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FOREWORD

Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM), through the cooperation and support of various road authorities and engineering institutions in Malaysia, publishes A SETiES Of OffiCiAl documents on STANDARDS, SPECIFICATIONS, GUIDbLINES, MANUAL and TECHNICAL NOTES which are related to road engineering. The aim of such publication is to achieve quality and consistency in roa-d and highway construction, operation and maintenance.
The cooperating bodies are:Public Works Department Malaysia (pWD) Malaysian Highway Authority (MHA) Department of krigation & Drainage (DID) The Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) The Institution of Highways & Transportation (IHT Malaysian Branch) The production of such documents is carried through several stages. At the Forum on Technoiogy and Road Management organized by PWD/REAM in Novemb er I99J, Technical Committee 6 - Drainage was formed with the intention to review Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15/97 - INTERMEDIATE GUIDE To DRAINAGE DESIGN oF

ROADS. Members of the committee were drawn from various government departments and agencies, and from the private sector inciuding privitized road operators, engineering consultants and drainage products manufacturers and
contactors.

Technical Committee 6 was divided into three sub-committees to review Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 75/91 and subsequenrly produced 'GUIDELINES FoR ROAD DRAINAGE DESIGN' consisting of the following volumes: Volume I Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Voiume 5 Hydrological Analysis Hydraulic Design of Culverts Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design Surface Drainage Subsoil Drainage

The drafts of all documents were presented at workshops during the Fourth and Fifth Malaysian Road Conferences held in 2000 and 2002 respectively. The comments and suggestions received from the workshop participants were reviewed and incorporated in the finalized documents

ROAD ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION OF MALAYSIA 46-4, Jalan Bola Tampar 13/14, Section 13,40100 Shah Alam, selangor, Malaysia Tel: 603-5513 652r Fax:5513 6523 e-mail: ream@pojaring.my

-J-

TABLE OT CONTENTS
pase
5.1

INTRODUCTION
PROVISION AND LOCATION OF SUBSOIL

<)
5.3

...5-1

DRAINAGE......

... 5.1

DESIGN OF SUBSOIL DRAINAGE SYSTEMS... 5.3.1. The Control of Seepage Flow in Rollins or Mountainous Terrain .....

..".,..5-2
tuX

5'3'2

The conrrol of a High wut",

,"or"tr
.

ar",

,".rt*.

5.3.3

.
5-2

The Control of Water Entering the Subgrade Through a Pervious Road Surface........ .

5.4

DESIGN FLOW CAPACITY 5.4.1 Field Trial Method.

5.4.2

Calculation Method

INVESTIGATION......... 5-8 5.5.1 Boring and Ground WaterLevel Measuremer;:........"..............5_g 5 .5 .2 Standpipe .5_g 5.5.3 Piezomerer Standpipe ..5_g
..

DETAILED SUBSURFACE

."

DETERMINATION OF SOIL COEFFICIENT

5.6.1

(b) PackerTesrinRock"......;
3.t

In-situ permeability Test (a) Variabie Head in Soils...

OF'

PERMEABILITY ....5-9
........5_9
......5_10

-tI
I

.l 5.7 .2 5.7.3
5.7

DESIGN OF FILTER MATERIAL.

..,,5-1] Design Filter Marerial - standarJ C.rai"g"rd'Design Grading . ...5_r7 Synthetic Filter Clorh / .....5_20 Examples of ..."5_23

Fabrics FilterDesign.

-l
I

'I I I

TYPES OF SUBSOIL DRAINS ..... 5.8.1 Single Size Aggregates Filled Trench Lined with Synthetic Filter Cloth (See Fig. 5.15) ...
5.8.2 5,8.3 s"8.4
5.9

....5-27
..

"....5-21
5-28

I
I

Subsoil Pipe and Single Size Aggregate Filled Trench Lined with Synthetic Filter Ctottr qsie Fig. 5.16) ....., Porous / Perforated / Slotted pipe with Design Filter Material (See Fig.5.17) ... Other Proprietary Types

.5-28
5-28

1
I I

DRAIN PIPE DESIGN

..5-29

;*--

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 5.1 Longitudinal Subsoil Drain used to cut off seepage and lower

. Ftg.5.2 MultipleSubsoilDrain.
the groundwater table

...... ' '5-3

......: .

....5-3

Fig. 5.3 Symmetrical Longitudinal Drains used to lower the water table Fig. 5.4 Subsoil Drain for Multilanes

........5-3
"...

Road .....
Zone

'..5-4

Fig. 5.5 Sunsoil Drain to directly drain the base course

..........5-4 ........5-4
.."......5-5 .........5-11
--""....5-I2

Fig.5.6 Interception of Shallow

. Fig. 5.7 Subsoil Drainage Layers for High Fill .. Fig. 5.8 Standpipe Installation Fig. 5.9 Piezometer Standpipe Installation
Seepage

Fig. 5.10Nomograph for Estimating Coefficient of Permeability of Granular


Drainage and Filter

Materials Soils

'..5-13

Fig. 5.11 Particle Size Distribution for Concrete Sand B.S. 882 Filter Material Recommended for Clay Fig. 5.l}Gradation of Filter
..5-19 ..5-24

Material .....
.

Fig. 5.13 Filter and Slot Design for Example 2 Fig. 5.14Filter Design for Example 3..

.........5-24

Fig. 5.15 Single Size Aggregate Filled Trench Lined with Synthetic Filter Cloth.. ........5-31 Fig. 5.16 Subsoil Pipe and Single Size Aggregate Filled Trench Lined with
Synthetic Filter

Cloth

.5-31

Fig.5.17Porous /Perforated/ SlottedPipe

withDesignFilterMaterial. Fig. 5.18Examples of Arrangement of Transversesubsoil Drain Fig. 5.19 Typical Pipe Outlet for Subsoil Drain
LIST OF TABLES
Table

......5-32

.....5-32
..

