A... " \ L � " \ A. . ¥ 1:. / \ .1 ?!- winter homestay.--.. clumsy.t 7J � 7 7J 7 .. � Ji:> G -J * m � >'F.-..t tf "? L .: . .:-.:::z.:.t � J:: tl -J � . occupation college student disco 4. . good at . living with a local family .=r1f /6 (� �{) u .. ��f* p)f l:.

... ) to begin v ( ....z. yes o n s *'tf Cheers! (a toast) * �-· . . � -c- j� � ( ""C'' T tl) That's too bad... ""C .· + negative * h . ....z._.. .. t o think to cut to make to take (something) R u . 7 ._... ..... Jt � to stare (at .1 · . \ � * �� < �� * �t 7 * �� * --:::> < � * t -? "'( 1. � * tj: t � � t ...-Z. * 1.. -t � � ._.. .Z. not . yet all (of the people) together ..7bi-t � M� l* -t � #:t. t .! 't � to drive ( . C "'(·· -t tl) * j t=.-Z.. \ < tB ·� to need ( .* I..1�) to be late (for . tl \. ..._.z.-Z.. �) to do laundry to clean to cook � 7 t -t � * � 1 7 � -t � A d v e r b s 7 7 .. \ a n d 0 t h e r E x p r e s s uh-uh.. t� < -t � e r b s ��T � j. t ..Z. 1.Z.v e r b s t .. no uh-huh.z. ) J - ( �:) .. tl . �) r r e g u l a r 7 ...

� fJ'(ttLI-- b h '<tt�..J'Pl. \ 1 Various names have been given to this paradigm. It should be obvious why they are called short forms. are often called "polite forms. \ c�: fJ '<ttLI �� l.' < fJ l. negative short forms verbs: long forms c �*fJ l. let us first see what they look like.J'Pl.. We will list the already familiar "long forms" to the right in the table below.J'P l. They include "plain forms. \-adjectives: f -adjectives: c:J: noun + c9: f.i � t l.� b - f. affirmative short forms verbs: long forms a =±a:. ' [. \ l.� f. \-adjectives: f -adjectives: c:J: noun + c ·g: f.\ d �1: L.. \. " Before we start worrying about their meaning and how they are used.i � ® 0 * it lv V9' flitJ' l. Present tense." and " direct style. which we will call "short forms.. \-adjectives in the affirmative (a above) 7 same as their dictionary forms fJ-adjectives and noun + c·g in the affirmative (b above) 7 replace c9 with t.." "formal forms.J'P l." and "distal styIe ." "informal forms. on the other hand.: �� c·9 Present tense. � J: �d7-*9 a J: l.- ��t. ' < ® 0 *itlv flitJ' l.\ J: �d7-*itfu d d J: l.i � ® 0 *itlv tJ <tt�l ' The following rules summarize how short forms are constructed. Verbs and l.G r a m m a r 0 Short Forms 1 In this and the next lesson." Long forms.: l. n::·-g ffitJ' c 9 [.and t c:�:-adjectives and noun + c9 in the negative (d above) 7 replace ® 0 *itlv with fJ l.i � f c:J:l.. \ l. ' ffitJ't � [. " . we will learn a new paradigm of conjugation.

" ) • In casual conversations. J:l ru-. This mystery consonant also explains why the te-form of such a verb has the small -?. " "She said . aJi: J: �*t J:l\ J: irregular verbs: 9-@ exception: vt J:L' (3) ( -@ ��L\ (2) �-@ t l\ J: With verbs in the negative. �? 11' = - �b�l\ 11' (1) ==a:. or quoted. because verbs conjugate differently. This conso· w i.J: \ \ . .. R Uses of Short Forms We now turn to discussion of how we utilize short forms. � 6 and 1*-?. but it surfaces with the vowel such as '..J: h <:' i< d. the following three points are worth noting.J: -? -? -? -? -? �1J'f \ J:l 11 ' f'F-@ -::J ( -? -? f'F 6t \ J:l -::J ( �159 ��t J:l\ l<tt.. (3) The verb &1. w.. � by the vowel . . . as signs of intimacy • In making negative requests ("Please don't . Verbs in the negative need to be analyzed in more detail.i T. . where •· is }{ .1{ -J and % -) actually end with the consonant nant remains dormant when the base is f llowed a following. the adjective " \ " \ is irregular. u-.J: h '�l \ i<1J' d.3\ J: -? -? IJ!J! l<tt l \ J: J: 9EtYJ 9Et J: L \ J:t l.b . � " \ · 2 (2) The vowel changes with the irregular verb < � .:: J:l .) 2This suggests that the bases of verbs like lacking.. � in the negative is � " \. .J: w-:J l. ftf t \ . and irregular u-verbs: Take the final -u off and add -anai. we will learn to use the short forms in the following four contexts: • In represented. �< 11 ' l<tt. :t ..: !J!J!. . (1) The negative short forms of verbs that end with the hiragana ") are '"'"' :b � " \ instead of "' J. " ) (See 3 on p. In this lesson. Its negative short form is J:: < � " \. thus we have }{ \ ' . just like verbs whose bases obviously end with a consonant.. . Negative short forms of verbs (c above) ru-verbs: Take the final -@ off and add t \. speech ("I think . 157.As noted in Lesson 5.

� A. plus � � -? "'C �.. . " ) . " (See 4 below. � � g "? "C " \ j: L t o l It AP Sue said that there would be an exam tomorrow.A . A year's difference in age may in many cases totally preclude the possibility of establishing a truly "equal" relationship. using them as a sign of intimacy.: . while long forms are like using "Mr. Therefore: �L (:f t.f. . � �� 1.:. you use a clause ending with a . {> 1..![!.�h{ <it. First of all.. which does the job of both the English word "that" in indirect quotation and of quotation marks (" " ) in direct quotation. . L t ��." and "Ms.) Quotations To quote a person's utterances or thoughts.. and so forth. 1!-lv (I d � on't think) . � is a quotation particle. . . � fv iJHff � {.\ l aD·'s report.L <it.) 1 T (I think that something is not the case) than . 31\ote that the present tense in Sue's original utterance is presen·ed in .c .. ) .• In expressing ideas like " I like doing . .) 0 nt .t. I.. 7 lJ . . Casual conversations Two people who are close friends or family members speak with short forms at the end of sentences. \ � T (I think ht that ..l:) . . 0 0 :: :: .� lv �. in contrast.. Short forms. then. J>f. . it is more common in Japanese to say it like . t. ) c . \• predicate in the short form. t. Japanese speakers are often very conscious of seniority. tends to imply the speaker's intention to " keep a proper distance" from the listener.l: t tt L. are like talking on a first name basis. \ � L t� (They said " .c lt) c ." It may not be easy to decide when it is appropriate to switch to short forms. jj t. I don 't think . The use of long forms. " or " I am good at doing . It) a..�..11ary likes Takeshi ( = I tlzink J!ary doesn 't like Takeslzi.) * T k �.I. 4To sar that rou d on't think something is the case.

Second, license to use short forms is not mutual; senior partners may feel perfectly justified in using short forms 'Yhile expecting their junior partners to continue addressing them with long forms. Thus if somebody 'Yho is older, say, your Japanese language professor, talks to you using short forms, they would be greatly surprised if you should return the favor. Here are a few observations on the grammar of short forms as they are used in casual conversations. • In the casual conversational use of short forms, question sentences do not end with the question particle -h', but with rising intonation alone. • The t· ending of �-adjectives and noun + --c·· -t constructions (b in the previous sec­ =. tion) is usually dropped. In casual conversations, U: " ' and " ' " ' i... are often replaced by the less formal -J lv and

-J -J lv .

To request that someone refrain from doing something, one can use a negative verbal short form plus --c·· < t: � :
" '·

.:: .:: --z-·· � Jt � tl G �
L '(> L A-

7j: \. \ --(·• \ f::_· � \. 'o

Please don 't take pictures here.
negative short form + c

< t�ts.l-\

Please don't . . .

Short forms are used in constructions where verbs and adjectives are to be treated as nouns. Thus :tL I J: '"'-' -h {1tf .!- --c··-t / .!- G " , --c··-t can, besides describing your preference for
l>t;L -t

items denoted by nouns, such as �;, also describe your preference for activities, such as swimming, drinking coffee, and studying Japanese. Add express the idea of " doing x."
t> ::

(J)

to a verbal short form to

I like studying the Japanese language.

(fld.±) a *-� � --<A.-':.!1T � O)IJ{-Jtt � --c·· To ��! hf;L ! : !!A-t
::

I don 't like cleaning my room.

(fldJ:) :g� � � { f'*'T � O)t;{ � G "' ' --c·· To "'
h ; fL <' -< 1 t:

"To be good/bad at doing something" is "-'iJ''J:...f--r·-t (is good at . . . ) and "-'7J1T- ..f- "C·-t (is bad at . . . ) .
5 1:;1 -r

t ,

like doing . . .
person let activity (verb) (J)fj\

doesn 't like doing . . . is good at doing . . .
is poor at doing . . .

It is a common mistake to use the te-form of a verb in such contexts, misled by the association between
X
,..__,

1: � ' {> and the verb in the -ing form in English.

t� � t L � lv tj � � � � L "( I; >'T 4'- "('' T 0 ;t .. , ..: r.:..-: : t :..

Consider what 0 .1 '- 1- ::-. ..Z, t:i�'f*'- t : .ff � .;t L t means. This sentence of course is about : Robert and describes what he did. It is likely to be uttered when the topic of Robert has already been breached. Grammatically speaking, (1) the noun
o .1 ' ;.; � !.•l) �·

1- stands as the

subject in relation to the verb .ff < (he was the person who performed the going), and ,. (2) the noun is, per the function of the particle t:i, presented as the topic of the sentence or (as f Robert, he went to Okinawa). What if we both know that somebody went to Okinawa recently, and I know that it was Robert, but you don't. I will say: ROBER T went to Okinawa.

5To describe one's skills or lack thereof, we also often use a different set of expressions, namely, �-h� t:

< \ '-c·-t (is comfortable with . . . ) and �-hq: il{ -c -c·-t (is uncomfortable with . . . ) .
1..1';1,.

fJ... tj: B .:f:.* � �T 0 -h � t < , , -c·-to 1 :.
1 / ! .,. ..: L!�

I am good at/comfortable with speaking Japanese.

This sentence means that Robert went to Okinawa, which in English would be uttered with an extra emphasis on the name Robert. His identity is the new piece of information provided by this sentence. It is one of the functions of the particle l)t to (1) present the subject of a sentence in a way such that (2) the noun will "fill in the blank on the information sheet." The "blank on the information sheet" is a question word like t:n and M. The above
�::

sentence will fill in the blank left out by:

f �';h,'b�5tf'�t t ::: ;ft � � L f 'b 'o ::. i. l

Who went to Okinawa?

j; � �i?

As we learned in Lesson 2, a question word that is the subject of a sentence is never followed by the particle t .l , but always by the particle IJ{. As we have seen, a noun that will provide the answer to such a question is also followed by the particle 'h''.

'(_-- � -:; 7 .A IJ� h t L ;; " ' --c·-t'b·o

Which class is (the most) interesting?
a *-� � .7 7 -A IJ �- h t L ;s �, , --c· -to
I:

Japanese class is.
( ;:: � .7 7 A "(" ) f ' ;h,IJ> 'b� � '/.]• tt "( \ \ � T IJ•o � '� 'tJ_

lih-

:::_·

Who wears glasses (in this class)?
'<" !. L t -tth- -tt•• �

� r 7r. .i. IJ"� IJ{tl � 'b· tt --c " ' � -to

Professor Yamashita does.

Cl
The word for "something" is Mt.

f!'h', and the word for "anything" in negative sentences is

"Some" and "any" in: positive statements questions negative statements

fcl f.J' f.�:I:: fcl f.J'
t.J:I::

something anything? not . . . anything

fcl =b + negative t.J:I::

These two words are used in places where th e part icles t.i, -h', and � are expected. In · these cont exts, they are used on their own , without the help of p arti cles. We will learn in Lesson 10 what to do
in

cases where particles other than these are expected.

No, the cat did not eat anything.

I, \ I, \ � , �t/dj:¥J t �� .1 -lt A, "{'' L f::. o � t:.
b :.

Od::-5 l:ffv

� JJ2 /

t---

E

x

p r e s s1 o n

N o t e s

(0\ W

-9-@ ...,.. Most irregular verbs are compounds of nouns and the verb 9 � .

If

you have learned an irregular veru, Lherefure, ruu have also learned a noun. verbs
"""-��?

nouns
"""-�.::?

#tl 5 !fi9 �

#ft5� f-l.Jlt!

ex.

���O)!!ti! J..., �.- �-r-9o

to study
'h-7 ry

study
1)�-j ry

Japanese language study is fun.
ex. O J '\ � I- � /vO)��J.fti.t ) J..., l.- )L"9o n

f-l. Jlt!9�

to cook

cooking

Robert's cooking is good.
of
the verb 9 � .

Some of these nouns can be used as the "object"

t t1 L. � Iv ti$�0)ji� � L. * G t ..: ..:o
.0.. '1> 7? �;
-

Takeshi cleaned his roorn .

Compare: td1 L. � Iv t;t$�� tffl � L. * G t..:o
.0.. '1> � , (.;

tl.Jv

IJ�5

p

r

a

c

t

c

e

CD Short Forms
A. Change the affirmatives into negatives.

8J
3. -t L· 1;• �t {>

Example:

t? · <

t?· t? · "i ... \
2. £> �t {> 6.
4.

1.
9.

h .;

5 . l;i

<

t;i t 60 {>
< {>

7 . -::) < {>
11 . h -t n {>
15 . ti ... \ ,;

8.

1t lv t::. \ -t �

£> G � Bt� � &0 7?{ ..), {>

10.

12 . £> {> 1 6 . t? · � {>

13.

14. t -? ""'C 'v \ \

17.

B.

Change the affirmatives into negatives.

8J

Example:

t::. n' '- \

� �

t::. n " < "i ... \

!J,Z, � t::'
1. 11>

It'� �

t � "i '- \

� &0 ... \ t-3.'

2 . J':> &0 t::'
6.

3 . '- \ .:C t? { L '- \ 7.

4.

t? · h 'v \ 'v \

5 . h t 1; • ... \ 9. t ... \ .r-...,. h, f ' ::. -3.

L ,4, -tt --? t=.-

.!(-' , ... \
.::

-3_ 8. � *t 'v \ f '

10 . 'v \ 'v \

11. 1;> "?

... \ ... \

12.

, � t-:.'

13. �

G '- \ t::-

® Informal Speech
A. Answer the following questions in informal speech, first in the affirmative, then in the negative.

8J

1 . 4- a ' �5� -t {>
� � -i ..-..:.{. �!1

?

2 . + a , :iJ:. t ' t:d : � � :: 4 . l < � Jf- t : jft {> ?
j: \ \ 1:? � .t i �t

;,

?

3 . J: < }.; � � ik L' ? 'f) t, -:5. � a .. a *� � � -t ?
1 , , ,:?
(: (Jh- .:. f.!� :

'f) �h- L -:6. � a .. 7 v e:· � Jt {>
;:,

?

7.

cb L t=. , ;k¥ t = *- 6 ?
f�\ •I;' ( (
l.: ' A,. L � ·
"

8 . 4- E ,
-' l i

9 . § ��- � t� -? "( \, \ 6 ? . 1 1 . -iii- i/!, :g�&
j: I •LH>i
"

1 0 . *i!! , T. 1 A
1.'., '- 'Lt;,i
j

::J

t : .ft <
,,

?

� � i l.: 6 ? tw�-t

12. -iii- E , 57t51-t
\\1 :. t:,
-ltlvf=

(

6 ?

B. Answer the following questions in i nformal speech, first in the affirmative, then

i n the negative.
Example:

@D

·

Q : :7t � ?
lt'/v :.

A
1 . (J j ?

:

'J /v , ft � o / 'J 'J /v , ft � l: � � \, \o
lf/v :. lf/v :.

2. ·J't L
\ •il;'

"' \

?

3. E *-� 0 7 7 A t.± }; t L 7:> "'\ ?
I:

li/v :::

4 . E *-� Ci) 7 7 A t.± � L'- \ ?
1: 1 1 /v :::

5 . .:: Ci') :f k�4· t.± \, \ \, \ ? 8 . jS J�U6 1J { �t=f � ?
p;. "

!'- 1 -i IJ· L 1 '

6 . 7t .i. t.± .:: h \, \ ? 9 . .A $ - 'J h { � � \, \ ?
-\1'/,.-\1' 1 '

7.

1 0 . 4- E t j: �
�! i

t}J_!]j{J:-t- ?
l i ry l.:.d 1' It?.!: i 1./'

ti' : l;·

Hi 8

?

@ B �At c�L'*9 �
A.

r.;)jj1 Make a g uess about Mary, using -c!EtL '*9. � t:;t,
Example: good at Japanese
� ;< 7

1;: li'J:Iv (.;fv

<15:0

1)

- :: lv t;± E *� ]j> J: -t- t�· � I� \, \ � T '
r:

f! A..

� .-

L.t-1

--r

;.; �

0

1 . often cooks 3 . doesn' t smoke
5 . doesn't go home late at night 7 . often goes to see movies

2 . drives a car 4 . listens to a Japanese language tape every day

6 . doesn't drink alcohol much
8 . not married
1 0 . busy 1 2 . not tall 14. not quiet

9 . likes Takeshi 1 1 . a good student 13 . not scary 1 5 . not a freshman

B.

Make a g uess about the person or place below an d answer the fo llowing questions .
Example:

0 · .:: 0 A. tj: 8 *-A. ··c-- ' th'o
:..t � : : 1!/v l.:/v

A

.

i_ i_ ' E *'-A. t�· � I� \, \ � T 0
:: iilv l.: lv

;.; L

\, \ \, \ i_

'

E *A. t � � \, \ � I� \, \ � T 0
:: f!h.L A... · nt

Picture A 1 . � 0) A. U: %:f± � "(•' -t 1; > 0
U t: 1.1·'-' l � � 'A...

A

2 . � !b "(''J1J'o

3. (} j "("'t 1J'o 4 . �J[ 1; >' \ \ \ \ "(•' -t 1;' 0
5.

j��=. l;,-� \ ' ·-e -r 1.1'o
-it : t fr

7 . #t� L "( \ \ j J 1J 'o
It--> .: A,

8 . j:; 1i- � t < ::. l\A� "? --c " ' j -t 1.1 .. o ::
:;•J.'J

t

9. J: < 1Z""' .i -t 1;• 0
: t

10.

J: \ ;z_ ;f- - 'Y � L j 't 1.1·o
:-_· u�

11. 7 7 / _A � � �· L j 't 1J'o
Picture B B

2 . � !6 t: r!T 'l'' 't 1.1'o
yp 1 ., , , �.:;,

' 6 . J.... IJ> f: \ � .Z, 1:f. t\.; "'('' \ \ j T1J'o
if � T

t 7 . � � 0 A. LL t < � �-- j 't 1.1 ' a
if � J? J:

8 . J: < 1±� � L j T 1.i ' o
L ::: I:

9. -l. t: J: < m 1.1"N:· � j i' 1.1 ' o
-� � j ) ¥"J pi.

C.

Make a guess about the following things, using -C:JGtl ' * 9 .
.,�

1.

the weather tomorrow

2 . the next test

3. what your classmates will do tomorrow

A..:d "f L A. n : 4. = B.0 t. \�tJ' L..ti· � < : :.:.0 o · t.i % . 11!* IJ:1PJ tr: L :i T IJ' o Ln>1._IJ {�t � --c·' T IJ ' o J" � T . B X � . using .( 7 1) - Ex. (!) Jx. (!) �� t.(!'0 . ���j:�� tr: � L li· . Take notes and report to the class later. ' "'C'' T o 2.t fl: �.f.0 � A..t�Jt..: A-.. B � � . �I L..C: = -::> <: L '* u t . .-w "'C'' T o l:: "i 6 . { J:.>( J7 U -<!"fv(d: ·It u L ' c � -::> L" L ' * u t� A.C: = -::> ""CL\* ut . Report what the following people said. �I 1 . using . Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions..' :i To 5 . It L t� t. .-tt-:> 8. � g "? .t #:fJf �.:..h �d � t. .1 -? �!: 3.t . + --c·' T o lr. t�· � / 8 /.0 � A_ "f:' T �... IJ: ·Jt L �.0 t.t �- . 7 1 tr: L "'C '. '�� tr: L :i T o ti · t� 4 .t �-· . o 1 : lllv 1:: t 1: llh.f.t ·Jt L 'v . �·· .\ SJ A : + J1 t.t._ \ :_ · !. 8 /.:c ( · i. .i L t� o � J1 .If"? \ '"ti' \' --c �.

playing sports 7.< 7 1) - :: lv tj: T . .. making sushi (poor) speaking Japanese {good) 6 . 1. \ c < t� ts. cooking (good) 5.."' _ I. washing a car T If you neither like it nor dislike it.J.t-=Fc9 or ""F-=Fc9.. not to go not to smoke 6 . 1-f � ""C:'T o -t to ' ' .. doing laundry 1 1 . -t B : Lt " ' � 1-f � --c·· -t / ::k. ' --c· t � � . sleeping 5. video games (poor) -! . writing love letters (good) ( 7 7'v 7' -) B..f � --c� t � G \.? 9 A..l') 7 . Tell what Mary is good/poor at. . not to come to your house 5.--c·· -to t � J: "' f : 1. t · � '-< : 'o 1. not to forget 9. l. eating with cho Qsticks {good) Oct l.. not to be late 7 .. not to speak English 3 . French (good) 3 . taking a bath 12."('' T 0 ' t:"i -r s·wimming {poor) � 7 1) - � 1v tJ: it <·· 0 �.�. not to erase the blackboard yet ( :: < !ilv ) ® f@ �m 9 � cr.0 �/\(fcJ: {. you can use -9. not to sleep in class 8 . driving a car cooking 10. Example: studying A : Jfa5� T � r7J i7"1f � --c-·-t n�o -<A. singing 6 ... \ t. doing shopping � G " ' "C"T/ ::k � G "' ""C:'To f \' : 2 .! -It lvo . taking pictures (good) 8 . using . :... 2. �.r -t.. not to call you 4. -t " ' " ' .xfj'�:r=cr c91J' l'(fv�J:. What would you say when you want someone . A iJ� J:. stu dy i ng Japanese 9. -t. 2 .:{. eating 4 .5 "§' " t:: 6J Example: tennis {good) . �� � JL � '-< ' ""(" < . L. not to stare at you 10.=. Example: not to look at your photo - . . Pair Work-Ask i f your partner likes to do the following activities. 3. * doing cleaning 8 . driving a car {good) 9.. not to start the class yet 11 .:.

� � .@ t�ttt.. h'o 5 .. You went to a party but did nothing there.Z.�·.. :ft � � L t b... --e-t 0 . A . @ �*' iCJ=t u*ttlv c ut=. 1 . (sing) 3 .-t n·o · Robert Mary Sue Takeshi British American Korean Japanese I is good at cooking cooks often is good at skiing is good at singing is good at sw1mmmg does not cook had a date last weekend cooks sometimes always eats at had a date last weekend cafeteria I II went to Okinawa doesn't like last weekend cats likes dogs went to Tokyo last weekend likes cats doesn't like cats B. Use the table below an d answer the q uestions.. 2 . M t �"" � � lv --c· L t:.t :. b{ . L t:. t n n � �tOOA. t:A- 1 .. t· n n{. b{ . .. (drink) :. 6. (take) 5. Pair Work-Use t he table a bove an d ask your partner questions w it h tttt1i.i"'i =t: � "A A c97J' ulv A .7 1 . n... (watch) :... M a ke sentences using t he cues. t= n n {*-.t :.:¥ 1) 7-.b{ j/. I'P h. % " \ � L f: �.. ED Example: 1 �� :. 7 1 . 7 � � --::> i: l. \ --:J t (always) : · 4 . : t:..7 1 . (do) . --c·· -t b·o =· ( t: A- 2 ..b{�f � ·�c-. 7J /. � � .r \ � . t · n n{#:t! � -t :6 c1> 1J{J:. o � '\ �· . 7 v t·· n . .-=t --c·· -t n · o = ry r i ry l:l'i -r 3 .:¥ lJ :A A.l -t b·o f : L � L t:. (eat) . q � � L f b { .. t · nn� .&& ry � L t IJ . � � L f:. � � .:y_ = I '�J r� -t L l < !:" i t: 'X i:"�""'.. --c·· -t n·o :· ' A h·. 4.t :. (talk) :. � lv t :....t :.A. :: : o1 " r ·- t: A- � �v n i 1 . v�-s*-=> tc�:r:. D" � � L t:.. 7J 7 ::t ?..7 1 . Example: ED Q : t n 1J i 1 ... {t � � L f b" .

:. h .7 �1 : .'"t :0 � fPI � �� -? --c \ ' � . u . : i. 4.B. ( A : U \ \ .� h. tj: 3R � 'J 7 Jv ""fT � \ .t -t :O � � .i L t.i L f fJ ' o : t. Answer the following questions.t -tt .t T t.i T :O �o L » i . T v t:' ··e (on TV) 1PJ 1. 4'-' fPJ 1.i L t: o -? ( \ \ \ \ . / " .::k :: . � .: ! : � .1. \\ < � % -? "C \ ' .:' ..� o . M t 11 � .� \ \ \ ' . Example: 0 : � 0) -J O) lljt ='.{. fPJ 1.t t.. �t � . fPJ1."* .i L t: " o B. U:fPJ :0 � 11 � . M :O� L :t '"t :O·u t.t L t: t.:: --c·· L . : 2 .��""" .fvlJtP? I nterview one of your classmates about any future plans and report to the class.lj: h..::: lr 3 . . Pair Work/Group Work-You are planning a party. : 6 .z. �: · .4.t L f :O'o : . : . .. : -? ( 1 .: · t. Decide on the following points and fill in the chart. -.: o :: ..: . :tl.! -? --<4� �1 ® * c6fJO)�� A. A F U f ''/ T 1 (spaghetti) � 11 � . L�i!-? lm*.. Example: A . t:i.� 0 5. � 0) -} .Z. � Jl . ·r· L t.{..t -r 1.h.�o .t T :O· 1 �-· . • � \ \ .: . t.. \ \ --? --c----r i:J � �-...-r. 1!*.: t. fPJ t.� � 5� L . � 0) -} .

1.C. B : '-' ' '-' ' . whose mother is good at cooking D. likes to sing 4 .: C:'' "J --c.T n'o h A : :ift. . Play the roles of A and B. hates to do cleaning 3 .. Pair Work-A and B are making plans for a one-day trip with two other friends C and D. .�� t:ft � � To \\ lr L� l:t:>-i(! � o : ::.. . .:l � !: · j{ �. Class Activity-Find someone who . bt.l'o Student A A's schedule 16 23 1 7 24 1 18 25 19 26 1 1 20 21 22 study 27 quiz 28 party 2 part-time job 9 C told A that he would . . o t � JiJ • • • • • • B : . C � lv n {�® � Jt t:ft < c: g -? \\ \\ "C '. L\ and find out which days all four of you are available. � ' �..<C "3 't'' T i. t�L M t L � -tt lvo --e t . 18th: go to see a movie 24th: meet friends 26th: go to Osaka to have fun .{.. A knows C's schedule and B knows D's schedule. Discuss your own and your friend's schedules using -C:= -:::> "L L '* �t�. f-/\. is poor at driving 5. E LL i. likes to study Japanese 2 . \ j L f::.

.Student B B's schedule 16 17 \York 18 25 19 26 20 27 21 28 shopping 1 22 tennis 23 24 I I 29 work D told B that she would . 19th: do a part-time job 27th: go to eat Japanese cuisine 28th: go to Kyoto to see temples . .

z.{. .:: * -h· G -e9 a:f ..ft � . "'C·'T J: :-. a fl3 "'C'' To !: -ICJ(. t.. 2 3 4 5 6 During intermission at a Kabuki theater.: i_ i_ .:: --J < t · � " \ 0 3.. � . < J: i U' l:od !: L: .l }. \ .z. t L 'h -h · -? t tt L : � c:')-t:JJ 1 � . . \ i_ ..... \ l L t� o .i -tt .Jo .: 'h "'('' ..b l ry �0 ry .i i... � 1 t tt L _)( 7 1) : _)( 7 1) ..:o(i<'('( . U: h · �� � � h"�f � "'C'' T h ' o -t : h · ��� � "'('' T h ' o .z.i -tt .(. . h' o � h.: t� tt L : � .�.t l(. Ji " \ t : .(M9il I tJ\13\=0:_ Kab uki D . --:.i -tt !vo J::.. 4f.... \ 1. � t 4 h-It .a L E s s 0 N .l h. \ --J "'('' T -h ' o 1... �-. t tlo � t tt L : � ill "'C " \ :G A. 7 1) - : � n " \ "'(·· L ·e U' l::.i L J: -5 o lr \' @ 1 At a concession stand..:·· �·.. !lJ\. t o t J _)( 7 1} ..Z.. JL t : :ft � . 9� 0 g u e (!) 2 3 4 5 6 Mary and Takeshi are talking.!..\ j: L f� o � -h· .�:: :: v' �::..1: L: "'C'' "'C'" T o {[) 1 . -�f7.. \\ t tt L : � *-Hi a "'C'' T o + ..:: .3 � . o _)( 7 1) .:: {-...i-.: f tt L : � :4'.� --('' T -h ' o 1 i_ i_ o � . � 1z� l L f -h ' o : i :.. .. G -? t -h ' G ...z.tx t f � .-) t J6 0 h " � J . L ' DJ . �::_ i . .): {: J....:'' l j: .� . l. \ ' _)( J 1) ../v o 2' t � ib . t tt L : � T h.o "'('' t t � g -? "'( 1. . t. _ r � . 1::.. : (t l::.f -tl:........1i c:')A. l f 1z� "'( \.)� � . � 5fJ c:')A..�'\.

Takeshi: Then. please. By the way. . did you already eat lunch? Mary: No. Vendor: That is 2. From 12:00 to 16:00. do you like Kabuki? Mary: Kabuki? I don't knO\Y it well. shall we go to buy it? Takeshi: Excuse me. Mary: Really? Takeshi: Yes.800 yen. Takeshi: I got two tickets for Kabuki. Thank you very much. Takeshi: The people who appear are all men. I ha.·en't eaten it yet. one tea and one coffee. Takeshi: And then.Takeshi: �Iarr. But Robert said it was interesting. Two box lunches. Vendor: Here they are. When is it? Takeshi: On Thursday. CD Mary: It was beautiful. so would you like to go to see it? Mary: Sure.

\ . t t" --:? �Jtt�� JR .. . *- * j:. "Bullet Train" ski ::1 / -tj. " \ d i t v e s -t I. f.a d j c.1 7 � L\ m� e c illness. \ < . \ :. composition exam Shinkansen.f.I.z.: I.� ..A -{.J: u .Z..t. � '" -i:Ji Jf!. 7. traditional Japanese theatrical art guitar � }.Z. .z. "'( .� t ...V No u n s o c a " \ " \T b u I a r y I.f. 1::0 7 / 7\:.. . -#.-W. c:-· � }. c:·· � 11:x ��.b � to dance (something) ends ( '"'-' h ") * Words that appear in the dialogue . h . \ " \ ..: . -tt . \ .:-::.Z.f" :7 - < T ry < -t ry � O) <t' < '-· . vocabulary piano 71 .� .� I.X L v \ 8 \.z.� mean -spirited b s }. (:: '? }.Z.Z.o last month word. \ . good child color boxed lunch spa.J-:. -tt .G I.f..z. \ f . .JF I.Z. \ e c blue red black lonely white young � I.Z. \ .. I. v)� � * . �� � � � 1k<t' �. sickness - a � }.. -tt .b � �m � . L . hot spring Kabuki.v e r t v e 1. " \ h h ' l. \ �U Lv\ ' L .�jt L It . \ t h � ( t: ) �j.� ·a lllll._t: � medicine to take medicine concert near future essay.

t..J "f:.. ..J J: -:> -? \ \ -_:) -_:) t: -:> -? i.v e r b s }. { � � lJ: L � � V' < * A.:::.).:) to play (a string instrument or to get (from somebody) t G7 (person t: thing � ) R u . -? .J -'<:'> -:> -? � :..-? . (1) to appear. -. -_:) one two three four five six seven eight nine ten )j. 1& � -t � a n d O t h e r to do physical exercises to take a walk lv t !'-t � A d v e r b s E x p r e s s from ..t.t : lv � 1. to attend (2) to exit ( '""'"" t:) ( '""'"" � ) r r e g u l a r V e r b s 7 lv C:'' 7 -t � � �t/7-t . i. (J) -? � }. /v 1. t: -_:) . -.:: .> -.. ti' :Z .: � � to be popular (something) begins piano) �i:l � � w< ( .___ 1.J Ji -. . * to memorize "('' . by all means by the way all already o n s * * * * -1f U' � . fl. -? + .. t 7 m N u * * b e r s (used to count small items) U' C: -.J �. -.. "('' )j. -? lffi -.J -t -. �t....t.J /\.

. J: < � � .. \ with 1J' ""::) t � t -:> t =. negative verbs: c:J:(. Short form predicates in the past tense can be used in the same way as the present tense forms. They are: .> t c�: (. . 1 See -F. : : .-r· L t in Lesson 5.G r a m m a r 0 Past Tense Short Forms We will now continue the discussion on short forms. Here we will learn the past tense paradigm of short forms. and J: < � � i -1t h. Past tense. \ �* f &: l.. \-adjectives: t c:J:-adjectives: noun + 1J'bl' < t c�:� 'D1J' L/ f. in the present tense short forms with The two irregularities that we noted earlier are observed here once again. which we discussed in Lesson 8. f¥1J't V§' ll'<ttL1- c·g: ��t =- Past tense.> f c:J: (.i -1t h-.1·-? t -r· -t.. which we started in the last lesson. -? -r in Lesson 6. \-adjectives: t -adjectives: c�: noun + 1J'bl \.k} =. � f c:J:-adjectives and noun + c ·g in the affirmative (c above) 7 replace t =. affirmative verbs: compare with: �fvc· &: l. l.. Verbs in the affirmative (a above) 7 replace L:' fc in te-forms with · t�!t =. . \ § ' V c9: ll'<ttL1 �� L/ f. \ Below is a brief discussion on the formation of past tense short forms. See J: 1. and all categories in the negative (b above) 7 replace the final l.. \-adjectives in the affirmative.

:. Example U' l: i is a straightforward adjectival 7).f. much like adj ectives can. (person) to their right. In the example below..J• �t "'C " \ t:: C:: § --? "'C " \ . ..: . -t l. speech A .b f a qualifier for the noun h' ( -\t \ ' 2 . Example 2 contains a phrase describing a person's attribute (Lesson 3 has a verb in the short form (Lesson 8). using the present tense.lh- l l r ( -\t l ' . �!i 5! L "C " ' l -t.:: � tit lv "C'' " ' -!> (reading a book over there) is used as J: *.fX 0 8'f &>'J h"tl � f..f. the phrase .:: i The student who is reading a book over there is Michiko.! A. is technically known as a "relative clause. if your friend Sue said � ..� � � :: : -. and example 4 has a t:J: -adjective.. I � -t- . ""C'' * � �ie lv "'C'' " \ . .• In represented.." .:_ . "-hich has a sentence-like structure of its own.. l. Note that in J apanese the tense of the original utterance is preserved when it is reported. your report will be: .! t: � \\ Lf o :: • In casual conversations BJt _::'' tJ: lv ' fz� t ? :: Have dinner yet? !. example example.j:_ ... The phrases in the boxes qualify the noun A.. I t¥ � tJ: ..(_ Sue said that she was studying Japanese.lh- The short forms of verbs can be used to qualify nouns. If you are reporting somebody's utterance in which the present tense is used.. :.: .� lv tJ:. 0 Qualifying Nouns with Verbs and Adjectives ·e . or quoted.. .::h. Thus. Sue said that she wore (had worn) glasses in high school.-1 l\ ''! 8 1: llh- .: 1 � . you must also use the present tense inside the quote. . which is relational (Lesson 5). 2 A qualifying phrase like this..!"At .:: � lv "{'' 'to i The following table shows various forms of noun qualification.

) l t t.c = �e 2F Jt � * --::> --c \ L '(> L h1::: \ � I A. (I like) people who do not smoke. 1::: t C h· G -t.b iJ: \ \J A (h{�f � -c-·-to ) � f 11'1::: . On the other hand. 3. I &iJ ..f' = � o&. t�· i? � J: tJ A. � �. one will understand that Zelda is still without her key.{ � '{ :< ( letter came from) a friend who got married last year.Z.� � T � I A. j \ ' I C � 7 h. 4. 'I l�t:J'� l. In Japanese. but the past tense and the --c " \ � construction share the work on the negative end.IJ'h :.: "t A v-c A v-c v-c A A v-c I I a person lwho has long hair l a person I who wears glasse S! a person I who likes catsI a person who is interesting "" "" adjectives and verbs used as qualifiers noun Here are more examples of verbs used in descriptions of people. ls=b u-3t. the second "simple past" example describes the event as something that is independent of the situation at the present moment. in different ways. \�I lrait. The first "present perfect" example describes the event as something that is connected with the present: hearing the sentence. Zelda has lost her key. Thus in the . \j I661:J'tlfa:1J'It"L l.J'I:.J. l:.. I t -:> ::: A. A Consider first the following pair of sentences in English. Zelda losing her key.. I* if A:�:k� L t� I :tz.i'*�t I J: tJ '� T.1.1::: ( lj lf.T ) Jt � 0 People who do physical exercises every day (are healthy.fJ< fj. Zelda lost her key. ( tj t�· n ··e -t. These two sentences present the same fact. "l (J. 2. ) • o (Who is) the person taking pictures over there? l4it E 11. past tense forms do double duty on the affirmative end of polarity.ifci L t o ) ��. we do not know whether Zelda is still looking for her key or has later retrieved it. l.

.m� � L '{ Ltp<t.L _: {Z.:. ( Because) I was busy.L 1z. . 0 . bt." � {z. bt. ..� � tJ: i t_:. therefore. i -tt �0 I did not do the homework yesterday. tJ: i t. \ i -tt � 0 (} .:::. " sequence to the beginning of a sentence for which the explanation is offered. have not . yet I This use of "C " ' � can be found both with verbs describing changes and with verbs describing activities. In this lesson. (situation).lJ: � � �� i -tt � '{·· L t� o ·J't L h· "? t '{·--t h· G o t .� � '{ '-' ' i -tt � o Sue has not woken up yet. as defined in Lesson 7. tJ: t -J m � � L i L t� o L "'<t.··tj: � � �� '{ 1. lj: i t ' J?t. lJ: � <?:> -) m� � L i -tt � ··e L t� o L"'<tl' ' and bt. because (explanation). . I have already done the homework.L {Z.:' I did the homework yesterday..: l \�_. ' With the negative.- I didn 't have breakfast. but "C "' � is used if your intention is to talk about how things stand now ("not yet").:L ¥> ::..ht. the past tense is used both with words like � r7) ") (disconnected from the present) and t ") ("already." connected with the present). we learn to incorporate the explanation clauses in the statements them­ selves. the past is used to talk about a finished time period like � r7) ") . 7-.:' ' and bt. -1J'b We learned in Lesson 6 that -h' � added to a sentence means "because. f c (activity) I haven't eaten lunch yet.·.L {z. lJ: :¥13 :::. You can simply transpose the "explanation+ -h' t::. rather than adding them as separate sentences. I have not done the homework yet.L {l dJ: � <1> -J m� � L i L t o � • L ><t. (explanation).affirmative. (explanation) 1J' 6. h (change) bt.:"'' "' . (situation)0 = = (situation).

: �li�"'iv I will stud this evening� because we will have an exam tomorrow.\�1. y ( = We will have an exam tomorrow.: o .i: . Let's go to see Kabuki. :±:l h · lt t. Thus the t. � t: The long form before -h' � i s more polite.ti L . ( = It was cold.t h.) Note that the resulting order of elements resembles that of a "therefore" sentence more closely than that of a "because" clause in English. tl:: t.h ' -:> f:::.<b L f �.i L . therefore. "' -*-li t: � t: 1t � . I have tickets." <b � 1.: - We didn 't go out. . I didn 't go out.:J is inappropriate when the entire sentence ends in a short form.· � .�1. · '*.i � 1v --c-.ih·'? f o ::..' because it was cold.· � .i T 0 �� 1f-t.. and is frequently found in request and suggestion sentences. 3 � L t:::.) �.i � H)tffa1� . \' ..{ � � . ' ::. ·e -t h· L llA. however.t 1 o 3The long form before h' i.· � clauses in the above examples can be rewritten as �.i T 1J • � :0 "? . Before the conjunction t.L f.:J .: l It� bt:l .) � � 0 -w 1f 1J" <b ry .• � ' 1� t.h ' '? t "'C Th· i.· -? f t. I will study this evening. L . you find both the long and short forms.!: -t h · � and '*. �.. theref ore. Thus it is inappropriate to say: X � {. 1J • .· 't .

� . \ � 12. J t:: J B. \ 1 .. 7?· "'? = \. Example: 1 . -+1: 1v t < -t . \. t. 7? � tt . f. \ t::· "'? t :: 3 . ti" i. :: 12 . \. t .± t .h. 11. -t V (to throw away) 6 . Example: t IJ� \. b. Verbs Past 6) - (a) Change the following verbs into the past affirmatives. }. -t �· 7. \ < 9. \ 10 . _i "':) 16. J lv C:'' J -t . ib � J 10 . "'(•' . \ 9 . 4 .± � -t 5 . \ \. 1 1 . 3 .. \ L lv -+1: "'::) � �T" \ 8 .P r a c t c e CD Short Forms A. c:· . < .t '6 13. 2 . \. \ J 15. t I)� \. 5 . \ 1 1 . . < .) . \. 8 . Adjectives and Nouns @) - (a) Change the following into the past affirmatives. 1 3 . l. 7?{ < {}: \. "'::) < . � 'lf' L " ' . ib � J 7?� < - :: 7?� 7?� � 7?· "'? t 4. l?�b \. \ � 5 . t. "'::) < . 11> J &>} I... 7?� < 7?� \. 4.i 6 7 . l?� tt .< {}: \. . Jb &ry 6. \ :: tt' lv � � t 7? � 7? � "'? t:: :: tt' lv � t::. \ \.<·· 14. :: 1 2 . t � J (b) Change the following verbs into the past negatives. 16. \ 7. \ f :: 3 . 6 . 7:J.± < 9 .. Example: 1 .l:J. -t --c .:l . 6 14 . -+1: lv t < -t . 8 . L t. \ "'( lv � 2 . \ "(. ib I)• \. 2 . 7?� . v < 15. � -t �· 10.· "'? f:: IJ�. \ \. �' \. ib "(. .

(f J:. � · �ti:'/. 'J ( lr -c· ( i.:1... 1 . }:. 9.I!' 1:: t: 3 .. t i? t : % ") 7 . n' "':) t 0 ::. . * :iX t : * . n ' "':) t ::. JL t:J.. . n· "':) .. 5 .::. �� t = � � � n.b �. h 8 . -7 i? "("#l.. � l ... Example: ::. ::: lr-. @ Informal Speech A.\ · 5 .t 2 . \ "( lv � 10. ::.ff < i> i 14 .t i' . lQi Zf' t:.)>' < -lt \ \ � � � ::. L fn· t:I. ") � 6 . i:I.t 1...(b) Change the following into the past negatives.. �·f 1v � t -f-> t:J. 2. Using the cues below. n' "':) t n" < -lt '. \ -. \ t b . make questions about yesterday in informal speech. � 1:: !.l. n " '.. \. t L JS '. � lv � t:J. 71h 1. - :7 - � 1t ") -:>h· 11 . '. -< i L � r.: '-' ' '-' ' 1 1 . \ 7 . � }:. I. t n' '. How do you answer those questions? @) h Example: T v e:·· � JL . :1 / t• . � Zf' L �. b f. JL t 0 / -7 -7 1v .ll' 10 .t . .' �f lv � i.J • \.. -? -t? � twl*i' .. \ \. 4.. .' 12. a : � � -? 7 -v e:· � Jt t ? A : -7 lv .::z. t• -lf � 1z� . 1'-#� � t � ") 12.:·A. � h ::. � 1t � . i. n' ':) t 4.. A. n . �.tt .. J. 8 .' t � ::. t.f.-· 1 . \. ::� ··c�m . ::. 1& * 1" � �A. :-. t n' < t:J.. :§:. ljt� � jt ..lv li. ::. ?:" .. 3 .t: lr ') � 6 . t:J.' 9.

