FOREWORD

Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM), through the cooperation and support of various road authorities and engineering institutioni in Muluys'ia, publishes a series of official documenrs on sTANDARDS, spgcm,tcATloNs, GUIDELINES, MANUAL and TECHNICAL NOTES which are related to road engineering. The aim of such pubiication is to achieve quality and consistency in road and highway construction, operation and maintenance.
The cooperating bodies are:-

Public Works Deparrment Malaysia (pWD) Malaysian Highway Authority (MHA) Department of Irrigation & Drainage (DID) The Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) The Institution of Highways & Transportation (IHT Malaysian Branch)
The production of such documents is carried through several stages. At the Forum on Technology and Road Management organizeo uy rwuREAM in Novemb er 1997, Technical Committee 6 - Drainage was formed with the intention to review Arahan

contactors.

- INTERMEDIATE GUIDE To DMINAGE DESIGN oF ROADS' Members of the committee were drawn from various goue**"nt departments and agencies, and from the private sector including privitized road operators, engineering consultants and drainage products minufacturers and

Teknik (Jalan) 15/97

Technical Committee

DRAINAGE DESIGN' consisting of the folrowing vorumes: Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 5 Hydrological Analysis Hydraulic Design of Culverts Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design Surface Drainase Subsoil Drainale

6 was divided into three sub-committees to review Arahan Teknik (Jalan) l5l9l and subsequentry produced 'GUIDELINES FoR ROAD

The drafts of all documents were presented at workshops during the Fourth and Fifth Malaysian Road Conferences held in 2000 and,2002 respectively. rfr" comments and suggestions received from the workshop participant, *"r" reviewed and incorporated in the finalized documents.

ROAD ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION OF MALAYSIA 46-A, Jalan Bola Tampar r3/r4, Section 13, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Tel: 603-5513 Fax: 5513 e-mail: ream@po.jaring.my

652r

6523

i
i I

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

3.' INTRODUCTION 3.2 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 3.2.7 Site Selection ... 3.2.2 Reconnaissance Survey ..... 3.2.3 Data Collection . 3.3 3.4
SURVEY

...3-7

........3-i
"....3-1

......3-z
......3-3

DATA Survey

3.3.1 3.3.2

Survey of Bridge Site and Hydraulic

Beyond

...,..3-4 ......3-4 .....3-6

ESTIMATION OF DESIGN DISCHARGE AND WATER PROFII,E ...3-5 ........3-6 3.4.I Design Recurrence Interval

3.4.2 3.4.3

DesignDischarge Water Profile
.

...,.3-"1

...3-8

3.s 3.6 3.7 3.8

BRTDGE WATERWAY

. .

.........3-9
....3-9

SCOUR AT BRIDGE CROSSING

3.6.1 3.6.2

Scour Countermeasures PIERS

.....3-9
.....3-11

FORCES ON BRIDGE

...3.1]

DESIGN OF BRIDGE TO ALLOW FOR FUTURE RIVER IMPROVEMENT WORK

,....3-17

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Figure Figure 3.3A Figure 3.38 Figure 3.3C Figure 3.3D Figure 3.3E Figure

3.1 3.2

3.4

Extent of Survey for Bridge Site ......3-5 .....3-10 Scour at a Bridge Site . ....3-I2 Typical Wire Enclosed Typical Interlocking Concrete Block and Cable Tied Block System ..3-73 .......3-I4 Typical Articulated Grout Filled Mat . "..3-15 Typical Cement/Grout Filled Bags at ....,.....3-16 Typical Cement/Grout Filled Bags at Pier ........3-19 Freeboard and Embedding Depth for

.. . Riprap

Design Abutment .. Footing

LIST OF TABLES
Table

3'1

Recommended Average Recurrence Interval for Design Discharge...3-7

LIST OF REFERENCES
APPENDIX

...,.....3-20

1

Reprint of Appendix D - Hydrauiic Design of Bridges, Urban Drainage Design Standards And Procedures For Peninsular Malaysia No. I (1g75).

VOI-UME 3 - HYDR.AULIC CONSIDER.ATIONS
3.1"

NN

BR.IDGE DESIGN

INTR.ODUCTION
The design of a bridge over a waterway requires a comprehensive engineering
approach that not only includes route location, traffic flow forecast and structural and foundation requirements, but also the assessment of the characteristics of the

river flowing beneath. For this, it is necessary to collect data, and to understand
the factors that govern stream runoff and water surface levels, sediment discharge and deposition, scour and channel stability and hydrodynamic forces acting on the

bridge" Predictions about likely event under particular site conditions have to be
made.

This volume does not describe in detail ali the factors that require to be considered in bridge designs, but merely identifies the hydraulic aspects that
characterise a river and provides directions to relevant literature, which give indepth details on these aspects. For hydraulic design of bridges, the designer could

refer to Appendix 1 which is extracted from Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran publication - Planning and Design Procedure No. 1: Urban Drainage Design Standards and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia (1915). The designer is
encouraged to refer to the other relevant literature listed in the References.

3.2.

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
Site Selection

3.2. r

Ideally the cost of alternative river crossing locations should be considered when making the preliminary selection of a route. However, in built-up areas the site

for a bridge and the approach roads are usually fixed and dictated by the town
layout plan.

In rural areas, the bridge crossing is restricted to certain reaches of the river owing

to

existing landuse, road alignment and the river meanders. The selection of sites has to be made within these reaches and should avoid costly river works and land acquisitions.
constraints imposed

by

3-r

F

s
F
F

!.

Bridge site selection normally commences with a desk-top study of available topographic maps which detail the geomorphologic features of the surrounding land, landuse, river pattern, meanders, sand deposits and sometimes, bank levels. on these topographic maps several potential bridge sites may be identified.
The choice of a crossing site will be governed primarily by the main channel width and the proportion of overbank flow to total flow. Logically, the first
consideration should be given to those sites that have the narrowest main channeis and the smallest proportion of flood plain flow.

On wide flood plains where rivers tend to meander, first consideration should be given to crossing sites where the channel could be controlled with minimal river training works. Occasionally rock outcrop or inerodible bank material may be located to reduce the requirement of river trainins works.

Other possible sites are at crossover modal points in the river meander pattern where the channel is wider and shallower and at bends where the channel is normally narrower and deeper particularly at the outside of the bend. The optimum location should be decided by considering the channel geometry, bank stability, river training work and type of bridge construction.

The desktop study should also include a literature search and examination of records or reports on river improvement works completed or yet to be impiemented by Jabatan Saliran dan Pengairan (JPS) and other
sovernment
agencies.

3.2.2

Reconnaissance Survey

Bridge sites desktop study will include reconnaissance survey with the objective to gain a general appreciation of the river behaviour by examining available records and by carrying out field inspections. Information on the following should be collected:
(a)

river channel regime to determine whether the river has a wide flood plain. or whether it is incised with little or no flood piain. river channel stability to determine whether the river

(b)

is

stable or unstable.

(c)

river channel flow pattern, if it is sinuous, determine whether the channel migration is active,
J-L

.

(d)

range of water levels, particularly high-water levels and their frequency

of

:

occurrence, historical flood events could be indicated by riverine users or

local inhabitants.

(e) (f) (g) (h) (i)

range of discharges, particularly for floods and their frequency,

width of waterway, width of flood p1ain, meander length and width,
type and grading of river bed materials,
type of material composing the river banks,

iocation of any naturai outcrops of inerodibie rock which may restrict
channel movement. and

C)

extent of any regional floods in the locality.

Some of the above information may be obtained from topographic maps, aerial photographs, JPS hydrological records, previous river basin or drainage study
reports and existing and proposed future river improvement works. The preliminary study of the bridge sites should include an estimation of the river

flood flows by current acceptable hydroiogical procedures,
at the selected sites are not available.

if

stream flow records

3.2.3

Data Collection Other information could be obtained by field inspection such as:

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

type and grading of river bed material,
existence of shoals and their composition, the material forming the river bank, vegetation on the bank,
steepness ofbanks and evidence

ofbank erosion,

erosion pockets in the bank, existence of inerodible rock, debris marks on shrubs, trees or banks which may indicate the water level

of recent floods.

3-3

I

'
:

(t
0)

watermarks on walls, jetties and piers and buildings which indicate recent high water levels and

conskiction to water flow.

When the assessment of the survey information has been compieted, acceptable site for a bridge crossing from the fluvial aspect may be chosen. The detailed field surveys of the site will then follow.
3.3.

SURVEY DATA
Survey of Bridge Site and Beyond

3.3.1

hydrodynamic forces on piers and the upstream backwater.
I

After the selection of suitable sites for the bridge crossing have been made, hydrographic and hydraulic surveys have to be carried out to obtain the data required to determine the width of the bridge opening, the depth of scour and

t

I
t
!.

_t

t:

I

I

I

For large and deep rivers the hydrographic survey should be carried out by using recording echo sounder systems. The topographic features of the river and flood plain on both banks should also be surveyed by normal topographic survey procedures, to the extent required for hydraulic analysis.

I

The survey of the alignment and contour of the river and flood plains should extend not less than 30 channel widths upstream (300m minimum) and, 20 channel widths downstream (200 m minimum) of the proposed crossing, see Figure 3'1' The width of the survey corridor should not be less than 50m on
either side of the riverbanks.

where required, the survey shall be extended beyond the bridge site to upstream high flood risk areas to obtain data for analysis of backwater and assessment of its effects" Survey should also include downstream water flow constriction areas where they may affect the hydraulics of the bridee. Spot levels within the survey corridor shall be taken at not more than 10 m interval and shall include the bank levels and the invert levels of the river at the bottom of the banks, centre and deepest points.
The survey should also include taking of panoramic photographs of the bridge site and its immediate upstream and downstream reaches.

3-4

g
F

i:

TO EXTEND SURVEY UP
HIGH FLOOD RISK AREA
AUTHORITIES.

TO
IF

REOUIRED BY APPROPRIATE

ts

I z l

)

=
u. F

a o o- o
n

.W'CHANNEL TOP WIDTH

RIVER MAIN
CHANNEL

RIVER TERRACE

TO EXTEND SURVEY DOWNSTREAM TO AREAS WHERE THERE ARE CONSTRICTIONS TO WATER FLOW. WHERE NECESSARY

FIGURI

3.1

:

tXTINT

OF

SURVIY
3-5

FOR

BRIDGI SITt

s

The hydrographic and topographic surveys should be plotted on the same plan to facilitate extraction of cross-sectional data for hydraulic analysis and all levels should be reduced to a common datum.

For scour analysis samples of the riverbed material should be taken for particle
size analysis at the crossing and upstream locations. 3.3.2

Hydraulic Survey For large rivers the discharge passing through the proposed bridge site should be measured at a number of different stages of flow. Each discharge measurement
should be related to the date of survey, time and water levei and be reciuced to a standard datum. A gauging station should be established near the site of the proposed crossing as soon as possible.

Velocities

of flow in both magnitude and direction (in tidal sites) should be

measured across the river channel, preferably, during high flows and could be part of the discharge measurement prograrnme.

The designer should check with JPS stream flow records whether the river in the vicinity of the proposed bridge site has been gauged. Any information available
should be incorporated in the hydrological study. 3.4.

ESTIMATION OF DESIGN DISCHARGE AND WATER PROFILE
I

J.+.

Design Recurrence Interval Stream flows for the

2,5, r0,25,50

and 100 years average recurrence intervals

(ARI) should be derermined.

The ARI of the design discharge should be in accordance to Table 3.r. Nevertheless, factors such as possible loss of life and economic damages due to
any failure, have to be set against the higher capital cost of a bridge designed for a longer ARI must be considered.

3-6

Table 3.1: Recommended Average Recurrence Interval for Design Discharge Averase Recurrence Interval in Years Type of Structure Bridge

U2IF(2
and lower

u3

-u4/
100

R3-R4
50x

u5 - u6l R5_R6
100**
100*

50

25*
any of the following conditions applies:

Note:*The above average recuffence intervals can be used by the designer

if

a) b) c)

the structure is located in a flood plain the structure requires a high embankment

the soil condition is poor making high embankment construction
uneconomical

Under the above conditions, the structure must be designed as a submersible structure. Special consideration, however, must be given against accumulation of debris o,

i*p^"t by floating logs etc.
exceeded

** For major bridges, the probability of the design flood being
should not be more than 57o tn the design life

3.4.2

Design Discharge

Design discharge at the proposed bridge site can be determined in accordance with the various flood flow estimation hydrological procedures published by JPS. Where stream flow records are available for a particular station in the river or

located near

to the proposed

crossing, then the more accurate method of

streamflow frequency analysis should be adopted.

In the estimation of the design discharge, an assessment of the extent of current and future landuse development in the catchment has to be made and corrective
measures must to be included in the estimated discharge are going to be significant.

if future landuse changes

It would be useful to indicate

on bridge drawings the estimated discharge and

water levels of the river for various recuffence intervals. This information can be
used as a guide in the planning and design of temporary works at the bridge site.

3-7
E

3.4.3

Water Profile Where water level records are available at the crossing site, a frequency analysis should be carried out, otherwise, the water level corresponding to the design discharge can be calculated by a suitable flow equation, such as Manning formula. Where river stage discharge charts are available, water levels for various flows may be read off the charts.

For wide rivers, it is usually uneconomical to construct a bridge with a single span' More often multiple piers wiil be provided within the flood flow channel and earth embankments will encroach into the flood plain. These will constrict the flow and cause upstream water levels to rise above the original free flow level.
The amount by which the water level rises above the free fiow level, may be calculated by the method described in the sub-section on Computation
Backwater in Appendix
1.

of

Should there be numerous river cross-sections and design flood flow scenarios then the manual calculation method cited in the foregoing will become time consuming. Many affordable water profile analysis software are now available to the designer to perform the task, such as:

o o o

- Water Surface profiles WSPRO (HY-7) - Bridge Waterway Analysis
HEC 2

Model

HEC-RAS : River Analysis Svstem

The above are obtainable from Hydrological Engineering center, uS Army corps of Engineers and are very versatiie and capable of handring:
o o o o

eccentric location of main channel within the flood plain skewed orientation of bridge crossing various pier shapes and spacing discharge through partially submerged bridges discharge over submerged road embankments and scour at pier and abutment.

o o

3-8

7

?{

BRIDGE WATER.WAY
The bridge waterlvay area to be provided should be sufficient to ensure the design

I

flood can safely pass through without undue afflux or excessive increase in upstream flood levels, and at a velocity, which will not increase scour to such an
extent, as to endanger the stability of the bridge structure.

Sufficient clearance of bridge deck above flood levels should be provided to allow the largest floating debris to pass through without clogging up the waterway. The minimum amount of freeboard is 1.0m above the design high
water level. Where the river is navigable by watercrafts attention should be given

I

to the headroom clearance required by the controlling authorities. When it is necessary to restrict the width of the waterway to such an extent that the scour
would be severe, protection against damage shouid be made by providing deep
foundations and adopting appropriate scour counter-measures. Where there is existing drainage or irrigation dikes aiong the banks of the rivet,

I

I
-l
.l
I

the soffit of the bridge deck and beams should be placed a minimum of 0.5m above the top of these dikes. The freeboard between the high water level and the top of the dike is usually 0.5m to 1.5m depending on the design discharge of the river, however this needs to be checked with the appropriate river authorities,
mainly JPS.
3.6

I
I

SCOUR AT BRIDGE CROSSING
Scour

3.6.1

Scour can be very insidious whereby soil around a bridge foundation is removed

flood. The most common form of flood damage to bridges arises from the scouring of abutments and piers, which can
and re-deposited elsewhere during a

underinine the structure, resulting in collapse of spans and possible loss of life. Four different types of scour must be considered, as follows:
a)

General Scour

General scour is the depth
scoured

to which the riverbed at the bridge site is below the natural bed ievel. This normally occurs due to the

constriction of flood flows through the bridge opening between abutments
or embankments (see Figure 3.2).

3-9

m
LrJ

z

co

F f

u
l
U)

r I

.F to-l trJ
|

I

L! F
/-\ -l fYl -J

OI
I

LLll

mi

C
M m

r\

Ld

O c)

Y

U

*l \rl --)/ -t vl
,l

-1

F
M-

trl

m

E

o

I'o

,l

n# ,/J 5
1n
<cD

KJ-

ru

OE

oa>

9i .l

Et IJJ Zr LLI

C) UJ
Lr)
I CO

Fl
(Jl
T

"l -rl
I

ti '^
-1
vl

f-l 'l

zl ct

l

r\

-/-i - _J -r- _J
;/l

al

LrJl

'r n--l
I

L

N
frr^)

n\
l_

f
l,l

-o
-;F

(J4

^=

J

t-,--

J t!
trJ

z

E.
o_

F

:)

cE)

o z f
J

z
E

3-10

b)

Local Scour

Local scour is the lowering of the riverbed immediately adjacent to bridge
piers or abutments (see Figure 3.2).

c)

Natural Scour

Natural scour occurs in alluvial or tidal channels and is associated with
variations in flow conditions, channel shifting or river bed migration at the bridge site.

d)

Progress Scour

Progressive scour which is progressive river bed lowering or river profile

degradation due to geological or man made processes
reservoir regulation, gravel mining, etc.

-

e.g. damming,

The first three categories above can be estimated with reasonable accuracy but the

fourth is extremely difficult to predict.

3.6.2

Countermeasures

Upon assessment of the potential scour problem, countermeasures to control scour
need to be provided. The countermeasures could include the following:

o o o o o

soil cement for sloping abutment, wire enclosed riprap for sloping abutment (see Figure 3.3A), interlocking concrete block system for abutment (see Figure 3.3B). articulated grout filled mat for abutment and river bed (see Figure 3.3C)
and

cement/grout filled bags
3.3E).

for pier and abutment (see Figures 3.3D

and

For design guidance and selection of countermeasures the designer should refer
to:

o

FHWA Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23 -Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures.

J-II
i
,,

c0

F F l

z
CD

LiJ

F trl F

)

x

a

z

LrJ

m

N c

O
()oa ".2
F

Ld

z
I

t
F

o z )
e z zm
a
t!

o->

z z

=

= o U

o_

o

C(
o_

M
tl

X

Ll-j

1
I I
i

a
r--r-_- --==1 L---f---*--J

F F

v.

LLJI

J
ZL!

L-----.-

r--j**--;-,

)<

rl r\l
\JI
-l -l I

-l

-l rvl .nl
I

-l

OI

L!
a_

L!

c)

a e.
co

f-l

()l
(^l
LJ.ll

,l

zl a)l

rl -l

,,1
C\./

cl
I

--J

=

o-

F

N-)

l_

() f

L-

U (Y

tr) Fii
--2
F
F cn LJ

ITJ

o_

o 7
=
J

z

E
-J

l

z ,-i
tr

3-12

Z
I

I I I

)<

E.

z o z f
t

-

m L! F
Lr-J

--J

E.

O2
lr-) Or-

1

";
I I

z
F F

Zw
Y9

19

/)

!2o L)J
t

I arl

Ll r-r Fii 7=

<:l Om n<
F
)<
rt J

rl'l

>rJ
m
tt-)

V

zu
u-r

C)F

9H

n
L!

.

Lrz FA

26

t_

l

t-r-

CIELE.DIYG

3-13
l i-4

o

z

I'!J

>L

<)<

?:
I
I I

o
co

L!

x<

:r. >I

oi; >z

zH

o

CO

J

z z
I

\

U.Z

OCJ

o-<

O F O
Ill

LLi

a

rl

Z

TI rl <t
vl ,l -l

I

zl
I

I
F l
M rl

I

o U
0a

HI

()0.

Th
-j
CS

al

AZ <U L! (J

O F
LI

l
F
E.

-_J

z Ou n7* ^o uii
>;:i
d)a

v

F a
__J

a

@zo f6+

r)
o-

F
J J -1 J
__J

-J

F

z

) -

J J J

-J -J -J

rl

z,l
n-l
-l

M)

1t

t')
()
C}

F

l

l

)
-l

Lr-

UI

E
(D

UI c)l

'l

z,

3-r4

FIGJ-3C.DWG

f-

EMBANKMENT

T

1

EXISTINC STREAM
BOTTOM

NON-WOVEN GEOTEXTILT FILTER

*"u*-.J

ABUTMENT FOOTING

I

I
SECIION THROUGH ABUTlvlINT

I
I

NOTE

:

(r)
)

DO NOT EXCAVATE BELOW BOTTOM OF FOOTING TO ACCOMMODATE CONCRETE BAGS
THE

I
I

N

AREA DENOTES PORTION OF

STREAM,BOTTOM TO BE EXCAVATED TO ACCOMODATE CONCRETE BAGS

I
FIGJ-30

DWG

FIGURE 3.3D TYPICAL CEMENT/GROUT
3-15

FILLID BAGS

AT ABUTMENT

I

I t t .L

z x
F
J F

U
U

x,^
U)

U

a)<

o
O
F

>a il<

[J F

E.

50_

o-

9e zo OO z{)

U

FV
,,!d F r,r

>n

z

> :\, .iZ xO
)<
LrJ

<=

m

O
Irl
L L

O
L! rt

--J
E
c\J

E

Q

t

F l
nl -l
-\l vl

co

q

ftl L!l

E. a\

rl
I

I

Z.
lrl
Ll-J

-l
Jl

rYl

-rl
I

(J J

N

E

vl ;-l

zl a-\l

=l

I I
l

or

L!l

-l (Jl

r\
o-

6l

,4

F

z?
0.P

U
td

I XX Rin P
Z LLJ t4) Lrl mF A _tJ
LJ

9?

LJ

)

U
F

E.

I
I

=

F

U7

2= Fl"
=F
LrJ Ct)

xo

N 6* K\X N << hJ >=
F (r<
l,J G()

g s Eu.r N\ F

<:c) UZ >P - ov

l..j

Ll-J

u
l

-l
FI

I

zl

i
I

3-16
.-J..

Erosion and Scour Protection, Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia.
3.7

Sub-section 29.2

-

FORCES ON BRIDGE PIER.S
Piers in the flow path are subject to the following forces.

o o o

hydrodynamic forces

floating debris forces
water-craft coiiision impact forces

Accumulation and clogging of d,ebris upstream of the bridge can cause a majcr

build-up of horizontal destabilising forces owing to the damming effect. To design the struciure io resist this effect may not be economicai and may be
cheaper to provide a larger freeboard.

Where the river is navigable, piers within the waterline shouid be <iesigneii against possible collision by watercraft.

3.8

DESIGN OF BRIDGE TO ALLOW FOR FUTURE RIVER IMPROVEMENT WORK
To allow for future river deepening work, (see Figure 3.4'), the embedding depths for bridge footings and pilecaps shall be
Item Location of Pier
as

follows:
Embeddine Depth

i)

Low water channel and the part of high water channel within 20m from the top of the slope of low
water channel.

For footing For pilecap For footing For pilecap

-

more than2mbelow

the river bed of low water channel

-

I.Zmbelow bed of
more than 1m below
1m below river bed

low water channel
the river bed of high water channel

ii)

High water channel beyond 20m
from the top of the slope of low
water channel

-

of hieh water channel
The top of foundations in the 1ow water channel should also be below the level of the estimated totai scour depth when the total scour depth is below the designed

invert level of the future river deepening work.

3-r7

On major road where slow-moving maintenance equipment are not permitted to operate on the roads and where space is available, 5 to g m wide berms, with 3.5m headroom, near the river channel shouid be provided to facilitate movement of river maintenance machinery, as shown on Figure 3.4. The river channel at the bridge should be shaped to accommodate the future river channel improvement works and temporary riverbed erosion scour counter-measures should be provided
to reduce degradation of upstream river profiles.

3-1 8

@

F F l

z U

r\
Z.
E

) U
I

m
t
a

z z

tl

x.
F

';

z o o
d)
F

F -)
LL
ML-r--

:r

=
I

*>Z
E
N

U a

=

I F

o_ Ld

O
t
o

r\
Z.
fl
N

tI
E

) U

@

z z
=
v.

no oz
O

d I

O
ttl o
CO
I
(D

=

0 =
U

()-

u
e.

&

= = )

ze g
F

5 za zj a

E)

o

ttt

E
l F

c Z
O
UCO
LLJ

oE o

t

&I &

€ q

LlJ

M

) U
'I

LrG

z z
E U F

I

E

o
U
I

z

.
(L

<.Ir/-)

ts

= T =
F
F f trJ

o

c)
l_

l

z

C'') L

m

3-r9

LTST GF REFER.ENCES

LGCAL PUBI,ICATIONS

l.

Hydrological procedure No. 4 - Magnitude and Frequency of Froods in peninsurar Malaysia (19g7) Hydrological procedure No. 10 - Stage Discharge Curves (1916) Hydrological Procedure No. 11 - Design Flood Hydrograph Estimation for Rural Catchments in peninsular Malaysia Hydrological procedure No. 19 - The Determination of suspended Sediment Discharse

2.

3.

n +.

5.

Hydrological procedure No" 5 - Rational Method of Frood Estimation for Rurar catchments
Hydrological Procedure No. 1 - Estimation of the Design Rainstorm in peninsurar Malaysi a (r9gz) Hydrological procedure No. 16 - Flood Estimation for Urban Areas in peninsular Malaysia

6.

8.

Planning and Design procedure No. 1 - urban Drainage Design standards and procedures for peninsurar Maraysia
Garispaduan untuk Memproses permohonan dan Menetapkan Syarat-syarat Bagi Jambatan dan Lintasan

9.

10.

Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia

abatan Keria Raya (JKR 11. Draft Intermediate Guide to Drainage Design of Roads - Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15/gl
12. Terms of Reference for survey works and Digital Ground Modellins.

I

3-20

,:.*

US PUBI,ICATIONS
I t.

Hydraulic Design Series No. 2

2.

Highway Hydrology (Sept 1996)

FHWA-SA-96-061
Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 22

-

Urban Drainage Design Manual (Nov. 1996)

FHWA-SA-96-078

(us DoT FHA)
3.

Hydraulic Engineering Circular No.

14

-

Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels
(Sept. 1983)

(us DoT FHA)
4.

Hydraulic Design Series No.

5

-

Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts (Sept. 1985)

FHWA-IP-85-15

(us DoT FHA)

3-2r

APPENDIX

1

X{YDRAULIC DESIGI\ OF' BRIDGES

PROCEDURES FOR PENINSULAR MALAYSIA ( 1975).

No. 1 _ URBAN DRAINAGE DESIGN STANDARDS AND

This appendix is an exact reproduction of Appendix D Design of Bridges as found in Jps planning and

F{ydraulic Design procedure

-

The permission granted by JPS to REAM to publish the whole of the above appendix in gratefully acknowledged.

REAM

Dl.

GENERAL pressnts some bridge design criteria, describes the genefal flow conditions bridge design, the computation of backwater and some design exampres. For a presentation, the reader is referred to the excellent pubtication by the u.s. Transportation, Hydrauric Design series No. 1, ,,Hydraulics of Br:idge water-

This Appendix encountered in more complete Department of ways".

Dl.1

Design Criteria

a lined channel, the bridge should not affect the f low'at projections into the design waterway.

Bridge openings shoufd be designed to hane as little effect on the flow characteristics as is possible' consistent with good bridge design and economics. In regard to supercriticalflorr with

all.

That is, there shoutd be no

Dl.z

Design Approach

The method of planning for bridge openings must include vrrater surfece profile and i.lydreullc gradient analyses of the channel for the major storm runoff. Once this hydrautic gradient is ctablished without the bridge, the maximum reasonable effect on the channel flow by the bridge should be determined. Generally in urban cases this shourd not exceed a backwater effect of more than 6 to 12 irnhes
Velocities through the bridge and downstream of the bridge must receive consideration in choosing the bridge opening. velocities exceeding those permissible will require special protection of the bottom and banks.
and unchanged in cross section.

For supercritical f low, the clear bridge opening should permit the flow ro pass under unimpeded

D1.3

Bridge Opening Freeboard

The distance between the design flow water surface and the bottom of the bridge deck will vary from case to case. However, the debris which r.v u, expectd must receive full consideration in setting the freeboard. Freeboard may vary from several feet to minus several feet. There are no general hard and fast rules. Each case,rit b" studied separately.
forces
i
I

Bridges which are securely anchored to foundations and designed to withstand the dynamic of the flowing water, might in some cases be designed without freeboard.

I

cases'

In certain unusual cases, the designer might properly choose to intentionally cause ponding upstream from bridges to reduce downstreim peaks during the storms creating flow greater than the initial design runoff. This is sometimes done when d;wnstream areas are highty developed, and the upstream areas have adiacent open pace and park areas next

to the channel. In these there normally would be no freeboard allowed between the design water surface and the bridge deck bottom.

I

i
97
-.:g

D2.
D2.1

FLOW CONDITIONS

General
in

The general flow lines in plan and cross-section for a normal bridge crossing are shown
Figures D-1, D-2 and D-3.

There are three types of flow which may be encountered in bridge waterway design. These are labeled types I through lll on Figure D-4. The long dash lines shown on each prof ile represent normal water surface, or the stage the design flow would assume prior to placing a constriction in the channel. The solid lines represent the conf iguration of the water surface, on centerline of channel in each case, after the bridge is in place. The short dash lines represent critical depth, or critical stage in the main channel (V.," and. vo") and critical depth within the constriction, y2", tor the design discharge in each case. Since.normal depth is shown essentially the samein tli6 four profiles, the discharge, boundary roughness and slope of channel must all increase in passing from tvpe I to type llA, to type llB. to type lll flow.

D2.2

Type

I

Flow

surface is everywhere above critical depth.. This has been labeled type I or subcritical f iow, the type usually encountered in practice. All design information in this Appendix is limited to type | (,subcritical flow). The backwater expression for type I flow is obtained by applying the conservation of energy principle between sections 1 and 4. Referring

to Figure D-4A, it can be observed that normal water

D2.3 Type ll

Flow

There are at least two variations llA and llB.

of type ll flow which will be described

here under types

(o)

Typ( IL4 Flow

For type llA floW Figure D4B, normalwater surface in the unconstricted channel again remains above critical depth throughout but the water surface passes through critical depth in the constriction. Once critical depth is penetrated, the water surface Llpstream fronr the constriction, and thus the backwater, becomes independent of conditions downstream (even though the water surface returns to normal stage at section 4). Thus the backwater expression for type I flow is not valid for type ll flow.

(b)

Type

IIB Ftow

The water surface for type llB flow, Figure D-4C starts out above both normal water surface and cr,itical depth upstream, passes through critical depth in the constriction, next dips below critical depth downstream from the constriction and then returns. to normal. The return to normal depth can be rather abrupt as in Figure D-4C, taking place in the form of a poor hydraulic jump, since normal water surface in the stream is above criticaldepth.

98
I

I

_

I

_r__

:-w
,1

i

D2-4 Type til

Ftow

lntype lll flow, Figure D-4D, the normal water surface is everywhere below criticaldepth and the flow throughout is supercritical. This is rn ,nrtu.icJsJ requiring a steep gradient but such conditions do exist, particufarry in mountainous regions. Theoreticaty backwater shourd not occur for this type, since the flow throughout is supercritical. lt is more than likely that an undulation of the water surface will occur in the vicinity of the constriction, however, as indicated on Figure D-4D.

99

Y
!

w

Qc'

28OO clc

Qr

'8

4 oO

clr

b

o o

a I

a
()

I

o lo lo o o lE ls

elela

o o o

)\ |

Fr-o
Figure D-1.-Flow lines

|

sEcT.

for typical

normal crossing.

100
I
i
1

,4,

W.S, TLfuNiJ BATdK
3EC?.

rh

Y ?,r"'(4) _@! us.-t!
FLOW

/va\

t/

gtcr.

r^

----+

CTUAL tr. S.

ON

1

lv"

PROFTLE ON STREAM

t

W.

S. WITH EACKWAT

sEcTfoN

o

c

sEciloN @

I

J

o
PLAN AT BRIDGE

.

I

lr.

Figure D-2. -Normal crossmg : l{ingutall ab utrnents.

I

101
I

Y

W.

S.

ALONG BANK
s€cT.

,($
NORTIAL W.S.

I
I

A

w.s. oNL

PROFILE ON STREAM

O

t.s. f,tTlr BACKWAIER
l-!
Q5

---"' o'-i

sEcT'toN
b
S. WITH EACKWATER

o

*1..

c

-:'':-:-.':.-.':.:. -. fl.'.... ...:..:.. .'.:.:.:.:.:.:'"'

l.'.

I ;.i

:.i..:.':,i#

sEcT toN €)

o = J
tr.
Y ..r.:J! !:-

l

PLAN AT
f igure D-3.-Narm.al crossing: Spillthrough abutments

BRIDGE

102
I

..';{

T

Y

l,c

----J

lqc
A-TYPE

i

I FLOW (SUSCRTTICAL)

r---I

---J
.)c

? l,l;-- ----:lryry-- --------j
I

L_---

cRtTcAL D€PrH

B-TYPE
(

trA FLOIY PASSES THROUGH CR|T|CAL)

HYDRAULIC JUMP

'
(

t",1,

Ff=qY

--T-:: tcn,trcat
-

D€prH

f--Irc

C-TYPE

II8 FLOW PASSES THROUGH CRTTICAL}

t-I

- -€!{aoeerx

D-TYPE III FLOIV

(SUPERCRITICAL)

Figure D-4.-Types of flow cncountcred.