....5-33

5.1 TabIe 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 5.7

Normal Range of Permeability Coefficient of Typical Soils Insitu Permeability Test Field Permeability

...

..

.5-7

- (Variable Head). Test - Packer Test .

"..... "5-1'4
... '5-15

Measurement of W.L. for Standpipe/Piezometer

Standpipe The Particles Size Distribution for Concrete Sand MS 30 Composition of Sand Fraction from 150 gm Samples ... ... Physical Property Requirements ...

.........5-16
....5-18
".

.5-2I
..5-22

VOLUME

5,

SUBSOILDRAINAGE

5.1

INTRODUCTION
Water control is a very important factor in highway design and construction. Although adequate surface drainage is the firsl step in eniuring good internal moisture control, a properly designed and incorporated ,uu*it drarnage system is also essential.

Soil is a natural material made up of solid particles and various sizes of pores, such that water either remains in it or perlolates through it. water retention and movement within, constitute the two important phases in soii moisture relationship' Water movement takes place fy trr" action of gravity or of capillary action, or by a combination of the two. Subsoil drainaie can r"duc" the soil moisture by keeping the ground water table well beneith the paved
surface.

The principal objective of subsoil drainage is to make sure that a subgrade of uniform bearing value and strength is maintained.

The principal ways in which changes in moisture conrent can occur in the subgrade of a road are:_
(a)

by seepage of water into the subgrade from higher ground adjacent lhe to the road (a case of seepage flow in roriing or *o"'rrtui".rous terrain);

(b)

by a rise or fall in the level of the water table (a case of high water
table in a flat terrain);

(c)

by the percolation of water through the surface of the road carriageway.

<)

PROVISION AND LOCATION OF SUBSOIL DRAINAGE


The decision to install subsoil drainage should be based on site conditions existing at the time of construction. where position oi ,t water table is reasonably close to formation level (about im or less), " the Engineer is required to carry out soil classification tests, grading tests and trial pits to ascertain the level of the water table. The mosiapprolriut" time for .uoylng out the trial pits is during the wet months when ttre iater table is usualy at iti highest level and the subsoil at its wettest. It is the responsibility of the Engineer to determine the necessity and locations where subsoil drainage is rcquired' The Engineer then foliows the procedures specified under Section 5.7 in order ro select and design firter material suitabi" ih;'^ryp"ffi"rr

encountered.

f*

5-1

5.3

DESIGN OF SUBSOIL DR.AINAGE SYSTEMS


Subsoil drainage is required for the following conditions:
(a)

intercepting seepage water from outside sources and lowering it to acceptable level before it reaches the road structures (see Fig. 5.1);
the removal of stationary water in the soil to control and to lower the ground water table and providing outlets (see Fig. 5.3 and Fig. 5.4);

(b)

(c)

to drain the subgrade and pavement during and after the construction
period (see Fig. 5.5).

5.3.1

The Control of Seepage Flow in Rolling or Mountainous Terrain


There are two methods of dealing with the condition of seepage flow. If the seepage zone is narrow and within 1m of the surface then the usual procedure is to install an intercepting subsoil drain just in the impermeable strata underlying the seepage zone as shown in Fig. 5.1. If, however, the seepage zone is wide or the impermeable stratum is deep, it is generally, impracticable to construct the drainage trench sufficiently deep to intercept all the seepage water.

ln this case, therefore, the intercepting drain is usually located to keep the leve1 of underground water table about 1m below formation level
(see Fig. 5.1).

Where roads are on sloping ground, longitudinal drains may not be capable of intercepting all the seepage water. In such cases, it may be necessary to install horizontal filter blankets as shown in Fig. 5.7.

5.3.2 The Control

of a High Water Table in Flat Terrain

A high water table can be lowered by the installation of subsoil drainage system. It is desirable that the water table should be
maintained at a depth not less than 1m below formation level (see Fig. 5.3). The actual spacing and depth of drains to achieve this requirement will depend on the soil conditions and width of the road formation. In the case of dual carriageways, drains may be necessary under the central reserve as well as under the edges of the formation (see Fig. 5.a).

5.3.3 The Control

of Water Entering the Subgrade Through a Pervious Road Surface

completely impermeable road surface is difficult to reaiize in practice and porous subbase has been installed to deal with water
percolating through the pavement surface.

ORTGTNAL GROUND

\ J

IPROPOSED CUT SLOPI


ORIGINAL WATER TABLI

t\l

.\.\'_\-iDRAWDOWN

-\l

CURVT

SUESOIL

DRAJN

DRAWDOWN CURVT

SUBSOIL DRAIN

FIG. 5.2 MUITIPIE SUBSOIL

DRAIN

PROPOSTD CUT SLOPI

ORIGINAL WATTR

FORI/ATIONLEVEL

TABLI

p*o*00**;;;:l-Li:0HffilJof,Y-J[;--L
rMpERVr.us B',NDAR'

nG.

