Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM), through the cooperation and support of various road authorities and engineering institutioni in Muluys'ia, publishes a series of official documenrs on sTANDARDS, spgcm,tcATloNs, GUIDELINES, MANUAL and TECHNICAL NOTES which are related to road engineering. The aim of such pubiication is to achieve quality and consistency in road and highway construction, operation and maintenance.
The cooperating bodies are:
Public Works Deparrment Malaysia (pWD) Malaysian Highway Authority (MHA) Department of Irrigation & Drainage (DID) The Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) The Institution of Highways & Transportation (IHT Malaysian Branch)
The production of such documents is carried through several stages. At the Forum on Technology and Road Management organizeo uy rwuREAM in Novemb er 1997, Technical Committee 6  Drainage was formed with the intention to review Arahan
contactors.
 INTERMEDIATE GUIDE To DMINAGE DESIGN oF ROADS' Members of the committee were drawn from various goue**"nt departments and agencies, and from the private sector including privitized road operators, engineering consultants and drainage products minufacturers and
Technical Committee
DRAINAGE DESIGN' consisting of the folrowing vorumes: Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 5 Hydrological Analysis Hydraulic Design of Culverts Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design Surface Drainase Subsoil Drainale
6 was divided into three subcommittees to review Arahan Teknik (Jalan) l5l9l and subsequentry produced 'GUIDELINES FoR ROAD
The drafts of all documents were presented at workshops during the Fourth and Fifth Malaysian Road Conferences held in 2000 and,2002 respectively. rfr" comments and suggestions received from the workshop participant, *"r" reviewed and incorporated in the finalized documents.
ROAD ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION OF MALAYSIA 46A, Jalan Bola Tampar r3/r4, Section 13, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Tel: 6035513 Fax: 5513 email: ream@po.jaring.my
652r
6523
i
i I
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
3.' INTRODUCTION 3.2 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 3.2.7 Site Selection ... 3.2.2 Reconnaissance Survey ..... 3.2.3 Data Collection . 3.3 3.4
SURVEY
...37
........3i
"....31
......3z
......33
DATA Survey
3.3.1 3.3.2
Beyond
ESTIMATION OF DESIGN DISCHARGE AND WATER PROFII,E ...35 ........36 3.4.I Design Recurrence Interval
3.4.2 3.4.3
...,.3"1
...38
BRTDGE WATERWAY
. .
.........39
....39
3.6.1 3.6.2
.....39
.....311
FORCES ON BRIDGE
...3.1]
,....317
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Figure Figure 3.3A Figure 3.38 Figure 3.3C Figure 3.3D Figure 3.3E Figure
3.1 3.2
3.4
Extent of Survey for Bridge Site ......35 .....310 Scour at a Bridge Site . ....3I2 Typical Wire Enclosed Typical Interlocking Concrete Block and Cable Tied Block System ..373 .......3I4 Typical Articulated Grout Filled Mat . "..315 Typical Cement/Grout Filled Bags at ....,.....316 Typical Cement/Grout Filled Bags at Pier ........319 Freeboard and Embedding Depth for
.. . Riprap
LIST OF TABLES
Table
3'1
LIST OF REFERENCES
APPENDIX
...,.....320
Reprint of Appendix D  Hydrauiic Design of Bridges, Urban Drainage Design Standards And Procedures For Peninsular Malaysia No. I (1g75).
NN
BR.IDGE DESIGN
INTR.ODUCTION
The design of a bridge over a waterway requires a comprehensive engineering
approach that not only includes route location, traffic flow forecast and structural and foundation requirements, but also the assessment of the characteristics of the
river flowing beneath. For this, it is necessary to collect data, and to understand
the factors that govern stream runoff and water surface levels, sediment discharge and deposition, scour and channel stability and hydrodynamic forces acting on the
bridge" Predictions about likely event under particular site conditions have to be
made.
This volume does not describe in detail ali the factors that require to be considered in bridge designs, but merely identifies the hydraulic aspects that
characterise a river and provides directions to relevant literature, which give indepth details on these aspects. For hydraulic design of bridges, the designer could
refer to Appendix 1 which is extracted from Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran publication  Planning and Design Procedure No. 1: Urban Drainage Design Standards and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia (1915). The designer is
encouraged to refer to the other relevant literature listed in the References.
3.2.
PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
Site Selection
3.2. r
Ideally the cost of alternative river crossing locations should be considered when making the preliminary selection of a route. However, in builtup areas the site
for a bridge and the approach roads are usually fixed and dictated by the town
layout plan.
In rural areas, the bridge crossing is restricted to certain reaches of the river owing
to
existing landuse, road alignment and the river meanders. The selection of sites has to be made within these reaches and should avoid costly river works and land acquisitions.
constraints imposed
by
3r
s
F
F
!.
Bridge site selection normally commences with a desktop study of available topographic maps which detail the geomorphologic features of the surrounding land, landuse, river pattern, meanders, sand deposits and sometimes, bank levels. on these topographic maps several potential bridge sites may be identified.
The choice of a crossing site will be governed primarily by the main channel width and the proportion of overbank flow to total flow. Logically, the first
consideration should be given to those sites that have the narrowest main channeis and the smallest proportion of flood plain flow.
On wide flood plains where rivers tend to meander, first consideration should be given to crossing sites where the channel could be controlled with minimal river training works. Occasionally rock outcrop or inerodible bank material may be located to reduce the requirement of river trainins works.
Other possible sites are at crossover modal points in the river meander pattern where the channel is wider and shallower and at bends where the channel is normally narrower and deeper particularly at the outside of the bend. The optimum location should be decided by considering the channel geometry, bank stability, river training work and type of bridge construction.
The desktop study should also include a literature search and examination of records or reports on river improvement works completed or yet to be impiemented by Jabatan Saliran dan Pengairan (JPS) and other
sovernment
agencies.
3.2.2
Reconnaissance Survey
Bridge sites desktop study will include reconnaissance survey with the objective to gain a general appreciation of the river behaviour by examining available records and by carrying out field inspections. Information on the following should be collected:
(a)
river channel regime to determine whether the river has a wide flood plain. or whether it is incised with little or no flood piain. river channel stability to determine whether the river
(b)
is
stable or unstable.
(c)
river channel flow pattern, if it is sinuous, determine whether the channel migration is active,
JL
(d)
of
local inhabitants.
C)
Some of the above information may be obtained from topographic maps, aerial photographs, JPS hydrological records, previous river basin or drainage study
reports and existing and proposed future river improvement works. The preliminary study of the bridge sites should include an estimation of the river
if
3.2.3
Data Collection Other information could be obtained by field inspection such as:
ofbank erosion,
erosion pockets in the bank, existence of inerodible rock, debris marks on shrubs, trees or banks which may indicate the water level
of recent floods.
33
'
:
(t
0)
watermarks on walls, jetties and piers and buildings which indicate recent high water levels and
When the assessment of the survey information has been compieted, acceptable site for a bridge crossing from the fluvial aspect may be chosen. The detailed field surveys of the site will then follow.
3.3.
SURVEY DATA
Survey of Bridge Site and Beyond
3.3.1
After the selection of suitable sites for the bridge crossing have been made, hydrographic and hydraulic surveys have to be carried out to obtain the data required to determine the width of the bridge opening, the depth of scour and
I
t
!.
_t
t:
For large and deep rivers the hydrographic survey should be carried out by using recording echo sounder systems. The topographic features of the river and flood plain on both banks should also be surveyed by normal topographic survey procedures, to the extent required for hydraulic analysis.
The survey of the alignment and contour of the river and flood plains should extend not less than 30 channel widths upstream (300m minimum) and, 20 channel widths downstream (200 m minimum) of the proposed crossing, see Figure 3'1' The width of the survey corridor should not be less than 50m on
either side of the riverbanks.
where required, the survey shall be extended beyond the bridge site to upstream high flood risk areas to obtain data for analysis of backwater and assessment of its effects" Survey should also include downstream water flow constriction areas where they may affect the hydraulics of the bridee. Spot levels within the survey corridor shall be taken at not more than 10 m interval and shall include the bank levels and the invert levels of the river at the bottom of the banks, centre and deepest points.
The survey should also include taking of panoramic photographs of the bridge site and its immediate upstream and downstream reaches.
34
g
F
i:
TO EXTEND SURVEY UP
HIGH FLOOD RISK AREA
AUTHORITIES.
TO
IF
REOUIRED BY APPROPRIATE
ts
I z l
=
u. F
a o o o
n
RIVER MAIN
CHANNEL
RIVER TERRACE
TO EXTEND SURVEY DOWNSTREAM TO AREAS WHERE THERE ARE CONSTRICTIONS TO WATER FLOW. WHERE NECESSARY
FIGURI
3.1
tXTINT
OF
SURVIY
35
FOR
BRIDGI SITt
The hydrographic and topographic surveys should be plotted on the same plan to facilitate extraction of crosssectional data for hydraulic analysis and all levels should be reduced to a common datum.
For scour analysis samples of the riverbed material should be taken for particle
size analysis at the crossing and upstream locations. 3.3.2
Hydraulic Survey For large rivers the discharge passing through the proposed bridge site should be measured at a number of different stages of flow. Each discharge measurement
should be related to the date of survey, time and water levei and be reciuced to a standard datum. A gauging station should be established near the site of the proposed crossing as soon as possible.
Velocities
measured across the river channel, preferably, during high flows and could be part of the discharge measurement prograrnme.
The designer should check with JPS stream flow records whether the river in the vicinity of the proposed bridge site has been gauged. Any information available
should be incorporated in the hydrological study. 3.4.
J.+.
2,5, r0,25,50
The ARI of the design discharge should be in accordance to Table 3.r. Nevertheless, factors such as possible loss of life and economic damages due to
any failure, have to be set against the higher capital cost of a bridge designed for a longer ARI must be considered.