:
a

.t

i

{

103

x

D3.
D3.1

DEFINIT]ON OF TERMS AND SYMtsOLS Definition of Terms

Specific information is given below with respect .to the concept expressions frequently used throughout this Appendix.

of

several

of the terms

and

(o)

Normal Staee

Normal stage is the normal water surface elevation of a stream at a bridge site, for a particular discharge, prior to constricting the stream (see Figures D-2A, D-3A). The prof ile of the water slrface is essentially parailel to the bed of the streanr.

(b)

Abnormal Stage

Where a bridge site is located upstream from, but relatively close to, the confluence of two streams, high water in one stream can produce a backwater effect extending for some distanct up the other stream. This can cause the stage at a bridge site to be abnormal, meanirp higher than would exist for the tributary alone. An abnormal stage may also be caused by a dam, another bridge, or some other constriction downstream. The water surfaca with abnormal stage is not parallel to the bed.

(r)

I

ormal Crossirtg
is one general direction

with alignment at approximately 90o to the during high water as shown in Figure D-1. A normal crosing

of flow

(d)

Eccentric Crossing

An eccentric crossing is one where the main channel and the bridge are not in the middle of the flood plain, (Figure D-8)"

(")

Sheu'ed Crossing

A skewed crossing is one that is other than 90o to the general direction of flow during
stage, (Figure D-9).

flood

(f)

lUidth o.[ Constriction. b

No difficulty will be experienced in interpreting this dimension for abutments with vertical faces since b is simply the horizontal distance between abutment faces. In the more usualcas€ involving spillthrough abutments, where the cross section of the constriction is irregular, it is suggested that the irregular cross section be converted to a regular trapezoid of equivalent area, asshown in Figure D-3C. Then the length of bridge opening can be interpreted as:

b=1,
v

104
.,..,".{'.-

t"-

i

E
@)
Conueyance

discharge

each subsection separately. According_to the Manning formula for open channel flow, the in a subsection of a channel is:

conveyance is a measure of the ability of a channel to transport flow. In strearns of irregular cross section' it is necessary to divide the water area into smailer but more or less regularsubsctions, assigning an appropriate roughness coefficient to each and computing the discharge for

g=

1.49
n

1/2

"r2l3g

By rearranging:

q {where

1.49 =-;tt''"

^,.

-

k

k is the conveyance of the subsection. conveyance can, therefore, be expressed either in terrns of flow factors or strictly geometric faetors. in bridge waterway computations, conveyance is used as a means of approximating the distribution of frow in the natural river channel upstream from a bridge' The method will be demonstrated in the design ,"r.pt., in section Dg. Total conveyance K., is the summation of the individual conveyances comprising section 1.

(h)

Bridge Opening Ratio

The bridge opening ratio, M, def ines the degree of stream constriction involved, expressed as the ratio of the flow which can pass unimpeded through the bridge constriction to the total ffow of the river. Referring to Figure D-1,
[!l =
o.D

Q"+Qo+O"

_o -o

o.
(D-1)

Qf,

y= 8'4oo = o.60.
14,000 The irregular cross section common in natural streams and the variation in boundary roughness within any cross section result in a variation in velocity across a river as indicated by the stream tubes in Figure D-1' The bridge opening ratio, M, is most easily explained in terms of discharges, but is usually determined from conueyance relations. since conveyance is proportional .to discharge, aszuming all subsections to have the same slope, M can be expressed

it

also as:

M-

kb

ka+kb+kc

=ko
K1

(D-2)

(;)

Kinetic Energy Coefficient

As the velocity distribution in a river varies from a maximum at the to essentiaily zero arong the banks, the average verocity head, deeper.portion of the comput{ as (e/A.,r2 /2g for the stream at section 1, d&s not glve a true re.rure of the kiil;;;;.gi ot the ftow.
channel

105
.....-:--:t

)

J

Y
A weighted
.Nerage value of the kinetic energy is obtained head, above, by a kinetic energy coefficient, qr def ined as:

by rnultiplying the average velocity

c(, =.'

E (qv2

)

(D-3a)

OVr
Where

v. q O Vl
D9.

= average velocity in a subsection. = discharge in same subsection. = totaldischarge in river. = average velocity in river at section 1 or Q/A,

.

The method of computation will be further illustrated in the design examples given in Section

second coefficient, crr, is required distribution under the bridge,

A

to correct the velocity

head for nonuniform velocity

E (qvt

)

{n-?h)

QV,,
where v, q and Q are defined as above but apply here

to the constricted cross section and

V2 = av€rEge velocity in constriition

=

oiA2

The value of ccr can be computed and c(2 can be estimated from Figure D-5.

26

Qrzz
t.8

2.2

Q

l4

to
o.5
M

Figure D-s.-Aid

for estimating a.,

106
t-,*:.i.

-

03.2
Most

Definition of Symbols
here

found here are defined where first mentioned.

of the symbols used in this Appendix are recorded

for reference. symbols not

Ar = Area of flow including backwater at section l(Figs. D-28 and D-38) (sq. ft.). Anr = Area of flow below normalwater surface at section 1 {Figs. D_2ts and D-3B) {sq. ft.). Ar, = Gross area of flow in constriction below normal water surface at
and D-3C) tsq. ft.).

section 2(Figs. D-2c

A4 , oo a b b, Cb cr C, e

= Area of flow at section 4 at which normal water surface is reestabrished (Fig. D-2A) (sq. ft.).

=
=

i;:T:.j:t

area

of

piers normalto f low (between normarwater surface and streambed)

Area of flow in a subsection of approach channel (sq. ft.). (Figs. D-2c, D-3c, and sec. D3.1 (f) (ft) ) measured arong centreline

= width of constriction
(Fig. D-9) {ft.).

I , i ' I
l

= width of constriction of a skew crossing

of

roadwav

=

Backwater coefficient
Freef row coeff icient

for flow type ll.

=
=

for f row over roadway embankment.

Submergence factor for f low over roadway.

=Eccentricity=(.1 _Oc/Oa)where
O"
or (1-O"/O"

i
i

(eu,
where

)

O"

>

O".

, ,
'

r ,

g frr hu ht' hot

= Acceleration of gravity = 32.2 (ft./sec.: ). = Totaldnergy loss between sections 1 and 4 (Figs. D-2A and D_3A) (ft.). = hr-SoLr_4 = Energy losscaused by constriction (Figs. D-2A and D_3A) (ft.). = Total backwater or rise above normal stage at section I (Figs. D-2A and D-3A)

-

-

tft.).

Backwater computed from base curve (Fig. D-6) (ft.)

Ah J

=

*ater surface at section 3(Figs. D-2A and D-3A) (ft.). ht * t' h: * + So Lr--g

= Difference in water surface elevation across roadway embankment (Figs. D-2A and D-3A) (ft.).
normal water surface at section 2 (Fig. D-7).

Ae/An2 = Flatio of area obstructed by piers to gross area of bridge waterway below

107

,."j

I )

Ku AKo AK" AK, K* k kb
k.,

= Backwater coefficient from base curve (Fig. D-6). = lncremental backwater coefficient for pien (Fig. D-7). = lncremental backwater coeff icient for eccentricity (F ig. D-8).

L

= Incremental backwater coefficient for skew (Fig. D-10). - Ko + AKo + AK" + AK, = Totalbackwater coefficient for subcritical f low. - Conveyance in subsection of approach channel. = Conveyance of portion of channel within projected length of bridge at section
(Figs. D-28 and D-38 and sec. D3.1 (g)).

1

k" = Conveyance of that portion of the natural
and D-38 and sec. D3.1 (g)
).

flood plain obstructed by the roadway embankments {subscripts refer to left and right side, facing downstream) {Figs. D-28

K1 = Total conveyance at section 'i {sec. D3.1 (gi ). Lr-+ = Distance from point of maximum back water to reestablishnrent of normal
roadwayembankment(Figs.D.2AandD"3A)tft.).

water surfacedownstream, measured along centerline of stream (Figs. D-2A and D-3A) (ft.).

Lt-: = Distance from point of maximum backwater to water surface on downstream side of Lr-z = Distance L* I M
=
= =
from point of maximum backwater to upstream face of bridge deck (Figs. D-2A and D-3A) (ft.)
Distance from point of maximum backwater to water surface on upstream side of roadway embankment, measurd parallel to centerline of stream (Fig. D'13) (ft.) Overall width of roadway or bridge (ft.)
Bridge openirg ratio (sec. D3.1 (h) ).

Manning roughness coeff icient (Table D-1).

p = Wetted perimeter of a subsection of a channel (ft.) Ob = Flow in ilortion of channel within projected lergth of bridge at section 1(Fig. D-1)
(c.f.s. ).

O", O"

= Flow
= O. * = =

over that portion of the natural flood plain obstructed by the roadway embankments (Fig. D-'l) (c.f.s.).
:

O r So Vr

Ou + Q" = Totaldischarge (c.f.s.).

a/p = Hydraulic radius of a subsection of flood plain or main channel (ft.)
Slope of channel bottom or normal water surface.

= Q/Ar = Average velocity at section 1 (ft./sec.).

Va=o"/Aq=Averageve|ocityatsection4(ft./sec.).

Vn2 = Oy'Anz = Average velocity in constriction for flow at normal stage (ft./sec.). Vz" = Critical velocity in constriction (ft./sec.).

,

108
I

,_.-J

-!

wp W Vr yq yn t Yrc yac yac c1 c2 o 9n a., 0

= width of pier

normar to direction of f row (F ig. D-7 (ft.). )

=

Surface width of stream including f lood plains (Fig.

D.l) (ft.)

= Depth of f low at sectionl (ft.). = Depth of flow at section 4 (ft.).
=
Normal depth of f low in model {ft.). stage,(Fig.D-3c) (ft.).

= An2lb=Meandepthof frowunderbridge,referencedtonormar = Criticaldepth at section 1 (ft.)

= Critical depth in constriction (ft.). = Critical depth at section 4 (ft.). = Velocity head coeff icient at section I
= Velocity

(sec. D3.1

(i) ) (Greek tetter alpha).

head coeff icient for constriction (Greek letter alpha.).

=

= =

Multiplication factor for inf luence of M on incrementarbackwater coefficient for piers (Fig. D-78) (Greek tetter sigma.). hr * * h:* = for sirgle bridge (Greek letter psi.).
Correction factor for eccentricity (Fig. D_13) (Greet letter omega). Angle of skew degrees (Fig. D_9) (Greek letter phi.).

-

109
I
-.-;, -'4-

x

D4.
D4.1

COMPUTATION OF BACKWATER

Expression for Backwatar

A practical expression for backwater has been formulated by applying the principle of conservation of enerly between the point of maximum backwater upstream from the bridge, section 1, and a point downstream from the brirJEe at which normal stage has been reestablished, section 4 (Fig. D-2A). The expression is reasonably valid if'the channel in the vicinity of the bridge is essentially straight, the cross sectional area of the stream is fairly uniform, the gradient of the bottom is approximately constant between sectiors 1 and 4, the flow is free to contract and expand, there is no appreciable scoun of the bed in the constriction and the flow is in the subcritical range.
The expression for computation of backwater upstream from a bridgs constricting the flow, is as follows:

h1

*=K*..,V-12+".,

Where

lffi' ffi] +
(i)
)'

(D-4)

hl

* = total backwater (ft.). K* = total backwater coefficient.
inexpressions (D'3A) and (D-3b) (Sec. D3-1
I

cl &cc2 = asdefined
An2 Vn2

= gross water area in constriction measured below normal stage (sq. ft.). = average velocity in constriction or Q/Anz (f.p.s'). Aa = water area at section 4where normalstage is reestablishe6 1eq. ft.). Ar = totalwater area at section 1, including that produced by the backwater
To compute backwater. it is necessary to obtain the approximate value of first part of expression (D-4)
h1

l j

l: I

(sq.

ft.).

'

by usirg the

hl* = K*o2 VnZ '2s
The value of A1 in the second part of expression (D-4) which depends on determined and the second term of the expression evaluated:
h1

(D-4a)

*, can then

be

" [c'-(s']

+

(D-4b)

This pah of the expression represents the difference in kinetic energy between sections 4 ard 1, expressed in terms of the velocity head, V2"z/2g. Expression (D-4) may appear ctmbersome, but this is not the case. See Example l, Section D9.

110

-

D4.2

Backwater Coefficient

Two symbols are interchargeably used throughout the text and both are backwater coefficients. The symbol K6 is the backwater coefficient for a bridge in which only the bridge opening ratio, M' is considered' This is known as a base coefficieniand the curves on Figure D-6 are called base curves' The value of the overall backwater coefficient, K*, is likewise dependent on the value of M but also affected by:

1' 2' 3.

Number, size, shape, and orientation of piers in the constriction,

Eccentricity or asymmetric position of bridEe.with respect to the valley cross section,
Skew (bridge crosses stream ar other than g0" angle).

It will be dennonstrated that K" consists of a base curve coefficient, K6, to which is added incremental coefficients to account for the effect of piers, eccentricity and skew. Thevalue of K* is nevertheless primarily dependent on the degree of constriction of f low at a bridqe.
3.O

2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2
2.O

\ \ \
IiIliirTniTil

I

t
I

1ilililt

i\

OEWINGWALL

t
il1ilililil1ilt^ lr

I

t.8
t.5
1.4

t-- tt fLENGIHS UP TO 20( FT)
ABUTMENTS OVER
2OO

\

9( )cww_

tl

ll

P'qw
\:

Y

1.2

oR 450 ANo 600 tvw

l.o o.8 o.6 o.4

FI tN LEI{GTH_-rlll

s \r
\ \

ltlllltllllltl\sPILLTHROU6H

r-1

ti

lll

\ \ \ \
-!

o.2 o
o
QI

o.2

o.3

o.4

o.5
M

\
o.9
LO

o.6

o.7

o.8

Figurc D-6.--Bachu'ater co<:fficient base crrz,cs (subcriticar ftow).

D4.3

Effect of M and Abutment Shape (Base Curves)

Figure D-6 shows the base curves for backwater coefficient, K6, plotted with respect to the opening ratio, M, for.wingwall ard spillthrough abutments. Note how the coefficient, K6, increases with channel constriction- The lower curve applies for 45o and 60; wingwall abutments and a' spitthrough types. curves are arso incruded for 30" *inE,"Jr .ir*"n* ard for 90o vertical wall abutments for bridges up to 200 feet in length. These shapes can be identified

111

\*:
..

-i*,3

from the sketches on Figure D-6. Seldom are bridgeswith the lattertype abutmentsmorethan 200 feet long. For brirlges exceedirg 200 feet in lergth, regardless of abutment type, the lower curve is recommended. This is because abutment geometry becornes less important to backwater as a bridge is lengthened. The base curve coefficients of Figure D-6 apply to crossirgs normal to flood flow and do not include the effect produced by piers, eccentricity and skew.

D4.4

Effect of Fiers Normal Crossings

(o)

Backwater caused by introduction of piers in a bridge constriction has been treated as an incremental backwater coefficient designated AKo, which is added to the base curve coefficient K6 when piers are present in the waterway. The value of the incremental backwater coefficient, AKo, is dependent on the ratio that the area of the piers bears to the gross area of the bridge opening, the type of piers (or piling in the case of pile bents), the value of the bridge opdning ratio, M, and the angularity of the piers with the direction of f lood f low. The ratio of the water area occupied by piers, Ao, to the gross water area of the constriction, An2, both based on the normaf water surface, has been assigned the letter J. In computing the gross water area, An2, the presence of piers in the constriction is ignored. The incremental beckwater coefficient for the more common types of piers and pile bents can be obtained from Figure D-7. By entering chart A with the proper value of J and reading upward to the proper pier type, AK is read from the ordinate. Obtain the correction factor, o, from chart B for opening ratios other than unity. The incremental backwater coefficient is then:

AKo

= oAK

The incremental backwater coefficients for pile bents can, for all practical purposes, be considered independent of diameter, width, or spacing of piles but should be increased if there are more than 5 piles in a bent. A bent with 10 piles should be given a value of AKo about 20 percent higher than that shown for bents with 5 piles. lf there is a possibility of trash collecting on the piers, or piles, it is advisable to use a larger value of J to compensate for the added
obstruction" .For a normalcrossing with piers, the totalbackwater coeff icient becomes:

K* = K6 (Fig. D_6) + AKe (Fig. D"7). (b)
Shewed Crossings

In the case of skewed crossings, the effect of piers is treated as explained for. normal crossings except for the computation of J, An2 and M. The pier area for a skewed crossing, Ao, is the sum of the individual pier areas normal to the general direction of flow, as illustrated by the sketch in Figure D-7. Note how the width of pier wo is measured when the pier is not parallel to the general direction of flow. The area of the constriction, An2, for skewed crossings, is based on the projected length of bridge, b, cos d (Fig. D-9). Again, An2 is a gross value and

includestheareaoccupiedbypien. ThevalueofJisthepierarea,Ao,dividedbytheprojected of the bridge constriction, both measured normal to the general direction of flow. The computation of M for skewed crossings is also based on the projected length of bridge, which will be further explained in section D4.6.
gross area

112

--Y

wp'
/ln, bosad on\ \ langrh b f

lYtdlh of picr normOl lo

flor - lect

hnt . Height ot pier erpoged

-&'a
i-=4lii

t? iJ*,
SKEIVED CROSSING
iIOTE :-

i

/An1 bosed on

ww
Lq o/

\

lengf

hb

cos

j/

\

ol piers - totor proiectcd oreo of piers normol lo flor - squorc facf Anr' Gross rol?f cross srctton
Number

N.

lo flor - tc?l
wDhnr

a,

.

a

(Usc projaoed bridgc lengfh normol lo flor

rn conslriction boscd on normol wolcr surloce.
crossrngs)

;
brocing rhould be includtd in ridrh ot p!1.

. a9

for sker

Sroy

.y

Ozr

yr

y,'4
Y
o.2

-_'ffi*a

t.o

o.t o.t
cr
o.7

o',
o.a

?.

A K" .4;1o

{.

# iat

./t

z

-/

,z 7

o.c

Figure D-7.-Incremental bachwater coefficient for piers.

113
j
-..-j
I

==

D4.5

Effect

of

Eccentricity

Referring to the sketch in Figure D-8, it can be noted that the symbols Ou and O" at section 1 were used to represent the portion of the discharge obstructed by the approach embankments. lf the cross section is extremely asymmetrical so that O. is less than 20 percent of O" or vice versa, the backwater coefficient will be somewhat larger than for comparable values of M shown on the base curve. The magnitude of the incremental backwater coefficient, AK", accounting for the effect of eccentricity, is shown in Figure D-8. Eccentricity, e, is def ined as 1 minus the ratio of the lesser to the greater discharge outside the projected length of the bridge, or:

e=1 e=
1

_Q"
Q" ou

where O. where O"

( )

O,

o.

Q.

(D-5)

Reference to the sketch in Figure D-B will aid in clarifying the terminology. For instance, if O./Q" = 0.05, the eccentricity e = {1 - 0.05) or 0.95 and the curve fore = 0.95 in Figure D-8 would be used for obtaining AK". The largest influence on the backwater coefficient due to eccentricity will occur when a bridge is located adjacent to a bluff where a f lood plain exists on only one side and the eccentricity is 1.0. The overall backwater coefficient for an extremely eccentric crossing with wingwall or spillthrough abutments and piers will be:

K* = Ku (Fig. D 6) + AKo (Fig. D-7) + AKu (Fig. D-8). D4.6
Effect of Skew

The method of computation for skewed crossings differs from that of normal crossings in the following respects: The bridge opening ratio, M, is computed on the pr.ojected length of bridge rather than on the length along the centreline. The length is obtained by projecting the bridge opening upstream parallel to the general direction of flood flow as illustrated in Figure D-9. The general direction of flow means the direction of flood flow as it existed previous to the placement of embankments in the stream. The length of the constricted openirg is b, cos @, and the area An2 is based on this length. The velocity v2^
head,

-F, zg

to be substituted in expression (D-4) (sec. D4. 1 ) is based on the projected area An2.

Figure D-10 shows the irrremental backwater coefficient, AKr, for the effect of skew, for wingwall and spillthrough type abutments. The incremental coeff icient varies with the opening ratio, M, the angle of skew of the bridge O, with the general direction of flood flow, and the alignment of the abutment faces, as indicated by the sketches irr Figure D'10. Note that the incremental backwater coefficient, AK' can be negative as well as positive. The negative values result from the method of computation and do not necessarily indicate that the backwater will be reduced by employing a skewed crossing. These incremental values are to be added algebraically to K6 obtained from the base curve. The total backwater coeff icient for a skewed crossing with abutment faces aligned with the flow and pierswould be:

K* = K6 (Fig. D-6) + AKo (Fig. D-7) + AK' (Fig. D-10A).
The procedure is illustrated in Example 2, Section D9'
114
,l

-l

O.-*q-)k--

Oo

il1il|illtl

rfillrl
e
=

illilililtflltfll

(1-

3:)
Qo.

where Q. < eo
wherE
Qo

or

e =(1Q.'

< e.

M

o'(

o'8

o'9

Figure D'8'-Incremental bachu,ater coefficient .f or eccentricity.

It has been observed during model testing that skewed crossingswith angles up to 20" produced no particularly otijectionable results for any of the abutment shapes-investigated. As the angle increased above 20o, however, the f low picture deteriorated; f tow produced large eddies, reducirg the efficiency "d""."iriai.* ,, abutments of the waterway and increasing the possibilities for scour' The above statement does not apply to cases where a bridge spans most of the stream with little constriction"
Figure D-11 was prepared from the same model information as Figure D-10A. By entering Figure D'11 with the angle of skew ard the projected varue of M, the ratio b, cos dib can be read from the ordinate' Knowing b and h1 " for a comparabre normar crossing, one can sorve for br' the length of opening needed for a skewed bridge to produce the same amount of backwater for the desisn discharse. The chart is especiany hipfuti;;;;;;;nj'",io".nr.r.ing.

115
I -t
I

SECTI ON
MAXITUM
BACKWATER

--7 ,/

!) R).. /
F/

'l 3t *l
I

\d-

S3kt
/

%

Figure D-9. -Sheued crossings.

116

$fi

M

o.t

Figure

D- I 0.

-Incremental backwater coefficient

for

skew.

117
-4
.i

+l
H

l' oto .dl

*,\

_t

l.

20
ANGLE OF SKEW

30

+

(DEGREES)

Figure D- I 1. -Ratio ol' projected to normal length of bridSe, for equiualent bachu'atcr (shewed crossings).

118

D5.

DIFFERENCE IN WATER LEVEL ACROSS APPROACI-I EMtsAruKMEIUTS
Signif icance

D5.1

The difference in water surface elevation between the upstream ard downstream side of bridge approach embankments, Ah, has been interpreted erroneousry as the backwater produced by a bridge' This is not the backwater as the sketch on Figure D-'r2 will attest. The water surface at section 3' measured along the downstrearn side of the embankment, is lower than normal stage by the amount h3 *' There is an occasional exception to this, from returning to the flood plain by dense vegetation however, when flow is obstructed or high water from a downstream tributary produces pondirg ard an abnormar stage at the bridge site.

The difference in larel across ernbankments, Ah, is always larger than the backwater, h1 *, by the sum he * + So Lr--:, where So is the natural slope of the stream (Fig. D-12). The method of determining L1-3, which is the distance from sectir:n I tc seetion 3, needs spee if ic explanation but this will be deferred until sec. D6. The differential lever is significant in the determination of backwater at bridges in the f ield since Ah is the most reliable head measurement that can be made' Fortunately, the backwater and Ah bear a definite relaticinship to each other for any particular structure. Thus, if one is known the other can be determined.

W. S. ALONG

o.8

bt r-ol t r.-l * : o

-l€

oe

ililililt1
ST AND

90"
45"
WW

2OO'IN LENGTH)

WW( FOR BRTDGES UNDER

illtltllllltlil

tJ

ilil lilil tl

lllllulull]a
tllTlilUmrD
SPILLTHROUGH

lil'illil tltll
gOCWINGWALL

Figure D-12.-Differential uater leuel ratio base cuntes.

D5.2

Base Curves

A base curve for deterrnining downstream levelswas constructed entirely from model data which was found especiall'/ consistent when presented by the parameters shown, No satisfactory way has been found to experimentally isolate the backwat", f.orn Ah when makirg field measurements, so in this case the modelcurves must e.rffice. *) The
is

differential lerrel ratio, h6*/(h6* + hs plotted with respect to the openirg ratio, M, on Figure D-12.
't19

.,,t

The numerator, h6*, represents the backwater at a bridge, exclusive of pier effect, and h3 * is the difference in level between normal stage and the water surface on the downstream side of the embankment at section 3. The ordinate of Figure D-12 witl be referred to as the differential level ratio to which the symbol D6 has been assigned. The water surface depicted at section 3 represents the average level alorrg the downstream side of the embankment from H to I and N to O in Figure D-1. For crosings involving wide flood plains and long embankments, the distances H to I and N to O each have been arbitrarily limited to not more than two bridge lengths. The solid curve on Figure D-12 is to be used for 45o and 60o wingwall abutments and all spillthrough abutments regardless of bridge lergth. The uppdr curve, denoted by the broken line, is for bridges with lengths up to 200 feet having 90o vertical wall and other abutment shapes which severely constrict the f low.
Assuming the backwater, h6*, has already been computed for a normal crossing, withoutpiers, eccentricity or skew, the water surface on the downstream side of the embankment is obtained by entering the curve on Figure D-12 with the contraction ratio, M, and reading off the differential lwel ratio

Db=
or

hu*

hu* + h3*

hg* -

hb*

(;)

(D-6)

The elevation on the downstream side of the embankment is simply normal stage at section 3, less h3* (Fig. D-12), except for the specialcase where the entire water surface prof ile is shifted upward by ponding from downstream or restricted f lood plains.

D5.3
piers.

Effect of Piers

The procedure for determining h3* with piers is exactly as explained in section D5.2 without

D5.4

Effect of Eccentricity

In the case of severely eccentric crossings, the difference in level across the embankment considered here applies only to the side of the river having'the greater flood plain discharge. ln
plotting th6 experimental differential level ratios with respect to M for eccentric crosirgs, without piers, it was found that the points fell directly on the base curve (Fig. D-12). The individual values of h6* and h3* for eccentric conditions are different than for symmetrical crossings, but the ratio of one to the other, for any given value of M, remains unchanged. Thus, Figure D-12 can also be considered applicable to eccentric crossings if used correctly. To obtain h3* for an eccentric crossing, with or without piers, enter theproper curve in Figure D12 with the value of M and read D6 as before. ln this case:

D6=

hu*

* Ah"*

hb*+A|l3*+h3'

120

or

h3* =

(hu*. + Ah"*

)

(;)

(D-7)

D5.5 Drop in water surface

acro.s Embankment (Normar crossing)

llaving computed h3" as described in the preceding paragraphs and knowing the total backwater h1* (computed according to the procedure in D4), the difference in water surface elevation. across the embankment (Fig. D-12) is:

Ah -

h3*

* ht* + So Lr_s

(D€}

where h1* is total backwater, includirg the effect of piers and eccentricity, and So Lr_s is the normal fall in streambed from section 1 to section 3.

D5.6

Water Surface on Downstream Side

of

Embankment (Skewed Crossing).

The differential level across roadway embankments for skewed crossings is naturally different for opposite siles of the river, the amount depending on the conf iguration of the stream, bends in the vicinity of the crossirg,. the degree of skew, etc. fhese factors can be so variable that a generalized model study can shed little light on the subject. Individual values of h1* and h3* for skewed crossings again differ from those for symmetrical crossings, but the differential lwel ratio across the embankments at either end of the bridge can be considered the same as for normal crossings for any given value of M. The value of M is, of course, based on the projected length of bridge as explained in section D4.6. Thus, it is again possible to use Figure D'12 for skewed crossings. The differential level ratio, D6, with or without piers, is obtained by entering the chart with the proper opening ratio, M. Then:

hg* = (hu*+Ahr*)

(*)

(D-e)

121

D6.

CONFIGURAT|oru OF EACKWATER

D6.l

Distancs

to Foint of

Maximum Backrator

In backwater cornputatbns, it will be found necesary in sorne cases to locate the point or points of maximum backwater with respect to the brirJge. The maximum backwater in line with the midpoint of the br'xiee ciccurs m point A'tFig: D-lsBt, this point'beirp a dbtance, L*, from the waterline on the upstream skJe of the ernbankment. Where flood plainsare inundated and enrbankments congtrict the flow; the elevation oJ the water'surfrce throughout the areas ABCD *td AEFG'will beesentiafly the satrle as at point A,'where the backwater rneGurement was made on the models. This charasteristic has been verified from field meaurements made by the U.S. Geological Survey on bririges where the flood plains on each side of the main channel were no wlder than twice the bridge length and hydraulic roughness vvas relatively low.
For crossirgs with exceptiooallv wkle; rough flood plains, this€ssentiallV level ponding may not occur.

: FOR ECCEI{TRIC CFG}SI}{GS

wrTH

a>o.7 guLTlrtY

reU.f,

.[ fFl Ourf eVr.rb

<D

+
I

AL

v
Figure D-l3.-Distance to maxhnum bachwater.

122

Flow gradients may exist alorg the upstream side of the ernbankments due to borrow pits, ditches and cleared areas along the right-of'way. These flow gradients along embankments are likely to be more pronounced on the falling than on the rising stage of a flood. A correlation is needed between the water level along the upstream side of embankments point A since it is and difficult to obtainwater surface elevations at point A in the field during floods. For the purpose of design and field verification, it has been assumed that the average water surface elevation along the upstream side of embankments, for as much as two bridge lengths adjacent to each abutment {F to G and D to c), is the same as at point A (Fig. D-138}.

D6.2

Normal Crossirgs

measured normal

Figure D-13 has been prepared for determining distance to point to centreline of bridge.

of maximum backwater,

Referring to Figure D-13, the normaldepth of f low under a bridge is def ined here as y = An2/b, where An2 is the cross sectional area under the bridge, referred to normal water surfaee, and b is the width of waterway. A trial solution is required for determining the differential level across embankments, ah, but from the result of the backwater computation it possible to make a fair estimate of Ah. To obtain distance to maximum backwater for is a normal channel constriction, enter Figure D-134 with appropriate value of Ah/f and y and obtain the corresponding value of L*/b' Solving for L*. which is the distance from point of maximum backwater (point A) to the water surface on the upstream side of embankment (Fig, D-138), and adding to this the additional distance to section 3, which is known, gives the distance L1_3. Then the computed difference in ls/el across embankments ts

Ah - hr**h3*+SoLr_s.
Should the computed value of Ah differ materially from the one chosen, the above procedure is repeated until assumed and computed values agree. Generally speaking, the larger the backwater at a given bridge the further will point A move upstream. Of course, the value of L* also increases with length of brldge.

D6.3

Eccentric Crossirqs

Eccentric crossings with extreme asymmetry perform much like one half of a normal symmetrical crossing with a marked contraction of the jet on one side and very little contraction on the other. For cases where the value of e (sec. OA.S) is greater than 0.70, on Figure D-13A with Ah/V and y and read off the correspJnding value of enter the abscissa L*/b as usuat. Next multiply this value of L*/b by a correction factor, o, which is obtained from Figure D.13C. For example, suppose Ah/V = 0.20, V = 10 and e = 0.88, the corrected value would be L*/b = 0.g4 x 1.60. Distance to maximum backwater is then L* = 1.34b with eccentricity.

D6.4

Skewed Crossings

In the case of skewed crossings, the water surface elevations atong opposite banks of a stream are usually different than at point A; one may be higher and the other lowerdepending on the angle of skew, the configuration of the approach channel. and other factors. To obtain the approximate distance to maximum backwater L'for skewed crossings (Fig. D-g), the same procedure is recommended as for normalcrossings except the ordinate of Figure D-.13 is read as L*/br, where b, is the full length of skewed bridge (Fig. D-9). See Exarnple 2, Section D9.

123

D7.

SUPERSTR UCTURE

PARTIALLY INUNDATED

D7.1

General

in which it is desirable to compute the backwater upstream from a bridge or the discharge under a bridge when flow is in contact with the girders. Once flow contacts the upstream girder of a bridge, orifice flow is established so the discharge then varies as the square root of the effective head. The result is a rather rapid increase in discharge for a moderate rise in upstream stage. The greater discharge, of course, increases the likelihood of scour under the bridge. lnundation of the bridge deck is a condition the designer seldom contemplates in design but it occurs frequently on older bridEes.
Cases arise

Two cases are studied; the first where only the upstream girder is in the water as indicated by the sketch on Figure D-14 and the second, where the bridge constriction is flowing full, all girders in the flow, as shown in Figure D-15.

D7.2

Upstream Girder in Flow (Case l)

The most logical and simple method of approach to determine the backwater effect with the upstream girder of a bridge in the f low is to assume the system acts like a sluice gate.
Using a common expression

for sluice gate f low

o = coulrz

fzo
where

lz \Y,- T*

*tVr2
2s

'" )]

(D-10)

O = total discharge-c.f.s. Cd = Coefficient of discharge
bry = net width of
waterway (excluding piers)

_

ft.