5.3 THE TATER TABIE

5-3

v
1
1

NG. 5.4 SUBSOII DRAIN FOR MUTTII,ANES ROAI)

SHOULDER

SHOULDER

SUBBASE

o
MINIMUM

DESIGN FILTER
l'/ATERIAL

150mm

SUBSOIL PlPt

FIG. 5.5 SIESOIT DRAIN TO DIRECTTY DRAIN TIIE BASE

COT]RSE

ROADSIDI WATIRTABLE
DRAIN

SETPAGE

ZONE

DESIGN FILTER MATERIAL

IMPIRVIOUS
STRATUM

l/lNiMUM 150mm

SUBSOIL PIPE

NG" 5.6 IIVTERCEPTION OF SHATLOT SEEPAGE

ZONE

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5.3.3 The Control

of Water Entering the Subgrade Through a Peryious Road Surface - (Cont'd)

(a) Porous Subbase The purpose of the porous, granular subbase is to trap any water infiltrating through the road surface and carry it to the open drains provided beyond the road shoulders and so prevent the softening of the subgrade. The porous subbase consists of i50mm to 300mm of compacted porous rnateriai such as sand, gravel, etc., interposed between the base course and the subgrade (see Fig. 5.5). The subgrade, has to be properly cambered and free from depressions and the porous subbase must cover the entire road formation and connected to the roadside drain. Unless very careful attention is given to the shaping and cambering of the subgrade, it is probable that most of the water passing into the porous subbase would be trapped in irregularities in the surface of the subgrade, and consequently not entering the drain.
Besides acting as a drainage layer, the porous subbase increases the thickness of the pavement design. It also prevents soft clay working up into the base course of a flexible pavement founded on a ciay subgrade. It is placed immediately after the preparation of the formation, and will help to prevent the disturbance of the subgrade by construction traffic. It is probable that the improved performance of roads with porous subbase is due to the latter factor rather than the possibie drainage, which the subbase effects. 5.4

DESIGN FLOW CAPACITY


Commonly, the design flow capacity of ground water drainage system is based on empirical rule of thumb that have been developed by trial and error over a period of years, or on rather tedious graphical techniques involving the use of flow nets. The purpose of this section is to present a field trial and error method and an approximate analytical method.

5.4.1 Field Trial Method


Where earthwork has reached formation level, a useful estimate of the effect of installing drains to lower the level of the ground water at a particular site (see Fig. 5.3) can be obtained by carrying out a simple field trial. Two parallel trenches 500mm wide and about 20m long are . dug along the line of the proposed drainage trenches for the road to a depth of about 1m below the leve1 to which it is desired to lower the ground water. A transverse line of boreholes at about 1.5m to 3m intervals is sunk between the centre of the trenches and extended about 3m to 6m either side. Observations are made of the levels of the water table in the boreholes before and after pumping the water out of the trenches for a sufficient period of time to establish equilibrium conditions. By plotting these results, an estimate can be made of the drawdown effect of the drain trenches, and by this means it is possible to establish the correct depth and spacing of the drains. The capacity required for the drainpipes can be estimated from the rate of pumping necessary to keep the trenches free of water.

5-6

f
5.3.3 The Control
of Water Entering the Subgrade Through a Pervious Road Surface - (Cont'd)

(a) Porous Subbase The purpose of the porous, granular subbase is to trap any water infiltrating through the road surface and carry it to the open drains provided beyond the road shoulders and so prevent the softening of the subgrade. The porous subbase consists of 150mm to 300mm of compacted porous material such as sand, gravel, etc., interposed between the base course and the subgrade (see Fig. 5.5). The subgrade. has to be properly cambered and free from depressions and the porous subbase must cover the entire road formation and connected to the roadside drain. Unless very careful attention is given to the shaping and cambering of the subgrade, it is probable that most of the water passing into the porous subbase would be trapped in irregularities in the surface of the subgrade, and consequentiy not entering the drain.
Besides acting as a drainage layer, the porous subbase increases the thickness of the pavement design. It also prevents soft clay working up into the base course of a flexible pavement founded on a clay subgrade. It is placed immediately after the preparation of the formation, and will help to prevent the disturbance of the subgrade by construction traffic. It is probable that the improved performance of roads with porous subbase is due to the latter factor rather than the possible drainage, which the subbase effects. 5.4

DESIGN FLOW CAPACITY


Commonly, the design flow capacity of ground water drainage system is based on empirical rule of thumb that have been developed by trial and effor over a period of years, or on rather tedious graphical techniques involving the use of flow nets. The purpose of this section is to present a field trial and error methocl and an approximate analytical method.

5.4.I

Field Trial Method

Where earthwork has reached formation level, a useful estimate of the effect of installing drains to lower the level of the ground water at a particular site (see Fig. 5.3) can be obtained by carrying out a simple field trial. Two parallel trenches 500mm wide and about 20m long are . dug along the line of the proposed drainage trenches for the road to a depth of about 1m below the levei to which it is desired to lower the ground water. A transverse line of boreholes at about 1.5m to 3m intervals is sunk between the centre of the trenches and extended about 3m to 6m either side. Observations are made of the levels of the water table in the boreholes before and after pumping the water out of the trenches for a sufficient period of time to establish equilibrium conditions. By plotting these results, an estimate can be made of the drawdown effect of the drain trenches, and by this means it is possible to establish the correct depth and spacing of the drains. The capacity required for the drainpipes can be estimated from the rate of pumping necessary to keep the trenches free of water.

5-6

s.4.2

Calculation Method

It is always desirabre to carry out design flow carculations for the following reasons:(a)

to predict the reduction in the water level due to the provision of subsoil drainage; severe cases where project area

(b)

excessive seepage.

is of high water table

or

constant (k).