Z..7{� 'v \ 1:. 'v \ c b 6 (!) Jt3KtC. Make a guess about the childhoods of the people below. !@�1Ji � G "' \ ' 11.\"L (about Madonna) 1.7' o ::.� '-' \ j i' o (a) ? t' :rt-(::::>t. � 1.. 5t � t:: --? t::. � t . -<t-:> 12. BJ Example: � lf.J. 3 . \ \.7{ �t � -t "'A.f. j[.. � Zl l '-' \ 8 .• b \. • 0 ::. j L t il'o . t " L f 1J'o ::.B. Q ' . l. � L 'v \ t '7> c L·�<t..1. 1J " o 8 . � :. How do you answer those questions? BJ Exa m pl e : 1. Make questions about childhood in informal speech.'J 1. � .:: O).L t::. JtzHi 1.:�' 9 .7 {J: -=t --c-.t fJ�:W -li"A... A t. A . -" t 1 -t l:l1 -r 5 . ::> t� C: JEt L ' * 9 1-Jlv � <15'1:. � 1?". 2 . A � . 9.7""�t � 6 . -li" f :lr 4 .. 7 .� 1. tj-f-1� 0) Wf . 0 jfg1! L ::.J: '-' \ . A.7 ""J:-=} 7 . J: < 1. -t'-\:t '"( 'v \ l L f::. :.• ( 7. � '"( IfA..L t il " o ::.t 1)·7. '"'C'' i' 1. 1t. � 1. \ 3 . 5t � "'(" L t 1.• --::1 t::.. il o ? tc l:Ji f • 6. -li" t • L A. � n "' \ ""C' L t �. l:::o J / � 1 � l L f 1J ' o J¥ ::... '-' \ C b 6 --c-.

. �� 7Ji J: h· --::> t C:: .. '* v t ...i L t o : : � � \ 1 . Choose one classmate and guess what they were l i ke as a child using the following characteristics. B : tj �. J: < 1PJ ?: L . \ -f i>t � --+ �� 1.: �-t � :. �.. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions about his/her chi ldhood and report to the class using ..i L t h ' o ::. jt � lfl .\ .\ .. � h"-& . o : B..:: Example: 1. � #: iJ>'�f � "('' L f h'o : IJ ' -.:: li<lv 2 ttA..\ �..{.i To �t:l . h' o . "' ::...0 v 3 . Example: 1 . o -' . Example: Y :1. \ Jl. 4..e: = ·:)L:'l.\ t b � "('' L t h • o ::. J: < iQt(J' j: L f h'o id : 6 .\ 1.: c't. B.. ::. � #: h"�t � iJ ' ? . \\ ... 0 : 6 .I. -f. V' . ") . IJ'? ::_ 1 "t 3 . ·J't L �.U . � .. ::.\ iJ' -::> f "('' T h ' o ::. What would these people say/have said? Make up your own q uote for the following people.\ ::.\ t b � "('' L f h'o 1:.(b) B*�g0)$t�l:-::> t. :2 i "t 4.\ . \..\ . l\ A. t . \/ j .: �· t <:: :.i L t h' o ::. h' b . e:� e5-t- �==� -:> L' "L l.: i T ® -Tf:tO)B�iailv t� c .{.i L t o ::. h• .>'1.. Jv '/ ... IJ·h '..\ t b � --c...\ t b � t::. --+ A : -t 1� 0 at . � Cl) -) t < � lv�� L t C:: g --::> "( 1. A --::> "C �. 5.i L t h. �.i 9 ..\ t b � "C'' L t::. r. � 2 .. A3\ h { Ji. ''J 7f.. �.b l. _.\ .tt l\ 1. H: (about your Japanese teacher) t.. -It t "IJ· u< 4 ._ r � lv L±-t-1� 0 at . \ /1!& � \ l<.. �#:7Ji�f � "('' L f h ' o ::.L t: o : t: t • t: A : B � lv U ..' --::> t C:: g --::> "C �.\ 6 . -t-1� 0 at 1. 2 .J:IJ' ht:IJ· 5... ' * u t ::. . � h{� . 1... \ h ' --::> t "('' -t h . ::.� �.

: -.0 if� L j: L t� � C1) '7 -i A. . : 4' # � .JI] � t\. \ � A._.0 f ':tlr : � a : m .� t "( 'v \ � A.0 lJ: t::.. 3.t ('t . hhlrb 6 .. J. ' 2 .0 t:.En \ � v .�� t t.-t. Example: fB tP � .ft � t\. lrt· i. : 4 .YJIJitJ. "'C'' T IJ 'o .i'tJ�1J'ltL" L ' � A "C'9 ve: A. �. . Look at the picture below and answer the questions.:! (5) 8 *� 0) Jt:j:_ t : l i A. � �.0 L 1) 5 ... :k. � IJ .�o:' -i -f1� (/) * • • • • • • .'' (I) A.t� < � . -ti' :. lo: � f! \ ' h ' ( * � (/) * • • • • •• 1o: ' 0 <YJt. o/ # � .! !.1 (• i:> .: -.� � "( 1. . � t::. � � .J· h· A : .: 1::' L �o: � (4) £J: ([my] mother) !. Jf.f.: · � "' � ' ' 7t: J1 �A-It""? •••••• �ttC0* • • • • • • . "('' T o � 1! 1o: l .L D � /v -l".. "('' To u �o: L 7. � t\.P � ... <1J t i._.

"'C i" o < =!> ! -.�� L "( '.\ .B. t 7 W if f' � '. Pair Wor k-One of you looks at picture A below an d the other loo ks at picture B (p. l.\ '. using -C:l. V'c Take turns when finishe d.:.. t 7 fer*! � L 1 L t 7? ' o ::.c · lr . t::.\ .. 7:J 7 2 .:! L t::. � ( . t:: l.: . A. h'o ."Ll-' *itfv.\ � A. O:: 8) A : : '.( f. 188).:! L t h'o ::.-t o h u� Picture A Ask which of the people are the following: 1 . Ask each other questions an d i dentify all the people in the picture. l t::' 1z""'. The class is divi de d into two groups. lr 2 . t 7 1'Fx � • � . B : 7 v c' � JL "C '. Each mem ber of group A acts out someth ing an d freezes i n the mi ddle of doing so.\ l -lt �o t :.\-@A c9. --c-. 1 .: ? . Answer the following questions using *f .c -.\ � A. __ . Stu dent : • � il..."C '. A an d B. : n @ *t��I\ L"L '*ttfv t=. Class Activity-Desc ri be your classmates . J: 7 ::: C.Z . � J: 7 ::: 3 . .. \ -t t1 ' 4 .:"'' 3 . Members of group B answer the teacher's questions.c r.

�Jf��� t : * � �lit-*. !l\\ LA-h·A--Il-A- 'fl 3. � r .. \ ..A 1J .• � : L ItAI.. t -J �fr L '. ------ (a name of current best-selling novel) @ ��t. Match up the phrases to make sense. 1.. < � �Jt t. J -i� · • � iz "" i -lt !Co � t �· o:r � -. \ I. 7 7 .. t -7 � � � h i L f 1J.b ""? t 1.tA.. l J: I o ·� � L � � 1..Z .�.Z . ------ � JL � h (a name of newly released movie) 6. +� (Lesson 10) � �Jt t. t A� :: i-.f. ::1 :. 5. 3 . ------- (a name of newly released CD) � �.:.� � % .\ Jf. 2. � T 6 .. �� i � 1J' � l.Z i L f IJ· o : ..fT < . 4.. !> · T l\f r 0-w :N � -=.4. ..:'1z"" '{ l.' .: 'i '' • .) : � � Jt t : . Pair Work-Ask if your partner has done .(.�IJ>'�.' l 7. ry : . .tx\ t � ""? t: �..1t '( .\ A....• ""? f 1.� � � 1<:"" i L f h'o ' A. t : A.-.: -. . .fT � i -lt /0 1.1� B.. yet.. .Z ...>� 1. .{ J:: < ij: 1.. ' ' 5. · �� ifHl t : 1t � i -lt !v ""C' L f o : l\ 6 .fT t : 1t ""? f 1.(.. · � !: l \ :. .it: • h'-.i f : . o : <"try 'fl 5 . t � A 8 : t -) � .•0 . ¥:fX � 1* :4 i L f o : 'I'T . ia!Ut:1"T-cr * 9 "Liv � <?. ��.(...A.·· U: 10 � 't "" i L t: 1. . � J..• 0 )t f. :Otz. Example: � . • � : . t -) B .• � : 4. t:. \ .. 2. t 'J 1z"" i L f o / 1. t : .i -lf" /0o t: t � 1.� � � 't"" � ---7 < ..i'L \ L \7J' 6 .

· -<h-..B. . . 'i '(>T o ® * ccY.loo'i Lw i ? j f. 1.J' --::> t::...1 To \ 1: flh- .. f. :tt.. a *-* � ft?i 7§i L i: '.lvu�? Role Play-One of you is working at a fast-food restaurant.{ ¥ 1 60 if\ y !-. � � 7 *� � 1*h 1 L t::. 11! � ll! . i:'' To 'It .!fh' L f.'.J · G.tz Li l. 2. � 1 -li.>O)**� A.J· G . order some food and drinks from the menu below.J.•.ri 3.{. f. Be sure to say how many you want. 7\:.1:: ­ ¥ 1 60 .t:> G. J \:JJ C-tJ­ ¥ 1 60 . 4. {-tf � -lf � Ji.ft.. =r-·:xH-:n·­ ¥ 1 80 7-:t:-:. The other is a customer.� 0 ' t>·. f) � 1.J · f. J C-f j­ ¥2 1 0 7 1) i":fJ \-jj ' ¥240 9'-:J'J vJ C-f i­ ¥280 7 'Y :1Jl!J (..J · G . Using Dialogue ill as a model. Complete the following sentences adding reasons.

� J. � ]j { .. � l:f.f.i L t n' 0 � · . � 8 . T t:'' lv � A . . Answer the following questions. : : c./ il"' J. J: < 'iR.l t: "l v t: n 8 . t.t t:.i T n ' o li! o . .: il'o � 7.: .� 1 < o:> il .:b � t <?) 00 --c·· t.L!i :.i T il'o U' i ! :1::: !< (Tn � � .'.. J hh.i L t� il 'o :. 1::: !- 1::: t h 'i: 1 0 . � " \ 1 1 .A..!: i �h.t <?) ��.� tj: � L . .f .h ry ..'t il· o li! . '7 7 . -t1� o:> * .i T I.: ( :: \ . c:·lv � � o:> � v .B. :.i Til' 0 . = · 12 .� # -? "C " ' . tj1PJ"* t :: -k� . t: l. C:'' /v � � h"'itf � "(·' T h ' o .:.• 0 1 3 . 7. m � O) B�L J: < � � 1k h .:b ry .. :.:. 7 / � 1 � ... �::· L ilh.{.: il 'o 1iiJ Bt t ::�f.i T il ' o \ \ .: : : t· n t :: M � t G " ' .. t · t? c: i2l u ..t' .i T il 'o :. . rr - 6.0:> � � 8 (birthday) t :: M n · t G " ' . " 2. 7' .d 1' 3 .i ry .i L f.il{itf � --c·· -t n'o t'� T g. . 1 .i L t.':. ti'a· : c: nt I� " \ .-t . �m � o:> n"'-stt � --c·· -t n · 0 n t' -r 4 .t + ··r.: 1::' 1. _:k.. t :A..:.

. \1J t::. A.:: 4 . "'C' T Picture B Ask which of the people are the following: 1 .-p /v 3.� . ======= J: L .:: � Example: A : J: B : L .Pair Work (!) B.:: � lv t.-tt. --c-. � t. t .�o (/' � o h (/' � -r v l::'' f Jt "'C " ' .i c:'' 0A. IJ� 2.{_ � .

Y - green sweater Here are some words related to colors.. \ .'J Li \ ' � \ . \ ------.. Group 1 : L \-adjectives I -� " ( .white L 7:> .yellow � \ 1.C o I o r s There are two kinds of words for colors. There words need � in order to make noun phrases. ff� 'h�-t " ' ··e -t Po lri. h i? L 7:> ( 7:> You look pale: black and white picture 8 . \ ------. Group 2: nouns I -">rry * �/ 7-.:.red }it \� \.± � M --e -t o Mary has blonde hair.. These words become nouns without the -'ij. 1..l.f-:> . / � Jl// .brown ) � ./ 0 -1:: ..green t.. f " '· red bag I like red the best.�. \ ------.. / 7·· v .. � 1. 0 � Ji L -\'> L h.. < ' 1.1.:.i? f. j� @. - / ---. 7 'J . .gray t:• Jj(. .silver ·� �..�� "' -r' ' "' � purple light blue gold !k @. \@. lr \ ------- black 8 I._.� lv t. � / 7 -----­ pink � � / :"i . "' h.Jv F :.h.. \ -----. hi::'') *�/ 7'' !) .---. . ---.'v \ ------ blue Jt. .

: <:::'' :.i L f tlo ::. L '") *ff%:f. :..{._. 1oj Wi nter Vacation Plans D a o g u e (D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Winter vacation is approaching. J3 -t. tlo : h·.i L f J: o ::.: -tf1v . . Ci) A_ : lj l. . \ . 1.. " ' L " ' <::: � -? � " ' . 5% Ci) t l -) I.: i l l .( 7 1J .i T 0 �-. -.i -lt lv o }..( 7 1) J:: :: 1 .( 7 1 ) .i T h ' o ::.±. . " l•hlv f ·' . i. Ci) A.: :..>·.: ( t.± ¥� 00 Ci) 1Z"'"" 1. t.' 5jt(/) � I.{.ff \ -:::> t � "'f' T IJ � .>' .i T IJ 'o ( 1..FK IJ · G '/ ? lv .ff � .. -J IJ i' l.i T IJ ' o -) . :�. L h· 1\.: -t..( 7 1} - " ' " ' �.( 7 1) .± <:::'' -J L . : -atM <·' G " ' �·' -to 'J -! . t L (7) \' t tt L : ::. :. :.i' o h'?l:obi ( 1: '? *1T %:f.±.( 7 1) ... .: 'l . \ L .. . f l•h.i ::.t ... \ <::: �� I..V!l"\'>-t t tt L : ::.. \ -:::> �'' T IJ 'o :. �1*h l. o :.. � ' A . ' L .� lv .>· t � � ..rh f tt L : ::..::.± <:::'' :.: . \ .. :%-IJ'.i To .( 7 1) . t �t L � lv t : }..i :.:JL a �-. t tt L � lv t.i f:3..% � }.tl CJ) 7 . -\t lvo t tt L : ::.. { B£ I.i i:'�1t. \ <::: �� I. :: �. \ L <' - !! ?::: : *1t%:f.. \ I.. i...1 .: -'.s s o N .i T IJ i' .. . :.± l.{.: i '. Ci) A_ : -T� (::: -T1�Ci)1f_IJ{ � � . t : t . b � .... -: t : " ' .lv ' {:.t 4"� l.::ir :Qtz1t%:f. \ .?· \. -t. '. : . i t.... � " ' L U' .:.!'.: ( f l • h lv " ¥� 00 <::: {:.>·. � 1.: · :J-Iv 1} . L " .± }.( 7 � -M' Ci) � j:-.:...f. _.: J"t: l:ooi 1: :...> I. h � tt' � Jt -? � � . IJ ' t : 1t � . ...±.i T o -t. �...( 7 1} - : � t: *\ � � . J: "\'> ( nl.>' : :: n . � � IJ> <::: -J o ' (]) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 At a travel agency. \0 t} :. Ci) A. Y.-J �'' T h ' o \\ <::: :. \ .. . 5% <::: (:::''-? "t::> Ci) l j. i.: i.>· *. o � J .. 5� t : .. :.. :.� lv t.: ' ¥�00 IJ> {:. V � ' .'\.� " ' IJ' G . i' J: o t tt L : ::._ : t. ..( 7 1) .-J �'' T h ' o :.:..{.{. :.i To 1.:�..

please. . Mary: Is that so? Then I'll buy some souvenir for you. Takeshi: Yes. But Sue said that the food was delicious in Mary: I'd like to reserve a plane ticket from Osaka to Seoul. so I will stay here. what will you do at winter break? Mary: I am planning to go to Korea or Tai\Yan. By the way.Mary: It is getting cold. Takeshi: Wow. Mary: A morning flight. Travel agent: We haYe a morning flight and an afternoon flight. Mary: Which do you think is better. thank you. Travel agent: When is it? Mary: December 19. Mary: How long does it take to Seoul? Travel agent: About one hour. Korea. . I don't have money. Can I use a credit card? Travel agent: Yes. . but I haYen't decided yet. Korea or Tai\Yan? Takeshi: Mm . Takeshi? Takeshi: I won't go anywhere. are you going somewhere. Mary. Takeshi: That's nice. Mary: I see. I think it is ·warmer in Taiwan.

:C \. • \. \ i? 1. \ TT. boat baseball celebrity reservation next semester apple * J:. life.'----- V o c { j( a b u I a r y -----� N o u n s ...if- 7 v :. • --? � it 11!-. � -{t --? * }. t i? 1.1• \. living world subway gloves -{t..t � n .m rich person face season credit card this year soccer shirt *ip �.:. -) \.!' 10 �).ff � A. \ �\\ 1/Y· � \\-arm slo\Y.• }.} JfJ.: l.:. t: \.r . tJ. \ 1. late cool (weather-not used for things) cold (thing/people) sleepy L \.ff. < . ?( � JE :-t! . \ B� \ ' * Words that appear in the dialogue . 1.• \. . �t� i? . � tJ: � / '\ / "/ * barber's spring pants beauty parlor fligh t 7.f' J:. "( --? > "'( �. \ t 10 ship .� -? � · t� *�AA -r � · � 10 ::. \.b f::. \ }. L " ' --? 6>) t \. � L -tj. :t�T}� �� *� * JA�f lt i� fd' .j( . \ 'lit f::.• tJ. tJ.. 1. � < G �..�.\ * .. ·. \ 10 7. � � 1-P J 11> -) 6>) \.b � fall doctor station "' ' L -? . f::.a d i e c t v e s .�JZ }.. 1.'/ 7J Yf" / -{t \. \ ::.1. \ 11£. . � .

r r e g u l a r h lv l f'P -? -t . weeks by (means of transportation). months o n s in . 1v t:. how long .-? �-. . years (do something) early. a n d O t h e r to decide to practice A d v e r b s E x p r e s s on foot best or for .. time. 5::k: &I) . fast � l. ..(J) <-· G tl lv how much. V e r b �� -t . 1v c iJ: ) to take (amount of time/ money) � � . . (J) :_·' h � these days for . by what means which which �. after . etc. * * (no particle) to stay (at a hotel. .' L f1l -? IJ' lv � --c�-. �. . .-) � "':) "( * * �-. G t.) to become to pay iJ: . Li G -7 R u . :.f ct - a d i e c t v e r lfi21 easy. .t.v e r b * � &>') . . . . . simple �. with (a tool) how.i� < .

.z ' � 7 1 -W / F 0 ti -? n' '7 F / 1...1) 11 -J :�. making it very easy to be misled into believing the opposite of what is actually said. therefore.: and B J:: ry often appear in the reYerse order. " The idea of comparison is expressed by adding something to the nouns that are compared. 1) . to decide which item is claimed to be superior.7 ::z. They are: �·-!:.. and Domingo.� 7 .. / '-'.)' B � rJ 1 (property)0 = A is more (property) than B.:ll_ n � -? -:: " ' " ' "'C'' T o Elvis Presley is more hip than Frank Sinatra.l � �n' J:.1· 1 t : L J: 1 T J? t. -) :�.. A 0)13: 5 1.d f Barbra Streisand is a better singer than Madonna.�n··J::. i s used.. · .f. { going by) bus or {by) train? In comparison among three or more items. � r �· � / ::::i e1) t:F --c·· � t n n '· " . Any one of �·-? i? . and �·-!:. G (?) li -J .x.-=t ··c-.1) these can be used in question sentences seeking comparisons bet \Yeen two items.T-o . there is no alteration as in "great/greater.G r a m m a r - Comparison In J apanese. f . . -=t t�· � �· 1..z • / v ::z.� " . the degree qualifier \ \ i? t.Z..Z. who do you think is the best singer? 1In real life. C1) t i -? IJ>'!£ " ' -z·· T-n�o �� Which is cheaper. tJ. .. 0> . Listen carefully for the words (?) li 2There are several alternates for �--? -!:. A cBc c· -:> 5 0) 13:5 2fJ'' = (property) o Between A and B. / �/ "· o ''/ 7 1 � n v . the phrases A . Between Pavarotti.ld::·· .z · � �ltt � �� L � �-· -? 1. .. and li -J are slightly more colloquial than �·-!:. (?) li -J . Don't rely on the \YOrd order.7 7 . 1. -- You can ask for another person's opinion on two things in comparative terms. \ 5 1ct'lv (property)0 = A is the most (property) [among (a class of items)] .N. 0> (1) ti -J . Carreras... .. which is more (property)? / " ... �· -? -!:. adjectives have the same shape in noncomparative and comparative sen­ tences.. 0> and �· t.: and J:: ry . �· -? -!:.. L. .0 t i -? n' 7 7 / 7 ' · � 1. [(class of items) O) �c] A t.

tj: � 7 ') . b· . \ I.flv* � "(• TiJ'o �· What f ruit do you like best? . 'i> "t * " '#-.7.fs.L t� o ( 0 �¥=-.b 0 t i -) h'' 8 .h.bfcl :fL.' " ' t : 1t � � L t o --c·. I...� lv 0 No. :4 h • lv 'r. or cherries? < f t Ci) Ci) <f' "(•. " You simply omit the second noun. ...·. are not used in statements of comparison among 3 . . _ . �·n..1 -) = I went to buy an inexpensive d ictionary.� " ' -e .. / �/ ' o ·. \ L I. L C0 = -e .� t� -:::> --c " ' � T o � " ' 0 t t� -:::> --c " ' � T o ( . a sequence of the form "noun1 (J) noun/' will be reduced to "noun1 (J) .� lv 0 h . S . l : l'lh. but there were no good ones. Compare: M when a group is referred to � . Here. 7 1 n"" ' i? tJ!v�h "�.t 1? "l:> lv . . and when it is clear what you are referring to. \ "t''T 0 A merican ice cream is more delicious than Japanese one. tangerines.. foJ-/)t\ . i .app les..:t --c-. "one. ir - I have a black sweater. i? tilv* � -c·'T h ·o �. : � W hich do you like best..) 1: L l L \-adjective f -adjective d: } + noun L\-adjective f -adjective d: } + 0) Similarly. that is Mary 's __.t .0 Pavarotti is best. 0 adjective/noun + (J) to avoid repetition. a noun following another noun can be reduced. �� < G lv tic:>) t:f "(· ..."? t:.. and M are used instead.0:. ' . \ . noun1 0)--- 3The tendency is to use c::·n when a list of items i s presented...-.c l�• -r Note that the words Cl) tl � and �.-0-.: 't. i? l. you can replace the noun with the pronoun 0.t � � lr '' " ' " ' 0 h � Gb - � � -1!. When a noun follows an adj ective. naturally. :.1 .. Kormal question words like t =n.A .. � ft. .: n t.ti. and to use collectively._ :. c::· nh:\ . too.{.lv --c-. three or more items.c . "(' T o 7 � ') jJ 0 7 1 A 7 ') .J: � }. ry lv :.ti'lv "t" Tn'o Is this Sue 's ba g? I." You can use (J) . I have a red one..

\iVhen a n adjective is used with 1J: 6 .'"? t 0 follows verbs in the present tense short forms to describe what a person is planning to do in the future. " ::. short) + '"? t 0 to describe what "?=fs 0 t. 1J: 6 follows nouns and both types of adjectives. for example." indicating a change. You can also use a verb in the negative plus you are planning not to do. "it has become warmer. 1J: � sentences are ambiguous i n . n t:. r: lllv ::: --.-J' llit.' r: 111v :: : --. I have grown f With "' '-adjectives.ot-i t QJ � 8 *�0)fa1�. as in their negative conjuga­ tions. or what you do not intend to do. t il' G ..1:::.Q l'l'llv'I"Wv �H±� l'l'llv'f>Wv J: �t±� {.<..� \ \ --? t � --c··-t o t:·''h'< ::. 7- � --c-·-t o '(> j L 1 -trlv-tr'' � � T 7t. \' < --? t � --c·· L t tt �-·. I intend to play tennis with Takeshi this weekend. Professor Yamashita does not intend to come to school tomorrow.: -:> l L � � � 7 . the final \. . 1..1:::.� � : � � l L f o ' :: ond of studying the Japanese language.. .0 \ ' B adjective + f ctQ The verb � 6 means "to become. ��il" J: < � il ' --:. � tj � L t. verb (present.:. � � � Jt � : 1t -c We were planning to visit a temple. . � 't 6 --:::> t (I) intend to do .\-adjectives: fcl:-adjectives: nouns: ®1:::.' I : 7J: 6 .6� *J. 1t � 1 -tt � '1: L t o :: ::. v"Y" lli 1J' (. (ht:L dj ) i}! :�u : f= tt . -. but w e didn 't.fl Lw . -c lv .Oli -t is dropped and < is added.Q to become warm/warmer to become quiet/quieter to become a company employee Mt1J' (t J:) Mt1J'{::t J:. . (.' - � � � ®1:::. A common mistake is to expand the pattern of 7J:-adj ectives and nouns and use 1: with "' ' -adj ectives. "it has become warm.: :k ¥ � = *. because the weather was not good.:fv.J'< t J:.. hence it is not cold any longer") or a relative change (ex. a question arises whether the sentence describes an absolute change (ex. but it is still cold").. It is wrong to say.:�v.::: t Q 8 *�0>fa1�i1� � L < � � l L f o :: Studying the Japanese language is fun now (though it was like torture bef ore).=. X B£ ii' '.

then. these words are used by themselves. you can use the pattern for comparison together with iJ . In Lesson 8 we learned the Japanese expressions for "something" and "not .. ""'· and --e. 1PJ t L j: -tt !v --c-. I didn 't do anything. :: : 1PJh· and 1PJ t .L t o ::. M... I t is.f. . anything.. Did you do anything? ��= 1.t %.. h".1.t-> "f Mary has become better in Japanese than befm·e. Did you go anywhere? No. .- t�· nn�.>'J:.. . \ �. Let us look at some examples. these expressions are made up of the question Jj:l: � .• and t . I didn 't see anybody. As you must have noticed.t : � � j: L f::. n'o t: Did you see anybody? .\ x. No.. plus particles 1.$-�J. I didn 't go anywhere.n.. \ \." ":. \ j: L t::.t. or � would be expected.:: L. something not anything someone somewhere M �· ! :- t not anyone t�· n t not anywhere t:'' . interesting to observe how these expressions interact with other particles. �t: . Other expressions for "some" and "any" in Japanese follow this pattern. \ j: -{t 1v "{:' L t::. such as t : . Thus.. No. 0 t: . where particles t.1. word for things...isolation. These particles appear in the places shown with underscores above.%. o !� !: LlA. � t�. If you want to make clear that you are talking in relative terms. �. :J J 1) - :: /v tj'WJ J: � 8 . \ i_ .: t As we noted in Lesson 8. 1PJ n· L j: L t n• o ::.

and lets her customer come forward with an answer immediately.A -{" �JZ j -{'' 1T 2 j: L f o ' . p Let's talk in Japanese. . By relegating the right to speak to one's partner. the agent chooses not to finish her sentence. the travel agent lays out the relevant information on the table. \ .: i. there are two flights. one leaving in the morning and another in the afternoon. In the dialogue.t j h. and move forward with.i' � tffu � l:: Ulv Ex p r e 5 5 i o n N o t e 5 f1n\ � · q:iiij C:q=fiO)ffl!1J'® � H�9ti'·· . these pieces of information.-� \® � JL j: L f o .·· ti lv � 1z""" j: To f c We eat our meals with cho sticks.. / " .::. common ground to build upon. I saw a movie on TV. 7 v c-· --c.JI / . U'd:3 l:f'fu �J. they also contribute to the politeness of one's utterance. · · � We sometimes use ff and �t c at the end of a sentence when we want our partners to treat what we have just said as a given. Instead of asking the obvious question. \. fJ1.:�\ y I went to the station b bus.You can use the particle --e with nouns that describe the means of transportation and the instruments you use. attached to her sentence indicates that she wants to build upon. namely. These words often indicate the speaker's intention to give her partner a chance to react and speak up. c· 't G iJ) lt ) lt ) "C'"tiJ>.: i_ . .. Li L---c..

\ "C'' T I. 000 ¥ 1 0 . 0) tl 7 IJ' � IJ .>·7 .t:.>·4it4 '4 L <> i.f.\ "C" T h'o · ' 4.AJ:: � �(.. Look at t he pictures below an d answer the following questions.>·4 ¥ 1 2 . � �-· i. \ "('' T IJ'o . G O) t l 7 n' i! '. � � /) · (c) m -c:f }t* -r-r !'- :k ll&.. � J.h· �-· --::> i. 200� A... �b· ..-� '..�&_ � * -l t 6.k :.i'J\. ( �*M t: lr4 Picture (b) 5. *t� � :Jd&. �fr��! � " " ..1 4 1 : 4 25tl\ �\ 20tl\ �\ 35Jl' �\ .l'o ' . s. 000 ¥ 8 . t: -r-r "' t. ED A Picture (a) : �4 L � �$ 0) tl 7 n�·_.?\' Picture (c) 7.. � lv � �-· "'? t. � '..>·4 Jlt�li � }.\ "C" T n 'o L 4t. \ "(" T IJ'o ' . -t -r b >l· ' li 10. 0) tl 7 IJ' � '. � �·· t. �... · m -c:f � !v � � m � !v � �· "'? i? 0) t 1 7 n' ���c.fAt � �.. � h h !'lr �-· "'? t. �fr*f:.P Clv lr\'> r a c t c e CD ��(])(�5t. '.i� 1 .4 � -r ...� " " 7-. 'i: 3. � t i-> h !.\ "C'' T n 'o -<·:. * M :-4 l.::..< 9. J: ry i! '. �. -t i' . O) t 1 7 1J> . hl:Jl· ( b) �r�zA P . t: t. -'"-* M llJ". i "' � i . \Cg l<l:1'> A . � m � lv � }t.\ --c·· -t o �� (a) . Jlt * t: 1 .\ "C'' TI.:. 0) tl 7 IJ->'+ � '. 0) tl 7 IJ�·�wn "1t '.z. .l 'o -\!" t lr o r "-'"" � "'' J.l'o ' t . � .:< !'- -tt v.� �-· i? G 0) tl 7 n"i! '. � '. t . G 0) tl 7 h{� '. � m � !v � }t* � lv � �-· --::> t. "' 7-. J... m -c:f � !v � }t* � !v � �-· --::> t.. 000 2.\ "C'' T n ' o · ' L 41r4-lt4 t: t.\ "C' TI. � �·· -t.z. �fr#JAt � -' " .. G O) t 1 7 IJ. \ "('' T n ' o •Cfv L <' f >l· o L 4<>·4 -ll..

... �Ji IJ�'.r.' t.. t. <-. Pair Work-Make questions using the following cues and ask your partner.:: '.�p ( 0 ti 7 ) IJ��t � --c·--tiJ�o -t T B : I 0 ti 7 iJ� ( ?I. --c-.. .-t o (or i t ?I. JfJ...' "C'' -t LA.. ---+ A : I � � � �-' t.\A. �. - 7 :: (�f � ) 11.f'A.·-? .1 0 ) �f � --c-. : : t .&�a T B : i$.' ) ! :.:: 0 t:P --c-....-� l i 1) T T 5. 8 * 0 � 515/ � iJ: f.� 0 .. if possible.' '. \ "(' 't o ) �·-? .. (!.iA. .0 1J ��t � --c-.n tJ " �.P -1 .:. . When you answer the questions.. ' i? t.'A (* � ) ht::.t'tl T ij.1 UL U� -t 3.1:.t �f � "{'' "t o / I t ?I._/ 1.B.vp A : �-.p 12.&� \ \) . add reasons for your answers.'/ 7J .11> ( B£ ..1·"'? 0 *fi�*' L' 5 l�lv� L' c9 �t.t � \ \ "(' "tiJ�o �� o A : Picture (a) '*1T�f'�})t1J " '.!A.\ f �� . *f"\\1)•? ( !:. � �? �i-l'.: 1: I.i.� -:J .: · ( 1) l i � I.f' A.4. �·· �--ih iJ " '.-t..t� '.: 0 00 0 � iii ( :k � or � L '. Example: SJ 0 : .:: 0 o/ "{'' .-n·A.. -t �../ � iJ: f .i(/ -lj. · . � iJ � � � ) � -""'i ! :A./ f ' "'fv ::...)' ufv tNv ttfv 1<1:� A.--ttA. �G-/ ffitft� .t � � '.r tZt i! �. "'"'i o/ � #l�/ 8 *#J� (�f � ) ..� 1. 4.. Look at the pictures on the previous page and answer the questions below. {t-P/.&� G o = b/ \ � 2..' t? t .7 :? J: L --c "C'' -t.(J. 8 * CI) ?{. • Cl) � Cl) � ( 1: .' '..J- c: l.

' -t t £' .z.z... -:. ·h· "1: -r A : T L -h ".?�· 7. Example: � 0 o/ i:'.z.P icture (b) 3.. G '. J: 1 h·h L 1ft -W-0 00 0 o/ -c· �·· � -IJ"' 'It ' 't t. --c·· -r -�. -I. '}) -t f : � o : 1z ""4� 0 >t --c·· .:. � 0 o/ "{" .: � )(. 11- 9. ·lf· -IJ> . * \. \ 'f? t. \ i? t:f . :. .� �-· -t G 0 t l -3 -h { � " .{� \ \ \e.j· : " '" ' f : _. D .0 � · � ir : -\!" f lr : 6.{� \ \ "{'' T -h'o m >t :: .. 7 7 A / t::..1.) Then ask ques­ tions to the class. --c·· T -h. '.z.1. \ 't tJ' . + :: .Q· · ��' . 1PJ 1J { .Z.1 l.z.f � k tJ) t 0) i" 2. i? tJ . ' --c·· -t o ' '� f h· : c :: .f' . G roup Wo rk-Make a group of three or four people... Example: 1z""4� / 1-f � t : i. ' i? tl . *�r/1.ifCi T 0 hi :.3��e...·� . j � 4� / 1.1z"" f : 6 C. (You s hou l d know the answers .Z. �-· _:: -IJ { \.k � \.Z.· A :: ..Z.f � 4. Class Acti vity-Fi rst form pairs an d make comparative an d superlative question sentences with your partner.' fr" ( -li" \ ' -\!" . 7 A � : .... 't t:f . i}�/1. _:: 0 'o/ "{'' .' 't tJ'.f't-1.• 0 :.. s *-#J.:. -�. -\!"-::> T f lr .Z.ft-1. � 0 >=P --c·· ' f_:' .....f � hlvh'( 6. j? � � J� "? --c \. .. 7 A /3� -1.. 7 7 A / 'It \ \ \ � j:_ 8.Z. ' i:' T -h ' o 1:t /)·�\ ( !: � . -IJ > .·.� � m :: . 0 mr / 1.w. 7 A 0 >=P --c··� s t �·ir f (J:. Example: ¥ ± � � I '"' V A r � �·· -t G 0 t l -3 -1.{\. . The rest of the class answer the questions .Z..Z.j· -\!" B :: .Z..!/ � 7. T -t 5.i T I. . ( :: . o . t.� --c-· T 1J.f � :..:f . o S '}) C.Z..Z.?.1. \ "{'' T -IJ'o Picture (c) 5. . Answer the following questions. � 0) tf' --c·· ' t · n -�. d: < if! < :.:'.f � --c·· -to T 1.>' \.. { 'It .. * 'It ' "{'' To J. ' . -1. \ . � :lr B. :&· f bh· .. \ 't tl. itt . As k each other questions an d make as many superlative sentences as possible about the g roup.{\. \ "{·' T -IJ'o t:ir J.

\ "(' Th�o L: L � .® �ttfd:�bO)c9 bt:L. -:> M " \ 0 � < t::' � " \0 (1) �'' 'f? � 0 � · 1.U: 1) .t: . using (]). Example: Store attendant : �· i? � 0 -::1 .:: 0 0 lv . You are a customer. \ I. Tell whose each thing is. This is a refrigerator in a dormitory.l.>' 1. SJ Example: .=-. A. \ "C'' Th�o Customer : J.� lv 0 "'"C' T o B. Look at the picture and tell which you want. " 'v \ 1.

" \ ( ._B� 8 !.l: o 11-o> ..l: ·i ! : �.. . 0 c9. You are planning to do/not to do the following things next week. ® �'� �1" < ::> =b tJ c9 # �' A..B� 8 .l: � V' 7j(.J!!. .l: � U' JJ BI 8 Ex.t 1 U' '/.l: � 8 111 'J' h· T ' ' .J: 1 ± B� 8 (/ 8 8� 8 U' .f.': h.:.{z � �jt t. ( J: 1 11' (5) not to go out (7) not to study Japanese (9) not to go home (11) not to get up early i:-Bjf 8 !> h. ""? t ry 1:'' T a U' I.' . Tell what you w i l l/will not do using --::> =t.l: � JJ � 8 t : . 6J Example: >f-o>. . to read books (2) to do exercises (3) to do laundry (4) to write letters to friends (6) to eat dinner with friends (8) to stay at a friend's (10) to clean a room (1) to practice the piano 1<.

B. Answer the fol lowing questions.
Example:

Q : i!! ;f:, �@I � JL t : ff � 1 T h ' o
L•vi.i ....., ;{ \ '
.1,. 1:1:

h

l '

A : X. X. , JL t : ff < --:::> t � "'C'' To
,,

\, \ \, \ X. , JL � :,fj"/.1' t: \, \ --::;> b � "'C'' To
;z. J.
l \

1. � 8 0 �1,�_, �5! L 1 T h 'o
2. �Bjt_ T V 1::, � JL j Th'o
-.: A-I£A.1,.

� J: -)

..-..: fv:0-!1

3. ib ::
_;.>J>-1"-t

""?

"'C , ft: �.r \i?o � L 1 T h 'o
lr t rn ry l ::. 'i

4. �1:t.h- � = �R1t L 1 T h ' o 5. i!! ;f: , 5ftl.f
L wlJ: -? �A--i'JAry 1 -l ry

� 1� �
-? <
::. ·

j T h 'o

6. _::_ if-;fk,

8 4'- t : 'v \ j TIJ 'o
,, liA-

7.

"' ' '"''"' � -

*-¥Jt� t

::.·

8 4'-�� � �5! L 1 T h ' o
!:

liA-

""A--"li

CD z!(LL \ (�t � * u tc. c:J:
A . Describe the fo l lowing pictures.

8)

(2) ft �
ItA_:.

li (4) � h { � \, \
IJ ·h
M IJ · ;

(5) V' j

(8) � :3ft \\ L �

150 $1 B.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms.

=¥ll0

� $1 =¥150

1.

-c i t:

:Jw � � L t h • 0 , �� Ji h" -:
" '(>

-------

� ry

� Lto :
� ry

2.

:k�Flt/'*-& t : 1t-:) t h· -: r.f .l: i \ '1(,
t: .: '(> ''

0 , �h{
lrh

_______

L f: o

-------

� ry .i L t o -:

-: 5. }.; 5il:li � t < � AAk .Z, i\ �h"
:: !t · 0

lrl;

� ry .i L f o -:
.::

-------

: 6. -t- fl t.!B£h · h · -:) t "Z"'' T h",
l:•oi \ , -t,l;'-:> i>t " :f

(J) _::'' h

-------

� t"J .i L t o :
o

-------

� --:> t ry --c-- -t

® §iji�c�"J=cr * 9
t; L./v ut-> ��

A.

Look at each picture and expla i n how to get to and from one place to another.

BJ

Ex.

(1)

(2)

(3) 1 hour

(4)

(5) 15 min.

(6)
2 hours

(7)

�:. 11 1 ll � 1
(8) 8 hours week

.... ----' )o _ ......__ ....;

: : : ·.

!j.•

.: .:

..... ,

/\71

B.

Use the same pi �tures an d descri be how long it takes .
Example:

BJ

'7 1? 'h' G .�R. i --c··+�'h' 'h' � .i To
i. " I:·""·''"'

C. Explain how you get from your ho use to school .

;..t_:;,.;t � ! : L i. C.

m �R'h- G �.� i i:" � if!. t : Jit � i To .::. +�-h-7.7- � i T o
!: L i. :·eh-L
'(> � .:

�.�R.'h ' G � tt i --c·· � " \ "'C 1t � i T o + � <·· G " \ fJ''h' � i To
,; .., ::. i i> ;
' •

:

L•>-:>->'4

Lov.;.;..l(_

® * c6fJO) **�

hfvu�P?

A . The chart below shows winter vacation plans for Mary an d her frien ds . First, answer the following questions a bout Mary's plan .
Mary will go to Korea by plane 3 weeks with Sue Robert will go back to by plane 2 weeks London Ken will go to Tokyo by bullet 3 days with a friend Tom train

/
a hotel
yet

will stay at will do shopping and will meet friends '

Sue's house eat Korean foods

will stay at will play at Tokyo Disneyland

1

will go to the by boat south pole (W-1�)
lj,: fv � { !:

Takeshi will go nowhere

// /�
penguins ( ""'- / .:f' /)
t

2 months doesn't know will take pictures with

1. :} 7 1}

-

� /v t.i�it- 0) 3f-1*7:d : 2::::'' .: 'h' t : {t <

: 2. 2:::" J � -?

"( � @I -"11" � i T 'h'o
;- .I(_ ::. ( �
•' · '

.:

� L

.;.�!l-(-'-,

-:J t

� "(" T 'h'o

f::' h 2:::: {t � i T 'h'o
'.

3. c::·· O) <·· G " \ 1t � i T 'h' o

4. �-· � � : �B .i ry .i T IJ ' o
5.

t.>·A.- .:: (

�lOO --t>M � T � --:J t
�1:

?::

ry �·-t iJ·o

How about the others' plans? Make pairs an d as k questions.
B . Pair Work-Tal k about your plans for the upcoming vacation.

C. Role Play -One of you works for a travel agency an d the other is a customer. Using Dialogue ll as a model, make reservations for the following tickets .
(1) From Nagoya to Los Angeles (2) From Tokyo to Paris (3) From Osaka to Rome Jan. 1 Feb. 14 Apr. 18 Aug. 20 1 person 1 person

I

smoking seat window seat aisle seats nonsmoking seats

2 persons 4 persons

(4) From Tokyo to Bangkok

smoking seat

=

�mt,t
l Cl;'h

window seat = � fl!� C0J,t
-It �

� -? i. A.- -It �

aisle seat = i!lf§-f C')t,t l!� nonsmoking seat =

1't�� C. A.- i. A.--11- �

A t

t h

e

S t a f' i o n

Types of Trains

*� � ------ super express
L --:>

:.I'P-j .:. 1

� 11" ------ express
�11>-l

it -? 1 ------ local 1!
_),

Destination

""'1T �
,,

------

bound for . . .

"-' /J iiD ------- serving . . . areas
Ii-i d) A_.,

Types of Tickets and Seats

*� � @��
}:C_ ,, � :lt,ij
1: ''

t:�'i L ,., It A.-

(boarding) ticket coupons commuter's pass vouchers; zone tickets student discount reserved seat general admission seat nonsmoking car round trip one way

' H ' -t 1 ItA.". It ! v

-li-P ry It J\.,
IJ'( b ')

�l.I�
L --c �, , -1!' �

���

�iff f£m;

{iil B1� < L
&·fc;;/.;?

;fJ'.-� � -"1' � lv i.. l l v J:t �

§ 11> 1 -\!" �rum; t:

f>

Places in Stations

""'·� ----- track number . . . �
-w N % ry
_::.. '?
_)! i

l.fA.--\!"A.-

tB o ------ exit
' ' ry (• '?

:t�
t.f

---

ticket vending area

A. o ------ entrance ��it ------ stairs

b•\ \ 2- ?

ex;fL ----- gate
it - b
-----

fJ'" t::A.-

platform

1.- \ i? t �f ,Z, � --- first car; front end '-' \ i? t;f 1\A� ;; -- last car; tail end
-; L
..

u·, , ' A.-

%� ------ kiosk

Miscel laneous Publ ic Transportation Terms * � �� .:{. - --- - transfer t'r

;}Z L!� ------ next (stop), . . .
�A.A.f-:::>

7t: 1E- ------- departing first )X)E- ------- departing second
1: l;i-?