Z = vertical distance - bottom of upstream girder to mean river bed under bridge - ft., and Yu = vertical distance-upstream water surface to mean river becl at bridge-ft.
For case l, the coefficient of discharge C6, is plotted with respect to the parameter Yu/Z on Figure D-14. The upper curve applies to the coefficient of discharge where only the upstream girder is in contact with the flow. By substituting values in expression (D-10), it is possible to solve for either the water surface upstream or the discharge under the bridge, depending on the quantities known. lt appears that the coefficient curve {Fig. D-14) approaches zero asYu/Z becomes unity. This is not the case since the limiting value of Yu lZ for which expression (D-10) applies is not much less than'1.1. There is a transition zone somewhere between YulZ= 1.0 and 1.1 where free zurface flow charqes to orifice flow or vice versa. The type of ffow within this range is unpredictable. For Yu lZ = 1.0, the flow is dependent on the natural slope of the stream, while this factor is of li-ttle concern after orifice flow is established or Y,rlZ > 1.1.

124

!VS. ALONG EMBANKMENTS

t

r -r
I

htr rrrS

z
Y3

0.6

o.5

o.4

o.3

o.2

o.l

=5++j:?f,
t.2 ,.., t.3 t.4
Yu

o

1.5

1.5

1.7

l.g

Y3

Figure D'14 - Discharge coelfrcients for upstreqm girder in flotu (case I)

125

/
B

/

!

/
t7

v

,/ ,/ "/

toL
o

04

Ah __ v

0.6

o.8

l.o

lOr

a
a

a

o8

fe
;W
s

la
o

o

r

ASUTIENTS ASuTu€tirTS
I

t (,
t{.w.s

t

o rT "l
I

v'a

e
tLofiG €r8AjrtxilEl

la-

-.JYU
I

T

Ltt

pbr
7727V2

4h ir" rcnnL rs.

,
I

*

Dr, L,)r-, 7m7rV
o

>-r, vv77v. 7

A

ca\zJ eo6-h

o.a z
Yu

Figure D-15 - Discharge coelficient for all girders in flow

(case

II)

126

ln computing a general river backwater curve across the bridge shown on Figure D-14, it is to know water surface elevation downstream as well as upstrean from ihe bridge. The approximate depth of flow, !3, cafi be obtained from Figure D-14 by enterlng tne top scale with the proper value of Yu/7 arfr reading down to the upper curve, then over horizontally to the lower curve, and finally down to the lower scale as shown by the arrows. The lower scale gives the ratio of Y,/y3. The method is iilustrated in exampre 3 of section Dg.
necessary

D7.3 All Girders

in Contacr with Flow (Case ll)

where the entire area under the bridge is occupied by the flow, the computation is handled in a different manner' To compute the water surface upstream from the bridge. the water surface on the downstream side and the discharge must be known. or if the disJharge is desired, the drop in water surface across the roadway embankrnent, Ah, and the net area underthe bridge is required' The experimental points on Figure D 15A, which are for both wingwall and spillthrough abutments, show the coeff icient of discharge to be essentially constant at 0.g0 foi- the range of conditions tested. The equation recommended for the average two to four lane concrete girder bridge for case ll is

Q = 0.80 bx Z{2gAh)1/2

f

n-111

where the symbols are defined as in expression (D-10). Here the net width of waterway (excluding width of piers) is used again. lt is preferable to measure Ah across embankments rather than at the bridge proper. The partialiy inundated bridge compares favourably with that of a zubmerged box culvert but on a larger scale. Subm.rg"n"., of course. can increase the likelihood of scour under a bridge.

Section D9.

Again for working up general backwater curves for a river, it is desirable to know the drop in water level across existing bridges as well as the actual water surface elevation either upstream or downstream from the bridge. OnceAh iscomputed from expression {D_1,1), the depth of flow upstream, Yr, can be obtained from chart B, Figure D-15, where isdepth from normal stage ! to mean river bed at bridge in feet. The procedure will be further explained by example 4 of

D7.4

Safety of Bridge

A rather common source of bridge failure results from the superstructure being virtually pushed or lifted off the abutments and piers by the combination.of buoyan"y unJ dynamic forces. Inundation reduces the effective weight of a concrete bridge to about o.g of its weight in air. Should air be trapped under the deck between girdem, the effective weight can be further reduced to a dangerous limit so that oniy moderate horizontal forces are required to jar or slide bridge spans off their pedestals. The horizontal forces consist of unbalanced hydrostatic
or ponding, acting on the upstream face of the bridge (aggravated by the collection of trash), plus energy inherent in the moving mass of water plus impact forces produced by large froating objects striking a bridge. The impact from large floating objects can be lethal if the bridge is already under stress and the girden are not anchored to the Diers.
pressure,

127

D7.5

Flow Over Roadway

In cases where bridge clearance is such that girders become inundated during floods, there is a good possibility that flow also occurs over portions of the approach roadway. Should it be desired to determine the discharge flowing over the roadway, Figure D-16 can be used. To determine the discharge flowing over a roadway. first enter curve B (Figure D-16)with Hil and obtain the free flow coefficient of discharge C1. Should the value of Hll be less than 0.15. it is suggested that C1 be read from curve A of the same Figtire. lf submergence is present (e.9., if D/H is larger than 0.7) enter curve C with the proper value of submergence in percenr and read off the submergence factor Cr/C1. The resulting discharge is obtained by substituting values in the expression:

o = cr1P3/2 cr/ct,

(D-1 2)

where L represents the length of inundated roadway, H is the total head upstream measured above the crown of the roadway and Cr and C, are coefficients of discharge tor free flow and with submergence, respectively. Where the depth of flow varies along the roadway, it is advisable to divide the inundated portion into reaches and compute the discharge over each reach separately. The process, of course, can be reversed to aid in determining backwater for a combination of bridge and roadway.

128

P€RCENT SI,E'YERGENCE

o/H X too
90

cv€.RALL O.

Cr

t..r(l/z.cs./c,

t^[
3.o.rF
a.l

sczi3.@lg9q THS C:tJRlrE FOf, FR€E FLOil co€FFlcfENTs vilni H/t RATtos<o,5.

z t*r
..t <j

o 2rdF
2.9f

I J

,nll
e

1

A

soLl

l.rl
o{

ot

_.._.L_ i- |

t2

I€AO o?{ ROAryIV H

t.6 2p

i

i

|

|

2.4 z.e. 32
il
FEET

.l

. I

I

|

|

|

5.6

|

|

I

40

Figure D'16

-

Discharge cofficients for florv over roadtvay embanlonents

129

D8.
D8.1

BRIDGE DESIGN FROCEDURE Site Study Outline

The following outline is presented to aid in organizinE and collecting the necessary field data for a bridge site investigation:

1. 2.

Location map to show proposed highway alignment and reach of riverto be studied.

Vicinity map showing flood f low patterns, cross sections of stream, location of proposed biidge and relief openings, and alignment of piers.

(i) (iii

Map showing 1- or 2-foot contours, stream meanders, vegetation and manmade
improvements.

In some cases, cross sections perpendicular to flood flow are acceptabie in lieu of the map in (i); at least three cross sections are desirable: one on the centreline of the proposed bridge, one upstream and one downstream from the proposed bridge at from 100 to 500 foot intervals.

3.

A full description of existing bridges both upstream and downstream from proposed

crossing (including relief and overflow structures).

(i) (ii)

Type of bridge, including span lengths and pier orientation. Cross section beneath structure, noting stream clearance skew or direction of current during f loods.

to superstructure and

(iii) All
(iv)

available flood history-high water marks with dates of occurrence, nature of flooding, damages and source of information. Photographs of existing bridges, past floods. main channels and flood plains and information as to nature, streambed and stability of banks.

4.

Factors affecting water stage at bridge site.

(i) (ii)
(iii)
{iv)

High water from other streams"

Reservoirs-existing or proposed and approximate date of construction. Flood control projects.
Tide.

(v)

Other controls.

130

D8.2
It

Stago Discharge

is important that the normal stage of a river for the design flood be determined as accurately as possible at the bridge site. This may be accomplished inieveral ways, but where possible it is best to establish it from a stag*dischaige rating curve based on stream-gauging records colected in the vicinity of the brklge site. whlre stagedischarge records are lacking for the stream in question' the usual procedure is to locate high water m-arks of floods by consulting people who live in the vicinity of the proposed bridge site. Flood information supplied by local residents is often inaccurate, but may be consirjered reliable if confirmed by other residents.
necessary to find a means of relating stage to discharge. This can be done by the slope-area method, a simplifiedvariation of which w*ill be found illustrated in Example I section D 9' Extreme care must be exercised both in the collection of f ield data and in the manner in which it is processed if glaring discrepa.cies are to be avoided in the f inal result. rn many

It is then

a stage-discharge curve.

cases where records are lacking, it is advisabie to arrange for the installation and maintenance of a temporary stream gauge at or near the bridge site several years in advance of construction. Even a single reliable point at an intermediate stage can be of inesiimablevalue in the preparation of

D8.3

Channel Roughness

A rnatter of prime importance in bridge backwater or slope-area computations is the ability to cvaluate properly the roughness of the main channel and of the flood plains; both are subiect to extreme variations in vegetal growth and depth of flow. As a guide. values,rf the Manning roughness coefficient, n, as commonly encountered in practrce, are tabulated for various conditions of channel and flood plain in fable D-1. Since tfre practicing engineer in this country is familiar with the Manning roughness coeff icient. the Manning equation has been chosen for use here' ln interpreting roughness coeff icients from Table D-i, it shoutd be kept in mind that the value of n for a small depth of f low, especially on a f lood plain covered wiirr grass, weeds, and brush, can be considerably larger than that for greater f row depths over the same terrain. On the other hand,'as the stage rises in a stream with an aliuvial bed, sand wavesdevelop which can increase the value of n. lt is, therefore, suggested that the notes acccmpanying Table D-1 be carefully considered 'along with the tabulation.

131

Table D-1"-Manning's Roughness Coefficient for Natural Stream Channelsl
ltlanning's

A.

Minor Stream (surface width at f iood 1. F airly regu lar sect io n;

stage

(

100 ft.):2

n

range

a. b.

Some grass and weeds, little or no brush Dense growth of weeds. depth of f low materially than weed height

0.030-0.035

s'"ui;'

0.035-0.05 0.01-0.02

lrregular section, with pools, slight channel meander; channels (a) and (b) above, increase all values about

3.

Mountain streams, no vegetation in channel. banks usually steep, trees and brush along banks submerged at high stage:

a. b. B. 1.

Bottom of gravel, cobbles. and few boulders Bottom of cobbles with larqe bounders

0.04-0.05 0.05-0.07

Flood plains (adjacent to natural streams):
Pasture. no brush:

a. b.
2.

Short
H

grass

igh grass

cu ltivated areas:

0.030-0,035 0.035-0.05 0.035-0.045 0.05-0.07 0.06-0.08 0.10-0.16
acre:

?
4. 5.

Heavy weeds, scattered brush

6.

Light brush and trees:3 Medium to dense vegetation:3 Cleared land with tree stumps, 100-150 per

a. b. 7.
c.

No sprouts With heavy growth of sprouts

Heavy stand

of timber, a few down

trees, little undergrowth:

0.04-o.05 0.06-0.08 0.10-0.12

Major stream (surface width at f lood stage ) '100 feet): Roughness coefficient is usually less than for mirror streams of similar description on account of less effective resistance otfered by irregular banks or vegetation on banks. Values of n may be somewhat reduced. Follow general recommendationsl if possible. The value of n for larger streams of mostly regular section, with no boulders or brush, may be in the
ra

nge

0.028-0.33

lWith channel of alignment other than straight, loss of head by resistance forces will be increased. A stnali increase in value of n may be made lo allow for the additional loss ol energy.
2The tentatiue values of n cited are princrpalty cterived !rom meosurernentsmde on fairly short but straight reaches of natural streams. Where slopes caiculated from tlood elevations along a consherable length of channel, involving meanders and bends, are to be used in velociry calculations by th,; Manning formula, the value of n must be increased to provrde f or the additional loss of energy caused by bends. All values in the table musi be so increased. The increasemav be in the range of perhaps 3 to
1

5 percenr.

"The presence

?

ol foliage on trees and brush under f lood stage will materially increase the value of n. Therefore, roughness coefficients for vegetation in leaf will be larger than for bare branches. For trees in channel or on banks, and lor brush on banks where submergence of branches increases v/nh depth of flow, n will increase with risirg stage.

132

D8.4

Bridge Backwater procedure

bridge constriction:
1.

The following is a brief step-by-step outlin€ for determining the backwater produced by

a

3.tJ;t#:t
2. 3.

the magnitude and frequencv of the discharge for which the bridge is to be

Determine the stage of the stream at the bridge site for the design discharge. Plot a representative cross section of stream for design discharge at section already done under step 2' l, if not tt streim channer is esse-ntiaily stra6ht and substantially uniform in the cross section vicinity J the bridge, tr,, at the bridge site may be used for ""ir*r cross section of the stream this purpose.

4.

subdivide the cross section plotted in step 3 according to marked charges in depth of flow and changes in roughness. Assign values of Marining roughness coefficient, n, to (Tabre D-1i. €xperience and carefurjudsment are necessary in serectirq :;:iiff::.tion .t""J:rti::,:onvevance
and then discharge in each subsection (method is demonstrated in

5.

6.

Using cumulative conveyance and discrrloe at section 1, computeslope of stream, so. should the computed slope vary rnore than 2s percent irom the actuar srope, reassign values of the roughness factor, n, and repeat conveyance

c€mputations.

7.

?,"l"Jl,tr
8.

#:i:

of kinetic enersv coefficient,

cr (method is iilustrated in Exampre

section under proposed bridge based on normal water surface for design discharge, and compute gross water area (including area occupied by piers).

Plot natural cross

9.

compute bridge openirg ratio, M (section D3.1(h), observing modified procedurefor skewed crossings, (Section D4.6).
in Figure.D-6 for symmetrical normal crosings. lf piers are involved' computevalue'of J (sec. D4.4) and obtain incre'nentalcoefficient, AKo' from Figure D-7 (noie ,'",r,oa outrined for skewJ cissings, sec. D.4.4 (b) ). lf eccentrjcity is compr.rte value of e (Sec. D4.5) and obtain incremental ,Tu.r.:. coefficient, AK", from Figure D-g.

10. 11.

obtain value of K6 frorn

base curve

12.

13.

crosing is involved, observe proper procedure in previous steps, then obtain incrementar coefficient, AKr, for proper abutment type from Figure D-10.
Determine total backwater coefficient, curve coefficient, K6.

lf a skewed

14.

K*, by adding incremental coefficients to

base

15.

Estimate

:fffiffi
16.

cz from Figur.e D_5, then make allowance for h m y eao to r; JY i",?f:T:[,TX*nl_i,:f
a
I

""

"$;]:l,l"TT:il]i?

17.

Compute backwater by expression (D_4), section D4..|. Determine distance upstream to maximum backwater from Figure D-.,3 and converr backwater to water sjrface elevation at section 1 if computations are based on normal stage at bridge.
133

D9. D9.1

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES

General

A better understanding of the procedures for computing bridge backwater can be gained from the illustrative examples in this section. The examples dealwith the following phases of design:

1. 2. 3. 4. D9.2 (o)

Example 1 comprises a simple normal crosing; the steps closely follow the outline of design procedure listed in section D8.4.

Example

2

should help clarify the procedure recommended for skewed crossings.

Example 3 demonstrates how discharge or differential water level across bridge embankments can be determined when the upstream girder is in the f low.
Example 4 is same as example 3 with the structure partially inundated.
tJ U
|l

F
I

Example
Giuen

1: NormalCrossing

z
F
__s lrl
UJ

The channel crosing shown in Figure D-17 with the following information: Cross section of river at bridge site showing areas, wetted perimeters, and values of Manning, n; normal water surface for design = El. 28.0 ft. at bridge; average slope of river in vicinity of bridge So = 2.6 ft./ mi. or 0.00049 tt./tt.; cross section under bridge showing area below norrnalwater surface and width of roadway = 40 ft. The stream is essentially straight, the cross section relatively constant in the vicinrty of the bridge, and the crossing is normal to the general direction of flow.

(b) la. lb. 1c. 1d. 1e. lf. lg.

ToFind
Conveyance at section
Discharge
1.

of stream at El. 28.0 ft. Velocity head correction coefficbnt, crt.
Bridge opening ratio, M. Backwater produced by the bridge.

Water surface elevation on upstream side of roadway embankment. Water surface elevation on downstream side of roadway embankment.

134

U.^sEcTOil

'"'%
PrEns

Ia4
sEC ?

sEc

o

lI

o . eos'

CULTIVATEO

n.OO45

o'6?74

p.oe

-]. in.ooTo nrooTo lo.?85? o.3Aas
o..o'i

n .o o35 o '?,OO4O

e'

-+ts\looo€D io'*,i

lll

o

o

. p.

1.6774 23r O

PI€RS

34

3@

4OO

OSTANCE-F€Er

Figure D-r7 - Exampre

I:

pran and cros section of normar crosing

(c)

Conputation

computation (1a)' Under the conditions stated, it is permissible to assume that the cross sectional area of the .stream at section 1 is the same as thai at the bridge. The approach section is then divided into subsections at abrupt changes in depth or channel roughness as shown in Figure D-17' The conveyance of each subsectioi i, compuied as shown in cJlumns t through g of rable D-2 (see also sec' o3.1(g) ). The summation of the individual values in columng represents the overall conveyance of the stream at section I or K1 = g79,4gg. Note that the water interface between subsections is not included in the wetted perimeter. Table D-2 is set up in short form to better demonstrate the method. The actual computation would involve many subsections corresponding to breaks in grade or changes in channel roughness.
area is essentially constant throughout the.reach under consideration, for the discharge by what is known as the srope-area method or:

Computation (1b). Since the slope of the stream is known (2.6 ft./mi.) and thecrosssectional

it

is permissible

to solve

Q

=

Kr Sotrz

-

B7g,4gg (0.00049)r/2

=

19,s00 c.f.s.

135

Computation (1c)..To compute the kinetic energy coefficient (Sec. D3.1(i) ), it is first necessary to complete columns 9, 10, and 11 of Table D-2; then, using expression (D-3a) (Sec. D3.l(i) ):
Equ2

qr=-=-

'

374,895

ov2nl

19,500(19,500/5,664)2

=

1.62

where Iqv2 is the summation of column 11, and.Vnl repr€s€nts the average velocity for normal stage at section 1.

'

Computation (1d). The sum of the individual discharges in column g must equal 19,500 c.f.s. The factor M, as stated in section D3.1{h), is the ratio of that portion of the discharge approaching the bridge in width b, to the total discharge of the river; using expression (D-l) (Sec. D3.1(h) ).

, Q^ 12.040 M=*=-::--:-=o'62 u 19,500
Entering Figure D-5 with crr
Sr=0.00(X9

= 1.62 and M = A.62, the

value

of

tz

is estimated as 1.40.

Table D-2.-Example 1: Sample computations.

C,omputation (ta) Sub--: s€ctron

Compuntion (lc)

l.{9 n

a
sq.

p ft.

q r=p
ft

r,lt

I '19 k=--ar|tt n

-k S=Q;, cfs

u-!

o Cdt

Q

ft.

fps

(r)
Q.-

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(.7)

(8)

(e)

(10) 1.57 r.71 r.$ 5.{3 2.68 3.01 2.60

(ll)
2,124

-.- I 0-200 0 045 l20o-2{0 .070 (z+uzao .020 o--- "-{280-{20 .035 llzo-<ls .0s0 A.---" /lls-soo .0s0 lsoo-zso .o4s

33.0 627.4 2c/i .2 3 134 2 t42 44.349 9E[t.3 2r.2 2852 {0.t 7.tr2 3698 22.359 4957 2r.z 324s 40 1 B.os2 4.031 27,7J2 614.8 12 5 z.W.O t{5 0 13 821 5.7s9 490,492 10,875.2 n.7 2os8 2s.t 8199 4.066 24.8s2 ssl.o n] 939 4 ss t 9.289 {.s26 73,to9 1.62s.{ 3J.0 1,627.4 2it.0 6 683 B.ilB 196,396 {,3s4.6
zl"=5,6fi1 .7 sq. ft.
,{^: =2,53{ sq. ft. Kr :,i79,{89 Q = 19,5OO.0
Qr

l,50l
2,196 320.65{
a,gsE

11,726 29,136

c.f.s.

&d=374,E95

:12. O{0

c.f.s.

Computation (1e). Entering Figure D-6 with for bridge waterway of 205 ft.

tul

= 0.62, the base curvecoefficient is K6 = 0.72

As the bridge is supported by f ive solid piers, the incrernental coeff icient (AKe) for this effect will be determined as described in section D4.4. Referring to Figu.re D-17 and Table D-2, the gross water area under the bridge for normal stage, An2, is 2,534 sq. fr. and the area obstructed by the piers, Ao, is 180 sq. ft.; so:

J=

180 A^ '=-=0.07 Anz 2,534

1

136

Entering Figure D'7A wlth J = 0.071 for solid piers, the reading from ordinate is AK = 0.13. This value is for M = 1'0' Now enter Figure D-zg ana obtain the correction factoro, forM = 0'62 which is 0.84. The incremental backwater coefficient for the five piers, AKo = AKo = 0.13x0.84=0.11.
The overall backwater coeff
ic

ient

:

K' = Ku *
vn2 =
and

AKo = 0,12 + 0.11 = 0.g3,

o 19.500 = = 7.70 f.p.s. -Ane --2,534

rtZ Y 2s

n2

= o.9z ft.
wiil

Using expression (D-4a) (sec. D4.1), the approximate backwater

be.

;1.

oz-V2nz

29

=

0.g3 x 1.40 x 0.92 = 1.07 ft. v.vv A r.rv A v.-rz - LU/ It.

(D-4a)

Substituting values in the second half

between sections 4 and 1 (Sec. D4.1) where

of expression (D-4) for difference in kinetic energy
Anl = 5664 sq. ft. = Ae ,

Ar

= 6384 sq. ft., and An2 = 2534 sq. ft.,

c
-or

[s' Hl+
z]
is

(D-4b)

. t'oz [ /z,ssq\
ht

fz5sa\ - \;5o| J 0.s2 = 1.62 x 0.042 x 0.e2 = 0.06 ft. L\r,../
*=
1.07 + 0.06

Then total backwater produced by the bridge

= 1.13 ft.

(D_4)

Computation ([fl- The statement was made (in Sec. D6.1) that the water srface on the upstream side of the roadway embankment will be essentially the same as that at section l. Thus, to determine the backwater elevation it is first necessary to locate the position of section 1, which is accomplished with the airi of Figure D-13.
From preceding computations
:

b = 205 ft.
and

"y= A'u b

2.5U
205
137

It is necessary to assume the total drop across the embankments for a first trial
as 1.9

ft.l.

(Ah is assumed

Entering Figure D-13 with

ah = 1.90 12.36 -t
and

= 0.154

! = 12.36,
L* _
b

=

0.79

and

L*

= 0.78 x 205 =

160 ft.

The drop in channel gradient between sections 1 and centreline of roadway is then SsLl_( = 0.00049 (160 + 30i = 0.093 ft. Thewatersurface elevation at section 1 and along the upstream side of the roadway embankrnent will be:
El. 28.0 + So Lr-

{+ hi

= 28.0 + 0.09 + 1.13 = Et. 29.2 ft.

Computation (ld. The first step in determining the water surface elevation at section 3 isto compute the backwater for the bridge in question without piers, as explaineb in Section DS.

hb' = ;qo

o2V2n2
=
2s

0.72x

1.40 x 0.92 = 0.g3

ft.

Entering Figure D-12 with M = 0.62, the differentiai levelratio for the bridge (without piers) is:

Db =
so

hr "b
ho' + h3'

=0.58,

h3. =

n,.(a )
0.67 = 27.33 ft.

=0.e3fu

)

=0.67rt.

(D-6)

The placing of piers in a waterway results in no change in the value of h*3 provided other conditions remain ihe same {Sec. D5.3), so h*3 (with piers) also equals O"OZ tt. The water grface elwation on the downstream side of the roadway embankment will be essentially
El. 28.0

The drop in water surface across the embankment is then

Ah = 29.22

-

27.33

= l.Bg ft.

Since Ah was assumed as 1.90 ft., the computed water surface elevationsabove ir" s.tistactory. Should the computed value of Ah be materially different from that assumed, another trialwill
be necessary.

138

D9.3
(o)

Example
Ciuen

2: Skewed Crossirg

A skewed bridge, Figure D-18 on the site chosen in examole 1. rather than a normal
From example 1:
Q = 19,500 c.f.s. for N.W.S. = 2g.0, b = 205, So = 0.00049, q1 = j.62, M = 0.62, Aa =. 5,664 sq. ft., 41 = 6,3g4 sq. ft. and / = 40 ft.

crossino.

^ */-sEcTroN

I

-

|
I

r -J---oo

_

SECTON^

---1U

-|

bs cos

* =192'

Q= l9,5OOcfs N.fy.s. 28.o

5I.]

Ap-22O

SO.FT

Figure D-18.-Example 2: Plan

for shewed crossittg

139

(b)

To
F

Find
ind Length of skewed bridge required to produce essentially 1.1 feet of backwater occurred in example 1.
as

2a.

2b. The backwater for bridge length chosen. 2c. The approximate water level at point A on section 1.

(c)

Computation

Contputution (2a). The design discharge and normal stage at bridge site are known. The same procedure demonstrated in example 1 is followed, with exceptions as noted. First, the general direction of flow in the river at the bridge site for the design flood, without constriction, is determined. Next, the position and extent of roadway embankments and the type of abutment are superimposed on the stream as illustrated in Figure D-9. The angle of skew is measured, which is 40" in this case; then the bridge opening is projected upstream, normal to the direction of flow, to section 1.
Entering Figure D-1'1, with d = 40o and M = 0.62.
b.Cosd
b

=

0.935.

b'Cos@

= 0.935 x 205 = 192 ft.,

b, =

192

0.766

250

ft.

(aPProx.).

Computation (2b). The actual backwater produced by the skewed bridge, 250 feet long, will be computed as a check on the above determination as well as to demonstrate the method of procedure. Conveyance and area are both plotted with respect to distance across flood plain at section 'l on Figure D-19. The information needed to construct the chart came directly from Table D-2 which was prepared in connection with the solution of example 1. The first step is to locate the position of the skewed bridge on Figure D-19 and lay off the projected length, b, Cos@, as shown. Then M is computed as follows:

-=

na=

!
K1

600,000
=

-

70.000

879.489

= 0.60

From Figure D-6, the backwater coeff icient, Kb = 0.77. Note that an extra pier has been added and all are parallel to the direction of f low. The area obstructed by piers, Ao, is now 220 sq. ft. The projected area under the bridoe referenced to normal water surface, from Figure D-19 is

140

Ana = 3,400
and

-

1,000

=

Z,4OO

sq. ft.

J= Ao An2s

220
2,4W

=0.092

consulting Figure D-7, the incrementar backwater coeff icient for piers

AKo=0.18x0.8=0.1S
Entering Figure D-10A with M = 0.60 and O

=

40",

AK, = -0.19.
The total backwater coefficient for the skewed bridge is then

K* = Ko *
v62 =
Y2n2/2g

AKo + AK, = 0.77 + o.ls =
8.

-

0.19 = 0.73,

'-o = 19,500 Anz --2,4W

13 f.p.s.,

=

1.03

and from Figure D-S, cr2

= 1.40
wiil
be

Using expression (D'4a) (sec. D4.1) the approximate backwater

K*

t- 2 *1" *

29

= 0.73 x 1.40

x

1.03

= 1.0b ft. "vu r''
of expression
(D-4),

{D4'a)

Substituting values in the second half

cl '

l(t

Related Interests

- A.

Related Interests

l-u'' L\aol \^J J ,,

ll

\

=162
= 1.62 x
hr* =

'-(#) '] lffi)
0.037

103
(D-4b)

x

r.o3 =

0.062 ft.

The total backwater for the skewed brirJge is
1.0S

+ 0.06 = 1.11

(D_4)

141

Computation (2c). For skewed crossings the distance to maximum backwater, L*, has been chosen arbitrarily as equal to br, so:

SoLr-C_ = 0.00049 (250 + 30) = 0.14 ft.
The water level at point A is thus

El. 28.0

* hr' + SoLr_ g = 28.0 + 1.1'l + 0.14
= El. 29.2 ft.

ments

In the case'of a skewed crossing, the water level along the upstream face of the two embankwill be different and neither need correspond to that at point A.

(t

I x

I
u8 o
F

F!

bs cos +

4T
()
lrJ

I

lr,

o

96 a.
lrj

3k
trj

(r
I

8c
-v.
I

z

?o
Q- 19,50J cf s -N.YflS = EL.28.O

345
DISTANCE

IN HUNDREOS OF FEET
Conveyance and area at section 7

Figure D-19

-

Examples 7 and

2:

r42

D9.4 (")

Exampfe
General

3:

Upstream Bridge Girder

in the

Flow

when computing general backwater curves for a river, it is necessary to know within reasonable limits the amount of pondirg which occurs at bridges which constrict the'flow during floods. The bridge backwater, the downstrearn water surface, and the drop in level across bridge embankments, where clearance of superstructure is not a problem, have been treated in the preceeding examples' Examples 3 and 4 pertain to'bridges in which the flow is in contact with the superstructure.

(b)

Given

of the bridge of example t (Fig. D-17) and the centreline prof ile shown on Figure D-20. For this example, suppose that the superstructure is lowered so the bottom
of the upstream girder
is

Plan and cross section

at erevation 2g.0 or at the normarwater surface.

a,Vra

W.S. ALONG EMEANKMENT

29

--":*+
Q'|9,5OO

i
Ah
Yu

EL.2?98

CFS.

ACTUAL W"S.

Figurc D-20 .Exampk,.7: Ltltstrt,an Girrlt,r t.n Flow

(r)
3a.

Find
The approximate water surface arong the upstream face of the embankment. The approximate water surface along the downstream face of the embankment. The drop in water lever across the bridge embankment without scour.

3b. 3c.

Computation (3a). The pertinent quantitles from example 1 are:

O b Vnt

a1V26/2g = 0.30 ft.

= 19,500c.f.s., So = 0.00049, i = 12.35 ft. - 205 ft., Wo = 14 ft., Anr = 5,664 ft.2 = 19,500/5,664 = 3.45 f.p.s., cr = '1.62 and

The discharge expression from Section D7.2 is:

143

Q=

co bruZ

[,
L

(

z _+c,|_; v'\ I I z
2s/
J

rrz

or

(D-10)

Yu=

qz
29bru ,2, Co2'

?--:l-

z

V,2

22s

As a first trial, assumeYr/Z = 1.12; enter the upper curve on Figure D-14 with this value, and read C6 = 0.380.

Substituting in equation (D-10)

Yu = -

=, ',=,(tni?o-0 '. '..,. + 64.4 (191 x 1235l|2 (0.380)2
.].,,

12'35
2

-0.30

-

1'061(0.38)'

+ 6.18 -

o"3o

In Figure D-14 hu* =Y,

-

V

h,,' =

13.25

-

12.35 = 0.9 ft.
77O {0.9)

Then 41 = 5,664 +

= 6,357

ft.2

V1 = 19,500/6,357 = 3.07 f.p.s.
v
t2

l2g = 0.146 and
x
0,146 = 0.,236.

C'rv12/2g= 1.62

The corrected value of

Y, = 7.37 + 6.18 Y"lZ =

0.236

=

13.31

ft.

and

13.31112.35 ='1.078

which does not agreti with the assumed value (1.12l,. Next assume
Y

"/Z

= 1 .10, then C6 = 0.370 (F ig.

D- 14),

Yu = 1.061/(03712 + 6.18 - 0.24 = 7.75 + 6.18 - O.24 = 13.69 ft. hu* = 13.69 - 12.35 = 1.34 ft. and Ar = 5,664 + 1.34 x 770 = 6,696 ft.2

144

V1 = 19,500/6,696

= 2.91
tt .2

f.p.s.

+ 29

V

,,2

= 0.132

and

cr it = 1.62 x 0.132 = O.Z1Z 2s

The corrected value of

Y, = 7.75 + 6.18 - 0.212 = 13.72 ft. h,* = 13.72 - 12.35 = 1.37 ft. and Y"/Z = 13.72112.35 = 1.11
which is sufficiently close to the assumed value (,|.10).
The water surface on the upstream side of the embankment will be

El. 15.65 * Y, +

+[ 2s

=

1b.6S

+

13.72

+ O.Z1= Et. 29.6 ft.

Computation (3b). Enterirg the lower curve on Figure D-t4 with C6 = 0.37 and reading downward. Y, /ys = 1.125 and Vs = 13.72/1 .125 = t Z. t g ft.

The water surface along the downstream side of the embankment is: El. 15.63 + 12.1g = El. 27.8 ft. or approximately O.2 foot below normal stage. computation (3c). The water surface differential across the bridge embankmentAh = El. 29.6 - El. 27.8 = 1.8 feet.
The above computation is quite sensitive since the exanrple falls within the transition zone (Fig. D-14) where the curves are steep.

145

D9.5 (o)

Example
Giuen

4:

Strperstructure Partially Inundated.

The same stream and br'nJge arrangement as for example 3 except the discharge is increased to 28,000 c.f.s. A profile on the centreline of channel is shown on Figure D-21. Normal water zurface is now at elevation 30.30 at the upstream bridge girder.
The pertinent data (Fig. D-21) are Q = 28,000 c.f.s..,

|

= 14.65 ft.,

z=

12.35 ft., bN = 191 ft.,

h;
N.n s.'E1.30.30

l-l Yul
Y'14.65'

t
2.12.33'
€1. 15.65 so =o ooo49

_

NJV._s..3o28'

ACTUALW.S.

EL.15.63

Figure D-21 Example

4: Superstructure Partially lnundated

(b)
4a. 4b.