Darcy's Law is commonly used and application of the law needs detailed subsurface investigatio"--.;; determine the permeability

is sometimes omitted in the design of subsoil drainage. This is due to the faci that sorvinJ rrr" d", equations under complicated actual ground conditions is difficult.
Darcy's Law:

calculation of design flow

where

a a
k

= = = = =

kiA
seepage volume (cu.cm/sec)

coefficient of permeability (cm/sec)


cross sectional area of seepage layer (sq.cm) hydraulic gradient

The application of Darcy's Law is sufficient for most subsoil drainage although it assumes raminar flow anJ-.onstant viscosity of the water. The use of Darcy's Law requir", u i"r"rroination or tne permeability constant (k) and the hydraulic gradient (i) u"J tr,"r. *";;r"es are not easily obtainable under grouno conditions. so,,'" typical values for (k) are shown foln]i_la1eo in Table 5.1."
Table 5'1

- Normar Range of permeab'ity

coefficient of rypicar so's

Sandy Soil

- 1.r 100.1 r 10-'- 1x 10


0.1

Clayey Soil

0.1,r105-1x100.1

Very low permeability

x 10-' or less

Source: Japan Road Association

5-l

5.5

DETAILEDSUBSURFACEINVESTIGATION

5.5.1 Boring and Ground Water Level Measurement


Boring and Ground Water Measurements should be done at the project area to identify the underground conditions and level of water table. For water ievel locations when earthworks have reached formation level, drilling a hole by a small auger should be sufficient. Measurement of the water table is a very important part of the sub surface investisation.
The water level in every borehole is taken while drilling is in progress at the following:-

(a) (b)

before work commences in the morning; after work finished in the evening but before water is added to the borehole.

The depth of the borehole and the casting each water level measurement is taken"

(if any) is measured when

5.5.2 Standpipe
Standpipe of 19mm internal diameter rigid unplasticised P.V.C. tubing can be installed in selected boreholes especially directed. (See Fig. s.8).

The bottom of the standpipe perforated with slots.

is

plugged and the lower 0.5m is

The perforated tubing is surrounded by a response zone of an approved granular material used to backfili the borehole to a depth of 1.5m beiow ground level.

The top of the P.V.C. tubing is then sealed with a steel cap to prevent the ingress of surface water.

5.5.3

Piezometer

Standpip.
,

The piezometer standpipe consists of a porous element 305mm long. It is saturated before placing and is placed centrally in a response zone consisting of 1.0m deep layer of well-graded fine to coarse sand and is tamped below and above the porous element. The porous element is connected to 19mm internal diameter rigid unplasticised P.V.C. tubing which finishes close to ground level. A11 the joints in the tubing are made with coupling sleeves so that there is no change in the internal diameter of the bore and it is sealed to be watertight.

5-8
,i

,,*-,-ifl.

5.5.3

Piezometer Standpipe _ (Cont,d)


The borehcire is then seared above the response zone. A stiff grout seal of bentonite 0.5m thick is rhen formed

a"poriting ; **;; !y freshly mixed grout. The remainder of ";;;ry irr" ,"ui is tormea by pracing grout through a tremie tube, the iower eno oi ,ti.t, ,hul'f,"ffi below the surface of the grout. The grout is then alrowed to settre and set for one (1) hour after completion of placing, rrr" top of the p.v.c. tubing is sealed with a steel cover. (See Fig. S]ql.
5.6

DETERMINATION OF SO'' COEFFICIENT OF PERMEABILITY (a) when possible,,permeability of soil should be determined by testing. Two common raboratory methods of ..t".*ining the permeab'ity constant (K)
are:_

(1) (2)

constant-head permeameter test falling-head permeameter test

(b)

There are tabres. and nomoslaphs developed fbr estimating soil permeability coefficient. A tabre prepar"o uy-rupun Road Association (see Table a .5.1).and nomograptrby Moulto" i!;" Fig. 5.r0) can be used for estimating soil permeablHty coefficient.
Besides raboratory testing, measurement of soil permeability shourd be made in the field by adopting one of the above two methods, after a normal borehole test has been carried out. Test

(c)

5.6.1 In-situ permeability

(a)

Variable Head in Soils


31d typlcll recording of the rest are presenred in 5'2' 5.3 and 5'4. The coificients of p"r-"uuitity at tte depth of borehole are determined by using the so calred iailing_ head method' water in the borehole is filred up to the top of casing and the change in water level with time is monitored for a period of time.

fh.". Tables

r"r:u^O

The formula for computing the coefficient of permeability is given as follows:-

K=
where

2nP.
1og"
1 1 (r2-

H1

t1)

H2

K= R=
f. !l
-

coefficie_nt of permeabiliry (cmlsec)

L2=

Hr=
;"J#."

H1

radius of casing (cm) initial testing time (minute) final testing time (minute) initial head final head
5-9

(a)

Variable Head in Soils

- (Cont'd)

The formula for determining the coefficient of permeability from packer test results is given in the United States Bureau of Land Reclamation "Earth Manual" (1963) as:-

K =
where

a
2nLH,

1og"(L/r)forl>10r

-x K a L Ht r

= = = = =

coefficient of permeability (cm/sec) rate of flow (cu.cm.sec) test section length (cm) total dynamic head (cm) radius of test hole (cm)

(b)

Packer Test in Rock

single packer is lowered to the required depth, and is supported on drill rods, which are also used to supply water under pressure to the test section. At the top of the drill hole, the rods are connected via a water swivel and a high pressure piston water supply pump capable of delivering at least 100 litres/minute. In addition, at the end coupled to the swivel
hose, one pressure gauge and a volumeter are included to allow the measurement of water flow and pressure in various stages.

The test carried out in stages being cycled up to a maximum head and then down again. In the case of leakage (unsound rock), the test is performed only for the attainable pressure.

At

each pressure stage, the pressure is held constant and the volume is measured over a period of 5 minutes. The permeability is calculated from the volume of flow and the net dynamic head applied to the test section" The net dynamic head (Ht) is:-

Ht = where Hn = Hr = Hz = H" =
Note:

(Hp+Ht+Hz)-H"
the pressure head (from the pressure gauge)
head due to the height of the pressure gauge above the ground level

depth of ground water or middle of test section if the drill hole is dry
head loss in the equipment

In rocks with a permeability of less than 1 x 10-s cm/s, (H") is not likely to be significant and therefore negligible.