,� 't ------- Iast train
L>:>i<:·k

Announcements
.i t � < 1E-lf.
"'( .lv L "i., .i \ '

IJ-, L <>

L .i i"

------

We will be leaving soon.

't if. h �-� � .1 i" ------- A train is arriving.
� · t'

"?

;)z t;J: � t : Jl .l � .i -t ------- Next (we'll stop at) . . .

Useful Expressions
� o:> 't lf. U ;f :k.;t� t : Jl:. .i � .i T l.i 'o --- Does this train stop at Akihabara?
·c·k L ,, ;, :. r;t rr" 1::

L>P�Tk

� 't t;:tM * "'C" T I.i'o ------- What time is the last train?
" l 1: v L .tJ.IJ:

-*.JY: .i --c·· O) ��ft}$ � - if.t }; lfi '- ' L � 1 �..t:-? "'"C l ' -t! � l\� .i l '

.i T o - One reserved ticket to Tokyo, please.

IJ' (

�t1i7{1t.Z. .1 T iJ' o ------ Can I get a student discount? h ry -?b· * * * .

A

:

}!�1t � o:> 't lf. U c··n "'C" T h ' o
b·.i
(

i, , ,

"{'k l ·:·

Which one is the train bound for Kamakura?

B : .::::. {I}* "('· To tR
r : rrk-tt k

Track number two.

• ( ll• I L
�9

E

s

s

0

N

...........................

11

1t Cl:fO) ®C Afte r th e Vacation
o

g

u

e

Michiko and Mary meet after the vacation.

1 2 3 4 s 6 7

h t; -:: : � 7 1) - :

� 7 1) - � lv , :7-... L ..�: � i:" T tlo 1*-h l.i r:.·· -J "(' L f .;; � o :
��

��

:. T -::·· < � L .;; � ""? t --c·· -t o
t, ?l

�·/. .: (

�00 --e-- x '- \�� t
I) � ?)

Lt � :

, ��00 3f4J.t t �� t:.
� ·A, .: ( � � , ' ;

f ,

L J: L f: o h t; -::

:

'- \ '- \ --c-· T tl o

-h ::. f '_ '(>T

;ft.

t *.ft L f: '- \ "('To
u

.-

.:. 1 .;

� 7 1) - :

h t; -:: � lv <1H*-h t.i� L h· ""? f:. i: T-h �o "
r� ?l

h t? -: :

J: .:b � cJ; --c·· L t: o - E t:'" tt F 7 1 7· t : rr � � L t h�, � 8 7 Jv / \ 1 r ::
\ ' !", { : t>
� ·

J. ;. ' l . r.)

I! 1.:

®
1 2 3 4 5 6

h 1; _:: :;
3

: :

Y

3

/ � lv , tt! � t.i (.'' _:: -"('' TI;�o
l.,., !... A.

/

;t - .A r 7 1) 7 (!) 7 7 / Ai:··-t o t- -J i:'' TIJ' o :: ' h 1; _:: � lv l.i ')- 7 / .A• t : .ft ""? f _:: (. I;� if; � � T -h ' o

h 1; _:: : :/ 3 / : h 1; _:: : :;
3

\ \\\ �,
,·.) :.
.; �

Jb � � -lt A.,o �

:,..- :

� � {1i .;; � .:b ""? --c ,

n '- \ � Y'Jt --c-- T J:: o
:!::::;",

7" v - r / " 1) 7 1) - 7 --c-- :1f � --c-- To
,� .: ¥). •

I haven't seen you for a long time. Michiko? Michiko: It was okay. I went for a drive just for one day. I went shopping. It's famous for the Great Barrier Reef. Mary: Michiko. Please come to visit me sometime. where are you from? . How was your vacation? Mary: It was really fun. Mary: Did you have a fun vacation. Australia. I want to introduce you to a friend of mine. He came to Japan last month. John: Have you been to Cairns? Michiko: No. Where are you from. ate Korean dishes. too. This is John. Michiko: Sounds good.7 . Michiko: Mary. Michiko: Is that so. but I was working part-time every day. I want to travel. . Michiko? Michiko: I am from Nagano. I would love to. John: How do you do? Michiko: How do you do? Nice to meet you. I haven't. The food is good.John: I am from Cairns. John: It has mountains and the ocean and is a beautiful place. Michiko: John. John: By all means. . too. and things like that in Korea.

_ -r -J h * � . to get (a grade) to learn to climb to work -J f � "'? < t:. _: < il' L * 11> .: t? G .i 11> &0 Jv ..L. t 't � }.. sweets New Year's boy toy girl foreign country singer camp this person (polite) * :t . � t � 7J: G -J O) t f � U: t: b < (place � = ) • Words that appear i n the dialogue .A 1.1 � L }.. h..: !v ii " -? � L � l? J: -7 L t1> �t J: -J 4'¥.�. 1.J.l 7 � 1) - host family lake mountain dream - 1- roommate U · v e r b s to tell a lie to become hungry to own (a pet) to cut classes to take (a class).7 1) 7 }.: O) .1.JtJJ :f± -& t�� �* this semester president of a company class future drive beer art museum L J: -J b " ' * t: · 1-" 7 1 7" Jv zr t �P "'? 1.-�.1v * . t .1.:t "" / / .t.7 .z_. � O) . � n .. .A 1.V N o u n o c a b u a r y � s Australia snack.: �. .: }.1"-t < il ' -7 . L J: -J 1.1"--? }.

...) :��.. � 1 o n s (event (place (J) ) CJ)) L t1> --::> L . < .R u - v e r b s • "::) h n . to get tired to quit � 6>) � r r e g u l * a r v e r b s to haYe a fight... T ::.. . . _.7J a n + -t "*" t: person � ) to go on a diet to be late (for an appointment) to study abroad t? ::. only . L )� � it has been a long time okay.I. . A d v e r b s * * 0 t h e r �k tt: % E x p r e s s after (an event) coming from very and then just . 1. .s. < -t � -J �. * * .. 1 ' \'\ . (it.. . L .Z. so-so more .. to quarrel tt A-. · -t � L ... t --::> � :. points . �n . V' :. "' -.Z.t -J IJ ' " ' -t � ::7'' 1 � 11> :L ''j ��-t � to introduce (person � -t � i!! �'J -t � m t:. � ! JtJ ! (!t.c L --c -- * '""-' t::· t t "-' i: . .� < T � d � (place t : ) .

o I don 't want to see that person any more. saying that she wants to do something. ._ \ . <b 0) A. t : U: t -) u· � % " \ t: ..\ You can use a verb stem (the verb form that goes before . The combination of a verb and t� . you can use � g -? ""C . Mary said she wanted to go to the bathroorn._ \ conjugates as an ._ \...._ \ C:: �� ""? ""C . . . t:' L ttd .-�(. A verb that takes the particle � can have either the particle � or . c: when it is followed by t� . . To quote somebody... because I wanted to buy a sweater. t'.i L t� with t� '.t 0) � . Somebody else's wishes are usually reported in Japanese either as quotations. .i .:. tL �liiD � Jt t " \ --c·· -t o or �w 7? " Jt t " \ "(· -to : I want to see a film this weekend. ...<. L \ -c-9 I want to do ..)l!li . \. I went to a department store." you can use t� ..G r a m m a r . Particles other than � remain the same. \ <b ry i -lt .: .::.i -t instead of t� '. .rishes held by others.. \-adjective. Here are examples of negative and past tense t� ._ \ attached to a verb slightly affects the composition of the sentence.:. \ "'(·· -t sentences are not usually used to describe v. t� . if you "have wanted to. \ sentences...fT � -."(· -to t "\ : I want to go to China someday.. that is. If your wish is one you have entertained for some time. As you can see in the first example above. .¥:. having t� .it l ' IJ' .i -n + t� \ \ "'(·· -t to describe your hope or aspiration. -- � � ' Jr h -- " \ --::) 7?· tf 00 t : .. obsen'ations. '"'(-· 't .._ \ . . .. ( \\ I verb stem + t.Z. or guesses.. : �J. r .

. t -IJ >-' -? i: \ ' j: To ::.t � �""'f::. indicates " I think that she wants to. t::. In Osaka. . j..\-adjective =. � T�. ��OO #l. I will do such things as shopping and eating Korean dishes. as in: 7d& --c·· :A 1. ry L l To do such things as A and B To get the t::.: and � . This sentence. j. U: :1 - t. fJ{ � .{ -:J --c " ' � \\�in retain the � .To describe your obseryation to the effect that somebody wants to do something. you can use a special predicate form :::k FK --c·· :A 1. . · ver stem + t b =. • t =.. You can change a � t � ::. - _f_tk7-J. (Thus we have L t � for the verb T � . . and iz"". � (It see·ms) JV!ary wants to drink coff ee. 7 1) - � .: . The verb t::. ::. � t::.tJ''� conjugates as an u-verb • t:J' or � · � only You already know that you can connect two clauses with the te�form of predicates. '4� � L --c .1 " -: � indicates the tense of the sentence. h'' ""? --c " ' � .1... between the particles 7.. I want to . . .4.� . � � t::.1f· -:> "L l ' * 9 • · ver stem + t {. ( l) l: i '1 l �� ��H4l. In Osaka.? · t ?. with which we had a choice ::. thus leaving room for other things which are left unsaid. the ::. . you must use a special Yerb f::. because of the way she is behaving. t {. .. . for iz"". /Do you want to .. ? • They want to . ( 'J t 1 � t: lr/v :::. ry T � sentence into the . �lr L� -- � .> - rlv ::. � form of a predicate.t � ::. whose past tense is L t::. (activity B) t D 9 � =.j· � f. which comes from the dictionary form t::. .. � . \ c 9 b =. unlike t " ' . I will do some shopping and eat Korean food.t � �"'"" j: To t :.J. however.t::. (activity A) t D =. tends to suggest that shopping and dining are the only activities you plan to perform in Osaka. derived verb t i. ." We will have more to say about this type of sentence in Lesson 14. you just add � to the past tense short form of a predicate. . h{ ""? --c " ' � instead of t " ' · If a Yerb takes the particle � .) Note that the helping verb T � at the end of the sentence . \ conjugates as a n {. ::. If you want to avoid such implications and want to mention activities or events just as exemplars . '4� � L t ::. past tense iz""..

il! ?fZ t. f * t� � *.L � 5§1 L f ry :: "'"-'-'l"i . : .t. I have.-�t � --c·· -t --t 0 The past tense short form of a verb + . I �J:.) ry l � A.-l � A f. t-.it. as does t: .. . and may have visited other places as well).) � describes that you did something... !.:: -l Takeshi has never been absent f rom classes (in his life). '< -f. among other things... !::' l wiJ -:> jj:_ t::: i? t: � L t :: 1::: t r. �m '"'? ). �.. "'(> suggests that the things referred to are proposed as examples. . or ' something happened.±{ :: tAt � 1. . I like dancing.:: � L t:. and that you are not citing an exhaustive list.R t : 1t � \ J.. over the weekend.� � Bll " \ t:: -" ry -t � C1) 1.. Have you ever been to Europe? . by working on the helping verb part. for example 1 Lf o :: I went to K yoto and Nara ( or example.. I studied and talked with my friends. listening to music.1.past tense._. Yes.. and so f orth.>' j.o verb (past. or incorporate it in a bigger sentence.. f tt L � h. short) + � ct. . 0 noun A � noun B "'(> connects two nouns._· ry L 1 Lt o :: t:: ry .h. .' B A and B.)'�� have the experience of ..:: t: IJ' &.f�· .-t C: 1.. in earlier times.. \ .f.

_ You can add t nt to numbers to talk about having just that many items. I. I bought a postcard as a souvenir. · Many Japanese speakers. G iJ>.. I have met that person just once... The rule of thumb is that negative Japanese sentences tend to contain at least one �j: phrase.. or t �t suggests that you can live with that few.:: c i:J>.!) IJ * '1t lvo - P t. I don 't.: to indicate the occasion on which you do something. I ate salad at dinner. I have just one question. and Japanese speakers feel much less compelled to use �. .. �. Observe the reply sentences in the · following dialogues: Do you watch TV.JI / .U'J.1::: -.:lj. ..: . the need for �.: �j: 1-T -:J t. therefore. v. I slept f just thirty minutes. however.5 (:ffv �J. but not more than that.!: is already fulfilled.rould not be ungrammatical in the above examples.. I don 't want to speak in English. E x p r e 5 5 i o n N o t e 5 !11\ \!J/ I� in negative sentences.. namely.:.it) ::: It lih �._ You can use the particle �. which means "only" in the sense that you do ·not have enough of._ In negative sentences. Prof Y amashita? No. respectively.�: after 7 v 1::: and ::r . · �j: may also follow particles like -r:· and t>t�L- �..:. We will learn another word in Lesson 14. though the number admittedly ! could have been higher. I have never been to Hiroshima..J: to the sentences above. � and if..t-. you often find the particle �j: where you expect if or � . U -? L � �lffl -r:·-u L J.. find the �:t versions more natural. If you add fU.: can also indicate the role you want something to play. t! �t implies that you have something up to the amount needed.: < � � * -lt lvo tt� :IJ' .

on the other hand...:.- 'ff>. O) )\. The particle �i often follows the particle �::: in sentences describing a place in terms of the things that are found there." in Japanese. In the case of the particle �...) � t or (£) � for your visions.:I�. To say "I have a dream. To say "to have a drive" or "to go for a drive. One is the dream >)>'> you have while sleeping.: c if�� lJ * 'tiJ)o Have you ever driven a car in Japan? <'->J' ?A-<:A. but there is a subtle difference between the versions with and without �i... F 7 1 7.? "t t. bt:l. IP� �.. is used ( :1 when you go somewhere by car for pleasure. or When you simply want to say "to drive a car" (not necessarily for pleasure). i To f!\>tJ'<-- We have a good J apanese teacher in my college..< or F 7 1 7· . ' ' . �� ItA. are answers to a question like "Where do you find good teachers of Japanese?" See the grammar note discussing the difference between iJ� and ti in Lesson 8. you use the verb �� sleeping dreams.. inste ad.. n * � if't � :i!Ui L t. they answer questions (either explicitly asked. the contrast is between the simple �..::Jj..• B *lffi O) )t�iJ>t-..-c/.. use Jillii 't � 1/.� �:: !i t.. I� liA. and � -:.. or implicit) like "What is Tokyo like?" The sentences without �i after �::. b1'?b � i � F 7 1 f �fi � ! L k/ F 7 1 f L ! L ko ." use F 7 1 f�.1' 5 . :: "\tA. (See also the grammar note on counting people in Lesson 7. the others the dream that you wish would come true.: and the combination t.: ti. I went f a drive t o the lake. -� for (.: ."lt\> These sentences would be okay without ti. like the English word "dream.) .• t. �." has two meanings. The �i sentences are about the places. There are lots of big department stores in Tokyo.

B : U: "' \ . C0 7 J � � 'J (.�. L -(> h ·? � h -1-1� 0) *.7f . . . -T v c· � Jt � 3 .� 1.:: Change the following phrases into -t l \ sentences in the past tense.� .\) ( \. t. ) 6. 1. � 5. . � 1. � A : / " :... -%-..: .: t . * � !� '7 ( tj \. \ \. .P r a c t c e CD )\/ 1\-jj'-fj':&:l\t� L \Cg t ::_ A.(. � h' h" -t "' \ "( "' \ . Example: B t � {" 0 � Jf. ( \. \ . ffit1t� t = *. 7. r . � c t:J: "' \ ) ( 1.\ . 1.--. . o � C.i/ .f/!. ..: .\) 4 .\ ) 8. \ I. � .. ) . Change the following phrases into Example: - t l \ sentences. � .. \ \. :..{_ ) ( \.(. L �:-../ " ..7l. � 1. :. �tz1t � -t � ( tj \.\ \.Z. . ) ( tj: \.--..� j' .\ ) 1) � . 11:> --? < ry 1*.f± 0) ..:.: 1 5 ..f -& t : � � ± ( \...\_.:::. ( \.<. \ .<..\ --c -t h• o .. "(·· �u -'t:. 8 *� 0 7 . \ � ) L . � !'>!" . j. IJ'? . }..\ ) \ 'IJ n· ¥:� � � &>) � i ( 1.: -"' t:. ) .:::. �: !:..o " .--.i L t h· � o :.:.:::...--.: �::· t !:: ) B t � {" O) � :f..\ ) ( tj: \. f \. \ \.\ \. -. \ � ) B. < ib ry � -tl. L <> � 8) . \ .!"-' 8. / . ljt � J{ -) (.7f.. 1 ..: 1->h.(.i -tt . >�· 9 .-n..: l->1:::.?·� ' 2 .. "(·· L t o :. \ ..: � ( tj: \.:::. \ .lt� . L . " 1..(.. T 7.i -t h' � o "? t :. WJ ¥: -t � � >itr< • ( tj: \.. "' t: \ "(·· -to }.' �T ( \. h i: 1 . give reasons as in the example.. � ?) 4 ..: !.. When you answer. n' "? t --c·· -t 0 · :.:: 8) / " // ".\ . B t � {" 0 � -* --c-·�u t:. 3 . ·-e�. .. . 8 * "(" ffh < 1: l.--.).:::.: ( tj: l... ) -1-1� 0) * . ..t..:: 1 6 .:.--.{_ ) J}J 0 -f' / -k 0 -f' � � -t ( 1.z..� � = 1t < ( tj: \.L t : if � '\.\ ) " .z.• '('. " \ " \ � . l. t < ib ry .... f!t g t : A.t... \) 2 .\ \.7° � & < .--.: . \ \.:.Z.�. a I : !lh. c u: "' \) • ..:::...._ � - .: �t !:: � T. Pair Work-Ask if your partner wants to do the things above. * t : 1i t: ">I! 10 .� 1.Z. Example: · :.: . . t " \ ·-e -t 0 :..\ \..

: : .. L �t�.: +�O)�. 7 .:n7 A t: � 7 .Mf. L f 1PJ .: Co ·if iJ � ·it""'( f.: h • "? f::.'6 ( t. . Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions and report the answers as in the example.: " ' --c·· -t h · o ::.! � (: � .l �: t:: � 1PJ t : 1i � f_: \ '1 -{'' T h ' o Additional Vocabulary-m � (Occupations) - � "'? h• ( 1'F %Z.J(�. "{ \ 'I l To 2 . � '/ .. . E.10 . � --? iJ • .:..: :! * 1v h • o f.i \ "'� ) Pair Work-Ask if your partner wanted to do the things above during their childhood. 1 . t : " ' i? tJ 1v � " ' f::.) lt 'v .flrg) (.t. <. I. Example: A �t lv :: lv tJ:1PJh�it""'( f \ ' "{'' T h ' o .1) A � journalist housewife actress firefighter L l'P v�' (j:_�f) L J: l'P 7 (:k1i) L J: 7 Lt 7 L OIH ±) Ji �� 7 -1t h. ... ( � ��%f) ""' h.: ..:{...: '=' :: : lr 4. L l'P (Jf:f... 1PJ h � " ' i? t J 1v ]{ " ' f " ' --c·---r h • o ...1.-j.· . (�. .i t:o ·lfh{it""'( f " . f�: .::·· v. D. -\" . C: i "? '1: " ' . -!.:}) t::_' \ \ � 7 ry J: 7 ( .: \ 'I "{'"T 0 f :. : B t" A : tt lv :: lv t. · � ': � • o . h .: o tt /v :: /v t:J: Co ·lf' f' it""'( f ]j{ "? . .:--1.Z.. .. .- < JiJ � �.: 1::' t L � -1? \ ' ��*' 1PJ t : 1i ry J. 1PJ h{W " ' f " ' --c·· -t h · o 6.i 'v \ \1l 7 (131=1!) h' A. -J-1� <?)*. t: 1i ..- • -. . <iJi) vJ> baseball player president of a country .: . 9. "' l L f.::k. " ' --c·· i" h .: . L..: 5 . Mh � L f. "{'' T h ' o 8.M.::·· L ( 4Hi ±) l-&:<'1!:&:? writer police officer actor/actress nurse Ia\Yyer :. � � 11..

� -----.o : t \ � ry j:-\:t� ht o To 4. 1 . '!>l Lt"-t!"A.: went to Osaka to have fun. etc.: 09-@ . 4 .: B.: . t � � � -----. �t lv : cleaned his room.i ttlv t=< A.t h · "? t "C·· 0 tffl � u t t:> . etc. watched videos. ��t � tZ.::. did laundry. etc. etc. t.. read books at home. "? ::�� t : _______ 5 .F.: 'i �� '- \ L b � t�·h · G .. etc. � L t U:1*-h t h· G . Complete the following sentences.: . � J: ? . Llff 7'G1:. etc.t 'v \ -r:·-T 0 2 . .: met friends. 3 . t. went to a museum. went to eat. t v \- !". � � 0) at."Itl> went to a hot spring. 5.: 'i . 6 .t 'v \ '\:' � � � <'T _______ To t < � ry i -tt A.l . 2 . �t G : went camping. -----.: 0 � . rested. Look at the pictures and make your own sentences using �t 0 -t 0 9-@ .: : made sweets. t @] / : saw temples in Kyoto. �7t� u t t:> u*9 � � t-5 l. 'A . went for a drive. etc. Tell what the following people did on the weekend using Example: Y 3 � t .

.: . X 2 ..: 1 : -t 9.1. 0 eat sushi 3 .y � j: i' o -: 1 ..l·/ L j: L t::. L w i -" -:> i)! J1Z J: \ 1PJ � l j: .1� cry '*" :: c:•t <::: .-Zt t:: .-.tJ: B lE J1 t : 1PJ � L j: -t 1.. Make the sentences using . 8J Example: 0 eat tempura � � .L t h ' o -: : B }.y 7J: t-: cry 00 --r.. x go to Hiroshima write love letters 6 . � L�H-:> >. 0 study French 4.: 1. t: • 2 . �t \ L 1.l'-�f � -c-. 9. l < 1PJ � L j: L t::.: C:]:i'®-@. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. "f f. 7 7 7-.o .l · / � G "' \ -c-. :0 It � B · tJ: �t \ " &. When you answer. 8 * --e1PJ � L 1 't f.: t h� &. 5� � jk U :. use -t tJ -t tJ 9-@ as in the example.J' �? 661. f..<1-t � A 8 *-cry B 5� � jj: .: . \ L/fv il5 A. I: : <::: �.: C:ti'®-@ and ask your partner. Fuji X drive a car in Japan see Japanese movies B. &.� G � iZ-" t . .y � j: To A t'' 7 -c-. 1PJ � T � -:) t � -c'' T f. x 7 .l·o 3 .l' o <.j.tJ® � *9f. 0 sleep in class 8.z.: A.l'o 7 .1 ' --::> t-: -c" -.-Zt 1.y � j: -t h.1 • o � t: : 8 . 1PJ � -t � cry f.:: A. 1. ··e-FJ � L -c U: �t \ t t j: -1t . 0 climb Mt. �y. -J. The following are what John has or hasn't done. * cry }.-t h · o � (: · ® ��A���-=> t� � C:.1 · o ( 1: (_db'-:> "(: 4.C. 0 work at a restaurant 5. 1: r. 4-..0C cry i)! J1Z-. Pair Work-Make questions using Example: 8 � .. ..-t f.r cry'*" 1PI � L j: 't f. o ' :: I.l'o .: t h � &. o �!: 5 .

.A-.: -j ry ?( 9.. - f. it A.! � 1"F � 1 1 . � - � .Q•o - �4'.. .� 8 *#:£.{. . \ .:: 0) @ O)A_.� A .. t : % � . � lR � h \ ' � 1. l: ..{.Q {�f � "(" T IJ'o hA. \ .i T h ' o : 6 .-n -) d)\ .t-7 t..· -t/ Jv . t .t1 8.../c: � .ry . ?'rOO t : :r'r --? t .:: --c-· -t h · o > 7 . --c .� t t A-...0 9 i\ t · n ... t::. ry : !: liA.{.rPi . l r L >1> "'lr 't . (/) . �1f�f:.1 �' � .L..� � � .. use as in the example. {�t � -c-·-th·o ::.?. �-.� L A. ji) � f O) :k# 0) 1Z X t : tj . T A � ·-e 0 .-1} ' 8. � r * � � � .1 .... � ' ::: 4 . �· .� . if � A.b·A. < 1 2 .h · -t � ® 9 u�:R�3' 6 � ct < �"'* 9 t:Jv t . �--.•n'< : L l ( !::' 'i t o t (J) t:PT..1J: 1Z""'4'� fJ { ji) : t .j ..'/ � J: < Jt :i T h ' o 2 .: Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. :9'' -1 ::L '/ � � -t � 3. . When you answer.�.f .. b' ( 'J -t 'l t 'i ?( 4. fJ 7 :t 7 t = 1t < · ' 6 .::..MU : *. hL 5 .i -t 1._· -"'.· n h ' �f � -c-· -t. 1 .:A.ry!'} -t L � JZ . -7 . �-. \ ' I'll --j �-.t A � 7 T � 'J .f � '"':) < 10..}� � � lR --? l t-tt Y . i. <·· (blo-wfish) � 1Z""' � t ::...l.i T h ' o 5 .! � J: < 1Z""' :i T h ' o t. 7 .�� G � J: < 1Z""' :i -to ' A. :: .: < �. -t 0 i�Hl (actors) 0 9 --c-· .'( ( !: rJ.<.. 8 *--#:£..{_ � Jc i. . ji) � f 0) :k # t : tj. ��� � -tj. �b fJ:.: !...�.f' � t: >:> c d · � / .{.Q{>. i!�1] -t � 13.. -�.. 2 .ID � � � 5! -t � t_. t::.:> - Example: A B : �-. 9 J.:: : h'\ ' ..:· < :.�.&1) 0 :i t: T h ' o �-.1.{. 9.

1! Lt � L l Lt o :.>·h- . L t h � :. . iz t: · i? 1:: t t : % " \ t: " \ "Z'' T o J> . -r-w (J) * (J) . has never used chopsticks 3 .. l.::..:.t t. doesn't want to go out today C...t � f (J) . htP i n' ' if t. .:t. . wants to cut classes tomorrow 6 .: �ml f=' 1f . wanted to be a star ( 'A 7' -) as a child 5 .{=' t:. has seen celebrities 2 .� 1-i n < --c t: �: f=' h' "Z'' T o � n " \ � . 'v \ :. :. tjfiJ'{''T h'o :. 'v \ "C''T o f L "C .: >:.? (J) :±l !J "Z'' T o L•�. ..g � �::v-ij j-g.. .3 .® * cc51JO)�� A. �J(_ Example: b. . L h.:L t . .: i i. ID6>) :ttlvu$5 Talk about your dream for the future or what it was when you were a child. 'v \ :. 1 .ti > � ' � h·r.:w?l. :tJ Jv � JL t � . tj�� *' }.t (J)jlj J� rt �l: ! -i (theater) h{ .t � l To �ml --c-. i J: < � . wants to live in Japan in the future 4 ._ tj M --c. Class Activity-Find someone who . h- h. tj . � --c . � 00 t : �t � < :: \' 2.: �t 1:: .2 ... :1. tPn " "" ' 0 B.:?�T . .� � ":< J\.2 . Example: bt�L it.3 . 1 .:£ 1*-h t : lJ� "? t·t.::. -i:-{� i? t : � � f :.? tj � --c < � t *. Class Activity-Bring pictures of your hometown and describe it.ft. .

� ... \.. L 1: < t3..' tt t::. :q < t3.:"\' :-. ..e1 >'> .16 tJ--J "'-'fTI3 S.·� \...A. A. n'' 17� "'"" � page number . dialect standard Japanese for example anything else number . 1� ..\"( < t::. Hand in the homework. ' �ft h.:: i/'1. � E Li..L•:>-? "("\b.:1 ?).. � � tJ ti h' t: 1trp.\lrt" .Raise your hand. 1E-� . � L "C''To ------.1:'' � 1: < t::.\ :q .\� \.. IJ·t� :t� 1. � \.. f'--J ry .Both are fine.. 111:: :- � dJ 1: < t::.t'il:t>/v ::: >1' < 1t :Q-2=6 ll-?lfA..A little different. J:: -:> �it"\ . "\ � L "C"'t o ---. That's it for today..More or less the same.A.· � "\o -----.Ask the person sitting next to you.Can't use it.In the Japa n e se Class Useful Expressions �··-t.> t::.i 'to :.t-? ... fEf� � :±: L 1: :.· � "\o L n.\o --. t::_·�.> -::> .b � . colloquial expression bookish expression lrf: �� .t:i.The time is up. "C''�..· � "\o ��{4:!" � fu-. Please stop..:fvl. !J"C < t::_' � "\o --. - t::.ri .i -1!.i To ---. Close the textbook._ � """*" """ I.� i..<f..!'-j X5! �0 ��:a ...· t J: Read it before coming to class..t:&j\. line number . < t::.Same thing. L-:>Uv ::. "' tt."\� � "\:..!"A..?--polite expression .\j To ----. \ t::.It's wrong. Useful Vocabulary L»<ff'' ra� LdJ � � homework deadline exercise meaning pronunciation grammar question answer example ( ) 1.. two people each 1.h-o -----..:Z . . Mit-:> "(1..'� "\o L� 1:: � � � CI)A. G "'(" t "\"\"(''To --.t: 0 (correct) X (wrong) ::. + � &.

. � F.1...!:-<' t:> f:_' � \'o .��L��..oi "(''TiJ ''······o 13-: L <' ..�.'<!1 <-t'l ?> !. i:. 1 2 . '�. * 3::.!f.: : .. � -:J ) .< Ql "( < .1.(•12•1 � � UJ:5 L E S s 0 N . i�il.:\ �L: . 7:J... 7 1J - : 1:th. 0 �� o ���C L �\ \ "{' < f:_' � 1..�. : u-.l::'� tJ .... {!) At a hospital..t f.. ...L. .t? ::.1... 1 2 3 4 7:J.: i. 7 ') �-.-.··.-r-LJ: 7 o ... o •• • ·A.1.�..: : .'? L t� lv-r· i' 1J • o t:.�.' � I� \ \ � -r 0 t: .�-tf--'Ttlo ( h? \\ diJ(J)� t 7 -t <··r.�.: � (/) 7 }}:_ t:.{rm \ '1v --c··-t 0 � (J) 7 tt t? � .�-. t� lv t.t t:-ft--:) t� u-? . 7 1) . . ::k "('' -r 1.: ..�. 7 'J..=..... lv "(''1" � :i'h.'--c··-t J: o \\ 41.. 'o . 7 � '' ::ft L<> : � E tJ:Et � ik/v "{'-.ti\ \h...:'' tt lv � �""' t:1t--:) t::.lv --c·'-t 0 f:...�.1.(.Iv L i>. �il...�. 12j Feeling Ill � D .1t\\ 7t�� (/) �� ....1.A(J)�-@-n{JiJ � (!)"(·· � �� L � < i?�\'H��.� ry � L t::..{rm ..:. i? .: '? -lvo i? J: � t? � . 5 6 7 7:J.1 _)...\' • "" • • dfJ dfJ � :Jffi 1. a o g u e (!) Mary and Michiko are talking at school.� .�--:) t::.: � '' L<> : dfJ JiJ.. 'o L a 7:J.....' i? � B)t .� lv� ft� iJ>'diJ ry � -lt /vtlo ..1. 7 1) . � '' 13" 3 4 5 6 .�. 7 ' . f 7 "C''Tn�o � t diJ ry � Ttlo 1. l\f::.:::-�.. "f?.: : . i? ..-'ti 7 7Ji'�. 7 1). 0 t� ���lv��T �.�n'·rm \ 'lv "C''"t o '-'f:.

I have a sore throat. I have a little stomachache. Doctor: You had better not exercise for a couple of days. Thank you so much.. Mary: I understand. I had a stomachache yesterday.. It is just a cold.. Michiko: What's the matter? Mary: I went out to haYe dinner with my friend yesterday. Doctor: I see. so I have to practice. Mary: Yes. Don't worry about it. Michiko: You had better go to a hospital. I think maybe Michiko: Are you all right? Mary: Yes. You have a fever. it hurts. Doctor: Take medicine and go to bed early tonight. too. . Doctor: Take care. Mary: Doctor. Mary. I will have a tennis tournament soon. I ate too much.. though .Oh. Mary: Urn . Mary: Well.Michiko: You don't look \Yell.

to have a scheduling conflict bad '�I.* �lv V No u n 5 o c a b u I a r y sL \.\f::.-/Z -\:t-1.� hangoYer present homesickness thing (concrete object) snow business to take care of ..? t0 1-P� J:-JL L\ * - a d i e c t v e 5 it \. . \ -\tjl.· J: \. \ inconYenient.\ 1..\l' -ltv'�-tt � -\t� t� * 0) �·· tj tj 1j: tJ:n �_..\ S-/.\ 5� \. etc. \7.!.. ""'? 1. \ 'Ill ' 'C IJ .. > •= \.-b�·.::·' 7 iJ"'b � \.j.\\ j:? j:? \.\ �I. not spacious .-.) cough throat tooth flower sunny weather clothes j:? 1j: -h' 1..:2.\ ""'? sweet hurt. narrow. :® \. game JUICe politics grade (on a test..\ if£ -itn A J. \ 7·v-e·::.\ * Words that appear in the dialogue .. painful there are many . '-lf -h'0 L: J: -h·n �t?lv < * L s \.. foot meaning stomach cold girlfriend boyfriend temperature (weather-not used for things) cloudy weather match. * * leg. .

� t:<-t * (topic t:) to lose tJ.J' < ' to catch a cold to be interested (in .b < t''7J>'5� < Ru . 1. }.. iJ>' t: .{ &t. -:) 1.. ) �J:-? h 1.. to separate (person �A-l?J:-?T� * t) �7&-t� ���c.-t � to get nervous to worry Expressions LA.-�IJ{t:l...v erbs -!-� fantastic 1.t.�A.-u:· . in a few moments/days * ""' --r· � � t. &6 � ' �I. for the first time very soon..adject ve -t--c � (t:) U .:· .. degrees (temperature) for two to three days because .fc:J:.v erbs -lt � 1.... \ �� don't look well probably.{ &t. .\ t: �..:· tt --r· L J: -? t'' ""' * t: �A-t: t? . 7t. .. .b�J·n� rregular V er bs to cough to break up. � 0 to have a fever to become thirsty 0 t''iJ>'iJ•.\-:Jt \ -r � and Adverbs * * * Other always Get well soon. -l:f � 7...- j(. maybe as much as possible probably.. \tt: t-f'A. .' "(•' � .. right? .

--c·-tiJ' is replaced by �. it is more common to find (!) --c·-t 1 In instead of . When you are late for an appointment..--c·-t appears in its short form.�th�· J: < 7j: \. "'Nhy do you look so upset?") (As a matter of fact) il1y grade is not good. you can already report in Japanese \Vhat has happened. and say: (As it happens.t-::. In this lesson. vc·· -t 0 .. One way is to simply report the facts as they are observed.) the bus didn't come. you will need to use the explanation mode of speech. This is the mode of speech that we have learned so far. -tt'\ \{! � PX.. and another. We will examine these further in Lesson 15. (declaration of one's wish) I uant to go to the bathroom. ...i -l:t lv -e L t::. Compare: I have an exam tomorrow. An explanation has two components. h.} � 1 v t:1t � t� 1. (So tell me where it is. (a simple observation) JiJ L t� T :A....\. writing. h.\.) � 1 v t:n � t� �. ·r·-t goes after the short form of a predicate. In casual questions. h. however. or explained.�· JiJ � lv "("'To I have an exam tomorrow. :. 'lv vc·· -t o (in response to the question. by it (you being late for the appoinlment). does not have the right apologetic tone.. This sentence. because it is not offered as an explana­ tion for anything. --c·-t itself is invariant and does not usually appear in the negative or the past tense forms.. I want to go to the bathroom.. The predicate can be either in the affirmative or in the negative.. which is implied. .\. we will learn a new way: the mode of explaining things. either in the present tense or in the past tense.G r a m m a r There are two distinct ways to make a statement in Japanese. The sentence-final expression lv --c··-r serves as the link between what the sentence says and what it accounts for.. If you want to mention the busses failing to run on time as an excuse for being late.. . '!v vc··-t o . /"'A -�Ji-*. . one that is explicitly described in the sentence (the bus not coming). --c··-t. A report is an isolated description of a fact. � �. (So I can't go out tonight. 1 In casual exchanges.

. o : �-.lv "'C''T o (explaining to a person who has caught you smiling) L ��h. h The exam is over..: rather than 1. isn't it?) Q • �-· -J L t::. --c·-r to provide an additional comment on what has just been said.��1.) A : 1tli 1J 9t lv t:-· lv --c·· To n.) You can also use A.. (That should explain how I look today. He never takes a bath. o . .�i\. him.-\/v"'C''To �·tt �i· :i? L!�' Oh. It is Yery often used together with question words.-J L --c 1Jt � 41J n t::.hf:L t::••Q'( <!'A-it•• b· 2 A ?::.' '? L t: lv "'C'-t 1:1' question is best answered by a lv -r·-t sentence with the subject marked with the particle-�.···"'\ t::. X.: L 2 JV!y cat died. -tflv-1flvB�g t:A. \�Jc�4·--c··-ttlo �1-l Q' L . The professors at my university wrote it (for your information).) \i\Then it follows a noun or a �:-adjectiYe.�-b "-? t::. report sentences tJ: -adjective: noun: explanation sentences You can use lv ·e-t in questions to inYite explanations and further clarifications from the person you are talking to. as in this example.lv --c··-to You bet.1:. c?) :k tf 0 7t� �.. See Lesson 8 for a related discussion.. such as �· 7 L "( (why) and �· 7 L f.>'.� �1. i.lv --c-·-t h·o What happened? (You look shattered.fl. .: (what has happened). 1j: comes in between. {_That's whv I'm smiling.o Q·h ht· Why did you break up with your boyf1-iend? (You've got to tell me. B . (That's a good enough reason.) A: 1&:. A : � "C t "'\"' That's a great textbook that you are using.lv --c··-t �.

Verb stems may be followed by the helping verb -t :/�,which means "too much," or "to excess." -t ::,-·� conjugates as a regular ru-verb.

iZ"'"'- -t 5' -r tt \, \ tt .i � ,z,o
t:.

You nzust not eat too much. I got up too early.

-t ::,--� can also follow "'- and t:-adjective bases (the parts which do not change in
conjugations); you drop the"' and t: at the end of the adjectives and then add -t ::,--� .
This book iS too expe-nsive.

JiJ tJ) A. (j �Ji {}) -t �-- l -t l/"""""
Ut::

0

That person is too nice.

ti -? lx'·" ' " ' ... e-t "it is better (for you) to do . . . " is a sentence-final expression that you can
use to give advice. \¥hen you suggest an actiYity with ti -J I.J"" ' " '--c---t, you are giving a very specific piece of advice; namely, that it is advisable to do it, and if one does not follow the advice, there is a danger or a problem.

ti -J I.J''" ' " '--c-·-t is peculiar in that it follows different tense forms, depending on whether
the advice given is in the affirmative or the negatiYe. \Yhen the adYice is in the affirma­ tive, ti 7 I.J"" ' '"{··-t generally follows the past tense short form of a verb. \Vhen the advice " is in the negative, however, the verb is in the present tense short form.
You'd better eat more vegetables. It is better not to skip classes.

You can use t7) 1:· to give the reason for the situation described in the balance of the sentence. Semantically, t7) "{-- is just like I.J· G. Stylistically, t7) 1:-· sounds slightly more formal than I.J• G.

(reason) (J) c

(s ituation)o

(situation), because (reason).

1,.\--:::>t E;:f.�--c·· �-tel)"t··, E;:f.�l.l{.l.-t-t:� � ;i Lt;:o -My Japanese has improved, because I always speak Japanese.
!:

!i,(,

::

!.!IJ:

!:

!!,(,

:::

l:.ti l

L•o<t:'''

� J1! 1.1 { t;: < � lv � -:> t;: 0) --c··,

� 0) -? 0) +Z,
J: <>

:OC 1 -lt lv --c·· L t;: a
f.>

I did not sleep last night, because I had a lot of homework.

The reason part of a sentence ends in a short form predicate. When (1) ... follows a (" �-adjective or a noun, � comes in between, as it did with the explanatory predicate

lv --c··-t. -c 0) A (j 1,. \ t b � --� 0) "(''' (}'1:; � � 1,. \ --c·· T 0

I do not like that person, because he is mean.

Banks are closed, because today is a Sunday.

� 8 (j: 8 B� 8 � 0) ''('' , }�{f U1*7J. "{''T o �-t SA...:i t:s.J:-JU'= -:.1-l

We use�<

t? f>"'ttl-1!-lv to say that it is necessary to do something, or "must."

3

*-� 7 7.. � 1.7{ � � 1.7· �, t: < � lvifzz'� L� < t; ��,-\ttl -lt Iva
I?\ 'Lttd ..-.:: A.,!'-.t�

I have to study a lot, because there will be an exam next week.

� < 1? �< 1?

"\'> means "if you do not do ..." and "'ttl-It lv roughly means "you cannot go"; "\'>"'ttl-It lv therefore means "you cannot go not doing ..." with the double t? "\'>"\Itl-It

negatives giving rise to the affirmative sense of the mandate. To form a � <

lv sentence, we substitute�" \ in the negative short form of a verb with � < t? "\'>.
verb short negative "must"

Eti'(Q
t.:.

Etl'(�l, \ -t.:.

Etl'(fc:J: < 15 "\? L\(j*ttlv
t.:.

=-5
L\

=ptc:J:L\
L\

=P�< 15-\?L\Ij*ttlv
L\

gQ (Q

u�L' ���..,

u�< 15-\?L\Ij*ttlv
� fc:J: < 15 "\? L\ lj *ttlv

"'ttl-It lv is grammatically the negative long form of a verb in the present tense. You
can

change 1j: < 1? "\'>"\It l-It lv to 1j: < 't:> "\'>"\It l � lv -c-· L t;:. (past tense) to say you had to, "\'>"\tt �" \ (the short form, present tense) in casual speech and before lv .. C'T.

and to � < 1? elements like

3ln writing and in very formal speech, >J: < "C Li \' tt :i -kt lv is more common than >J: < t, "(> \ 'tt :i -kt lv.

tt � t�L � * t:� �
1,( t: };

� < i; � \\ tt l-lt- h, "(' L t:o (long form, past)

I had to get up at six this morning.

4ii: 8

J,q:r,

(The truth is,) I must practic e every day.

tl.lvL••i

�W L �

< i; � \\ �t � \\ h, "C"To (short form, present)

We use the sentence-final expression a prediction.
--c· L J: 7
4

--c·· L J: 7

(probably) when we are making a guess or

follows verbs and \.'-adjectives in short forms, in the affirmative

and in the negative. (verb)

It will probably rain tomorrow.

Fti?�'v\"(''L.t 1o
.i.

It will probably not rain tomorrow.

(\.'-adjective)
li-ob·l'l::"i

:J.t. ��it U:� "C'' L J: *"'
'

1o

It is probably cold in Hokkaido. It is probably not cold in Hokkaido.

after these elements; we do not use X""�"'(·' L J: 7 , (�-adjective)
�.i L t;1tlv1t''

--c· L

J:

7 may also follow �-adjective bases and nouns. Note that --c· L J: 7 goes directly
X"" 0 --c-· L J: 7

, or X ....... t.:'"'(•' L J: 7 .

� r :?t� tj :;.,;.>:,:-h��t � --- "C'' L J: .T!!, ...,.-

1o

Professor Yamashita probably likes fish.

* � L>\"� � \\"('' L 1

1o

Professor Yamashita probably doesn't like fish.

(noun)

J;) 0 A. tj ;.f -A
��

� 7 1) 7 A. i:' L J: 1o
l:lv t:lv o

That person

is

probably an Australan. i

;.f -A � 7 1) 7 A. t � � \ ' "('' L J: 1

That person is probably not an Australian.

4"'t L

J:

7 may also follow predicates in the past tense. \Ye will, however, concentrate on the present tense

examples in this lesson.

"C"L .l:

-J sentences can be turned into questions (""'·-eL .t -? 1;·), which can be used to �---? i? <?) ti 7

invite another person's opinion or guess.
E

Which would you say is more difficult, Japanese or Korean?

:: 11.<-

*� � b·h,.: ( � �, �00 ::: :::

n"$

t:1'b·

L

"

'

--c- L

J:

7 iJ· o

The short form of --c·· L .l: '? is t:··:; -J . You can use it to cautiously phrase a prediction or
an analysis.