To Find
The drop in larel across the bridge embankment. Water surface elevation on the upstream side of the embankment. Water surface elevation on the downstream side of the embankment, assuming appreciable scour under the brkJge.

k.

r46

Computation (4a). The equation applicable in this case is:
Q

=

CobrvZt2gAh) 1t2 or

tD-11)

Ah=O'
2gbn,2 22 coz

where the discharge coefficient (c6) is constant aI a value of 0.80. substituting values in the latter expression,

ah _

(28,000)2

64.4 (191

x

12.35)2 (O.go)2

784,000,000 358,322,74't

x

0.64

= 3.42 tt.

Computation (4b). Entering Figure D-158 with Ah/t = 3.42/14.65 = 0:233,

yu/i = 1.13 so,

Yu = 1.13 x 14.65 = 16.55 ft.
The water surface elevation on the upstream side of the embankment shotrld be:

El. 15.65

+

16.55

= 32.20

feet.
be,

The bridge backwater in this case will

El. 32.20

-

Et. 30.30

=

1.90 feet.

computation (4c)' The watersurface elwation on the downstream side of the embanknnent will be:
El. 32.20

-

Ah = 32.20

_

3.42 = Et. 2g.g feet.

or 1.5 feet below normal stage.
An interesting pointis that increasing the discharge from 1g,500 c.f.s. to2g,o00c.f.s. changed the backwater, hr*, from 1.37 to 1.90 feet while Ah changed from l.g to 3.42 feet. ln other words, the hydraulic capacity of the structure is markedly increased with orifice flow.

147

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Main Cornmittee Merntrers
Nafisah Hj. Abdul Aziz Chairman
6

- DRAINAGE

Ahmad Fuad Emby Wan Suraya Mustaffa Normala Hassan
Teh Ming Hu

Deputy Chairman
Secretary

Alternate Secretary
Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member

Lim Kim Oum
Alias Hashim Low Kom Sing
Nor Asiah Othman
Johan Les Hare Abdullah

Editor

Sub'Committee Members for Volume 3 Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design

Lim Kim Oum
Normala Hassan
Yeap Chin Seong

Chairman Secretary Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member

Chin Kok Hee

K. Nanthakumar
Chia Chong Wing

Ng Kim Hooi

ACKNOWI,EDGEMENTS
Volume 3 is not part of the Arahan Teknik (Jalan) f5197 - INTERMEDIATE GUIDE TO DRAINAGE DESIGN OF ROADS. Technical Committee 6 felt that there is a need to provide guidelines for the hydraulic aspects in bridge design.

Volume 3 provides guidelines for the practical aspects of bridge hydraulic design. The more theoretical considerations and design worked examples are provided in Appendix 1, which is reprinted from Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran publication Urban Drainage Design Standards and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia (1975), Appendix D - Hydraulic Design of Bridges.
Thanks are due to:

Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran for permission to reprint Urban Drainage Design Standards and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia (7915), Appendix D - Hydraulic Design of Bridges"

REAM Standing Committee on Technology and Road Management for the
guidance and encouragement given in the preparation of Voiume 3"

Members of the Technical Committee 6 - Drainage and Sub-Committee for Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design for their untiring efforts to ensure timely completion of Volume 3.

Related Interests

ormal Crossirtg
is one general direction

with alignment at approximately 90o to the during high water as shown in Figure D-1. A normal crosing

of flow

(d)

Eccentric Crossing

An eccentric crossing is one where the main channel and the bridge are not in the middle of the flood plain, (Figure D-8)"

(")

Sheu'ed Crossing

A skewed crossing is one that is other than 90o to the general direction of flow during
stage, (Figure D-9).

flood

(f)

lUidth o.[ Constriction. b

No difficulty will be experienced in interpreting this dimension for abutments with vertical faces since b is simply the horizontal distance between abutment faces. In the more usualcas€ involving spillthrough abutments, where the cross section of the constriction is irregular, it is suggested that the irregular cross section be converted to a regular trapezoid of equivalent area, asshown in Figure D-3C. Then the length of bridge opening can be interpreted as:

b=1,
v

104
.,..,".{'.-

t"-

i

E
@)
Conueyance

discharge

each subsection separately. According_to the Manning formula for open channel flow, the in a subsection of a channel is:

conveyance is a measure of the ability of a channel to transport flow. In strearns of irregular cross section' it is necessary to divide the water area into smailer but more or less regularsubsctions, assigning an appropriate roughness coefficient to each and computing the discharge for

g=

1.49
n

1/2

"r2l3g

By rearranging:

q {where

1.49 =-;tt''"

^,.

-

k

k is the conveyance of the subsection. conveyance can, therefore, be expressed either in terrns of flow factors or strictly geometric faetors. in bridge waterway computations, conveyance is used as a means of approximating the distribution of frow in the natural river channel upstream from a bridge' The method will be demonstrated in the design ,"r.pt., in section Dg. Total conveyance K., is the summation of the individual conveyances comprising section 1.

(h)

Bridge Opening Ratio

The bridge opening ratio, M, def ines the degree of stream constriction involved, expressed as the ratio of the flow which can pass unimpeded through the bridge constriction to the total ffow of the river. Referring to Figure D-1,
[!l =
o.D

Q"+Qo+O"

_o -o

o.
(D-1)

Qf,

y= 8'4oo = o.60.
14,000 The irregular cross section common in natural streams and the variation in boundary roughness within any cross section result in a variation in velocity across a river as indicated by the stream tubes in Figure D-1' The bridge opening ratio, M, is most easily explained in terms of discharges, but is usually determined from conueyance relations. since conveyance is proportional .to discharge, aszuming all subsections to have the same slope, M can be expressed

it

also as:

M-

kb

ka+kb+kc

=ko
K1

(D-2)

(;)

Kinetic Energy Coefficient

As the velocity distribution in a river varies from a maximum at the to essentiaily zero arong the banks, the average verocity head, deeper.portion of the comput{ as (e/A.,r2 /2g for the stream at section 1, d&s not glve a true re.rure of the kiil;;;;.gi ot the ftow.
channel

105
.....-:--:t

)

J

Y
A weighted
.Nerage value of the kinetic energy is obtained head, above, by a kinetic energy coefficient, qr def ined as:

by rnultiplying the average velocity

c(, =.'

E (qv2

)

(D-3a)

OVr
Where

v. q O Vl
D9.

= average velocity in a subsection. = discharge in same subsection. = totaldischarge in river. = average velocity in river at section 1 or Q/A,

.

The method of computation will be further illustrated in the design examples given in Section

second coefficient, crr, is required distribution under the bridge,

A

to correct the velocity

head for nonuniform velocity

E (qvt

)

{n-?h)

QV,,
where v, q and Q are defined as above but apply here

to the constricted cross section and

V2 = av€rEge velocity in constriition

=

oiA2

The value of ccr can be computed and c(2 can be estimated from Figure D-5.

26

Qrzz
t.8

2.2

Q

l4

to
o.5
M

Figure D-s.-Aid

for estimating a.,

106
t-,*:.i.

-

03.2
Most

Definition of Symbols
here

found here are defined where first mentioned.

of the symbols used in this Appendix are recorded

for reference. symbols not

Ar = Area of flow including backwater at section l(Figs. D-28 and D-38) (sq. ft.). Anr = Area of flow below normalwater surface at section 1 {Figs. D_2ts and D-3B) {sq. ft.). Ar, = Gross area of flow in constriction below normal water surface at
and D-3C) tsq. ft.).

section 2(Figs. D-2c

A4 , oo a b b, Cb cr C, e

= Area of flow at section 4 at which normal water surface is reestabrished (Fig. D-2A) (sq. ft.).

=
=

i;:T:.j:t

area

of

piers normalto f low (between normarwater surface and streambed)

Area of flow in a subsection of approach channel (sq. ft.). (Figs. D-2c, D-3c, and sec. D3.1 (f) (ft) ) measured arong centreline

= width of constriction
(Fig. D-9) {ft.).

I , i ' I
l

= width of constriction of a skew crossing

of

roadwav

=

Backwater coefficient
Freef row coeff icient

for flow type ll.

=
=

for f row over roadway embankment.

Submergence factor for f low over roadway.

=Eccentricity=(.1 _Oc/Oa)where
O"
or (1-O"/O"

i
i

(eu,
where

)

O"

>

O".

, ,
'

r ,

g frr hu ht' hot

= Acceleration of gravity = 32.2 (ft./sec.: ). = Totaldnergy loss between sections 1 and 4 (Figs. D-2A and D_3A) (ft.). = hr-SoLr_4 = Energy losscaused by constriction (Figs. D-2A and D_3A) (ft.). = Total backwater or rise above normal stage at section I (Figs. D-2A and D-3A)

-

-

tft.).

Backwater computed from base curve (Fig. D-6) (ft.)

Ah J

=

*ater surface at section 3(Figs. D-2A and D-3A) (ft.). ht * t' h: * + So Lr--g

= Difference in water surface elevation across roadway embankment (Figs. D-2A and D-3A) (ft.).
normal water surface at section 2 (Fig. D-7).

Ae/An2 = Flatio of area obstructed by piers to gross area of bridge waterway below

107

,."j

I )

Ku AKo AK" AK, K* k kb
k.,

= Backwater coefficient from base curve (Fig. D-6). = lncremental backwater coefficient for pien (Fig. D-7). = lncremental backwater coeff icient for eccentricity (F ig. D-8).

L

= Incremental backwater coefficient for skew (Fig. D-10). - Ko + AKo + AK" + AK, = Totalbackwater coefficient for subcritical f low. - Conveyance in subsection of approach channel. = Conveyance of portion of channel within projected length of bridge at section
(Figs. D-28 and D-38 and sec. D3.1 (g)).

1

k" = Conveyance of that portion of the natural
and D-38 and sec. D3.1 (g)
).

flood plain obstructed by the roadway embankments {subscripts refer to left and right side, facing downstream) {Figs. D-28

K1 = Total conveyance at section 'i {sec. D3.1 (gi ). Lr-+ = Distance from point of maximum back water to reestablishnrent of normal
roadwayembankment(Figs.D.2AandD"3A)tft.).

water surfacedownstream, measured along centerline of stream (Figs. D-2A and D-3A) (ft.).

Lt-: = Distance from point of maximum backwater to water surface on downstream side of Lr-z = Distance L* I M
=
= =
from point of maximum backwater to upstream face of bridge deck (Figs. D-2A and D-3A) (ft.)
Distance from point of maximum backwater to water surface on upstream side of roadway embankment, measurd parallel to centerline of stream (Fig. D'13) (ft.) Overall width of roadway or bridge (ft.)
Bridge openirg ratio (sec. D3.1 (h) ).

Manning roughness coeff icient (Table D-1).

p = Wetted perimeter of a subsection of a channel (ft.) Ob = Flow in ilortion of channel within projected lergth of bridge at section 1(Fig. D-1)
(c.f.s. ).

O", O"

= Flow
= O. * = =

over that portion of the natural flood plain obstructed by the roadway embankments (Fig. D-'l) (c.f.s.).
:

O r So Vr

Ou + Q" = Totaldischarge (c.f.s.).

a/p = Hydraulic radius of a subsection of flood plain or main channel (ft.)
Slope of channel bottom or normal water surface.

= Q/Ar = Average velocity at section 1 (ft./sec.).

Va=o"/Aq=Averageve|ocityatsection4(ft./sec.).

Vn2 = Oy'Anz = Average velocity in constriction for flow at normal stage (ft./sec.). Vz" = Critical velocity in constriction (ft./sec.).

,

108
I

,_.-J

-!

wp W Vr yq yn t Yrc yac yac c1 c2 o 9n a., 0

= width of pier

normar to direction of f row (F ig. D-7 (ft.). )

=

Surface width of stream including f lood plains (Fig.

D.l) (ft.)

= Depth of f low at sectionl (ft.). = Depth of flow at section 4 (ft.).
=
Normal depth of f low in model {ft.). stage,(Fig.D-3c) (ft.).

= An2lb=Meandepthof frowunderbridge,referencedtonormar = Criticaldepth at section 1 (ft.)

= Critical depth in constriction (ft.). = Critical depth at section 4 (ft.). = Velocity head coeff icient at section I
= Velocity

(sec. D3.1

(i) ) (Greek tetter alpha).

head coeff icient for constriction (Greek letter alpha.).

=

= =

Multiplication factor for inf luence of M on incrementarbackwater coefficient for piers (Fig. D-78) (Greek tetter sigma.). hr * * h:* = for sirgle bridge (Greek letter psi.).
Correction factor for eccentricity (Fig. D_13) (Greet letter omega). Angle of skew degrees (Fig. D_9) (Greek letter phi.).

-

109
I
-.-;, -'4-

x

D4.
D4.1

COMPUTATION OF BACKWATER

Expression for Backwatar

A practical expression for backwater has been formulated by applying the principle of conservation of enerly between the point of maximum backwater upstream from the bridge, section 1, and a point downstream from the brirJEe at which normal stage has been reestablished, section 4 (Fig. D-2A). The expression is reasonably valid if'the channel in the vicinity of the bridge is essentially straight, the cross sectional area of the stream is fairly uniform, the gradient of the bottom is approximately constant between sectiors 1 and 4, the flow is free to contract and expand, there is no appreciable scoun of the bed in the constriction and the flow is in the subcritical range.
The expression for computation of backwater upstream from a bridgs constricting the flow, is as follows:

h1

*=K*..,V-12+".,

Where

lffi' ffi] +
(i)
)'

(D-4)

hl

* = total backwater (ft.). K* = total backwater coefficient.
inexpressions (D'3A) and (D-3b) (Sec. D3-1
I

cl &cc2 = asdefined
An2 Vn2

= gross water area in constriction measured below normal stage (sq. ft.). = average velocity in constriction or Q/Anz (f.p.s'). Aa = water area at section 4where normalstage is reestablishe6 1eq. ft.). Ar = totalwater area at section 1, including that produced by the backwater
To compute backwater. it is necessary to obtain the approximate value of first part of expression (D-4)
h1

l j

l: I

(sq.

ft.).

'

by usirg the

hl* = K*o2 VnZ '2s
The value of A1 in the second part of expression (D-4) which depends on determined and the second term of the expression evaluated:
h1

(D-4a)

*, can then

be

" [c'-(s']

+

(D-4b)

This pah of the expression represents the difference in kinetic energy between sections 4 ard 1, expressed in terms of the velocity head, V2"z/2g. Expression (D-4) may appear ctmbersome, but this is not the case. See Example l, Section D9.

110

-

D4.2

Backwater Coefficient

Two symbols are interchargeably used throughout the text and both are backwater coefficients. The symbol K6 is the backwater coefficient for a bridge in which only the bridge opening ratio, M' is considered' This is known as a base coefficieniand the curves on Figure D-6 are called base curves' The value of the overall backwater coefficient, K*, is likewise dependent on the value of M but also affected by:

1' 2' 3.

Number, size, shape, and orientation of piers in the constriction,

Eccentricity or asymmetric position of bridEe.with respect to the valley cross section,
Skew (bridge crosses stream ar other than g0" angle).

It will be dennonstrated that K" consists of a base curve coefficient, K6, to which is added incremental coefficients to account for the effect of piers, eccentricity and skew. Thevalue of K* is nevertheless primarily dependent on the degree of constriction of f low at a bridqe.
3.O

2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2
2.O

\ \ \
IiIliirTniTil

I

t
I

1ilililt

i\

OEWINGWALL

t
il1ilililil1ilt^ lr

I

t.8
t.5
1.4

t-- tt fLENGIHS UP TO 20( FT)
ABUTMENTS OVER
2OO

\

9( )cww_

tl

ll

P'qw
\:

Y

1.2

oR 450 ANo 600 tvw

l.o o.8 o.6 o.4

FI tN LEI{GTH_-rlll

s \r
\ \

ltlllltllllltl\sPILLTHROU6H

r-1

ti

lll

\ \ \ \
-!

o.2 o
o
QI

o.2

o.3

o.4

o.5
M

\
o.9
LO

o.6

o.7

o.8

Figurc D-6.--Bachu'ater co<:fficient base crrz,cs (subcriticar ftow).

D4.3

Effect of M and Abutment Shape (Base Curves)

Figure D-6 shows the base curves for backwater coefficient, K6, plotted with respect to the opening ratio, M, for.wingwall ard spillthrough abutments. Note how the coefficient, K6, increases with channel constriction- The lower curve applies for 45o and 60; wingwall abutments and a' spitthrough types. curves are arso incruded for 30" *inE,"Jr .ir*"n* ard for 90o vertical wall abutments for bridges up to 200 feet in length. These shapes can be identified

111

\*:
..

-i*,3

from the sketches on Figure D-6. Seldom are bridgeswith the lattertype abutmentsmorethan 200 feet long. For brirlges exceedirg 200 feet in lergth, regardless of abutment type, the lower curve is recommended. This is because abutment geometry becornes less important to backwater as a bridge is lengthened. The base curve coefficients of Figure D-6 apply to crossirgs normal to flood flow and do not include the effect produced by piers, eccentricity and skew.

D4.4

Effect of Fiers Normal Crossings

(o)

Backwater caused by introduction of piers in a bridge constriction has been treated as an incremental backwater coefficient designated AKo, which is added to the base curve coefficient K6 when piers are present in the waterway. The value of the incremental backwater coefficient, AKo, is dependent on the ratio that the area of the piers bears to the gross area of the bridge opening, the type of piers (or piling in the case of pile bents), the value of the bridge opdning ratio, M, and the angularity of the piers with the direction of f lood f low. The ratio of the water area occupied by piers, Ao, to the gross water area of the constriction, An2, both based on the normaf water surface, has been assigned the letter J. In computing the gross water area, An2, the presence of piers in the constriction is ignored. The incremental beckwater coefficient for the more common types of piers and pile bents can be obtained from Figure D-7. By entering chart A with the proper value of J and reading upward to the proper pier type, AK is read from the ordinate. Obtain the correction factor, o, from chart B for opening ratios other than unity. The incremental backwater coefficient is then:

AKo

= oAK

The incremental backwater coefficients for pile bents can, for all practical purposes, be considered independent of diameter, width, or spacing of piles but should be increased if there are more than 5 piles in a bent. A bent with 10 piles should be given a value of AKo about 20 percent higher than that shown for bents with 5 piles. lf there is a possibility of trash collecting on the piers, or piles, it is advisable to use a larger value of J to compensate for the added
obstruction" .For a normalcrossing with piers, the totalbackwater coeff icient becomes:

K* = K6 (Fig. D_6) + AKe (Fig. D"7). (b)
Shewed Crossings

In the case of skewed crossings, the effect of piers is treated as explained for. normal crossings except for the computation of J, An2 and M. The pier area for a skewed crossing, Ao, is the sum of the individual pier areas normal to the general direction of flow, as illustrated by the sketch in Figure D-7. Note how the width of pier wo is measured when the pier is not parallel to the general direction of flow. The area of the constriction, An2, for skewed crossings, is based on the projected length of bridge, b, cos d (Fig. D-9). Again, An2 is a gross value and

includestheareaoccupiedbypien. ThevalueofJisthepierarea,Ao,dividedbytheprojected of the bridge constriction, both measured normal to the general direction of flow. The computation of M for skewed crossings is also based on the projected length of bridge, which will be further explained in section D4.6.
gross area

112

--Y

wp'
/ln, bosad on\ \ langrh b f

lYtdlh of picr normOl lo

flor - lect

hnt . Height ot pier erpoged

-&'a
i-=4lii

t? iJ*,
SKEIVED CROSSING
iIOTE :-

i

/An1 bosed on

ww
Lq o/

\

lengf

hb

cos

j/

\

ol piers - totor proiectcd oreo of piers normol lo flor - squorc facf Anr' Gross rol?f cross srctton
Number

N.

lo flor - tc?l
wDhnr

a,

.

a

(Usc projaoed bridgc lengfh normol lo flor

rn conslriction boscd on normol wolcr surloce.
crossrngs)

;
brocing rhould be includtd in ridrh ot p!1.

. a9

for sker

Sroy

.y

Ozr

yr

y,'4
Y
o.2

-_'ffi*a

t.o

o.t o.t
cr
o.7

o',
o.a

?.

A K" .4;1o

{.

# iat

./t

z

-/

,z 7

o.c

Figure D-7.-Incremental bachwater coefficient for piers.

113
j
-..-j
I

==

D4.5

Effect

of

Eccentricity

Referring to the sketch in Figure D-8, it can be noted that the symbols Ou and O" at section 1 were used to represent the portion of the discharge obstructed by the approach embankments. lf the cross section is extremely asymmetrical so that O. is less than 20 percent of O" or vice versa, the backwater coefficient will be somewhat larger than for comparable values of M shown on the base curve. The magnitude of the incremental backwater coefficient, AK", accounting for the effect of eccentricity, is shown in Figure D-8. Eccentricity, e, is def ined as 1 minus the ratio of the lesser to the greater discharge outside the projected length of the bridge, or:

e=1 e=
1

_Q"
Q" ou

where O. where O"

( )

O,

o.

Q.

(D-5)

Reference to the sketch in Figure D-B will aid in clarifying the terminology. For instance, if O./Q" = 0.05, the eccentricity e = {1 - 0.05) or 0.95 and the curve fore = 0.95 in Figure D-8 would be used for obtaining AK". The largest influence on the backwater coefficient due to eccentricity will occur when a bridge is located adjacent to a bluff where a f lood plain exists on only one side and the eccentricity is 1.0. The overall backwater coefficient for an extremely eccentric crossing with wingwall or spillthrough abutments and piers will be:

K* = Ku (Fig. D 6) + AKo (Fig. D-7) + AKu (Fig. D-8). D4.6
Effect of Skew

The method of computation for skewed crossings differs from that of normal crossings in the following respects: The bridge opening ratio, M, is computed on the pr.ojected length of bridge rather than on the length along the centreline. The length is obtained by projecting the bridge opening upstream parallel to the general direction of flood flow as illustrated in Figure D-9. The general direction of flow means the direction of flood flow as it existed previous to the placement of embankments in the stream. The length of the constricted openirg is b, cos @, and the area An2 is based on this length. The velocity v2^
head,

-F, zg

to be substituted in expression (D-4) (sec. D4. 1 ) is based on the projected area An2.

Figure D-10 shows the irrremental backwater coefficient, AKr, for the effect of skew, for wingwall and spillthrough type abutments. The incremental coeff icient varies with the opening ratio, M, the angle of skew of the bridge O, with the general direction of flood flow, and the alignment of the abutment faces, as indicated by the sketches irr Figure D'10. Note that the incremental backwater coefficient, AK' can be negative as well as positive. The negative values result from the method of computation and do not necessarily indicate that the backwater will be reduced by employing a skewed crossing. These incremental values are to be added algebraically to K6 obtained from the base curve. The total backwater coeff icient for a skewed crossing with abutment faces aligned with the flow and pierswould be:

K* = K6 (Fig. D-6) + AKo (Fig. D-7) + AK' (Fig. D-10A).
The procedure is illustrated in Example 2, Section D9'
114
,l

-l

O.-*q-)k--

Oo

il1il|illtl

rfillrl
e
=

illilililtflltfll

(1-

3:)
Qo.

where Q. < eo
wherE
Qo

or

e =(1Q.'

< e.

M

o'(

o'8

o'9

Figure D'8'-Incremental bachu,ater coefficient .f or eccentricity.

It has been observed during model testing that skewed crossingswith angles up to 20" produced no particularly otijectionable results for any of the abutment shapes-investigated. As the angle increased above 20o, however, the f low picture deteriorated; f tow produced large eddies, reducirg the efficiency "d""."iriai.* ,, abutments of the waterway and increasing the possibilities for scour' The above statement does not apply to cases where a bridge spans most of the stream with little constriction"
Figure D-11 was prepared from the same model information as Figure D-10A. By entering Figure D'11 with the angle of skew ard the projected varue of M, the ratio b, cos dib can be read from the ordinate' Knowing b and h1 " for a comparabre normar crossing, one can sorve for br' the length of opening needed for a skewed bridge to produce the same amount of backwater for the desisn discharse. The chart is especiany hipfuti;;;;;;;nj'",io".nr.r.ing.

115
I -t
I

SECTI ON
MAXITUM
BACKWATER

--7 ,/

!) R).. /
F/

'l 3t *l
I

\d-

S3kt
/

%

Figure D-9. -Sheued crossings.

116

$fi

M

o.t

Figure

D- I 0.

-Incremental backwater coefficient

for

skew.

117
-4
.i

+l
H

l' oto .dl

*,\

_t

l.

20
ANGLE OF SKEW

30

+

(DEGREES)

Figure D- I 1. -Ratio ol' projected to normal length of bridSe, for equiualent bachu'atcr (shewed crossings).

118

D5.

DIFFERENCE IN WATER LEVEL ACROSS APPROACI-I EMtsAruKMEIUTS
Signif icance

D5.1

The difference in water surface elevation between the upstream ard downstream side of bridge approach embankments, Ah, has been interpreted erroneousry as the backwater produced by a bridge' This is not the backwater as the sketch on Figure D-'r2 will attest. The water surface at section 3' measured along the downstrearn side of the embankment, is lower than normal stage by the amount h3 *' There is an occasional exception to this, from returning to the flood plain by dense vegetation however, when flow is obstructed or high water from a downstream tributary produces pondirg ard an abnormar stage at the bridge site.

The difference in larel across ernbankments, Ah, is always larger than the backwater, h1 *, by the sum he * + So Lr--:, where So is the natural slope of the stream (Fig. D-12). The method of determining L1-3, which is the distance from sectir:n I tc seetion 3, needs spee if ic explanation but this will be deferred until sec. D6. The differential lever is significant in the determination of backwater at bridges in the f ield since Ah is the most reliable head measurement that can be made' Fortunately, the backwater and Ah bear a definite relaticinship to each other for any particular structure. Thus, if one is known the other can be determined.

W. S. ALONG

o.8

bt r-ol t r.-l * : o

-l€

oe

ililililt1
ST AND

90"
45"
WW

2OO'IN LENGTH)

WW( FOR BRTDGES UNDER

illtltllllltlil

tJ

ilil lilil tl

lllllulull]a
tllTlilUmrD
SPILLTHROUGH

lil'illil tltll
gOCWINGWALL

Figure D-12.-Differential uater leuel ratio base cuntes.

D5.2

Base Curves

A base curve for deterrnining downstream levelswas constructed entirely from model data which was found especiall'/ consistent when presented by the parameters shown, No satisfactory way has been found to experimentally isolate the backwat", f.orn Ah when makirg field measurements, so in this case the modelcurves must e.rffice. *) The
is

differential lerrel ratio, h6*/(h6* + hs plotted with respect to the openirg ratio, M, on Figure D-12.
't19

.,,t

The numerator, h6*, represents the backwater at a bridge, exclusive of pier effect, and h3 * is the difference in level between normal stage and the water surface on the downstream side of the embankment at section 3. The ordinate of Figure D-12 witl be referred to as the differential level ratio to which the symbol D6 has been assigned. The water surface depicted at section 3 represents the average level alorrg the downstream side of the embankment from H to I and N to O in Figure D-1. For crosings involving wide flood plains and long embankments, the distances H to I and N to O each have been arbitrarily limited to not more than two bridge lengths. The solid curve on Figure D-12 is to be used for 45o and 60o wingwall abutments and all spillthrough abutments regardless of bridge lergth. The uppdr curve, denoted by the broken line, is for bridges with lengths up to 200 feet having 90o vertical wall and other abutment shapes which severely constrict the f low.
Assuming the backwater, h6*, has already been computed for a normal crossing, withoutpiers, eccentricity or skew, the water surface on the downstream side of the embankment is obtained by entering the curve on Figure D-12 with the contraction ratio, M, and reading off the differential lwel ratio

Db=
or

hu*

hu* + h3*

hg* -

hb*

(;)

(D-6)

The elevation on the downstream side of the embankment is simply normal stage at section 3, less h3* (Fig. D-12), except for the specialcase where the entire water surface prof ile is shifted upward by ponding from downstream or restricted f lood plains.

D5.3
piers.

Effect of Piers

The procedure for determining h3* with piers is exactly as explained in section D5.2 without

D5.4

Effect of Eccentricity

In the case of severely eccentric crossings, the difference in level across the embankment considered here applies only to the side of the river having'the greater flood plain discharge. ln
plotting th6 experimental differential level ratios with respect to M for eccentric crosirgs, without piers, it was found that the points fell directly on the base curve (Fig. D-12). The individual values of h6* and h3* for eccentric conditions are different than for symmetrical crossings, but the ratio of one to the other, for any given value of M, remains unchanged. Thus, Figure D-12 can also be considered applicable to eccentric crossings if used correctly. To obtain h3* for an eccentric crossing, with or without piers, enter theproper curve in Figure D12 with the value of M and read D6 as before. ln this case:

D6=

hu*

* Ah"*

hb*+A|l3*+h3'

120

or

h3* =

(hu*. + Ah"*

)

(;)

(D-7)

D5.5 Drop in water surface

acro.s Embankment (Normar crossing)

llaving computed h3" as described in the preceding paragraphs and knowing the total backwater h1* (computed according to the procedure in D4), the difference in water surface elevation. across the embankment (Fig. D-12) is:

Ah -

h3*

* ht* + So Lr_s

(D€}

where h1* is total backwater, includirg the effect of piers and eccentricity, and So Lr_s is the normal fall in streambed from section 1 to section 3.

D5.6

Water Surface on Downstream Side

of

Embankment (Skewed Crossing).

The differential level across roadway embankments for skewed crossings is naturally different for opposite siles of the river, the amount depending on the conf iguration of the stream, bends in the vicinity of the crossirg,. the degree of skew, etc. fhese factors can be so variable that a generalized model study can shed little light on the subject. Individual values of h1* and h3* for skewed crossings again differ from those for symmetrical crossings, but the differential lwel ratio across the embankments at either end of the bridge can be considered the same as for normal crossings for any given value of M. The value of M is, of course, based on the projected length of bridge as explained in section D4.6. Thus, it is again possible to use Figure D'12 for skewed crossings. The differential level ratio, D6, with or without piers, is obtained by entering the chart with the proper opening ratio, M. Then:

hg* = (hu*+Ahr*)

(*)

(D-e)

121

D6.

CONFIGURAT|oru OF EACKWATER

D6.l

Distancs

to Foint of

Maximum Backrator

In backwater cornputatbns, it will be found necesary in sorne cases to locate the point or points of maximum backwater with respect to the brirJge. The maximum backwater in line with the midpoint of the br'xiee ciccurs m point A'tFig: D-lsBt, this point'beirp a dbtance, L*, from the waterline on the upstream skJe of the ernbankment. Where flood plainsare inundated and enrbankments congtrict the flow; the elevation oJ the water'surfrce throughout the areas ABCD *td AEFG'will beesentiafly the satrle as at point A,'where the backwater rneGurement was made on the models. This charasteristic has been verified from field meaurements made by the U.S. Geological Survey on bririges where the flood plains on each side of the main channel were no wlder than twice the bridge length and hydraulic roughness vvas relatively low.
For crossirgs with exceptiooallv wkle; rough flood plains, this€ssentiallV level ponding may not occur.

: FOR ECCEI{TRIC CFG}SI}{GS

wrTH

a>o.7 guLTlrtY

reU.f,

.[ fFl Ourf eVr.rb

<D

+
I

AL

v
Figure D-l3.-Distance to maxhnum bachwater.

122

Flow gradients may exist alorg the upstream side of the ernbankments due to borrow pits, ditches and cleared areas along the right-of'way. These flow gradients along embankments are likely to be more pronounced on the falling than on the rising stage of a flood. A correlation is needed between the water level along the upstream side of embankments point A since it is and difficult to obtainwater surface elevations at point A in the field during floods. For the purpose of design and field verification, it has been assumed that the average water surface elevation along the upstream side of embankments, for as much as two bridge lengths adjacent to each abutment {F to G and D to c), is the same as at point A (Fig. D-138}.

D6.2

Normal Crossirgs

measured normal

Figure D-13 has been prepared for determining distance to point to centreline of bridge.

of maximum backwater,

Referring to Figure D-13, the normaldepth of f low under a bridge is def ined here as y = An2/b, where An2 is the cross sectional area under the bridge, referred to normal water surfaee, and b is the width of waterway. A trial solution is required for determining the differential level across embankments, ah, but from the result of the backwater computation it possible to make a fair estimate of Ah. To obtain distance to maximum backwater for is a normal channel constriction, enter Figure D-134 with appropriate value of Ah/f and y and obtain the corresponding value of L*/b' Solving for L*. which is the distance from point of maximum backwater (point A) to the water surface on the upstream side of embankment (Fig, D-138), and adding to this the additional distance to section 3, which is known, gives the distance L1_3. Then the computed difference in ls/el across embankments ts

Ah - hr**h3*+SoLr_s.
Should the computed value of Ah differ materially from the one chosen, the above procedure is repeated until assumed and computed values agree. Generally speaking, the larger the backwater at a given bridge the further will point A move upstream. Of course, the value of L* also increases with length of brldge.

D6.3

Eccentric Crossirqs

Eccentric crossings with extreme asymmetry perform much like one half of a normal symmetrical crossing with a marked contraction of the jet on one side and very little contraction on the other. For cases where the value of e (sec. OA.S) is greater than 0.70, on Figure D-13A with Ah/V and y and read off the correspJnding value of enter the abscissa L*/b as usuat. Next multiply this value of L*/b by a correction factor, o, which is obtained from Figure D.13C. For example, suppose Ah/V = 0.20, V = 10 and e = 0.88, the corrected value would be L*/b = 0.g4 x 1.60. Distance to maximum backwater is then L* = 1.34b with eccentricity.