36
Table 3.1: Recommended Average Recurrence Interval for Design Discharge Averase Recurrence Interval in Years Type of Structure Bridge
U2IF(2
and lower
u3
u4/
100
R3R4
50x
u5  u6l R5_R6
100**
100*
50
25*
any of the following conditions applies:
if
a) b) c)
the structure is located in a flood plain the structure requires a high embankment
Under the above conditions, the structure must be designed as a submersible structure. Special consideration, however, must be given against accumulation of debris o,
3.4.2
Design Discharge
Design discharge at the proposed bridge site can be determined in accordance with the various flood flow estimation hydrological procedures published by JPS. Where stream flow records are available for a particular station in the river or
located near
to the proposed
In the estimation of the design discharge, an assessment of the extent of current and future landuse development in the catchment has to be made and corrective
measures must to be included in the estimated discharge are going to be significant.
water levels of the river for various recuffence intervals. This information can be
used as a guide in the planning and design of temporary works at the bridge site.
37
E
3.4.3
Water Profile Where water level records are available at the crossing site, a frequency analysis should be carried out, otherwise, the water level corresponding to the design discharge can be calculated by a suitable flow equation, such as Manning formula. Where river stage discharge charts are available, water levels for various flows may be read off the charts.
For wide rivers, it is usually uneconomical to construct a bridge with a single span' More often multiple piers wiil be provided within the flood flow channel and earth embankments will encroach into the flood plain. These will constrict the flow and cause upstream water levels to rise above the original free flow level.
The amount by which the water level rises above the free fiow level, may be calculated by the method described in the subsection on Computation
Backwater in Appendix
1.
of
Should there be numerous river crosssections and design flood flow scenarios then the manual calculation method cited in the foregoing will become time consuming. Many affordable water profile analysis software are now available to the designer to perform the task, such as:
o o o
Model
The above are obtainable from Hydrological Engineering center, uS Army corps of Engineers and are very versatiie and capable of handring:
o o o o
eccentric location of main channel within the flood plain skewed orientation of bridge crossing various pier shapes and spacing discharge through partially submerged bridges discharge over submerged road embankments and scour at pier and abutment.
o o
38
?{
BRIDGE WATER.WAY
The bridge waterlvay area to be provided should be sufficient to ensure the design
flood can safely pass through without undue afflux or excessive increase in upstream flood levels, and at a velocity, which will not increase scour to such an
extent, as to endanger the stability of the bridge structure.
Sufficient clearance of bridge deck above flood levels should be provided to allow the largest floating debris to pass through without clogging up the waterway. The minimum amount of freeboard is 1.0m above the design high
water level. Where the river is navigable by watercrafts attention should be given
to the headroom clearance required by the controlling authorities. When it is necessary to restrict the width of the waterway to such an extent that the scour
would be severe, protection against damage shouid be made by providing deep
foundations and adopting appropriate scour countermeasures. Where there is existing drainage or irrigation dikes aiong the banks of the rivet,
I
l
.l
I
the soffit of the bridge deck and beams should be placed a minimum of 0.5m above the top of these dikes. The freeboard between the high water level and the top of the dike is usually 0.5m to 1.5m depending on the design discharge of the river, however this needs to be checked with the appropriate river authorities,
mainly JPS.
3.6
I
I
3.6.1
Scour can be very insidious whereby soil around a bridge foundation is removed
flood. The most common form of flood damage to bridges arises from the scouring of abutments and piers, which can
and redeposited elsewhere during a
underinine the structure, resulting in collapse of spans and possible loss of life. Four different types of scour must be considered, as follows:
a)
General Scour
to which the riverbed at the bridge site is below the natural bed ievel. This normally occurs due to the
39
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3.6.2
Countermeasures
o o o o o
soil cement for sloping abutment, wire enclosed riprap for sloping abutment (see Figure 3.3A), interlocking concrete block system for abutment (see Figure 3.3B). articulated grout filled mat for abutment and river bed (see Figure 3.3C)
and
and
For design guidance and selection of countermeasures the designer should refer
to:
FHWA Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23 Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures.
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Erosion and Scour Protection, Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia.
3.7
Subsection 29.2
o o o
hydrodynamic forces
Accumulation and clogging of d,ebris upstream of the bridge can cause a majcr
buildup of horizontal destabilising forces owing to the damming effect. To design the struciure io resist this effect may not be economicai and may be
cheaper to provide a larger freeboard.
Where the river is navigable, piers within the waterline shouid be <iesigneii against possible collision by watercraft.
3.8
follows:
Embeddine Depth
i)
Low water channel and the part of high water channel within 20m from the top of the slope of low
water channel.
more than2mbelow
I.Zmbelow bed of
more than 1m below
1m below river bed
ii)
3r7
On major road where slowmoving maintenance equipment are not permitted to operate on the roads and where space is available, 5 to g m wide berms, with 3.5m headroom, near the river channel shouid be provided to facilitate movement of river maintenance machinery, as shown on Figure 3.4. The river channel at the bridge should be shaped to accommodate the future river channel improvement works and temporary riverbed erosion scour countermeasures should be provided
to reduce degradation of upstream river profiles.
31 8
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LTST GF REFER.ENCES
LGCAL PUBI,ICATIONS
l.
Hydrological procedure No. 4  Magnitude and Frequency of Froods in peninsurar Malaysia (19g7) Hydrological procedure No. 10  Stage Discharge Curves (1916) Hydrological Procedure No. 11  Design Flood Hydrograph Estimation for Rural Catchments in peninsular Malaysia Hydrological procedure No. 19  The Determination of suspended Sediment Discharse
2.
3.
n +.
5.
Hydrological procedure No" 5  Rational Method of Frood Estimation for Rurar catchments
Hydrological Procedure No. 1  Estimation of the Design Rainstorm in peninsurar Malaysi a (r9gz) Hydrological procedure No. 16  Flood Estimation for Urban Areas in peninsular Malaysia
6.
8.
Planning and Design procedure No. 1  urban Drainage Design standards and procedures for peninsurar Maraysia
Garispaduan untuk Memproses permohonan dan Menetapkan Syaratsyarat Bagi Jambatan dan Lintasan
9.
10.
abatan Keria Raya (JKR 11. Draft Intermediate Guide to Drainage Design of Roads  Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15/gl
12. Terms of Reference for survey works and Digital Ground Modellins.
320
,:.*
US PUBI,ICATIONS
I t.
2.
FHWASA96061
Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 22
FHWASA96078
14
FHWAIP8515
32r
APPENDIX
This appendix is an exact reproduction of Appendix D Design of Bridges as found in Jps planning and
The permission granted by JPS to REAM to publish the whole of the above appendix in gratefully acknowledged.
REAM
Dl.
GENERAL pressnts some bridge design criteria, describes the genefal flow conditions bridge design, the computation of backwater and some design exampres. For a presentation, the reader is referred to the excellent pubtication by the u.s. Transportation, Hydrauric Design series No. 1, ,,Hydraulics of Br:idge water
Dl.1
Design Criteria
a lined channel, the bridge should not affect the f low'at projections into the design waterway.
Bridge openings shoufd be designed to hane as little effect on the flow characteristics as is possible' consistent with good bridge design and economics. In regard to supercriticalflorr with
all.
Dl.z
Design Approach
The method of planning for bridge openings must include vrrater surfece profile and i.lydreullc gradient analyses of the channel for the major storm runoff. Once this hydrautic gradient is ctablished without the bridge, the maximum reasonable effect on the channel flow by the bridge should be determined. Generally in urban cases this shourd not exceed a backwater effect of more than 6 to 12 irnhes
Velocities through the bridge and downstream of the bridge must receive consideration in choosing the bridge opening. velocities exceeding those permissible will require special protection of the bottom and banks.
and unchanged in cross section.
For supercritical f low, the clear bridge opening should permit the flow ro pass under unimpeded
D1.3
The distance between the design flow water surface and the bottom of the bridge deck will vary from case to case. However, the debris which r.v u, expectd must receive full consideration in setting the freeboard. Freeboard may vary from several feet to minus several feet. There are no general hard and fast rules. Each case,rit b" studied separately.
forces
i
I
Bridges which are securely anchored to foundations and designed to withstand the dynamic of the flowing water, might in some cases be designed without freeboard.
cases'
In certain unusual cases, the designer might properly choose to intentionally cause ponding upstream from bridges to reduce downstreim peaks during the storms creating flow greater than the initial design runoff. This is sometimes done when d;wnstream areas are highty developed, and the upstream areas have adiacent open pace and park areas next
to the channel. In these there normally would be no freeboard allowed between the design water surface and the bridge deck bottom.
i
97
.:g
D2.
D2.1
FLOW CONDITIONS
General
in
The general flow lines in plan and crosssection for a normal bridge crossing are shown
Figures D1, D2 and D3.
There are three types of flow which may be encountered in bridge waterway design. These are labeled types I through lll on Figure D4. The long dash lines shown on each prof ile represent normal water surface, or the stage the design flow would assume prior to placing a constriction in the channel. The solid lines represent the conf iguration of the water surface, on centerline of channel in each case, after the bridge is in place. The short dash lines represent critical depth, or critical stage in the main channel (V.," and. vo") and critical depth within the constriction, y2", tor the design discharge in each case. Since.normal depth is shown essentially the samein tli6 four profiles, the discharge, boundary roughness and slope of channel must all increase in passing from tvpe I to type llA, to type llB. to type lll flow.
D2.2
Type
Flow
surface is everywhere above critical depth.. This has been labeled type I or subcritical f iow, the type usually encountered in practice. All design information in this Appendix is limited to type  (,subcritical flow). The backwater expression for type I flow is obtained by applying the conservation of energy principle between sections 1 and 4. Referring
D2.3 Type ll
Flow
(o)
For type llA floW Figure D4B, normalwater surface in the unconstricted channel again remains above critical depth throughout but the water surface passes through critical depth in the constriction. Once critical depth is penetrated, the water surface Llpstream fronr the constriction, and thus the backwater, becomes independent of conditions downstream (even though the water surface returns to normal stage at section 4). Thus the backwater expression for type I flow is not valid for type ll flow.
(b)
Type
IIB Ftow
The water surface for type llB flow, Figure D4C starts out above both normal water surface and cr,itical depth upstream, passes through critical depth in the constriction, next dips below critical depth downstream from the constriction and then returns. to normal. The return to normal depth can be rather abrupt as in Figure D4C, taking place in the form of a poor hydraulic jump, since normal water surface in the stream is above criticaldepth.