I think Takeshi would be interested in it.

t: It L

� � tJ:��-h" ct
�..t1 h

� t:·.; 7

���"'� To J.; t

In casual exchanges, you can use --c· L .t '? (with the question intonation, and most often pronounced as somewhat shorter ·-e L .t) when you want to check if your partner agrees that you have the correct understanding about what you have just said. :/ /, lf1

3

John, you understand Chinese, right? Can you read this for me?

t,,,.;.:· ( .:·

00 �-h"h iJ' � --c· L J:

?

.::

n, �.'it� "'C"o
.t

P

r

a

c

t

c

e

CD c 5 u t�fv c9tJ'
A. You are in the following situations. Explain them using -fv c9.

8J

Q : �-- 7 L t:: lv "C''Tn'a A : �� 1; �*i I, \ lv "(''T 0
l>t:.1 \ 't;

cz)

7° v -e ::.---

r f'

t J?l,\l L t::

(4)

� CJ) 7
t;h.-l.:�-1

t.;t

C6) e0 �--n{*i..., \ --c---r
\'t;

� j:_ a """ L f:: C
U'

(8) "W* � �
��
.;=

< L :i L t::

(9) � L f:: r 7-. r h� � ry l T

<n) :vt-k � .s� n 1 Lt.:
!;•?) 1.: �
i?ll·

B.

Respond to the comments using
Example:

-fvc9.@)

My father's

X t7) � lv "'C''T o
.., ..,

(1)

(2)

(3)

-t--c���-:7--c··-ttJ.o

I received them from my friend.

Itali an ones

My mother made it.

(5)

�------

iJ' �

.:: \\'It \1Jt "(''T tJ.o
n·n

It was cheap.

kind

C.

Pair Work-Your partner has said something nice about what you Respond using -fu c·9.

have.

A : ���-i? t: t G
1:: t

<?

t� !v ---c·'t' o ·

D.

Pair Work-Make u p d ialogues asking for reasons.
Example: I went to Tokyo last week.

A : B :

-lth..Lwl/::1��1

;t�Jit� t:1t �
I•

.l L t� o
,,

�-- 7
�u

L ---c Jft � t: 1t <? t� !v ---c-· 't' h• o
1:: i�d

A : -I!J:h�-� :J 1) 7J h• G *-.t::. !v ---c··'t' o
1. I am very tired. 2. I have no money.

3. It is not convenient today. (��-@-1;{,!� \ ')
... )' ? .: h.::.

4. I want to marry my boyfriend/ girlfriend.
5. I am going to Japan to study.

6. He speaks Chinese very well. ('i'OO�IJ''..t.:t-·e-t)
t:.,,p1,:· < ..: : L .t� .Y

7. I don't want to watch that movie.

CD�I\9�* u t.:
f;:_

A.

Describe the following pictures through

using -9�-@.

Use "verb+ 9�-@" for

(4)

and "adjective+ 9�-@" for (5) through (10).

BJ

(1)

Example:

-::>(

1'!: � 't' �£- .l

L t::. o

(2)

(3)

(4)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

B.

Look at the verbs below. Think about the results of over doing these things and make sentences as in the example. Example:

��6
t:

��-t �tt:.h' G,
t: --..:A.,:.�.;

1. 1X.�>
(TJ

2. 5. 8.

4.

7.

:0* * � �% t; J: ���7
llh,
-j t: -it:

�,�,6 r=-7..�?6 �7it?6 :. A... '>!-'1

3.
6.

:J

/ t.o .:1. - 7' - � 1� 7
"':>/)' t=.

i:t'v\�����6 J)j t�

® �1J:fXfvt�la:5ti·L 'L \c9
A. Using the cues below, give advice to a friend who has a headache. Decide if you should use the affirmative or the negative.
Example:
<T� <9� (})

8J

*- � 1k <L'
IT)

-+

B : �Jb?{fffj '-''A-- "C''T o
ntJ

A
1. ]f- <
li'!'

:

<-n

*- �1kA--t.:'ti '"? n'''-''"'"'C'T J: o
IT)
�'

''to

;rl �
*"

2.

� ·Y:

i21ctt:1t <

3. m FJ£ t:n
{_fJ:-11. ,.z, I.\

<

4. B.

1±:f:. �1*-t: L
::: �:::

'I'T

Pair Work-Give advice to your partner in the following situations, using -1a;5
t.i'L\L \.

Example:

8 *�1;{J: 4=- t: td: � f::. \'
!: li/v ::: L:.d ->

8 •

8*��1;>'J:-t-t:�
1: l.ilv :::

f

A

:

8 -*;,._ o:> �t.:· i? � 11: ":) t::. ti 7 1J ,, " ' " ' --c-·T J: o
1:

l.d -r 1:::!,

ry f::.\\A--"'(''To
"'?(

Ukl:lv

'""( ·'� � f::."tt*��Mf� �1,\t:f 'J 1;{\\1,\"(''T J:o ::._·
;{_ � \

(j: �·

1. * - L. :, '/
4.

7 t::.''

2. Jf;=> -1-t t::. 1, \
5.

3. if: .t.:· i? � t t A--n� Lt::. . 6. :::.. 8 f,§� \\ f.:'
.).--:Jir

h -i:-1;{ � \\
J)·b

7.

1ii 1;{\\f::. \\ fffi 1.1

8.

.n�JJ:t;>'�"' 'Jf:. �k�4·� � <
-li-\ ;b:(,

2:: b

.'<1-i >l· L l

Lt::.

9. 1,\ '"'::)

t {�� t: ��IJ T � I?
L: 1')>�: l"i
..: <

..t

C. Pair Work-You are a health counselor. Someone who hasn't been feeling well is at your office. Ask the following questions. Complete this form first, then give your advice using -la;5t.i'L \L '·
t;i 1, \ b . J: < tf"\\�� ���j:Th�o
�!. t�
f:.

t;i 1, \ t;i \\ t;i \\ t;i \\ t;t \\
----

c .

J: < Jf*-��� l -tn�o

d.
e .

�A�--t;i A--���j:Tn'o
n�

� :::-\\

t:.

t:.

J: < };5� �1k.,Z,. j:Tn'o .;.
:· • V)

f . f::.tJ'��"?&\'j:TIJ'o
T

*M

L:J)·Iv

h.
1

�-- A-�;ftl.f � J: < ��j: -tn�o l) .t-1 'l r:

. J: < � � j: -tn�o
.t�

® L 'L \;R�tc�:(J)c, �� l.l*9
A. Connect the two sentences using -(J)c:.
<:lv � �fv I£

BJ

Example:

"\" \��"C'''t/1&� L l 't 'l"" ;:.
="'"" l.i'

\,\\,\��fJ(/')··r· ... 1&� L 1To
'l"" �="'""
ll'

1 . �\,\''C"'t/�1.\l 't

2. &;_, C7) �!® tj � t L �
;{.<• ,,

>i>i"

lr

<

&;_, ry 1 -tt lv / Jt t;:
;!,. -:>IJ·

<

&;_, 0 1 -tt lv

3. �i!!tj ·l't L h'--?
�kL,.-J
<•fiJ'

t: ·r·-t/�tl "'C "\ 1 't
-?i"

4. m � "(·· L t;:/t�3it � 1*-hl L
lhi -'
1.: •• :: .ti n·<'l 1.: Jc

t:

5. iLt-ktjl.\--:::>t�Jt{JJ"'C··-t/A.�t;iJi> ry 1 't
6. 7.
-it<•

Jlj,:.�� t=��t;s Ji> 0 .i-tt lv / �Jtl1fl � ��,2;. l -tt lv
l: 3.d h L -<-.;:-<J:

L h--1!:-:>

r:-<- :.

Ji> L

t;: 7 A

� t;s Ji> 0 l 't/ � 1! L l 't

8 . C7) c:·'t;{t;, tJ � l L

t;: / :/ .::1.- A t;sjk;z;_ t;: "\ -r·-t
?)

"'""""" 1

9. � � T � --- 1 L
�-5

t;:/ Jtt;{:rm" \ --c·-t
JJL
l'f:

B.

Make sentences using the cues below as reasons, according to the example.

Example:

h'-tf � V' � l L f:

-

h'-tf � V'"\ t::. C7) --c· ... t�3it � 1*-h1 L
Lr�>.O<n

'i'T

t: o

2. t?fJh'1Ji'"f"\"(\,\1T
3. ;t - b � ·;; 7 "'C�T 5 . if-� C7);t�1J{b 1;> ry l -tt lv
t:lv
�· <• h

4 . ffl :f 1;>' Ji> 0 l 't
J: i L

C.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

1.

(/') "(''' t:f oo
i>tl>i �- ( I:,{_ .'

t:1t � t: "\ ··e-t
,,

0

2.
3.

(/') "'(''' ),_�1;{ Ji> 0 l To (/') "(''' h'·tf � V' � 1 L (/') "(''' 411 tL l L t;: o
{?;j•

t;: o

4.
5. 6.
7.

(/') --c·'

E * t:1.ih f;:
r:

Ilk �(

T

<

J'J 0 l-tl.- /vo

(/') "(".., ��IJ L l L f;: o
t;

(/')"(" ... W:5tt L "'C "\1'to
� A..."t:>.t-1

Ci)t;B�l���tJ:< 15� � '':t*ttlv
u"5 l..i <13

A. Look at Tom's schedule and make sentences, according to the example.
Example:

6J

7:00A.M./�� �
.h

----+

r f.,. � lv t.:i -1: * t =- �� 1i < t?-'(> ... \ H;! -tt lvo
L'?l i;

7:00A.M. 8:00A.M. 9:00A.M. 1:00 P.M. 2:00P.M . 3:00P.M. 5:00P.M. 6:00P.M. 8:00P.M. 9 :oo P.M. 10:00 P.M.
n:oo

Ex.

���
;· n

(1) -Jt?�ili�
-.:·

(2) {�* t: ili�
t:» .Y.d
-.:·

(3)

-<'! L t"itA.,-ti-''

� r 7t::t �=-%- -J
" ::...· I;L

(4)

����$'�:Z �
;Z �' .Z.. J V.X... J V ,,

(5) L L t:1t--? 'l

7-7° � Jilj <

(6) -) t? �: l)� �
fr ;(

(7) if;.Ar7r� (8) fe!Jt!�'t�
Lt"A t=.·\,

1) - � B)t :::..·' t.:i Jv � 1z""' �
1!/v t:

(9) }:;�g t:A.�
.i. 7, Li\'

(10)

� �ikiL' !7)
('f�
"('/,... -h

P.M.

(11) -) t? t: it�� h' tt �

B.

Pair Work-Invite the partner to do the following things together. Turn down the invitation and give an explanation using -td:( 't5f.>l.\(j-td:l.\.
Example: play tennis

B : 1? J: --? � ;1i�-@--h{}�"' \ lv -c·-t o ib L f.: tit�* t: ili 1i < 1?-'(> �.t \ tt
-? ..:1 :: .f?� L:t1)�;.!1 --c·

1. do homework

2. eat lunch
5. go to karaoke

3. drink coffee

4.

study in the library

C. Answer the following questions.

1. 8 *�0{��--c·M � L � < � �
�=

li;{.

:::

l:t>:O;i

c.:.:

"

'

�t J: -lt h,h�o

2. 8 * ·-c-·7'�@1A..t.iM � L� < � � " ' �t J: -lt,Z,h�o .: .!;{. ,;• . ..: < L;{. c.:.: 3. h'-? _: J: ( � � f::\,\,{,"'(•'To 1PJ� L� < ��\,\�tJ:-ltA.,h�o -:. . : : 4. iZ.t�·�h"�u · t: * j: -to B � L� < �� "' tt l-lt A.,h�o
1::: � i> � :-

6 . -J-i� 0 at , 1;;r � L 1i < � �
.:. (::"' t
t':. � : ...

"

' t tJ: -lt ,Z, --c·· L t:: h�o

®®ut=.tct�tL cu� 5
1<1:

A.

Here is tomorrow's weather forecast (::R�.:P�). Play the role of a meteorologist
-c1v n J: Ill:?

and tell the weather forecasts for each city. Examples: Tokyo/snow

ED

Jlt* t.i ib L t: � --c·· L
1:::-l:O.d "'""

1

�o

temperature in Tokyo/around 2oC ¢=' ·a 1 ..;. m: < ' ar. _._ �
)'!'.. _,'f.- 0 X\ lllll � cl. '
1:::

i C<:i

�· j.;,{.

:::.. , jji:_
1: !::"

•. 0 \, \

..-r-

,·· L l

J

-

0

city Tokyo Sydney Hong Kong Rome Ex. snow

weather

temperature Ex. around 2oC

(1) sunny (4) rain (7) cloudy

(2) hot
(5) cool

(3) around 30oC
(6) around 18oC

(8) warm

(9) around 20oC

B.

Pair Work-Play the role of a meteorologist. Predict the weather for your favorite city. The other person fills in the blanks. Switch roles and do the same thing.

city

weather

temperature

:·-. L A's schedule Sunday Monday Tuesday '¥ednesday Thursday Friday Saturday meet friends read books go shopping C. -f> . act the role of a doctor or a patient. Refer to p. . nlvu�-s Using Dialogue I as a model..t -j U' a tj i.\ � "C''T o . B. .\�t�t. -Your friend looks sad. Discuss your schedules and find the day on which both of you are available. Patient-Describe the symptoms you have and answer the doctor's qu estions. b� 1:-t.:· }. B : *�(7) �1ft! "'''L»i t.t\• * � � �k .t 1 U' -:> . 245 and give advice to the patient. make skits in the following situations. 245 for B's schedule.. � < i.\�"(''To BBIB Li�''-J "C"Th'o lf-:>.-i� '. Doctor-Fill out the medical report on p. J: "'? � ::M��h. Pair Work-A and B are deciding when they can play tennis together.:Z.®*c6'J(J)�� A. Play the role of A and B. Role Play-Visiting a Doctor's Office Using Dialog ue ll as a model. -Your friend looks happy.

.g-.i i? J: --::> c: t�.t i 1.�0) J1 Ba 8 �:-. etc. fJi' }�" 'lv '"'C'' To * "' tt 7j:'"' '1v '"'C''T o 8 aa 8 t.. teach English . "'''Lwi lf-:>J: -j V' .h'O .tt �= T.t .t � � �. L l "'''L•>i lf-:>..{.lvh'o .Sex: Age: OMale 0 Female Symptoms: 0 Sore throat 0 Headache 0 Stomachache D Any other pain DCough D Fever 0 Allergy (7 v Jv.t'' B : *-. do laundry.�0) J1 aa 8 t..1' 'A� L j-\!.:¥-) 0 Others ' ' Example: A : *-.i C:'' 7 '"'C''T h· o --:> :·i 1:"' .::. 7j:' < :· !?L i? � -j V' B's schedule Sunday Monday Tuesday vVednesday Thursday Friday Saturday practice karate clean rooms.

rl � rm"(·''to It 1) ------ 1 have diarrhea.1:? *• t:o Please take care..f--7.: 0)#. -- r. Please show me your health insurance certificate. . Please take one after meals.. ll( iz1�t:j_k/v"('' < :.. \0 Patient: What kinds of medicine are these? . I have an allergy to .� ry � L f.J'.1.ll 'l � JL � "( h < t� � "< \o OK.: Receptionist: .>' Gb ("" t:) 7 v Jv.(.>' Gb ry � To ------.1 have my period..:>�>'ll l lr .' � IJ•h � .t!J--('To ''fo These are painkillers.: '7> t3. . .H e alth Patient: and � lv.(. t.\ t:-Z 'ijtr � 1i?JT � . .(. I sneeze. this is my first visit. Please fill in your name and address on this paper.bf.\"("To �·/)· j.�7Hi "("To lr .z.! ry � T ry � To 1 have hay fever...J�f.! "(''To -----.Gb < L � 7-.. 1t �t. 1t. 7J>' ::B �- ------- t: L 1.: ntJ:1PJcry� -r---tn�o <T� �...� "<\o Patient: I see. ��7. . l:' Receptionist: �7-. ------ My back itches..�'te � To � To 0 ------- I have a bad tooth.(.. 1�{&2 "'('To .J:. '-' ... * . li l: Illn e ss -r � lv ··e-tn�-o At the Reception of the Clinic Excuse me.. \ "( < t3. ------ ------ 1 haYe a runny nose.>'7. 1 am constipated.1:f7. 1' !.(..:.�\1)'.:o fl\' t....i. 1:%��iE li It ...1 i. Th � :m &0 Receptionist: tJ: "< \. Useful Expressions for Illness (��) and Injuries Ot7Ji') . L. U' -\tl' ry ------ ..L l"i su� 7.1 have rashes..!-..:t.

o I hurt myself.injection L ••I:'"-? fcl'}.*+---obstetrician �II1:11. of.t .h· . I am not feeling well.ophthalmologist �*+ .. (J) it � {JT � l L f::. Useful Vocabulary • !2S� (Doctor's office) l.*+ 1: (J.. L l!t:> .]'·. .L §�*+ ---.operation .:.i� ---.il-ltl• 1*-� �+ ---. I broke my leg. o tt I.orthopedic surgeon h· .. I burned myself. L "' i.o 1.�" '--c··-to � ..Ji � L :f L f::.. f> tt �-. ENT doctor lf J¥. ------ � -$]'-7.. Jt. {ft...� l L f::.o .�4�'if --.:...: . -itt '..I feel dizzy..�_ .thermometer ..- • t-O)ftn (Miscellaneous) t. <t•'lt'' If 11" lr and gynecologist ��7'�*+ --.Jil l To ------...>i'> l\ J.i.:\ \ lr l*J *+ --- physician dermatologist 7'�*+ ---.antibiotic .-...tfit *+ r.:..� L l L f::.1 I threw up. dentist otorhinolaryngologist. lr t.�l "'I.surgeon & �f A. b'!.iff-t ---.i:-:> L "? -=f.

.

読み書さ編 .

.IA �?� My Favorite Restaurant ----- 276 �YIJ-t!lv(J)1:.g 5 � � c:t � '5 Travel ------- 270 :bt..1i''ib Mary's Letter ---- 282 ( ..1.:!.::!J ill(J)g�fcJ:I... + a + 7.... _ ------� . Hiragana ------ 252 ( ( m2� m3� ) - j]/gj]-j- Katakana 257 ) - � L \(..j fi3 * ( .l)'l:JfJ"fJ. ft....28 7 ..(})ttL\"/J'-:J lZ9 Daily Life 262 _n . m8� J 8*(J)�ttJI I� Fo:lv i:J'll � lllv Japanese Office Workers ---. -l: f'-...

_ __ ...304 + �* � 1ft BA m fJt � w � * rn. .298 ft � � � X m � � � k � � � M II � ) �1:1)f!..g I 0 � J "/J'<! u�5 � The Folktale Kasajizo -----.Jf -t � . t � �t.)8ia I::"J -a Sue's Diary ----.292 ( ( .g 9 � ) A-<!lv(l.� 4 1� 1� it $� It ..310 * � .r..� 5£ � * Tanabata Festival -----..( � . Itt:: Looking for Friends -----.f$ 1f.

. chi � tsu t: ni ¥J..... ro �0 YO tlre (Refer to "Japanese \Yriting System" on pages 18-22 for more details...... 1] I �a 1. z J ..mi C mu I rp yu l) rz ..) . na (i ha i ma �ya ':> ra 1 tJ wa : lvn \............s 0 N .. 0 ".ko ...... nu u hi �)" fu I H.e tt ke {!: se I l te tl ne I �he I ¥Jme """" }."\ ka � sa t� ta -T:!-... � A...z so � � to (J) no tl ho t mo J: .. � u � ki < ku L ski -t su -J. ru I t·\...

. JfJh'-\\ 5. . t� h" tj L · t:th"�" b . ki A. �-.. 10. h" t:t �--b... !v B. .. � < l 15. 12.._ - 6/) 6 . ro . me IJ.... � . ta Practice J: 't �= 2..) . Choose the correct hiragana. Place name • Gifu Beppu • ·Sapporo ·Osaka ·Kyoto ·Kanazawa ·Nagasaki · 4.... � J: � t . yo 4 .± � . 8. }. What's wrong with the hiragana below? Rewrite the correct hiragana. 16. �l t t . ""' --::. h � h" . � �} t: t. chi 9.) . ') 0 Chiba C. 7. 13. ho 5. t� t:t ir" Person's name · Akai ·Nakamura ·Takahashi ·Tanaka ·Morikawa ·Sakuma ·Yamamoto ·Hashimoto 9. t?tf . tj L t t · 6. t:th�� �.Ml�� 8 CD Hiragana 1. 3. 8.. 1.. '. (1) (2) (3) (4) J (5) . 11." 14. e i. 2. su 7. � -::d l" . � A... t 0 h'-b. Match the words.._ ti � '- 3.

:''\ \ . 5. (3) (5) (6) t E.i 1.D. Example: 1... { t::. . � ---- � t t::.' i.' � t i...z ------ -------- 6. .. .. t::. 4. Put the hiragana in the right order to make sense. Write as many hiragana as possible which contain the following parts. blvi:' lv tit: lv�� \ \ ------ 2.{. (1) 1 (4) (2) t -­ ... 3.' \ \ < CD Reading Practice Read what the following people are saying and answer the questions.lj:.

Whose major is Japanese? 3. Who is a high school student? 4. Who is an office worker? 2. What is Harada's major? .1.

-. n{ "' '\ L.1 T 0 -.? ¥'' J: L.z. L < .r . t> r:: t: t� 1v t. � 1 L.T . 1 .' L l i' is more polite than c:·· 1 -t-• l . : r-..<r o 0 11 I! -tt 1v t 1v t � .T o 0 � L- < . n" t> J7.lv -tt "' '\ r-. Read it and write a letter introducing yourself.�--"' --·- * c:·· � -t-· J: .i "' '\ �:.. .{1. . ?td. L < B � t.n ?td. 1v r--<r t � t..®Writing Practice You received a letter from a Japanese friend.t � r: "' '\ n{ < 0) "' '\ z." r-.

...... .chi --- T " te nz 7.... ..J 7 22-24 / n (Refer to "Japanese Writing System" on pages for more details.... . ..na / \ 1. . ...) ...:("'.nu 7 fu b mu ::J_ yu r ..sa 1 � ki z 7u 7 ku A su '/ tsu X e 7 ke � se .. me V re / no ha t hi � � � * ho � mo 3 yo 0 -::? ma mz f ya - 7 ra wa ' ) rz J V ru ro 0 r. .1� ?� tJ/ytJ-j1 E s s 0 N .f :1 0 ko to -:/" shi """' '/ so � ta -j. ...ne � he /.... .. 2] Katakana 7 a 7J ka -tj..

. ku ma v 8 . 1. nu A. Choose the correct katakana. shi 7.t - 10. 6. ) ?t v / � � _:t . ( 4. Match the following words and pictures. � (b· ��� E t==l � ± CD Katakana 1. sa T 7 - 1jb..A .� ) 7 7 1 F if -T � ) 1f 7 :1'' 7. ( ) 1. ( ( 5. ( 12.A � (a) (b) 0 (e ) (f) � ( g) (h) � (i) (j) (k) (l) ~ �~ .. ( :I.3 :J v . ho 9. ( 3.8 .t / ' 'J 7 -f: � 7 * 3.� ' � ) . ::L 4 . ( 2.� / '\ 7 ) :J .. B. ( 8. ( 9. " /f ''J T 1 t O ) ) ) 11.. ) 1f / F 1 ''J T ) .A ) -']..A -T .. . ru 5 . ( (c) v -t: / 7 1 (d) � . yu :I. 0 Practice 7 Jv '/ 2.. ( 6.

- � lJ tJ • • 7' lJ - 4 . .:y / . • ..f . / A 7 1 v A 6.:r.:... tJ -f: T :/ c-· . - Jv . 70 }' 5....( � :/ / 7.../ 9 ... 7 Jv �· / 1.f .Jv 7'' :r."/ 7 (Indonesia) tJ T y·· (Canada) 7 / y·· (Rwanda) . Countries Ca Qital Cities • 1. .A � 7 1) 7 (Australia) .f .. :1 ."/ "::1 7·· 7. • · 7 b A 7 lv �-· b.f 7 / y· (Holland) 1 / Jv F i-. A7 "::1 (Singapore) (Czech) (America) (Sweden) 7 /.. (Vietnam) "/ / tf . ry :I.. 7 7 F Jv (Ecuador) (Mexico) /...'A .X .. 7 .f 7 / �'' 3..' A .=..� T L.�·· • • D.1) tJ ....::.7· / • • 1 / F • · � � / ""' 7 · tJ 1 o · A r '/ 7 * Jv b. / y·· 1. 7 (Bosnia) . 7 7 7 Jv / 7°. 7 y 7 -r :/ 7 .. Word Search-Find the following country names in the box of katakana . Match each country with its capital city..I..f . .Jv / '\ / y 1 :J" lJ 7 J_ 7 7 F 1 l _. 8 . Jv tJ -r y·· .:::1...' y·· � 1 7 . A 7..A r 7 ) 7 _:.:\=..:.t.t.. ...A }' 7 1) 7 ...( Jv c lJ * A. :I.( 71 (Thail and) .. :/ 7 1 Jv 7 :1 7 -f: lJ 7'' 7 0 7 7 ..� 7 · . 7 • ? � / r / DC . 7 v ..Jv 1. . .f � ? • 2 . .C.:r..X :1 1 7""' :1 r 7 -r y·· L.. tJ -}.. S/ Jv (Brazil) .. . . :.. / F . "".t. .f.7 7 � / tJ'' .

..-.:7 � / ..- CD Name Tags Write your name in the box below and make your own name tag.-- .-.. Put the katakana in the right order to make sense.r -. . - 3 ..i -tt A.1.-.:\=.to .:A' .-. Example: 1. ( ) ... =.. ' Example: ? 1 7 Jv ® Reading Practice Mary wrote about the things below.-- 2.A C0 ti· 7 L -r·-t o ti· 7 L --c·--t o t i' 7 L t � Gb � . .::J. v .• .:: n t:i b t� L C0 -1=. 1. / S/ .-- -.- 6.. .. r /- �7- � 7-� -.l - -...-. 3.-....:::.:z.-- 7° 7 - 4.E. / � 5.� � .� A.t C0 . Find out which item she wrote about.

2.I.000 ¥8.:: n u ::..:: n t.i � Y' .::·· (?) L: L J: l: Ji:> � i --lt lvo 7 7 / A . . o ( ) . h' 1. L (?) L: "C lv L � --c-.000 ® Writing Practice Write about the things you or your classmates own. ( ) . \ --c-· -t 3. o ::t .:: n t.::·' (?) L: L J: "(•' T 0 4.A � 7 ' ) 7 (?) L: "C lv L � --c-· -t o t:. lv � /v (J) L: L J: "C" To � A """ 1 / . f � '/ / � 1v (?) < -J --c-· -t o t: ti /v (?) < --? l: � Ji:> 1 '7 ' � i -lt lvo ) T (?) < -J "('' T 0 (a ) (b) (c ) (d) g) (e ) (f) (g) (h) tiiJ ~ ¥50.i b t:.--. c ) . Use Mary's sentences i n ill as a model.

i.> . t: -.... 7:t. .a c. ( ./ 7:..... 'ft: 'ft:a ( 0 'Y t:: '\" 7 ) six hundred 'ft: -B. ) two � 1S£ . -tj. -:J ) seven ( 2) --1:::' * ( '5/ 1.: .. ( 1 1..{.. / -l! 1 ) first-year student -"':) (U' t "':)) one --B._.{.i.b -:J tJ� tJ Y) two days . (-If/) three �� .t.... 7:t..::_ "':) ( . (three) J: � J: �* ( -!fY Y) three o'clock 3.Y ) eight o'clock -'"'.. .J- ( o 7 ) six 'ft:* li ( o 7 Y) six o'clock 'ft: "':) ( u -:::> "':) ) six (six) (4) ..�\ 'Y c: '\" 7 ) eight hundred "'"':) (� -:::> "':)) eight "'� (l\ 'Y -!f 1 ) eight years old ( 2) / /"- ...i_ ( J: ..Y) seven o'clock (seven) - --t- .. 004 .. * l \(�t) O)tt l \fJ\-:J Daily Life -1 1• £J . / -1! 1 ) second-year student .) seven --1:::' "':) ( 7:t. 007 .J. -:::> -:J) three (3) ....::_ E M C ./ _...(J\:f-) eight /\.( 1 1-) one V' 'C - -1 / ' -* ( 1 1.i...(1 •y 'f'/) one minute Cone) 002 ..{.:f..... Y) t\'VO o'clock :::_ Jf..:::...."':) ( lJ.....:::.Y) one o' clock Jf-..( o 'Y '1' / ) six minutes l . .cM3 il I 001 L E s s 0 N ..::_ ( .. .- 1!9 005 J: -.:::.- .. .. _.� -:J -:J ) five (4) - T 11 ) �� ... - (1) - v):\t: (two) '# 003 ( 2) :::_ * (. ( -1j....b t "':) ) two . (four) -:::l � l?E* ( J:: Y) four o'clock l?E ( J:: lv ) four l?E�.. -.."1- /� / \ '') -'(-' -.. /-1z 1 ) fourth-year student l?E f] ( 'V 7J '/ ) April '[9 "':) ( J: -:::> "':) ) four (5) 1 n V1 vq \!9 A 006 \ \ "':) (five) o? 0 '/ A* ( :f Y ) five o'clock 1i ( -:J) five A "':) ( l.. /-1! 1 ) third-year student 3.... .. (eight) "'* (. .J-> "'- � 1- i'i � --t 008 --1:::' ( :V 1-/ 7:t.

* On this chart.( � /) thousand .:t ? v . ?) ten +� ( S/ '. /) circle (yen.:t ''J (ten) �B + C'V ::z.I.:: 0)-:>) nine (2) (nine) } 1L +at ( S/ ::z. circle) (4) l n rJ P3 a� v � .-1.(-IT y -it y ) three thousand eight thousand (thousand) 1- 7j 014 7/ -7j ( 1 1... ? 'V) ten years old ten o'clock ::z.7 S/) nine o'clock 1L � ( ::f ::z. . y ) one hundred yen P3 ( x.::z. \ '>' � /) (3) ..::t ? :: :: o:> 7 ')r.:1=.. / a P3 c �:: .p x.S/ ) one o'clock 1-1�<1>* ( .:: c' <b 0) c � ) in one's childhood at � C c � c � ) sometimes attt c 1. ( ..:=. 7 > -r eight hundred - T n A a 012 + 013 -t / -ii / ' -1. + a V ..... ? ) nine 1Lat ( ...-7 1 > watch GOl 1 n R a a- a..a� ( 1 1.. katak ana indicates the on'yomi [pronunciation originally borrowed from Chinese] and hiragana indicates the kun 'yomi [native Japanese reading] .vt (...:=.7 ) three hundred l:: -1' :7 t:• -1' 7 t:' -1' 7 (hundred) a ( t: """a (6) �a (o '/' c 1" 7 ) six hundred C-'\ '>' c: .. � (time) .J- IF- a:!= a. ..7 ) hundred ...:: . ::!- . ? ¥ /) one hundred thousand a7i C t: .a (-IT y t:• . + ( c :to) ten + . (q:. ? -IT1 ) nine years old 1L-..¥ /) ten thousand + 7i ( S/ ::z..009 ft 010 01 1 ..) . 7 y /) one million (3) - (ten thousand) -y 7j P3 015 ./ -IT 1 ) (2) ..

. ¥42 .l�O)** � 1J'Iv u ttlv u�5 (Kanji Practice) (1) / '\ i A Read the price of the following items ' n kanji and write it i n n u m bers. Example: 1. Write the following prices i n kanji. ¥ 6 .::7 1Z9 -T P3 (¥ ) + -=. 500 ¥ 5 . Example: 1 .::7 . ¥ 8 . -T 1Z9 a .� / n 1- (2) � lv T � s 1i. + P3 2 . 420 � li.=. 070 6 . 200. ¥ 140 5 .:=. 000 .3 ::I v . -t. + P3 (¥ (3) � t C1) (4) 7 v t:·) (5) -f-/ s P3 \ . ¥ 168 . ¥30 4 . (¥ 7 ) /� 3 / 0 0 0 00 D OCa:t!Il 0 0000 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 00 --t + . ¥ 3 . ¥ 57 ' 000 ' 000 8 .P3 (¥ ) B. 190 3 . 000 9 .CD . . ¥ 251 7 .

t. -l: at t : B � ::.t To -'"-at t : f ' \ \I:J� \ � \ '\ � .i � � t � ::. Use the above passage as a model.± .t ::. -1::.t To + . i To -? t...t \ " t : t.t To + ::...:: " - t: - � <1) h .l . Read the passage n to find out about his schedule and f i l l in the blanks below. To � � li 1Z9 a� t :: � L J: -h � lv --c-.� � �.-��- -.t l lv � J: h .at t : t : t l /v . t. at . ·r.� h .·�-'' 7:00 ( 9:00 ( 4:00 6:00 ( ( ) ) watch TV ) go to the university ) eat lunch ® � < �� (Writing Practice) fJ' :tl.v � . -? '!? � -h 3t � .z.A international exchange student writes about his daily routine.� � at ::1 . . ..t To .&6 :: .t To .:'' t ..fvlt�-P5 Write about your daily routine.::·' � � /v � J: 3_ -? L .t To � r..� --- -.....t To Jt.t To + * t:: 7 v t:. t L t.i lv � t � .:-­ !i li J:> tl .::-.-· -.::.-.. at � t : t:_' \ " -h� < �-.

f.....} (fire) j(Bi E (tJ 3 ? TJ) Tuesday j( (U) fire (4) • .J3 ( 1 1.. Ji\ � ) Japan 8 �c C. 'Y :¥.1.� lv (-\b * <b t � lv) Mr. � y� * 7 ( OZJ.. ( .. 1 �f 7J<. *-Hi E ( -'E 7 3 ? lJ) Thursday .::::. / 3.3 ? TJ) Sunday � a ( ? 1 ...) money A A b (gold.:: . basis) * ( * �) book 8 *� ( .. • b �B1l 8 ( :¥..f':J jf" J J1 020 "'::)� (moon.... (tree) J 7] 7f 7]<.:::. sun) (4) I n A E a * (......:::..:::..: 0) V t ) this person -A... * �) Japan * 018 . month) J3 (-::::> � ) moon (4) .. ( � ) tree -t * * (4) � 3fi I .. J1 lf-la 8 ( 7 '/ 3 ? tf) Monday a *A..::..(•4• I 016 )<]7 1) -ZfvO)l.../ f..Jvp5£J M ary's Weekend L E s s 0 N .'/ (./Ms. ( -l].:::..} =.7 � .-A..A 1 3 ? tf) Wednesday (water) (4) * 023 -t.} � ::=.. money) (8) / 4-. 4J 017 E 7.j\ / t � (book. � ) three people (2) J /.f..-.. Ji\ � :I) Japanese language tL*...13 * 021 tJ 7. ( .f' 8 B1l 8 (.. f) water J<... Yamamoto (5) - I :t * * A 019 �/ 7.� 4.:: 0 A..:!: OYu') Mother's Day a * (. 7]<..:::. * � y � ) Japanese people .� .:::. .� 3 ? tf) Friday � � (:BiJ>b."('' ( V t IJ t:) alone (person) J...-) every day � (?) 8 Ui �..:::.ni a ( ..� . 1-. a (� ')' tJ ) three days (day.. 022 7..jj '/ ) January ) n Jj ....) diary 3...

f' ( -lJ. /) half 17 p tP (half) (In (5) ' . � � this chart. i'J ::l :7 ) China tf tf7 ( � iP) inside S/ ::t 7 tf7 ¥: ( 1.� ( � 3 i'J A � ) good at �_t ( .f--$3'" (J \ / 7. �"' �3 �3 Bf3 llf? !!¥ " �1¥ IPtl Bft r ( G t:=. i'J) all year around (4) ' (3) ~ -=-*.) * ..f.::t 7 (middle) J\/ 028 ~ 029 iJ: h · 7 00 ( 1.>' � J \ >') half past three ..:=.t :7 � 3 '? ) rooftop }J:_ I n A B B..::1. If' � B". katakana indicates the on 'yomi and hiragana indicates the kun 'yomi. 7.. I _t 08) 027 � Lt (3) l ( -? . t 'l..:.L4.:Z.::1.J. i'J 71 :7 ) junior high school -Jflf' ( 1 1.) under :t1Br�� ( 1.r=t 'Y ) subway T T r f � ( A. ) top.3 i'J Lf) Sunday (weekday) S/ 3 7 (up) 7J I X. above .t) poor at � (down) f. / � ::1.024 ± 025 026 --J i? (soil) 37 F ±" 8 ( F ::r i'J lf) Saturday ± (-:::> iS ) soil (3) + ± HI _t r 8"8 (.

Look at the picture and choose the appropriate kanji for the blanks. -n \' < 1'' . 1.l i/-v�'c 1 /v � � h 1J \ J) -:r � "'-:i( J: -7 t � • • I . 8 Hi 8 . Bi 8 · · Saturday B. 8 *". . _t r � 1.::·· � IJ' . 2. fPJat .::z � 7 / 0 --c·· -t --c·· -t 0 0 CltL � I� ��I 0 0 0 � ? U -������� � � � ����* ��o Read the memo and answer the questions.v o !Lst � �" J-. 7f. 1.i J h'o -t h'o Jh'o (-:_ A 1 +±..(. n'Z 1) 19 ( t t r�·-t? t r�\ . v . 3 . 4.-t. /..� * � tJ: v . -7 i? ·-c.::z � 7 / 0) :::: .. BI 8 • • Friday 7. 6 0 -t � ::.!\.tJ: v .. �B� 8 • 3.tf � . \' .i ::. -*.CD ��0)**� (Kanji tNv v nlv v'P? Practice) · Sunday · Monday · Tuesday · Wednesday · Thursday • A.::·· tJ: � � t � . -? :: 1 3..i (L A. � 7 1} .B . ry .::z � 7 / tJ: t:' Jv O) (building) "C" 't 0 2.' lv � J: I L 1 r 1 t] -. 7_}(Bi 8 • 2. ± Hi 8 6.. J1 0i 8 · 5.� � Cj � J: J t: t ::: � L .::z . Match the kanji with the English equivalents.

�-5 Practice) A. B IJ " Gb � � t: V' � l .< store 11> i sweet bun late Arrange the following activities i n the order Mary did. went to a restaurant 1 . i.< t.nfJ" G .i L t: 0 E Blf E U: t. Write about your weekend.i L t : o 0 b t: L ti � � 7 v e-· � h .. � lv t }.1 L t: \ 0 t < � � h.:: 7 .i L f o � --c· t: t t=-· "t t: U: ij: L ..i L t: o . ( ) -7 ( ) -7 ( ) -7 ( ) -7 ( ) 3 ." � � � t t. .::·· . Write a memo to someone in your house.::·· ti � � t � . i. bought sweet buns 5 ."' � � 1 : o L t: o h -tt ·-c-· B .lj. -tt 1.i L t : : t J: . v A. � .i L t : .:> ""' "' \ � . r 7 / � \ ' � . i. watched TV 2 . telling when you will be back and whether you w i l l have dinner at home. � .i L t o *­ II h -tt }.:: 7 . /.t i. : � Bff E t : E *'-� CI) t: t t:: � t: . j: L f: o o i. went to a park ® � < **� (Writing iJ' ft/vl. studied Japanese 4 . You are going out. B. "'C ?.i L t: o : u: - ± a1 a � "'C'' t.< }.i L t: o t: < � � t � .i � t l1l 7 � 1J" "' .n IJ" G .Read the following passage about Mary's weekend.i L t : t.::·· ti a *-� � � � � : 7 L .t � t : \ ' � .

...L ( 7 Y -lJ. lB !vtJ:· Ct::: AAJ:) rice field (5) l n m m m (rice field) ... private) - 035 �� 036 {t.. sJ ~ 031 032 �� -+}.t:= ( T >'::f) weather ( 7 >.. _..:::l ? ) heaven - (heaven) bt L � � (I.�� - ( 7 Y ::f i:t ) fine (origin) (4) - 033 r jt �� ( T Y ::f) weather � ft./ �� �00 (4) ..... � 7 037 \\� :1 / (now) ::' t � (t-) * ) now �B)t ( ::1 >' J 'i >') (4) / A A ......�� ( 7 >' ::f � ) fine � � ( T >' ::f ) electricity (6) (spirit) 034 j. Yamada !..P � lv ( t::: i:tiP � lv) Mr. Ogawa (3) } )I (river) Jl] 1-f:...(•5il I 030 OJ:Z: 5 Travel L E -�t./ (mountain) IJ>b t... ._.L (3) s s 0 N ... priYate university - 1 � 5f 5fl. ) I {t./Ms. Tanaka t....LlB � Iv (� * t � lv ) Mr..J�JJJ � lv (i Lo"b � lv ) Mr.b) river ..8 tonight b 7 m t � lB../Ms...k � ( V l) '/ :7'1 7i ? ) (7) r "ft.....� b ' ( � * ) mountain 'i... : � Jl] (ip.±t. Fuji l J_ � JJ] JG � ~ _../Ms._ c: � 7\ � . (b t::: L..t..5f� ( � J: 7 ) today 4'..:ir..>' ) Mt. ft.

.·ti ( � 3 � 1 ) woman (3) 1...-.. katakana indicates the on 'yomi and hiragana indicates the kun'yomi. Jt 1T 042 � -- :J t) (to go) ./ (to see) 'v ' )L {> ( � 6 ) to see JL4!o ( 7 / 7.:: y· './ (to drink) ftt: (O)ti') to drink � .:« 6 ) to eat iZ....:: O) l} c ) man � '11: ( 7·>-'� 1 ) man ' n m fR m m -:] (7) � Jt 041 7J.13 c . ( .: "".:L ? / 7 /) drunken driving (12) / /' A- 4 4i � 1 i 1' � j? ti: On this chart.::: {> ( t.t � :/ 3 (woman) }) � .:4!{. ll...13 /v iJ:' OYU' t ) woman -J./ (man) -!J:(J)A.:f 3 ? ft \ ( It � < ) to go }LZ1t ( � / :r '/) bank (6) -1t EJ ( -1 1.=¥ 3 ? �) first line . ( t.k7J-4!o (0)� � 0)) drink �. :!t:: ~ 040 � (J)A_ (. 7 '.k�l§ii*� ( 1 / V .'/) sightseeing (7) I n R "" E1 .) ..� 0)) food :: (9) / /'� + 1'" � � j k (J) 1 '. �37 (to eat) 1z..-.038 '* 039 f> A. / { 1- r {t 1zy ( v 3 7 r: ? ) cafeteria + + ~ 043 t :.

X.:: � 2.8 ti �.• (e) t: 0) 1. � 9.li S ( ( ( ) ) ) . Match the following sentences with the pictures.. 5.. 'n� � Jt :i T o ' ) / '> / / '... � . ) � O) A � 3t" O)A_1J>' I.. i? ( i ) t. ( ( ( ) ::r - l:: - 6. � 1. 3. ( ( (a) -a 1L 8 .� (c) � �.. 8.. 1. b 8.8 . Match the kanji with the reading. 10.� (d) � }.:: + a 4. \ t.� {j) J: -) t.� �"" :i T o ) � � J ! J IJ >' JIJ ry .i T o ) 4'. 7. ( +a �8 3.:: . 1.. . 1. . \ . ffi Jz � j h :i To B. (g) C. � (k) J: "? (f) tj: � t...:: 0) 1J � (h) 7.. . 8 1[9 8 11 .-jf . L (g) . 1. :ttlv vtP? (Kanji Practice) Example: § -> Jt 3. ' t::. Using the parts below.:: a 9. 7. 5. 4. �. � 1.J lO . ( ( ( ( (a) ) X.. 2. (f) m � 2.· \. 6. ( ( ) ) f\.i To ) ��{j" t : {j" � . .. ( ( ( ) ) ) 3. "? t.CD �*0)**� n' 1v v A.. � t. 6. make up the correct kanji.8 --t. � t. � (b) .i To �J(. � 5.• . � � 'vr· T o -o: ' I ' 1 (b) � (e) (c fS? ) (d � � ) ) ) 1.

pcA. castle again J: � night J: f: .f-··t" J') v i ! L J:? f:l.vfl �0 \19 E H � tJ't LJ � -q 1 1� s. � 5 �����S���� ������ * � �o Read the postcard below..: but }. L . 'C 1 t> �4K'v r( Gf� f( < � lv L� GA.. 6. � \ J:. .''1 -n'-'.�{->-'. :::1 / -tj.'VJ <7) J y-t{-�( � {1 =f � J:. 3.v ' � '1) 1J 7:z:-( :J -!::. ('� 1.��J+� io lr.r! t:t?-t't � 0 ) l � h L.ti../ 4 .� .'l. ( 4. ( ( ( ) see an old castle ) take pictures ) enjoy sweets 2. -//'7 r�-r.. (used in letter writing) .· i '71. fu�'t'i 1] ' :ft>-t j. n """ � J: Mr.l � � \ � . 7 7 � ·') 7 .\. 3. ' �l JCA..A Match the following katakana words with the English equivalents. ::r . 5. tJ 7 :r.. 5.'k t I) J: lt� l k Li.� t1<"4:q r··ctt. . -t)t'1 'L �L\ \ l 9 'J-1'__.i Lt� 1) .. ( ) go to see a ballet ) drink beer at the cafe ) eat at McDonald's J-t-? ::_ � /v l'. Write T for the things she did or does and write F for the things she didn't or doesn't do in Vienna.Y t � l l fJ1'1... 1 .-1) .'('( < � f.-ytJ: r1 -t 21-l'. 7-� coffee · cafe · classical · concert · Vienna B.-Q\_.vtf) tJ c1 io l./Ms.. LJ�o l...t - · cake • 2.:� � YL. 1. ( 6. io :. < ( i\ft1\tft2-5 � J l l J. 1-1 ).o 0 ° o 0 o 0 0 0 o D .. 7 1 .