D6.4

Skewed Crossings

In the case of skewed crossings, the water surface elevations atong opposite banks of a stream are usually different than at point A; one may be higher and the other lowerdepending on the angle of skew, the configuration of the approach channel. and other factors. To obtain the approximate distance to maximum backwater L'for skewed crossings (Fig. D-g), the same procedure is recommended as for normalcrossings except the ordinate of Figure D-.13 is read as L*/br, where b, is the full length of skewed bridge (Fig. D-9). See Exarnple 2, Section D9.

123

D7.

SUPERSTR UCTURE

PARTIALLY INUNDATED

D7.1

General

in which it is desirable to compute the backwater upstream from a bridge or the discharge under a bridge when flow is in contact with the girders. Once flow contacts the upstream girder of a bridge, orifice flow is established so the discharge then varies as the square root of the effective head. The result is a rather rapid increase in discharge for a moderate rise in upstream stage. The greater discharge, of course, increases the likelihood of scour under the bridge. lnundation of the bridge deck is a condition the designer seldom contemplates in design but it occurs frequently on older bridEes.
Cases arise

Two cases are studied; the first where only the upstream girder is in the water as indicated by the sketch on Figure D-14 and the second, where the bridge constriction is flowing full, all girders in the flow, as shown in Figure D-15.

D7.2

Upstream Girder in Flow (Case l)

The most logical and simple method of approach to determine the backwater effect with the upstream girder of a bridge in the f low is to assume the system acts like a sluice gate.
Using a common expression

for sluice gate f low

o = coulrz

fzo
where

lz \Y,- T*

*tVr2
2s

'" )]

(D-10)

O = total discharge-c.f.s. Cd = Coefficient of discharge
bry = net width of
waterway (excluding piers)

_

ft.

Z = vertical distance - bottom of upstream girder to mean river bed under bridge - ft., and Yu = vertical distance-upstream water surface to mean river becl at bridge-ft.
For case l, the coefficient of discharge C6, is plotted with respect to the parameter Yu/Z on Figure D-14. The upper curve applies to the coefficient of discharge where only the upstream girder is in contact with the flow. By substituting values in expression (D-10), it is possible to solve for either the water surface upstream or the discharge under the bridge, depending on the quantities known. lt appears that the coefficient curve {Fig. D-14) approaches zero asYu/Z becomes unity. This is not the case since the limiting value of Yu lZ for which expression (D-10) applies is not much less than'1.1. There is a transition zone somewhere between YulZ= 1.0 and 1.1 where free zurface flow charqes to orifice flow or vice versa. The type of ffow within this range is unpredictable. For Yu lZ = 1.0, the flow is dependent on the natural slope of the stream, while this factor is of li-ttle concern after orifice flow is established or Y,rlZ > 1.1.

124

!VS. ALONG EMBANKMENTS

t

r -r
I

htr rrrS

z
Y3

0.6

o.5

o.4

o.3

o.2

o.l

=5++j:?f,
t.2 ,.., t.3 t.4
Yu

o

1.5

1.5

1.7

l.g

Y3

Figure D'14 - Discharge coelfrcients for upstreqm girder in flotu (case I)

125

/
B

/

!

/
t7

v

,/ ,/ "/

toL
o

04

Ah __ v

0.6

o.8

l.o

lOr

a
a

a

o8

fe
;W
s

la
o

o

r

ASUTIENTS ASuTu€tirTS
I

t (,
t{.w.s

t

o rT "l
I

v'a

e
tLofiG €r8AjrtxilEl

la-

-.JYU
I

T

Ltt

pbr
7727V2

4h ir" rcnnL rs.

,
I

*

Dr, L,)r-, 7m7rV
o

>-r, vv77v. 7

A

ca\zJ eo6-h

o.a z
Yu

Figure D-15 - Discharge coelficient for all girders in flow

(case

II)

126

ln computing a general river backwater curve across the bridge shown on Figure D-14, it is to know water surface elevation downstream as well as upstrean from ihe bridge. The approximate depth of flow, !3, cafi be obtained from Figure D-14 by enterlng tne top scale with the proper value of Yu/7 arfr reading down to the upper curve, then over horizontally to the lower curve, and finally down to the lower scale as shown by the arrows. The lower scale gives the ratio of Y,/y3. The method is iilustrated in exampre 3 of section Dg.
necessary

D7.3 All Girders

in Contacr with Flow (Case ll)

where the entire area under the bridge is occupied by the flow, the computation is handled in a different manner' To compute the water surface upstream from the bridge. the water surface on the downstream side and the discharge must be known. or if the disJharge is desired, the drop in water surface across the roadway embankrnent, Ah, and the net area underthe bridge is required' The experimental points on Figure D 15A, which are for both wingwall and spillthrough abutments, show the coeff icient of discharge to be essentially constant at 0.g0 foi- the range of conditions tested. The equation recommended for the average two to four lane concrete girder bridge for case ll is

Q = 0.80 bx Z{2gAh)1/2

f

n-111

where the symbols are defined as in expression (D-10). Here the net width of waterway (excluding width of piers) is used again. lt is preferable to measure Ah across embankments rather than at the bridge proper. The partialiy inundated bridge compares favourably with that of a zubmerged box culvert but on a larger scale. Subm.rg"n"., of course. can increase the likelihood of scour under a bridge.

Section D9.

Again for working up general backwater curves for a river, it is desirable to know the drop in water level across existing bridges as well as the actual water surface elevation either upstream or downstream from the bridge. OnceAh iscomputed from expression {D_1,1), the depth of flow upstream, Yr, can be obtained from chart B, Figure D-15, where isdepth from normal stage ! to mean river bed at bridge in feet. The procedure will be further explained by example 4 of

D7.4

Safety of Bridge

A rather common source of bridge failure results from the superstructure being virtually pushed or lifted off the abutments and piers by the combination.of buoyan"y unJ dynamic forces. Inundation reduces the effective weight of a concrete bridge to about o.g of its weight in air. Should air be trapped under the deck between girdem, the effective weight can be further reduced to a dangerous limit so that oniy moderate horizontal forces are required to jar or slide bridge spans off their pedestals. The horizontal forces consist of unbalanced hydrostatic
or ponding, acting on the upstream face of the bridge (aggravated by the collection of trash), plus energy inherent in the moving mass of water plus impact forces produced by large froating objects striking a bridge. The impact from large floating objects can be lethal if the bridge is already under stress and the girden are not anchored to the Diers.
pressure,

127

D7.5

Flow Over Roadway

In cases where bridge clearance is such that girders become inundated during floods, there is a good possibility that flow also occurs over portions of the approach roadway. Should it be desired to determine the discharge flowing over the roadway, Figure D-16 can be used. To determine the discharge flowing over a roadway. first enter curve B (Figure D-16)with Hil and obtain the free flow coefficient of discharge C1. Should the value of Hll be less than 0.15. it is suggested that C1 be read from curve A of the same Figtire. lf submergence is present (e.9., if D/H is larger than 0.7) enter curve C with the proper value of submergence in percenr and read off the submergence factor Cr/C1. The resulting discharge is obtained by substituting values in the expression:

o = cr1P3/2 cr/ct,

(D-1 2)

where L represents the length of inundated roadway, H is the total head upstream measured above the crown of the roadway and Cr and C, are coefficients of discharge tor free flow and with submergence, respectively. Where the depth of flow varies along the roadway, it is advisable to divide the inundated portion into reaches and compute the discharge over each reach separately. The process, of course, can be reversed to aid in determining backwater for a combination of bridge and roadway.

128

P€RCENT SI,E'YERGENCE

o/H X too
90

cv€.RALL O.

Cr

t..r(l/z.cs./c,

t^[
3.o.rF
a.l

sczi3.@lg9q THS C:tJRlrE FOf, FR€E FLOil co€FFlcfENTs vilni H/t RATtos<o,5.

z t*r
..t <j

o 2rdF
2.9f

I J

,nll
e

1

A

soLl

l.rl
o{

ot

_.._.L_ i- |

t2

I€AO o?{ ROAryIV H

t.6 2p

i

i

|

|

2.4 z.e. 32
il
FEET

.l

. I

I

|

|

|

5.6

|

|

I

40

Figure D'16

-

Discharge cofficients for florv over roadtvay embanlonents

129

D8.
D8.1

BRIDGE DESIGN FROCEDURE Site Study Outline

The following outline is presented to aid in organizinE and collecting the necessary field data for a bridge site investigation:

1. 2.

Location map to show proposed highway alignment and reach of riverto be studied.

Vicinity map showing flood f low patterns, cross sections of stream, location of proposed biidge and relief openings, and alignment of piers.

(i) (iii

Map showing 1- or 2-foot contours, stream meanders, vegetation and manmade
improvements.

In some cases, cross sections perpendicular to flood flow are acceptabie in lieu of the map in (i); at least three cross sections are desirable: one on the centreline of the proposed bridge, one upstream and one downstream from the proposed bridge at from 100 to 500 foot intervals.

3.

A full description of existing bridges both upstream and downstream from proposed

crossing (including relief and overflow structures).

(i) (ii)

Type of bridge, including span lengths and pier orientation. Cross section beneath structure, noting stream clearance skew or direction of current during f loods.

to superstructure and

(iii) All
(iv)

available flood history-high water marks with dates of occurrence, nature of flooding, damages and source of information. Photographs of existing bridges, past floods. main channels and flood plains and information as to nature, streambed and stability of banks.

4.

Factors affecting water stage at bridge site.

(i) (ii)
(iii)
{iv)

High water from other streams"

Reservoirs-existing or proposed and approximate date of construction. Flood control projects.
Tide.

(v)

Other controls.

130

D8.2
It

Stago Discharge

is important that the normal stage of a river for the design flood be determined as accurately as possible at the bridge site. This may be accomplished inieveral ways, but where possible it is best to establish it from a stag*dischaige rating curve based on stream-gauging records colected in the vicinity of the brklge site. whlre stagedischarge records are lacking for the stream in question' the usual procedure is to locate high water m-arks of floods by consulting people who live in the vicinity of the proposed bridge site. Flood information supplied by local residents is often inaccurate, but may be consirjered reliable if confirmed by other residents.
necessary to find a means of relating stage to discharge. This can be done by the slope-area method, a simplifiedvariation of which w*ill be found illustrated in Example I section D 9' Extreme care must be exercised both in the collection of f ield data and in the manner in which it is processed if glaring discrepa.cies are to be avoided in the f inal result. rn many

It is then

a stage-discharge curve.

cases where records are lacking, it is advisabie to arrange for the installation and maintenance of a temporary stream gauge at or near the bridge site several years in advance of construction. Even a single reliable point at an intermediate stage can be of inesiimablevalue in the preparation of

D8.3

Channel Roughness

A rnatter of prime importance in bridge backwater or slope-area computations is the ability to cvaluate properly the roughness of the main channel and of the flood plains; both are subiect to extreme variations in vegetal growth and depth of flow. As a guide. values,rf the Manning roughness coefficient, n, as commonly encountered in practrce, are tabulated for various conditions of channel and flood plain in fable D-1. Since tfre practicing engineer in this country is familiar with the Manning roughness coeff icient. the Manning equation has been chosen for use here' ln interpreting roughness coeff icients from Table D-i, it shoutd be kept in mind that the value of n for a small depth of f low, especially on a f lood plain covered wiirr grass, weeds, and brush, can be considerably larger than that for greater f row depths over the same terrain. On the other hand,'as the stage rises in a stream with an aliuvial bed, sand wavesdevelop which can increase the value of n. lt is, therefore, suggested that the notes acccmpanying Table D-1 be carefully considered 'along with the tabulation.

131

Table D-1"-Manning's Roughness Coefficient for Natural Stream Channelsl
ltlanning's

A.

Minor Stream (surface width at f iood 1. F airly regu lar sect io n;

stage

(

100 ft.):2

n

range

a. b.

Some grass and weeds, little or no brush Dense growth of weeds. depth of f low materially than weed height

0.030-0.035

s'"ui;'

0.035-0.05 0.01-0.02

lrregular section, with pools, slight channel meander; channels (a) and (b) above, increase all values about

3.

Mountain streams, no vegetation in channel. banks usually steep, trees and brush along banks submerged at high stage:

a. b. B. 1.

Bottom of gravel, cobbles. and few boulders Bottom of cobbles with larqe bounders

0.04-0.05 0.05-0.07

Flood plains (adjacent to natural streams):
Pasture. no brush:

a. b.
2.

Short
H

grass

igh grass

cu ltivated areas:

0.030-0,035 0.035-0.05 0.035-0.045 0.05-0.07 0.06-0.08 0.10-0.16
acre:

?
4. 5.

Heavy weeds, scattered brush

6.

Light brush and trees:3 Medium to dense vegetation:3 Cleared land with tree stumps, 100-150 per

a. b. 7.
c.

No sprouts With heavy growth of sprouts

Heavy stand

of timber, a few down

trees, little undergrowth:

0.04-o.05 0.06-0.08 0.10-0.12

Major stream (surface width at f lood stage ) '100 feet): Roughness coefficient is usually less than for mirror streams of similar description on account of less effective resistance otfered by irregular banks or vegetation on banks. Values of n may be somewhat reduced. Follow general recommendationsl if possible. The value of n for larger streams of mostly regular section, with no boulders or brush, may be in the
ra

nge

0.028-0.33

lWith channel of alignment other than straight, loss of head by resistance forces will be increased. A stnali increase in value of n may be made lo allow for the additional loss ol energy.
2The tentatiue values of n cited are princrpalty cterived !rom meosurernentsmde on fairly short but straight reaches of natural streams. Where slopes caiculated from tlood elevations along a consherable length of channel, involving meanders and bends, are to be used in velociry calculations by th,; Manning formula, the value of n must be increased to provrde f or the additional loss of energy caused by bends. All values in the table musi be so increased. The increasemav be in the range of perhaps 3 to
1

5 percenr.

"The presence

?

ol foliage on trees and brush under f lood stage will materially increase the value of n. Therefore, roughness coefficients for vegetation in leaf will be larger than for bare branches. For trees in channel or on banks, and lor brush on banks where submergence of branches increases v/nh depth of flow, n will increase with risirg stage.

132

D8.4

Bridge Backwater procedure

bridge constriction:
1.

The following is a brief step-by-step outlin€ for determining the backwater produced by

a

3.tJ;t#:t
2. 3.

the magnitude and frequencv of the discharge for which the bridge is to be

Determine the stage of the stream at the bridge site for the design discharge. Plot a representative cross section of stream for design discharge at section already done under step 2' l, if not tt streim channer is esse-ntiaily stra6ht and substantially uniform in the cross section vicinity J the bridge, tr,, at the bridge site may be used for ""ir*r cross section of the stream this purpose.

4.

subdivide the cross section plotted in step 3 according to marked charges in depth of flow and changes in roughness. Assign values of Marining roughness coefficient, n, to (Tabre D-1i. €xperience and carefurjudsment are necessary in serectirq :;:iiff::.tion .t""J:rti::,:onvevance
and then discharge in each subsection (method is demonstrated in

5.

6.

Using cumulative conveyance and discrrloe at section 1, computeslope of stream, so. should the computed slope vary rnore than 2s percent irom the actuar srope, reassign values of the roughness factor, n, and repeat conveyance

c€mputations.

7.

?,"l"Jl,tr
8.

#:i:

of kinetic enersv coefficient,

cr (method is iilustrated in Exampre

section under proposed bridge based on normal water surface for design discharge, and compute gross water area (including area occupied by piers).

Plot natural cross

9.

compute bridge openirg ratio, M (section D3.1(h), observing modified procedurefor skewed crossings, (Section D4.6).
in Figure.D-6 for symmetrical normal crosings. lf piers are involved' computevalue'of J (sec. D4.4) and obtain incre'nentalcoefficient, AKo' from Figure D-7 (noie ,'",r,oa outrined for skewJ cissings, sec. D.4.4 (b) ). lf eccentrjcity is compr.rte value of e (Sec. D4.5) and obtain incremental ,Tu.r.:. coefficient, AK", from Figure D-g.

10. 11.

obtain value of K6 frorn

base curve

12.

13.

crosing is involved, observe proper procedure in previous steps, then obtain incrementar coefficient, AKr, for proper abutment type from Figure D-10.
Determine total backwater coefficient, curve coefficient, K6.

lf a skewed

14.

K*, by adding incremental coefficients to

base

15.

Estimate

:fffiffi
16.

cz from Figur.e D_5, then make allowance for h m y eao to r; JY i",?f:T:[,TX*nl_i,:f
a
I

""

"$;]:l,l"TT:il]i?

17.

Compute backwater by expression (D_4), section D4..|. Determine distance upstream to maximum backwater from Figure D-.,3 and converr backwater to water sjrface elevation at section 1 if computations are based on normal stage at bridge.
133

D9. D9.1

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES

General

A better understanding of the procedures for computing bridge backwater can be gained from the illustrative examples in this section. The examples dealwith the following phases of design:

1. 2. 3. 4. D9.2 (o)

Example 1 comprises a simple normal crosing; the steps closely follow the outline of design procedure listed in section D8.4.

Example

2

should help clarify the procedure recommended for skewed crossings.

Example 3 demonstrates how discharge or differential water level across bridge embankments can be determined when the upstream girder is in the f low.
Example 4 is same as example 3 with the structure partially inundated.
tJ U
|l

F
I

Example
Giuen

1: NormalCrossing

z
F
__s lrl
UJ

The channel crosing shown in Figure D-17 with the following information: Cross section of river at bridge site showing areas, wetted perimeters, and values of Manning, n; normal water surface for design = El. 28.0 ft. at bridge; average slope of river in vicinity of bridge So = 2.6 ft./ mi. or 0.00049 tt./tt.; cross section under bridge showing area below norrnalwater surface and width of roadway = 40 ft. The stream is essentially straight, the cross section relatively constant in the vicinrty of the bridge, and the crossing is normal to the general direction of flow.

(b) la. lb. 1c. 1d. 1e. lf. lg.

ToFind
Conveyance at section
Discharge
1.

of stream at El. 28.0 ft. Velocity head correction coefficbnt, crt.
Bridge opening ratio, M. Backwater produced by the bridge.

Water surface elevation on upstream side of roadway embankment. Water surface elevation on downstream side of roadway embankment.

134

U.^sEcTOil

'"'%
PrEns

Ia4
sEC ?

sEc

o

lI

o . eos'

CULTIVATEO

n.OO45

o'6?74

p.oe

-]. in.ooTo nrooTo lo.?85? o.3Aas
o..o'i

n .o o35 o '?,OO4O

e'

-+ts\looo€D io'*,i

lll

o

o

. p.

1.6774 23r O

PI€RS

34

3@

4OO

OSTANCE-F€Er

Figure D-r7 - Exampre

I:

pran and cros section of normar crosing

(c)

Conputation

computation (1a)' Under the conditions stated, it is permissible to assume that the cross sectional area of the .stream at section 1 is the same as thai at the bridge. The approach section is then divided into subsections at abrupt changes in depth or channel roughness as shown in Figure D-17' The conveyance of each subsectioi i, compuied as shown in cJlumns t through g of rable D-2 (see also sec' o3.1(g) ). The summation of the individual values in columng represents the overall conveyance of the stream at section I or K1 = g79,4gg. Note that the water interface between subsections is not included in the wetted perimeter. Table D-2 is set up in short form to better demonstrate the method. The actual computation would involve many subsections corresponding to breaks in grade or changes in channel roughness.
area is essentially constant throughout the.reach under consideration, for the discharge by what is known as the srope-area method or:

Computation (1b). Since the slope of the stream is known (2.6 ft./mi.) and thecrosssectional

it

is permissible

to solve

Q

=

Kr Sotrz

-

B7g,4gg (0.00049)r/2

=

19,s00 c.f.s.

135

Computation (1c)..To compute the kinetic energy coefficient (Sec. D3.1(i) ), it is first necessary to complete columns 9, 10, and 11 of Table D-2; then, using expression (D-3a) (Sec. D3.l(i) ):
Equ2

qr=-=-

'

374,895

ov2nl

19,500(19,500/5,664)2

=

1.62

where Iqv2 is the summation of column 11, and.Vnl repr€s€nts the average velocity for normal stage at section 1.

'

Computation (1d). The sum of the individual discharges in column g must equal 19,500 c.f.s. The factor M, as stated in section D3.1{h), is the ratio of that portion of the discharge approaching the bridge in width b, to the total discharge of the river; using expression (D-l) (Sec. D3.1(h) ).

, Q^ 12.040 M=*=-::--:-=o'62 u 19,500
Entering Figure D-5 with crr
Sr=0.00(X9

= 1.62 and M = A.62, the

value

of

tz

is estimated as 1.40.

Table D-2.-Example 1: Sample computations.

C,omputation (ta) Sub--: s€ctron

Compuntion (lc)

l.{9 n

a
sq.

p ft.

q r=p
ft

r,lt

I '19 k=--ar|tt n

-k S=Q;, cfs

u-!

o Cdt

Q

ft.

fps

(r)
Q.-

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(.7)

(8)

(e)

(10) 1.57 r.71 r.$ 5.{3 2.68 3.01 2.60

(ll)
2,124

-.- I 0-200 0 045 l20o-2{0 .070 (z+uzao .020 o--- "-{280-{20 .035 llzo-<ls .0s0 A.---" /lls-soo .0s0 lsoo-zso .o4s

33.0 627.4 2c/i .2 3 134 2 t42 44.349 9E[t.3 2r.2 2852 {0.t 7.tr2 3698 22.359 4957 2r.z 324s 40 1 B.os2 4.031 27,7J2 614.8 12 5 z.W.O t{5 0 13 821 5.7s9 490,492 10,875.2 n.7 2os8 2s.t 8199 4.066 24.8s2 ssl.o n] 939 4 ss t 9.289 {.s26 73,to9 1.62s.{ 3J.0 1,627.4 2it.0 6 683 B.ilB 196,396 {,3s4.6
zl"=5,6fi1 .7 sq. ft.
,{^: =2,53{ sq. ft. Kr :,i79,{89 Q = 19,5OO.0
Qr

l,50l
2,196 320.65{
a,gsE

11,726 29,136

c.f.s.

&d=374,E95

:12. O{0

c.f.s.

Computation (1e). Entering Figure D-6 with for bridge waterway of 205 ft.

tul

= 0.62, the base curvecoefficient is K6 = 0.72

As the bridge is supported by f ive solid piers, the incrernental coeff icient (AKe) for this effect will be determined as described in section D4.4. Referring to Figu.re D-17 and Table D-2, the gross water area under the bridge for normal stage, An2, is 2,534 sq. fr. and the area obstructed by the piers, Ao, is 180 sq. ft.; so:

J=

180 A^ '=-=0.07 Anz 2,534

1

136

Entering Figure D'7A wlth J = 0.071 for solid piers, the reading from ordinate is AK = 0.13. This value is for M = 1'0' Now enter Figure D-zg ana obtain the correction factoro, forM = 0'62 which is 0.84. The incremental backwater coefficient for the five piers, AKo = AKo = 0.13x0.84=0.11.
The overall backwater coeff
ic

ient

:

K' = Ku *
vn2 =
and

AKo = 0,12 + 0.11 = 0.g3,

o 19.500 = = 7.70 f.p.s. -Ane --2,534

rtZ Y 2s

n2

= o.9z ft.
wiil

Using expression (D-4a) (sec. D4.1), the approximate backwater

be.

;1.

oz-V2nz

29

=

0.g3 x 1.40 x 0.92 = 1.07 ft. v.vv A r.rv A v.-rz - LU/ It.

(D-4a)

Substituting values in the second half

between sections 4 and 1 (Sec. D4.1) where

of expression (D-4) for difference in kinetic energy
Anl = 5664 sq. ft. = Ae ,

Ar

= 6384 sq. ft., and An2 = 2534 sq. ft.,

c
-or

[s' Hl+
z]
is

(D-4b)

. t'oz [ /z,ssq\
ht

fz5sa\ - \;5o| J 0.s2 = 1.62 x 0.042 x 0.e2 = 0.06 ft. L\r,../
*=
1.07 + 0.06

Then total backwater produced by the bridge

= 1.13 ft.

(D_4)

Computation ([fl- The statement was made (in Sec. D6.1) that the water srface on the upstream side of the roadway embankment will be essentially the same as that at section l. Thus, to determine the backwater elevation it is first necessary to locate the position of section 1, which is accomplished with the airi of Figure D-13.
From preceding computations
:

b = 205 ft.
and

"y= A'u b

2.5U
205
137

It is necessary to assume the total drop across the embankments for a first trial
as 1.9

ft.l.

(Ah is assumed

Entering Figure D-13 with

ah = 1.90 12.36 -t
and

= 0.154

! = 12.36,
L* _
b

=

0.79

and

L*

= 0.78 x 205 =

160 ft.

The drop in channel gradient between sections 1 and centreline of roadway is then SsLl_( = 0.00049 (160 + 30i = 0.093 ft. Thewatersurface elevation at section 1 and along the upstream side of the roadway embankrnent will be:
El. 28.0 + So Lr-

{+ hi

= 28.0 + 0.09 + 1.13 = Et. 29.2 ft.

Computation (ld. The first step in determining the water surface elevation at section 3 isto compute the backwater for the bridge in question without piers, as explaineb in Section DS.

hb' = ;qo

o2V2n2
=
2s

0.72x

1.40 x 0.92 = 0.g3

ft.

Entering Figure D-12 with M = 0.62, the differentiai levelratio for the bridge (without piers) is:

Db =
so

hr "b
ho' + h3'

=0.58,

h3. =

n,.(a )
0.67 = 27.33 ft.

=0.e3fu

)

=0.67rt.

(D-6)

The placing of piers in a waterway results in no change in the value of h*3 provided other conditions remain ihe same {Sec. D5.3), so h*3 (with piers) also equals O"OZ tt. The water grface elwation on the downstream side of the roadway embankment will be essentially
El. 28.0

The drop in water surface across the embankment is then

Ah = 29.22

-

27.33

= l.Bg ft.

Since Ah was assumed as 1.90 ft., the computed water surface elevationsabove ir" s.tistactory. Should the computed value of Ah be materially different from that assumed, another trialwill
be necessary.

138

D9.3
(o)

Example
Ciuen

2: Skewed Crossirg

A skewed bridge, Figure D-18 on the site chosen in examole 1. rather than a normal
From example 1:
Q = 19,500 c.f.s. for N.W.S. = 2g.0, b = 205, So = 0.00049, q1 = j.62, M = 0.62, Aa =. 5,664 sq. ft., 41 = 6,3g4 sq. ft. and / = 40 ft.

crossino.

^ */-sEcTroN

I

-

|
I

r -J---oo

_

SECTON^

---1U

-|

bs cos

* =192'

Q= l9,5OOcfs N.fy.s. 28.o

5I.]

Ap-22O

SO.FT

Figure D-18.-Example 2: Plan

for shewed crossittg

139

(b)

To
F

Find
ind Length of skewed bridge required to produce essentially 1.1 feet of backwater occurred in example 1.
as

2a.

2b. The backwater for bridge length chosen. 2c. The approximate water level at point A on section 1.

(c)

Computation

Contputution (2a). The design discharge and normal stage at bridge site are known. The same procedure demonstrated in example 1 is followed, with exceptions as noted. First, the general direction of flow in the river at the bridge site for the design flood, without constriction, is determined. Next, the position and extent of roadway embankments and the type of abutment are superimposed on the stream as illustrated in Figure D-9. The angle of skew is measured, which is 40" in this case; then the bridge opening is projected upstream, normal to the direction of flow, to section 1.
Entering Figure D-1'1, with d = 40o and M = 0.62.
b.Cosd
b

=

0.935.

b'Cos@

= 0.935 x 205 = 192 ft.,

b, =

192

0.766

250

ft.

(aPProx.).

Computation (2b). The actual backwater produced by the skewed bridge, 250 feet long, will be computed as a check on the above determination as well as to demonstrate the method of procedure. Conveyance and area are both plotted with respect to distance across flood plain at section 'l on Figure D-19. The information needed to construct the chart came directly from Table D-2 which was prepared in connection with the solution of example 1. The first step is to locate the position of the skewed bridge on Figure D-19 and lay off the projected length, b, Cos@, as shown. Then M is computed as follows:

-=

na=

!
K1

600,000
=

-

70.000

879.489

= 0.60

From Figure D-6, the backwater coeff icient, Kb = 0.77. Note that an extra pier has been added and all are parallel to the direction of f low. The area obstructed by piers, Ao, is now 220 sq. ft. The projected area under the bridoe referenced to normal water surface, from Figure D-19 is

140

Ana = 3,400
and

-

1,000

=

Z,4OO

sq. ft.

J= Ao An2s

220
2,4W

=0.092

consulting Figure D-7, the incrementar backwater coeff icient for piers

AKo=0.18x0.8=0.1S
Entering Figure D-10A with M = 0.60 and O

=

40",

AK, = -0.19.
The total backwater coefficient for the skewed bridge is then

K* = Ko *
v62 =
Y2n2/2g

AKo + AK, = 0.77 + o.ls =
8.