98
I
_r__
:w
,1
Ftow
lntype lll flow, Figure D4D, the normal water surface is everywhere below criticaldepth and the flow throughout is supercritical. This is rn ,nrtu.icJsJ requiring a steep gradient but such conditions do exist, particufarry in mountainous regions. Theoreticaty backwater shourd not occur for this type, since the flow throughout is supercritical. lt is more than likely that an undulation of the water surface will occur in the vicinity of the constriction, however, as indicated on Figure D4D.
99
Y
!
Qc'
28OO clc
Qr
'8
4 oO
clr
o o
a I
a
()
o lo lo o o lE ls
elela
o o o
)\ 
Fro
Figure D1.Flow lines
sEcT.
for typical
normal crossing.
100
I
i
1
,4,
rh
/va\
t/
gtcr.
r^
+
CTUAL tr. S.
ON
lv"
PROFTLE ON STREAM
W.
S. WITH EACKWAT
sEcTfoN
sEciloN @
o
PLAN AT BRIDGE
lr.
101
I
W.
S.
ALONG BANK
scT.
,($
NORTIAL W.S.
I
I
w.s. oNL
PROFILE ON STREAM
"' o'i
sEcT'toN
b
S. WITH EACKWATER
*1..
l.'.
I ;.i
:.i..:.':,i#
sEcT toN )
o = J
tr.
Y ..r.:J! !:
PLAN AT
f igure D3.Narm.al crossing: Spillthrough abutments
BRIDGE
102
I
..';{
l,c
J
lqc
ATYPE
I FLOW (SUSCRTTICAL)
rI
J
.)c
L_
cRtTcAL DPrH
BTYPE
(
HYDRAULIC JUMP
'
(
t",1,
Ff=qY
T:: tcn,trcat

DprH
fIrc
CTYPE
tI
 !{aoeerx
(SUPERCRITICAL)
:
a
.t
103
D3.
D3.1
Specific information is given below with respect .to the concept expressions frequently used throughout this Appendix.
of
several
of the terms
and
(o)
Normal Staee
Normal stage is the normal water surface elevation of a stream at a bridge site, for a particular discharge, prior to constricting the stream (see Figures D2A, D3A). The prof ile of the water slrface is essentially parailel to the bed of the streanr.
(b)
Abnormal Stage
Where a bridge site is located upstream from, but relatively close to, the confluence of two streams, high water in one stream can produce a backwater effect extending for some distanct up the other stream. This can cause the stage at a bridge site to be abnormal, meanirp higher than would exist for the tributary alone. An abnormal stage may also be caused by a dam, another bridge, or some other constriction downstream. The water surfaca with abnormal stage is not parallel to the bed.
(r)
I\'ormal Crossirtg
is one general direction
with alignment at approximately 90o to the during high water as shown in Figure D1. A normal crosing
of flow
(d)
Eccentric Crossing
An eccentric crossing is one where the main channel and the bridge are not in the middle of the flood plain, (Figure D8)"
(")
Sheu'ed Crossing
A skewed crossing is one that is other than 90o to the general direction of flow during
stage, (Figure D9).
flood
(f)
No difficulty will be experienced in interpreting this dimension for abutments with vertical faces since b is simply the horizontal distance between abutment faces. In the more usualcas involving spillthrough abutments, where the cross section of the constriction is irregular, it is suggested that the irregular cross section be converted to a regular trapezoid of equivalent area, asshown in Figure D3C. Then the length of bridge opening can be interpreted as:
b=1,
v
104
.,..,".{'.
t"
E
@)
Conueyance
discharge
each subsection separately. According_to the Manning formula for open channel flow, the in a subsection of a channel is:
conveyance is a measure of the ability of a channel to transport flow. In strearns of irregular cross section' it is necessary to divide the water area into smailer but more or less regularsubsctions, assigning an appropriate roughness coefficient to each and computing the discharge for
g=
1.49
n
1/2
"r2l3g
By rearranging:
q {where
1.49 =;tt''"
^,.
k is the conveyance of the subsection. conveyance can, therefore, be expressed either in terrns of flow factors or strictly geometric faetors. in bridge waterway computations, conveyance is used as a means of approximating the distribution of frow in the natural river channel upstream from a bridge' The method will be demonstrated in the design ,"r.pt., in section Dg. Total conveyance K., is the summation of the individual conveyances comprising section 1.
(h)
The bridge opening ratio, M, def ines the degree of stream constriction involved, expressed as the ratio of the flow which can pass unimpeded through the bridge constriction to the total ffow of the river. Referring to Figure D1,
[!l =
o.D
Q"+Qo+O"
_o o
o.
(D1)
Qf,
y= 8'4oo = o.60.
14,000 The irregular cross section common in natural streams and the variation in boundary roughness within any cross section result in a variation in velocity across a river as indicated by the stream tubes in Figure D1' The bridge opening ratio, M, is most easily explained in terms of discharges, but is usually determined from conueyance relations. since conveyance is proportional .to discharge, aszuming all subsections to have the same slope, M can be expressed
it
also as:
M
kb
ka+kb+kc
=ko
K1
(D2)
(;)
As the velocity distribution in a river varies from a maximum at the to essentiaily zero arong the banks, the average verocity head, deeper.portion of the comput{ as (e/A.,r2 /2g for the stream at section 1, d&s not glve a true re.rure of the kiil;;;;.gi ot the ftow.
channel
105
.....::t
Y
A weighted
.Nerage value of the kinetic energy is obtained head, above, by a kinetic energy coefficient, qr def ined as:
c(, =.'
E (qv2
(D3a)
OVr
Where
v. q O Vl
D9.
= average velocity in a subsection. = discharge in same subsection. = totaldischarge in river. = average velocity in river at section 1 or Q/A,
The method of computation will be further illustrated in the design examples given in Section
E (qvt
{n?h)
QV,,
where v, q and Q are defined as above but apply here
oiA2
The value of ccr can be computed and c(2 can be estimated from Figure D5.
26
Qrzz
t.8
2.2
l4
to
o.5
M
Figure Ds.Aid
106
t,*:.i.
03.2
Most
Definition of Symbols
here
Ar = Area of flow including backwater at section l(Figs. D28 and D38) (sq. ft.). Anr = Area of flow below normalwater surface at section 1 {Figs. D_2ts and D3B) {sq. ft.). Ar, = Gross area of flow in constriction below normal water surface at
and D3C) tsq. ft.).
A4 , oo a b b, Cb cr C, e
= Area of flow at section 4 at which normal water surface is reestabrished (Fig. D2A) (sq. ft.).
=
=
i;:T:.j:t
area
of
Area of flow in a subsection of approach channel (sq. ft.). (Figs. D2c, D3c, and sec. D3.1 (f) (ft) ) measured arong centreline
= width of constriction
(Fig. D9) {ft.).
I , i ' I
l
of
roadwav
Backwater coefficient
Freef row coeff icient
=
=
=Eccentricity=(.1 _Oc/Oa)where
O"
or (1O"/O"
i
i
(eu,
where
O"
>
O".
, ,
'
r ,
= Acceleration of gravity = 32.2 (ft./sec.: ). = Totaldnergy loss between sections 1 and 4 (Figs. D2A and D_3A) (ft.). = hrSoLr_4 = Energy losscaused by constriction (Figs. D2A and D_3A) (ft.). = Total backwater or rise above normal stage at section I (Figs. D2A and D3A)
tft.).
Ah J
*ater surface at section 3(Figs. D2A and D3A) (ft.). ht * t' h: * + So Lrg
= Difference in water surface elevation across roadway embankment (Figs. D2A and D3A) (ft.).
normal water surface at section 2 (Fig. D7).
Ae/An2 = Flatio of area obstructed by piers to gross area of bridge waterway below
107
,."j
I )
= Backwater coefficient from base curve (Fig. D6). = lncremental backwater coefficient for pien (Fig. D7). = lncremental backwater coeff icient for eccentricity (F ig. D8).
= Incremental backwater coefficient for skew (Fig. D10).  Ko + AKo + AK" + AK, = Totalbackwater coefficient for subcritical f low.  Conveyance in subsection of approach channel. = Conveyance of portion of channel within projected length of bridge at section
(Figs. D28 and D38 and sec. D3.1 (g)).
flood plain obstructed by the roadway embankments {subscripts refer to left and right side, facing downstream) {Figs. D28
K1 = Total conveyance at section 'i {sec. D3.1 (gi ). Lr+ = Distance from point of maximum back water to reestablishnrent of normal
roadwayembankment(Figs.D.2AandD"3A)tft.).
water surfacedownstream, measured along centerline of stream (Figs. D2A and D3A) (ft.).
Lt: = Distance from point of maximum backwater to water surface on downstream side of Lrz = Distance L* I M
=
= =
from point of maximum backwater to upstream face of bridge deck (Figs. D2A and D3A) (ft.)
Distance from point of maximum backwater to water surface on upstream side of roadway embankment, measurd parallel to centerline of stream (Fig. D'13) (ft.) Overall width of roadway or bridge (ft.)
Bridge openirg ratio (sec. D3.1 (h) ).
p = Wetted perimeter of a subsection of a channel (ft.) Ob = Flow in ilortion of channel within projected lergth of bridge at section 1(Fig. D1)
(c.f.s. ).
O", O"
= Flow
= O. * = =
over that portion of the natural flood plain obstructed by the roadway embankments (Fig. D'l) (c.f.s.).
:
O r So Vr
Va=o"/Aq=Averageveocityatsection4(ft./sec.).
Vn2 = Oy'Anz = Average velocity in constriction for flow at normal stage (ft./sec.). Vz" = Critical velocity in constriction (ft./sec.).
108
I
,_.J
!
= width of pier
D.l) (ft.)
= Critical depth in constriction (ft.). = Critical depth at section 4 (ft.). = Velocity head coeff icient at section I
= Velocity
(sec. D3.1
= =
Multiplication factor for inf luence of M on incrementarbackwater coefficient for piers (Fig. D78) (Greek tetter sigma.). hr * * h:* = for sirgle bridge (Greek letter psi.).
Correction factor for eccentricity (Fig. D_13) (Greet letter omega). Angle of skew degrees (Fig. D_9) (Greek letter phi.).