.. 1.�o t�· n c: L � L t:: i. ::. 0 / '\ .::_ t : lt \ � T i. . tough }.... C') t. � a t.z. .... ft. � mountain "'(" U:. � C') -) LJ: � t : � L � L t:: tJ� o B � � b C')�� t 4..l � t : � L � L t:: i.:o Read the postcard below and answer the following questions in Japanese..t c:·· 7 "(·· --t tJ�o D - . OJ\.j...}' � . f \..{.... 'j: � (:'' . ... � o 2 . (:''. � o 3.__ ..� o 5.C. � � � "(•' '"f i. � -c:· Take care. . c:!fv=5 1c:t1:i'-rr 1J: i'J'n-* u t.{.

r 36-8 C< i ( l ::..i rtt L l � . Copy their addresses on the postcards and write about your vacation..:A.i .i <· t..P I'P <h i i. L th7'L � . ' ' L h·.r 0 $ JR J.:._ t: h·-r ..� T753-004 1 T 1 1 2 -0002 � .. -t 'WJ Jj_· i :t 1i. JO J I J 7-7 . J:. J. m .-J--. t.b x * fK.® 5< **� (Writing Practice) n' :ttlvul1>5 The following are your Japanese friends' addresses in your pocket notebook.

. 7§ ) right ' .. ) south mo ffijft_ (7 >' 1-..L 'J � ::.) attendance �ill ( :..5 ( it ::7 -lz 1 ) (6) - O.J.� .) east ** ( }.? * ::7 ) Tohoku region . ( -lT :L '/) right and left (5) J r- (right) :{-.Jh{ L r? (east) �: jfto (u':b� l. f'7 -A § if1 -* � L -+J.!:= }i ii... <·· t:> ) north exit (5) . 7.t. (' i?) west exit northwest r 5 (tJ >'-lf1 ) Kansai region � 1 n 5o iF1 Vt1 8 ( 7}. f:t . i.\'' t:> ) exit (l" � ) to exit Cti-9) to take something out ( � ::z.. <-· i? ) east exit jJt ('U-:6'> l. 'Y -lz 4.£ ('U-ti I'J ) left ii.�JT (-lf-lz '/) left turn (5) - r . '/ ) export + t-p tl: tB 1 * 051 7o (7}.J...) north jft.j..� 7o E.....lo�Jl...t 7}.t.. -!-- 1-1-- 3-t 048 :: t := if\ :7 (north) * 'J ( � t. ) north exit .:.:..3 ? ) Tokyo (8) .t.£:{. :! :! . 0 ( � t.( ? -lz '/) right turn .: l.(M6R I 044 L E s s 0 N .) west .? 4.t.!j..'/) southeast (9) 3-t..�it ( * ':J tJ 1 F ? ) Hokkaido - n � n F1 f!j rn . -T / (south) m ( .L " / (to exit) � ::� 7 ::L tJ ill � ill T ill !$ (5) ill o (·c...J. o ( S/ Y -::1 ?) population ( < t:> ) mouth \ n 0 (mouth) (3) ttl 050 "(" t :: � ::.. :!t <-.:.. � ::z. . 7:t 7}. c:J: fA0) 9�f l/A � 5Y My Favorite Restaurant 61 jft 045 7...t o 0 049 \ i? -::I t] 0 ( � t (' t..J.... ( 1-.Jt · ry :: -+t (left) .1 ~ 046 -1? 1 (west) 5 O. A. <-· t:> ) south exit m 047 Jj..J........: l.

:) ahead 1t 054 �/ � '.052 ~ 053 7/ 7" / 7" / 3i. "/ ) last week (6) � (ahead) )- H- � 1- JL ~ 055 �1 J �37 7t: � ( -l! Y -l! 1 ) teacher j:_ l h � ( ? * n � ) to be born -� t : t..( � 7' "Y) oneself / /'-. -$i.( � ::z. 'Y 7""Y) ten minutes 2f--jj. :1 '" ...� -::1 '7 < t: -::1''7 7'�00 ( jj 1 :1 7 ) foreign courttry o/ 00 ( 1.� (outside) 7'H� (jj 1 1 7 ) foreign country 7'H�A... ( jj 1 :1 7 � "Y) foreigner 7'� ( ..) . :Jl :.j. (minute..r 058 �r m 1f1 -t.: 1 1...( -::l 7 "Y) five minutes -f--jj. to divide) (4) /. katakana in dicates the on'yomi and hiragana indicates the kun'yomi.::C t ) outside (5) / � :..n once in a life time ' #.� ( jj 7 -l! 1 ) student �--�� U t .l.� (jj 7 -l! 1 ) student (birth) (5) � J- 1- 4 � :7'' 1 * 056 }.-$t 7t: t : ( � � �. }.t�) to study ¥tt (7J '>' :1 "/) school (8) ' Oearning) .(!\ "Y 7' "Y) half § -$i.:) country (8) (country) l n i1 Ff1 M � J$1 00 (In this chart.::z.i ::k� C :Y 1 }J 7 ) university #. \ ( ii:t3 � v �) big ::kA (:to t �) adult *� � ( 7' 1 . :7 1 (big) jf-7 *� � C :Y 1 }J 7 -l! 1 ) college student ::k � \.r-. � � � r m-.. :.t ( 1 / v 3 "/ �. "/ :1· 7 ) China 00 ( < �.� 7t:� ( -l! Y -l! 1 ) teacher 7t:il! ( -l! Y V :::r.. "Y�) tough (3) r * � � 057 jf•J � i..

Iv ld. t£ """' + � \•' � \. What can you do for the winter break (from December to January)? . D � ttl "{ ' � -r <·· li. '1T � "{ \ f�' -:: \. who are you going to contact? 2. . Indicate where each place is located on the map..' --c-· To 4. 1. ( ( ( ( ) v . Combine the following kanji and make compound words. How do you get to the concert hall? 4. ) : � � C') Jlt o � ttl --c . : J.:: -) � lv : 5o � 1 T <·· + li. 3. E B. . ' a [e) b a . j:_ (J) -) i.fv (Bulletin Board) Look at the bulletin board on the next page and answer the q uestions. D � ttl "{ . � station lo exil d.f --c-· T o 0 ) o 1 -t Jv * 7 Jv ) tL T 7[. 2. 7J" <·· � '. If you want to buy a bicycle.CD �*0) �� (Kanji Practice) 1J'Iv (j niv u�5 A. 7J" <·· � '.i "? -t <·· straight CD clv C. .'-r·-r 'o 7o """'+ 7J" <·· � '.� A. 1 .t... Where will the party be held? Are you going to bring anything? 3.z r 7 / · 7 Jv7� / 7 : � � C')tf' t: JtJ ry 1 � 1 -r o ffl D (J) f t. ( 5. You can use the same kanji more than once.'rr � "'C < t�' -:: '- ) :k_ ¥ : Jt.

b 7-..) fl§::J :J-Ij-.. : 6 a�'"""" � t t�. 000 � t .\.) .t--.h.A 7 4 7° C 1:: 7' 7 A � L l -li. \.H L.. -r ( t � \. 7 1 -j 11 ( + . 0 7 � "-' I I �) 597.Z. ......T l ! � k [il� · ��� ! 7J.. .* . \ � � � J l J C1) f {.� \.-.� � "':) n --c � --c t �...l 1 2 El (�) I .t.' � �.:" a.A .. 200 P3 A -c 'Y � B -c '/ � 6 : 30 .t.? :J 7/��-v --c � --c < t::.1 65 1 �m t iJ. \ �.:.=:. /.i \. L..::: J3 -=-+/' 8 C 8 ) '"""" .. \ --c-. 9 3 7 . t C1) � t -(9'J:P:JvA t--.' Jft:tt Cl) l � "C'' . \ o 9 F. :::1 .L -r < r:.f"("To .t .' -3.-ret � ( J:: � 0 "1"' Aw t> L.It\-) v CflBIR 3 ttl o � t±:rc �" 3 :11) x� . • ( -tt 7 y-(" \' / :::1 ..2 6 8 2 ¥ 20.\ . '.J3 .Z. 8 (±) � .

\ 1 7 :/ t....... / 0 t? (}) � '- l ) 7 - - -- 'v \ ""? t � J: 7 � cooking always everyone h � � lv A. Read the passage and answer the questions... - - . \ \... t:o j: \ \ r.lp """"' / :/ ' .t t:::.7 £. < r. \ lv 1t \ \ 7 � L / :t 7 � t '{'' '}. T ' t: t � t:::.� A.. . l) � v t T / 1 1 1k t: }. t: T "(' ' l) \. ... 7 0 0 A v 1i 'A � 7 v ..fl. - Ttl 0 te - 0 ' - � J � � l .i 7 A \\ � 7 � � / r"(' � / .. ' � - - 0 . 0 - � 0 1i.. \. � © .. � \\ l < - '{ � � 0 0 lv - � - J T T 0 � t. Where is the restaurant? I � . \ T ::L --::::> A 1 � � A...Mary writes about her favorite restaurant. . I I I I @ @ X.i j: � \. \ lv (}) v T "(' L -+f T :t t. 4 @ N ® . 0 ' � r1 7 ( v / G '{'' t.i \\ T '{'' 1 T A. � IJ� � lv � lv t � � ?p '""" '- 0 < A....7 / T '""" :/ U: (}) t j: � l � }. \ � 7).fl. ry (}) � t: - �L (/) � ! II T � 7 ' . .. lv '{ r.i \. 7 t 7 / 1 '{ "(' 7 t. :t '{'' l t � T '< T 1 'v 7 J L lv '{'' 7 '{'' / � � "(' � \. . ' . -$1' ' ' . T - 0 '{ Cf) ...

what time it starts. how to get there. C: 4f o . .B . Write a flyer about the party. and so on. B. 7 1) A7 - - L. A " '\' 7 ''J T 1 e:-· - 7 -1 7. Choose the correct answer. where it is held.:\=- C. Be sure to i n c l ude: what kind of party it is. '7 -1 / Jv . Circle the food or drink the writer has at the restaurant. You are organizing a party. ® � < •m (Writing Practice) tJ' hlvu�P? A.. what to bring. Write about your favorite restaurant.

(child) J 7- �J" i? \ \ Y' 3 tl >J ...f . � _.f± }..t> � lv ) mother 1. 065 (father) tJ: U: (4) / -: y: }.._ ..>J .f: 1 ( 1. ) father X-liJ: ( 7 �) father and mother / ..:> � .3 '7 ) Tokyo -*::M� ( 4.. lJ C) !J) iff Ti5J � l t:::.:> l � . ············ 1 1 060 �� OS) . ._ 1061 062 Y' -T c:·· t c c: c-· � ) child -*-T ( 4....._ n _...} Mary's Letter L E s s 0 N .� �± 5( :f$:f± ( � >' � -v) shrine (7) - %:f (7J 1 � -v ) company ± (company) 7 � .3 '7 C: ) Kyoko ±0-T (:10/v � O) C: ) girl � 0-T ( :10 t C: 0) C: ) boy �-T /.. � \ \ ( 1. -Jv (f>' V J. ._ _...:1=.) Kyoto (8) _..3 '7 1.) small ·+�� ( V s '7 ff 'Y ::I '7 ) elementary school + �� ( � 3 '7 7f 7 -12 1 ) elementary school student (3) J .J ... (:10 t ? � lv) father 1? 1? 7 t: 7 X ( i? 1.) expensive. %:f± ( 7J 1 V -v ) company % 7 ( . \t :) � \t ::._ Jf:-T ( 4. (:JoiJ)... h� ::r t] � \ \ ( t� iJ�"::. .3 7 jf._ \ _... high �� ( ::1 '7 ::1 '7 ) high school �.(•1 • I 059 )<]7 1) -�fvO)-c_j]\(f.t. -Jv) e-mail (3) _..f+ . X � h....-li): � h..3 '7 C: ) Kyoko (capital) '� ._ p _.. > "'i _.>1 student -is" TlJ '*" lnJ --5' loJ (high) '* � ..fst� ( ::I '7 ::I '7 -12 1 ) high school 00} 1 � .f.�� w/Jj 066 if ' -liJ: � ( � :2') mother tongue (5) -liJ: ( �j: �j:) mother (mother) L.'7 4...t> ? ) to meet %:f± Yl (7J 1 V -v 1 Y) office worker (6) / A A b (small) � n1 % 063 064 (to meet) Y' � :/ � -� 4-...

( -lT 7 7· / ) composition Y:.i- - """ � 1 Tt '::" Q Q �T �1i 'P 'P �li... � (v>tt . 1 :1·) English (language) ' .:1 7 ) going home (10) ::::.) every day �� ( 7 1 V ::1.. ? ) import / l 1 ) IJ' IJ"" �r l)P �fa. katakana indicates the on'yomi and hiragana indicates the kun 'yomi... ':7 ff 'Y :1 7 ) junior high school (10) - (school) '7 1 ( every) �· (6) � E ( 7 1 �1-.Z .A � (ktlt> .. li 1ii 4i (word) 7'' / (14) 070 • 071 X Y:. � � � 'P 'PI "n l>O (sentence) -�.. 7 ) every week �B ( 7 1 1'\ / ) every night )t / � t t t f {"'..R (ff 'Y :1 l:'J ) school �:f...c �) letter.::I. �f!.::z. ..R ( :1 ':7 :1 ry ) high school �..067 068 tt JiJ: -�n t'O :1 rJ �:f. � ::z. � ( 7.Q ) to enter .. :t.. � (to return) ti \ \ \ \ ry I.::L r] (to enter) ..::t 072 l)� A 1}� � (ip .::r. � ( .Q ) to return 1}�00 ( 4".) .� i.A.ft..fX� ( :1 ? :1 ? -e 1 ) high school student 4' �.:$.� � t7 � 069 E . \ (4) 7 .fX ( 1.�� �w (2) A (In this chart.� ( � * / :1·) Japanese (language) 00 *� ( .AD ( It ) � <· is ) entrance .A (. / ff 7 ) literature 1'F Y:. character l .Q ) to put something in �.

. _.:ll(. What's wrong with the kanji below? Rewrite the correct kanji.CD ��(l) **� tNv L/ tl.. � -r- -sTCiJ -=..1F. x A. Fill i n the blanks with the appropriate kanji.� t. 1. 1z "" t 0 t..� }. To � X: 4it A. -ll} -::-£ t'O 2. 0 � C. 8 :.± � * �: .± J: �:fj. 1. £}: 2. t. _. � 4. 8 :.$.$.J? � < h ). *- � l f� o :ti. � � = __ j To ry 4 .. Jf6.. 3 � X � 3. 8. 5.lf-. _.i B. Which new kanji from this l esson include the katakana below? Example: 1. l)* fA . r> -b TPJ 3...fv u�5 A..l- 4. 3. � To -liJ: iJ� -? t -r. L. '(.

Iv 1t "'"'1. I I I I I I ! t . t: i" {> iJ' � t::· t : � � '"? tt .' � I a little all from .. 0 L h. to take care of oneself . ( "'"' � ) t:.P \ cram school literature to take (a class) to look forward (to) X ey: r . .I I I I I I l-r ' i I I I I I II I i" � L 7-J. .

.Summarize what Mary wrote about the fol lowing topics in Japanese.tp? A. :f" <J) l -. Her town: 3..lv L. t. host family. Write letters to your Japanese friends... a * '. Sister: 6.t/:f" <J) OO t:i ------- 2. t.t : ------ B.t __ __ ___ _ __ __ __ __ __ ___ _ ___ _ __ ___ _ _ __ _ ___ _ __ ___ 4 . Brother: 7 . 1 . ?::: t t · -. Father: 4. Mother: 5 . Write about the following topics. Describe your town. 1 . and so on. J ap an: 2 .. friends. School: (!) �J < �� fJ' tl. b · � < t.t ------ 3.

../') newspaper � 7'' / fifl < ( � < ) to listen (to listen) (14) I r r r f r1 r 1 r... \ ( � t� I? L It �) >¥Jt�f:'� � ' .f :¥ :¥/ :¥f :¥f :¥1T >¥Jtfifl ( V >' 7'.:'7 (to make) 1-F 6 (-:J < � ) to make 1-Fx (�:7 7._ new �Ji"& ( V /' 7'' y) 1 ( V /' tJ Y � Y) Bullet Train ??r (new) U3) it i! :f ..:f ±� CtJ 1 V 'V 1 >') m � ( 7 Y 1 >') office worker store clerk (member) UO) ' rt = = 1 = n = 19 A = EJ p = � newspaper = �Jt 00 � t� � :.. (13) - ( 7 /' V 'V ) train ( 7 >' 7 ) telephone - �� ( 7 >' �) electricity (electricity) I r.. 1±* (to serve) (5) I 1 1- 11- 1± (tJ �) fire • 079 �: � = � � 1±* ( V ...( 073 E s s o N 8• I L E3 �0)��±� J apanese Off i ce Workers . -\' lfL ( < � * ) car �JfL (7'/' V 'V ) §I �JtL ( � T / V -\' ) bicycle (7) - (car) 1 n Fi t3 j§1 � .......r m=-.'T"? "i5" "i5" --.>') composition 1-F £ ( -lf :7 1:: /') artistic piece (7) I 1 ( V ..::· c ) job * ( ........... ::. M M M r Jk Jir � j j 076 1� 077 --:J \ -+J.. (thing) "i5" -=>-- "i5" --:3- • nn � 7' / � �JtL �M...- �Jf L I.....nr-> w tf> 'f!f iff 'ID' � train 080 ~ < 6 j: :..::: c ) 1' job 1� 1t 11= 1� 1± 078 :...rr r.. sj � 074 075 1:) -1 / %.....e .:: c ) thing *-* �* ( V 3 :7 �) meal (8) .

l.:... absence ( . (i.::.0 -r ( -'j / :J7i :7 ) linguistics (7) �� -=- � 083 =- �* L' ...� fi this chart... � r �% �-:r �-:1- l:B J �� 085 t:J t � �� � iB ' ��� �l il ( 7 S/ ::¥ i:t ) mysterious ' (9) ' n TT1 'Ff1 iB iB iB I� iB I� iB �� (to t> ") ) to think (to think) �"'? . � -r .f...1t 1t 1t. . \ IT / (to say) J: g 'J ( It ) ? ) to say -=.x_ ¥I * ( i. I 'h lA 086 :. / ) how many people (7) I ¥I ( T. ':7 :/ 'Y ) holiday (to rest) 1 1.. ..: ...t lv '/) what time (what) On 1 1._.....x_ ( "'? r!) next 'b 1A-f.f..:z. E (6) l ( � T u) to be absent..: ) what )y .. to rest ( � T cl}.::-' -=- rt -=- i5 . i.1 r. J J ' h 1PJ il lv ¥JA..081 082 1* .f..t �..-:1"' �-:r �.a "*' i5 . ' . katakana indicates the on 'yomi and hiragana indicates the kun'yomi.. ? i*t.) .... \..* 084 �% t-·· 7 �fe· Q4) ' ( J: u) to read ( }:' :7 S/ s ) reading books � - (to read) \ -. . � ii -a-- ii -?+ ii -?-:1ii i..:z..) holiday. i..tlv .r:: ( :/ :/ 3 ) one's second daughter (6) ' J ' (next) 1j t : .f.:.

t L .. make up as many kanji as possible. � X 3. g �Jt& � . ry � -t �-2 . .. 7 :/ . �:_ Y /7 . 1PJ � L � T ��o D t: � t:'' � T � I! .. 1 6.t: • • "'"* t. 7. a *-� t.d " v: . �� ) · "t {> tY ' 7 7 7. B*AID�tt� ���* ��o �lj>') Read the following questionnaire. Using the parts below. . J: < 1�� � L � T h "o D J: < T � :.� � � � � . 2.< l = . � · · M < · 0 {> A. 1. '. 1±· '0 �k.� · 6. :)( a 4. 1*. 6% 4. 0 B. 1 .X. ���W�-����7 ��. Example: 1.r 0 I ' 3 .± }.\ c:: 5 . 2 . Match the following phrases with an appropriate verb. 11: . 1± * '0 A r v A �� 1. * m 5.f � · 3 . 7J v ..CD ��OJ�� tNv Li n lv v�? A. 'llll � : . 1±· � .

. t: M � . t J: It£ n --c '-' " � i7.:<.i To .. � �n-M � �ft lv "'(' \ \ .i L t.: t:J "?/)· �L U: 7 / 7 . � "'(' . How would you answer the above questions? Read the report below and answer the questions..: =t � t \ ' "" h..i T i7. %:f± � +A. '""( \ \ .::. regarding to to be tired first of all '"'"' t : -? \ \ '""( �tl.f.i L t.M � L .: o . � I� \.t 7 t : :ft < J .i T 0 t3.i i" i7 "J � M � . ( :: f: .: o �A. O) %:f± � t�t. tJ: I l < . cry %:f± � tJ: � "C t t \ ' "-h.i L t o -?ir \ ' .i L t.: o --t.A.)( t : .� questionnaire stress 1� � ( �. B.7 /7. U: n� • I � 51§ � �h t::ft < J � % -? --c '-' " . \ .i L t o . E :J.ti . 11± � 0) -A � v -A IJ� � ry .lv ::· J. 1*-h iJ � � .: 1 ) '"'"' C1) �i ('"'"' C1) ib � ) overtime work after .i L t o :JL A. tJ: l tJ: .)( t: 11±� 0) ��-.. � � �..' 1J:.i f . J � M � .: o .i -1!.: "C '-' " .� � L "C ..: o .: o . E :?..:: A. tJ: I tJ � �t 7 .i To h lv t: � "( t �rt "C '-' " � � �� '-' " .f. I l < � � � L .� � f"j: -? "C .: < � lv 1±� � L ' * � t3.f. ) to answer secondly lastly B:�i t : ( � \ \ ::• t : ) ... * t : '-' " � J � § -? --c "' " .i L t. f '-' " "C '-' " h lv t: Ql "C v " .. b . G . 1*-h tJ: M t L .: 0 "( ' A � v A t s ry . A � vA . � :<A.t .(.t ....j(_ t : � .lv o 7 / 7 .. ) .: L t.i L t.: '-' "J � � .i ry t: '-' "J � % -? "C "' " .. ( -? h•tl..i T iJ� . � ill O) lfr "('' .t . � II about. '""( \ \ . A..i L t. E :J.i T i7"J � M � ..i L t o 11± � i7 � :*. O) %:f± � tj t.i -r .

---- ---- A.."i ---- A. . A. J.( a) 1±. ____ ® � < �� tJ' nlvu$5 Make a q uestionnaire and ask several people the questions. il{<b � 0 o ---- A. r v /. (b) J: < :7� � � 't � o ( c) t � t''� :7� � � T � "A-C<. write a report based on the result. Then. A. 0 7-.

. '/ ) (4) � � 1=-�l ( ::l ::i) P. ..1 7j:) famous . j 1 r 1� I'}� 1=-� ( ':1 --1! / ) .m (to write) jj: ::l. . . 1kJS ( -:) L.� ( t b t! i? ) friend =. .i\L.) I � n ll � � ij � ijl .. . .. .. . . �l:Jx.Z �..>( 1 (name) L JS � Wr (7j: i :Z) name 1f . . 1=-1k ( --:J' --:J') !::.::I.:) lastly ( &? t -c-) later (after) (9) . . 1 V ) name card (6) 8 092 g \ ' ( G -? It l) white :7 !7 � � � /\7 (white) 8 *-� (l' -7 V ) blank sheet (5) / FlU ' 093 Gb th r. ( 0) tV:> t ) after . .. . ( V / ::z. flU � ' .Lijlj .Z) name ' . . in the afternoon in the morning (noon) �� 089 -:J'' c}) � 1 L '""" <7){�. '/ � / ) friend (4) r i7 jj:_ . . ("IJ) < ) to write ( � V 3 ) dictionary .f1] ( .. (::z.. Pfu ( <:b 3fJ ) rain PfuJ't ( '/ ...i\l... (before) 090 ~ 091 � (9) � � . front .::\=. behind P. . � 3 I• < 00) (8) #. .. .ij - ( f1 A a Crain) • 094 I tJ .!..3--=- jk jk ' • • • jj:_A. ... tJ (friend) �t Jx. q:in the afternoon 1� ··(" �1l t : ( 4J..Z . .Z � ( ::z.1./ Wr ( i :Z ) before. 9� A--t5_fv0) a PG Sue's D iary C-:> � 1=088 -:J' ' 1=-mr c :t -e /) A.Z Wr (7j: i . 1� 1f 1ffi' 1� A. . 1=-mro/ ( :::t-tf / 1. '/ ) best friend - � -.=r � l - n m fh m m r..-? ) back.1 --:J' �.i\1...(•9• I 087 L E s s 0 N .! - j: . . '/ 7.) rainy season .. ..M.. .:..t .

t � t!.: i" < (little) Y 3 T/ 1' L ( T :: L-) little 1' fi \.t L-) talk.:.. I. story 1[£.100 . \ ( :: t.(:JJ 1 lJ) conversation U3) � (to speak) .::: / 7 / ) human being M ( 2b 1.M (.... ra.tj') to speak £...t � ) not to come *-11! ( 7 1 V :1.? n Y) one week U2) (between) 096 l r r r r· r1 r1 r .t � X.'7 ) next week "<7 (to come) (7) :.t l.:: at M (.� ) to know ( 1. � � 1. ft. rA..-- u � ii �\ � � � ** � � y� 099 'j" . *� ( < � ) to come 3ki i" C � * 't) to come *.:L � * * (In this chart.(.i fi L �*i" (tj:f.) between -�M < 1 'Y ':. � .7 :I ) secondhand (5) - (old) + T 71 t!1 �0 101 L 1(to know) �o � �oA.b � l.095 ra.. ' *M ( :Y :JJ /) time . \ . (8) � ( L.t l.( T / lJ ) telephone �£. .: ii . t.)� � :J l5"" \ ( .. home (10) ' l' r r--- r? � � � � � �* 098 U: li 7 t. \ C-t < i.) house �� (:h '/ 7 ) family � ( -:3 1?) house.. 097 � tJ (house) � ( l.:Y /) acquaintance ? � � !J � �� �n �0 * < 71 � .fi \. rn..) y ..Ot l.::: :Y :fJ /) two hours A. \ f:3.t �) old (for things) 'o/ l5" ( 1.: � � \ � -.. katakana indicates the on 'yomi and hiragana indicates the kun ' omi .:1../ :1.t � ) few (4) 1 f1 f1' 1' --7 ( V 3 7 V 3 7 ) a little �' t!.

.n {J c: i "? '1: \ \ t n {. a ( ± ) r-m j . " \ --- t.t.::t. \ T � -1'" '/ t.tJ: � n{� < � -.::.::·· ..n. 3.J1 . + .} � � . .. F i l l in the blanks with the appropriate kanji.± ::t.l 7 1) - Cl) .J< ( o 0 1. o L �""" 1 L t::."? - t� 0 a < '1: "' :k � � \ \ '/t t�· --? t .:'' tJ: Iv � �� t� o jS � � lv t J: I M t JtJ 0 � Jd: h-.ft.: 0) 1.l.: '' . 1 ..at -T . \ 7 .:� � . o 8 �J' m] � 8 1' ra.A. lvf.l\ A � 7 7 1) Cl) tL * � b l::: l.7· � � � l L f::.� . � 9'0 2.± t &) 1 L --c o . Choose the most appropriate word for each blank. � 1.b --c·· To � 1 To ---- -t.>( 7 1) � - Cl) � �-n.*" . 0) � 8 t::. \ \ '1. J? +.* fa. .V � � t : % --? t o � j? :X.. o L 1 To 4.� Jd: � \ \ � A. L 2.A P3 --c-· L t::. � h-. t�· --? t o � --c· BJt . 8 * B. \'' t-y \ \ 13-� � Jir \ \ t� j. t� < � h-. t.

0 . o 'l .:P ::_''1? f -] A.t: 'i 'J l. o f (/) : ?::: 'l t � h'-t \ f�'o .0) .c L --r \ " t::.. "' \ .L -5 \ " ?::: -t "'? "' \ .r..A ( t : "? � ) � 7 7 � 1) - diary in the morning host family excellent food \. "'? t o � � � lv tj: ?::: 'l ::.\.t � � L t ::. .1.j \.\.:: tj: lv Li ?::: 'l t " 0 � n \ \ t: � t 0) � t b 1£.. . 0 � � � 1v tj: �-. ··:::r(" � L h � "'? t::.tj: ?::: "( t L /v -t£- t ::. � .. 7 1} .t ' ?::: .4.i'. IJ � � t 3ftl� h� J: -=t. a �c.4- � . ( (a) ) � ( ) � ( (b) ) � ( ) � ( ) ( c) (d) ( e) .i? 1C -5 h� � "'? t::.j lj: ��T� f l "'C various to have a talk and -T-lf. i. Put the following pictures in the right order according to Sue's diary..j\ _A � 7 7 ::_ 1} ..- B _::'' tj: lv 0)1jL_ )t "'? B '-' " L t.� -) l.t:'i f "( • .t.

8 /Z. \ . j L...:: A.t( 11.f:: t i t 2it l \f£ :2 t d)1 q tJ.' � t C0 � t G -? t o ::. 4.-c < r�. t J: -1:t 1J � V' < < '"( ' � -1:t '"( l. � l \ � 1 1 ') '7 I � 0) J::.: 8 l X �� I � : II : I ! ! . � t � � � 9(o 1 �v '1 1 1]\ C) .:: . :: .J§ ::.. t L 7-:. > -? t 0 ::.. B ::_'' tJ: A.o t\' 7 1 .f < � .<1) L-JJ "71' -tlj" I Lt 7 --( l l YJ 1-I) \37-f-0 t } j: 7 l) "&_ /� . dJ} Jv (J.' i" :G the other day dormitory to show someone around .l: 7 � lv � '. � 1J i .· { b.f. Mark F if not true. tJ:M t t.z -wr tJ: tL m t. \. 0 #s� lJ i �t � t� 0 ' t..1 1 i'-7 t' Jf) I } v \' t ) 2"::i'� . .z. B (-1!. 2.t 1. . Mark T if the following statements are true.t ] t) l J.. tJ: ?:1 '. .. -tif :: .0 � Read the following letter. 1.. � 4.. J:J-l:E� lv rJ) lj .t_ L r� () � 1 t' t'.. tJ: }.\'J {! Jv 7J \'. 1) - T 6.n'G . � l "i ') ' ) . ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) A . 'v \ l l 9 o tJ. 5.z. 0 * A r 7 -r � 1J - 0 .z.B. _ fr -�· I _ll Jlt. X :: A.t h ' -? t 0 )t ::.1J\( � < t :: *./v t -?) 0 . �t 0 l cf) 1) �\' t ) �"�\ .. A . [1 tJ h'v ' L1J' ? 1� -c''g o .R. o 1 : i I ' ? -t .. }.tJ '\. 0 3.

.A.� ' ' ' ' ' ' ' Useful Expressions for Letters and Cards: 'II \ .i T) " L "'( 'II \ j: To (I am looking forward to seeing you.. }. 60 -e t -? (Congratulations on ... -lt b �: ij: ry � L f::.. ...-. �: ( ::..) o o "-J }.... ) 1* �: � � "? t t "'( < t�· :: 'II \ t I1J : o (Please take care of yourself...-. 'II \ .....-.-. ... (Thank you for everything..!'}..-.....--. o lri.-.....-. lv t J: 7 7...---.. What d i d you do yesterday? Write a journal....... �-.-.....·· ::� " \ . ) }....-... f::..t:..-.. B....-. � 'II \ "'('' � � (J) � � L 7-.. Write a thank-you letter to someone........-..... � "'( t 7 .. ) (Happy Birthday ) }......-....-.

.1-- 1 t1 11 1t � -� �!§" � .tt11BJ ( � t.: ti G 1....PJT ( � .1t 1:f 1i..... ( It -:.> � -) Cn� -:? ) to buy � \ \4!o (/J' l... / � -1 ) third-year student �� ( Z: t G ) *� ( 7 1 :t.. '/ F '/ ) judo :l.-> '::!= '::!= r % .:z. tl ' Jl 1 07 108 -/.&_ it � 1? :@..\1 7 /) stand.-t.:. = = l =n ft w w y.. Ji town 3 :l.t )) right (5) - T T iF ..... road F7 (way) ( S/ 3 F '/ ) calligraphy *-:it ( � .LE this year if105 ::[. 10 I Fol ktale Kasajizo 1i 103 -t � ..:z...t ) t 0)) shopping (to buy) lBJ j� f....... iE 104 :..•l ( 0. ( -:? � ) to sell %� (. �� (� / :t.:>...3 7 t:::.3 7 (town) 1 lmr ( j: i? ) (12) ' r-> .!11 1 1 02 /J\0'L/�5 The L E s s 0 N . ( 0ZJ. /) next year � ( t G ) year (6) � /-c: (year) J -r � if 'jt_. 7 (to live) 1i. i? ) way. / � L .:z. t::' (right) J? iE A ( iJ S/ 3 '/ 7f '/ ) New Year iE L " \ C t. 7J 1 F '/ ) Hokkaido :!":it ' (12 ) " � � ...lL -t.....> ' -fz \ \ ( � iJ! l. ( 7) + -:i= -:i= I stall -:i= ..t? (Ttl') to live 1i.3 7 (long) ( 8) 1 I F F .=. . 106 � / '\' 1 (to sell) 1G ...-..... '/ S/ 3 ) address ( 7) ) 1 r 1.. Sif> � + 3 '/ ) Kitayama town 1B m1BJ 1BJ-fz ( + ( 7) ) '/ + 3 '/ ) mayor of a town m m n fz 1 09 �-!..t )) long -fzJ1j ( + 3 '/ T / ) one's first son I f....t��:@...

:. li Jl.¥A� (12) - .( -::. t: :/) belongings (9) - t { t- ..-:J) to stand @JiL::k� ( :1 :7 l) 'j )l 1 jj' ..... F ¥= {9: {� (In this chart..=...m..y) � ( 19> � ) snow �Jf� ( � � -e '/ ) new snow Ql) - '- .F./ 7 § �h� ( S/ F 7 � -1> ) automobile § jf�� ( S/ 7 / � -1> ) bicycle (6) )> (self) ( f1 19 (:f § 4-� ( :1 /'V) tonight J: � J: � � ( J: � ) night �o/ ( J: i. t !.tiP) midnight (8) (night) ' . katakana indicates the on 'yomi and hiragana indicates the kzm'yomi.. ./' ) national university :fL......) .f.3 7 � 3 :7 ) breakfast . (to hold) t�� ( � -:J) to hold t� -? "( < � ( � -:J ""C < � ) to bring r1Tt� tfo ( � 3 -::. 3 t : iL 1 12 113 l) 'j iL� ( t..l- (to stand) r- Tr :iL § 1� -'A t� :.iL �tx ( � l) '/ :1 7 :1 7 ) private high school (5) l . / . '/) oneself § -$). r=r r<r . E � �) �)] �n �}j 115 t :.{... 1 � {7 � -K 114 &.1 10 11> � ' m? a -\? '/ (sno..> m? m? I m? =! 111 ...) � T 3 rJ (morning) �)1 ( &? � ) morning 4-�A O:t � ) this morning ( 1.

± m :iL � � 3. Add strokes to the kanji below and turn them into new kanji from this lesson. - � 2.l * � shopping � � L j: L t o have ___ --c �. *! -·e t. � § � � 0 � B.CD ��O)�� tJ'Iv v nlv L.. � ' � � 4. Write each antonym in kanji. \ j To snow was long was standing live (are) sell(ing) .�5 A. Example : 1. 2... _t a � � 5. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate kanji from the list. and add hiragana where necessary. 111J --c-- _____ 3. 6. � 'tb � C. 1 . 4. 8. 7.

Read the Japanese folktale "trts: l/�5" on pp..!: Th >0 t'' lv � � 515 � L "1: 'v \ . t:· <::: I� 'v \ . Put the following pictures in the right order.' A.. C. <::: I� \ \ .: (J) � (J) � A. .f � � lv h{ . . 302-3. (Picture 2) . z � � ill·.: 1 Th >0 B.. . � • (b) (c) p Jv � .: (J) B t \ ' � lv <:::: B t. .!: 1. ( ) � ( ) � ( ) � ( ) � ( ) � ( ) (a) . Answer the following questions. � (main characters) "1:'' T 0 C:::'' lv � A. 3. (d) ( e) (f) .1·? L "' l: Jl.

:' "' ' � 1v tJ: B L ?c'' -J � 1v � � --J Jt f 0 :_ }. � � � --? # -:> -c "' ' f o :_ \. � it ri!P 3 \.>c-.. \ h h C t \. t }.)�-\t 6 §� � 6 \ \ \ \ . 'I . :_ lrl. 5. c t7) -d::" . 2. ' \.1.' h' L h. L � . Mark F if not true. \ h t "( 0 t ?c'' '7 .: � J" ... . 1d� t:. 'I \.t L � fk :f 'j � L IJ' n \. tJ' cf:> � lv 0) }.-J � 1v � : n' � � % '? f 0 :_ 7..n t 'h t "' ' � 1v 0 1. ti L C tt � c t ::.__. iE J'l {j: c:: -c t l h ' '? f 0 :_ .c lv "( < U: 0 '-. Mark T if the following statements are true.t. ----. \ � '-.... 1f-? < � -t 6 L � b -lt "IJ. h f= 0 t � A. t t:..:i•i. ' 0 0 '-.c h f= J L t7) tJ � f= t: � � � h qw ""? .� once upon a time bamboo hat if J? . . \ IJ->.. ) � to take off good deed voice door to be surprised happy f = L 0 � lv c h tJ \.. t f'' -) � lv {j: }. L "' \ � lv lJ: :¥Jt L "' ' 7.7 . }.. 4. \ A..1 . t. f= :f L � lv t7) �* � :f ?r:'' J L 0 D. t::. 'I \.. iE }3 r7) J � ' 0 (f ""? l__ � � '-...\ -c ' h ' ij: L < iJ '? f:_ o 8.iE � J? t t? New Year's year rice cake to sell sad mountain road guardian deity of children snow to put (a hat) on a person's head oneself %6 h' t:t. 3.� � Yr t> ij: 1. lv ti h t � � � t ::. t "' ' � lv C:: }.:. ----.:. ' 0 \. \ lv � '-.1/' L :f L ry < � t' � lv lv U: \. � � f < � lv t� '"? -c � f 0 :_ :_ . ?r:'' "( lv 0 '-. � ' lv h :f 1L h h � iE L -_::) t t ""' }3 f= "( \.\ B t "' ' � 1v tJ: B t. tJ' cf:> � lv {j: }..:l � lv 0) �f! � l3fj \. 'I '- � lv ti h tJ � � '-. 6.\ � lv c:: }. ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) t . 'I � � :f t7) L �Jl :f lv lv f= t : L U: f= ? (: h ij: � C ry 1ffl J? \. \. L :f .. .:f cf:> � lv U: }.. r � b -lt � t h L C "('' F (�) ( .:it.c� ?9= ) "( ""? t7) i f= c 0 L l__ � p f= lv t: h C � -- \.· h · L t. :f j:.-:> f o :_ � 0 t:f -e B t. t : '"'-' � 1.'? f 0 ::. \ � lv ti j:. f= < < h � C lv . 1.':l }. '-.

\ % h � -t � L 0 � \\ � '"'? tJ: lv t_.I? 0 '"'? tJ' t �. 1i. \ lBJ t (J) � i: \. '- }. "':::> - " }. \ § L -- --.f"l. t --. \ tJ' 7 \._ ?c'' J ' t 0 ® � < �� ... -----' --' ----' - � h" � . � A.t:"-1 � � 8 (Birthday) U' (Thanksgiving Day) 1 3 8 0�8fi 8 ..i L ll:f1 t ::.fvl.� h" " t '"'? ti -lt U: L . t \. \ t "':::> Ji � i? t ' "'( \. \ "(' � t h" lf. \ ti � � A tj: lv "':::> l!7 ti "'(" \.. L <.� . t:!f � 3.� �n.. 1.• --. \ 1.) > ' . "':::> � t ' \.l�-. � "'('' -- (J) J:.m. j:.J1J � � �' � L � i? £::>" h � (J) lv ti lv t:p i! t::. t... 0 s � � L � t ::.) > ' .I? L " f'' ::. \ =.I? lv � lv "'( 1.� � 0 L_ lv t: h" "'('' 0 -lt . � j:. \ � h{ _. lv � L h 0 "'('' lv t::.� \.. t f'' J � -- h" J1J h" � -- t: � h{ � -lt lv L t ::. "'( J1J � t \.I? A (J) \.1t ::. j:. \ 1)� � t : � }. 0 -lt � � L t ::.i 7 ..� t::.!· ' ' � �ff � t ..-�5 Choose one topic from the list below and write a story about it. 0 1) ti iE }. \ ti lv j:. J1J 0 � L .� . \ -lt 0 f'' � t "':::> J1J L_ lv 0 � :iL 1m '"-:=" --- f� "'( t ?c'> -- '"-:=" L J f � ::.t:l "'('' \.' '""? t J1J t::. � '' 0 -d: I \.I? � . -t (J) h{ h" " "'(' ' 0 "':::> " � 1. u L "'( < \.) > tJ' L \..h. For example: What do people d o on these days? Do you have good memories? Do you know unusual tales about these days? n·h. t ::.I? " \. 3 - "':::> " - � t::. ::. "'( I iE . �� }. � A. . � ti L "'( n \. J1J "'(' lv t t" 0 0 . 5 0 lv '"'? ti "'( " � � -- � �-. \ --. t t" 11: . \ 1( \..I? Ji J1J L . \ � � < � -lt \ \ � lv h{ tJ: L �' t � t::. t::. 7 � t : lv � � lv b ti � lv ti t' ' --.� (J) " lv � � /' lv "':::> J " � .. f b 1�J: ti b t '"'? 1PJ 7 t � ' ---' ' f� f \ \ � t:p (J) L_ lv < 5 7 I =. . b t I t' t \. . -lt 0 lv '""? � 1. -& lv 1)� }.. 0 f' '""? 1( h t U: t : � I L_ � � }.� � � . t � t � �. < � 0 � L "'('' L � lv ::. 1) � (J) t � 1. ..I? t tJ lr '"'? t::.. � t : t::. \ f ::. -t h" � 0 -d: � lv � lv % "'('' t � ti � L i? "'('' � � L 1.

..w= m rn ffl F* 123 -1 / Cinstitution) mFJt C e:· 3 7 1 Y ) hospital .).ij ( � 3 7 X � ) good at .. �t 119 -t :J r'..\ (t.:) tomorrow BA � I. bright 121 (bright) t:'' 3 ry B 8) BJ] Bfl BA m� ( e:· 3 7 q:.r r..r.:t... ? ) sign language J:.. -1 �i® ( .biJ. 1 jj) moyie �i®tS ( .7 ) the Middle and Near East ... �. / 1....'7-J.>.. 1 1j Looking for Friends 116 4=117 "( � .: 0) �7 � 1i (T � �) to like �t� ( ::1 7 1 ) good will (6) � * #.( #.:z.. #.::j=... :Q it�) cheerful. �7 7-J.f *'* ( ./ lftp!f ( q:.::r.J..:z.... sick) QO) 1 22 r.=- �* 118 � �� (iJ�]j.I.....( --'f (7) -" r r- JT 'fr iJT 1ft BA ffl ji) 'h ' IDtBA ( -e 'J .. to like) � � � 1Ji 120 i? 'h ' . 7 t: 3 7 ) serious illness ...7 q:.•7.: 0) h) liking. ) illness mm �ffl ( � . taste (favorite..s s 0 N ...) letter + (""C) hand +� ( � ..::r. 1 ) explanation (8) 1 n H BA 8 ( £19 G t... 7 c 3 7 ) sudden illness � ( c 3 7 1 /) hospital Cill..:t Chand) 1.. ) singer +** (""CiJ�]j.�m ( q:. /) recently 4' iftJft ( 1. � �f (near) ." #.. (4) �+ ( 7J � . / � 3 ) neighborhood lft \ ( i? iJ� < ) nearby ll. 1 jJ 7J /) movie theater � � ( '5 '"? :Q ) to be reflected (9) I n H B B• g. 1.:z.. ..-.:k�F ( :$" 1 jJ 7 1 /) graduate school Jt ��fJt ( t: 3 7 1 /) beauty parlor 1 QO) F r F" F..:z.) paper + �� ( ""C iJ�lj.:z.. .lft (� 1 q:.. ) letter .fo�� ( '7 �) Japanese paper QO) l if- (paper) f r.. UP- (to reflect) � BJt . Fo f� FY f)t '? 1 7� ~ .