-

0.19 = 0.73,

'-o = 19,500 Anz --2,4W

13 f.p.s.,

=

1.03

and from Figure D-S, cr2

= 1.40
wiil
be

Using expression (D'4a) (sec. D4.1) the approximate backwater

K*

t- 2 *1" *

29

= 0.73 x 1.40

x

1.03

= 1.0b ft. "vu r''
of expression
(D-4),

{D4'a)

Substituting values in the second half

cl '

l(t"},"eligible_for_exclusive_trial_roadblock":false,"eligible_for_seo_roadblock":false,"exclusive_free_trial_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/exclusive-free-trial-props/75427651","flashes":[],"footer_props":{"urls":{"about":"/about","press":"/press","blog":"http://literally.scribd.com/","careers":"/careers","contact":"/contact","plans_landing":"/subscribe","referrals":"/referrals?source=footer","giftcards":"/giftcards","faq":"/faq","accessibility":"/accessibility-policy","faq_paths":{"accounts":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246346","announcements":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246066","copyright":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246086","downloading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210135046","publishing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","reading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246406","selling":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246326","store":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","status":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001202872","terms":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246126","writing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","adchoices":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210129366","paid_features":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","failed_uploads":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210134586-Troubleshooting-uploads-and-conversions","copyright_infringement":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210128946-DMCA-copyright-infringement-takedown-notification-policy","end_user_license":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129486","terms_of_use":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129326-General-Terms-of-Use"},"publishers":"/publishers","static_terms":"/terms","static_privacy":"/privacy","copyright":"/copyright","ios_app":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/scribd-worlds-largest-online/id542557212?mt=8&uo=4&at=11lGEE","android_app":"https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.scribd.app.reader0&hl=en","books":"/books","sitemap":"/directory"}},"global_nav_props":{"header_props":{"logo_src":"/images/landing/home2_landing/scribd_logo_horiz_small.svg","root_url":"https://www.scribd.com/","search_term":"","small_logo_src":"/images/logos/scribd_s_logo.png","uploads_url":"/upload-document","search_props":{"redirect_to_app":true,"search_url":"/search","search_test":"control","query":"","search_page":false}},"user_menu_props":null,"sidebar_props":{"urls":{"bestsellers":"https://www.scribd.com/bestsellers","home":"https://www.scribd.com/","saved":"/saved","subscribe":"/archive/pmp_checkout?doc=75427651&metadata=%7B%22context%22%3A%22pmp%22%2C%22action%22%3A%22start_trial%22%2C%22logged_in%22%3Afalse%2C%22platform%22%3A%22web%22%7D","top_charts":"/bestsellers","upload":"https://www.scribd.com/upload-document"},"categories":{"book":{"icon":"icon-ic_book","icon_filled":"icon-ic_book_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/books","name":"Books","type":"book"},"news":{"icon":"icon-ic_articles","icon_filled":"icon-ic_articles_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/news","name":"News","type":"news"},"audiobook":{"icon":"icon-ic_audiobook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_audiobook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/audiobooks","name":"Audiobooks","type":"audiobook"},"magazine":{"icon":"icon-ic_magazine","icon_filled":"icon-ic_magazine_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/magazines","name":"Magazines","type":"magazine"},"document":{"icon":"icon-ic_document","icon_filled":"icon-ic_document_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/docs","name":"Documents","type":"document"},"sheet_music":{"icon":"icon-ic_songbook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_songbook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/sheetmusic","name":"Sheet Music","type":"sheet_music"}},"categories_array":["mixed","book","audiobook","magazine","news","document","sheet_music"],"selected_content_type":"mixed","username":"","search_overlay_props":{"search_input_props":{"focused":false,"keep_suggestions_on_blur":false}}}},"recommenders":{"related_titles_recommender":{"item_props":[{"type":"document","id":73094675,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094675/108x144/6b6257a4cd/1533841910?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094675/216x288/ea8032f470/1533841910?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 9-86 - A Guidelines for Installation of Kilometer Post","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 9-86 - A Guidelines for Installation of Kilometer Post","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094675,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"BYtmZNZaiIZrxMEMaFtF6yHhlw8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73094675/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-9-86-A-Guidelines-for-Installation-of-Kilometer-Post"},{"type":"document","id":74757659,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74757659/108x144/1397e6a96b/1522740601?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74757659/216x288/3cf9bf665e/1522740601?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines On Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"REAM Guidelines On Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":74757659,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pGDIV2zYNNBDV85/Vi3uTdcW4NI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/74757659/REAM-Guidelines-On-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":245444558,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444558/108x144/cf8c65b217/1481686257?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444558/216x288/37f0453e48/1481686257?v=1","title":"Guidelines for Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works for Road Project","short_title":"Guidelines for Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works for Road Project","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444558,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"wlzhyx4V2litKCY51gRBoxCRK0c="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245444558/Guidelines-for-Planning-Scope-of-Site-Investigation-Works-for-Road-Project"},{"type":"document","id":73094044,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094044/108x144/e26f0626d7/1514909260?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094044/216x288/bb8bcac05d/1514909260?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6-85 - Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawing","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6-85 - Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawing","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094044,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"N4Wqsz0qF3boJRuzbflklCZuEYE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094044/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-6-85-Guidelines-for-Presentation-of-Engineering-Drawing"},{"type":"document","id":73094913,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094913/108x144/fe54beb415/1520409322?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094913/216x288/8f646cb96d/1520409322?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11-87 - A Guide to the Design of at Grade Intersections","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11-87 - A Guide to the Design of at Grade Intersections","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094913,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"bY5TpwFaRzWaHoy4O6qqJb9eOp4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094913/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-11-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-at-Grade-Intersections"},{"type":"document","id":45184234,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/45184234/108x144/625bdeca96/1369702851?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/45184234/216x288/9cb14275ac/1369702851?v=1","title":"Subsoil Drainage ~REAM 3-2002 v5","short_title":"Subsoil Drainage ~REAM 3-2002 v5","author":"Nurulaqdiyah Mohd Jamid","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":45184234,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"3al3Ku8tv7m96T+VTnd6/v4zKwA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/45184234/Subsoil-Drainage-REAM-3-2002-v5"},{"type":"document","id":75416029,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/108x144/26c446770f/1522217655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/216x288/f43475a56d/1522217655?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75416029,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"SmgifeDEvyK2ok+HpsLf6GUPmU4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75416029/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-4"},{"type":"document","id":75429784,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/108x144/147399564d/1481686263?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/216x288/5b05eca33a/1481686263?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75429784,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"npwERmm0U1/Vz5Ri7mVpvPIlpeU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75429784/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-5"},{"type":"document","id":75422583,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/108x144/88901b8127/1511853494?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/216x288/bba905052c/1511853494?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75422583,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"cOHEHBi4fEcyz8/K0TE2ebmaFew="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/75422583/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-2"},{"type":"document","id":73083888,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083888/108x144/92b99dbbe7/1489081138?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083888/216x288/6912bd9767/1489081138?v=1","title":"Interim Guide on Identifying Prioritising and Treating Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia - JKR 20708-0022-95","short_title":"Interim Guide on Identifying Prioritising and Treating Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia - JKR 20708-0022-95","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083888,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"PR2VKq6PUnf0Y/j10kjCE8w8Ngc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083888/Interim-Guide-on-Identifying-Prioritising-and-Treating-Hazardous-Locations-on-Roads-in-Malaysia-JKR-20708-0022-95"},{"type":"document","id":73096020,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/108x144/fcaba22a41/1514855998?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/216x288/c8a35839db/1514855998?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096020,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"0KBMgMkgT6K/AZ2QmZD59C7pTw0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096020/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-16-03-An-Effective-Approach-to-Prepare-Bill-of-Quantities-for-Environmental-Protection"},{"type":"document","id":57415236,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57415236/108x144/a95f509d3e/1364176267?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57415236/216x288/c2df6b0c78/1364176267?v=1","title":"ATJ 10_86 a Guide to the Design of Cycle Track","short_title":"ATJ 10_86 a Guide to the Design of Cycle Track","author":"mroys","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":57415236,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"to+YGN8rkztAxG7piqjcAeEb7ro="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/57415236/ATJ-10-86-a-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Cycle-Track"},{"type":"document","id":73084937,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73084937/108x144/05b85a5f49/1522139656?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73084937/216x288/ce733afaa5/1522139656?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1-85 - Manual on Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1-85 - Manual on Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73084937,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"A+kTdr2LsX1h9NrB9qVmiUhdV00="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73084937/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-1-85-Manual-on-Design-Guidelines-of-Longitudinal-Traffic-Barrier"},{"type":"document","id":73083267,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083267/108x144/db1a8426ae/1515052055?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083267/216x288/4517e53c4b/1515052055?v=1","title":"Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavements - JKR 20709-0315-94","short_title":"Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavements - JKR 20709-0315-94","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083267,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"qM3uiuRJVE57jQbrl4kMRsZug/A="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083267/Interim-Guide-to-Evaluation-and-Rehabilitation-of-Flexible-Road-Pavements-JKR-20709-0315-94"},{"type":"document","id":73093593,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/108x144/f427982098/1537146589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/216x288/512c3999db/1537146589?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093593,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"VXD/NM6+nE2P1At3RSzmLN3Z6W8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73093593/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-4-85-Pind-1997-Application-for-the-Installation-of-Public-Utilitiy-Services-Within-Road-Reserve"},{"type":"document","id":73081649,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73081649/108x144/3c1f52c57e/1520887817?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73081649/216x288/165e74e022/1520887817?v=1","title":"Guideline for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks - JKR 20407-0001-90","short_title":"Guideline for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks - JKR 20407-0001-90","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73081649,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"nUhwQXgFo4IfonVYvK73ZCIpv/0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73081649/Guideline-for-Inspection-and-Testing-of-Roadworks-JKR-20407-0001-90"},{"type":"document","id":73094454,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/108x144/8f56464637/1532320178?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/216x288/3a054ff796/1532320178?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094454,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"oK9egPQxjnklqYtZDsCFzi6Tbqk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094454/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-8-86-A-Guide-on-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":73096688,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/108x144/3752cfba41/1530686678?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/216x288/02cdbdd830/1530686678?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096688,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"kFgRcrgrB64GoAUCx3PyZRi4J3Q="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096688/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-23-03-Guidelines-on-the-Estimation-Procedures-for-Traffic-Management-During-Construction"},{"type":"document","id":73095893,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/108x144/6b79a5ba15/1536385949?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/216x288/73a6c6d83c/1536385949?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095893,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"1s/5SBoHUhdJT7F/n6WumF2+VQQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095893/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-14-87-Model-Terms-of-Reference-for-Detailed-Ground-Survey-and-Engineering-Design-Road"},{"type":"document","id":36057745,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/36057745/108x144/ac264e5332/1357692896?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/36057745/216x288/5e11c09e40/1357692896?v=1","title":"Handbook No 1 - Drainage","short_title":"Handbook No 1 - Drainage","author":"Rusdee Kamis","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":36057745,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ZJJIUiue8zZl2qVY444GW+S7eHo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/36057745/Handbook-No-1-Drainage"},{"type":"document","id":73096106,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/108x144/7af2de2674/1514512622?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/216x288/8ac6d5a418/1514512622?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096106,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"dCeBpgP/yuDgtD6J3NDaodmLH6U="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096106/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-20-98-Design-Review-Checklist-for-Road-Projects"},{"type":"document","id":73095031,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/108x144/a28b99e8c8/1536717275?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/216x288/5789d3530c/1536717275?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095031,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"acGkkYpDMsmHdhz5r9IEGZpGEZU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095031/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-12-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Interchanges"},{"type":"document","id":242186169,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242186169/108x144/4981140fe2/1472536768?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242186169/216x288/1c1d7c7db9/1472536768?v=1","title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s3 A","short_title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s3 A","author":"hasif21","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":242186169,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"R4TAgzpIq8LoWBKpar/4lNRyLQ0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/242186169/Std-Spec-Jkr-Spj-2013-s3-A"},{"type":"document","id":73083060,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083060/108x144/7b4a5e7a18/1513447929?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083060/216x288/dc04178045/1513447929?v=1","title":"A Guide to the Visual Assessement of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions - JKR 20709-2060-92","short_title":"A Guide to the Visual Assessement of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions - JKR 20709-2060-92","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083060,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"435qp0dvd3Z3VMRPL/4PbrGkTDs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083060/A-Guide-to-the-Visual-Assessement-of-Flexible-Pavement-Surface-Conditions-JKR-20709-2060-92"},{"type":"document","id":73086839,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73086839/108x144/17ae8c3b53/1522899997?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73086839/216x288/7ad19d44f9/1522899997?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2E-87 - Guide Signs Design and Application","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2E-87 - Guide Signs Design and Application","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73086839,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"g5TJdhNSPg8lUOg50O0syC3bgWg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73086839/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-2E-87-Guide-Signs-Design-and-Application"},{"type":"document","id":263473199,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/263473199/108x144/94ec78d16a/1518102803?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/263473199/216x288/57bd57613a/1518102803?v=1","title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s17 A","short_title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s17 A","author":"dinu69in","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":263473199,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"prNrLPK+4oxnP2zfUOIzUmTzzeY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/263473199/Std-Spec-Jkr-Spj-2013-s17-A"},{"type":"document","id":69701105,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/69701105/108x144/17d036a007/1536939836?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/69701105/216x288/9ae8548dc2/1536939836?v=1","title":"Construction Supervision Manual for Roadworks - JKR 20407-0003-90","short_title":"Construction Supervision Manual for Roadworks - JKR 20407-0003-90","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":69701105,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"HYYuIe6WN7e5f1YSpwb0qCbAwfE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/69701105/Construction-Supervision-Manual-for-Roadworks-JKR-20407-0003-90"},{"type":"document","id":259351148,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/259351148/108x144/b95a3d3ff4/1504746628?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/259351148/216x288/9b330426de/1504746628?v=1","title":"JKR_SPJ_S7_2011","short_title":"JKR_SPJ_S7_2011","author":"russxy","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":259351148,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"uQEN/dL6FOF3IsOh/UpctBvHhV0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/259351148/JKR-SPJ-S7-2011"},{"type":"document","id":38660447,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/38660447/108x144/cc50224656/1503482027?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/38660447/216x288/9ec89f6c53/1503482027?v=1","title":"2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation","short_title":"2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation","author":"wanjailani","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":38660447,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"7TSqWsETy7mzDBX+MuqeKmIApig="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/38660447/2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation"},{"type":"document","id":332874017,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332874017/108x144/9983fbbd3a/1480582459?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332874017/216x288/00cccd2c0e/1480582459?v=1","title":"Building Materials Kota Kinabalu Sabah - May 2016","short_title":"Building Materials Kota Kinabalu Sabah - May 2016","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":332874017,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"UMtnMitJtUKTWo+dCASA0Ww5emQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/332874017/Building-Materials-Kota-Kinabalu-Sabah-May-2016"},{"type":"document","id":75413625,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75413625/108x144/1ca0d7515b/1481686274?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75413625/216x288/714e50f4ca/1481686274?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 1","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 1","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75413625,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pN9zPM7a0n9WaJIZIVyPQL2I5ws="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75413625/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-1"},{"type":"document","id":258086187,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/258086187/108x144/23ad19b0ed/1425864470?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/258086187/216x288/817d3e5de2/1425864470?v=1","title":"Dao Huan Pricing","short_title":"Dao Huan Pricing","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":258086187,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"OirmzDj16nay4JxQhsXJfLanwQ8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/258086187/Dao-Huan-Pricing"},{"type":"document","id":236686377,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/236686377/108x144/3cb533ca4a/1531869655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/236686377/216x288/17337657f8/1531869655?v=1","title":"Std Spec for Building Works 2014","short_title":"Std Spec for Building Works 2014","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":236686377,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8a0iEKktf4RuJ5hmhRWZLEZaq44="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/236686377/Std-Spec-for-Building-Works-2014"},{"type":"document","id":245445349,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245445349/108x144/6772f91ced/1437695301?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245445349/216x288/8f17912de2/1437695301?v=1","title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 15, No. 2) September 1983","short_title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 15, No. 2) September 1983","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245445349,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"n35xxO2utwEB/7n8kcsf0djL9LY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245445349/Borneo-Research-Bulletin-Vol-15-No-2-September-1983"},{"type":"document","id":261204573,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/261204573/108x144/c45bcf6eef/1504339535?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/261204573/216x288/6e993f74ba/1504339535?v=1","title":"Landslide Risk Management (2005) - Oldrich Hungr","short_title":"Landslide Risk Management (2005) - Oldrich Hungr","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":261204573,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pp9ImKccTZNCSixkNk/xZvZrlvs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/261204573/Landslide-Risk-Management-2005-Oldrich-Hungr"},{"type":"document","id":75416029,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/108x144/26c446770f/1522217655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/216x288/f43475a56d/1522217655?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75416029,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"0QMofu7odNNJ8OxQb/cMGjW/NW4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75416029/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-4"},{"type":"document","id":75429784,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/108x144/147399564d/1481686263?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/216x288/5b05eca33a/1481686263?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75429784,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Q1i/asn9Kq/9FkNRgjUGYfPrTfM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75429784/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-5"},{"type":"document","id":75422583,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/108x144/88901b8127/1511853494?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/216x288/bba905052c/1511853494?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75422583,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8HWmyT0OstGc3fXf5LnihEE+wZw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/75422583/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-2"},{"type":"document","id":74224875,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74224875/108x144/3d79e8c314/1537114396?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74224875/216x288/3975675a8e/1537114396?v=1","title":"Structural Analysis","short_title":"Structural Analysis","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":74224875,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"GsWWu01M1FTcYdifLomD/YHVTPQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/74224875/Structural-Analysis"},{"type":"document","id":245444855,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444855/108x144/29cd01376e/1429149586?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444855/216x288/69052e5ebe/1429149586?v=1","title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 10, No. 2) September 1978","short_title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 10, No. 2) September 1978","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444855,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"GSfkoWDbNjEBFCnmBsuw66mjoeA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245444855/Borneo-Research-Bulletin-Vol-10-No-2-September-1978"},{"type":"document","id":73684055,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73684055/108x144/fb665082db/1322162141?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73684055/216x288/f059034250/1322162141?v=1","title":"Forex Detailed Statement - Windsor Brokers Ltd","short_title":"Forex Detailed Statement - Windsor Brokers Ltd","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73684055,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"YKHRsA2r6TMIycP1G7saajkxkQU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73684055/Forex-Detailed-Statement-Windsor-Brokers-Ltd"},{"type":"document","id":245444118,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444118/108x144/c202c8fa40/1429267342?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444118/216x288/5c6f9d1670/1429267342?v=1","title":"Gabion Wall Design","short_title":"Gabion Wall Design","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444118,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"YcqeEK4veEcK3PZkmg6e9xNyQuY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/245444118/Gabion-Wall-Design"},{"type":"document","id":73094339,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094339/108x144/64cba1c66d/1394547836?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094339/216x288/018d7afb92/1394547836?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 7-85 - Garis Panduan Untuk Penyediaan Pelan Pengambilan Balik Tanah Bagi Projek Jalan Persekutuan","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 7-85 - Garis Panduan Untuk Penyediaan Pelan Pengambilan Balik Tanah Bagi Projek Jalan Persekutuan","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094339,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"nPPNSSbVm3AhA0DZIl4MSllmqyw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094339/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-7-85-Garis-Panduan-Untuk-Penyediaan-Pelan-Pengambilan-Balik-Tanah-Bagi-Projek-Jalan-Persekutuan"},{"type":"document","id":73094792,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094792/108x144/0535d7f3e9/1355396780?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094792/216x288/547de84076/1355396780?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 10-86 - A Guide on the Design of Cycle Track","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 10-86 - A Guide on the Design of Cycle Track","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094792,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"fL/ahlKuvUnK7FSvh/za3RGFOgY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73094792/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-10-86-A-Guide-on-the-Design-of-Cycle-Track"},{"type":"document","id":73094454,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/108x144/8f56464637/1532320178?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/216x288/3a054ff796/1532320178?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094454,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"tsRuOcGasbHpaUZ9vxudGjn0Eyg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094454/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-8-86-A-Guide-on-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":73093719,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093719/108x144/13cd1017f3/1537333373?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093719/216x288/d31154535f/1537333373?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 5-85 - Manual on Pavement Design","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 5-85 - Manual on Pavement Design","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093719,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"aVrV4P8XnP8A7bsuxL1RQ9m0UQ4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73093719/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-5-85-Manual-on-Pavement-Design"},{"type":"document","id":73096688,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/108x144/3752cfba41/1530686678?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/216x288/02cdbdd830/1530686678?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096688,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"mcVPWpNc2W7ODLx/R/rcEZbwaNU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096688/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-23-03-Guidelines-on-the-Estimation-Procedures-for-Traffic-Management-During-Construction"},{"type":"document","id":73095893,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/108x144/6b79a5ba15/1536385949?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/216x288/73a6c6d83c/1536385949?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095893,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"me4CCWvr1YoyyPAqBLzHVE7F7BA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095893/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-14-87-Model-Terms-of-Reference-for-Detailed-Ground-Survey-and-Engineering-Design-Road"},{"type":"document","id":73096106,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/108x144/7af2de2674/1514512622?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/216x288/8ac6d5a418/1514512622?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096106,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"NfsjoOjXF0ZICuMs7fn8H8XX5VE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096106/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-20-98-Design-Review-Checklist-for-Road-Projects"},{"type":"document","id":73095031,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/108x144/a28b99e8c8/1536717275?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/216x288/5789d3530c/1536717275?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095031,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ONrNBYgd/zkXtYED/tU9X8/A1WA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095031/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-12-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Interchanges"},{"type":"document","id":73096020,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/108x144/fcaba22a41/1514855998?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/216x288/c8a35839db/1514855998?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096020,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"iMDbL+NfBhKkYcMQ/dwnKz/OOLc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096020/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-16-03-An-Effective-Approach-to-Prepare-Bill-of-Quantities-for-Environmental-Protection"},{"type":"document","id":73095182,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095182/108x144/bacfa26024/1522963095?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095182/216x288/3cf73d3f22/1522963095?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13-87 - A Guide to the Design of Traffic Signal","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13-87 - A Guide to the Design of Traffic Signal","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095182,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"OkEOIH080RPnDsuYCWc0M7s9MHw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095182/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-13-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Traffic-Signal"},{"type":"document","id":73093593,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/108x144/f427982098/1537146589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/216x288/512c3999db/1537146589?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093593,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"/GvuLVdickmv/Tj6tRuJ30NczD0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73093593/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-4-85-Pind-1997-Application-for-the-Installation-of-Public-Utilitiy-Services-Within-Road-Reserve"}],"title_link":null,"title":null,"track_opts":{"compilation_id":"2o6/qVL8CmDPnKcI0ZDLTc0OhGc=","module_id":"1UAJ05D1aT07hvIaPjIDvrZuVmo=","widget_name":"right sidebar","track_id":"flattened_recommender"}},"footer_recommenders":{"recommenders":[{"item_props":[{"type":"document","id":73094675,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094675/108x144/6b6257a4cd/1533841910?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094675/216x288/ea8032f470/1533841910?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 9-86 - A Guidelines for Installation of Kilometer Post","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 9-86 - A Guidelines for Installation of Kilometer Post","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094675,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"BYtmZNZaiIZrxMEMaFtF6yHhlw8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73094675/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-9-86-A-Guidelines-for-Installation-of-Kilometer-Post"},{"type":"document","id":74757659,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74757659/108x144/1397e6a96b/1522740601?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74757659/216x288/3cf9bf665e/1522740601?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines On Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"REAM Guidelines On Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":74757659,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"pGDIV2zYNNBDV85/Vi3uTdcW4NI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/74757659/REAM-Guidelines-On-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":245444558,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444558/108x144/cf8c65b217/1481686257?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444558/216x288/37f0453e48/1481686257?v=1","title":"Guidelines for Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works for Road Project","short_title":"Guidelines for Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works for Road Project","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444558,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"wlzhyx4V2litKCY51gRBoxCRK0c="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245444558/Guidelines-for-Planning-Scope-of-Site-Investigation-Works-for-Road-Project"},{"type":"document","id":73094044,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094044/108x144/e26f0626d7/1514909260?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094044/216x288/bb8bcac05d/1514909260?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6-85 - Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawing","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6-85 - Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawing","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094044,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"N4Wqsz0qF3boJRuzbflklCZuEYE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094044/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-6-85-Guidelines-for-Presentation-of-Engineering-Drawing"},{"type":"document","id":73094913,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094913/108x144/fe54beb415/1520409322?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094913/216x288/8f646cb96d/1520409322?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11-87 - A Guide to the Design of at Grade Intersections","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11-87 - A Guide to the Design of at Grade Intersections","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094913,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"bY5TpwFaRzWaHoy4O6qqJb9eOp4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094913/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-11-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-at-Grade-Intersections"},{"type":"document","id":45184234,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/45184234/108x144/625bdeca96/1369702851?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/45184234/216x288/9cb14275ac/1369702851?v=1","title":"Subsoil Drainage ~REAM 3-2002 v5","short_title":"Subsoil Drainage ~REAM 3-2002 v5","author":"Nurulaqdiyah Mohd Jamid","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":45184234,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"3al3Ku8tv7m96T+VTnd6/v4zKwA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/45184234/Subsoil-Drainage-REAM-3-2002-v5"},{"type":"document","id":75416029,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/108x144/26c446770f/1522217655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/216x288/f43475a56d/1522217655?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75416029,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"SmgifeDEvyK2ok+HpsLf6GUPmU4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75416029/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-4"},{"type":"document","id":75429784,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/108x144/147399564d/1481686263?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/216x288/5b05eca33a/1481686263?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75429784,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"npwERmm0U1/Vz5Ri7mVpvPIlpeU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75429784/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-5"},{"type":"document","id":75422583,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/108x144/88901b8127/1511853494?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/216x288/bba905052c/1511853494?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75422583,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"cOHEHBi4fEcyz8/K0TE2ebmaFew="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/75422583/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-2"},{"type":"document","id":73083888,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083888/108x144/92b99dbbe7/1489081138?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083888/216x288/6912bd9767/1489081138?v=1","title":"Interim Guide on Identifying Prioritising and Treating Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia - JKR 20708-0022-95","short_title":"Interim Guide on Identifying Prioritising and Treating Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia - JKR 20708-0022-95","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083888,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"PR2VKq6PUnf0Y/j10kjCE8w8Ngc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083888/Interim-Guide-on-Identifying-Prioritising-and-Treating-Hazardous-Locations-on-Roads-in-Malaysia-JKR-20708-0022-95"},{"type":"document","id":73096020,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/108x144/fcaba22a41/1514855998?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/216x288/c8a35839db/1514855998?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096020,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"0KBMgMkgT6K/AZ2QmZD59C7pTw0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096020/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-16-03-An-Effective-Approach-to-Prepare-Bill-of-Quantities-for-Environmental-Protection"},{"type":"document","id":57415236,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57415236/108x144/a95f509d3e/1364176267?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57415236/216x288/c2df6b0c78/1364176267?v=1","title":"ATJ 10_86 a Guide to the Design of Cycle Track","short_title":"ATJ 10_86 a Guide to the Design of Cycle Track","author":"mroys","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":57415236,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"to+YGN8rkztAxG7piqjcAeEb7ro="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/57415236/ATJ-10-86-a-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Cycle-Track"},{"type":"document","id":73084937,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73084937/108x144/05b85a5f49/1522139656?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73084937/216x288/ce733afaa5/1522139656?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1-85 - Manual on Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1-85 - Manual on Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73084937,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"A+kTdr2LsX1h9NrB9qVmiUhdV00="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73084937/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-1-85-Manual-on-Design-Guidelines-of-Longitudinal-Traffic-Barrier"},{"type":"document","id":73083267,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083267/108x144/db1a8426ae/1515052055?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083267/216x288/4517e53c4b/1515052055?v=1","title":"Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavements - JKR 20709-0315-94","short_title":"Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavements - JKR 20709-0315-94","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083267,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"qM3uiuRJVE57jQbrl4kMRsZug/A="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083267/Interim-Guide-to-Evaluation-and-Rehabilitation-of-Flexible-Road-Pavements-JKR-20709-0315-94"},{"type":"document","id":73093593,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/108x144/f427982098/1537146589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/216x288/512c3999db/1537146589?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093593,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"VXD/NM6+nE2P1At3RSzmLN3Z6W8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73093593/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-4-85-Pind-1997-Application-for-the-Installation-of-Public-Utilitiy-Services-Within-Road-Reserve"},{"type":"document","id":73081649,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73081649/108x144/3c1f52c57e/1520887817?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73081649/216x288/165e74e022/1520887817?v=1","title":"Guideline for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks - JKR 20407-0001-90","short_title":"Guideline for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks - JKR 20407-0001-90","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73081649,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"nUhwQXgFo4IfonVYvK73ZCIpv/0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73081649/Guideline-for-Inspection-and-Testing-of-Roadworks-JKR-20407-0001-90"},{"type":"document","id":73094454,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/108x144/8f56464637/1532320178?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/216x288/3a054ff796/1532320178?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094454,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"oK9egPQxjnklqYtZDsCFzi6Tbqk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094454/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-8-86-A-Guide-on-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":73096688,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/108x144/3752cfba41/1530686678?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/216x288/02cdbdd830/1530686678?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096688,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"kFgRcrgrB64GoAUCx3PyZRi4J3Q="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096688/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-23-03-Guidelines-on-the-Estimation-Procedures-for-Traffic-Management-During-Construction"},{"type":"document","id":73095893,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/108x144/6b79a5ba15/1536385949?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/216x288/73a6c6d83c/1536385949?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095893,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"1s/5SBoHUhdJT7F/n6WumF2+VQQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095893/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-14-87-Model-Terms-of-Reference-for-Detailed-Ground-Survey-and-Engineering-Design-Road"},{"type":"document","id":36057745,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/36057745/108x144/ac264e5332/1357692896?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/36057745/216x288/5e11c09e40/1357692896?v=1","title":"Handbook No 1 - Drainage","short_title":"Handbook No 1 - Drainage","author":"Rusdee Kamis","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":36057745,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"ZJJIUiue8zZl2qVY444GW+S7eHo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/36057745/Handbook-No-1-Drainage"},{"type":"document","id":73096106,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/108x144/7af2de2674/1514512622?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/216x288/8ac6d5a418/1514512622?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096106,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"dCeBpgP/yuDgtD6J3NDaodmLH6U="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096106/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-20-98-Design-Review-Checklist-for-Road-Projects"},{"type":"document","id":73095031,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/108x144/a28b99e8c8/1536717275?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/216x288/5789d3530c/1536717275?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095031,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"acGkkYpDMsmHdhz5r9IEGZpGEZU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095031/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-12-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Interchanges"},{"type":"document","id":242186169,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242186169/108x144/4981140fe2/1472536768?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242186169/216x288/1c1d7c7db9/1472536768?v=1","title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s3 A","short_title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s3 A","author":"hasif21","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":242186169,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"R4TAgzpIq8LoWBKpar/4lNRyLQ0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/242186169/Std-Spec-Jkr-Spj-2013-s3-A"},{"type":"document","id":73083060,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083060/108x144/7b4a5e7a18/1513447929?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083060/216x288/dc04178045/1513447929?v=1","title":"A Guide to the Visual Assessement of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions - JKR 20709-2060-92","short_title":"A Guide to the Visual Assessement of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions - JKR 20709-2060-92","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083060,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"435qp0dvd3Z3VMRPL/4PbrGkTDs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083060/A-Guide-to-the-Visual-Assessement-of-Flexible-Pavement-Surface-Conditions-JKR-20709-2060-92"},{"type":"document","id":73086839,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73086839/108x144/17ae8c3b53/1522899997?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73086839/216x288/7ad19d44f9/1522899997?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2E-87 - Guide Signs Design and Application","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2E-87 - Guide Signs Design and Application","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73086839,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"g5TJdhNSPg8lUOg50O0syC3bgWg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73086839/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-2E-87-Guide-Signs-Design-and-Application"},{"type":"document","id":263473199,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/263473199/108x144/94ec78d16a/1518102803?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/263473199/216x288/57bd57613a/1518102803?v=1","title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s17 A","short_title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s17 A","author":"dinu69in","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":263473199,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"prNrLPK+4oxnP2zfUOIzUmTzzeY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/263473199/Std-Spec-Jkr-Spj-2013-s17-A"},{"type":"document","id":69701105,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/69701105/108x144/17d036a007/1536939836?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/69701105/216x288/9ae8548dc2/1536939836?v=1","title":"Construction Supervision Manual for Roadworks - JKR 20407-0003-90","short_title":"Construction Supervision Manual for Roadworks - JKR 20407-0003-90","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":69701105,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"HYYuIe6WN7e5f1YSpwb0qCbAwfE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/69701105/Construction-Supervision-Manual-for-Roadworks-JKR-20407-0003-90"},{"type":"document","id":259351148,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/259351148/108x144/b95a3d3ff4/1504746628?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/259351148/216x288/9b330426de/1504746628?v=1","title":"JKR_SPJ_S7_2011","short_title":"JKR_SPJ_S7_2011","author":"russxy","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":259351148,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"uQEN/dL6FOF3IsOh/UpctBvHhV0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/259351148/JKR-SPJ-S7-2011"},{"type":"document","id":38660447,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/38660447/108x144/cc50224656/1503482027?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/38660447/216x288/9ec89f6c53/1503482027?v=1","title":"2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation","short_title":"2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation","author":"wanjailani","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":38660447,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"7TSqWsETy7mzDBX+MuqeKmIApig="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/38660447/2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation"}],"title_link":null,"title":"Documents Similar To REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 3","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"2o6/qVL8CmDPnKcI0ZDLTc0OhGc=","module_id":"1+1hoQaECQaV1XmU0yimXtpGtj4=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}},{"item_props":[{"type":"document","id":332874017,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332874017/108x144/9983fbbd3a/1480582459?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332874017/216x288/00cccd2c0e/1480582459?v=1","title":"Building Materials Kota Kinabalu Sabah - May 2016","short_title":"Building Materials Kota Kinabalu Sabah - May 2016","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":332874017,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"UMtnMitJtUKTWo+dCASA0Ww5emQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/332874017/Building-Materials-Kota-Kinabalu-Sabah-May-2016"},{"type":"document","id":75413625,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75413625/108x144/1ca0d7515b/1481686274?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75413625/216x288/714e50f4ca/1481686274?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 1","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 1","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75413625,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"pN9zPM7a0n9WaJIZIVyPQL2I5ws="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75413625/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-1"},{"type":"document","id":258086187,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/258086187/108x144/23ad19b0ed/1425864470?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/258086187/216x288/817d3e5de2/1425864470?v=1","title":"Dao Huan Pricing","short_title":"Dao Huan Pricing","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":258086187,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"OirmzDj16nay4JxQhsXJfLanwQ8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/258086187/Dao-Huan-Pricing"},{"type":"document","id":236686377,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/236686377/108x144/3cb533ca4a/1531869655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/236686377/216x288/17337657f8/1531869655?v=1","title":"Std Spec for Building Works 2014","short_title":"Std Spec for Building Works 2014","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":236686377,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"8a0iEKktf4RuJ5hmhRWZLEZaq44="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/236686377/Std-Spec-for-Building-Works-2014"},{"type":"document","id":245445349,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245445349/108x144/6772f91ced/1437695301?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245445349/216x288/8f17912de2/1437695301?v=1","title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 15, No. 2) September 1983","short_title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 15, No. 2) September 1983","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245445349,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"n35xxO2utwEB/7n8kcsf0djL9LY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245445349/Borneo-Research-Bulletin-Vol-15-No-2-September-1983"},{"type":"document","id":261204573,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/261204573/108x144/c45bcf6eef/1504339535?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/261204573/216x288/6e993f74ba/1504339535?v=1","title":"Landslide Risk Management (2005) - Oldrich Hungr","short_title":"Landslide Risk Management (2005) - Oldrich Hungr","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":261204573,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"pp9ImKccTZNCSixkNk/xZvZrlvs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/261204573/Landslide-Risk-Management-2005-Oldrich-Hungr"},{"type":"document","id":75416029,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/108x144/26c446770f/1522217655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/216x288/f43475a56d/1522217655?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75416029,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"0QMofu7odNNJ8OxQb/cMGjW/NW4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75416029/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-4"},{"type":"document","id":75429784,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/108x144/147399564d/1481686263?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/216x288/5b05eca33a/1481686263?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75429784,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"Q1i/asn9Kq/9FkNRgjUGYfPrTfM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75429784/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-5"},{"type":"document","id":75422583,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/108x144/88901b8127/1511853494?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/216x288/bba905052c/1511853494?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75422583,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"8HWmyT0OstGc3fXf5LnihEE+wZw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/75422583/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-2"},{"type":"document","id":74224875,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74224875/108x144/3d79e8c314/1537114396?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74224875/216x288/3975675a8e/1537114396?v=1","title":"Structural Analysis","short_title":"Structural Analysis","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":74224875,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"GsWWu01M1FTcYdifLomD/YHVTPQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/74224875/Structural-Analysis"},{"type":"document","id":245444855,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444855/108x144/29cd01376e/1429149586?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444855/216x288/69052e5ebe/1429149586?v=1","title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 10, No. 2) September 1978","short_title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 10, No. 2) September 1978","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444855,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"GSfkoWDbNjEBFCnmBsuw66mjoeA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245444855/Borneo-Research-Bulletin-Vol-10-No-2-September-1978"},{"type":"document","id":73684055,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73684055/108x144/fb665082db/1322162141?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73684055/216x288/f059034250/1322162141?v=1","title":"Forex Detailed Statement - Windsor Brokers Ltd","short_title":"Forex Detailed Statement - Windsor Brokers Ltd","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73684055,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"YKHRsA2r6TMIycP1G7saajkxkQU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73684055/Forex-Detailed-Statement-Windsor-Brokers-Ltd"},{"type":"document","id":245444118,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444118/108x144/c202c8fa40/1429267342?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444118/216x288/5c6f9d1670/1429267342?v=1","title":"Gabion Wall Design","short_title":"Gabion Wall Design","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444118,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"YcqeEK4veEcK3PZkmg6e9xNyQuY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/245444118/Gabion-Wall-Design"},{"type":"document","id":73094339,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094339/108x144/64cba1c66d/1394547836?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094339/216x288/018d7afb92/1394547836?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 7-85 - Garis Panduan Untuk Penyediaan Pelan Pengambilan Balik Tanah Bagi Projek Jalan Persekutuan","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 7-85 - Garis Panduan Untuk Penyediaan Pelan Pengambilan Balik Tanah Bagi Projek Jalan Persekutuan","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094339,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"nPPNSSbVm3AhA0DZIl4MSllmqyw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094339/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-7-85-Garis-Panduan-Untuk-Penyediaan-Pelan-Pengambilan-Balik-Tanah-Bagi-Projek-Jalan-Persekutuan"},{"type":"document","id":73094792,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094792/108x144/0535d7f3e9/1355396780?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094792/216x288/547de84076/1355396780?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 10-86 - A Guide on the Design of Cycle Track","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 10-86 - A Guide on the Design of Cycle Track","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094792,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"fL/ahlKuvUnK7FSvh/za3RGFOgY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73094792/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-10-86-A-Guide-on-the-Design-of-Cycle-Track"},{"type":"document","id":73094454,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/108x144/8f56464637/1532320178?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/216x288/3a054ff796/1532320178?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094454,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"tsRuOcGasbHpaUZ9vxudGjn0Eyg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094454/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-8-86-A-Guide-on-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":73093719,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093719/108x144/13cd1017f3/1537333373?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093719/216x288/d31154535f/1537333373?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 5-85 - Manual on Pavement Design","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 5-85 - Manual on Pavement Design","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093719,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"aVrV4P8XnP8A7bsuxL1RQ9m0UQ4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73093719/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-5-85-Manual-on-Pavement-Design"},{"type":"document","id":73096688,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/108x144/3752cfba41/1530686678?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/216x288/02cdbdd830/1530686678?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096688,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"mcVPWpNc2W7ODLx/R/rcEZbwaNU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096688/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-23-03-Guidelines-on-the-Estimation-Procedures-for-Traffic-Management-During-Construction"},{"type":"document","id":73095893,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/108x144/6b79a5ba15/1536385949?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/216x288/73a6c6d83c/1536385949?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095893,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"me4CCWvr1YoyyPAqBLzHVE7F7BA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095893/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-14-87-Model-Terms-of-Reference-for-Detailed-Ground-Survey-and-Engineering-Design-Road"},{"type":"document","id":73096106,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/108x144/7af2de2674/1514512622?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/216x288/8ac6d5a418/1514512622?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096106,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"NfsjoOjXF0ZICuMs7fn8H8XX5VE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096106/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-20-98-Design-Review-Checklist-for-Road-Projects"},{"type":"document","id":73095031,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/108x144/a28b99e8c8/1536717275?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/216x288/5789d3530c/1536717275?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095031,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"ONrNBYgd/zkXtYED/tU9X8/A1WA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095031/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-12-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Interchanges"},{"type":"document","id":73096020,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/108x144/fcaba22a41/1514855998?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/216x288/c8a35839db/1514855998?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096020,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"iMDbL+NfBhKkYcMQ/dwnKz/OOLc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096020/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-16-03-An-Effective-Approach-to-Prepare-Bill-of-Quantities-for-Environmental-Protection"},{"type":"document","id":73095182,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095182/108x144/bacfa26024/1522963095?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095182/216x288/3cf73d3f22/1522963095?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13-87 - A Guide to the Design of Traffic Signal","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13-87 - A Guide to the Design of Traffic Signal","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095182,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"OkEOIH080RPnDsuYCWc0M7s9MHw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095182/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-13-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Traffic-Signal"},{"type":"document","id":73093593,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/108x144/f427982098/1537146589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/216x288/512c3999db/1537146589?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093593,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"/GvuLVdickmv/Tj6tRuJ30NczD0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73093593/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-4-85-Pind-1997-Application-for-the-Installation-of-Public-Utilitiy-Services-Within-Road-Reserve"}],"title_link":null,"title":"More From Penjejak Awan","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"2o6/qVL8CmDPnKcI0ZDLTc0OhGc=","module_id":"Q5qPWmxaWnaQgCLyIsGMRbak/fg=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}}]},"seo_new_docs_recommenders":{"recommenders":[]}},"seo_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/seo-roadblock-props/75427651","signup_context":null,"toolbar":{"search_path":"/search-4gen?allowed_pages=&auth_token=m6ltmmFDoqTPR3fnJe5CJDjtEgY%3D&authenticity_token=BTlw5BJt9mFdL%2BtjbiMhIVunG%2FRZZZ3LaMffj6ROwM4ojPCM26zKgHP4wUxn5mZY6x5rgXtNX%2BSIfDd1nT2ypA%3D%3D&expires=1538086354&wordDocumentId=75427651&wordUploadId=78460475"},"renewal_nag_props":null}-->