109
I
.;, '4
D4.
D4.1
COMPUTATION OF BACKWATER
A practical expression for backwater has been formulated by applying the principle of conservation of enerly between the point of maximum backwater upstream from the bridge, section 1, and a point downstream from the brirJEe at which normal stage has been reestablished, section 4 (Fig. D2A). The expression is reasonably valid if'the channel in the vicinity of the bridge is essentially straight, the cross sectional area of the stream is fairly uniform, the gradient of the bottom is approximately constant between sectiors 1 and 4, the flow is free to contract and expand, there is no appreciable scoun of the bed in the constriction and the flow is in the subcritical range.
The expression for computation of backwater upstream from a bridgs constricting the flow, is as follows:
h1
*=K*..,V12+".,
Where
lffi' ffi] +
(i)
)'
(D4)
hl
cl &cc2 = asdefined
An2 Vn2
= gross water area in constriction measured below normal stage (sq. ft.). = average velocity in constriction or Q/Anz (f.p.s'). Aa = water area at section 4where normalstage is reestablishe6 1eq. ft.). Ar = totalwater area at section 1, including that produced by the backwater
To compute backwater. it is necessary to obtain the approximate value of first part of expression (D4)
h1
l j
l: I
(sq.
ft.).
'
by usirg the
(D4a)
*, can then
be
" [c'(s']
(D4b)
This pah of the expression represents the difference in kinetic energy between sections 4 ard 1, expressed in terms of the velocity head, V2"z/2g. Expression (D4) may appear ctmbersome, but this is not the case. See Example l, Section D9.
110
D4.2
Backwater Coefficient
Two symbols are interchargeably used throughout the text and both are backwater coefficients. The symbol K6 is the backwater coefficient for a bridge in which only the bridge opening ratio, M' is considered' This is known as a base coefficieniand the curves on Figure D6 are called base curves' The value of the overall backwater coefficient, K*, is likewise dependent on the value of M but also affected by:
1' 2' 3.
It will be dennonstrated that K" consists of a base curve coefficient, K6, to which is added incremental coefficients to account for the effect of piers, eccentricity and skew. Thevalue of K* is nevertheless primarily dependent on the degree of constriction of f low at a bridqe.
3.O
\ \ \
IiIliirTniTil
t
I
1ilililt
i\
OEWINGWALL
t
il1ilililil1ilt^ lr
t.8
t.5
1.4
9( )cww_
tl
ll
\1P'qw
\\:
1.2
FI tN LEI{GTH_rlll
s \r
\ \
ltlllltllllltl\sPILLTHROU6H
r1
ti
lll
\ \\ \ \
!
o.2 o
o
QI
o.2
o.3
o.4
o.5
M
\
o.9
LO
o.6
o.7
o.8
D4.3
Figure D6 shows the base curves for backwater coefficient, K6, plotted with respect to the opening ratio, M, for.wingwall ard spillthrough abutments. Note how the coefficient, K6, increases with channel constriction The lower curve applies for 45o and 60; wingwall abutments and a' spitthrough types. curves are arso incruded for 30" *inE,"Jr .ir*"n* ard for 90o vertical wall abutments for bridges up to 200 feet in length. These shapes can be identified
111
\*:
..
i*,3
from the sketches on Figure D6. Seldom are bridgeswith the lattertype abutmentsmorethan 200 feet long. For brirlges exceedirg 200 feet in lergth, regardless of abutment type, the lower curve is recommended. This is because abutment geometry becornes less important to backwater as a bridge is lengthened. The base curve coefficients of Figure D6 apply to crossirgs normal to flood flow and do not include the effect produced by piers, eccentricity and skew.
D4.4
(o)
Backwater caused by introduction of piers in a bridge constriction has been treated as an incremental backwater coefficient designated AKo, which is added to the base curve coefficient K6 when piers are present in the waterway. The value of the incremental backwater coefficient, AKo, is dependent on the ratio that the area of the piers bears to the gross area of the bridge opening, the type of piers (or piling in the case of pile bents), the value of the bridge opdning ratio, M, and the angularity of the piers with the direction of f lood f low. The ratio of the water area occupied by piers, Ao, to the gross water area of the constriction, An2, both based on the normaf water surface, has been assigned the letter J. In computing the gross water area, An2, the presence of piers in the constriction is ignored. The incremental beckwater coefficient for the more common types of piers and pile bents can be obtained from Figure D7. By entering chart A with the proper value of J and reading upward to the proper pier type, AK is read from the ordinate. Obtain the correction factor, o, from chart B for opening ratios other than unity. The incremental backwater coefficient is then:
AKo
= oAK
The incremental backwater coefficients for pile bents can, for all practical purposes, be considered independent of diameter, width, or spacing of piles but should be increased if there are more than 5 piles in a bent. A bent with 10 piles should be given a value of AKo about 20 percent higher than that shown for bents with 5 piles. lf there is a possibility of trash collecting on the piers, or piles, it is advisable to use a larger value of J to compensate for the added
obstruction" .For a normalcrossing with piers, the totalbackwater coeff icient becomes:
In the case of skewed crossings, the effect of piers is treated as explained for. normal crossings except for the computation of J, An2 and M. The pier area for a skewed crossing, Ao, is the sum of the individual pier areas normal to the general direction of flow, as illustrated by the sketch in Figure D7. Note how the width of pier wo is measured when the pier is not parallel to the general direction of flow. The area of the constriction, An2, for skewed crossings, is based on the projected length of bridge, b, cos d (Fig. D9). Again, An2 is a gross value and
includestheareaoccupiedbypien. ThevalueofJisthepierarea,Ao,dividedbytheprojected of the bridge constriction, both measured normal to the general direction of flow. The computation of M for skewed crossings is also based on the projected length of bridge, which will be further explained in section D4.6.
gross area
112
Y
wp'
/ln, bosad on\ \ langrh b f
flor  lect
&'a
i=4lii
t? iJ*,
SKEIVED CROSSING
iIOTE :
/An1 bosed on
ww
Lq o/
lengf
hb
cos
j/
ol piers  totor proiectcd oreo of piers normol lo flor  squorc facf Anr' Gross rol?f cross srctton
Number
N.
lo flor  tc?l
wDhnr
a,
;
brocing rhould be includtd in ridrh ot p!1.
. a9
for sker
Sroy
.y
Ozr
yr
y,'4
Y
o.2
_'ffi*a
t.o
o.t o.t
cr
o.7
o',
o.a
?.
A K" .4;1o
{.
# iat
./t
/
,z 7
o.c
113
j
..j
I
==
D4.5
Effect
of
Eccentricity
Referring to the sketch in Figure D8, it can be noted that the symbols Ou and O" at section 1 were used to represent the portion of the discharge obstructed by the approach embankments. lf the cross section is extremely asymmetrical so that O. is less than 20 percent of O" or vice versa, the backwater coefficient will be somewhat larger than for comparable values of M shown on the base curve. The magnitude of the incremental backwater coefficient, AK", accounting for the effect of eccentricity, is shown in Figure D8. Eccentricity, e, is def ined as 1 minus the ratio of the lesser to the greater discharge outside the projected length of the bridge, or:
e=1 e=
1
_Q"
Q" ou
( )
O,
o.
Q.
(D5)
Reference to the sketch in Figure DB will aid in clarifying the terminology. For instance, if O./Q" = 0.05, the eccentricity e = {1  0.05) or 0.95 and the curve fore = 0.95 in Figure D8 would be used for obtaining AK". The largest influence on the backwater coefficient due to eccentricity will occur when a bridge is located adjacent to a bluff where a f lood plain exists on only one side and the eccentricity is 1.0. The overall backwater coefficient for an extremely eccentric crossing with wingwall or spillthrough abutments and piers will be:
The method of computation for skewed crossings differs from that of normal crossings in the following respects: The bridge opening ratio, M, is computed on the pr.ojected length of bridge rather than on the length along the centreline. The length is obtained by projecting the bridge opening upstream parallel to the general direction of flood flow as illustrated in Figure D9. The general direction of flow means the direction of flood flow as it existed previous to the placement of embankments in the stream. The length of the constricted openirg is b, cos @, and the area An2 is based on this length. The velocity v2^
head,
F, zg
to be substituted in expression (D4) (sec. D4. 1 ) is based on the projected area An2.
Figure D10 shows the irrremental backwater coefficient, AKr, for the effect of skew, for wingwall and spillthrough type abutments. The incremental coeff icient varies with the opening ratio, M, the angle of skew of the bridge O, with the general direction of flood flow, and the alignment of the abutment faces, as indicated by the sketches irr Figure D'10. Note that the incremental backwater coefficient, AK' can be negative as well as positive. The negative values result from the method of computation and do not necessarily indicate that the backwater will be reduced by employing a skewed crossing. These incremental values are to be added algebraically to K6 obtained from the base curve. The total backwater coeff icient for a skewed crossing with abutment faces aligned with the flow and pierswould be:
l
O.*q)k
Oo
il1ililltl
rfillrl
e
=
illilililtflltfll
(1
3:)
Qo.
where Q. < eo
wherE
Qo
or
e =(1Q.'
< e.
o'(
o'8
o'9
It has been observed during model testing that skewed crossingswith angles up to 20" produced no particularly otijectionable results for any of the abutment shapesinvestigated. As the angle increased above 20o, however, the f low picture deteriorated; f tow produced large eddies, reducirg the efficiency "d""."iriai.* ,, abutments of the waterway and increasing the possibilities for scour' The above statement does not apply to cases where a bridge spans most of the stream with little constriction"
Figure D11 was prepared from the same model information as Figure D10A. By entering Figure D'11 with the angle of skew ard the projected varue of M, the ratio b, cos dib can be read from the ordinate' Knowing b and h1 " for a comparabre normar crossing, one can sorve for br' the length of opening needed for a skewed bridge to produce the same amount of backwater for the desisn discharse. The chart is especiany hipfuti;;;;;;;nj'",io".nr.r.ing.
115
I t
I
SECTI ON
MAXITUM
BACKWATER
7 ,/
!) R).. /
F/
'l 3t *l
I
\d
S3kt
/
116
$fi
o.t
Figure
D I 0.
for
skew.