5-10
j

CTMTNT MIXID WITH SAND


PIPT

GROUND LEVEL

GROUND LtVtL

COARST SAND

FI

3| o)
1m
P.V.C.
SAND

nrnronnrro
SECTION

COVER

COARST SAND

FIG. 5.8 STANDPIPE

INSTATI,ATION

5-11

COVER

CEMENT MIXID WITH

19mm l.D. P.V.C.


GROUND LTVEL

PIPE

GROUND LEVEL

CTMENT BENTONIK SLURRY

COARSE SAND PIEZOMITER TIP

t.oml

Tt

sOlL/sAND

BACKFTLL

(BonoM oF

BORrHOLT)

FIG. 5.9 PIEZOMETER STANDPIPE INSTALI.{TION

5-12

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l4I

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(L

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= a = z
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,a?

qq

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N o o

o r r r o r o o o o:

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o:

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o o ol

z.

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F

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N @

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ar
l4.l

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td

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lr',

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=
o z,

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N

o r
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FU J

r r N N

F N

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s N

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(-)
C) l-

o (,

r o o o ts o o o

o o

n r r N @ oq o c; O o

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u
4

=
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+^^^^^ =HHP'E=
F

o z. o o [l F
CE

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l4l lrJ

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5-14

-, . ---**L

3l 9a H.. Oo
6=
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g?

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8== <9zJ
==
b F L q

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r N

c tr.; o z J3 g c N
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=> ': >e _ ffI

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3 ^ =i <.1 =:
=
ull F-A

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rl

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= f @E = = u 4s E
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L 6

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!i.,,h" eouo Pi=3z F

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= o +i - iFE 9 EC lr r,E

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=
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ts b

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k-r

t!6
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=F

5-15
j

TABLE 5.4 - MEASUREMENT OF W.L. FOR STANDP!PE / PIEZOMETER STANDPIPE No. oF STANDPIPES : BH4 (INSTALLATION oF STANDPIPE DEPTH To 30.70m b.g.l) DATE
TIME

W.L. MEASURED FROM GRoUND LEVEL (m)


23.93

DATE

TIME

W.L. MEASURED FROM cRoUND LEVEL (m)


26.71

18/06t87

04/07t87

19/06t87

24.21

05t07 t87

26.63

20/06t87

24.46

a6/07t87

26.53

21/A687

24.67

07t07t87

26.22

22/06t87

24.9

a8/07t87

26.01

23/06t87

23.97

09ta7t87

25.85

24/06t87

23.99

10/07 t87

25.88

25/06t87

24.25

11t07 t87

25.90

26/06187

24,38

12tA7t87

25.91

27/06t87

24.45

13/07/87

25.92

28106t87

25'Qt

14t07 t87

25.94

29106t87

25.24

15/07t87

25.92

3A/06t87

2s.52

16t07t87

25.93

01/47 t87

25.58

02/07t87

25.64

03t07t87

25.68

C:\REANAT5.4-Standpipe.xls(IMfVct)

5-1 6

(Aug 02)

-.--- r-

5.7

DESIGN OF FILTER MATERIAL

In the past little attention has been paid to the nature of the material backfill into the drainage trench and that surrounding the drain pipe. It has been found that the usage of unsuitable filter material has resulted in an inefficient drainage system, which after few years has ceased to function owing to the siiting up of the backfill. In addition, where the drains are installed in silty sandy soi1, fine silts are often washed through the voids leading to the formation of large voids (also known as "soil piping" or "internal erosion") which have caused failure in pavements due to lack of the structural integrity
of the underlying soil.
General characteristics required for the filter material are:(a)

the stability of grains, i.e. not early weathered nor dissolved. proper gradation, well graded natural gravel or graded crashed rock is most suitable.

(b)

Filter material selected must be able to fulfill these requirements:(a)

it must prevent finer material, usually the subgrade soil, from piping or migrating into the drainage layer and clogging it.

(b)

it must be permeable enough to carry


resistance.

water without any significant

(c)

it must be strong enough to carry the loads applied and, for filters, to distribute live loads to the subsrade.

aggregate

Filter material can consist of standard / design gradings of soil particles or synthetic filter cloth. The procedure, which is now commonly adopted, is to use specially selected or designed filter materials.

5.7,1

Design Filter Material - standard Gradings and Design Gradings

The aim of filter design is to ensure that the pores in the filter are fine enough to prevent the migration of coarser soil particles (soil piping) which will support the soil mass. Filter design criteria therefore needs to relate to the pore size of backfill material and the particle sizes of the soil around the drain, filter material must also be sufficiently permeable to allow the flow of water. The design life of filter material should be 10 to 15 Years. Generallv" we have to desisn filter materials for:(a)

predominantly clay soils predominantly sandy or gravel soils

(b)

i:

(a)

Predominantlv Clav Soils


Concrete sand complying to MS 30, Zone Z grading or similar material has proved quite satisfactory for all silty and clayey soils. The concrete sand is fine enough to act as a filter for silts, and will protect the drain from any fine non-cohesive particles in clays. Fig.5.11 and Table 5.5 show the particles size distribution for concrete sand MS 30.
Table 5.5 - The Particles Size Distribution for concrete Sand MS 30

8.S.410 Test Sieve


10.0 mm

Percentage by Weight Passing B.S. Sieves 100 90 - 100 75 - 100

5.0 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 600 um 300 um 150 um

55-90 35-59 8-30

0-10

(b)

Predominantly Sandy or Gravel Soils


The first step in the design of filter material for sandy or gravel soils is to obtain a particle size analysis of the subgrade soil in which it is prop.osed to install the drain and to plot a curve of particle size distribution in the usual manner. The limits for the particle size distribution of the filter materials are based on the requirements shown in Fig. 5.12.