- A."},"eligible_for_exclusive_trial_roadblock":false,"eligible_for_seo_roadblock":false,"exclusive_free_trial_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/exclusive-free-trial-props/75427651","flashes":[],"footer_props":{"urls":{"about":"/about","press":"/press","blog":"http://literally.scribd.com/","careers":"/careers","contact":"/contact","plans_landing":"/subscribe","referrals":"/referrals?source=footer","giftcards":"/giftcards","faq":"/faq","accessibility":"/accessibility-policy","faq_paths":{"accounts":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246346","announcements":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246066","copyright":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246086","downloading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210135046","publishing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","reading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246406","selling":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246326","store":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","status":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001202872","terms":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246126","writing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","adchoices":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210129366","paid_features":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","failed_uploads":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210134586-Troubleshooting-uploads-and-conversions","copyright_infringement":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210128946-DMCA-copyright-infringement-takedown-notification-policy","end_user_license":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129486","terms_of_use":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129326-General-Terms-of-Use"},"publishers":"/publishers","static_terms":"/terms","static_privacy":"/privacy","copyright":"/copyright","ios_app":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/scribd-worlds-largest-online/id542557212?mt=8&uo=4&at=11lGEE","android_app":"https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.scribd.app.reader0&hl=en","books":"/books","sitemap":"/directory"}},"global_nav_props":{"header_props":{"logo_src":"/images/landing/home2_landing/scribd_logo_horiz_small.svg","root_url":"https://www.scribd.com/","search_term":"","small_logo_src":"/images/logos/scribd_s_logo.png","uploads_url":"/upload-document","search_props":{"redirect_to_app":true,"search_url":"/search","search_test":"control","query":"","search_page":false}},"user_menu_props":null,"sidebar_props":{"urls":{"bestsellers":"https://www.scribd.com/bestsellers","home":"https://www.scribd.com/","saved":"/saved","subscribe":"/archive/pmp_checkout?doc=75427651&metadata=%7B%22context%22%3A%22pmp%22%2C%22action%22%3A%22start_trial%22%2C%22logged_in%22%3Afalse%2C%22platform%22%3A%22web%22%7D","top_charts":"/bestsellers","upload":"https://www.scribd.com/upload-document"},"categories":{"book":{"icon":"icon-ic_book","icon_filled":"icon-ic_book_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/books","name":"Books","type":"book"},"news":{"icon":"icon-ic_articles","icon_filled":"icon-ic_articles_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/news","name":"News","type":"news"},"audiobook":{"icon":"icon-ic_audiobook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_audiobook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/audiobooks","name":"Audiobooks","type":"audiobook"},"magazine":{"icon":"icon-ic_magazine","icon_filled":"icon-ic_magazine_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/magazines","name":"Magazines","type":"magazine"},"document":{"icon":"icon-ic_document","icon_filled":"icon-ic_document_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/docs","name":"Documents","type":"document"},"sheet_music":{"icon":"icon-ic_songbook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_songbook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/sheetmusic","name":"Sheet Music","type":"sheet_music"}},"categories_array":["mixed","book","audiobook","magazine","news","document","sheet_music"],"selected_content_type":"mixed","username":"","search_overlay_props":{"search_input_props":{"focused":false,"keep_suggestions_on_blur":false}}}},"recommenders":{"related_titles_recommender":{"item_props":[{"type":"document","id":73094675,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094675/108x144/6b6257a4cd/1533841910?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094675/216x288/ea8032f470/1533841910?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 9-86 - A Guidelines for Installation of Kilometer Post","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 9-86 - A Guidelines for Installation of Kilometer Post","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094675,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"BYtmZNZaiIZrxMEMaFtF6yHhlw8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73094675/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-9-86-A-Guidelines-for-Installation-of-Kilometer-Post"},{"type":"document","id":74757659,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74757659/108x144/1397e6a96b/1522740601?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74757659/216x288/3cf9bf665e/1522740601?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines On Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"REAM Guidelines On Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":74757659,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pGDIV2zYNNBDV85/Vi3uTdcW4NI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/74757659/REAM-Guidelines-On-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":245444558,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444558/108x144/cf8c65b217/1481686257?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444558/216x288/37f0453e48/1481686257?v=1","title":"Guidelines for Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works for Road Project","short_title":"Guidelines for Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works for Road Project","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444558,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"wlzhyx4V2litKCY51gRBoxCRK0c="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245444558/Guidelines-for-Planning-Scope-of-Site-Investigation-Works-for-Road-Project"},{"type":"document","id":73094044,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094044/108x144/e26f0626d7/1514909260?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094044/216x288/bb8bcac05d/1514909260?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6-85 - Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawing","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6-85 - Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawing","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094044,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"N4Wqsz0qF3boJRuzbflklCZuEYE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094044/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-6-85-Guidelines-for-Presentation-of-Engineering-Drawing"},{"type":"document","id":73094913,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094913/108x144/fe54beb415/1520409322?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094913/216x288/8f646cb96d/1520409322?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11-87 - A Guide to the Design of at Grade Intersections","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11-87 - A Guide to the Design of at Grade Intersections","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094913,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"bY5TpwFaRzWaHoy4O6qqJb9eOp4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094913/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-11-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-at-Grade-Intersections"},{"type":"document","id":45184234,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/45184234/108x144/625bdeca96/1369702851?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/45184234/216x288/9cb14275ac/1369702851?v=1","title":"Subsoil Drainage ~REAM 3-2002 v5","short_title":"Subsoil Drainage ~REAM 3-2002 v5","author":"Nurulaqdiyah Mohd Jamid","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":45184234,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"3al3Ku8tv7m96T+VTnd6/v4zKwA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/45184234/Subsoil-Drainage-REAM-3-2002-v5"},{"type":"document","id":75416029,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/108x144/26c446770f/1522217655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/216x288/f43475a56d/1522217655?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75416029,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"SmgifeDEvyK2ok+HpsLf6GUPmU4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75416029/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-4"},{"type":"document","id":75429784,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/108x144/147399564d/1481686263?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/216x288/5b05eca33a/1481686263?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75429784,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"npwERmm0U1/Vz5Ri7mVpvPIlpeU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75429784/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-5"},{"type":"document","id":75422583,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/108x144/88901b8127/1511853494?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/216x288/bba905052c/1511853494?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75422583,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"cOHEHBi4fEcyz8/K0TE2ebmaFew="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/75422583/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-2"},{"type":"document","id":73083888,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083888/108x144/92b99dbbe7/1489081138?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083888/216x288/6912bd9767/1489081138?v=1","title":"Interim Guide on Identifying Prioritising and Treating Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia - JKR 20708-0022-95","short_title":"Interim Guide on Identifying Prioritising and Treating Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia - JKR 20708-0022-95","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083888,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"PR2VKq6PUnf0Y/j10kjCE8w8Ngc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083888/Interim-Guide-on-Identifying-Prioritising-and-Treating-Hazardous-Locations-on-Roads-in-Malaysia-JKR-20708-0022-95"},{"type":"document","id":73096020,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/108x144/fcaba22a41/1514855998?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/216x288/c8a35839db/1514855998?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096020,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"0KBMgMkgT6K/AZ2QmZD59C7pTw0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096020/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-16-03-An-Effective-Approach-to-Prepare-Bill-of-Quantities-for-Environmental-Protection"},{"type":"document","id":57415236,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57415236/108x144/a95f509d3e/1364176267?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57415236/216x288/c2df6b0c78/1364176267?v=1","title":"ATJ 10_86 a Guide to the Design of Cycle Track","short_title":"ATJ 10_86 a Guide to the Design of Cycle Track","author":"mroys","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":57415236,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"to+YGN8rkztAxG7piqjcAeEb7ro="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/57415236/ATJ-10-86-a-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Cycle-Track"},{"type":"document","id":73084937,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73084937/108x144/05b85a5f49/1522139656?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73084937/216x288/ce733afaa5/1522139656?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1-85 - Manual on Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1-85 - Manual on Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73084937,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"A+kTdr2LsX1h9NrB9qVmiUhdV00="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73084937/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-1-85-Manual-on-Design-Guidelines-of-Longitudinal-Traffic-Barrier"},{"type":"document","id":73083267,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083267/108x144/db1a8426ae/1515052055?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083267/216x288/4517e53c4b/1515052055?v=1","title":"Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavements - JKR 20709-0315-94","short_title":"Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavements - JKR 20709-0315-94","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083267,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"qM3uiuRJVE57jQbrl4kMRsZug/A="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083267/Interim-Guide-to-Evaluation-and-Rehabilitation-of-Flexible-Road-Pavements-JKR-20709-0315-94"},{"type":"document","id":73093593,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/108x144/f427982098/1537146589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/216x288/512c3999db/1537146589?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093593,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"VXD/NM6+nE2P1At3RSzmLN3Z6W8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73093593/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-4-85-Pind-1997-Application-for-the-Installation-of-Public-Utilitiy-Services-Within-Road-Reserve"},{"type":"document","id":73081649,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73081649/108x144/3c1f52c57e/1520887817?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73081649/216x288/165e74e022/1520887817?v=1","title":"Guideline for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks - JKR 20407-0001-90","short_title":"Guideline for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks - JKR 20407-0001-90","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73081649,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"nUhwQXgFo4IfonVYvK73ZCIpv/0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73081649/Guideline-for-Inspection-and-Testing-of-Roadworks-JKR-20407-0001-90"},{"type":"document","id":73094454,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/108x144/8f56464637/1532320178?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/216x288/3a054ff796/1532320178?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094454,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"oK9egPQxjnklqYtZDsCFzi6Tbqk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094454/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-8-86-A-Guide-on-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":73096688,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/108x144/3752cfba41/1530686678?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/216x288/02cdbdd830/1530686678?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096688,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"kFgRcrgrB64GoAUCx3PyZRi4J3Q="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096688/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-23-03-Guidelines-on-the-Estimation-Procedures-for-Traffic-Management-During-Construction"},{"type":"document","id":73095893,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/108x144/6b79a5ba15/1536385949?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/216x288/73a6c6d83c/1536385949?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095893,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"1s/5SBoHUhdJT7F/n6WumF2+VQQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095893/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-14-87-Model-Terms-of-Reference-for-Detailed-Ground-Survey-and-Engineering-Design-Road"},{"type":"document","id":36057745,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/36057745/108x144/ac264e5332/1357692896?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/36057745/216x288/5e11c09e40/1357692896?v=1","title":"Handbook No 1 - Drainage","short_title":"Handbook No 1 - Drainage","author":"Rusdee Kamis","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":36057745,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ZJJIUiue8zZl2qVY444GW+S7eHo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/36057745/Handbook-No-1-Drainage"},{"type":"document","id":73096106,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/108x144/7af2de2674/1514512622?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/216x288/8ac6d5a418/1514512622?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096106,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"dCeBpgP/yuDgtD6J3NDaodmLH6U="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096106/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-20-98-Design-Review-Checklist-for-Road-Projects"},{"type":"document","id":73095031,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/108x144/a28b99e8c8/1536717275?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/216x288/5789d3530c/1536717275?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095031,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"acGkkYpDMsmHdhz5r9IEGZpGEZU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095031/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-12-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Interchanges"},{"type":"document","id":242186169,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242186169/108x144/4981140fe2/1472536768?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242186169/216x288/1c1d7c7db9/1472536768?v=1","title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s3 A","short_title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s3 A","author":"hasif21","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":242186169,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"R4TAgzpIq8LoWBKpar/4lNRyLQ0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/242186169/Std-Spec-Jkr-Spj-2013-s3-A"},{"type":"document","id":73083060,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083060/108x144/7b4a5e7a18/1513447929?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083060/216x288/dc04178045/1513447929?v=1","title":"A Guide to the Visual Assessement of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions - JKR 20709-2060-92","short_title":"A Guide to the Visual Assessement of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions - JKR 20709-2060-92","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083060,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"435qp0dvd3Z3VMRPL/4PbrGkTDs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083060/A-Guide-to-the-Visual-Assessement-of-Flexible-Pavement-Surface-Conditions-JKR-20709-2060-92"},{"type":"document","id":73086839,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73086839/108x144/17ae8c3b53/1522899997?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73086839/216x288/7ad19d44f9/1522899997?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2E-87 - Guide Signs Design and Application","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2E-87 - Guide Signs Design and Application","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73086839,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"g5TJdhNSPg8lUOg50O0syC3bgWg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73086839/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-2E-87-Guide-Signs-Design-and-Application"},{"type":"document","id":263473199,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/263473199/108x144/94ec78d16a/1518102803?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/263473199/216x288/57bd57613a/1518102803?v=1","title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s17 A","short_title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s17 A","author":"dinu69in","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":263473199,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"prNrLPK+4oxnP2zfUOIzUmTzzeY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/263473199/Std-Spec-Jkr-Spj-2013-s17-A"},{"type":"document","id":69701105,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/69701105/108x144/17d036a007/1536939836?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/69701105/216x288/9ae8548dc2/1536939836?v=1","title":"Construction Supervision Manual for Roadworks - JKR 20407-0003-90","short_title":"Construction Supervision Manual for Roadworks - JKR 20407-0003-90","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":69701105,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"HYYuIe6WN7e5f1YSpwb0qCbAwfE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/69701105/Construction-Supervision-Manual-for-Roadworks-JKR-20407-0003-90"},{"type":"document","id":259351148,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/259351148/108x144/b95a3d3ff4/1504746628?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/259351148/216x288/9b330426de/1504746628?v=1","title":"JKR_SPJ_S7_2011","short_title":"JKR_SPJ_S7_2011","author":"russxy","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":259351148,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"uQEN/dL6FOF3IsOh/UpctBvHhV0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/259351148/JKR-SPJ-S7-2011"},{"type":"document","id":38660447,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/38660447/108x144/cc50224656/1503482027?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/38660447/216x288/9ec89f6c53/1503482027?v=1","title":"2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation","short_title":"2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation","author":"wanjailani","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":38660447,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"7TSqWsETy7mzDBX+MuqeKmIApig="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/38660447/2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation"},{"type":"document","id":332874017,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332874017/108x144/9983fbbd3a/1480582459?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332874017/216x288/00cccd2c0e/1480582459?v=1","title":"Building Materials Kota Kinabalu Sabah - May 2016","short_title":"Building Materials Kota Kinabalu Sabah - May 2016","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":332874017,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"UMtnMitJtUKTWo+dCASA0Ww5emQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/332874017/Building-Materials-Kota-Kinabalu-Sabah-May-2016"},{"type":"document","id":75413625,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75413625/108x144/1ca0d7515b/1481686274?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75413625/216x288/714e50f4ca/1481686274?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 1","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 1","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75413625,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pN9zPM7a0n9WaJIZIVyPQL2I5ws="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75413625/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-1"},{"type":"document","id":258086187,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/258086187/108x144/23ad19b0ed/1425864470?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/258086187/216x288/817d3e5de2/1425864470?v=1","title":"Dao Huan Pricing","short_title":"Dao Huan Pricing","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":258086187,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"OirmzDj16nay4JxQhsXJfLanwQ8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/258086187/Dao-Huan-Pricing"},{"type":"document","id":236686377,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/236686377/108x144/3cb533ca4a/1531869655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/236686377/216x288/17337657f8/1531869655?v=1","title":"Std Spec for Building Works 2014","short_title":"Std Spec for Building Works 2014","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":236686377,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8a0iEKktf4RuJ5hmhRWZLEZaq44="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/236686377/Std-Spec-for-Building-Works-2014"},{"type":"document","id":245445349,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245445349/108x144/6772f91ced/1437695301?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245445349/216x288/8f17912de2/1437695301?v=1","title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 15, No. 2) September 1983","short_title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 15, No. 2) September 1983","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245445349,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"n35xxO2utwEB/7n8kcsf0djL9LY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245445349/Borneo-Research-Bulletin-Vol-15-No-2-September-1983"},{"type":"document","id":261204573,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/261204573/108x144/c45bcf6eef/1504339535?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/261204573/216x288/6e993f74ba/1504339535?v=1","title":"Landslide Risk Management (2005) - Oldrich Hungr","short_title":"Landslide Risk Management (2005) - Oldrich Hungr","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":261204573,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pp9ImKccTZNCSixkNk/xZvZrlvs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/261204573/Landslide-Risk-Management-2005-Oldrich-Hungr"},{"type":"document","id":75416029,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/108x144/26c446770f/1522217655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/216x288/f43475a56d/1522217655?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75416029,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"0QMofu7odNNJ8OxQb/cMGjW/NW4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75416029/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-4"},{"type":"document","id":75429784,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/108x144/147399564d/1481686263?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/216x288/5b05eca33a/1481686263?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75429784,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Q1i/asn9Kq/9FkNRgjUGYfPrTfM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75429784/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-5"},{"type":"document","id":75422583,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/108x144/88901b8127/1511853494?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/216x288/bba905052c/1511853494?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75422583,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8HWmyT0OstGc3fXf5LnihEE+wZw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/75422583/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-2"},{"type":"document","id":74224875,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74224875/108x144/3d79e8c314/1537114396?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74224875/216x288/3975675a8e/1537114396?v=1","title":"Structural Analysis","short_title":"Structural Analysis","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":74224875,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"GsWWu01M1FTcYdifLomD/YHVTPQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/74224875/Structural-Analysis"},{"type":"document","id":245444855,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444855/108x144/29cd01376e/1429149586?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444855/216x288/69052e5ebe/1429149586?v=1","title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 10, No. 2) September 1978","short_title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 10, No. 2) September 1978","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444855,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"GSfkoWDbNjEBFCnmBsuw66mjoeA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245444855/Borneo-Research-Bulletin-Vol-10-No-2-September-1978"},{"type":"document","id":73684055,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73684055/108x144/fb665082db/1322162141?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73684055/216x288/f059034250/1322162141?v=1","title":"Forex Detailed Statement - Windsor Brokers Ltd","short_title":"Forex Detailed Statement - Windsor Brokers Ltd","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73684055,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"YKHRsA2r6TMIycP1G7saajkxkQU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73684055/Forex-Detailed-Statement-Windsor-Brokers-Ltd"},{"type":"document","id":245444118,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444118/108x144/c202c8fa40/1429267342?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444118/216x288/5c6f9d1670/1429267342?v=1","title":"Gabion Wall Design","short_title":"Gabion Wall Design","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444118,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"YcqeEK4veEcK3PZkmg6e9xNyQuY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/245444118/Gabion-Wall-Design"},{"type":"document","id":73094339,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094339/108x144/64cba1c66d/1394547836?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094339/216x288/018d7afb92/1394547836?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 7-85 - Garis Panduan Untuk Penyediaan Pelan Pengambilan Balik Tanah Bagi Projek Jalan Persekutuan","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 7-85 - Garis Panduan Untuk Penyediaan Pelan Pengambilan Balik Tanah Bagi Projek Jalan Persekutuan","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094339,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"nPPNSSbVm3AhA0DZIl4MSllmqyw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094339/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-7-85-Garis-Panduan-Untuk-Penyediaan-Pelan-Pengambilan-Balik-Tanah-Bagi-Projek-Jalan-Persekutuan"},{"type":"document","id":73094792,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094792/108x144/0535d7f3e9/1355396780?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094792/216x288/547de84076/1355396780?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 10-86 - A Guide on the Design of Cycle Track","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 10-86 - A Guide on the Design of Cycle Track","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094792,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"fL/ahlKuvUnK7FSvh/za3RGFOgY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73094792/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-10-86-A-Guide-on-the-Design-of-Cycle-Track"},{"type":"document","id":73094454,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/108x144/8f56464637/1532320178?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/216x288/3a054ff796/1532320178?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094454,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"tsRuOcGasbHpaUZ9vxudGjn0Eyg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094454/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-8-86-A-Guide-on-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":73093719,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093719/108x144/13cd1017f3/1537333373?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093719/216x288/d31154535f/1537333373?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 5-85 - Manual on Pavement Design","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 5-85 - Manual on Pavement Design","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093719,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"aVrV4P8XnP8A7bsuxL1RQ9m0UQ4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73093719/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-5-85-Manual-on-Pavement-Design"},{"type":"document","id":73096688,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/108x144/3752cfba41/1530686678?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/216x288/02cdbdd830/1530686678?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096688,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"mcVPWpNc2W7ODLx/R/rcEZbwaNU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096688/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-23-03-Guidelines-on-the-Estimation-Procedures-for-Traffic-Management-During-Construction"},{"type":"document","id":73095893,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/108x144/6b79a5ba15/1536385949?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/216x288/73a6c6d83c/1536385949?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095893,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"me4CCWvr1YoyyPAqBLzHVE7F7BA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095893/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-14-87-Model-Terms-of-Reference-for-Detailed-Ground-Survey-and-Engineering-Design-Road"},{"type":"document","id":73096106,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/108x144/7af2de2674/1514512622?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/216x288/8ac6d5a418/1514512622?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096106,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"NfsjoOjXF0ZICuMs7fn8H8XX5VE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096106/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-20-98-Design-Review-Checklist-for-Road-Projects"},{"type":"document","id":73095031,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/108x144/a28b99e8c8/1536717275?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/216x288/5789d3530c/1536717275?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095031,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ONrNBYgd/zkXtYED/tU9X8/A1WA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095031/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-12-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Interchanges"},{"type":"document","id":73096020,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/108x144/fcaba22a41/1514855998?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/216x288/c8a35839db/1514855998?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096020,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"iMDbL+NfBhKkYcMQ/dwnKz/OOLc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096020/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-16-03-An-Effective-Approach-to-Prepare-Bill-of-Quantities-for-Environmental-Protection"},{"type":"document","id":73095182,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095182/108x144/bacfa26024/1522963095?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095182/216x288/3cf73d3f22/1522963095?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13-87 - A Guide to the Design of Traffic Signal","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13-87 - A Guide to the Design of Traffic Signal","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095182,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"OkEOIH080RPnDsuYCWc0M7s9MHw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095182/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-13-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Traffic-Signal"},{"type":"document","id":73093593,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/108x144/f427982098/1537146589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/216x288/512c3999db/1537146589?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093593,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"/GvuLVdickmv/Tj6tRuJ30NczD0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73093593/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-4-85-Pind-1997-Application-for-the-Installation-of-Public-Utilitiy-Services-Within-Road-Reserve"}],"title_link":null,"title":null,"track_opts":{"compilation_id":"2o6/qVL8CmDPnKcI0ZDLTc0OhGc=","module_id":"1UAJ05D1aT07hvIaPjIDvrZuVmo=","widget_name":"right sidebar","track_id":"flattened_recommender"}},"footer_recommenders":{"recommenders":[{"item_props":[{"type":"document","id":73094675,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094675/108x144/6b6257a4cd/1533841910?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094675/216x288/ea8032f470/1533841910?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 9-86 - A Guidelines for Installation of Kilometer Post","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 9-86 - A Guidelines for Installation of Kilometer Post","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094675,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"BYtmZNZaiIZrxMEMaFtF6yHhlw8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73094675/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-9-86-A-Guidelines-for-Installation-of-Kilometer-Post"},{"type":"document","id":74757659,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74757659/108x144/1397e6a96b/1522740601?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74757659/216x288/3cf9bf665e/1522740601?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines On Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"REAM Guidelines On Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":74757659,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"pGDIV2zYNNBDV85/Vi3uTdcW4NI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/74757659/REAM-Guidelines-On-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":245444558,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444558/108x144/cf8c65b217/1481686257?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444558/216x288/37f0453e48/1481686257?v=1","title":"Guidelines for Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works for Road Project","short_title":"Guidelines for Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works for Road Project","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444558,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"wlzhyx4V2litKCY51gRBoxCRK0c="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245444558/Guidelines-for-Planning-Scope-of-Site-Investigation-Works-for-Road-Project"},{"type":"document","id":73094044,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094044/108x144/e26f0626d7/1514909260?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094044/216x288/bb8bcac05d/1514909260?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6-85 - Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawing","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6-85 - Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawing","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094044,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"N4Wqsz0qF3boJRuzbflklCZuEYE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094044/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-6-85-Guidelines-for-Presentation-of-Engineering-Drawing"},{"type":"document","id":73094913,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094913/108x144/fe54beb415/1520409322?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094913/216x288/8f646cb96d/1520409322?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11-87 - A Guide to the Design of at Grade Intersections","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11-87 - A Guide to the Design of at Grade Intersections","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094913,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"bY5TpwFaRzWaHoy4O6qqJb9eOp4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094913/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-11-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-at-Grade-Intersections"},{"type":"document","id":45184234,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/45184234/108x144/625bdeca96/1369702851?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/45184234/216x288/9cb14275ac/1369702851?v=1","title":"Subsoil Drainage ~REAM 3-2002 v5","short_title":"Subsoil Drainage ~REAM 3-2002 v5","author":"Nurulaqdiyah Mohd Jamid","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":45184234,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"3al3Ku8tv7m96T+VTnd6/v4zKwA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/45184234/Subsoil-Drainage-REAM-3-2002-v5"},{"type":"document","id":75416029,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/108x144/26c446770f/1522217655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/216x288/f43475a56d/1522217655?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75416029,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"SmgifeDEvyK2ok+HpsLf6GUPmU4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75416029/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-4"},{"type":"document","id":75429784,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/108x144/147399564d/1481686263?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/216x288/5b05eca33a/1481686263?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75429784,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"npwERmm0U1/Vz5Ri7mVpvPIlpeU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75429784/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-5"},{"type":"document","id":75422583,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/108x144/88901b8127/1511853494?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/216x288/bba905052c/1511853494?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75422583,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"cOHEHBi4fEcyz8/K0TE2ebmaFew="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/75422583/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-2"},{"type":"document","id":73083888,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083888/108x144/92b99dbbe7/1489081138?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083888/216x288/6912bd9767/1489081138?v=1","title":"Interim Guide on Identifying Prioritising and Treating Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia - JKR 20708-0022-95","short_title":"Interim Guide on Identifying Prioritising and Treating Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia - JKR 20708-0022-95","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083888,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"PR2VKq6PUnf0Y/j10kjCE8w8Ngc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083888/Interim-Guide-on-Identifying-Prioritising-and-Treating-Hazardous-Locations-on-Roads-in-Malaysia-JKR-20708-0022-95"},{"type":"document","id":73096020,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/108x144/fcaba22a41/1514855998?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/216x288/c8a35839db/1514855998?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096020,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"0KBMgMkgT6K/AZ2QmZD59C7pTw0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096020/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-16-03-An-Effective-Approach-to-Prepare-Bill-of-Quantities-for-Environmental-Protection"},{"type":"document","id":57415236,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57415236/108x144/a95f509d3e/1364176267?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57415236/216x288/c2df6b0c78/1364176267?v=1","title":"ATJ 10_86 a Guide to the Design of Cycle Track","short_title":"ATJ 10_86 a Guide to the Design of Cycle Track","author":"mroys","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":57415236,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"to+YGN8rkztAxG7piqjcAeEb7ro="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/57415236/ATJ-10-86-a-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Cycle-Track"},{"type":"document","id":73084937,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73084937/108x144/05b85a5f49/1522139656?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73084937/216x288/ce733afaa5/1522139656?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1-85 - Manual on Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1-85 - Manual on Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73084937,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"A+kTdr2LsX1h9NrB9qVmiUhdV00="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73084937/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-1-85-Manual-on-Design-Guidelines-of-Longitudinal-Traffic-Barrier"},{"type":"document","id":73083267,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083267/108x144/db1a8426ae/1515052055?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083267/216x288/4517e53c4b/1515052055?v=1","title":"Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavements - JKR 20709-0315-94","short_title":"Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavements - JKR 20709-0315-94","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083267,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"qM3uiuRJVE57jQbrl4kMRsZug/A="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083267/Interim-Guide-to-Evaluation-and-Rehabilitation-of-Flexible-Road-Pavements-JKR-20709-0315-94"},{"type":"document","id":73093593,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/108x144/f427982098/1537146589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/216x288/512c3999db/1537146589?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093593,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"VXD/NM6+nE2P1At3RSzmLN3Z6W8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73093593/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-4-85-Pind-1997-Application-for-the-Installation-of-Public-Utilitiy-Services-Within-Road-Reserve"},{"type":"document","id":73081649,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73081649/108x144/3c1f52c57e/1520887817?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73081649/216x288/165e74e022/1520887817?v=1","title":"Guideline for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks - JKR 20407-0001-90","short_title":"Guideline for Inspection and Testing of Roadworks - JKR 20407-0001-90","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73081649,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"nUhwQXgFo4IfonVYvK73ZCIpv/0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73081649/Guideline-for-Inspection-and-Testing-of-Roadworks-JKR-20407-0001-90"},{"type":"document","id":73094454,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/108x144/8f56464637/1532320178?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/216x288/3a054ff796/1532320178?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094454,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"oK9egPQxjnklqYtZDsCFzi6Tbqk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094454/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-8-86-A-Guide-on-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":73096688,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/108x144/3752cfba41/1530686678?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/216x288/02cdbdd830/1530686678?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096688,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"kFgRcrgrB64GoAUCx3PyZRi4J3Q="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096688/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-23-03-Guidelines-on-the-Estimation-Procedures-for-Traffic-Management-During-Construction"},{"type":"document","id":73095893,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/108x144/6b79a5ba15/1536385949?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/216x288/73a6c6d83c/1536385949?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095893,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"1s/5SBoHUhdJT7F/n6WumF2+VQQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095893/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-14-87-Model-Terms-of-Reference-for-Detailed-Ground-Survey-and-Engineering-Design-Road"},{"type":"document","id":36057745,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/36057745/108x144/ac264e5332/1357692896?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/36057745/216x288/5e11c09e40/1357692896?v=1","title":"Handbook No 1 - Drainage","short_title":"Handbook No 1 - Drainage","author":"Rusdee Kamis","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":36057745,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"ZJJIUiue8zZl2qVY444GW+S7eHo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/36057745/Handbook-No-1-Drainage"},{"type":"document","id":73096106,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/108x144/7af2de2674/1514512622?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/216x288/8ac6d5a418/1514512622?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096106,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"dCeBpgP/yuDgtD6J3NDaodmLH6U="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096106/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-20-98-Design-Review-Checklist-for-Road-Projects"},{"type":"document","id":73095031,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/108x144/a28b99e8c8/1536717275?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/216x288/5789d3530c/1536717275?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095031,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"acGkkYpDMsmHdhz5r9IEGZpGEZU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095031/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-12-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Interchanges"},{"type":"document","id":242186169,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242186169/108x144/4981140fe2/1472536768?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242186169/216x288/1c1d7c7db9/1472536768?v=1","title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s3 A","short_title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s3 A","author":"hasif21","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":242186169,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"R4TAgzpIq8LoWBKpar/4lNRyLQ0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/242186169/Std-Spec-Jkr-Spj-2013-s3-A"},{"type":"document","id":73083060,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083060/108x144/7b4a5e7a18/1513447929?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083060/216x288/dc04178045/1513447929?v=1","title":"A Guide to the Visual Assessement of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions - JKR 20709-2060-92","short_title":"A Guide to the Visual Assessement of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions - JKR 20709-2060-92","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083060,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"435qp0dvd3Z3VMRPL/4PbrGkTDs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083060/A-Guide-to-the-Visual-Assessement-of-Flexible-Pavement-Surface-Conditions-JKR-20709-2060-92"},{"type":"document","id":73086839,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73086839/108x144/17ae8c3b53/1522899997?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73086839/216x288/7ad19d44f9/1522899997?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2E-87 - Guide Signs Design and Application","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2E-87 - Guide Signs Design and Application","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73086839,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"g5TJdhNSPg8lUOg50O0syC3bgWg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73086839/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-2E-87-Guide-Signs-Design-and-Application"},{"type":"document","id":263473199,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/263473199/108x144/94ec78d16a/1518102803?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/263473199/216x288/57bd57613a/1518102803?v=1","title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s17 A","short_title":"Std Spec Jkr Spj 2013 s17 A","author":"dinu69in","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":263473199,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"prNrLPK+4oxnP2zfUOIzUmTzzeY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/263473199/Std-Spec-Jkr-Spj-2013-s17-A"},{"type":"document","id":69701105,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/69701105/108x144/17d036a007/1536939836?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/69701105/216x288/9ae8548dc2/1536939836?v=1","title":"Construction Supervision Manual for Roadworks - JKR 20407-0003-90","short_title":"Construction Supervision Manual for Roadworks - JKR 20407-0003-90","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":69701105,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"HYYuIe6WN7e5f1YSpwb0qCbAwfE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/69701105/Construction-Supervision-Manual-for-Roadworks-JKR-20407-0003-90"},{"type":"document","id":259351148,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/259351148/108x144/b95a3d3ff4/1504746628?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/259351148/216x288/9b330426de/1504746628?v=1","title":"JKR_SPJ_S7_2011","short_title":"JKR_SPJ_S7_2011","author":"russxy","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":259351148,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"uQEN/dL6FOF3IsOh/UpctBvHhV0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/259351148/JKR-SPJ-S7-2011"},{"type":"document","id":38660447,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/38660447/108x144/cc50224656/1503482027?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/38660447/216x288/9ec89f6c53/1503482027?v=1","title":"2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation","short_title":"2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation","author":"wanjailani","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":38660447,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"7TSqWsETy7mzDBX+MuqeKmIApig="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/38660447/2D-85-RoadMarkingDileanation"}],"title_link":null,"title":"Documents Similar To REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 3","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"2o6/qVL8CmDPnKcI0ZDLTc0OhGc=","module_id":"1+1hoQaECQaV1XmU0yimXtpGtj4=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}},{"item_props":[{"type":"document","id":332874017,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332874017/108x144/9983fbbd3a/1480582459?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332874017/216x288/00cccd2c0e/1480582459?v=1","title":"Building Materials Kota Kinabalu Sabah - May 2016","short_title":"Building Materials Kota Kinabalu Sabah - May 2016","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":332874017,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"UMtnMitJtUKTWo+dCASA0Ww5emQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/332874017/Building-Materials-Kota-Kinabalu-Sabah-May-2016"},{"type":"document","id":75413625,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75413625/108x144/1ca0d7515b/1481686274?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75413625/216x288/714e50f4ca/1481686274?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 1","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 1","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75413625,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"pN9zPM7a0n9WaJIZIVyPQL2I5ws="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75413625/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-1"},{"type":"document","id":258086187,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/258086187/108x144/23ad19b0ed/1425864470?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/258086187/216x288/817d3e5de2/1425864470?v=1","title":"Dao Huan Pricing","short_title":"Dao Huan Pricing","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":258086187,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"OirmzDj16nay4JxQhsXJfLanwQ8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/258086187/Dao-Huan-Pricing"},{"type":"document","id":236686377,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/236686377/108x144/3cb533ca4a/1531869655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/236686377/216x288/17337657f8/1531869655?v=1","title":"Std Spec for Building Works 2014","short_title":"Std Spec for Building Works 2014","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":236686377,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"8a0iEKktf4RuJ5hmhRWZLEZaq44="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/236686377/Std-Spec-for-Building-Works-2014"},{"type":"document","id":245445349,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245445349/108x144/6772f91ced/1437695301?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245445349/216x288/8f17912de2/1437695301?v=1","title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 15, No. 2) September 1983","short_title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 15, No. 2) September 1983","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245445349,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"n35xxO2utwEB/7n8kcsf0djL9LY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245445349/Borneo-Research-Bulletin-Vol-15-No-2-September-1983"},{"type":"document","id":261204573,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/261204573/108x144/c45bcf6eef/1504339535?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/261204573/216x288/6e993f74ba/1504339535?v=1","title":"Landslide Risk Management (2005) - Oldrich Hungr","short_title":"Landslide Risk Management (2005) - Oldrich Hungr","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":261204573,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"pp9ImKccTZNCSixkNk/xZvZrlvs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/261204573/Landslide-Risk-Management-2005-Oldrich-Hungr"},{"type":"document","id":75416029,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/108x144/26c446770f/1522217655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/216x288/f43475a56d/1522217655?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75416029,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"0QMofu7odNNJ8OxQb/cMGjW/NW4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75416029/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-4"},{"type":"document","id":75429784,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/108x144/147399564d/1481686263?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/216x288/5b05eca33a/1481686263?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75429784,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"Q1i/asn9Kq/9FkNRgjUGYfPrTfM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75429784/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-5"},{"type":"document","id":75422583,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/108x144/88901b8127/1511853494?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/216x288/bba905052c/1511853494?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75422583,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"8HWmyT0OstGc3fXf5LnihEE+wZw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/75422583/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-2"},{"type":"document","id":74224875,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74224875/108x144/3d79e8c314/1537114396?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74224875/216x288/3975675a8e/1537114396?v=1","title":"Structural Analysis","short_title":"Structural Analysis","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":74224875,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"GsWWu01M1FTcYdifLomD/YHVTPQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/74224875/Structural-Analysis"},{"type":"document","id":245444855,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444855/108x144/29cd01376e/1429149586?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444855/216x288/69052e5ebe/1429149586?v=1","title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 10, No. 2) September 1978","short_title":"Borneo Research Bulletin (Vol. 10, No. 2) September 1978","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444855,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"GSfkoWDbNjEBFCnmBsuw66mjoeA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245444855/Borneo-Research-Bulletin-Vol-10-No-2-September-1978"},{"type":"document","id":73684055,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73684055/108x144/fb665082db/1322162141?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73684055/216x288/f059034250/1322162141?v=1","title":"Forex Detailed Statement - Windsor Brokers Ltd","short_title":"Forex Detailed Statement - Windsor Brokers Ltd","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73684055,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"YKHRsA2r6TMIycP1G7saajkxkQU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73684055/Forex-Detailed-Statement-Windsor-Brokers-Ltd"},{"type":"document","id":245444118,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444118/108x144/c202c8fa40/1429267342?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444118/216x288/5c6f9d1670/1429267342?v=1","title":"Gabion Wall Design","short_title":"Gabion Wall Design","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444118,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"YcqeEK4veEcK3PZkmg6e9xNyQuY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/245444118/Gabion-Wall-Design"},{"type":"document","id":73094339,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094339/108x144/64cba1c66d/1394547836?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094339/216x288/018d7afb92/1394547836?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 7-85 - Garis Panduan Untuk Penyediaan Pelan Pengambilan Balik Tanah Bagi Projek Jalan Persekutuan","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 7-85 - Garis Panduan Untuk Penyediaan Pelan Pengambilan Balik Tanah Bagi Projek Jalan Persekutuan","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094339,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"nPPNSSbVm3AhA0DZIl4MSllmqyw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094339/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-7-85-Garis-Panduan-Untuk-Penyediaan-Pelan-Pengambilan-Balik-Tanah-Bagi-Projek-Jalan-Persekutuan"},{"type":"document","id":73094792,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094792/108x144/0535d7f3e9/1355396780?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094792/216x288/547de84076/1355396780?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 10-86 - A Guide on the Design of Cycle Track","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 10-86 - A Guide on the Design of Cycle Track","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094792,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"fL/ahlKuvUnK7FSvh/za3RGFOgY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73094792/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-10-86-A-Guide-on-the-Design-of-Cycle-Track"},{"type":"document","id":73094454,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/108x144/8f56464637/1532320178?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094454/216x288/3a054ff796/1532320178?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8-86 - A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094454,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"tsRuOcGasbHpaUZ9vxudGjn0Eyg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094454/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-8-86-A-Guide-on-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":73093719,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093719/108x144/13cd1017f3/1537333373?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093719/216x288/d31154535f/1537333373?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 5-85 - Manual on Pavement Design","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 5-85 - Manual on Pavement Design","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093719,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"aVrV4P8XnP8A7bsuxL1RQ9m0UQ4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73093719/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-5-85-Manual-on-Pavement-Design"},{"type":"document","id":73096688,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/108x144/3752cfba41/1530686678?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096688/216x288/02cdbdd830/1530686678?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 23-03 - Guidelines on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management During Construction","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096688,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"mcVPWpNc2W7ODLx/R/rcEZbwaNU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096688/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-23-03-Guidelines-on-the-Estimation-Procedures-for-Traffic-Management-During-Construction"},{"type":"document","id":73095893,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/108x144/6b79a5ba15/1536385949?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095893/216x288/73a6c6d83c/1536385949?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14-87 - Model Terms of Reference for Detailed Ground Survey and Engineering Design Road","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095893,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"me4CCWvr1YoyyPAqBLzHVE7F7BA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095893/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-14-87-Model-Terms-of-Reference-for-Detailed-Ground-Survey-and-Engineering-Design-Road"},{"type":"document","id":73096106,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/108x144/7af2de2674/1514512622?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096106/216x288/8ac6d5a418/1514512622?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20-98 - Design Review Checklist for Road Projects","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096106,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"NfsjoOjXF0ZICuMs7fn8H8XX5VE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096106/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-20-98-Design-Review-Checklist-for-Road-Projects"},{"type":"document","id":73095031,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/108x144/a28b99e8c8/1536717275?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095031/216x288/5789d3530c/1536717275?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12-87 - A Guide to the Design of Interchanges","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095031,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"ONrNBYgd/zkXtYED/tU9X8/A1WA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095031/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-12-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Interchanges"},{"type":"document","id":73096020,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/108x144/fcaba22a41/1514855998?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/216x288/c8a35839db/1514855998?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096020,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"iMDbL+NfBhKkYcMQ/dwnKz/OOLc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096020/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-16-03-An-Effective-Approach-to-Prepare-Bill-of-Quantities-for-Environmental-Protection"},{"type":"document","id":73095182,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095182/108x144/bacfa26024/1522963095?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73095182/216x288/3cf73d3f22/1522963095?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13-87 - A Guide to the Design of Traffic Signal","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13-87 - A Guide to the Design of Traffic Signal","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73095182,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"OkEOIH080RPnDsuYCWc0M7s9MHw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73095182/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-13-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Traffic-Signal"},{"type":"document","id":73093593,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/108x144/f427982098/1537146589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/216x288/512c3999db/1537146589?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 4-85 (Pind. 1997) - Application for the Installation of Public Utilitiy Services Within Road Reserve","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73093593,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"/GvuLVdickmv/Tj6tRuJ30NczD0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73093593/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-4-85-Pind-1997-Application-for-the-Installation-of-Public-Utilitiy-Services-Within-Road-Reserve"}],"title_link":null,"title":"More From Penjejak Awan","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"2o6/qVL8CmDPnKcI0ZDLTc0OhGc=","module_id":"Q5qPWmxaWnaQgCLyIsGMRbak/fg=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}}]},"seo_new_docs_recommenders":{"recommenders":[]}},"seo_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/seo-roadblock-props/75427651","signup_context":null,"toolbar":{"search_path":"/search-4gen?allowed_pages=&auth_token=m6ltmmFDoqTPR3fnJe5CJDjtEgY%3D&authenticity_token=BTlw5BJt9mFdL%2BtjbiMhIVunG%2FRZZZ3LaMffj6ROwM4ojPCM26zKgHP4wUxn5mZY6x5rgXtNX%2BSIfDd1nT2ypA%3D%3D&expires=1538086354&wordDocumentId=75427651&wordUploadId=78460475"},"renewal_nag_props":null}-->
l-u'' L\aol \^J J ,,