117
4
.i
+l
H
*,\
_t
l.
20
ANGLE OF SKEW
30
(DEGREES)
Figure D I 1. Ratio ol' projected to normal length of bridSe, for equiualent bachu'atcr (shewed crossings).
118
D5.
D5.1
The difference in water surface elevation between the upstream ard downstream side of bridge approach embankments, Ah, has been interpreted erroneousry as the backwater produced by a bridge' This is not the backwater as the sketch on Figure D'r2 will attest. The water surface at section 3' measured along the downstrearn side of the embankment, is lower than normal stage by the amount h3 *' There is an occasional exception to this, from returning to the flood plain by dense vegetation however, when flow is obstructed or high water from a downstream tributary produces pondirg ard an abnormar stage at the bridge site.
The difference in larel across ernbankments, Ah, is always larger than the backwater, h1 *, by the sum he * + So Lr:, where So is the natural slope of the stream (Fig. D12). The method of determining L13, which is the distance from sectir:n I tc seetion 3, needs spee if ic explanation but this will be deferred until sec. D6. The differential lever is significant in the determination of backwater at bridges in the f ield since Ah is the most reliable head measurement that can be made' Fortunately, the backwater and Ah bear a definite relaticinship to each other for any particular structure. Thus, if one is known the other can be determined.
W. S. ALONG
o.8
bt rol t r.l * : o
l
oe
ililililt1
ST AND
90"
45"
WW
2OO'IN LENGTH)
illtltllllltlil
tJ
ilil lilil tl
lllllulull]a
tllTlilUmrD
SPILLTHROUGH
lil'illil tltll
gOCWINGWALL
D5.2
Base Curves
A base curve for deterrnining downstream levelswas constructed entirely from model data which was found especiall'/ consistent when presented by the parameters shown, No satisfactory way has been found to experimentally isolate the backwat", f.orn Ah when makirg field measurements, so in this case the modelcurves must e.rffice. *) The
is
differential lerrel ratio, h6*/(h6* + hs plotted with respect to the openirg ratio, M, on Figure D12.
't19
.,,t
The numerator, h6*, represents the backwater at a bridge, exclusive of pier effect, and h3 * is the difference in level between normal stage and the water surface on the downstream side of the embankment at section 3. The ordinate of Figure D12 witl be referred to as the differential level ratio to which the symbol D6 has been assigned. The water surface depicted at section 3 represents the average level alorrg the downstream side of the embankment from H to I and N to O in Figure D1. For crosings involving wide flood plains and long embankments, the distances H to I and N to O each have been arbitrarily limited to not more than two bridge lengths. The solid curve on Figure D12 is to be used for 45o and 60o wingwall abutments and all spillthrough abutments regardless of bridge lergth. The uppdr curve, denoted by the broken line, is for bridges with lengths up to 200 feet having 90o vertical wall and other abutment shapes which severely constrict the f low.
Assuming the backwater, h6*, has already been computed for a normal crossing, withoutpiers, eccentricity or skew, the water surface on the downstream side of the embankment is obtained by entering the curve on Figure D12 with the contraction ratio, M, and reading off the differential lwel ratio
Db=
or
hu*
hu* + h3*
hg* 
hb*
(;)
(D6)
The elevation on the downstream side of the embankment is simply normal stage at section 3, less h3* (Fig. D12), except for the specialcase where the entire water surface prof ile is shifted upward by ponding from downstream or restricted f lood plains.
D5.3
piers.
Effect of Piers
The procedure for determining h3* with piers is exactly as explained in section D5.2 without
D5.4
Effect of Eccentricity
In the case of severely eccentric crossings, the difference in level across the embankment considered here applies only to the side of the river having'the greater flood plain discharge. ln
plotting th6 experimental differential level ratios with respect to M for eccentric crosirgs, without piers, it was found that the points fell directly on the base curve (Fig. D12). The individual values of h6* and h3* for eccentric conditions are different than for symmetrical crossings, but the ratio of one to the other, for any given value of M, remains unchanged. Thus, Figure D12 can also be considered applicable to eccentric crossings if used correctly. To obtain h3* for an eccentric crossing, with or without piers, enter theproper curve in Figure D12 with the value of M and read D6 as before. ln this case:
D6=
hu*
* Ah"*
hb*+Al3*+h3'
120
or
h3* =
(hu*. + Ah"*
(;)
(D7)
llaving computed h3" as described in the preceding paragraphs and knowing the total backwater h1* (computed according to the procedure in D4), the difference in water surface elevation. across the embankment (Fig. D12) is:
Ah 
h3*
* ht* + So Lr_s
(D}
where h1* is total backwater, includirg the effect of piers and eccentricity, and So Lr_s is the normal fall in streambed from section 1 to section 3.
D5.6
of
The differential level across roadway embankments for skewed crossings is naturally different for opposite siles of the river, the amount depending on the conf iguration of the stream, bends in the vicinity of the crossirg,. the degree of skew, etc. fhese factors can be so variable that a generalized model study can shed little light on the subject. Individual values of h1* and h3* for skewed crossings again differ from those for symmetrical crossings, but the differential lwel ratio across the embankments at either end of the bridge can be considered the same as for normal crossings for any given value of M. The value of M is, of course, based on the projected length of bridge as explained in section D4.6. Thus, it is again possible to use Figure D'12 for skewed crossings. The differential level ratio, D6, with or without piers, is obtained by entering the chart with the proper opening ratio, M. Then:
hg* = (hu*+Ahr*)
(*)
(De)
121
D6.
CONFIGURAToru OF EACKWATER
D6.l
Distancs
to Foint of
Maximum Backrator
In backwater cornputatbns, it will be found necesary in sorne cases to locate the point or points of maximum backwater with respect to the brirJge. The maximum backwater in line with the midpoint of the br'xiee ciccurs m point A'tFig: DlsBt, this point'beirp a dbtance, L*, from the waterline on the upstream skJe of the ernbankment. Where flood plainsare inundated and enrbankments congtrict the flow; the elevation oJ the water'surfrce throughout the areas ABCD *td AEFG'will beesentiafly the satrle as at point A,'where the backwater rneGurement was made on the models. This charasteristic has been verified from field meaurements made by the U.S. Geological Survey on bririges where the flood plains on each side of the main channel were no wlder than twice the bridge length and hydraulic roughness vvas relatively low.
For crossirgs with exceptiooallv wkle; rough flood plains, thisssentiallV level ponding may not occur.
wrTH
a>o.7 guLTlrtY
reU.f,
<D
+
I
AL
v
Figure Dl3.Distance to maxhnum bachwater.
122
Flow gradients may exist alorg the upstream side of the ernbankments due to borrow pits, ditches and cleared areas along the rightof'way. These flow gradients along embankments are likely to be more pronounced on the falling than on the rising stage of a flood. A correlation is needed between the water level along the upstream side of embankments point A since it is and difficult to obtainwater surface elevations at point A in the field during floods. For the purpose of design and field verification, it has been assumed that the average water surface elevation along the upstream side of embankments, for as much as two bridge lengths adjacent to each abutment {F to G and D to c), is the same as at point A (Fig. D138}.
D6.2
Normal Crossirgs
measured normal
Figure D13 has been prepared for determining distance to point to centreline of bridge.
of maximum backwater,
Referring to Figure D13, the normaldepth of f low under a bridge is def ined here as y = An2/b, where An2 is the cross sectional area under the bridge, referred to normal water surfaee, and b is the width of waterway. A trial solution is required for determining the differential level across embankments, ah, but from the result of the backwater computation it possible to make a fair estimate of Ah. To obtain distance to maximum backwater for is a normal channel constriction, enter Figure D134 with appropriate value of Ah/f and y and obtain the corresponding value of L*/b' Solving for L*. which is the distance from point of maximum backwater (point A) to the water surface on the upstream side of embankment (Fig, D138), and adding to this the additional distance to section 3, which is known, gives the distance L1_3. Then the computed difference in ls/el across embankments ts
Ah  hr**h3*+SoLr_s.
Should the computed value of Ah differ materially from the one chosen, the above procedure is repeated until assumed and computed values agree. Generally speaking, the larger the backwater at a given bridge the further will point A move upstream. Of course, the value of L* also increases with length of brldge.
D6.3
Eccentric Crossirqs
Eccentric crossings with extreme asymmetry perform much like one half of a normal symmetrical crossing with a marked contraction of the jet on one side and very little contraction on the other. For cases where the value of e (sec. OA.S) is greater than 0.70, on Figure D13A with Ah/V and y and read off the correspJnding value of enter the abscissa L*/b as usuat. Next multiply this value of L*/b by a correction factor, o, which is obtained from Figure D.13C. For example, suppose Ah/V = 0.20, V = 10 and e = 0.88, the corrected value would be L*/b = 0.g4 x 1.60. Distance to maximum backwater is then L* = 1.34b with eccentricity.
D6.4
Skewed Crossings
In the case of skewed crossings, the water surface elevations atong opposite banks of a stream are usually different than at point A; one may be higher and the other lowerdepending on the angle of skew, the configuration of the approach channel. and other factors. To obtain the approximate distance to maximum backwater L'for skewed crossings (Fig. Dg), the same procedure is recommended as for normalcrossings except the ordinate of Figure D.13 is read as L*/br, where b, is the full length of skewed bridge (Fig. D9). See Exarnple 2, Section D9.
123
D7.
SUPERSTR UCTURE
PARTIALLY INUNDATED
D7.1
General
in which it is desirable to compute the backwater upstream from a bridge or the discharge under a bridge when flow is in contact with the girders. Once flow contacts the upstream girder of a bridge, orifice flow is established so the discharge then varies as the square root of the effective head. The result is a rather rapid increase in discharge for a moderate rise in upstream stage. The greater discharge, of course, increases the likelihood of scour under the bridge. lnundation of the bridge deck is a condition the designer seldom contemplates in design but it occurs frequently on older bridEes.
Cases arise
Two cases are studied; the first where only the upstream girder is in the water as indicated by the sketch on Figure D14 and the second, where the bridge constriction is flowing full, all girders in the flow, as shown in Figure D15.