(i)

Filtration or Piping Ratio

To prevent silt or fine particles of the base soil from being washed into the filter material (soil piping). (See
Fig.5.12). Drsp
D85S

<5

(ii)

Permeabilitv Ratio

To ensure that the filter material must have a higher permeability rate than that of the subgrade. Drsr
Drss

>5

5-1 8
-..--,i

SNISSVd

]CVIN]3U]d
U J
CN

ogsooooooo qtcOl-.@n+nN;
co

O U

E.

U)

E E

E
Ld
N,I
lr -J
I

z.

E;

(n

o z.
6

E =
o_

U
U
z. c;

t!

U)

U) F J
U1

= o U
U

z.

I
.fj
I

oaaooooooo o)oN@tr)*.N;
CNISSVd

h
:CVIN]3U]d

*itr&i.

I i

5-19

(b)

Predominantly Sandy or Gravel Soils

- (Cont'd)

(iii)

Hole Ratio

For the filter material to

be prevented from being carried away through the holes of the drain pipes, the followins must hold: Dasp

D (diameter of hole)
Notes:

(1)

Dtsp is used to designate the size of the sieve that allows fifteen percent (l5%o) by weight of the filter
material to pass through

the size of sieve that allows eighty-five (852o) by


weight of the base soil to pass through it. particle sizes smaller than the 75 um sieve refer to Hygrometer
analysis results.

it.

Similariy, Dass designates

(2)

The filter must not be gap-graded (i.e. when some sieve fractions are scarce or missing altogether). Where the soil around a drain is gap-graded, filter design shall be based only on the particles finer than the gap in the grading. Such precautions are intended to ensure that

the finer soil cannot migrate through the


particles and therefore clog the drain.

coarser

(3) (4)

If the soil contains layers of fine material, the filter shall be designed from the grading of the finer soil.
Filter material shall not have more than five percent (5%) of its weight passing through the 75 um sieve, to prevent migration of fines from the filter into the drain.

Examples in Section 5.7.3 show how to design filter materials for different types ofbase soi1.

5.7.2 Synthetic Filter Cloth / Fabrics


The recommended minimum engineering fabric selection criteria in filtration / drwnage applications shall be as follows:(a)

Pipins Rgsistance (all applications)

(i) (ii) (iii)

soils with 50Vo or less particles by weight passing 75 um sieve; EOS < Dss of adjacent soil
soils with more than 50Vo partrcles by weight passing 75 um sieve;

the Equivalent Opening Size shall be obtained in the following manner:-

5-20

5.7.2 Synthetic Filter Cloth / Fabrics -

(Cont,d)

Five (5) fresh samples shall be tested. About 150 gm of each of the following fractions of sand composed of sound rounded particles shall be as tabulated below:Table 5.6 - Composition of Sand Fraction From 150 gm Samples
Percentage Passing Percentage Retained On

l0
20 30

40 50
100

20 30 40 50

t0
720

(iv)

The cloth shal1 be fixed to a standard sieve having openings larger than the coarsest sand used in such
manner that no sand can pass between the cloth and the sieve wall. The sand shali be oven-dried. Shaking shall be accomplished as described in ASTM D422, and shall

be continued for 20 minutes. Determine by sieving (using successively coarser fractions) that fraction of sand of which five percent (5Vo) or less by weight
passes the cloth: the equivalent opening size

of the cloth

sample is the "retained on" Standard Metric sizes of this

fraction. Notes:

(1) (2)

whenever possible, fabric

with the

iargest

possible EOS shall be preferred.

when protected soil contains particles 25mm size to those passing the U.S. 75 um sieve, use only the gradation of soil passing the U.S. 4.75 mm sieve in selecting the fabric.

(b)

Cloesins Resistance

(i)

Severe

cntrcal applications:

+ ** (ii)

woven fabrics percent open area EOS > 150 um sieve (0.149 mm);

>

4.0Vo and

woven fabrics not meeting item (*) and al1 other fabrics gradient ratio < 3.0;

Less severe I less critical applications all fabrics equivalent Darcy permeability of fabric > 10 times
Darcy permeability of soil to be drained.

5-2r

(c)

Chemical Composition Requirements

(i)

Fibres used in the manufacture of engineering fabrics shall consist of long-chain synthetic polymer, composed of at least 85Vo by weight of polypropylene, -ethylene, ester amide, or-vinylidene-chloride, and shall contain stabilizers and / or inhibitors added to the base plastic (as necessary) to make the fabric resistance to deterioration from ultraviolet and heat exposure. The engineering fabric shall be exposed to ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) for no more than 30 days total in the period of time following manufacture until the fabric is covered with soil, rock, concrete, etc.

(ii)

(d)

Physical Propertv Requirements (all fabrics)

Table 5.7

Physical Property Requirements

Fabric (*) Unprotected


Grab Strength (ASTM D 1682) Puncture Strength xx (ASTM D 751-68) 0.9 KN

Fabric Protected
0.45 KN

355 N

155 N

Burst Strength xxx (ASTM D 751-68)

2.2 KN/m

1.1 KN/m

Notes:

Fabric is said to be protected when used in drainage trenches or beneath / behind concrete (portiand or asphalt cement) slabs" A11 other conditions are said to
be unprotected.

**

Tension testing machine with ring clamp, steel ball replaced with an 8 mm diameter solid steel cylinder with hemispherical tip centered within the ring clamp.

+{<{< Diaphragm test method.

5-22

-r-- --- i

a1

?E:.gj'-Pr

5.7.3

Examples of Filter Design Example


1

suppose

a subsoil drain is to be
For Filtration
D15F

constructed

in a base soil with

gradings as shown in Fig. 5.12.