ll

\

=162
= 1.62 x
hr* =

'-(#) '] lffi)
0.037

103
(D-4b)

x

r.o3 =

0.062 ft.

The total backwater for the skewed brirJge is
1.0S

+ 0.06 = 1.11

(D_4)

141

Computation (2c). For skewed crossings the distance to maximum backwater, L*, has been chosen arbitrarily as equal to br, so:

SoLr-C_ = 0.00049 (250 + 30) = 0.14 ft.
The water level at point A is thus

El. 28.0

* hr' + SoLr_ g = 28.0 + 1.1'l + 0.14
= El. 29.2 ft.

ments

In the case'of a skewed crossing, the water level along the upstream face of the two embankwill be different and neither need correspond to that at point A.

(t

I x

I
u8 o
F

F!

bs cos +

4T
()
lrJ

I

lr,

o

96 a.
lrj

3k
trj

(r
I

8c
-v.
I

z

?o
Q- 19,50J cf s -N.YflS = EL.28.O

345
DISTANCE

IN HUNDREOS OF FEET
Conveyance and area at section 7

Figure D-19

-

Examples 7 and

2:

r42

D9.4 (")

Exampfe
General

3:

Upstream Bridge Girder

in the

Flow

when computing general backwater curves for a river, it is necessary to know within reasonable limits the amount of pondirg which occurs at bridges which constrict the'flow during floods. The bridge backwater, the downstrearn water surface, and the drop in level across bridge embankments, where clearance of superstructure is not a problem, have been treated in the preceeding examples' Examples 3 and 4 pertain to'bridges in which the flow is in contact with the superstructure.

(b)

Given

of the bridge of example t (Fig. D-17) and the centreline prof ile shown on Figure D-20. For this example, suppose that the superstructure is lowered so the bottom
of the upstream girder
is

Plan and cross section

at erevation 2g.0 or at the normarwater surface.

a,Vra

W.S. ALONG EMEANKMENT

29

--":*+
Q'|9,5OO

i
Ah
Yu

EL.2?98

CFS.

ACTUAL W"S.

Figurc D-20 .Exampk,.7: Ltltstrt,an Girrlt,r t.n Flow

(r)
3a.

Find
The approximate water surface arong the upstream face of the embankment. The approximate water surface along the downstream face of the embankment. The drop in water lever across the bridge embankment without scour.

3b. 3c.

Computation (3a). The pertinent quantitles from example 1 are:

O b Vnt

a1V26/2g = 0.30 ft.

= 19,500c.f.s., So = 0.00049, i = 12.35 ft. - 205 ft., Wo = 14 ft., Anr = 5,664 ft.2 = 19,500/5,664 = 3.45 f.p.s., cr = '1.62 and

The discharge expression from Section D7.2 is:

143

Q=

co bruZ

[,
L

(

z _+c,|_; v'\ I I z
2s/
J

rrz

or

(D-10)

Yu=

qz
29bru ,2, Co2'

?--:l-

z

V,2

22s

As a first trial, assumeYr/Z = 1.12; enter the upper curve on Figure D-14 with this value, and read C6 = 0.380.

Substituting in equation (D-10)

Yu = -

=, ',=,(tni?o-0 '. '..,. + 64.4 (191 x 1235l|2 (0.380)2
.].,,

12'35
2

-0.30

-

1'061(0.38)'

+ 6.18 -

o"3o

In Figure D-14 hu* =Y,

-

V

h,,' =

13.25

-

12.35 = 0.9 ft.
77O {0.9)

Then 41 = 5,664 +

= 6,357

ft.2

V1 = 19,500/6,357 = 3.07 f.p.s.
v
t2

l2g = 0.146 and
x
0,146 = 0.,236.

C'rv12/2g= 1.62

The corrected value of

Y, = 7.37 + 6.18 Y"lZ =

0.236

=

13.31

ft.

and

13.31112.35 ='1.078

which does not agreti with the assumed value (1.12l,. Next assume
Y

"/Z

= 1 .10, then C6 = 0.370 (F ig.

D- 14),

Yu = 1.061/(03712 + 6.18 - 0.24 = 7.75 + 6.18 - O.24 = 13.69 ft. hu* = 13.69 - 12.35 = 1.34 ft. and Ar = 5,664 + 1.34 x 770 = 6,696 ft.2

144

V1 = 19,500/6,696

= 2.91
tt .2

f.p.s.

+ 29

V

,,2

= 0.132

and

cr it = 1.62 x 0.132 = O.Z1Z 2s

The corrected value of

Y, = 7.75 + 6.18 - 0.212 = 13.72 ft. h,* = 13.72 - 12.35 = 1.37 ft. and Y"/Z = 13.72112.35 = 1.11
which is sufficiently close to the assumed value (,|.10).
The water surface on the upstream side of the embankment will be

El. 15.65 * Y, +

+[ 2s

=

1b.6S

+

13.72

+ O.Z1= Et. 29.6 ft.

Computation (3b). Enterirg the lower curve on Figure D-t4 with C6 = 0.37 and reading downward. Y, /ys = 1.125 and Vs = 13.72/1 .125 = t Z. t g ft.

The water surface along the downstream side of the embankment is: El. 15.63 + 12.1g = El. 27.8 ft. or approximately O.2 foot below normal stage. computation (3c). The water surface differential across the bridge embankmentAh = El. 29.6 - El. 27.8 = 1.8 feet.
The above computation is quite sensitive since the exanrple falls within the transition zone (Fig. D-14) where the curves are steep.

145

D9.5 (o)

Example
Giuen

4:

Strperstructure Partially Inundated.

The same stream and br'nJge arrangement as for example 3 except the discharge is increased to 28,000 c.f.s. A profile on the centreline of channel is shown on Figure D-21. Normal water zurface is now at elevation 30.30 at the upstream bridge girder.
The pertinent data (Fig. D-21) are Q = 28,000 c.f.s..,

|

= 14.65 ft.,

z=

12.35 ft., bN = 191 ft.,

h;
N.n s.'E1.30.30

l-l Yul
Y'14.65'

t
2.12.33'
€1. 15.65 so =o ooo49

_

NJV._s..3o28'

ACTUALW.S.

EL.15.63

Figure D-21 Example

4: Superstructure Partially lnundated

(b)
4a. 4b.

To Find
The drop in larel across the bridge embankment. Water surface elevation on the upstream side of the embankment. Water surface elevation on the downstream side of the embankment, assuming appreciable scour under the brkJge.

k.

r46

Computation (4a). The equation applicable in this case is:
Q

=

CobrvZt2gAh) 1t2 or

tD-11)

Ah=O'
2gbn,2 22 coz

where the discharge coefficient (c6) is constant aI a value of 0.80. substituting values in the latter expression,

ah _

(28,000)2

64.4 (191

x

12.35)2 (O.go)2

784,000,000 358,322,74't

x

0.64

= 3.42 tt.

Computation (4b). Entering Figure D-158 with Ah/t = 3.42/14.65 = 0:233,

yu/i = 1.13 so,

Yu = 1.13 x 14.65 = 16.55 ft.
The water surface elevation on the upstream side of the embankment shotrld be:

El. 15.65

+

16.55

= 32.20

feet.
be,

The bridge backwater in this case will

El. 32.20

-

Et. 30.30

=

1.90 feet.

computation (4c)' The watersurface elwation on the downstream side of the embanknnent will be:
El. 32.20

-

Ah = 32.20

_

3.42 = Et. 2g.g feet.

or 1.5 feet below normal stage.
An interesting pointis that increasing the discharge from 1g,500 c.f.s. to2g,o00c.f.s. changed the backwater, hr*, from 1.37 to 1.90 feet while Ah changed from l.g to 3.42 feet. ln other words, the hydraulic capacity of the structure is markedly increased with orifice flow.

147

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Main Cornmittee Merntrers
Nafisah Hj. Abdul Aziz Chairman
6

- DRAINAGE

Ahmad Fuad Emby Wan Suraya Mustaffa Normala Hassan
Teh Ming Hu

Deputy Chairman
Secretary

Alternate Secretary
Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member

Lim Kim Oum
Alias Hashim Low Kom Sing
Nor Asiah Othman
Johan Les Hare Abdullah

Editor

Sub'Committee Members for Volume 3 Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design

Lim Kim Oum
Normala Hassan
Yeap Chin Seong

Chairman Secretary Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member

Chin Kok Hee

K. Nanthakumar
Chia Chong Wing

Ng Kim Hooi

ACKNOWI,EDGEMENTS
Volume 3 is not part of the Arahan Teknik (Jalan) f5197 - INTERMEDIATE GUIDE TO DRAINAGE DESIGN OF ROADS. Technical Committee 6 felt that there is a need to provide guidelines for the hydraulic aspects in bridge design.

Volume 3 provides guidelines for the practical aspects of bridge hydraulic design. The more theoretical considerations and design worked examples are provided in Appendix 1, which is reprinted from Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran publication Urban Drainage Design Standards and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia (1975), Appendix D - Hydraulic Design of Bridges.
Thanks are due to:

Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran for permission to reprint Urban Drainage Design Standards and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia (7915), Appendix D - Hydraulic Design of Bridges"

REAM Standing Committee on Technology and Road Management for the
guidance and encouragement given in the preparation of Voiume 3"

Members of the Technical Committee 6 - Drainage and Sub-Committee for Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design for their untiring efforts to ensure timely completion of Volume 3.

"},"eligible_for_exclusive_trial_roadblock":false,"eligible_for_seo_roadblock":false,"exclusive_free_trial_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/exclusive-free-trial-props/75427651","flashes":[],"footer_props":{"urls":{"about":"/about","press":"/press","blog":"http://literally.scribd.com/","careers":"/careers","contact":"/contact","plans_landing":"/subscribe","referrals":"/referrals?source=footer","giftcards":"/giftcards","faq":"/faq","accessibility":"/accessibility-policy","faq_paths":{"accounts":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246346","announcements":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246066","copyright":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246086","downloading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210135046","publishing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","reading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246406","selling":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246326","store":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","status":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001202872","terms":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246126","writing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","adchoices":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210129366","paid_features":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","failed_uploads":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210134586-Troubleshooting-uploads-and-conversions","copyright_infringement":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210128946-DMCA-copyright-infringement-takedown-notification-policy","end_user_license":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129486","terms_of_use":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129326-General-Terms-of-Use"},"publishers":"/publishers","static_terms":"/terms","static_privacy":"/privacy","copyright":"/copyright","ios_app":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/scribd-worlds-largest-online/id542557212?mt=8&uo=4&at=11lGEE","android_app":"https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.scribd.app.reader0&hl=en","books":"/books","sitemap":"/directory"}},"global_nav_props":{"header_props":{"logo_src":"/images/landing/home2_landing/scribd_logo_horiz_small.svg","root_url":"https://www.scribd.com/","search_term":"","small_logo_src":"/images/logos/scribd_s_logo.png","uploads_url":"/upload-document","search_props":{"redirect_to_app":true,"search_url":"/search","search_test":"control","query":"","search_page":false}},"user_menu_props":null,"sidebar_props":{"urls":{"bestsellers":"https://www.scribd.com/bestsellers","home":"https://www.scribd.com/","saved":"/saved","subscribe":"/archive/pmp_checkout?doc=75427651&metadata=%7B%22context%22%3A%22pmp%22%2C%22action%22%3A%22start_trial%22%2C%22logged_in%22%3Afalse%2C%22platform%22%3A%22web%22%7D","top_charts":"/bestsellers","upload":"https://www.scribd.com/upload-document"},"categories":{"book":{"icon":"icon-ic_book","icon_filled":"icon-ic_book_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/books","name":"Books","type":"book"},"news":{"icon":"icon-ic_articles","icon_filled":"icon-ic_articles_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/news","name":"News","type":"news"},"audiobook":{"icon":"icon-ic_audiobook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_audiobook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/audiobooks","name":"Audiobooks","type":"audiobook"},"magazine":{"icon":"icon-ic_magazine","icon_filled":"icon-ic_magazine_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/magazines","name":"Magazines","type":"magazine"},"document":{"icon":"icon-ic_document","icon_filled":"icon-ic_document_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/docs","name":"Documents","type":"document"},"sheet_music":{"icon":"icon-ic_songbook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_songbook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/sheetmusic","name":"Sheet Music","type":"sheet_music"}},"categories_array":["mixed","book","audiobook","magazine","news","document","sheet_music"],"selected_content_type":"mixed","username":"","search_overlay_props":{"search_input_props":{"focused":false,"keep_suggestions_on_blur":false}}}},"recommenders":{"related_titles_recommender":{"item_props":[{"type":"document","id":73094675,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094675/108x144/6b6257a4cd/1533841910?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094675/216x288/ea8032f470/1533841910?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 9-86 - A Guidelines for Installation of Kilometer Post","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 9-86 - A Guidelines for Installation of Kilometer Post","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094675,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"BYtmZNZaiIZrxMEMaFtF6yHhlw8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73094675/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-9-86-A-Guidelines-for-Installation-of-Kilometer-Post"},{"type":"document","id":74757659,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74757659/108x144/1397e6a96b/1522740601?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74757659/216x288/3cf9bf665e/1522740601?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines On Geometric Design of Roads","short_title":"REAM Guidelines On Geometric Design of Roads","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":74757659,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pGDIV2zYNNBDV85/Vi3uTdcW4NI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/74757659/REAM-Guidelines-On-Geometric-Design-of-Roads"},{"type":"document","id":245444558,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444558/108x144/cf8c65b217/1481686257?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/245444558/216x288/37f0453e48/1481686257?v=1","title":"Guidelines for Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works for Road Project","short_title":"Guidelines for Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works for Road Project","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":245444558,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"wlzhyx4V2litKCY51gRBoxCRK0c="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/245444558/Guidelines-for-Planning-Scope-of-Site-Investigation-Works-for-Road-Project"},{"type":"document","id":73094044,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094044/108x144/e26f0626d7/1514909260?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094044/216x288/bb8bcac05d/1514909260?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6-85 - Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawing","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6-85 - Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawing","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094044,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"N4Wqsz0qF3boJRuzbflklCZuEYE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094044/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-6-85-Guidelines-for-Presentation-of-Engineering-Drawing"},{"type":"document","id":73094913,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094913/108x144/fe54beb415/1520409322?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73094913/216x288/8f646cb96d/1520409322?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11-87 - A Guide to the Design of at Grade Intersections","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11-87 - A Guide to the Design of at Grade Intersections","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73094913,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"bY5TpwFaRzWaHoy4O6qqJb9eOp4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73094913/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-11-87-A-Guide-to-the-Design-of-at-Grade-Intersections"},{"type":"document","id":45184234,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/45184234/108x144/625bdeca96/1369702851?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/45184234/216x288/9cb14275ac/1369702851?v=1","title":"Subsoil Drainage ~REAM 3-2002 v5","short_title":"Subsoil Drainage ~REAM 3-2002 v5","author":"Nurulaqdiyah Mohd Jamid","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":45184234,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"3al3Ku8tv7m96T+VTnd6/v4zKwA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/45184234/Subsoil-Drainage-REAM-3-2002-v5"},{"type":"document","id":75416029,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/108x144/26c446770f/1522217655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75416029/216x288/f43475a56d/1522217655?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 4","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75416029,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"SmgifeDEvyK2ok+HpsLf6GUPmU4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75416029/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-4"},{"type":"document","id":75429784,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/108x144/147399564d/1481686263?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75429784/216x288/5b05eca33a/1481686263?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 5","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75429784,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"npwERmm0U1/Vz5Ri7mVpvPIlpeU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/75429784/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-5"},{"type":"document","id":75422583,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/108x144/88901b8127/1511853494?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/75422583/216x288/bba905052c/1511853494?v=1","title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","short_title":"REAM Guidelines for Road Drainage Design - Volume 2","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":75422583,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"cOHEHBi4fEcyz8/K0TE2ebmaFew="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/75422583/REAM-Guidelines-for-Road-Drainage-Design-Volume-2"},{"type":"document","id":73083888,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083888/108x144/92b99dbbe7/1489081138?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083888/216x288/6912bd9767/1489081138?v=1","title":"Interim Guide on Identifying Prioritising and Treating Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia - JKR 20708-0022-95","short_title":"Interim Guide on Identifying Prioritising and Treating Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia - JKR 20708-0022-95","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083888,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"PR2VKq6PUnf0Y/j10kjCE8w8Ngc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083888/Interim-Guide-on-Identifying-Prioritising-and-Treating-Hazardous-Locations-on-Roads-in-Malaysia-JKR-20708-0022-95"},{"type":"document","id":73096020,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/108x144/fcaba22a41/1514855998?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73096020/216x288/c8a35839db/1514855998?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 16-03 - An Effective Approach to Prepare Bill of Quantities for Environmental Protection","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73096020,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"0KBMgMkgT6K/AZ2QmZD59C7pTw0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/73096020/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-16-03-An-Effective-Approach-to-Prepare-Bill-of-Quantities-for-Environmental-Protection"},{"type":"document","id":57415236,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57415236/108x144/a95f509d3e/1364176267?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57415236/216x288/c2df6b0c78/1364176267?v=1","title":"ATJ 10_86 a Guide to the Design of Cycle Track","short_title":"ATJ 10_86 a Guide to the Design of Cycle Track","author":"mroys","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":57415236,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"to+YGN8rkztAxG7piqjcAeEb7ro="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/57415236/ATJ-10-86-a-Guide-to-the-Design-of-Cycle-Track"},{"type":"document","id":73084937,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73084937/108x144/05b85a5f49/1522139656?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73084937/216x288/ce733afaa5/1522139656?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1-85 - Manual on Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier","short_title":"Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1-85 - Manual on Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73084937,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"A+kTdr2LsX1h9NrB9qVmiUhdV00="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73084937/Arahan-Teknik-Jalan-1-85-Manual-on-Design-Guidelines-of-Longitudinal-Traffic-Barrier"},{"type":"document","id":73083267,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083267/108x144/db1a8426ae/1515052055?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73083267/216x288/4517e53c4b/1515052055?v=1","title":"Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavements - JKR 20709-0315-94","short_title":"Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavements - JKR 20709-0315-94","author":"Penjejak Awan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":73083267,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"qM3uiuRJVE57jQbrl4kMRsZug/A="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/73083267/Interim-Guide-to-Evaluation-and-Rehabilitation-of-Flexible-Road-Pavements-JKR-20709-0315-94"},{"type":"document","id":73093593,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/108x144/f427982098/1537146589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/73093593/216x288/512c3999db/1537146589?v=1","title":"Arahan Teknik (