D7.2
The most logical and simple method of approach to determine the backwater effect with the upstream girder of a bridge in the f low is to assume the system acts like a sluice gate.
Using a common expression
o = coulrz
fzo
where
lz \Y, T*
*tVr2
2s
'" )]
(D10)
ft.
Z = vertical distance  bottom of upstream girder to mean river bed under bridge  ft., and Yu = vertical distanceupstream water surface to mean river becl at bridgeft.
For case l, the coefficient of discharge C6, is plotted with respect to the parameter Yu/Z on Figure D14. The upper curve applies to the coefficient of discharge where only the upstream girder is in contact with the flow. By substituting values in expression (D10), it is possible to solve for either the water surface upstream or the discharge under the bridge, depending on the quantities known. lt appears that the coefficient curve {Fig. D14) approaches zero asYu/Z becomes unity. This is not the case since the limiting value of Yu lZ for which expression (D10) applies is not much less than'1.1. There is a transition zone somewhere between YulZ= 1.0 and 1.1 where free zurface flow charqes to orifice flow or vice versa. The type of ffow within this range is unpredictable. For Yu lZ = 1.0, the flow is dependent on the natural slope of the stream, while this factor is of little concern after orifice flow is established or Y,rlZ > 1.1.
124
r r
I
htr rrrS
z
Y3
0.6
o.5
o.4
o.3
o.2
o.l
=5++j:?f,
t.2 ,.., t.3 t.4
Yu
1.5
1.5
1.7
l.g
Y3
125
/
B
/
t7
,/ ,/ "/
toL
o
04
Ah __ v
0.6
o.8
l.o
lOr
a
a
o8
fe
;W
s
la
o
ASUTIENTS ASuTutirTS
I
t (,
t{.w.s
o rT "l
I
v'a
e
tLofiG r8AjrtxilEl
la
.JYU
I
Ltt
pbr
7727V2
,
I
>r, vv77v. 7
ca\zJ eo6h
o.a z
Yu
(case
II)
126
ln computing a general river backwater curve across the bridge shown on Figure D14, it is to know water surface elevation downstream as well as upstrean from ihe bridge. The approximate depth of flow, !3, cafi be obtained from Figure D14 by enterlng tne top scale with the proper value of Yu/7 arfr reading down to the upper curve, then over horizontally to the lower curve, and finally down to the lower scale as shown by the arrows. The lower scale gives the ratio of Y,/y3. The method is iilustrated in exampre 3 of section Dg.
necessary
where the entire area under the bridge is occupied by the flow, the computation is handled in a different manner' To compute the water surface upstream from the bridge. the water surface on the downstream side and the discharge must be known. or if the disJharge is desired, the drop in water surface across the roadway embankrnent, Ah, and the net area underthe bridge is required' The experimental points on Figure D 15A, which are for both wingwall and spillthrough abutments, show the coeff icient of discharge to be essentially constant at 0.g0 foi the range of conditions tested. The equation recommended for the average two to four lane concrete girder bridge for case ll is
Q = 0.80 bx Z{2gAh)1/2
n111
where the symbols are defined as in expression (D10). Here the net width of waterway (excluding width of piers) is used again. lt is preferable to measure Ah across embankments rather than at the bridge proper. The partialiy inundated bridge compares favourably with that of a zubmerged box culvert but on a larger scale. Subm.rg"n"., of course. can increase the likelihood of scour under a bridge.
Section D9.
Again for working up general backwater curves for a river, it is desirable to know the drop in water level across existing bridges as well as the actual water surface elevation either upstream or downstream from the bridge. OnceAh iscomputed from expression {D_1,1), the depth of flow upstream, Yr, can be obtained from chart B, Figure D15, where isdepth from normal stage ! to mean river bed at bridge in feet. The procedure will be further explained by example 4 of
D7.4
Safety of Bridge
A rather common source of bridge failure results from the superstructure being virtually pushed or lifted off the abutments and piers by the combination.of buoyan"y unJ dynamic forces. Inundation reduces the effective weight of a concrete bridge to about o.g of its weight in air. Should air be trapped under the deck between girdem, the effective weight can be further reduced to a dangerous limit so that oniy moderate horizontal forces are required to jar or slide bridge spans off their pedestals. The horizontal forces consist of unbalanced hydrostatic
or ponding, acting on the upstream face of the bridge (aggravated by the collection of trash), plus energy inherent in the moving mass of water plus impact forces produced by large froating objects striking a bridge. The impact from large floating objects can be lethal if the bridge is already under stress and the girden are not anchored to the Diers.
pressure,
127
D7.5
In cases where bridge clearance is such that girders become inundated during floods, there is a good possibility that flow also occurs over portions of the approach roadway. Should it be desired to determine the discharge flowing over the roadway, Figure D16 can be used. To determine the discharge flowing over a roadway. first enter curve B (Figure D16)with Hil and obtain the free flow coefficient of discharge C1. Should the value of Hll be less than 0.15. it is suggested that C1 be read from curve A of the same Figtire. lf submergence is present (e.9., if D/H is larger than 0.7) enter curve C with the proper value of submergence in percenr and read off the submergence factor Cr/C1. The resulting discharge is obtained by substituting values in the expression:
o = cr1P3/2 cr/ct,
(D1 2)
where L represents the length of inundated roadway, H is the total head upstream measured above the crown of the roadway and Cr and C, are coefficients of discharge tor free flow and with submergence, respectively. Where the depth of flow varies along the roadway, it is advisable to divide the inundated portion into reaches and compute the discharge over each reach separately. The process, of course, can be reversed to aid in determining backwater for a combination of bridge and roadway.
128
PRCENT SI,E'YERGENCE
o/H X too
90
cv.RALL O.
Cr
t..r(l/z.cs./c,
t^[
3.o.rF
a.l
sczi3.@lg9q THS C:tJRlrE FOf, FRE FLOil coFFlcfENTs vilni H/t RATtos<o,5.
z t*r
..t <j
o 2rdF
2.9f
I J
,nll
e
soLl
l.rl
o{
ot
_.._.L_ i 
t2
t.6 2p
2.4 z.e. 32
il
FEET
.l
. I
5.6
40
Figure D'16
129
D8.
D8.1
The following outline is presented to aid in organizinE and collecting the necessary field data for a bridge site investigation:
1. 2.
Location map to show proposed highway alignment and reach of riverto be studied.
Vicinity map showing flood f low patterns, cross sections of stream, location of proposed biidge and relief openings, and alignment of piers.
(i) (iii
In some cases, cross sections perpendicular to flood flow are acceptabie in lieu of the map in (i); at least three cross sections are desirable: one on the centreline of the proposed bridge, one upstream and one downstream from the proposed bridge at from 100 to 500 foot intervals.
3.
A full description of existing bridges both upstream and downstream from proposed
(i) (ii)
Type of bridge, including span lengths and pier orientation. Cross section beneath structure, noting stream clearance skew or direction of current during f loods.
to superstructure and
(iii) All
(iv)
available flood historyhigh water marks with dates of occurrence, nature of flooding, damages and source of information. Photographs of existing bridges, past floods. main channels and flood plains and information as to nature, streambed and stability of banks.
4.
(i) (ii)
(iii)
{iv)
(v)
Other controls.
130
D8.2
It
Stago Discharge
is important that the normal stage of a river for the design flood be determined as accurately as possible at the bridge site. This may be accomplished inieveral ways, but where possible it is best to establish it from a stag*dischaige rating curve based on streamgauging records colected in the vicinity of the brklge site. whlre stagedischarge records are lacking for the stream in question' the usual procedure is to locate high water marks of floods by consulting people who live in the vicinity of the proposed bridge site. Flood information supplied by local residents is often inaccurate, but may be consirjered reliable if confirmed by other residents.
necessary to find a means of relating stage to discharge. This can be done by the slopearea method, a simplifiedvariation of which w*ill be found illustrated in Example I section D 9' Extreme care must be exercised both in the collection of f ield data and in the manner in which it is processed if glaring discrepa.cies are to be avoided in the f inal result. rn many
It is then
a stagedischarge curve.
cases where records are lacking, it is advisabie to arrange for the installation and maintenance of a temporary stream gauge at or near the bridge site several years in advance of construction. Even a single reliable point at an intermediate stage can be of inesiimablevalue in the preparation of
D8.3
Channel Roughness
A rnatter of prime importance in bridge backwater or slopearea computations is the ability to cvaluate properly the roughness of the main channel and of the flood plains; both are subiect to extreme variations in vegetal growth and depth of flow. As a guide. values,rf the Manning roughness coefficient, n, as commonly encountered in practrce, are tabulated for various conditions of channel and flood plain in fable D1. Since tfre practicing engineer in this country is familiar with the Manning roughness coeff icient. the Manning equation has been chosen for use here' ln interpreting roughness coeff icients from Table Di, it shoutd be kept in mind that the value of n for a small depth of f low, especially on a f lood plain covered wiirr grass, weeds, and brush, can be considerably larger than that for greater f row depths over the same terrain. On the other hand,'as the stage rises in a stream with an aliuvial bed, sand wavesdevelop which can increase the value of n. lt is, therefore, suggested that the notes acccmpanying Table D1 be carefully considered 'along with the tabulation.
131
A.
stage
100 ft.):2
range
a. b.
Some grass and weeds, little or no brush Dense growth of weeds. depth of f low materially than weed height
0.0300.035
s'"ui;'
0.0350.05 0.010.02
lrregular section, with pools, slight channel meander; channels (a) and (b) above, increase all values about
3.
Mountain streams, no vegetation in channel. banks usually steep, trees and brush along banks submerged at high stage:
a. b. B. 1.
Bottom of gravel, cobbles. and few boulders Bottom of cobbles with larqe bounders
0.040.05 0.050.07
a. b.
2.
Short
H
grass
igh grass
cu ltivated areas:
?
4. 5.
6.
Light brush and trees:3 Medium to dense vegetation:3 Cleared land with tree stumps, 100150 per
a. b. 7.
c.