(a)

<5
Dass

= = (b)
l l

D15F <5 x Dess 5 x 0.25 (fromFig.5.t2) l,.25mm hence, D15F < 1.25mm

For Permeability
D15F

;>s
= =
D15F>5xDtss 5 x 0.02 (f6omFig.5.12) 0.10mm hence, D15F >
0.1mm

-j

*i

A backfill material should be chosen for the drain that is within

the specifications above. Please note in Figure 5.12 thatit is desirable that the gradation curve of the filter material is smooth and parallel to that of the subgrade.

Example 2

subsoil drain is to be constructed in a base soil with gradings shown in Fig. 5.13. Filter Design

as

(a)

(i)

For Filtration
D15F

,
l
*-il

<5
D15F<5.rDsss 5x0.21(fromFig.5;13) 1.05mm hence, Dtsr <

Dlss

;;

; "i i
.:

= =

1.05mm

'-':
:

*-;it-

J-LJ

<12

2D (HOL[
80 b's

StZ

L!.1

HOLE

SlZt

l0mm
ALLOWABLE RANGE 0F Des (FILIER)

cr60
GRADIATION CURVE

o-

OF SUBGRADE

z.

o_

i?40
5
Drs (SUBGRADE)

N
FILTIR

CURVT MATTRIAL

= P.1rt

ALLOWABLI RANGE

0F

D1s (FILTER)

0.5

'l

SIEVI SIZE (mm)

FIG. 5.12 GRADATION OF FILTER

MATERIAT

SAND

GRAVTL

100

z.
a
o_

U)

6U

,.60 U z+0 UJ

' // / )
0.1

BASE SOIL TO

BT

FILTERTD

CALCULATED

*: L!

FILTTR MATTRIALS

?n o- -0

0.05

1.0
GRAIN

10

SlZt (mm)

NG. 5.13 NTTER Ai'ID SIOT DESIGN FOR EXAMPI.E Z

5-2/+

5.7.3 Examplesof FilterDesign - (Cont'd)

(ii)

For Permeability
D15F

>5
D15F>5xDtss 5 x 0.085 (from Fig. 5.13)
0.425mmhence, D15F > 0.421mm

D155

= = = (b)
Slot Design

A backfill material should be chosen for the drain that is within


the specification given above.

A suitable material might have 85vo size of between 3-5mm. The maximum allowabie hole sizes in pipes used with the material would be given by:Maximum dia. of circular

hole

= =

Dssr
Dssp x
1

= 5.0mm
=
4.2mm
7.2

Maximum dia. slots width

the holes in the pipe are too large, a coarser filter material must be placed next to the pipe. The grading of the coarser material must be able to prevent migration of the filter into the pipe. It should therefore be designed in the way indicated above, except that the finer filter material is considered as the
base soil.

If

Example 3

subsoil drain is to be constructed in a base soil with gradings shown in Fig. 5.14.

as

(a)

For Filtration
D15F

<5
Drsp<5xDsss
5;
1.05 (from Fig. 5.1a) 5.25mmhence, D15F < 5.25mm

Dsss

5-25

COBBLES
SILT SAND GRAVEL

100

2.80
LL!
BASE

EU

JI IL

TI

rEREI

s
U.

^^

I
)
CAL :UI \TFD

2.,^ LI +U
o_ 4u

FILI

:R

UATE (l

,L

u^^

0.01

0.1

1.0

100

Sltvt

SIZE (mm)

FIG. 5,14 FITTER DESIGN FOR EXAMPTE

5-26

5.7,3

Examples of Filter Design

- (Cont'd)

(b)

For Permeabilitlz

Drsr'
D155

>5
D15F>5xDtss 5 x 0.025 (from Fig. 5.14)
0.125mmhence, Dtsp > 0.125mm

The backfiil chosen for the drain should lie within the calculated grading limits.

5.8

TYPES OF SUBSOIL DRAINS


The type of subsoil drain to be used will depend mainly on the source and the volume of water to be handled.
A11 subsoil drains should be surrounded with an appropriate filter to prevent soil piping and at the same time have adequate conductivity to remove seepage

flow.

Granular or synthetic (Geotextile) materials can be used us iilt"t membrane and free draining aggregates with or without a subsoil pipe is commonly used as the water conductivity medium.
Four (4) types of subsoil drain commonly used are:-

(a) (b) (c)


(d)

single size aggregate filled trench lined with synthetic filter cloth (See Fig.5.15);
subsoil pipe and single size aggregate filled trench lined with synthetic (See Fig. 5.16);

filter cloth

porous / perforated 5.17):

slotted pipe with design filter material (See Fig.

other proprietary types.

5.8.1

Single Size Aggregate Filled Trench Lined with Synthetic Filter Cloth (See Fig.5.15)

In this type of subsoil drain, the trench is lined with geotextiles (made up of very fine holes and high porosity) protecting gravel filled trench. The geotextile acts as a filter as it allows water seeping from the soil to pass through while preventing most soil particles from being carried
away by seepage water.

5-21

5.8.1

Single Size Aggregate Filled Trench Lined with Synthetic Filter Cloth (See Fig. 5.15) - (Cont,d)

The recommended minimum geotextile selection criteria in filtration applications is discussed earlier in detail under Section 5.j.2. This type of subsoil drain requires less control of aggregate gradings and can handle only relatively low seepage volume of water. However, this type of subsoil drain is quite expensive due to high cost of geotextile material.

5.8.2

Subsoil Pipe and Single Size Aggregate Filled Trench Lined with Synthetic Filter Cloth (See Fig. 5.16)

It is a combination of subsoil pipe and aggregates. It can handle large seepage volume of water but is even more expensive than the type
mentioned under Section 5.8.1.