: ? ) to sing � ( ? t. k atakana indicates the on'yorni and hiragana indicates the kun'yorni) .. ::> 5 5� A ? ?f' ?� 5� ?$ 5� ?! 1f 131 ::L tJ Jt.I_ 7 'V 3 ) address -€7 r1T ( ?'' 1 c:· .b <-.z.:::z./ --:::> ?:::: �?iT :G («>':f. tf ' (travel) �1t ( 1) 3 :::1 7 ) travel �qz�-g ( 1) 3 7J >') inn -A. ':! 7J ) national anthem (14) . \.. fee if -'G ( tb � ) to exist (6) / r :1 .: ::S ) various places :iftpJT ( :t YS/ 3 ) neighborhood 1i. ff pf fff ~ 129 """'. tJ � 7 ( ? t.. � r r __.7 (strong) �?§iT :G («>'::f 3 7 --t � ) to study ?i \. \ ( -:J � It�) strong ?§l't"t lj: ( :::f 7 Y 3 ? id. lj: FJT (It) ::S It� ::S id.O>..124 @j 125 tf tJ 7 (picture) �® ®� (8) - (x1 7i) movie U f n ) painter n m �t® ( 7 1 7J :7 ) f!f w mi @j plan 1 ~ 126 7 t::.:t 3 7 -:::> J: <' � � . .:) song �f ( 7J 'V :. (place) :/ 3 �3 \ . ' JL >h )fa 5£ 1 30 �-._ }jr Jit }jf Jitz On this chart. \ i.: 7..L ) singer 00 � (' :J. (city) J l l Ortf (..T' " (to sing) Of §1 §1 ' §1 ..3 7 T � ) to study �&0 -'G (-:> t tJJ � ) to try hard ifJ� Ij: ( ::f >' « >' l..:::z. t:'' :: .3 7) mayor rtf1�r1T ( V � :7 v 3 ) city hall rtf t� (It� t> �i') market (5) ' � � 1 � 11 '$ FJT 128 r :: . 7 � 1 /. ) obstinate UD -..l- ] }j }j' }j.. (to exist) if .f) if 1f ~ l) 3 t::. t .'�:> V) Kawaguchi city rtf -& ( V 1.r1T ( Y .f) traveling alone (10) ' .t) diligent (10) / h (to make efforts) . 7 lJ 3 7 ) toll.: ::s ) kitchen \ (8) - -:.Z lj: (..�qz (lf t IJ t. \ .).t ) famous if# ( .. §1 "' � � �h � � $ 127 � 1.

.IJ•o :: "' . ..� .'-I rJT ___J 1£ �IP5 (4) ! I F. : t : + *� � 1!" �.: • � � 1f � 0 1. Jt.-r ?) .. L c: L.� L f: � � �. A � L t: � .·.. �� � lJ: A.Ji_ l. B B..t. \ "? L J: t : � '(f' ... (1) I � 0 �t�t5JJ� Lot>lv :::.. "f' To 'tt k � l..R t.:· t:.t .::. '1 -:: • 1 . � � 0 *I��.1 -t�J·o . Combine the parts below to form the new kanji from this lesson.:=.. 1:f:.. &tJ 7J: t: ?) oo t : t.1 7'�00 L --c " ' .R t.� � -.� 0 8 t : t.t I I�I A.}.1 To �.1*l� --c-.1 To 7J 7 ... f *� < f ' ::: \._ .-1 �t ts l�f ? � < t � L' .:. "f' T 0 A $' . 'o _: {�.. � � � L --c " ' � A.·.&b � ..' t � � 1J � &tJ ry . \ j: T 0 7 7 r r 7 7.: d: O:: :k � .z..&tJ � ..i.� L f: � in: < ?) � � n J t : rr � .<3) I :�rr -..7�� � "f·.i -tt" h.t .t "L < t . 8)1 . (23�/ � ) . �rc�(. � :i-.:. ./ IJ " :k-Jtt � --c-.A.:· t:. &b 7J: t: t. � (2) 1----+---. lv "'('' \.R t. Put one kanji in each box to make compunds..:· t:.=� � \o (Answer the following questions.1 T 1J o � "':) .�::n� .i T IJ· o I! L...i T o H *.:*. . 1*� 0 8 t. ..t � --e -+t ''J 7J . � F9 Li 7 7 / AX� �� < t c�L' ! 4-i±� "'C'' T 0 Jl] D $ t : 1i...) 2 . .:.'. 7 .t 7 t : t J: < 1T � .

1j A .J • Gi) t J: ) !ft.l L .. The person who likes movies ( ( ( ( ( 4.J: -J ! "'�� (ti· L -k ( j:.:<!L 'o 1.{� � " h· t" . "i ± 0 -=f --c· -T o ft. \ A_o � �{ lrh -? 1:: 7_} < I. ) ) ) ) :: lv :: lv :: A...z.( L 11> h ) /"/ F C.. � .J: "( . ...t � (.:f 7 . f:. \ ( I.'o � 1tl\.� A_1. t.J: t: 1t � j �b·t: i:> tp # �\' (26�/ � ) �-� �?·) ( 1 8� /:i<-) IAl � river girlfriend cheerful hobby band L . " ' A...f.. woman man outdoor activities near place )I � ( t. F 7 1 7·· (:: B.P # :: A.Itt® --c·· To V� L / F � � ry j -tt A.!M--c·· -tt.:J\/ t'��� *ttAdJ' 7 �"�f � Cl) �{�f � "C'' .. .0-W. \ j T - (:: " \ -? -c t : / \' To �ut. 0 -&.� L ...'/ � . tJ :_ � *-b 1j -t I. �� *.. . t.! �-=t t : 1j ry t :.t tJ: (::'' A.z.�- n �. t l v 3. o . . "('' T tJ'o .- 1 . The person who is looking for a girlfriend ) :: A. hT 7�Jf :: A..:� c :91J'o �O)A0):8'ffii 1fi �L' "L < t. � {�f � --c·· T o --c " ' j t i' < U: #HJG t : fh <16 \ (:: I� -? "( I.:: ) 77 � f7 1/t::k B � }J I \. < i'l!!"*.z. The person who is 18 years old 2. 7�Jf :: lv u (::'' A. .L ' -=> o ''/ :: L \ l..:: lv The person who likes climbing mountains 5 . O(O)Aid:t.-r � L j T�' 0 2.� ::1 / -tt � t: t " ' -::> L .r..t. lj: ) � -3 ) looking for . The person who is a college student 3.

� . : . L: \. E* \.s 1i rtf 'J � h� -s ry � T 0 0 � h��t � "'C'' T o E "( \. ' 1ft.l.Jv {-> -= . ' l T t.lv h �. . � t:: &.f� t 7 7 � F 7 h� :k �f � �.: n h � G '. . ��. t : E.l t 66 £ L "'C o �It � � Jt � L t:: o .t: "'C'' Ttlo ..r 7>H� lt.-· . \ � -t 0 J: h � --::> t:: G ' }. \ � T ) ' .c =F���Iv c \ �r�l:*.-) - culture fishing "J � . (!l.t L: < t c � t-::>t..E n v / · � 7·. \ � . t.\ "'C'' T o A if .l/ " A 7 \ � I� --::> "( 0 l5" \. < ��.. ..� -? i: l. \ 0 ' ' ! • ' • ' ... !RiJ m � � tj -FJ � : � � t� �. .f$.1 . FIT x1t. JJ �+..f± ( t � t "\"' ) �0 ( � "J 0 ) }. O) � f� i? � t < � lv 1'F --::> "'C . E -* � �' \ \ JS '-' ' JS 1i � � � � L t ' :: "' C1)=1f � 1i � ry t Jt t:: '.1 7J -J.f� t J l l o Y:P t: ti lv �.77''A. -:. v 1J 1// � lvlct¥ �*<!/vi:=F����* ld=o ._ O) � � :£ �-To . neighborhood .!(> i$ �± � JL t \.\ .�� ( }.. \ j:.: � :. --:) � / n'' if . \ � To 11tr1T :<".:z. t :it < E -* �..'/ t.. � . . � ry �tz 1t L "'C "' \ � 1!..� --..:.: .�. \o �"" �����.. �.A.JJ t : E -*" t : 3R � L t:: o �-t-1 t : i£ --::> <7)(:1' t.l:::>t..7 / t:: ry .. ..{.t.\ . l.s '. .: h.. ry � L t:: ry T � O) h��t � "'C'' T o �tz:ff t �f � �' To r t : if --::> t:.. � t ry "('' -t :: -*"A. L 'h�i E -* � {-> E -* 5c 1 t � � 1! L "'C "' \ � To .{..J �o j-.:.t . ""'� t) shrine festival reply c.� --::> :: ·n.5.f� t.

® � < �� :ttlv u19>5 A.:5W� O)=Fm1d:w� * u J: 5 o '" u�5 . �t .

_:z_ 7 ) "Occupied" (8) I 4 1f h 1fh < ( tj: t:...Z (tl'iJ) V fi' iJ> G) once upon a time A..1_ t � � 4 � ( ::¥ _:z_ ? �: < ) beef !::=.1t ( � 1 � ) ambassador 1tffl r.1 � ( It ) 0 1_.( 12�� 1 M t :. fd:t :.....f.to ::.J c ) people � /.•h �/ (God) lj� '/ rJ (early) }.....7 ) Shinto religion ' (9) 7 lf136 (6) Oi�v�) early .:: T ( .!f. 121 {f ( tn'J> G) old times {f� (tl'iJ) G �i� G ) old tale (8) - a (ancient times) 4- +r 3±.to � T {> ) to get up early .ft.:!: -r -l 4 1 38 4 ( ? G ) COW 4.f (iJ)?:J.. /. I? < ) to work �1fh � ( c t �.jL ( ::¥ _:z_ 7 ::=.1 (U' c 7.:f .. 1� 139 1t -? ( ""J iJ) -? ) to use ::k. t!: £ ) God :fi¥lt ( � Y l.. T) to wake someone up �ir.� ft¥ fw fj ffJ ffh . t 5' Tanabata � Ch· L L E Festival S S 0 N . _:z_ 7 ) milk (4) ' � t .1 ( c � c:· � ) sometimes (symbol of repe/7 /.. T {J ( � 1) 'J T {J ) to stand up (10) - .!f...f ( � 3 7 7. A � 134 1f /.� � T {J Oi� ..to � {> ) to get up � .: I? � ) both husband and wife working for a living %'1fh ( 0 7 r· 7 ) labor (l3) I 1 1- 1' {n {i:i 1Ji 1� f r r f fo f� . (.:"/J.!f.3 ? ) early morning . n 3±. � (to get up) -? L ..f-R :fs *¥ n R a §./ / * f$ 1 35 f$.:z. 133 3±..' � (to use) l.. 1 3±..... rJ (cow) ":) 1.!f.$}} ( 'J 7 1.'-' \ 1 i .: 1 32 ..... � .± t: � li't: � (to work) F? :.f± ( Y Y � -v ) shrine :fi¥ � .. ) 0 �) various a#f /..Z tition of a kanji) (3) / 1.... ~ 1 37 � � . * :fn ...

.) 0 ) color @.q. ::.f.:z...Z t : (�'Y � 'Y �<:) separately (7) 1 '["? "' "" (to separate) J $ $' $'J I & 143 r A.:1=(color) /37 @._.b il�n . - + .7 � 3 7 ) characteristic (6) "' n � .:=. / . +J§.J§.t.) various -ff.it iff 4f t" (Gb:to) blue color . ( 1.-) youth + � . �t @..) 0 t-) 0 i.7 � 'Y i:t. (7) • ~ �B t1 (blue) T. degrees) ~ 144 145 �t.Q ) to take home 001! ( :I 7 v /) United Nations it1.140 it 141 142 '"'? v/ (to link) it. ( 1-.:=£...� -e . \ ( Gl) :B t.:z..Q ) to separate �4�(-lj-�'/ ) particular �t$'] � ( 1-..t / F) temperature .Z � ( 1. UO) - 1 A � i§ i§ * '!!! if!! it $� hh� �''/ .::f. blue -· - (8) f. ( :I >' F ) near future -1§_ ( 1 -T F ) once �� (. /..@.)) --� (� 1 .__ ' .:> � lv) baby �ill ( -l! ::f F ':7 ) the equator �-t� (� ::f � ':7 �) the Red Cross __. ( v / ::f ':7) consecutive holidays .) .:Z.f(red) r f= r= F fF 75 }$. � " \ ( il!":dH· )) red � ( Gb 7J>) red color � -t? "\"' lv ( ib iJ' "t.±.. ( -tt >' � .) special discrimination $'] /.-Tt -ff t( -'T � ::f ) scenery I. kalakana indicates the on'yomi and hiragana indicates the kun'yomi..f'V( ')w :f> (-::J h -cv� . <$ � (In this chart..:z. \ ..81] t : ( � 'Y �<:) not in . .8'J n :f> (. ':7 F ) 30 degrees (9) (time..

J:I. * � 3. *' . A. ch �� b � · c n . 13:. A. 1. � .. 4 . 3. � (picture) ��<: < t � L'o �nla:fclt.: .i� ( '-' \) . 6. 1t .CD 1l!¥!0)�� tJ'fv Li tLiv u�5 A. Example: t. kanji. tJ � 4. it 1ft 7j �tz I<!"k.t.1J.!f. cow · to get up • early • color ancient times • to separate · blue · red . Which new kanji from this lesson shares the same component as each pair of kanji below? Example: �.J'o t:i$70) E3 1::i1= � *9o O:: t. Match the read ing.t. 7- � C.. ) --::> � · ( -? ) j:.:cmL'* 91. �� L 1.\ . • · to use . 5 . � a . -t . � W 3. 1± @ t. \. 4. $7 "k. and translation . 8. ( � . • . • $1J • .. -? L <h j:. Which new kanji from this lesson include the katakana below? 2.. 2. B. ) t.ij 'WJ 2.:t. • j§_ • .. 7 .

fj: tl' L t l ..t f.. "' \ "C -tt ' . \ t: V' t . \ "'< -iii: ry 7.{ U' ' � �}] "'('' . L 0 "( ' J(.t.:::.c =... tj 0 \. }. fj: L fth � t=.. It o J.n � "( �' -tt 'Jw � .Z. . "'('' 0 ' E3 J.. JL � 1� "'('' --::) "'? ' t t L t0 =.. t ... � 1£ .v 1w n 1 t a --c ' =. tj .. 7 � ly \ fj: \..· tj (:: L t :..c .. � (/) (/) itt =.:::. t:. \ tl. fj: � < U' "( � tj � t =. }.Z. � h{ L < =. � �' % � � t : }..ry L � -iii: "'C'' :.. t� tl' ij: V' � ' --t t=. tj . . � t =..c s .:::.. "( 0 t 0 t : tj �' \.!f. (:: L t: "('' J(. T 0 t l' fj: ft... "' \ T l. � "'? "( "( t \. \ � � t L � t=.. $1] tj "( ' "'('' -tt � tt t: � it \.. ' � tl. 0 .. 0 1 t 0 V' t : � =.....: "'? J. \. h{ \ \ ry ..· � t : 6 < . \ "('' (/) � � � L ft.. !Jj ' L "'C'' (/) tj tj \.. tj }. Mi'! :h�i 4 .t t "'? U' % � 0 tj iJr.. 0 "( ry tj V' ��� t=. \ t l' h " � U' o t \\ L b L � =..J t...Z. �1 � tj � f. U' t=. � L � J. � t: m �' tj � }.. --c-- "' L -:J \ � L L J: tl (/) �' ' � "C L J J ] t. fj: 1 h"' ry �}] a u t =... (/) (/) ' 0 . \ J. --t�� "' \ 1J t =.]t. . L (:: t t=. \ t ' "( U' J.---. t =. J.i . "'('.... � � "('' � tj L =...:::.1? 1 ° !§_ }.. ry -lf t: -- -J<..Z. � � . t 0 \. 1i. 0 t=.. � J1 1? I� 1 � "'? % t : (/) --t tj (/) � "' \ --c-. "( � � ' WI L �m � (J t=. "( }. � =. * \. "'('' L 0 ' "' \ � t=.. �� . � � o � L t . \ 1± "'? * U J... � < � }. =.Z.Z.. tt v t � a L "' \ t : "' \ 1t ry =..Z. \ fth =.MiJi �� "'('' tj \\ t =... � U' \. \ � � "( "( ' t � tj -tf 1-f ' �� . ij: --c � "'? 0 ' \.

. .It "? tt . . f:. . � : : .!:} .· .. .. � �...� .b) the Milky \Yay the other side. _(:{ · . .· . . .ft to get angry to take back to cr:r < ( t:. T 60 ) the heavens.l--t 5 0 E t : t.i -Sf ! : -.11_ '"" . . ) i!h "( 1)� .fJ.i t: 1.i t.. .i :!!� ( {. . . r:r_ -�. \ f -J i'.:: . �-lt. _.?< pitiful once a year � � .t :. . .'C1 �* 1t . . \) tJ' i'. . a. ( t-. . . -�-.: >t " • . * . """' by .: < ) .� z:). lr_ ·. . "·ish to be realized we :kA.. ( t? ( t? � i'. : * .i �· t: lv �-· < A.: lv :::·· < t : � " ' � · � £ Th'o t :.i 0 1. � 0 11] foJ . the sky God daughter serious . · · tr � · <tr _. t: 1? ""'-' i'.: i? t.:. t:·· 7 L "Z {L t. . :: �:: :.i) (� � .� �·$ � .i -) . \ (�1J>'I.. .f .:: . -� · . : · ' � .:: 1 ) �t) and so forth strip of fancy paper 4 �m ( !J: f : CO\Y farm people . . .::t:. .b l.) to \YeaYe one . 5.i --c·· t : � I... .. i..-. oYer there 1 ( t.-. .7 · . _. .7>'. · � ��> . :. 8 adult to find one day) � .- .i t 60 i'. - · .t:r .:-. /·. ( � . : * . {!. q" -�-A---r �/ ��w�� . �.

Japanese-English 316 �<L Vv 2 .<!<C Vv 1 ._ ...._ English-Japanese 329 �� 1J'9' IJI> Numbers 342 Conjugation Chart 344 . .

. t :::. *il' :::. .t (.� < L \Ju 1 J a p a n e s e - E n g I i 'ft L1 s h � L2 i§�§O)��r<tl. one .. £: L2 'ft L8 �G 'ft L8 U.i.. a between � L4 � L4 we L11... to show someone around 'ft L10 WG L9. .l. .A. L/ -� 'ft L4(s) � L1.tFO)[A]���-g o Items at the end of each entry indicate the fol­ lowing: � .II 1m It ..>il' '3':Q ' not much it rains (Reading and Writing section) G · · · · · · ®L \ i5:-:J (Greeti ngs) (s) I . 'L\L\ ®t . (Supplement) (number of · ill · · · · · · F &JJmm�(wed:J.'l . . ®1. we L8-II hot (weather) hot (objects) late r on �'' (-O)) ® C: you �l :ffll \ ' . • II �*:J5b.II 'ft L2 ®A.II � L6 WD L8. ® t Z: ¥JHiip� leg.S.· · · · · ��5 · )2:$� � . foot £: L3 breakfast � L3 � L4(s).\I. 'ft L7 �\' 'ft L5 � L5 � L5 � L1 1 .� <·· ·tt L \ ' busy (people/ days) � L6 � L12 to hurry hurt.: to play. Thank you. . £: L12 Asian studies ' ' \ . \n �. � L8 � L1 L\L\ good � L3 good child � L8 � L3 � L10(s) � L9 (. to see (a person) outdoor activities blue red J7 Jv/\1 1-Y ':.1 7. (over there) apartment � L7 Y J\.. \. L \ :::.II on foot 'ft G ®:Q®L \f :!. il'L \ :::. 'ft L2 � L3 � L2 � L1. :::. 6 u L \ :::.1-- tt ' ' sweet 'ft L12 the Milky Way � L3 ®* O)il\b ®IY.n*9 L \ 'b il"'-:J � Th an k you for the meal. clever � L10 1' � I) :A L\ < L\( b L \ u "\'=' L \g L \t <:' -t. painful eating) �G after (an event) � L6 L \t .II ®:Q L n: ®:tt to meet. llJ! B£1. .> iifu � 0 Jll rain WG L12-II ®* � + negative ®IY. :!. ® � il.. ® :J L \ ®:JL\ ®C:c c:J:t ®t :::.Ji' ' ' 't 'ft L10 � L4 part-time job questionnaire that one (over there) 1f \ ' . t 'ft L8 £: L1. (polite) 'ft L4 we L12.. \ \ cheerful fall 'ft L9. ®t ..I' Y 4:. the day after tomorrow Jt :PVJ71thr� Jg> 5 tomorrow 7 :/ 7 -Gtt 1E � L2 'ft L7(s}. � L10 mean-spirited � L9 � L5 . 'ft L4(s) home. � L7(s) - (my) older brother (my) older sister L \t:. (before January one o'clock - 1l --c· JL -k$ 'ft L4 � L7(s) � L7. 'ft L9(s) we L11.1-- '!.:. . \Z: L\1. .ft < �if chair doctor �H�.b:Q (t el:) L \ tfJ' u L \ L \t . that .Jfcl:L\g:Q �l*J T . t . l) 7J ®65 iifu . 'ft L9(s) 'ft L9.-�.C: 5 ' ®:Q ® � tiC:5 Z:: ti' L\*9 there is .\Z: C:: L \3 L \.ft . . ®5 ® d:> L \ ®il'L \ ®il'� L' ®� ®It� ® t5: Y 'J I'. * :::. . Not at all. b ound for . ®� -:::> <: ®u ® u fc.· · · · · �#��� (Conversation and ·Grammar section) ®0) ®0) ®*L\ urn .t \ ' \ ' �if L \ ' new L \ L/.:y't 1 � good deed to say we L10-II 'ft L3.1 r.. to open (something) morning ® � Z:: [j:A_.{_ No.: ®� ll}i .� � L2(s) ®t .1' \ ' head 'ft L6 warm � L7(s) bright. )Jt 1 to wash Thank you.\I. house over there ®ti3\ �-.iff \ ' t k $Jl BA . Britain to go how much � L1.. smart. to spend time pleasantly ®t .. � L1(s) � L4 L \ 'b l/ il'N �M one hour .���) excercise in the Reading and Wr iting section) y )l.

1:- � L7. my place 1 t. � L7. � L11 �� :_t h.t L \-::> L \-:>fJ' L \ ·:>ts: L \ L \ ? v J: (. 5� 5fu . late � L7 to sing (do something) late t:> t < fcJ:� d5 1::: L \ L/(.'.::: d5'5� d5 ? c d:> L: b � L8 ll < 7j: � }) :fr. yes BX: :_t h.I � L3 language lab -. + *-.II buttocks 4 � L12.3\fu L \-:>t.zt best once a year � L12. �Jc .ID � L4 � L1 � L11(s).t � entrance �� � �1:-�� 'I? wife to get up � L3 (a person) is in . � L7(s) Welcome home. � L6. � L5 to sell sea (my) child husband }. . ' ' temple � L2 � L4 father uh-huh.II � L10 last car. . mother � L1. 5 5 'b 5 'b 0) . .f: l : husband to be late (for) Get well soon..t!Ht. � L12 SS�L \ � L12.5 � ? Australia � L1. front end � L1 station � L10(s) � L3 the fifth day of a month one year old together LL(IJ!JIJ!J) � P3 � � L10. ..t L \f. uh-uh. sweets money :k � '' large � L5 .n. � L2(s) pencil -� -K. o M.1».f} iltr English (language) � L10(s) first car.5 c (c!fu) L \ b ? v� L\*tt L \ 0 (''b L \� L\� L \-3 A.II back � L7(s) 1i. � L7(s) younger brother 5fu<:fu9� 5fuc59� il�T � il�T � d5 c 5 c ( c! fu) d5 C <: � man * ( :_t h.g'* meaning d51J'.III � L8 � L1 2 5-t�-::> < ift 1 to tell a lie slow. � ili � L7(S) � L8 � L9 � L9-II child f3i L7(s) � L12.. � L6. � L7(s) � L10(s) � L4 � L6 rich person Welcome (to our store) d51J'�'b 'b d5 < c!fu d:><:c!lv d:><:� d:>c!l:t d5 v.l. to need � :_t h..II � L8 �� }. <l)A.II � L1.t . round tiip � L10(s) d5d5L \ � � ' there are many .. yen � L2 � L2. if.:{.A I'-.- � L1.t 5v 5 v-3 5 1=. no on cow grandfather � L7(s) � L1 1 . � L2 �G � L11 � L10 L \t.t 1 : fiye � L5 d5 L \ v L \ �G �G delicious . �� }. � L2. L \6Q L\* L \Jj. tail end .II � L3 � L6 � color to get angry sake..: L \-::> -::> when . one minute � L1(s) d:>-5'3' < 1.t� I?D-:7'5. 8 ta¥ . .n.( :_t h-) d:>t:J'v d51J'� d:>�� B..) � L11. to instruct New Year's � L8 d5 v J: 5 1J'::> d5 v 0 d5 v -3 d:>tL \ d:> t < }. � to teach.: 5b"O)V'c 5J7. .II � L10 � L6. t:i -t � A. <l) -f 1 t.-t }. first-year student � L1 L\'b�fu(.t 0 f cJ:c!L \ � L1. house.tfuU-::> � L1 (s) .� 1G � �t J:. . snack. � L7(s) � L9 . . song � L4 � L11 � L7 � L3 � L7(s) � L7(s) }. . L \ ? <: b? v � L \ Please go and come back. 5 "k.:t iJI:. 1£ \ ' il < castle � L5... home.L\'b�luttL\ - � i. � 7z green tea � L3 � L7(s) restroom d5 L: � b L \ a3c5<!fu to drive to do physical exercises � L10.: L\'bc L \ 'b lct'lu --ff -� 1 : . stays at . -.. :. � L2.i 1Jl.)' ... -'0always dog now I'll go and come back.tfu � L4(s) .tL\� . alcohol L\-3L\-3f cJ: Yarious d5 liL \c!lu 5 5 fu 5.b �@I �� yes aerogramme movie � L5(s) � L1 � L3 L \'blct'lu5 v -3 L \ 'b lct'fu* . ... � � L4 � L10. . � L12 younger sister d51J'�c!fu 71"-.t. -? � L9 � L2 L \ ? <:�*9 L \?. � L4..

.±.III � L4 � L5 � L8 f.J" but or � L10 curtain fJ'iS\75. adult �� L1 2 .J'(../ d3�fvC: -5 Slifx � Siht->11 s=t5 S=t b s=t b-\? d3d:: <:· d3 1J � SP� d3fvtJ" < d3fvitfv d3fvf J: -!. � � A..0 :. \l. � L2(s) � L11 Kabuki � L7.. � L1 1 ..I.i[&:$= 1t it � �G fJ'If� (6D1J'tl�) �1..J'f}9< d3f d3 t: I. . to return � L?(s}.n � L10 � L3 � P'i wife spa.b � M: ry � �� i.:: fJ-. old woman Good morning. e9:.:: O)(}c d3 C: C: (. � L9 great-looking -*t. -3 . \f.fv %�� i? 1 -!J:: &: � L12.}.\� fv d3:tdx�fv to become hungry fJ'd3fJ''®d3l \ fJ'tf< fJ'fJ'� fJ'=t:ic� fJ' < :f < fJ" < ttL\ fJ" ( P IJ ' -fJ'(j'::> fJ'� :$:" .. A. (polite) bath � L6 to take a bath umbrella � L2 � L10.II � L9 to dance stomach � L?(s}. � L12 older brother trn •j\f.Ftit IJ· t � ' i \ ' :. \=t.:: fJ'tcih"b . \�::> fJ' l \ v -f. \ d3 C: C: v d3C:t J: d3c� d31d:f.d:)(: .:: O) .� boxed lunch to memorize �-=!- cold � L12 a d3 * fv l..J"l \ v * 9 (-�) d31<f(li)c!fv Slcf:d:: -5 S13.. sweets singer }. � L7.. � it&T face to return (things) to go back.> l\fv fJ'(..tL � L10(s) � L7 � L10(s) office ''-orker coupons Jl hair � L7. � L7(s) older sister to take (amount of time/money) registered mail � L7(s) to write � L4 � L1 � L10(s) � L7 � L10 d3:tdt. .� 1 S\Yeet bun � L4..-#. one way rice cake toy � L10.II to put on (a hat) foreign country ga te � L7 � L12-I1 �:f. \.J'tf� V' < �� half? � 7.II �G � L11 Good night... \l.:: (1) -f � L11 � L7 � �L\' sad money � L6 rich person girlfriend -!J:: (l)J-.\I.. fl�H� stairs � L10(s) � L4 � L11 � L6 � L3 � L9(s) � L10 man the day before yesterday the year before last !OJ 1 :It 1 � \ '4fo to buy shopping � L4 to own (a pet) �iii � *.· � ��1 student discount to put on (glasses) for . '*9 }. student grandmother.. � L1 � L5(s) � L7... � L2(s) � L9 tO put (a hat) on a person's head -fJ'7J -7-/ tJ"(. � L1.:::.\ fJ'c fJ'f \ J:(.:: 1. � L5.1-f � ' science to look pale I? JL � A. .II � L9 � L9 snack./ $ -5 .II � L1 1 � L11 to catch cold d313.-?l:lcf:L \� Sl"\.Jf? fJ'� fJ' v fJ' v $ fJ'tf fJ'r< fJ't ..:: d3fv1J:O)V'c -!.J'i':: .. � L10 J:f. � L7(s) God company fJ'ih�* fJ'ih � fv tJ )1.II � u o.JR to get off music �� corner school � L3 (something) ends fll � L6(s) � L7(s) � L12.J' !JJ (1)-f boy � L11 � L7 � L4(s) � L4(s) f.O) fJ'-5 fJ'-5 fJ'x 9 fJ' X� fJ'S � L11 � L1.:.Jag }. Slcf:d:: -5 �rr(. g r : A..t < family shoulder � L12 }.:Z) \� fJ'iS fJ'ih � L1.:: -5 � L9 parenthesis � L11(s) � L5 � L6 fJ'-::> . . ? .. \�fv fJ'(.. \9-5 1tfv @1�� �::f± J :f$ � 1 . � H� :!� � 3: ro! 1. � L2 � L6. woman fJ':td=t !> fJ'O) l. months Good morning../ � fJ'Icf.·ife camera � L7(s) � L8 . please. to swim � L10(s) � L7 d3t->9iht J:�L \ i. � L8 7'H!l � L10.K ( ' fJ'? .> t.:: d:)(: .:: < fJ'(.lit -T JJl.II bag � L2. }. ± Ji iii a � ' souyenir � L7 bookish expression to think � L7(s) � L11(s) <5 =5 v --3 U interesting 1J'f (. 5 fJ'l \ v -f. JJl.II girl Sfvf J:O) . � L7(s) �G � L6 !JJ (l) J-.fv l. hot spring fJ'f J:5 fJ'fcl: v l \ fJ':td to be realized woman � L1 1 .I1 i:J'J3\tt� f-I::::. � reply bamboo hat � L1 1 .

� L9. to erase last year � L4(s) It -=> � 5 c9 lt-:> �lv9� lj d:: 5 U '-::> Mi./v "W1'"W 1'f ��1..i J: beautiful.\ �5� about (approximate measurement) postal stamps � L4 class � LS ticket vending area � L4 � L9{s) � L3 � L7 credit card --cr-=> .t< � L\ gray � L9{s) � L1 0 black camp � L11 express nine years old nine minutes � l.:&. -crL \ � L \ --crct:>Jv -cr< --cr< --crtt-::> -crt :::.t$l --c· -t ��T � JJ lljl 8 That disgusted with. � L7-II fJ'6 t:: l. .3\ �� cloudy weather --cr-:>�7:. . � L4(s) --cr� "W � to cut � LS � LS � L9(s) � L9(s) nonsmoking car � LS � L6 #. � L6 � L7 injury � L12{s) surgeon brothers and sisters ljfJ' It� lt9 ?rH 4-l� WiT � L12{s) � LS � L2{s) � L6 would be fine.t111bank � L10(s) to take care of oneself � L2 � L1 1 .:t.. It u :l'b. eraser �o. temperature (weather) < 1:: � 1. � L4(s) fJ'P L \ L \ tJ'IvfJ' fJ'/v� < fJ'/v L. �� jft � jftq :iftpff gold silver from .t :::J 'Y 1'-._t.? ::.t : � � -:> It � � L7 . place of origin neck north � L6(s) � L9 cafe =¥9-cr-:> "L --cr-=> . :l.)'&itt economics � L1.ft 13 .3\5 � let' -cr(J)5 --crdJ� B'f 8 5�6>? � "W 1'f 1C � j� yesterday to decide �1)-/ <� < �* -* � green � L10(s) � L4.t � � � t.: <U < =6 � o Please give me � L2 to listen.fJ'� 5 U tJ 5 7t 7 -fJ'6 -fJ'6 :k HI 8 karaoke Tuesday � L4. � •\ ' line number .I' .II --a tt L \ (fcl:) -cr/vt.i <g� September nine o'clock medicine fJ'/v�lv (f c:J:) M if easy. .I! 1.II to get nervous to bon-ow � L6 neighborhoocl fJ'n fJ' :t> boyfriend � L12 --crtv'b J: 59� 5t5R T � Friday � L12 � L1 1 . � L2 � L6 � L10 � LS � L8 � L4(s) � L1{s) to take medicine kanji. .II -a/viet-:> 1:-� --cr lv� 5 U blonde h ai r � L9(s) � L4.II ophthalmologist Korea � L12{s) < 5-cr �� fL 1J fLat � air �@I 5l!f ¥!:. � LS(s) -<:'6 1. � to be interested (in) this morning � L12 "-'. � L11(s) � LS to tum off.3. � L9{s) 4. . )j!f l ::i L>. fL"" n � L9. \ (-�) < 'b < -:::> < 1.f. � L4{s) . simple Cheers! (a toast) � L9 � L9 < 9 � �O)it. ' < t:: l t�L\L\fJ't. � L9(s) � L12 � L3 colloquial expression � L11(s) . \� -rr lv t. .. to hear to ask mouth shoes � L7{s) � L2 � L7 � L7{s) � L12 � LS � L10 *ft ®I m season country.5 ticket � L2 � LS. to get married � L6 to put on (clothes above your waist) � L7 � L7 Monday � L4. clean because . � L2 -cr J: 5 fJ' u J: --cr J: 5 t:: L\ --cr J: 5 ch-fJ'�� --rr J: 56') --cr J: :tdlv �b L\ ( fc() �� td. to dislike That wouldn't be necessary. Chinese character < fJ' -:> < L.-fT- � L1. . � L4{s) textbook It L \ <:! L \ lttJ' . ' �rr fL/k.· ! t t g " ':.: iit � \ ' �11! & < 1 lifl < $-�ji guitar yellow < t::.fv --cr J: 5 �L. � L4(s) � L10 � L10(s) � L1(s) � L1(s) to come car � :fo-p /7 --cr� 5 � 5 --cr� 5 � L\ --cr � 5 .8 today � L3.tJ .� �H:&' JL!f. .:-cr�-::> lt� fJ'�� i� � � �tt n1 river cute --crtvxlv u "P 1H.. \� -rr 1v � 5 --cr lv L...i fJ'/vlcfL \ � L7 pitiful 1:-B 8 i fJ'P L \ t 5 f c:J: D�H � L12.

/Ms. < '(! (.. \ . C: u Z. (J) . .5R. . � L10 Z..::: �� � ! ©}::::: � L1 � � Z. \. fvl�'fvl. A..i!! this week A.i. ?ttl. (J) . healthy.II Mr. .3\fv .\. < l�'fv Z.J - � L10 ..: � . � L2 7[.:jj'-::> wallet � L2 � L9 � L2 essay. (J)tJ' Z. \ Z. � L10 <! fv v � ? .3ilv <!fvl£9� .fv 'Z.:: < t u c:J: Z.:tffv z. . five years old five o'clock *\' cold (weather) Good-bye. Z. u ® l. Z. 5 Z.. }j frightening � L5 � L11 � L4(s).:1: Good afternoon.II � U(s) Mr.=. parcel this year child three o'clock � L1 (s) That's too bad. \.:d)fvf c:J:<! l.II � L1(s) � L1 (s) � L8 1):. � L1 � L4(s) � L8. A.. husband � * Jj � *-U! � *. years old lastly r voice coffee gold � L10.:l.i.t-- A.:X: soccer fish ::J . \ at about � L3 . }j 7� � .i' fci:!. ?�fv Z.::: . 5 <!fv<!l. . (J)-::> . . .!$. fv c Z. t.:l:fv .. Z..=.=.t. .� �-c·-t:tt � L4 � L1 0 � L4 � U(s) � L4 obstetrician and gynecologist . li/fff. . .f!!. \ u � 5 <! 6l.. :71:.::: -3 + e?. � J 1� J!. <!J:?fJG <!f:>l. ..: � � ...\ �ll'!r o'clock � L1 � L12 z. 5 ( 5 ?Jfv Z..1:: ::f-Jll I' ./Ms.\ ... n this one � L2 �1.:tt fv 5 � 5 9'-lltr <f answer � L11(s) � L8.: "5-::> Q:J. c� Z.3\fv <! fv. \tJ'Iv l:tl..fv . \ <!l.. c:J: <! tJ'f <! < .�AA concert this semester Jt � l.. lvtJ' ? :ti ::J /-if.:J.\ Z. -t -'if Ji � A..=.. � L2 rice.3. composition 1i J3 May z..::: -. .\ to cut classes � � L11 � L9 � U(s) � L?(s) � L9. energetic Z. >j: L � L5(s) � L1 � L1 high school :::J / I::: . � U(s) � L8-II /J#:.::: here <!l:t <! ? � <'i? u sake. game .: 5 G this person (polite) � L11 .l:t fvtJ'g � 11'fv� ( t c:J:) 11/v�t.9� L12(s) � L5(s) � L5(s) -if-7 1 -<!l. 51tl..3.R. � L8 � L4(s).. ! P. )§ high school student antibiotic Z. .. � .it glossy finish mat finish / � surfing � L5 � L1. �. �G � L4(s) � L4(s) � L4(s) � L5.? to have a fight. 5 t < ® 0 .II � L3 � L9(s) � L4(s) oo��i% black board international tions rela- �..3\? l.: t..:t :fil f'F.tclfv -<!fv <!fvtJ'-::> <'i fv� J. Z.- match.. 9'-�� <!?Jul. <liJ � 7\:./::> tt.f!!t Z.:.. � AA'. fvlj-::> Hii \ ' A. 5 Z. .� the month after next the week after next the year after next � L1 in the morning .. itf-* this ..l:>j: \ ' don't look well this month development � L5(s) � � L9 � L9 � L3 ::::=\ � � � -.II � L5 � L1 -if '. 5 �ml �� park � L4 airmail Good evening.: (!l.::: t. \ Z.�'.�� ��. A&..\ �L\' . � L5(s) � L4(s).if 4 thirty minutes c!lv=ldlvc9=/d .\lj::> <! bl..::: 5 -t:-5 Ji* � L4(s) -if�� -<! £ <!ctl.:·�A. � � to answer .�l.!1 :t.. � L6 �G �G � L7 � U. . \ e lv li -=-* � u � vfv · trliu � . f vl:51. Li fvtJ' (!fv.\ ' lt'fv-t. tonight �� in . HI.� !\ larch excellent food � L9-II overtime work three rears old 2:'5 -t:-5 <!£ Thank you for the meaL (after eating) � G .3... com·enience store computer Z.. meal � L12(s) � L1(s) � L9 these days three minutes �f]i 1i -'if � -lY -t � to take a " ·alk five minutes I'm sorry. fvlcf.J� t : Jl. to quarrel � U1 � L5 � U2 Z. time. after . � L2(s) a little while ago � L4 � L1 the ninth day of a month nine 1L 8 7 "? L Mitt magazine lonely . .. ? t.:l: ::J / t::= A. .::: -3 Z..: Z.b l. fv u � 5 'Z.B Jt near future language 'Z. alcohol � L3 � L4 � L3 � L9 .::: 1: <! l.

dining commons then .::: J3 -t.B November eleven o'clock ft L4(s) � L1(s) day of a Sl JIJ/\u -3 lt -? l.J' ' lt:f.\ 1±:.. . .-'t JftJiqf..:: T job.:::Z.J'l. � L9(s) � L9(s) � L8 black and white the eleventh month 8\' white � L4(s) � L1(s) � L1 (s) u -3 < -3 . -p •:. 5 6 l.II � L9.j'� L/ � 5 1..= � L7 U ':) C:{. tor �o"*- ./ iv l. \ . Jt .!-.J ? tJ!iH � L2 � L10. \ L/ fP 5 l.. if that is the case. . �� * tJi-l. §! fifteen minutes thirteen minutes * ± H 1€:% traffic light shrine � L6(s) uivtt�(t J:) uiv!ct'l.:1. work. \9� uivJ3\iv L/ $ 5 L/ :.l L/lcl:� L/ U:f.) - ":.r .II ft L5.:13.-.:: 131iv L/ � 5 c!/vl3\lv +-* +./ $ ':) 13\fv lt $ 131 u fP (lj -'f-i.(ljfvlJJ..�t:> .: L/ L/ fP 5 (. 5 Lt r. L/t'5 ut ..:.u � :t.J'� L/ fP 5 l.II +--!:-$] '" seventeen minutes -t::: '* -t..L/:f.J3 +. skillful.u fP 5 1J'iv L/ $ 5 . 5 l. � L7. 1: 7. \g � u J.X � L5. .! -\t A.l J.:: C: L/ u J.:£.Liiv +.\ � L6 � L2 � L4 � L11 l. 5 :f.· . \ ':) c! l.� 8 -� eleven years old eleven minutes Ll-3 L/-3(1j� + Jl �!-.. \ ift .. j :!F� shirt �4 *1<: -E J:.\tt� L/ C: iv u � �o "? "{ \ 1 l 't question ffi*! .:E-!lw housewife hobby � L1 � L11 �L1 O(s) � L8 � L12(s) � L10.fv �� last train � L10(s) � L1(s) � L4(s) � L1 (s) � L1(s) � L5(s) L/�5td:tJI31/v :.. \tJ' < anthropology .( ¥ -tt >j: jeans happy u:f. � L2(s) � L5 twelve minutes l!9 J3 L/ $ 5 ���fv/L/ $ 5 �':)�fu eighteen minutes .> t1H�k t Shinkansen.II ft L7 � L12 � L1 ft L2 to worry kind newspaper Lliv�l. \'t5 L/ L/ fP 5 l. \ t5:f. .. . photograph � L7 buttocks �o � L7(s) . weeks ft L9 l.f±-& president of a company u r> *itiv :}co � ry . . � L10-II .::f. /-.::: $1 December twelve o'clock dentist April � L12(s) � L4(s) � L4 � L1./13\fv :9t ciQ to die � L6 . r.. deadline '$��flt ft L11(s) � L6 Ll J. \*9 lt C:: l.J'� oneself l_.J''� � L4(s) � L1(s) I know V 5 L/ u�=biv --!: * 'f.II Municipal Hospital u J.JJ � L11 . "Bullet Train" for . � L8 � L9 � L2. � L1 to stare (at) people October � L4(s) � L10 � L1(s) � L1(s) � L1(s) uiv:f.J' l.! .. picture./ f. .. \ ':) 13\fv '� L/ fP 5 :f./ � 5 � � 5131/v -t:!L$1- ninteen minutes + li. -$] '" + :=. occupation dictionary u 9"1J' (fcl:) #:f -tl!9 8 -tl!9$! the fourteenth month � L4(s) � L1(s) � L1(s) lH' quiet L/ � 5 d:: /vl3\fv fourteen minutes sixteen minutes guardian deity of children under --!: � � L10-II L/ $ 5 -3 ':) 13\fv L/ $ � J. 1: 7.> Itlv i£ 13 -�?511'-'t � �% L11-II to in troduce New Year's � L11.. .J'iv u It iv � � .:: t5 L/ fP 5 l. �*M -f-A$1- hour � L1(s) weekend exam u$ 5*� L/ $ 5 J:: ':) :f.leT . 5 L/ $ < ��� + � $1class � L4 July ft L11 Lt't5:f.1:. 5:f.. 59" (t J:) u J.if ten years old coming from ten minutes Ltd.!it � L11(s) � L10(s) � L2 � L10(s) ENT doc­ husband � L7(s) �g. 1)' ry ' date/time something is ready u $ 5 c·fv L/ fP 5 (.J' Y!-* � L3 day of a Lt ./(� departing second lf 4 H § §1- otorhinolaryngologist.t� reserved seat bicycle §1 ��Jli- -t � +� 1±:! . L/�5tt� +* juice ten o'clock � L1 (s) � L10(s) � L12 ge n ral admission seat e §1 m� '*ITM ��!.J' .$1�ii!M +.. 5 :. \iv u61J� r> u61J� L/ "\"> � u "\"> uiv u "\"> t5 J. good at future � L11 to close (something) u J. �M � cram school seven o'clock u $ < t t. \ t5 (. < c5 u r> u� cafeteria.i' r> Lt�trtt t d: 1±.. � L9(s) I do not know � L7 � L7 � L10 to get to know silver castle L/ fP 5 l.. (boarding) ticket .\ u $ ':) u iv l. � L11(s) � L12(s) ft l1(s) ft L11 � L1(s) homework operation u $ Ll $ � u fP Lliv L/ $ ':) c!l.J'ivitiv uiv Z::: 5 l.

only I'm tttJ'' f tJ'l.: < 9� ttlvl.-. -tl� -t:h . to like t < �-:J -t .f.:: tEj.-f I' � L5(s) 9 I 'Y t-..:/'\.3\lv t . .== == ��J � � = == == � (S F == � 9l\ d:: 5 U A rJ I -7/ A-1\9� (f J:) A =f. zone tickets t L \1'\lv ( f . � �r. � t .. � L5 � L5 � L12(s) � L1 .J' < L \lv1tL \ . � L10(s) � L1 0 expensive so.:(J) v l. � lj!. � L9 t c.:(.. .b � 1i.\ tt� cough ". not spacious last f (f) vibl::9� (-tg) .J' < ttL\ ttl \tl'-:J j:_ ii5 life. that one and � L2 Aif'{-'Y 9cr.: v 99-'vl\ J:) 9"L�(f A 1--.\(�) c t \ li � 5.:n f . .:: � L6 to go on a diet � L11 � L12(s) � L1 � L1 to do � L3 to sit down 1<!>-1N.f. � L1 2 Everything is under controL very fond of. \ t ctJ'G f < ts.3\ �L t cl\9Z!(t J:) � L12 ttl \l:tl \I1'1J' tt l \ li ttl \it� ttl\� l:tlv tttJ'l.:: J) tough (situa tion) � L2 � L4 � L4 ..t. El bi1ihday � L1 husband � L?(s) .:lv� � L8 who f tJ .3. Yocabulary t .\tJ"< *. Professor .: � '?& -? :: food to eat � L6 � "71 �. near y � L11 a little that 1' l � L7-II � L1 0 � L12 � L4 (my) grandfather (my) grandmother �l\' -!"� stress sports cool (weather) fantastic -t.: -t v "L -t(J) -tiel:' i!i! special delivery � L5(s) � L9 � L6 there � L4 � L11. 't'""'-4� � L2 � L5 � L3 � L9 t!lvt!lv + negative ttlvttlv v � 5 ttlvt. university t l. .II � L4..rif college.k :k�t .: t cl\t..:� \ ' "f! t..) f ..\ for example �l\' fun narro. � L4(s) t5 Li9� t5 c·9 -t 5 c·9tl {wi*'T � That's right. � L5.' t:htl' G �G then � L5 Excuse me. to love grade (on a test. � L9.:i!&\ ' " � L12 tall � L7 � L7 short (stature) cl:t -t t .X:. fond of. . Jl 7t E ]L j:_ 7ti!! month week the other day last � L9. �G � L6 � L11(s) � L5 tt�tJ"c� tt�tJ' i:tO ttg:t.� probably.f t. .II � L3 SOlTY. Not to worry.!< ski 7f_Bll 8 Wednesday � L4.Bivl:tl \ .!< t.\"Ll.H thermometer l.lv ..(J) t .II � L2 � L?(s) � L?(s) right away ver and then .. � L8 � L10 f l.� i!9:5€.lv 1(. I am to live slide � L7 A 5.ll � � L8.ll . � L4(s) � L1 � L3 f . � L11 h ome . .: tttl"V'( l.:) .f-:J ttlvt.9 (' 9� < 9.: to look forward (to) � L . . �\' -It .i"j:_ 7d:: .< t clvf J: strip of fancy paper � L12-II � L5 rleparting � L10(s) f lv Li � 5 U . etc.::. \. living �j: *�f *-..\ t .\ 1!!.i � t �t.9� '.� \ ' graduate student � L5 *. Ji'Ul �1f�:7�H politics orthopedic surgeon okay.: t . Let me see.: *�� �\' usually � L3 � L6.. to clean � L1 � L8 � L3 Sweden � L1 � L4 � L5 supermarket That's right. \ .f .l '* �-.g:tt1v 9it 9� 9. �� not at all 7L /{ i!! ).\�Gt..t.:{.:lvt!..:fJ'{.\ ttlvlj'-:J ttlv Li -:J ttlv v � 5 ttlvttl \ lf<t !t �f.f.:r:.!< *� college student to hate It is � L1. therefore many. t: T � � L7.\:afT � major the week before last � L4(s) to do laundry first word. 1/ A �t .II 1tJ! * world vouchers. a lot just .Y. \t. ..t(.t::B � back by all means to cough � L12 :ft "'? to stand up � L?(s) � L9 � L12 � L4(s).-( f {.II to smoke 7t.:t=. ma ybe � L12 teacher.:1ct95 f .:.