Heavy stand
Major stream (surface width at f lood stage ) '100 feet): Roughness coefficient is usually less than for mirror streams of similar description on account of less effective resistance otfered by irregular banks or vegetation on banks. Values of n may be somewhat reduced. Follow general recommendationsl if possible. The value of n for larger streams of mostly regular section, with no boulders or brush, may be in the
ra
nge
0.0280.33
lWith channel of alignment other than straight, loss of head by resistance forces will be increased. A stnali increase in value of n may be made lo allow for the additional loss ol energy.
2The tentatiue values of n cited are princrpalty cterived !rom meosurernentsmde on fairly short but straight reaches of natural streams. Where slopes caiculated from tlood elevations along a consherable length of channel, involving meanders and bends, are to be used in velociry calculations by th,; Manning formula, the value of n must be increased to provrde f or the additional loss of energy caused by bends. All values in the table musi be so increased. The increasemav be in the range of perhaps 3 to
1
5 percenr.
"The presence
ol foliage on trees and brush under f lood stage will materially increase the value of n. Therefore, roughness coefficients for vegetation in leaf will be larger than for bare branches. For trees in channel or on banks, and lor brush on banks where submergence of branches increases v/nh depth of flow, n will increase with risirg stage.
132
D8.4
bridge constriction:
1.
The following is a brief stepbystep outlin for determining the backwater produced by
3.tJ;t#:t
2. 3.
the magnitude and frequencv of the discharge for which the bridge is to be
Determine the stage of the stream at the bridge site for the design discharge. Plot a representative cross section of stream for design discharge at section already done under step 2' l, if not tt streim channer is essentiaily stra6ht and substantially uniform in the cross section vicinity J the bridge, tr,, at the bridge site may be used for ""ir*r cross section of the stream this purpose.
4.
subdivide the cross section plotted in step 3 according to marked charges in depth of flow and changes in roughness. Assign values of Marining roughness coefficient, n, to (Tabre D1i. xperience and carefurjudsment are necessary in serectirq :;:iiff::.tion .t""J:rti::,:onvevance
and then discharge in each subsection (method is demonstrated in
5.
6.
Using cumulative conveyance and discrrloe at section 1, computeslope of stream, so. should the computed slope vary rnore than 2s percent irom the actuar srope, reassign values of the roughness factor, n, and repeat conveyance
cmputations.
7.
?,"l"Jl,tr
8.
#:i:
section under proposed bridge based on normal water surface for design discharge, and compute gross water area (including area occupied by piers).
9.
compute bridge openirg ratio, M (section D3.1(h), observing modified procedurefor skewed crossings, (Section D4.6).
in Figure.D6 for symmetrical normal crosings. lf piers are involved' computevalue'of J (sec. D4.4) and obtain incre'nentalcoefficient, AKo' from Figure D7 (noie ,'",r,oa outrined for skewJ cissings, sec. D.4.4 (b) ). lf eccentrjcity is compr.rte value of e (Sec. D4.5) and obtain incremental ,Tu.r.:. coefficient, AK", from Figure Dg.
10. 11.
base curve
12.
13.
crosing is involved, observe proper procedure in previous steps, then obtain incrementar coefficient, AKr, for proper abutment type from Figure D10.
Determine total backwater coefficient, curve coefficient, K6.
lf a skewed
14.
base
15.
Estimate
:fffiffi
16.
""
"$;]:l,l"TT:il]i?
17.
Compute backwater by expression (D_4), section D4... Determine distance upstream to maximum backwater from Figure D.,3 and converr backwater to water sjrface elevation at section 1 if computations are based on normal stage at bridge.
133
D9. D9.1
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
General
A better understanding of the procedures for computing bridge backwater can be gained from the illustrative examples in this section. The examples dealwith the following phases of design:
1. 2. 3. 4. D9.2 (o)
Example 1 comprises a simple normal crosing; the steps closely follow the outline of design procedure listed in section D8.4.
Example
Example 3 demonstrates how discharge or differential water level across bridge embankments can be determined when the upstream girder is in the f low.
Example 4 is same as example 3 with the structure partially inundated.
tJ U
l
F
I
Example
Giuen
1: NormalCrossing
z
F
__s lrl
UJ
The channel crosing shown in Figure D17 with the following information: Cross section of river at bridge site showing areas, wetted perimeters, and values of Manning, n; normal water surface for design = El. 28.0 ft. at bridge; average slope of river in vicinity of bridge So = 2.6 ft./ mi. or 0.00049 tt./tt.; cross section under bridge showing area below norrnalwater surface and width of roadway = 40 ft. The stream is essentially straight, the cross section relatively constant in the vicinrty of the bridge, and the crossing is normal to the general direction of flow.
ToFind
Conveyance at section
Discharge
1.
Water surface elevation on upstream side of roadway embankment. Water surface elevation on downstream side of roadway embankment.
134
U.^sEcTOil
'"'%
PrEns
Ia4
sEC ?
sEc
lI
o . eos'
CULTIVATEO
n.OO45
o'6?74
p.oe
n .o o35 o '?,OO4O
e'
+ts\loooD io'*,i
lll
. p.
1.6774 23r O
PIRS
34
3@
4OO
OSTANCEFEr
I:
(c)
Conputation
computation (1a)' Under the conditions stated, it is permissible to assume that the cross sectional area of the .stream at section 1 is the same as thai at the bridge. The approach section is then divided into subsections at abrupt changes in depth or channel roughness as shown in Figure D17' The conveyance of each subsectioi i, compuied as shown in cJlumns t through g of rable D2 (see also sec' o3.1(g) ). The summation of the individual values in columng represents the overall conveyance of the stream at section I or K1 = g79,4gg. Note that the water interface between subsections is not included in the wetted perimeter. Table D2 is set up in short form to better demonstrate the method. The actual computation would involve many subsections corresponding to breaks in grade or changes in channel roughness.
area is essentially constant throughout the.reach under consideration, for the discharge by what is known as the sropearea method or:
Computation (1b). Since the slope of the stream is known (2.6 ft./mi.) and thecrosssectional
it
is permissible
to solve
Kr Sotrz
B7g,4gg (0.00049)r/2
19,s00 c.f.s.
135
Computation (1c)..To compute the kinetic energy coefficient (Sec. D3.1(i) ), it is first necessary to complete columns 9, 10, and 11 of Table D2; then, using expression (D3a) (Sec. D3.l(i) ):
Equ2
qr==
'
374,895
ov2nl
19,500(19,500/5,664)2
1.62
where Iqv2 is the summation of column 11, and.Vnl reprsnts the average velocity for normal stage at section 1.
'
Computation (1d). The sum of the individual discharges in column g must equal 19,500 c.f.s. The factor M, as stated in section D3.1{h), is the ratio of that portion of the discharge approaching the bridge in width b, to the total discharge of the river; using expression (Dl) (Sec. D3.1(h) ).
value
of
tz
is estimated as 1.40.
Compuntion (lc)
l.{9 n
a
sq.
p ft.
q r=p
ft
r,lt
I '19 k=artt n
k S=Q;,\1 cfs
u!
o Cdt
ft.
fps
(r)
Q.
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(.7)
(8)
(e)
(ll)
2,124
. I 0200 0 045 l20o2{0 .070 (z+uzao .020 o "{280{20 .035 llzo<ls .0s0 A." /llssoo .0s0 lsoozso .o4s
33.0 627.4 2c/i .2 3 134 2 t42 44.349 9E[t.3 2r.2 2852 {0.t 7.tr2 3698 22.359 4957 2r.z 324s 40 1 B.os2 4.031 27,7J2 614.8 12 5 z.W.O t{5 0 13 821 5.7s9 490,492 10,875.2 n.7 2os8 2s.t 8199 4.066 24.8s2 ssl.o n] 939 4 ss t 9.289 {.s26 73,to9 1.62s.{ 3J.0 1,627.4 2it.0 6 683 B.ilB 196,396 {,3s4.6
zl"=5,6fi1 .7 sq. ft.
,{^: =2,53{ sq. ft. Kr :,i79,{89 Q = 19,5OO.0
Qr
l,50l
2,196 320.65{
a,gsE
11,726 29,136
c.f.s.
&d=374,E95
:12. O{0
c.f.s.
Computation (1e). Entering Figure D6 with for bridge waterway of 205 ft.
tul
As the bridge is supported by f ive solid piers, the incrernental coeff icient (AKe) for this effect will be determined as described in section D4.4. Referring to Figu.re D17 and Table D2, the gross water area under the bridge for normal stage, An2, is 2,534 sq. fr. and the area obstructed by the piers, Ao, is 180 sq. ft.; so:
J=
136
Entering Figure D'7A wlth J = 0.071 for solid piers, the reading from ordinate is AK = 0.13. This value is for M = 1'0' Now enter Figure Dzg ana obtain the correction factoro, forM = 0'62 which is 0.84. The incremental backwater coefficient for the five piers, AKo = AKo = 0.13x0.84=0.11.
The overall backwater coeff
ic
ient
K' = Ku *
vn2 =
and
rtZ Y 2s
n2
= o.9z ft.
wiil
be.
;1.
ozV2nz
29
0.g3 x 1.40 x 0.92 = 1.07 ft. v.vv A r.rv A v.rz  LU/ It.
(D4a)
Ar
c
or
[s' Hl+
z]
is
(D4b)
. t'oz [ /z,ssq\
ht
= 1.13 ft.
(D_4)
Computation ([fl The statement was made (in Sec. D6.1) that the water srface on the upstream side of the roadway embankment will be essentially the same as that at section l. Thus, to determine the backwater elevation it is first necessary to locate the position of section 1, which is accomplished with the airi of Figure D13.
From preceding computations
:
b = 205 ft.
and
"y= A'u b
2.5U
205
137
It is necessary to assume the total drop across the embankments for a first trial
as 1.9
ft.l.
(Ah is assumed
ah = 1.90 12.36 t
and
= 0.154
! = 12.36,
L* _
b
0.79
and
L*
= 0.78 x 205 =
160 ft.
The drop in channel gradient between sections 1 and centreline of roadway is then SsLl_( = 0.00049 (160 + 30i = 0.093 ft. Thewatersurface elevation at section 1 and along the upstream side of the roadway embankrnent will be:
El. 28.0 + So Lr
{+ hi
Computation (ld. The first step in determining the water surface elevation at section 3 isto compute the backwater for the bridge in question without piers, as explaineb in Section DS.
hb' = ;qo
o2V2n2
=
2s
0.72x
ft.