5.8.3

Porous / Perforated / slotted Pipe with Design Filter Material (See Fig. 5.17)

consists of a trench in which a line of subsoil pipe is laid and the trench backfilled with suitable fiiter material.
The common types of pipes available are follows:

(i) (ii)

(iii)
(iv)

porous concrete plpes asbestos cement slotted pipes perforated PVC pipes unglazed earthenware

This type of subsoil drain requires stringent control of gradings and can handle large seepage volume of water. Among the four if is the cheapest type of subsoil drain.

5.8.4 Other Proprietary

Types

Currently in the market, there are other patented types of subsoil drain which are marketed by various manufacturers. Proprietary types should be given due consideration and there is no reason why they cannot be used if they a.re proven to be suitable after proper evaluation and field tests as described under Section 5.4.r. If in doubt, the Engineer should refer the new products to IKRAM for advice.

5-28

5.9

DRAIN PIPE DESIGN

(a) (b)

Diameter of pipe Minimum diameter of pipe used should be 150mm.

Gradient of Pipe
Absolute minimum gradient: 1 : 300 Desirable minimum gradient: i : 100

(c)

Perforations

(i) (ii) (iii)

slot width
1.2

hole diameter
average surface opening of porous pipe

n
The perforated or slotted pipes shall have holes in the lower half of their circumference only. This is to increase the interception ability of the pipes and to reduce the in washing of filter materiai.

(d)

Cover of Pipe
Subsoil pipes shall have a minimum cover of 300mm (from top of pipe to formation level) if it is not subjected to vehicular loadine. Ii theie-is vehicular loading minimum cover shall be 1.0m.

(e)

Subsoil Drain Sumps Subsoil drain shall be connected into stormwater sumps or under some circumstances separate subsoil sumps may be necessary. These sumps have two functions:-

(D

For Inspection

usually at the start of a subsoil drain, a simple inspection sump


should be provided.

(ii)

For Cleaning Purposes Spacing of the sumps should not be more than rz}mapart and have a minimum horizontal dimensions of 600mm if less than 1.2m deep, and 900mm when deeper than that.

5-29

5.9

Drain Pipe Design

- (Cont'd)

(0

Pipe Outlet Pipe outlets should be located at no more than 120m spacing. Subsoil drain outlets shall be constructed on a relatively steep grade to ensure unimpeded pipe discharge. The outlets shall also be paved to prevent erosion and to be clearly visible for inspection and maintenance. Figure 5.19 shows a typical pipe outlet for subsoil drain.

It

function exclusiveiy as a subsoil drain, or be a combination of stormwater, and subsoil drain. Therefore the types of subsoil drainage
which do not utilise a pipe cannot be properly maintained and as such cannot be recommended for permanent installation.

should be noted that under certain circumstances subsoil pipes can

5-30

SHOULDER

ROADSIDT DRAIN

AGGRIGATE BACK FILL

25mm ONI

SIZE AGGREGATT
LAYTR FILIER CTOTH
ROUND

40mm

STNGLE

ALt

FIG. 5.15

ROADSIDE DRAIN FORMATION LEVIL

t)
N

ONE I-AYER. FILTER CLOTH ALL ROUND

12rrm

SIZE AGGREGATE

25mm

SINGLI

MlNl[/UM ] 50mm

SUBSOIL PIPE

5.16 SUBSOIL PIPE AND SINGLE SIZE AGGREGATE

FILTED

5-31

SHOULDER

ROADSIDT DRAIN
SUBBAST

DESIGN FILTER MATIRIAL

MINIMUM 150mm

0 SUBS0IL PlPt

FrG. 5.17 P0ROUS/PERFORATEp/SL0TTED pIpE


WITH DESIGN FILTER MATERIAI

(To BE DrslcN[D)

CENTTRLINE

TRANSVTRSE SUBSOIL DRAIN

FIG. 5.18 EXAMPLES OF ARRANGEMENT


TRANSVERSE SUBSOIL DRAIN

OF

5-32

n
LONG GALV. SCRTW

,75

t
tv lL.)

-T

(stT rN PLASTTC OR
HIAD WALL
PLUG)

GALV. WIRI NITTING '19mm

(MrsH)

'l.6mm DlA. GALV. IHT WIRT TWISTID


AROUND EACH

FRONT VIET

SIDE YIET

150mm

PIPE

___-tt

-fTOP VIET

tr)

FIG.5.19 TYPICAT PIPE OUTLET FOR SUBSOIT

DRAIN

5-33
r--_

ACKI.{OWLEDGEMENTS
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Main Committee Members
Nafisah Hj. Abdul Aziz
6_

DRAINAGE

Chairman Deputy Chairman


Secretary

Ahmad Fuad Emby Wan Suraya Mustaffa Normala Hassan


Teh Ming Hu

Alternate Secretary Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member

Lim Kim Oum


Alias Hashim

Low Kom Sing


Nor Asiah Othman
Johan Les Hare Abdullah

Editor

Sub-Committee Members for Volume 5 - Subsoil Drainaee


Teh Ming Hu Chairman Secretary

Wan Suraya Mustaffa Ahmad Fuad Emby Lam Kok Hong


Yap Lee Chor Letchumanan Allagappan

Committee member Committee member Committee member Committee member

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Volume 5 is a review of the Arahan Teknik (Jalan) f5/97 - INTERMEDIATE GUIDE TO DRAINAGE DESIGN OF ROADS, the chapter was authored originally by Soon Ho Sin and Muhamad Amin Mahmud of Public Works Department
Malaysia.

Volume 5 now provides guidelines to the practical design of subsoil drainage, with worked examples provided to assist users.
Thanks are due to:

REAM Standing Committee on Technology and Road Management for the


guidance and encouragement given in the preparation of Volume 5.

Members of the Technical Committee 6 - Drainage and Sub-Committee for Subsoil Drainage for their untiring efforts to ensure timeiy completion of Volume 5.