.-:::> t �-5 as much as possible � L10(s) probably. 7C.t'-c=E. \ '5fJ'( '5fJ'7:. .� "'(• � L4 Take care.13\( � but +� � L3 gloves � L4 � L10 -:Jl.> fh&':J 7. \97:.> wife boring to work for � L7(s) � L5 -:J* � -:::> * 6 fcJ: L \ -:::>/9) f:: l. ..b � L2(s).fJL 1'1' 7. .I � L9.> WG L12 II - together with (a person) """' ::>tl. . \fJ't:: "'( \ \ p \ \ >d: -g \ \ :.. C:l.. � L2 '5'5 '5 � X ti L5 to help -r· t. .g..Q to turn on � L6 � -:J � 5 fJ".> -'t�� :±: 0 test letter exit near place sub"·ay WG L11-II � L10 � L11 c�. .:lt -c G J: -5 7 A t-7:.t-'51.> ? 7:. . . cd3 cd3fJ' c� -c b y (means of transportation).> to bring (a person) � L6 door c5 G L' C: + hand � L7(s) why � L4 � L2 �G � L3 'ice to meet you.Q ctJ"� c<''5 :±: IJ· It 7. \�lflv T Yi? ':J . How is . polite expression � L11(s) +B * "< when . \�1. . 't� 'JC. � L3 video game ..�.>( 5 1� \ \ #f "'( jJ � L5(s) � L6 � 7 to appear.!li 'it il!!.j(. ?t .> next 7 � 1::::7-b.C::: f.> � L6 secondly desk to be tired � L11 WG L8.:. � L6 weather forecast � L8 � L2(s). \ ' -::J c /9)-Q inconvenient.1.Q date (romantic. degrees (temperature) � L2(s) fishing WG L1 1 . disposable camera -::J fJ'-5 -:JfJ't't. d':>l'11v�c injection �� L5. c :fv� clv G � cfv'5 cfv. .II :J� -:::> �(. ./v TV �n 7. � 'it � ti L2(s).Q �n -r • ' 7.±.:f-1i: 1 tennis � L6 '5 � 1. to exit � L6.xt.tdl.Q �1 to use -:JfJ'tt ?:.II 7 � t: 7:. \� 1. . 6 c. � L7(s) � L3 brown � L9(s) � L12(s) � L1.b.C: -c I'? ? door � L10.-::J '5 � < 9.i """' next (stop). to have � L12 � L7 telephone a scheduling conflict clv.Q 't :±: 7. with (a tool) � L1 0 Ilow about .b�fJ'If� �� � IJ· It 7. � L2 � L10 � L4(s) � L4 c-s�·(-�) llere it is. \ ' cold (thing/people) to take back � L10 c .. ?. c5�d:: � G < c5 c9fJ' c -5 =5 c 5 f... c�c� .. \t::'5 -B the first day of a month � L4(s) 7:. ? c -?t � \ ' <1' 00 i. not calendar) tape � L2 to go out � L4 � L5 � L3 + � \' ift ( :le Ti9. by what means Thank you. \ '5 1P 5 � < '5 1P 5 G � '5 J.n. clv� � L10(s) -:J�Icl:-:J < X. \ -::JD "/it t::. -Ziv """' .: .II � L4 � L12 .:t.. .l .II .:r·. 7-7 small � L5 cfJ'If.Ql. ? how. .� t ¥R train battery -:J( .L \.Qt.J'X. China � L3 c!cl:. points weather electricity � L6 to get tired the heavens. \ �.> (my) father green tea to be late (for an appointment) � L7. \f \I.> � L8. � L8 . .tAA� T-shirt commuter's pass � L7 � L10(s) + * ten � L9 the tenth day of a month sometimes � L3 :r· 1 A :J disco � L8 7:.iM a little 7-=A � L3 j:.II 7J\.:k_ l:k t : .-@ "- ::>tl C::: < -@ it n -r < 7.Q to make � L6 � L5(s) � L1 to make a phone call � L6 -::J if.II lt n -r ·� J. department store 7':. . right? � L12 � L12 if!�'] T 7. \. at the time of . � L4 C:lv� d:: !a:-5 't .0 c:J:l.. to attend. .> temple -::J fJ'I. the sky � L11 � L5 � L12. . JC.

to be popular � L12(s) inside -& \ ' iir.A.J.. etc.:tJ':J ::::: fl February � L4(s) 1.:fu f \:t.3\tt� to put (a hat) on a person's head what kind of .:Z 1d.: =t + negative not . to take (pictures) li� {.:-� fJ'. � L12 � 1.· -t? ± Bi 8 I::: Li � -:> 13\tu 1.� 1. . �� to sleep. .: u 1:: Li i1!i ::::: � meat � L2 � L1(s) � L12 for two to three days � L1(s) � L1 � L4(s) two years old ::::: . [counter for people] � L? � L9 1::: /v�fJ' ®� ' l*ln physician � L4 � L? long to cry summer and so forth -t '? A.:: -3 c · C: v c'b6 �t+ hi'.:f half past two next l:: li � 5 J: -:> fJ' ::::: -t.: 'b (.l . (.I.'Y 1-C:£� :3.!{ JiJ {. to go to sleep . years -tllvttL \ �� � .� to become w (J)cfNJ'tJ< 1t {.: 'b J: 5 U -1.J.I. anything the seventh day of a month name to learn � L10 h at � L1 � L1 � L11 J .. year student Mil• -1::: 8 1. '"ife � L2 -l.J. .j.J'If?�t.. Japan sweat shirt pork cutlet 1::: &.(J)fJ' t cJ:£.1-(J) c (})Ia.J' cJ:L f cJ:fJ' f cJ:fJ''L \ f < cJ: t <9 cJ: f cJ:-:> -t cJ:c f cJ:�L\ cJ:f f cJ:-:> cJ:t R 9> � L10.C:ltL \ c .: to climb ..J. . tomato c(J)<' S L \ how much. -l.J. . ..1!9 8 the twenty-fourth day of a month 24-print roll � L5(s) � L1(s) which .:fJ' 't.IT library � L10 super express � C: v J.:-:JL\"L :::: + n8 Bfl 8 t\Yentr minutes Sunday � L3. regarding to diary � L8-II 1' 5 -1' ?' drive � L11 :fa {. . � t=. Japanese people 1"T4?1 baggage � L6 � L?(s) 8 ?. 8 '"est � L6(s) � L10 � L5 � L4 � L2 � L10 � L10 � L8 to stay (at a hotel. sleepy � L12.lv/f cJ:I.II � L8 tlfJ'L \ � \' It �tli cat � L12.: -::> � 1::13.:: tltJL \ � L1(s) � L1(s) � L? � L4(s) t. how long 1-.3.IT � L9 -t � -l::: $3' D� \ ' seven years old seven seYen minutes something 1PJ t � L8 tl� 1. � {. .1 { JiJ {.) friend � L1 � L3.J.: < I::�L \ lively � L5 ago � L4(s) by the way � L10..: �t>fJ' (t el:) 1.II �A. ( to lose ========��F== :1'-..{.fv 1.& watch.:: -3 C: . . ::::: 1.'� notebook throat � L2 � L12 � iltr 'lD 1 1PJ -(J)c· because .�Jl � is i {.l-:>ti'®� �1. 1-.!· fl Wr two months l.. fJ'fv @ �tg q� . 6 5 -tlfu � {.II � L12 t.: l�fu 8 �c ::::: $3' � L9-II � L1(s) � L1 � L1 � L1 two minutes C:� C:� to take (a class) . clock � L2 barber's � L2 where � L10 i'IT � place rear � L8 � L9 � L2 X.II � L2 � L5 en which one C:lvtr� clv1. .� which which very F 4 C: -::> t!' � 5 C -:> b C:<:=t L1 O(s) l ::� fu l.jj ' negative � L5(s) wish � L4 to haYe a fever � L10 � L3 � L1 � L10 � L12 � L12.:: C: .1. � L4(s) about.:: t> C: . t:•il:�� < to become thirsty � L11 � L12 1d.'b C: =t t cJ: 5 U C:� 1:: Li � 5 J: fu £ L \ C t:) 24l.v-'T- L2 1:: =5-:::> r::l�fu� 8 *� Japanese language l::l�fulifu 8 'f. � L4(s) � L4 � L1 1 .:i:fu two o'clock ::::: at .J. 5 1a:'5 -it: #. to get (a grade) to take off � gilj l1 0 . . giiJ L?-II Saturday ::::: * ct D cJ: c(J) 1:: Li l. .fu 1. l::t.

:f7J � "'( -!!��.II hamb urger �L9(s) �L10(s) �L6 �L5. �L10(s) � L5 �L11(s) to ride.:J. ?tl.{. � .� � L12-II � business �L1.t "OfJ' v �L9 piano �L9 �L11 to put on (items below your waist) chopsticks beer �L8 (something) begins for the first time >It 5!j! < east �L6(s) receipt I� v*� I� Lib>) "L l�ucY.� �L6(s) the twentieth day of a month � L12-II �L7 �L4 � L4(s) eight years old eight minutes -A. sickness V'J: 5 l. . �{ijq�'& �L4 �L11 left t..::?-.\� l�f.-tJ- �L3 1:::? J 1:::-JI.3\� �ft.::>t3\lv 1�1J: 1�1J: 1�1a:9 J\j !�let ���1.3.j'� I�< I� v JJ(@.\lv UJ:-5{.tllH u-a. (])� ikt: 1ft. to have a lot of free time dermatologist �L5 to have a talk 1�1J:[.fl!t airplane �L5 :J..>a: v Z' How do you do? to begin �G �L9 � L8 u-..::.ilv�-5 lcflv2:1�1v I� Em tooth ·� �L1 � L3 ll>t1ar� dinner handsome �L?(s).. (J)YJfJ'x ik.b. �L5(s) �L7 )\/ J'i. 'i:• barbec ue � UO �L1 gra y kiosk to enter postcard � L11.. � L10(s) /\-/\(:f. L): IJ it has been a long time J\'AZ'I.H-4� *.ti\ � A ugust � il!1 left side � L6(s) �L4(s) � U(s) � L1(s) to be surprised � L10-II eight o'clock video tape.'6 �L9-II U�5l.t "0 c V'c::> A.ft � ""'* sunny weather � L12 to drink �L3 transfer half �L1 number .: 6< l�t..-7 early fast � L3 �L7 �L11(s) �1ar� lunch �L3 (do something) early..f.:t5 l�t.ilv J\/ �.:: {td3� l�'btJ'::> l�'b l.\ ���< 1�65 ��� $ 57 bus -?!� £ . .i f::. to board bread � L4 number !..)':t> U-:::J < 09� 1:::: -T:. "'(· � L1(s) � U(s) alone 1t l. . (fa:) . to talk � L3 �L4 �L9. �L2 art museum .i �:JfJ'Iv "0-tO:: YJ 1.!f.'A "0-t=.IJ �. {tg� �T if}: Md:T. � L3 eight minutes � L4 � L9 first people X (wrong) �L11(s) pronunciation -"? !�:Jd31v *:--t.. �L12 �L?(s) �L12(s) ?)-.'flower n ose � L11(s) "0-c:JIY. - one person A.i � lv� "0� ���lv �L10 �it!� standard Japanese �\' i!\' . fast to pay Ulv I::/? 1� flight �L10 �L10 pink �L9(s) spring � L10 .... -t.\Z'Iv ( �I.::lj l�t..::.::Zi� farm bus stop �L4 �L11 � L12-II � L1(s) �L11 to weave t::::i'. �L12 �L8 �L8 }\/-Ifb.i1: beauty parlor hospital � L10 to speak.I:tlv V'< 71��. VCR person one �L2(s).:Jo(J) (J)t. �L12(s) panoramic (my) mother � L5(s) �L?(s) �� illness.fJ' l.< t. \ l�-.� �L5(s) � L12 to play (a string instrument or piano) I� vcY.. .!i A... drink �L5 l�:tt l�lv -l. (.\ �m r\.lt fflF.c!<lVvl<lll S (J)Jj. (1J:) BR not busy. .i l�t5'3'1v lei'::> 1�-:::>fJ' 1�·:::>�:1.t'Juitlv J\/'� J\/ I' pants band �L5 )\-7--{(�I.> "0-cUc "Oc� "Oc � c --? El A. �L5 "0-�fJ'.:: 5� "0� [.>� J\'A l�t..{.8 -"-lt A-7.-t-� if» < A� -"-* A-jJ- twenty years old to work Ul.\ ���1.I�L \L\-3 lci'l.\ yes party "-'1:-1* track number.:{.\Jv UJ:5� �??.

P 5 4f1!! every week �L8 £l. �L2(s) *a-c·-tf.? J3. 1. \ '"'"'tt [counter for flat objectsJ £ l.I �L11-II £-:> 9 <:: �L6 .{_ £fJ''� lltr � L4 to turn !lb1. Y:.. 8 local ./ 1'\fv C 5 1'\fvfJ (fd:) 4Hi.(::� J3. � .II � L4 right side boxed lunch convenient d:f=cifJ''t:J d:J. � u2..fJ'(.f? X11::..fv 1. \ (.f1] sweet bun � L1 � L9 � L7 d:J. 8 ��' � L10(s) hangover to * the second clay of a month ta.::.> 13.f=.<:'15 �L3 £ fv 1.--:::JfJ'd:: l.!.� culture literature grammar �L8-II not .fc. J!l.: + negative /'\. "? �L5(s) �L11(s) �L5 � L5(s) .n �L1.n �L2(s).3 1t:.� (td:) page i�"? �ry � L4 � L6(s). ± -#.::. �L8 clumsy. £� � by T-4- "\?(.II £ t::. boat �L10 � L8 �L5(s) �L5 �L12 to take a bath 71) / t-7Ltit/ t-1!1. clothes two ..�.l'ci-1� winter print £G5£G5 okay.\� J3\fvfJ' 13\fvfJ-. � L7-II � L11(s) £ 1. city to wait straight .>fd: £9" £� � L12.5 13.� fJ 13. 8 store �L9(s) lake � L11 � L4(s) '"'-'1iiiii serdng .il. "'? '( �' � T side to gain w·eight surface mail � L7 �L5(s) t.. �� L5.. "? fJ' .(::-:> C:: l.\-3 d:J-9-?d:J.1: � serious first of all again �L6(s) �L6 �L6 � L11.=.< /3\fv(.yet � L8 � L4 ========���== 1"\.f. till (a time) �L5 -£cl.: £C..ffv �BJt front every night � L5 ship.?tf.97]<.:(./t!.II 13.F1i: insurance �L6(s) � L7 �L11(s) �L4(s) -liflJI:P5 '"'"'�� two people ...�fJ9"? nR t-t1£ . g �L3 -.-3(.�.=/:1 ::Ia right ::6'1!\1] i!&::fl: :reply � L11. �L2(s) �1� T � lawy er 0 (correct) 1'\fv=t:£ ct 59� 1'\fv.9-'l./ I.A � L12 �L9 second by men) -f*.::. 5lJ ct 13. A f"? It\ "A t-.E. poor at ./ ':}� & pen room �� t: not . < /3.!J? homesickness �L12 It\-b"A71' (a. so-so � L11 -£ (.\. � iilill .7Yfv J3't. �7'C L9-II looking for two people each � L4 � L2.. festival page number -£c to (a place)..�' \Yater short (length) �L3 light blue (a.========�@8�== 71 Jvb film Jt\-.::. �L11(s) . cap � L11(s) � L2 �L10(s) d:J.5"\' olcl(thing) present bath £.b:..�(. \(.\ d:J.-3 /.tJ.: 15 4f 8 eYery day �L3 £(. + negative £15 £? £?f) 8lJ town.--:::. in particular .l 13.\ 13.g t:A. . � .\.Ill lt\-b platform �L10(s) the third day of a month .P 5 �L2. 7]c. living with a local family �L5(s) letter �L8 anything else I (used 13.?t!.-:J -1"\.� X5f. . areas � L4.. ..: I�< (a. d:J.tt d:J.fv hotel book �L11-II host family � L11.::.:: lJ 1'\.> 1"\. It fv � homestay.1· Really? iti!i. �L6.1'} . \£9 13. �L6 �L5(s) �L4-Ill �L11(s) counter �L7 � L5 to study window �o £C.fvc?c·9fJ' (a.7 J1 2 �/t\7 Jv (a. �L6(s) �L7 �. "? § .511fv 1�5 u -(a.fvf.>fv 1i g t"l!i-t dialect hat./fJ'l.--:::JfJ' /3.-:J /'\.> *& �L6 /3. \ �L12 be on the heayY �L7 bookstore � L4 13.•.::. \ l J I. . as far as (a place).� 13.

leisurely. to rest to be thin fl:: L5 fl:: L5 fl:: L5 fl:: L6 three green fl:: L9 fl:: L9(s) � L6-lll f� l¥J ±� Ct. � L6 thing (concrete object) to get (from somebody) � L12 � L9 fl:: L4(s).<L' -f->ttC::L\*9 'f->tt.fc � Ct. to perfom1 ctJL \fJ' ctJ.. much fl:: L3 � L4(s) four o'clock J:? fJ' =D5 already the fourth day of a month four fl:: L9 J:?-::> J:ctJ J:'f->< Thursday fl:: L9 fl:: L3 =D59<' =D < J:5U =D v=D v =Dt5 =D-::> =Dt5 -3 fv ti<f-? 1:. to hold �.?-::> Ct.\ easy (problem). unhuiTiedly finger dream fl:: L9 fl:: L7(s) fl:: L9(s) breast 'jl{ purple J:5fJ' 61) El AS the eighth day of a month business to take care of if you like � L4(s) eye fl:: L7.L mountain fl:: L9.:=..Lit to quit mountain road {}j.f f:f.Ct.- D!HJ! fl:: L7 d::f:J'? 1::. reprint �*T� W * j:_ to study abroad international student fl:: L11 fl:: L1 fl:: L5(s) � I':P5 f:J' < ttL\ � d:: 5 � d:: 5 � '!f .t.h f. over there famous � LS � UO �L12-II ctJ9"fJ'vL\ ctJ96fJ ctJ ? -::> cttl n� <tt>�n i� � "? celebrity � L �' six difficult fl:: L5 snow fl:: L12.) �56fJL\L/fv �n �U �61) � �lii � 11:JfJ'v11:Jt:J'v fa) .Q .>gl.�5 bL\.Q Ct./ m* � L12 6fJtJ'tl )(=. � L10.Q -f.ff l. � L5.ffvf� 1f Jt � all Jt "? !t � .ftJ.. Ct.Q {}j. to look at.Ct.{}j. day off.� � :Jllf L JN. fl:: L6 �I':P5f. ":? to find � L12.! baseball fl:: L1 0 dormitory � L9.l. � L7.)(.II fl:: L6 � L7(s) � L11 daughter � L12._ post office � L2 the other side. fl:: LS more � L4(s).ft5 'f->.II fl:: L7 fl:: L6 fl:: LS � L6 to take (something) to bring (a thing) of course to carry.>gctJ f:f..ftJ.? C: L\ < very soon. �L5-II � UO-II � L9 to see.' *�' 'f->get.II �?< � slowly. b 1!9* 1!9 8 1!9 "? fl:: L7 fl:: L1(s) menu fl:: L2 often.>� L\ }..:lfv **:Jtij * J3 *� *� next semester fl:: L10 =D? C:: < .II four years old four minutes Hello? (used on the phone) J:fv�L\ J:fvJ3\fv 1!9� 1!9 -$t rice cake � L1 0.�fv � � lv south ear everyone f.§j 1f � 1f�. to watch 'f->* -f->61)-Q ..: ") 1\"--z once upon a time ��f�.. fl:: L7(s) glasses J:5 1.f'(9-@ 'f->n*v 'f->n �5 -f.>?-::> A"? fl:: L6(s) fl:: L4 fl:: L3 fl:: L7 fl:: L7(s) souvenir to lose weight eight fl:: L7 fl:: L11.Q night � L6.O) =D65 �� next month next week next year fl:: L4(s).II 'f->�l_.:::r.Q to C: =t.II fl:: LS 'f->*Ct. fl:: L4(s) fl:: L4 J:.. in a few moments/days �it iL' t%-fJ 1iZ to read fl:: L12 *-Hi 8 resenration fl:: L10 � U(s) fl:: L1(s) fl:: L4.f'f->(j' {}j. absence to be absent (from)./ J: < J: 1.f {}j.fvf�c all (of the people) together fl:: L11 � L5 to do.II � L6-III Jf *- vegetable fl:: L2 cooking .f-::> -c \' < �'t -::> "C < � fl:: L11 bL\ti'?n bL \(j'-::> bL\1.. kind (person) inexpensive. cheap (thing) holiday.f-::>lt.:: 5 �8 the sixth day of a month fl:: L4(s) � L10-II �5Ufvnd:: < �56fJL \ (tJ.

J'tl.' 51!� . to leaYe behind � L12.$.::::ZI---5/ tl.:: u f.:-@ .' �<v �?1"S\fv 'f:./'L� I :fl..�'- � L1(s) � L10 )[1-b.-@ t>9tl.II n=cr u J!t :R history restaurant K!. t>t.bt. �rr apple � LS �* 'f:.� 1/.: six minutes � L1 (s) � L1(s) � J: .' t>fl'-@ ''"ife � L?(s) young � \' � L9 � L4 � L12 � L6 to understand tl.b..::..: i? to bad to break up. .& six years old si.-@ .Q l.:: u .!T � traYel to cook � LS �< <! l.' �1 example � L11(s) � L1' � L2 � L4 � L11(s) to practice t>f.ft.o'clock .� J: 5 �9-@ #J.l. t.fl June @! �=== � L12 � � � � L4(s) .>(-1--- roommate � L11 9-{ 7 t>fl'l.: 5 �fv-. to separate to forget.-.::'5 $•Jn� .fvu 11> 5 � L1 we exercise tl...fvu!1>59-@ *-�T � f � L10 t>t.� \ ' cross � L6(s) 1// 1---7'/ X-ray � L12(s) � �� � �<tJ'·--:J 'f:.

II � L2 � L8 � L10 � L10 � L6 /\/I' �lvZ.J.J.... \:::>'!:.�Ji:* #i:.?:: as much as possible C''i'f �t..� L9(s) v-3 < -3 anthropology anything else ufv�l... 5'i'f (d3) .5<J IDE.J'Iv �mn � L5 � L11 � L12 �······ ��. 5 �L11-II }R. � L5 l::::: t. Jf$..C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R S T U V W X Y Z a.�.( L\Ju 2 E n g I s h - J a p a n e s e aJW§O)���d:J. ?ttl. < lcffv =i'ffvlcf-::> -�.� ��11>5 after (an event) *.>� l.Hh � L6 f.�l'O)pgg��9 o Items at the end of each entry indicate the following: apple April � fvc vf..tc (�O))®c': {�q)H� � L5...' (t.5< 5<Jiv Jilti.J..3.-3 C'fvt5 Z. again air airmail airplane alcohol all I7D-:7'5b. ctflv T-iltr t:tLf.v.� L6-lll � L1 t:-Jv A.. . � L9 � L12.J\:::> � uo 1!9 � � L4(s) art museum <Jv11>-::>f.tcX...�4hjf black and white black board blonde hair z.3. . because .tcX.) -f.\fv ��Ffr: all (of the people) together Jffvtc�:c:: alone U'C: � c::· -J.� L9(s) � L5 . ''3\::> V:> z.c � L12.J(..:: v<::lvv'f> d3Z. C'� C:� � L9 * � L4 ::1:! � August Australia lcl:t5f.fT aerogramme after .' board (!)� blue 1t \' *.:: lt �······ �(lj��� (Reading and Writing section) 7':i7'111v�l1>5 � L5 � L3 7 :17�'9E � L1 llfl < -c-3 G ······ �l. ..J.. ..M. \c � L4 t'9Jf back 5v-3 ��� � L4 � L8-II back bad bag band bank ttt.�L7-II �:ttl.II � L5(s) � L11.� � �� �. � L8-II � L10 bamboo hat �� L10.� s < -3l.C:Z...:::J. < 5'i'f :<!� oz. \t:.t � � L12-II �L8-II §�* � L2 � L5 z.5 l.:::> f. become beer begin best tc�:� <JJ:5l.fv � L2. z.� � L10 � L4 �� .. -:fif M � L8 and so forth and then and then (get) angry answer answer antibiotic apartment appear -t.J'G t-v-c lcl:vd. .J'I::::: ::1:! � � L11(s) � L7 7/\-1-- C'� � L9 ®st.� L2(s) tJ'<:! absent (from) d3C:tc�: �9ct *. 1:Je 8 -� � L9(s) � L2(s) � L9(s) la.J' b�L\ lftf> -��� � L7(s) � L12 about (approximate measurement) -<"St.�.f&.J. � L9.A B .. \�:) (Greetings) (s)······ �*::J5b (Supplement) I • at about attend in the II • III······F&I���(MDJf�'i'f�) (number of excercise Reading and Writing section) at the time of . �' � L9.J\:::> -"� � L4(s) � L1. . )(:$� (Conversation and Grammar section) as far as (a place) Asian studies ask 'i'f< -*.fv ��&0.J' 6 � L5 beauty parlor because . � L11 71'-.i 7.:<!1� ifufff.J'I"j. \f...l"j.::ZI--5�7 ���==(®���� about - 1::::: -:::> t.J.l � L5(s) � L5 � L3 be on the heavy side . � L9. -. .� � L11(s) tcfvvJ:.II � L5 (something) begins between bicycle birthday black � L1 �L12(s) lcl:v*. it-t: � L6 � L12.:f.f.J\< J.�L9-II ®t.. .\ baggage absence adult it..:::: ��� barbecue barber's baseball bath � L5(s) battery beautifu I � L8 1\-r\.> � L9 � L11.' ..c'::Jc::L\*9 :k?"C\'lt � L10 �L7 (d3)<:!1t 0?) iil§ Jflvt.rr � L8 lt-& ( J?) 1!t g 'lti1!!.. -c· � L4 already always � L6 � L12 -(J)C' � uo � L11 t.

�L3 cold fJ'ii' 1!\.' �L10 cold (weather) <!ct L.� �L7 brown �t->l\0l\ �� .::l\l \l\1J't.J. �L2 brothers and sisters �J:5t.Q �.A �L5 bus stop /\. .Q JFI-�T {> �L8 cooking I:J J:: 51:J #I.. �L9 by the way cz:: . �a::ct: MG L12.--$7. �L2(s) bookish expression iJ'f. .t::. �L2 concert :::J 'Y-tJ-.t I:J �L7(s) buy 1J'5 1( '5 �L4 by .' �L10 corner fJ'c � �L6(s) correct (0) *� �L11(s) cough tt� �L12 cough tt�tJ'c·. -c �L10 celebrity 11l5libl' L/ lv 'ij � .�L8 coffee :::J-t:.� L10(s) boat J3.< ©):::= · ��� company fJ'l' u t-> 4<--:f± �L7 composition <!<..f.! Me L6.1--..:'l\tJ�<ttL. �L11 clean �nl' (1J:) �L5 clean t-5 L/9-Q t-¥�T {> �L8 clever ®t.A �L1.f]) �L12 cold (thing/people) :Jlibt.) r 4'.f "? -c < {> :3o L6 Britain -1=t:l.' �L5 college t.�. n� �L7(s) bright ®t.. -c<.II by (means of transportation) �c �L10 by all means ii'U' � qf. (l)-f �L7(s) China �f1l5�·< o/00 �L1.II buttocks (<13) l.Q F:t'lt16 {> �L6 clothes . �L7 bring(a person) :J:h -c<� I!n -c < {> �L6 bring (a thing) =b-::.::: l' 'l>.:: (tJ.A1� �L4 busy(people/days) l\ttJ�ul' ·ttL. ffa �L1o book 13:/v *.\ R}!��.Qt±l {> �L12 counter *c<� �o �L5(s) · .::: �li) �L4 catch a cold fJ'tf�V'< J�l)f� a. \ �I:Jfv ±l� �L11 �:JtJl*'.fd.A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z boarding ticket LiJ:5ltt->I:Jfv *-**'. �L5 but c·=t �L3 but tJ' �L7. 7-1� �L4 child <132:: <!/v �-t � lv :3o L7(s) (my) child 5�0)..Q3: :f �L7 carry =b :J �� ""? �L6 castle (<b)l.Q -It � .u lv commuter's pass C:: L.:::l\l\tJ't.t �L8 city a:� HlJ �L4 class ?5.�L1.t-3 (�)� MGL5-II cat .f.�L2 Chinese character fJ'fvl/ �:f. �L2 business to take care of J:5 t. �L9 business t:::J:t. �l '� �rr � � L10(s) boxed lunch (<13) -"Zivc5 C t.7J �L11(s) color l\-3 � �L9 come <� *-6 �L3 coming from uf1l-::. �L1. . ffl * �L12 bus J\.) i�f·J �L7 cook I:J J:: 51:J9.�L9 convenience store :::J'Yt::= �L7 � L12 convenient -"ZfviJ (tJ.::a::tJ�l\l\ �J!n"'''' �L7 climb O)f3:'� it{> �L11 clock cl:t l ' *t+ �L2 close (something) G<1.::: < t:·ttt::."t.\ �' ' �L5 cheerful ®f..::*1il \l' �J!n"'..A �L1.m cool (weather) 99-'GL.' ftt-f �L8 child z::c·t.� �L9 boy <bcz:: O).::: � (l)"'f �L11 boyfriend tJ'n iLt �L12 bread J\'Y �L4 break up tJtJ'n� $•Jn 6 �L12 breakfast ®<!�fd:fv -'Jlfi!r� �L3 breast �. .' *. �.::: '5 t.3\fv 1-t ::>c �L9 computer :::J'/t:-=r.!d. borrow fJ' I:J � 11r � {> �L6 bound for .& �L4 boring :Ja::GtcJ:l' �L5 .. ' ' § �. �L6 chopsticks let l.�L10(s) ��� � cafe � -::..v.< nR �L12 cloudy weather < =b I:J 1: � :3o L12 clumsy A. .J'iDl. . �L11-II Cheers! (a toast) fJ'fvfcfL.-g �L2(s) cheap(thing) �9L.:: n' t:::..fd. <! "'Cfv ��m �L2 cafeteria v J: < c 5 1�'¥ �L7 camera :JJ x 5 �L8 camp :fi" 'Y7 �L11 cap fi=f5 G t� -t �L2 car <.\..' 5Jl\ L �.�L2.-c· �L9 by what means c·5�-::.=l\f. �L9(s) Bullet Train GfvtJ'Ivttfv �k�#:$..\ **.l.=l' X.i.::7 �L11(s) bookstore 13:/v� .:..3. ._ :3o L10 chair l .)-#.=r:tt.A :3o L4 class L/ f1l� J:: 5 {�3t.�L8 colloquial expression <t. MG L5.A"'Cl\ .J"'< ::kif: �L1 college student t.

@ $ili � � L9 � L3 drive date (romantic) u®tJ'� 7'.l��-. ...:-(ctfv � L4(s) dining commons 7'1 .&_ � L12 eight minutes eight o'clock eight years old lct-:J.A $1" � L1 (s) ct.A::J � L7 (something) ends energetic English (language) <13b..3.t' � L6(s) �L12-II L \61'J ft. •' � L3 lett>< day after tomorrow.J'L r95ftfv L/ �< �lit� X1t � L8 do physical exercises doctor dog L\u� ii.Q lt9 lf. � L12-II ®<!-:>Z: early � L4(s).@ iJI'.1� � L4(s) � L2(s).. � L10 7t�1.:. the (do something) early 1f. �JL -t.liT � 5fvc59.Q tc�:< �::t � L4 � L1.n � � t: � L11 � L3 � L5 � L8 dormitory IJ J: 5 cut classes fJ'bL \L' -lfft{-@ � L11 � L7 O)ct.. the day off deadline December decide �9# <13 c c L' V'tJ' u Jtt � L6(s) fJ'fv t:: fv C tc�:) t::r>Z. degrees (temperature) delicious dentist <13l\uL' -c ..O) t'51':7' �.�T � � u2-n � L7-n � L10 � L9 cram school credit card cross cry culture curtain cut cute �8 bt::.l� 0 it91tl � L5(s) ����®)::::!��� ear bib lf � L7(s) daughter :!!&.. ? vV·..ii Jfi.. tJ .@ � L8 t.@ Q R � L3 � L5 S T U V W X Y Z (counter for flat objects) (counter for people) country coupons cow ::>u < !� 4 00 - "'"'l� � L5 -f�fv liD�� � ._ � L7 � L7 � L10(s) do laundry ttfvt::< 9. O)ib=f.� L4 � L5(s) development !�-:>� u61'J -t---$3+-* � L1(s) � L1(s) !�5!'1fv :Q � �:tlt � L11(s) � L2.h#J � L11 5fvZ:fv98 il�T � dance <De. 1---n.:J:'fv... the L/�5L\'!5f�'t5 +-a JEi:l � L6 � L'•' uJ: < c5 ct9'fJ'uL' f.:- -�:b � � L5 � L9 � L1 BJt�p� � L3 -ill•' 11fv� CtJ:) l.""b Ao � L6 � L1 O(s) -r:.A B C D E F G H I * L' J K L M N O do do P 98 �..L\.x_� � L10(s) � L10(s) eighteen minutes li�51d:'t5'3.� ./UfJ' � L8 �GL\(1J:) 1t•' *� disgusted with � L5 �-'� ENT doctor enter lctL\..3\lv L/�5L\'!5L/ � L2(s). .1--- date/time something is ready f±J:.Q ::1t � X..F7 .I..51J' AS -TJ\-1--- � L4 � L12(s) eighth day of a month.fv/Li�5fct-:>i5\fv departing second department store dermatologist desk dialect diary die �<X. � L1(s) � L2 � L12(s) � L1(s) � L1(s) ufJ' �H departing first ttfv!ct� L/lct� 71::...�H JJ!. � L4(s) east easy eat � L4(s) eight fctt>L' 1f.� L2(s) � L5 �1:' B�i: l.fJ' f-:ffv-'2'5 lt. < .� L6 eleven minutes eleven o'ctock eleven years old L/.P5Lb.i u J: �L9-II Li�5L\-:>c:!L\ +-it dictionary difficult dinner disco dislike � L1(s) eleventh day of a month.fH4� L6 � L12(s) �GL\(fJ:) � L5 � L5(s) A6 jilf T disposable camera �fJ'L\9Z:nx5 entrance erase L' � <..the electricity <:fv� �� ()..Q "\?-:>� �"' � r.3\Iv/ld:'t5'3'1v !ct't5 L/ A* !ct-:>c:!L\ A/il!i.. < � L10 � L8 day before yesterday.3\fvfJ' n-7-"/ -w � � L12 � L11-II t':P c � L2(s) � L2(s) ? 11>6fJ � L10-n � � L9..@ � L11(s) � L10 L/�5f�tJ'� ftL\�L\ *&* � L9 51t&f> � A"? .� L2 A $1" 1-"'. don't look well door door dream drink drink drive fffv�fJ\fci:L\ jJr. � L3 � L1 o � L5 � L1.h � L5 +=-� easy (problem) economics t>c:!uL\ u��IJ ��.

:±l o � L10(s) expensive t:::.t:J'tJ. � �Ls exam v l:t lv �� �L9 example . �L11-II glasses �i'J'tl H!H. � L7(s) � face 1J''S lUi �L7(s).tl/�<: 1JJ6>':> "C �L12 for two to three days l�tslvl�"5 ::.tt->l' i!"' � L7 fast l. � L12 gate 1J'l \c.5t:::.)R.l:t :.tu' i7•J �L11(s) excellent food �"5-t-5 � L9.�� L8. �L1(s) flight Ulv -f!t �L10 flower (.) -».n. f. �L7(s) (my) father "5"5 X �L7. the J:-:dJ' 1!9 8 � L4(s) Friday �lvJ:5U 11:-Bi 8 � L4. -1J'6 �L9. �L5 food t:::.3\lv +1!9'7.:./if..3:tcJ: n �L12 fond of 9�(/.z.. � L2 express ��5Z.:=.1t �L7 glossy finish z.:"5 :JJ:. �L1(s) fourteen minutes L/�5J:fv.--?lt{> �L12-II finger f:PU �� �L7(s) first V'C::"J� -"? 13 � L6(s) first car l\"5lc!lv*X.II first-year student l \t:.n. � L7.3.3.tt->< ..?(.fu E.t.3\lv 1!9§}.ft �L10(s) eye � 13 �L7.u �Jli L ::1· L.�.5 .. t:>tcl\L/1� n:k�n: 'ft L12 girl d3fvfcJ:(J)Z.c'b � �LS(s) .=b(J) �""-t� �L5 foot ®v Jt �L7(s).. � L2 fishing :J IJ � L11-II five l\"J"J .:..tt:::.g.II front *X.!"J c�{L �L10(s) general admission seat L/f:P5tt� § w/$ �L10(s) get (a grade) c� lPt {> �L11 get (from somebody) :ts65 �L9 get off d31J� Ft � 6 �L6 get to know v-@ � {> �L7 get up 4:3�-@ �� 6 �L3 Get well soon. . �L1 frightening Z.III Everything is under control. fl �L4(s) festival *:JIJ �� �L11-II fifteen minutes L/�5�'3'/v + . t.§J. t::·-. �L12 for example t:::. "? �L9 five minutes �.. -k0-T �L11 girlfriend 1:J'O)L/J: . �L4(s) friend c:tst. -$]" �L1(s) fifth day of a month. :f:.:llvttl' -� � fish ts."'-. 8 � L4(s) film 71 Jvb.(J)vl' �L"' �L5 future v J: 5 f:Jl' �'** �L11 .islv � � lv �L6. the "Jl't:::.!f.. �L2.:c' L/ J: 5... f!!.!Jlf � L1(s) �L1 gain weight ..qg � L12-II fast l. 9#*ttlv �G exercise ttlvv�5 *!� �L11(s) exit C'� :±l {> �L9.r � L4 front end l\"5lc!lv*X.1v 1'F x �L9 every day *l'l�"5 �8 �L3 every night *l'lc!lv �BJt �L3 every week *l'v�5 �il! �L8 everyone #/.l\ E.C:X. < ?�1!1 �L11 forget b9rt-@ iS n {> �L6 four J:?"J 1!9"? �L9 four minutes J:fv..7" � L1(s) fourteenth day of a month.J. �L10 fall ®� tx � uo family 1J'-f:< �-* �L7 famous fg>5�l\(tc�:) 1!-Z �L8 fantastic 9<:�(tcJ:) -!"� �L12 farm l.J..II Excuse me. -=i-wr �L10(s) 8 first day of a month. -=i-iltr �L10(s) fun t:::..< ®IJ ..3.3. the L/�5J:?1J' +1!98 �L4(s) fourth day of a month.Ict �L11(s) for .J. � L?(s) February 1�1J'"J ::. weeks -v�5i'J'Iv �i!M � uo foreign country tJ'l . the l\"J'/J' ."5 �L4(s) - �� � �� � �� � five years old z::ts.(:-@ :t.Vl' ·t:lji"' � L5 from . < � L10 father d3C::::>e!lv nX � lv � L1. 8 � L12 for . �L2(s) essay ts < .flt-k �L12. months -'/J'I::J'"J �-h· fl � L10 for the first time l. first of all *9.�L1(s) four o'clock J:L/ 29* �L1(s) four years old J:lvtsl' 1!9/tf.A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z eraser l:tv ::r.1J'l' T§i".�L1(s) five o'clock �L/ .n.. � L6-I exit c·<·t:.� � L? game v®l\ �. �LS(s) find #:JI:t� Ji.n.