Entering Figure D12 with M = 0.62, the differentiai levelratio for the bridge (without piers) is:
Db =
so
hr "b
ho' + h3'
=0.58,
h3. =
n,.(a )
0.67 = 27.33 ft.
=0.e3fu
=0.67rt.
(D6)
The placing of piers in a waterway results in no change in the value of h*3 provided other conditions remain ihe same {Sec. D5.3), so h*3 (with piers) also equals O"OZ tt. The water grface elwation on the downstream side of the roadway embankment will be essentially
El. 28.0
Ah = 29.22
27.33
= l.Bg ft.
Since Ah was assumed as 1.90 ft., the computed water surface elevationsabove ir" s.tistactory. Should the computed value of Ah be materially different from that assumed, another trialwill
be necessary.
138
D9.3
(o)
Example
Ciuen
2: Skewed Crossirg
A skewed bridge, Figure D18 on the site chosen in examole 1. rather than a normal
From example 1:
Q = 19,500 c.f.s. for N.W.S. = 2g.0, b = 205, So = 0.00049, q1 = j.62, M = 0.62, Aa =. 5,664 sq. ft., 41 = 6,3g4 sq. ft. and / = 40 ft.
crossino.
^ */sEcTroN

I
r Joo
SECTON^
1U

bs cos
* =192'
5I.]
Ap22O
SO.FT
139
(b)
To
F
Find
ind Length of skewed bridge required to produce essentially 1.1 feet of backwater occurred in example 1.
as
2a.
2b. The backwater for bridge length chosen. 2c. The approximate water level at point A on section 1.
(c)
Computation
Contputution (2a). The design discharge and normal stage at bridge site are known. The same procedure demonstrated in example 1 is followed, with exceptions as noted. First, the general direction of flow in the river at the bridge site for the design flood, without constriction, is determined. Next, the position and extent of roadway embankments and the type of abutment are superimposed on the stream as illustrated in Figure D9. The angle of skew is measured, which is 40" in this case; then the bridge opening is projected upstream, normal to the direction of flow, to section 1.
Entering Figure D1'1, with d = 40o and M = 0.62.
b.Cosd
b
0.935.
b'Cos@
b, =
192
0.766
250
ft.
(aPProx.).
Computation (2b). The actual backwater produced by the skewed bridge, 250 feet long, will be computed as a check on the above determination as well as to demonstrate the method of procedure. Conveyance and area are both plotted with respect to distance across flood plain at section 'l on Figure D19. The information needed to construct the chart came directly from Table D2 which was prepared in connection with the solution of example 1. The first step is to locate the position of the skewed bridge on Figure D19 and lay off the projected length, b, Cos@, as shown. Then M is computed as follows:
=
na=
!
K1
600,000
=
70.000
879.489
= 0.60
From Figure D6, the backwater coeff icient, Kb = 0.77. Note that an extra pier has been added and all are parallel to the direction of f low. The area obstructed by piers, Ao, is now 220 sq. ft. The projected area under the bridoe referenced to normal water surface, from Figure D19 is
140
Ana = 3,400
and
1,000
Z,4OO
sq. ft.
J= Ao An2s
220
2,4W
=0.092
consulting Figure D7, the incrementar backwater coeff icient for piers
AKo=0.18x0.8=0.1S
Entering Figure D10A with M = 0.60 and O
40",
AK, = 0.19.
The total backwater coefficient for the skewed bridge is then
K* = Ko *
v62 =
Y2n2/2g
0.19 = 0.73,
13 f.p.s.,
1.03
= 1.40
wiil
be
K*
t \12 *1" *
29
= 0.73 x 1.40
1.03
{D4'a)
cl '
ll
=162
= 1.62 x
hr* =
103
(D4b)
r.o3 =
0.062 ft.
+ 0.06 = 1.11
(D_4)
141
Computation (2c). For skewed crossings the distance to maximum backwater, L*, has been chosen arbitrarily as equal to br, so:
El. 28.0
ments
In the case'of a skewed crossing, the water level along the upstream face of the two embankwill be different and neither need correspond to that at point A.
(t
I x
I
u8 o
F
F!
bs cos +
4T
()
lrJ
lr,
96 a.
lrj
3k
trj
(r
I
8c
v.
I
?o
Q 19,50J cf s N.YflS = EL.28.O
345
DISTANCE
IN HUNDREOS OF FEET
Conveyance and area at section 7
Figure D19
Examples 7 and
2:
r42
D9.4 (")
Exampfe
General
3:
in the
Flow
when computing general backwater curves for a river, it is necessary to know within reasonable limits the amount of pondirg which occurs at bridges which constrict the'flow during floods. The bridge backwater, the downstrearn water surface, and the drop in level across bridge embankments, where clearance of superstructure is not a problem, have been treated in the preceeding examples' Examples 3 and 4 pertain to'bridges in which the flow is in contact with the superstructure.
(b)
Given
of the bridge of example t (Fig. D17) and the centreline prof ile shown on Figure D20. For this example, suppose that the superstructure is lowered so the bottom
of the upstream girder
is
a,Vra
29
":*+
Q'9,5OO
i
Ah
Yu
EL.2?98
CFS.
ACTUAL W"S.
(r)
3a.
Find
The approximate water surface arong the upstream face of the embankment. The approximate water surface along the downstream face of the embankment. The drop in water lever across the bridge embankment without scour.
3b. 3c.
O b Vnt
= 19,500c.f.s., So = 0.00049, i = 12.35 ft.  205 ft., Wo = 14 ft., Anr = 5,664 ft.2 = 19,500/5,664 = 3.45 f.p.s., cr = '1.62 and
143
Q=
co bruZ
[,
L
z _+c,_; v'\ I I z
2s/
J
rrz
or
(D10)
Yu=
qz
29bru ,2, Co2'
?:l
V,2
22s
As a first trial, assumeYr/Z = 1.12; enter the upper curve on Figure D14 with this value, and read C6 = 0.380.
Yu = 
12'35
2
0.30
1'061(0.38)'
+ 6.18 
o"3o
h,,' =
13.25
Then 41 = 5,664 +
= 6,357
ft.2
C'rv12/2g= 1.62
0.236
13.31
ft.
and
13.31112.35 ='1.078
which does not agreti with the assumed value (1.12l,. Next assume
Y
"/Z
D 14),
Yu = 1.061/(03712 + 6.18  0.24 = 7.75 + 6.18  O.24 = 13.69 ft. hu* = 13.69  12.35 = 1.34 ft. and Ar = 5,664 + 1.34 x 770 = 6,696 ft.2
144
V1 = 19,500/6,696
= 2.91
tt .2
f.p.s.
+ 29
,,2
= 0.132
and
Y, = 7.75 + 6.18  0.212 = 13.72 ft. h,* = 13.72  12.35 = 1.37 ft. and Y"/Z = 13.72112.35 = 1.11
which is sufficiently close to the assumed value (,.10).
The water surface on the upstream side of the embankment will be
El. 15.65 * Y, +
+[ 2s
1b.6S
13.72
Computation (3b). Enterirg the lower curve on Figure Dt4 with C6 = 0.37 and reading downward. Y, /ys = 1.125 and Vs = 13.72/1 .125 = t Z. t g ft.
The water surface along the downstream side of the embankment is: El. 15.63 + 12.1g = El. 27.8 ft. or approximately O.2 foot below normal stage. computation (3c). The water surface differential across the bridge embankmentAh = El. 29.6  El. 27.8 = 1.8 feet.
The above computation is quite sensitive since the exanrple falls within the transition zone (Fig. D14) where the curves are steep.
145
D9.5 (o)
Example
Giuen
4:
The same stream and br'nJge arrangement as for example 3 except the discharge is increased to 28,000 c.f.s. A profile on the centreline of channel is shown on Figure D21. Normal water zurface is now at elevation 30.30 at the upstream bridge girder.
The pertinent data (Fig. D21) are Q = 28,000 c.f.s..,
= 14.65 ft.,
z=
h;
N.n s.'E1.30.30
ll Yul
Y'14.65'
t
2.12.33'
1. 15.65 so =o ooo49
NJV._s..3o28'
ACTUALW.S.
EL.15.63
(b)
4a. 4b.
To Find
The drop in larel across the bridge embankment. Water surface elevation on the upstream side of the embankment. Water surface elevation on the downstream side of the embankment, assuming appreciable scour under the brkJge.
k.
r46
CobrvZt2gAh) 1t2 or
tD11)
Ah=O'
2gbn,2 22 coz
where the discharge coefficient (c6) is constant aI a value of 0.80. substituting values in the latter expression,
ah _
(28,000)2
64.4 (191
12.35)2 (O.go)2
784,000,000 358,322,74't
0.64
= 3.42 tt.
El. 15.65
16.55
= 32.20
feet.
be,
El. 32.20
Et. 30.30
1.90 feet.
computation (4c)' The watersurface elwation on the downstream side of the embanknnent will be:
El. 32.20
Ah = 32.20
147
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Main Cornmittee Merntrers
Nafisah Hj. Abdul Aziz Chairman
6
 DRAINAGE
Deputy Chairman
Secretary
Alternate Secretary
Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member
Editor
Chairman Secretary Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member
K. Nanthakumar
Chia Chong Wing
Ng Kim Hooi
ACKNOWI,EDGEMENTS
Volume 3 is not part of the Arahan Teknik (Jalan) f5197  INTERMEDIATE GUIDE TO DRAINAGE DESIGN OF ROADS. Technical Committee 6 felt that there is a need to provide guidelines for the hydraulic aspects in bridge design.
Volume 3 provides guidelines for the practical aspects of bridge hydraulic design. The more theoretical considerations and design worked examples are provided in Appendix 1, which is reprinted from Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran publication Urban Drainage Design Standards and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia (1975), Appendix D  Hydraulic Design of Bridges.
Thanks are due to:
Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran for permission to reprint Urban Drainage Design Standards and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia (7915), Appendix D  Hydraulic Design of Bridges"
Members of the Technical Committee 6  Drainage and SubCommittee for Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design for their untiring efforts to ensure timely completion of Volume 3.