./ J: 59' (tc:J:) . �L7(s) half lct:lv -'¥ � L1 half past two 1.7 �L6 here ... d3�9d:J.3o1J'�L' ..:5 4'-1z.::Zt--7?2�.tn3� :fiji� .::�L'*9 Good night. <!�5tc:J:E> �G grade (on a test.t � � L3 house 515 �L3 housewife L-11>.cO k-t �L9(s) ' green tea (d3)t5t-> (}.::: L/ lct:lv . l.1:.: L' fa' I! � L5.E>L\ �L10 how much L\< E> �L2 how much cO)<:'GL' �L10 (become) hungry d3tc�:1J'1J'9< �L11 hurry L\t<.) ttL\it� Ji'<J. f-. etc. <::lvr�·lvrct: �G Good morning. at-'¥ �L1 hamburger /\'. ? c 5 c91J' �L3 How do you do ? let: l. . ..fc:J:<!L' �G Good-bye.3.. the <::lv � �L12-II Hello? (used on the phone) =b L-=b L.J.:: 5.. -f*.:::·).:::t)fct: �G good at .A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z gloves <::'3'< 0 4'--Ji � L10 go L \< 1T < �L3 go back fJ'x?:> �� � �L3 go on a diet -5''-{I·Yt--9 � �L11 go out c1J'I1?:> iliiJ· tt � � L5 go to sleep tl?:> � � �L3 God 1J'd:J.:L\�E>L\(tc:J:) *�"' �L5 have a fever tl:::>tJ�®?:> �h{ .. � L5 home L\X.:t.i �L12. �L7(s) husband t.(tc:J:) �L5 hangover . �L11(s) hospital UJ:5L\Iv rnf'Jt �L4 host family 11\.J. �'* � L11-II hold =b-::> �"--:::> �L6 holiday �9d:J.11> < t.� �L1 how c5�?l: �L10 How about .3\lvf£5 x5t. �L7(s) (my) grandmother tf� :fll� �L7(s) gray ?1. �J.:: � L4 Here it is.::.�L9(s) gray fct:L\L\-3 '* � �L9(s) great-looking fJ'?. �L4 hour -L/t:J'fv �*raj �L4 house L\.3. �L2 hobby L-fild:J./-t'5 �L10. �L11(s) grandfather d:>vL\<!lv �L7(s) (my) grandfather t-.�L7(s) handsome 1\Yt:tb.:lvtc:J: �L7(s) hair fJ'd:J. :fllX �L7(s) grandmother d:>fcl:�<!lv �L6.:: �L9(s) good L\L\ �L3 Good afternoon./6'J*L-<:: �G How is . .:: 5 �iX � L1 high school student <:: 5<::5ttL\ �iX� history :tt�L.::... � L7(s) husband (Z::)L-!1>vlv (.II head �it* $� �L7(s) healthy l'flv�(fd:) Jt".�·y? � L12 homestay 11\-b. �L9-II hot (objects) ®::>L' �\' � L5 hot (weather) �::>L' � \. ·? c5c:91J' �L3 how long cO)<.II guitar :¥5'. d3fct:�5/d3fct:�5./ J\-7j'._ �L1...�L5 hear �< M < �L3 heavens.:: .:: L\L' � L7 green -'J' �-Y �L9(s) green d:J.::51J�P�L\ ot�"*IJt.� \' � L12 have a talk lct:tc�:L-�9� �a: T � �L9.�L8 good child L\L\<:: ''\'-f �L9 good deed L\L\<::c �L10-II Good evening.�L4 help <:: ::>t.�<· �L6 hurt L\ltL\ fill"' �L12 husband 5150)V'c 7 -t.::Z 71' �L8 homework L.-.�L3 hand <:: 4'.Jttj..rr gold �lvL \-3 §!:-� �L9(s) gold =f-J[.. 4'. (-7d:)c5-t' �L2 high school . � �L7.lt� �L1 grammar .:£.II hat 1�5 L.�L9 have a lot of free time V'* (tc:J:) aFI � L5 have a scheduling conflict -::>." . � �L3 home 5t5 �L3 homesickness 11\-b..tlil-t � L2 hate t. �L5 hot spring d:>lvttlv 1�=* �L9 hotel 11\7J[. �L7(s) husband d3?c r.)� �L3 guardian deity of children l.�L11. <::fvf.l �L12 graduate student tO::L\tJ�<t-\lvttL\ :k�P..t � �L12 have a fight 111v1J'9?:> �L 11 . e G!!:•' � L12 happy L-®t>tttc:J: $-It >j: � uo..

l know I do not know 1:l'lvl/ )l� 1:J5::t7 v 0 3::ttlv v?C::L\3::9 . Let me see.::v :f.-:::z l::ta:: Jvl/lv � L2 �L1.3\fvf} < '5J:. ?C 9::v ii. a little. time inconvenient inexpensive injection injury inside instruct -2 language large -2:: �� :k !< \' � L1 � L3 �L10(s) � L5 -::::iilv'5�5 � language lab <13<13�L' last car last train last week last year lastly late LU:r:JI. : S :d �71..{.:z. tJ.5- �L4 � L5(s) �L2 � L9(s) C:vJ:f. x¥ �L3 �L1.l' tcJtJ' � J:.7<.H-t Jt� lff..� \' �L12 � L9-II I'm home. il:: L1 1£< fl �G �L5 9(h. tC.3::ttlv Kabuki kanji kind kiosk karaoke 1J'. � L4-rrr � LB <13vX.l'(h. .II v'51:l'-=' 0<1:l'-=' �� 1'L � L7 �L7-II � L4 just .���: � LB...t� �00 � L10(s) ja � � L7 I'll go and come back.t. .l'0� �L12 <13t < 1J:� i! < � � � late (for an appointment) '5 z: < 9� �L11 i£�11 T <13=5 v-3L\ iW a\' �f� international relations international student introduce . -tC.n 1£ < � LB.>® � L7 � L2 vlvtt-='(tc�:) lcfL\C::fv 1:l'lv:: < �-w �L7 �L5 kind (person) (get to) know '\?� vL' if that is the case.::·v 1Jt -c· �L6 �L1 il:: L1 4Hi ± �L11 0 � 51:l'' < ttL' fci-65 v-tc. .a:Jv) qb: -='-:::51J\b�L' : �L12 '\?9L' �L12(s) � �' L\'5lilv5v-3 ttlvlt-=' v�5C'Iv itlvv�5 -·t!Hb:7:.:.I1 �L11 little while ago. 5(h.. 7t � last month �L5 �L12(s) �L4(s).:::(J)fvtcJ�L' ========���== lake (h.> i. 0 d8v W -J tL �L1 vJ:51:l'L\9� .l'lv ih9'l\0 @:fH'& � L1o Japan 1::: 13:/v 8* � L1 I ife 8 *� a*" �L1 ttl\tJ'-=' 9�(1J:) �< Japanese language Japanese people jeans job JUice July June 1::1a::Jv 2:: light blue like listen little. L.3\0 �L11 (a person) is in . �L4(s) �'t '5�5vf..: � Ji. �L8 �L4(s) �L4(s) �L1 � !< &.L'* I'm sorry.3i� il:: L9 � L6 � LB I (used by men) I am sorry. a live 9ct 7]<. �� � L10 � L 4(s) <t 13:11/v �L4 �L\.: <13tL\ Jil.::::!.f. J..� �L5 :.1d: 1:> � �L5 (do something) late late (for) d3-t< interested (in) interesting � J:. � � i-tt 1v il:: L7 �o-?-(\'iT �L7 L/f.� � L5(s) �''.i. �L2 �L9. �G . t.3. L'� V'�IJ1:l':b E:fP. � L7.� �L6 � L6(s) it has been a long time It is okay. later on lawyer learn left leg ®C:C' "fv.9"5(h. �L12(s) � L4 =b59<" '1'-1\tr. . %� l. � L9 � L10(s) �L4.Iv 11�.\ == ==== ==== == == � J � � � == January L\'51:l'-=' � �L4(s) - C:: f.. � L?(s). a �?� . .: < �L \f. iiJl �L11 in a few moments/days in the morning in . .::t C. ..A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z I tJ t.P �L10 t�''*-h:.L\L/J:5'3' :A.l'lvi1L' 00� WI ¥ . leave behind �L11 left side :b9tl� �L4 Sn {> � L6 �11-T � �L4 V'�v. if you like illness . -�J:5(J) �L3 � ft § � L11(s) v2::c �L12 -c � I iterature . < line number ..t:J'-.J-:Y :A i±l= V.5 v J: 4-� #:et ... (. LbC::�3::9 UJ:5� �G Korea �L1.� insurance ��� �L6 f¥.i. �L12 t5C'9tl � L3 leisurely �L5 letter letter library �? < 0 :kJ:.

�L6 next year GL.�L10 living with a local family l!\-b7.:ij.J'< iii < �L11-II neck < U it 3iL7(s} need L'� �L8 negative .."b J..J:. .� �L11.. a t:< �fu � L4 love t.) � �L6 month after next. 3il8 next semester GL.5..I1-::> .� 'it it� 3i L9 menu x=:J.� L10(s} north �t.II mouth < t5 o 3iL7(s} movie X..). �L9 near place "bt. C. � L1 make -::> < � fl' � �L8 make a phone call c·fvp. �L7(s} (my) mother ld:ld:: � � L7(s) nonsmoking car �luxfvu� ��5¥.i'-::> (.� L11(s}.3\fu 5./Ms.. -�* . �L6 Nice to meet you.a:)t. � � L5.-T-1 �L8 local (train) .J' �L4(s} fL a more =b::>c �L11 morning ®� -'JJ 3iL3 mother d3i'J'®"t"lv :lS ��A./Ms. ..:f �L4 near future <:fuc. the <:<:O)f...305 iH! �L10(s} lonely �UuL' >JR L" ' �L9 long tJf. �L12 May Z:.J'd3f. fL* � U(s} nine years old �f1:>5�L' fL/}.� � L12 meal cld::fv 1�r� �L4 meaning L \(f}.II much J:< 3i L3 Municipal Hospital u(f}. �� � L11-II lose tJ< 9 �L12 lose weight -1->tt� �L7 .= L '9� (tJ) *. the �GL.. the ®*O)f..'5-tJ:6 u< � G night J:� 1Z �L6. � L5-II mountain road �*(f}. ..J'I1� It� �L6 �� � n· man <De. � L2.J' �i® � L3 Mr. :3: L1(s} ninteen minutes uf1:>5�f1:>5/3\fv +fL� � L1(s} ninth day of a month.n· 3iL5(s} neighborhood �fvlJJ:: i!ifiT �L11-II (get) nervous �fvt5J::59� �*i" � 3iL12 new ®t. �L1. �L7 many t.tJ�(1J:) . . ...:.R aa a � L4.J'-::> j:_). lot..:GuL' �iTL"' 3iL5 New Year's (d3)uJ:3t.fdfv *� �L4(s). -l�uf1:>5 .::.. �L6 next (stop).J'. .fv fL� �L1(s} nine o'clock < c..t.:::O)V'c � (!)J. ..I1-::> *� 3il4(s}.:< �fu �L4 March �futJ'-::> .J\®d3L' H.J(.J\L' -&"' �L7 look at (f}. . � L12 mean-spirited L' t. �'*.::: � � L11-II man sc.:O)u(f}.l::9� � Lh t:-t� �L7-II mountain �* J.J''-=>� **AA �L10 next week GL'u f1:> 5 *-I!! 3iL4(s}. . � iW 3iL1 narrow tt*L' �"' 3iL12 near t-l..t. � UO(s} next month GL." 1-J. -:J�Id::.3.i.�L2 Milky Way..t-:11!!.lh'J{-t"' �L9(s) looking for .:iff � �L5 �L3 music sfut.L'f.. 3iL7(s} not .xt.R �L4(s) (get) married 11::><:fv9� �ti:ll�T� �L7 mat finish .J"'--:J 1i .� JL � � L3 look forward (to) (-. ..:t.::f.*� 3iL4(s} name tJ*X..: :!t �L6(s} nose ld:: tJ J¥..w..Q (j:. +negative 1PJ t �L7 not at all iffvitfv +negative �� � L3 ..fvUJ::5L'fv $��Bt �L6 look pale t. 3iL4(s} money (<13) t.it � L10.t.R �L4(s) maybe f.::: :St. � L5-II nine .. .a:t.:< tJu Jt5Rt: L �L5(s} match u®L' �-g.A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z lively r::�-1->tJ'(tcJ:) �L5 living ttL't.r. �L9 meet <:155 %7 �L4 memorize si�X. -�fv �L1 Mr.J\p }((!)!ll � L12-II Monday 11-::>J:SU .3\fv �Jtlil1 3iL2 next c1J:IJ � 3iL4 next -::>� IX. ..t. �L11.J'< my place 5t5 �� � L3 �L3 lunch u-�cld:: lv �1iEJl� �� ���� �� �� magazine if-=> u **-� �L3 major ttfv=bfu .}� � L9 meat r::< � �L2 medicine < 9� rt#.::: 2:0)-:J fL---::> �L9 nine minutes �f1:>5. anything t. � L10-II ����� ��� �� newspaper ufv..

- V'i:l: (1J:) aFI open (something) ®l:t-@ 4'-i. . X.t.::c \"ts.::> � l10 � l12(s) � l12(s) ophthalmologist ®i:l: IJ +negative tti:I:L \ -t:J'- not spacious not .i�"5t:J'-.J-.!t A. �L7(s) - �L5 L\"t5:Qfvf.:: +negative �L7 � L3 �L12 31] 1: operation or u �l.t5 ®t-'3' Lb"ts....a:J. -c . �L1(s) -A.: < &'*A.'..l't::. the other side. -f<ffv � � � � !):::��� :: � L12(s) � L1.::: �Ill � l11(s) *05*05 :e l11 15"•' �L5 �L6..i oc IJ -lltf � L1. YJvJ\-11--- t:>f<f®"ts.::> +� panoramic JU 57 office worker '5t50fv �L7 t:l'L\u�L\fv 4.II �L10 o< 5lj!.-@L\ part-time job party pay pen � L1.tT t:J'fvt:J' fm It 7. -J l.::> ftitf: "'"'A �L2. < �L9 "5X. yet notebook November now no No.n one hour l\'5G:f:J'fv -eH.. +negative / -1--- *.H ����®)=::��� page . . �L7(s) �L2.::: -:5-.::> 1.: � L10(s) �L6 t.fv�J:-5 obstetrician and gynecologist t5_fv.3./ �L8 � l10 older brother sr.ilft:l' �L2 t./.. the �L4(s) ttfv l.._ �L8 other day. �L8 �L4(s) � L1.:: -J !iiJ -J � L12-II K� � L8-II �L11 number . :l!iji -vfv V'C:Uc �-@ v-c A. . in particular not much .r\.3\fv L \-:J.:l!iji �A..fv /\-7-1lett>? -"\.)(.::: "5 � L9.:-:f. � l12-II once upon a time one a:JtJ a:JtJ' u 'u photograph u�ufv tJ:L\t:l' �L9 �� �L4 -w� physician piano picture pink i*J{4�Jt � l12(s) �L4 � l10-II C:? / C:'.fv �L5(s) �L4 �L4 parenthesis t:J'-.iJ:-5'3' i:!:tC.bL\t?fd: ®-@. �L7 J:t:it � l10(s) place of origin platform play < r. � •. .t.> D�H �L6 not ..::> � � L1 �L8 �G +-� otorhinolaryngologist outdoor activities over there ®-t. one minute one o'clock one person one way oneself on one year old l.. painful pants parcel park L \t.± Jl �L3 J\'.L\ -� �L1(s) play (a string instrument or piano) �� � L10.. pencil people people perform person X./'Y . �ld �L7.ifvtJ' occupation o'clock October of course often okay J. Oc-..-V � l12 �L5(s) � l11(s) -Li � L1 � •' � L10 + E!.::: -5 t:l'-5 � L12(s) YrJ 1--.i �-.::L\"t5c � 1: - .-V �L6 G�c """'* page number .i-. not busy �G only .fv 051.f-4 Not to worry.L\l.n lf.fv ®:I'd }.n � l12.:::. orthopedic surgeon �L5 ttL \l:tL\lft:l' �L12(s) ��::S'�. please.::> 7t a �::::.fvl. �L7./? e:..::> --? �L9 G� ufv t:l'. tC.� l12. �L7(s) old (thing) old woman .:: @I �L7 It\-b. .r\.l..? ?. �L5 . . L\L \X.I'? � l11-II �L2 number f<ffv�-5 it-� � L1 � l11(s) over there own (a pet) �.:.::: . �L2(s) (my) older brother older sister �L7(s) �L7(s) � L1.::L\ -. z..n- L\"tsl.�A. l.:: }. C-�)d3:fdt:J'L'u*9 . .ts.� �L4 � l12-II (my) older sister once a year �L7. �L2 �L2 Please give me . �L4 05-@L \"<: � \. Li�"5L\"t5t:J'-.3\fv one .-. � L9(s) � L4 � L1(s) pitiful place � l12-II �L8 -� . on foot J:.:: S T � l11 U V W X Y Z Not at all.3. .f¥-H '-'* "5"5fv L\L\X.r\.L\ . C-�)<�ts. �L8 @ 1±• """'* overtime work t!.. �L2(s) � L1 t:>:QX. ..::>a:J._!<. �-.A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R t r:t .

M.�i.-5 * L3 � L1 � L10 *L6(s) .)�4� I? � L10 postal stamps W-1' �L5..r�J:: < ld:t.)�i!li put (a hat) on a person's head -!. areas -la:-56fJiv tc�:tcJ:J -!: -.J'V "'t> �L11-II � L5 �L11 �L10(s) ..%.right? right away right side river room -C'GJ:-5 *L12 � L6(s) ::::tL. the secondly see se II J'5:.E *:-1t ��� ===( sad sake fl'fcl:uL\ (d3)<!"11 ):::== ®! ��� �L10-II �L3 �L3. . 1lt :tt � L5.3. serious *LS seven *� '""C"'th· � L12-II (it) rains 056fJ1J'''3 '-8 serving .tiZY 1-- � L12 l-t>"bJ:: -5 "§"'<" Jll �L6 president of a company print :f±-&.tJ'v .t \ ' polite expression politics popular ttL'l/ cL'tlL.Iv 'jfr<.I''JfJ {.f..J VC::L \it� * L5(s) � L10 reservation rest t>"§"'ct J:t:>< P.�$: seventeen minutes � L5(s) L/rp-5tc�:tc�:.3o1J' . � L2 rich person ride right (d5)1J'. ..3\tt-8 � L10-II put on (a hat) �-8 f.:Jd3fv 1t.:J �-=>c r 4'*L2 �LS �L9 return (things) rice rice cake fl'X. *L11 1::f.A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Please go and come back.:::· �H� �L1 � .J'< put on (clothes above your waist) t.J'"§"'-8 @}=:::: ! * L11 season second $-iP ��� .fv regarding to reply -!:JL'c *L1(s) seventh day of a month..fvl/ :tW �L11-II �L4(s) . 4'.t ::z 1--5 :. .xt: � L3 ®-5 � LS-II * L4 *L12 �L4(s) � questionnaire u9"1J'(tc�:) t:>OD-8 Y Y-'7. -..b)=b"b �L4 WC L10-II 11!5LJA.:..< :S"-!l'J * L11 f.J'� !�1�. fL fJ t:Jfl'n-8 < tJ'J * l/6Dtc�: rain read ®6D m �LS m IJ{Ft {..g:�.l$ *L10(s) .J' 0�1J'x!11v :.J'f. * L5 see (a person) separate September � L11 % "7 �� L1 0.:>Z.3\-8 �L7 Saturday say L\-5 school science sea �L7 cJ:-5LJ ±BltE § "? �LS ¥� H¥ *L5 f. � L5(s) *L10 (f)g #'5:. 1t {.1-- #-8 -5-8 Jt {.J'-.JF �' -!:* *L1(s) ®f. #'5:. 1-- *L5(s) ?"n'" probably probably b3\lv �L12 roommate round trip *L1 *L11(s) Jv-.y 7JiiD � L10(s) J:ct �iet: *L3 � L12-II *L6 ?l.1: * L4(s) *L11(s) �� LS-II u-. reserved seat ��lt.J'x-8 <:-ld:fv �L3 �'t A. pronunciation purple ctG�� ttfvttL' I<J:-."§"' � L6 r:lv�t:J'®-8 A.::.:J put on (items below your waist) ���� quarrel question quiet quit 11/vf.::-. 7o � L5 �L4 (t-:. . d3c® GL' •l* {.3.lv1J'-. tf-IJ' .y El second day of a month.*L5(s) nfvGrp·Y9-8 t!W't {.:..:::-1if:1J'. L \-::> cG-=> G t> L' �G reprint t>�* u #a .'!i: �tt-.J' registered mail (d3)A.3. �L7 (6fJ1J'tl1if:)1J'I1-8 put on (glasses) *L7 ld:< -5# . *L4(s) � �L9(s) .*L9(s) �LS-II 1J'�c6D t:.b.f:J6fJ .::. .J'.><-1-- -c·GJ:-5 �L12 Professor .fd=b"t5 * {.!i ct:3-5.t: * L6 �L4 t:... \' lJ: � \'1i ilil:ii'> poor at .t. *L12 f.tcJ:L'L'fl't..: --c�'tl restaurant restroom return L. points -clv -?? . a � {.fv G"b l/ tc�:tc�:�L\ � L1(s) � L1(s) +-!:� -!:a l3:fvc:Sc·"§"'f. ..:X�\¥ L 7 .3. {..J'fcl:-5 seven minutes seven o'clock seven years old �L5(s) tc�:fcl:. {ifp� (.: (fcl:) C. . the tc�:O)f. ..� L \' (t:.fi-ll ::11):. pork cutlet post office postcard practice present �L11(s) �L2 *L1..l' L' * L9.:S�:it� *L9 -!:� -!:� (be) realized Really? receipt red f.:J'I:.II $•Jtt.

J'f.� � L10(s) supermarket A-J'\. L \-8 � L4 stomach sfc. � � L11.J'u ( t:./\.<·· � L5 tail end L \'5 (cffv5 G-3 -{f-q� 7.[.t.: � L6 subway '51.J' ?�*1.� L9 �L \1.� .n take (amount of time/money) f.< � L12.1J' soccer -tr·.� L11 sit down 9b-8 � � � L6 six �? :::> �"? � L9 six minutes -3 ?13 \fv � � � L1(s) six o'clock -3 < L/ � at � L1(s) six years old -3 < <!"L \ � it � L1(s) sixteen minutes L/ � 5 -3 ? 13\fv .�� stare (at) L/-3 L/-3#-8 t 7. Jt � station X. t 7.:: .fc..A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Shinkansen ufv1J'Ivttfv '*IT�� � L9 ship 13'tl �.J� < ttL' ¥ j:_ � L1 student discount t.�:t.Y � L1 0 shoes < :::> .s � L4.>? < 0 � L6 small '5 L \c:!L' + � \ .Y � L3 spring 1�-8 * � L10 stairs f. etc.¥it � L2 shopping 1.J'.J.J'L \=1:.<\ ' " ' � L7 smoke t lcf . �7'C L6. � L7.::> :teTi� � L10 summer t c:J:? 1l � L8 Sunday l::t5c:l:: 5lf 8 Bif 8 � L3.:> � L6 :::. Jt � -c· � L5-II . � L10.n sweat shirt 1-.J' < 9-8 'fll � T � � L11 +�� � � L1(s) � L4(s) sixth day of a m onth the ski A:i=-. � L10(s) take (a class) C:: -8 llx.II so t 6 � L4 :!.) *--r � L11 swim t:3c:l:: <" i*'. .[.9 � T � L3 special delivery t < t:::> i!. C?l�. t:31:flv�C? -c· t. ) ± & � L4 spa t:3fvttfv ..J' 1PJ n' � L8 c�: sometimes C:: � c� at -« � L3 song 5 t:::.J'L \tcfv r%i'i£ � L10(s) stand up t :::> :iL -.J' G ( t:. . -7-._giR_ � L9 speak l�fc. .. � L4(s) sunny weather l�n � n � L12 super express c ? � � 5 �� .n strip of fancy paper t fv -0.-t.) C:: *-8 i8 1 � � L8 � L10 � r*l T � shrine L/fvl/� #:.J. � L12 store d:ftt r.ifvt r9 -8 c�:L � L9-II sports Alt\-'.J.J'l.� L12(s) (be) surprised l!? < 09-8 � L10.II :::. � L6.f± � L11.� L8 sky..J.J' � L7(s).t. show someone around <P. sing 5t 5 � 7 � L7 singer 1.0) N: \ '�� � L4 short (length) i7J L/1.) J:. � take a walk c:!lvla:'9-8 � � T � � L9 take back ::>. � L9(s) silver yJ[.-31::1�L\� � L6 ( t:.� L10 something t l::t.J' 8 skillful L/ J:: 59-(fc.fv � � L12-II sleep tl-8 � � � L3 sleepy tl<tL\ H� \ ' � L1 0 slide A 5-1 I' � L5(s) slow t:3tL \ 1! " ' � L10 slowly 11. stays at .m straight * ? 9 <· � L6(s).� L9(s) simple 1J'fvt fv (fc. ilk.l"i� " .1i :::.t � L5(s) spend time pleasantly ®t-13\ �.J'L\ .} � L10 shirt Y i ' '. � L10 :::.) 1 . ) tit.L\< t� -? -c �.ii \ ' � L7 � short (stature) ttt.r stay (at a hotel. � L5 smart ®t:*t.l*® � L11 south d:ft c:J:iTJ W! � L6(s) souvenir (t:3) d:ft>l:f ( }. : snack (t:3)1.I stress A 1-.D'< L \ "lfl. � L7 so-so *iP.� � L10.-t.� L4 surface mail 13.J'L \L \ JiJU.J. student t.t� i! n -c·�� � L12-II Take care. t:.J'-8 � L10 take (pictures) C:: -8 ia � � L4 take (something) u ? l..ttl.J' u � �k.Ufv �d-i� � L5(s) surfing -tr-'7 1' :/ � L5 surgeon l:f1. ) � 8 t : A.n sickness UJ:: 5� � � � L9 silver �fvL\-3 � @. .J.!j1. � L7 shoulder 1J't � � L7(s) :::. th e l. A � L8. < � L8 take a bath (t:3)13. standard Japanese D'J:: 5 L/ � fv Z: � L11(s) {if.J' < t:> O �$1 � L10(s) study l"(fv� J:: 59-8 1fM! T � � L3 study abroad 0 � 5 1.J.1.t• ::: � '2Z 7 � L6 :::..{f95 t t. -7:/ � L1 sweet ®*L \ 1:t \' � L12 sweet bun (t:3)*fvl5 � 5 � L4-m sweets (t:3) 1.� L2 Sweden A') :r.-T � L11 snow �� � � L12.

m-·e-.SV a � L4(s) Thursday =t:. take medicine take off talk tall � L7-II < 9 '::) . � L12 t l\"'-fv(t c.II � L7 � L6 � L1 � L1 ��� � L12 Mi T � L3 ttf. + � thirty minutes this .Q �n -c � ' {.J'C:: 52<!L'*9 ticket vending area till (a time) (be) tired (get) tired to (a place) today � c:�.fv � B)t � L3 tooth let l'E That wouldn't be necessary. k d3 v :Z � ttfvttL' .. � L3 cd3t.II � L11 �G � L2 -£c· �a � L5 � L3.A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O think P Q d3t. � L5-II � L4 That's right . there is .:t {.t {.: fv v !1l 5 . � L8 � L8 � L11 teacher tell a lie temple ten 7t.t. 5t.:t::�:.J'J:.: there are many . t 5 "C9t1 That's too bad.l':Z *.­ together tomato L\� v c:�.� L8 tomorrow 0 u t c. � L4(s) these days � uo t. the test O)C:.t � L6(s) � L10(s) � L10(s) Li f> i?. .. the � L4(s) � a: � v � L9 (become) thirsty thirteen minutes O)ct. � L4(s} *-Ji!. therefore ®. (over there) � L2 that one (over there) That would be fine .l' :==.:t:.J'n." 1:JJ N � L5 � 10(s) ��'3i5 '::) ld:' textbook � c:�. temperature (weather) (d3) L" S . � :==.J' v J. t: � a: -? lt {. .: 5 $> � ' �Ji!.:fvt. there � L8 ti'fvt1fvc ·9t.� -J � L8 #-=>t.tt � L2 � L11 �d3fv this person (polite) this semester this week this year � L1(s) � L1(s) +a .Jt. � L3. .i..3ifv � L4(s).. .�tt � L12(s) T V"\? '.:fvl"f-:> this morning 11(! � J'l �lJl � L4(s). ifi T � L6(s) � L6 � L7 turn off thing (concrete object) 4� � L12 turn on � L6 .:0) � L2 this month .a:-:>< this one � L12 .3ifv +:==. tenth day of a month.:5c9 -c 1-.:fvt<f.O) !l!1 1.Q �n � Thank you for the meal.:5-c9 �ti�·e-t t5L"9 � L7(s). 1-- � L5 fXH:t. . that one -tO) -tn that .ry � .l\t c.Y � L7 Tuesday 1. Thank you. < ct 5 U � L4.:: e: v �� (!fv.in � L6 � L2 � L2 �. . a 0 1'-f. . � ten minutes ten o'clock ten years old tennis three #�-:> :==.J'G � L4 thermometer t l \d3fvl1l' c. third day of a month..G �i!!l.� 77-. � L4(s) that .J' �fv(!l \ =. � L6. .J 7��-c·-ttl toy d3=b'5� � L11 track number . 5 -£c · VJtf% ry J� � L2 � L10(s} � L5 -::> t..a:O)t.J'St . J:) � L6 � L1 � L3 tough (situation) town £'5 1BJ :k� That's right.J'c5/0 '::) f.Q � L12 transfer trave l T-shirt turn 0) '::) t. .. c 5 =b � L6 �G (boarding) ticket L. � L4(s} tonight . then . ' �� ' ' 3 � L12 *. � L6 cd3 + � L9 L5 �-P � '3ifv L5 �-P 5 L5 1.a:-:>!1-Q . ®0) i?.:t � L4 :?Rft � L5 a t:3.i �5�fv.5 R S T U V W X Y Z take care of oneself t. 5 vt->l:tfv Thank you.IJ&. (before eating) l\ 1:: 1:::� *9 � L8.J'l' 'M"h{lt � ' lctt J:9 L.J't. 11�.. .:kill £t..J'n L"l \ . 5 U . t::: -*-t t: � L5 � L4 together with (a person) 11�.1. . -l<tfvttfv it� � L6 �:tiH. . . traffic light train cfv v f> '::) c:�. � L10 =.J' � � �¥AA � L11 ( t? ) � � L4 +� +£& � L4(s). . 'tMi telephone c ·fvv 5-t:.i c:�.:0)�-3 thin t->ttz:l '*9 1'-f. (after eating) Thank you for the meal.Q 119 -::> 11� � L4. -:>t./ �-P � (!l\ +!!l . !!l � L1(s) three minutes three o'clock three years old throat t i cket �fvl5 � L1(s) 7=7-. if5'::) 7.3ifv (!fv G �-P -=>. .v r.1: {. -::> � L9 � L1(s) � L1(s) =. tape teach 7-7 � L2 f .J':b< �-·�h� < � L1(s) � L1(s) c� Ji.:.i � L4 � L2 d3 d3 l ' ufvc5 t-. � L10. ..

1' � ' � L1 0 ::t 'C!l .9.:.3. the twenty minutes twenty years old twenty-four-print !.1' fl lltr weather two .:. � L1(s) � L11(s) C<!l-\ � L4(s) i!!* �il � L3 � L2 �G cw� � �� � � uh-huh uh-uh um . .the weekend u � 5 * -:> 'C! 6 l-\ u � 5 . .��'& a two months ago two o'clock two people J. �L8 � L11 � L7 .1-. . � L2 which one u-3l' t .. weather forecast weave ld:t ::�S-@ L" fv'(!.:: ut "5 t . twelve minutes twelve o'clock + � -$1ld:-:>1:J' � L1(s) wait wallet warm �L1(s) wash watch watch water we +�* � L1(s) �+ 8 *:J 1�-? �L4 twentieth day of a month. . � L2 � � !v ����aoF��==== various VCR very very l \ -3 l \-3t c�: '"f->ts. �� .J'< .fv t. .3. 9 ._ Wednesday � L1(s) � L7 9l \J:?U � L4.*� 7t � il! � L4(s) ttlvttlv u � 5 two people each two years old .� slvt c�: * � L11.: t. west what L \ 6 "J u "\"> l\*it d31:J'X..:: < � L2(s).(jj � L2 �t ::t. -<:> T.t t ::lv .:: e: vouchers itl\01:tfv t ::lv .S.!_LY9'(!-(t c�:) I.:k*f � � L6 � L9 � L5 window winter wish =t. '* � L1 C:lvt c�: � 0) 1:J'ts.J'.3.tt C:? uL" s < ts..J'l' B£1.O)u-c . � L3 Jf*- � L7(s) � L7(s) *� � vegetable � L2 � L5 �L11 f .. � L12.f 0 9-:J :: �.� u . � L6 �L8 very fond of very soon video game video tape vocabulary voice . �L3 t. � L4 � L10 understand unhurriedly university U.iji. � 5 J:fv �H.: t.3.L\ � L8 � L8 � L1 1.:: � L2 C: "5 6 / C: "J "5 *-'* � L6 �L1 .. � 5 ci:: "J 1:J' J. �g> 5 1.7 ](.l' � L9.IJ tJ 1� 1 t l \L"l' � L1. � L4(s) �'* �.P tlt.. the week before last.lv 1:J'f cl:l' 1. use usually :J1:J'5 bt.Q I':P"J < 0 f l 't.J'l' �L7(s) � L2(s). .!� � L10(s) "Sivt:J.A TV B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z T.II � L5 �+l!B 8 � L9 � L4(s) � L1(s) �1. C:(]) ctl � L2 � L2 � L9. � L3 vt. the g.:_... umbrella under 5 1v 5 5 1v � � ==== Welcome (to our store) Welcome home.II * 0 A..&i.1v � -$1'- �L8 t:i t � *it � :: 7 ](.:: ld: t:: 6 < i±� !l!l < .3.:: u � � L6(s) t:J..: J: 5 13:5 � L7(s) 'J47 *C: . �65 cltl\ ijC 1 aHt �L8 � L2 � L3 � L1(s) g.lv -::> * 8\' � L4 .!_ C:.:. M .J: Ia.:: x_ J'E � L10.:: � L4(s) �+-$1� + . .pj.A.C:0 !. 5 9 <" t:-T. �L3 jf. � "J '3'1v ld:t "5 . ut what kind of � L2 � L4 � L6 when when where which which white �L3 who why wife wife wife wife wife wife . �L9(s) 7' :".:1:J'I:f:J*X._ -r-::. L5(s) twenty-fourth day of a month. �g> 5 !.f 0 :: !.J'd7ts.: t.II �J.II �L10 with (a tool) woman woman word work work Jji.v t:-7-b. � L4(s) week after next.. � L9 � L1 . � L5 1j!:- L \-::> � L3 c=/5: r � L4 .3.:k�£!. 5 � � t ¥It � L12-II two minutes 1.3.: t.II �L7(s) �1*1 * �L7(s) t: 771" crt.: .v t: � L2(s).: t. M .Q Jt � 24-i'xtl � :g.Iv/t c�:l.:: � L12 � L2(s). 0 t c�:ts.t i? :: L :: L"lv=/5: �� � L12.f:::J � -::.

-c!L\ � !it. � L1. . yen yesterday yes yes yes you x.. � ' � � L9(s) � L4.7'/ � � � L12(s) ®� · ® ld:L' � � � 5/v ®t c.� � L1 � � � -t1fv � zone tic kets tt L \ 0 Itlv @t== · � �! .. . . ) � ( :: A.TI-<L Vv 2 <1111 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 8 work for world worry write wrong -:::> c66.!� � � � L10(s) .. the year before last. year student . � L7(s) � L1 .J' L\ �L\�L\ Jit @. � L1(s) ttt. � L7. the .J'L' � �' � L9 younger brother younger sister s c 5 c ( <!lv) L \ =b 5 c (<!lv) * < :: A.Iv �0)5 � L1 � L1 � L8 P3 a'f s � L2 (X) �< ld:'-::> � L11(s) � � � X-ray L-Y I-. .II � � � · � W-*1¥� L4(s) � young tlf. . ) � L1. � L7. years o l d yellow . � L7(s) year after next.x. . � L4(s) GlvfcfL Y98 1J' < ���ET � � L4 -X.@ ilt W- i!Jth � � L1 0 � L7 fi L12 . years <! G L\tlfv � L4(s) sec u � L10 -tl/vttL \ �1¥- 1¥. . . J.t � L4 � � � year cu 1¥- � L10..

.It fJ'� N u m b e r s regular h -+ p " \ -:? p h --+ p/b " \ -:? p p ( 1.� �� lesson t· . "'-' IZ£ animals �® ::.. :.. \ -:? ) k 1 2 " \ i? " \ -:? t: � 10 J: l0 �-- 3 4 5 p b L J: J: p '- 6 7 8 9 IS < �� U: l? L i? L i? IS -:? p IS -:? p ( IS -? ) IS -? ( tj: -:? p) < < tj -:? p ( tj: -:? ) t.�·._ ten thousand .:: ..�.... � �* o 'clock � � ityear •:4 �� ..-/_ � �M _ ....:i-:? � vp -) t vp -J � 10 F lv :Z 4 10 how many L vp -:? p L vp -:? p p �� ? <> - t vp -:? L vp -:? b �* sticks .:: "'-' 7i . \ ..M years I_J.f� dollars month minute m on ths � P3 yen �* M ho urs l 4 L r � Jf.f / �-· minutes pounds �tx sheets ! \\ �A_ .! . � \ people tinzes �!$_ degrees !::" "" E hundred � ' ... "'-'{� cups ll � .. . "'-' i� small items "" T ten � ..A.!A. f..... r.:/ -page . --.-" .___ �h...

t.• \.. -? 1. \ "? special vacabulary for numbers V' t:.� . -? --? J: -? --? \.. --? --�· t --? ::::. 3.__ l..> -? t:.. \ -? I. (20 years old) cf.r. k�g I. \ 1. \ < --? t:. 2. // date how many small items years of age '""' *f It h. ""'il!M weeks � -:> "-'fthousand "-J T EI street address ct. �\ \ J: "? 1. t ry ::::. and alphabets show the changes in the initial consonant of counters.• J: --::> (f t:_ ry . }. \. \ --? --? 1. -< ( '"'-' iA letters l?ri if> -:. ( ) means that the change is optional..1· (three or more ( 14) people) cf.This chart shows how sounds in numbers (1-10) and counters change according to their combination.. s \ "? s�z I. 1. 1 2 3 4 g z h.> . �.. .:: . .• t: (J) il' J: -) I.:: (J) iJ > t:t -? tj -? U -? tj -? � -? "'? . shoes -Ith.:: .i f t:. t tP houses '"'-' -lflT books ). Hiragana indicate the sound changes in numbers. ::. "? �· -? --? t: t: --? �' \.<... / '"'-' � / � cents L•<i lrh- "-' Jt...� . \ t ""l? ::::. \ -:? .? > / / �/ 5 6 7 8 9 10 . An empty box means no sound change occurs.:: (!) --? L l1> -? g '"'-' f� floor h·l• l: !1> -? L l1> --:> z t ¥). --? I.i--:::> 1.1 • (20) 1: t vp years of age -"Jjj. ---::. n' / / / / people ::.1• (24) 7 � � � : i? (how many) . . }.. \ -? t \.h._ -) l -? 1.

• "'? f . 9) (L... � .: .. � '::> f ::. \.f' � I.: . ru u f ""' ....: I I I I I (masu) 1 I short past neg..: x I I '"-J � � \ \ "'--' /.i -? I I I I I I � "'( ..: f . \ · . \ "'(" ----.. "'? f. b t... " \ "'( ...i T ""' . ... f � " \ ... f ....___...: �f . f ...: . '""' lv f:: .--. .--..: f. L --c .� '::> f . -- < .--.i T � .. 1rr. - """ ry .: u � � --): L� - .. . ... \ .i T '""' �� :i i" ----.: - .: I.� "? f ::. � � \. > � \.. "? f .: I. lv --c·· ""' lv --c·· . "'( '"-J --? "'C . "'? t .l:J..i -t ""' � . � I..: ... u u u - I I "'"' t : . f.--.___.' � \ \ ... � � I.. \ I .. "? !I I I � '"-J � . 3) L . .: - . L ..: . "'? "'( I I I '""' \..... � '::> f .___. � � ..: f..--. lv "'(" ""' lv f:: ""' lv f ' 3. (L..___. '..... • "? f::.: .--.. "? '"-J � t.. I ti � i" I '""' � ?J: \.i i" ..___..--..: f t..: * u u ry .: I.::..--.i T ""' " " ... "? f ::.... _i � \ \ .: .::. " \ f: :: '""' L f ::..i T . T. . "? * � I..--.J!Jifi tr:J �5 OJ:5 C o n j u g a t t o n C h a r t verb types dictionary forms long forms te-forms short past short present neg..i � I....i i" I. "'? f .f � " \ ... 1rr.: .--.i T "\ < - u u " " � <·· I I * .. ..' "'? f. . 6) L "'C (L...--...--...___.. I.--. \ I I u u "-' --? "'C '"-J ---:. � I.� "'? f . • < - ""' � . \ "'--' � \ \ "-' b � \...--. "'? l t: I - "-' ...___... � � \....i i" '"-J . 9) ::.--. \ I I . t.i T (L....i i " "-' i? .... \ f . I. '""' I.--. � ..i i" """ lf .--. The forms \\.. { � I.' � I... L � ..th * . "'( "'( I I Lf . � "? f . 8) (L..--. \ � \.: are exceptions.. '::> "'--' ---:. � \. � � I.: I I I L �"" .--.

About the Authors Eri Banno is currently Associate Professor of Japanese at Okayama Un iversity.A. He has taught Japanese at the University of Massach usetts. in linguistics at Sophia Un iversity in Tokyo. . She graduated from Aichi Prefectural Un iversity in Nagoya and the Un iversity of Arkansas. and Kansai Gaidai U niversity. She graduated from Nanzan University in Nagoya and earned her M.A. and has done post-graduate work at the Un iversity of Massachusetts. She has taught Japanese at the Eastern New Mexico Un iversity. and Kansai Gaidai University.A. Yoko Sakane (Yoko Ikeda) is cu rrently Associate Professor at International Student Center at lbaraki University.A. Irvine. and Kansai Gaidai University. and earned her M. Iowa and Kansai Gaidai University. at St. Vermont. Santa Barbara. in comparative literature at Pennsylvania State Un iversity. Pen nsylvania State University. She has taught Japanese at the Un iversity of California. Ch ikako Shinagawa is currently teach ing Japanese at the University of California. She graduated from Morningside College. Yutaka Ohno is cu rrently Associate Professor at the Education Center for International Students at Nagoya University. He earned his M. Her publications include 80 Communication Games for Jap anese Language T eachers (The Japan Times). in Japanese at the Un iversity of Wisconsin. Madison. She has taught Japanese at Nanzan University and Kansai Gaidai University. Amherst. and earned her M. Amherst College. Japa n . Michael 's College. Little Rock. Japan.

I .II III II 9784789009638 II 1 111 1 1 1 920081 030002 I SBN4-7890-0963-7 C0081 �3000E AN I NTEG RATE D COU RS E I N ELEMENTARY JAPANESE .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful