University of Southern Queensland

Faculty of Engineering and Surveying



Design, Construction and Operation of the
Floating Roof Tank



A dissertation submitted by

Submitted by

Kuan, Siew Yeng


in fulfilment of the requirement of

Course ENG 4111 and ENG 4112 Research Project


towards the degree of


Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering)



Submitted: 29
th
October 2009
i
ABSTRACT
Storage tanks have been widely used in many industrial particularly in the oil refinery
and petrochemical industry which are to store a multitude of different product with crude
oil as one if it. There are different types of tank such as fixed roof tank, open roof tank,
floating roof tank etc. Floating roof tank is which the roof floats directly on top of the
product, with no vapour space and eliminating the possibility of flammable atmosphere.
There are various industrial code and standard available for the basic requirement for
tank design and construction. Commercial software are also available in the market for
the basic design, hence tank designer would rely wholly on the software without detail
understanding. Despite of the various standard and code, there is limited procedure and
rules in designing the floating roof which result lots of floating roof failure and caused
injuries and fatalities accident. Design and safety concern has been a great concern for
the increasing case of fire and explosion due the tank failure.
The main objective of this project is “HOW TO DESIGN A NEW FLOATING ROOF
TANK”. The aim of this project is to develop basic rules and procedures, highlighting the
concerns in designing, construction and operation of a floating roof by taking an existing
Oil Development Project with it’s readily available information as a base, to design the
tank, and identify the problematic and lesson learnt throughout the project.
ii
University of Southern Queensland

Faculty of Engineering and Surveying



ENG 4111 & ENG 4112 Research Project


Limitations of Use

The Council of the University of Southern Queensland, its Faculty of Engineering and
Surveying, and the staff of the University of Southern Queensland, do not accept any
responsibility for the truth, accuracy or completeness of material contained within or
associated with this dissertation.

Person using all or any part of this material do so at their own risk, and not at the risk of
the Council of the University of Southern Queensland, its Faculty of Engineering and
Surveying or the staff of the University of Southern Queensland.

This dissertation reports an education exercise and has no purpose or validity beyond this
exercise. The sole purpose of the course pair entitled “Research Project” is to contribute
to the overall education within the student’s chosen degree program. This document, the
associate hardware, software, drawings, and other material set out in the associated
appendices should not be used for any other purpose: if they are so used, it is entirely at
the risk of the user.

Prof Frank Bullen
Dean

Faculty of Engineering and Surveying
iii


Certification





I certify that the ideas, designs and experimental work, results, analyses and
conclusions set out in this dissertation are entirely my own effort, except where
otherwise indicated and acknowledged.

I further certify that the work is original and has not been previously submitted for
assessment in any other course or institution, except where specifically stated.




KUAN SIEW YENG
0050012450


_____________________
Signature
_____________________
Date

iv

Acknowledgment


This research was carried out under the principal supervision of Dr. Harry Ku and the co-
supervisor is Dr. Talal. I would like express my great appreciation toward them for their
kind valuable assistance and advice through out the project.

Beside that, I would like to thanks the library of Technip Malaysia which had provided
me a lot of handful information and reference book as this project requires lot of
reference and international code.
v
TABLE OF CONTENT


CONTENTS PAGE

ABSTRACT i
ACKNOWLEDGMENT iv
LIST OF FIGURES xi
LIST OF TABLES xvi

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Rationale 1
1.2 Research Goal 2
1.2.1 Project Aims 2
1.2.2 Project Objective 2
1.3 Research Methodology
1.3.1 Literature Review 3
1.3.2 Case Study 3
1.3.3 Product Enquiries 3
1.3.4 Design Approach 3
1.3.5 Consequential Effect of the Design Failure 4
1.3.6 Special Design and Construction 4

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Type of Storage Tank 7
2.2.1 Open Top Tank 7
2.2.2 Fixed Roof Tanks 8
2.2.3 Floating roof Tanks 9
vi
2.3 Design Code and Standard 10
2.4 Floating Roof Tank 11
2.4.1 History and Introduction 11
2.4.2 Principles of the Floating roof 11
2.4.3 Advantages of the Floating Roof Storage Tank 13
2.5 Design Data Overview 13
2.6 Process Description and Requirements 15
2.7 Process Description and Design Consideration 16
2.8 Material Selection and Corrosion Assessment 19
2.8.1 CO2 Corrosion 19
2.8.2 Carbon Dioxide Corrosion Modeling 21
2.9 Mechanical Selection of Carbon Steel Grade 22
2.10 Mechanical Design 25
2.11 Tank Shell Design Method as Per API 650 26
2.11.1 Calculation of thickness by 1-Foot Method 26
2.11.2 Calculation of thickness by Variable-Design-
Point Method 27
2.11.3 Calculation of thickness by Elastic Analysis 28
2.12 Mechanical Design consideration 28
2.13 Bottom Plate Design 30
2.13.1 Vertical Bending of Shell 30
2.14 Floating Roof design 31
2.15 Special Consideration 32
2.15.1 Soil Settlement 32
2.15.2 Seismic Design for Floating roof 33
2.16 Failure Mode Due to Seismic Effects on Floating Roof Tank 34
2.17 Fitting Design and Requirement 36
2.18 Typical Fitting and Accessories for Floating Roof 37
vii
2.18.1 Roof Seal System 37
2.18.2 Support Leg 38
2.18.3 Roof Drain System 39
2.18.4 Vent – Bleeder vents 43
2.18.5 Centering and Anti-Rotation Device 44
2.18.6 Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform 44
2.19 Fire Fighting System and Foam Dam 44
CHAPTER 3: TANK DESIGN
3.1 Introduction 46
3.2 Shell Design 46
3.2.1 Longitudinal Stress 47
3.2.2 Circumferential Stress 48
3.2.3 Longitudinal Stress versus Circumferential Stress 49
3.2.4 Circumferential Stress Thickness Equation and
1-Foot Method 49
3.2.5 Shell Design Thickness calculation 50
3.2.6 Top Stiffener and Intermediate Wind Girder Design
3.2.6.1 Top Stiffener/ Top Wind Girder 51
3.2.6.2 Intermediate Wind Girder 54
3.2.7 Overturning Stability against Wind Load 57
3.2.8 Seismic Design 60
3.2.8.1 Site Geometry Design Data for
Seismic Design 62
3.2.8.2 Overturning Stability 62
3.2.8.3 Design Spectral Accelerations 64
viii
3.2.8.4 Parameter required for Seismic Design 65
3.2.8.5 Effective Weight of Product 69
3.2.8.6 Center of Action for effective Lateral Force 71
3.2.8.7 Ring Wall Moment 72
3.2.8.8 Base Shear Force 72
3.2.8.9 Resistance to Overturning 74
3.2.8.10 Anchorage Design 77
3.2.8.11 Freeboard 78
3.2.8.12 Seismic design Summary 79
3.3 Roof Design 80
3.3.1 Roof type Selection 80
3.3.2 Pontoon and Center deck Design 81
3.3.2.1 Roof Stress Design 82
3.3.2.2 Effect of large Deflection on Center Deck 83
3.3.2.3 Pontoon Stability – Pontoon Ring Design 86
3.3.3 Fitting and Accessories Design 89
3.3.3.1 Roof Seal System 90
3.3.3.2 Roof Seal Material 95
3.3.3.3 Roof Support Leg 96
3.3.3.4 Venting System 98
3.3.3.4.1 Operation of Bleeder Vent 98
3.3.3.4.2 Bleeder Vent Design 101
3.3.3.5 Roof Drain System 104
3.3.3.5.1 Articulated Piping System 105
3.3.3.5.2 Flexible Drain Pipe System 107
ix
3.3.3.5.3 Drain System Selection 109
3.3.3.5.4 Drain Pipe Design 110
3.3.3.6 Rolling Ladder & Gauger Platform 112
3.3.3.7 Fire Fighting System and Foam Dam 113
CHAPTER 4: TANK CONSTRUCTION
4.1 Introduction 116
4.2 Foundation 117
4.3 Bottom Plate Placement 118
4.4 Shell Erection 121
4.5 Tank Testing
4.5.1 Tank Bottom Testing 123
4.5.2 Tank Shell Testing 123
4.5.3 Floating Roof Testing 125
CHAPTER 5: SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION
5.1 Design consideration
5.1.1 Design Consideration of Foundation 127
5.1.2 Design consideration on Tank Shell 129
5.2 Construction Consideration
5.2.1 Nominal Diameter Versus Inside Diameter 130.
5.2.2 Plate Square-ness 130
5.2.3 Wind Damage 131
5.3 Testing Consideration
x
5.3.1 Hydrotest/ Water Test 131
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION 132
REFERENCE 134
APPENDIX A: Project Specification A1
APPENDIX B Design Calculation B1
xi
LIST OF FIGURE PAGE

Figure 1.1: Fire and explosion incidents in the tanks 6
Figure 1.2: Types of storage tank 7
Figure 1.3: Types of Fixed Roof Tanks 8
Figure 1.4: Single Deck Pontoon Type Floating Roof 9
Figure 1.5: Double Deck Type Floating Roof 10
Figure 1.6: Single Deck Floating Roof Tank 12
Figure 1.7: Double Deck Floating Roof Tank 13
Figure 1.8: Storage Tank Capacities and Levels 15
Figure 1.9: Schematic Sketch of the Stabilised Condensate Tank 17
Figure 1.10: Impact Test Exemption Curve 23
Figure 1.11: Tank Exploding 26
Figure 1.12: Loading Diagram on a Tank Shell 29
Figure 1.13: Rotation of the shell-to-bottom connection 30
Figure 1.14: Single Deck Roof Sagged with Flooding Rain Water 31
Figure 1.15: Floating roof overtopped 34
Figure 1.16: Pontoon buckling 34
Figure 1.17: Diamond buckling (slender tanks) 35
Figure 1.18: Elephant-foot buckling (broad tanks) 35
Figure 1.19: Tanks Burn Down 35
Figure 1.20: Tank Farm on Fire 35
Figure 1.21: Mechanical Seal 37
Figure 1.22: Liquid-filled fabric seal 37
Figure 1.23: Lateral Deflection of Supporting Leg 39
xii
Figure 1.24: Articulated Piping System 40
Figure 1.25: Flexible Steel Pipe System Inside the Tank 41
Figure 1.26: Articulated drain pipe system installed inside the tank 42
Figure 1.27: Flexible Swing Joint 42
Figure 1.28: Bleeder vents 43
Figure 1.29: Foam Fire Fighting System 45
Figure 2.1: Longitudinal forces acting on thin cylinder under internal
Pressure 47
Figure 2.2: Circumferential l forces acting on thin cylinder under internal
Pressure 48
Figure 2.3: Circumferential Stress Thickness equation to 1-Foot method
Equation 50
Figure 2.4: Diagrammatic sketch of shell wall with design thickness 51
Figure 2.5: Typical stiffener ring section for ring shell 52
Figure 2.6: Fabricated Tee Girder for Top Wind Girder 54
Figure 2.7: Height of transform shell 56
Figure 2.8: Fabricated Tee Girder for Intermediate Wind Girder 57
Figure 2.9: Overturning check on tank due to wind load 58
Figure 2.10: Summary Result for Overturning Stability against wind load 59
Figure 2.11: Seismic Diagram for a Floating Roof Tank 60
Figure 2.12: Design Response Spectral for Ground-Supported Liquid
Storage Tanks 65
Figure 2.13: Sloshing Period Coefficient, Ks 66
Figure 2.14: Response Spectrum Curve 69
Figure 2.15: Effective weight of Liquid ratio 70
Figure 2.16: Center of Action for Effective Forces 72
xiii
Figure 2.17: Seismic Moment and Force Diagram 73
Figure 2.18: Annular Plate Requirement 76
Figure 2.19: Sloshing Wave of Liquid Inside Tank 78
Figure 3.1: Single deck Floating roof 80
Figure 3.2: Center deck and 2 adjacent compartments puncture 81
Figure 3.3: Minimum Requirement for Single Deck Pontoon Floating Roof 82
Figure 3.4: Case 1 – Dead Load Only 83
Figure 3.5: Case 2 – Dead Load + 10” Rain Accumulation 83
Figure 3.6: (a) Deck Deflection in Case 1 84
Figure 3.6: (b) Deck Deflection in Case 2 84
Figure 3.7: Radial Forces Acting on Pontoon Inner Rim 87
Figure 3.8: Sectional Detail of Pontoon 88
Figure 3.9: Standard Fitting and Accessories for Single Deck Roof 90
Figure 3.10: Pantograph Hanger 92
Figure 3.11: Scissor Hanger 92
Figure 3.12: Completed Assembled Pantograph 92
Figure 3.13: End Section Pantograph 92
Figure 3.14: Foam-Filled Seal 93
Figure 3.15: Liquid-Filled Seal 93
Figure 3.16: Secondary Seal 94
Figure 3.17: Number and Location of Support Legs 97
Figure 3.18: (a) Operating of Bleeder Vent during In-Breathing (Starting) 99
Figure 3.18: (b) Operating of Bleeder Vent during In-Breathing (Finishing) 99
Figure 3.19: (a) Operating of Bleeder Vent during Out-Breathing (Starting ) 100
Figure 3.19: (b) Operating of Bleeder Vent during Out-Breathing (Finishing) 100
xiv
Figure 3.20: (a) Roof Drain with Roof Rise 104
Figure 3.20: (b) Roof Drain with Roof Fall 104
Figure 3.21: Articulated Drain Pipe System 105
Figure 3.22: (a) Typical Swing Joint in Articulated Drain Pipe System 106
Figure 3.22: (b) Swing Joint Assembly 106
Figure 3.23: Flexible Drain Pipe System 107
Figure 3.24: (a) Inner Section of COFLEXIP Pipe 108
Figure 3.24: (b) COFLEXIP Pipe of Different Size 108
Figure 3.25: End fitting of COFLEXIP Pipe 108
Figure 3.26: Flexible Drain Pipe System Installed in Different Tank 109
Figure 3.27: Sketch of Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform in a Floating
Roof Tank 112
Figure 3.28: Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform Installed in a Floating
Roof Tank 113
Figure 3.29: General Arrangement of the Multiple Foam Chamber on the
Floating Roof Tank 114
Figure 3.30: (a) Fire Protection for Floating Roof Tank 115
Figure 3.30: (b) Foam Chamber 115
Figure 3.31: Typical Foam Dam 115
Figure 4.1: (a) Progressive Assembly & Welding and Complete Assembly
Followed by Welding of Horizontal Seam Method for
Welded Vertical Tank 116
Figure 4.1: (b) Jacking-Up and Flotation Method for Welded Vertical Tank 117
Figure 4.2: Tank Foundation with anchor bolt installed 118
Figure 4.3 Bottom Plate Layout 119
Figure 4.4: Bottom Plate Laid on Foundation 120
xv
Figure 4.5: Typical Cross Joint in Three Plate Lap 120
Figure 4.6: Welding Detail for Bottom Plate 121
Figure 4.7: Completed Erection of First Shell Course 122
Figure 4.8: (a) Erection of Upper Shell Course – Inside Tank 122
Figure 4.8: (b) Erection of Upper Shell Course – Outside Tank 122
Figure 4.9: Vacuum Box and Pump 124
Figure 5.1: Maximum Allowable Sag 128
Figure 5.2: Maximum Tolerances for Out-of Verticality of the Tank Shell 129
Figure 5.3: Alignment of Shell Plate for Welding 130



















xvi

LIST OF FIGURE PAGE

Table 1.1: Process Design Data 17
Table 1.2: Nozzle Data 18
Table 1.3: Corrosion Rate Sensitively Result for 50% Summer
and 50% Winter Condition 21
Table 1.4: Stress table for SA 516 Gr 65N 23
Table 1.5: Material Specifications for Stabilised Condensate Tank 24
Table 1.6: Material Selection Guide 24
Table 1.7: Bake Bean Can and Storage Tank Comparison Table 25
Table 1.8 (a): Fitting Requirements on Tank Shell 36
Table 1.8 (b): Fitting Requirement on Floating Roof 36
Table 2.1: Shell wall Design Thickness Summary 50
Table 2.2: Value of Fa as a Function of Site Class 67
Table 2.3: Value of Fv as a Function of Site Class 67
Table 2.4: Response Modification Factors for ASD Methods 68
Table 2.5: Summary of Design Parameter 68
Table 2.6: Anchorage Ratio Criteria 74
Table 3.1: Summary Result for Maximum Deflection and Stresses in
Center Deck 86
Table 3.2: Summary Result for Pontoon Ring Stability 89
Table 3.3: Common Material for Select Product 95
Table 3.4: Properties of Common Seal Material 96
Table 3.5: Summary Result for Roof Support Legs 98
Table 3.6: Equivalent Pipe Length Chart 111

1
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Rationale
Floating roof tank is not a new technology or equipments and it had been widely used over the
world in many industries. Storage tanks are designed, fabricated and tested to code and standard.
There are a variety of codes and standards stating the similar common minimum requirements
and some additional requirements from company standards or specifications.
Engineer or tank designer who do the preliminary and detail design are normally not familiar or
not exposed to the actual site condition. Their designs are basically based on the code and
standard requirements and basic theory from reference book. Some would only rely on the
commercial software for the basic design, they have limited knowledge on the actual tank
operation which limit them on cost effectiveness and even safety detail design, particularly on
the floating roof tank.
There is limited procedure and rules in design the floating roof. These had resulted lots of
floating roof failure in the industry. Hence industry, tank owner and also the tank designer or
engineer need to have a simple rules and formula to ensure the floating roof is adequately
designed and strong enough for the various loading during operation.
Beside of the procedures and rules, understanding of how the stresses behave in the tank material
is essential for a complete safe design.
Floating roof tanks are usually built in a gigantic size and this would involve various disciplines
such as civil, chemical, mechanical, fire safety, construction, inspection, commissioning and
operation.
2
The work scope of each disciplines would have a direct effect on the tank design, one example is
the tank foundation which is designed by the civil staff. The foundations are to be designed to
withstand the load of the tank with its content. Improper design would result in foundation
sagging or excessive soil settlement which in turn induces extra stresses to bottom of tank and
tank shell.

Hence it is essential for the engineers or tank designer to know how and what effects each inter-
discipline’s design would have on one’s tank that affected the tank integrity, and taking all these
consideration into his design.
1.2 Research Goal
1.2.1 Project Aims
The aim of this project is to develop basic rules and procedures, highlighting the concerns in
designing, construction and operation of a floating roof.
1.2.2 Project Objective
The main objective of this project is “HOW TO DESIGN A NEW FLOATING ROOF TANK”.
Taking an existing Oil Development Project with it’s readily available information as a base, to
design the tank, and identify the problematic and lesson learnt throughout the project.
3
1.3 Research Methodology
1.3.1 Literature Review
Literature review is conducted to study the basic design and requirement of the floating
roof storage tank in the storage tank design code (API 650 – Welded Steel Tanks for Oil
Storage).
Further studies on the tank design were made from other reference book, company
standard specification and information from different disciplines.
1.3.2 Case Study
Case studies on the previous project for the lesson learnt will be carried out.
1.3.3 Product Enquiries
Research and study the role and application of the tank fittings and accessories by
searching information and sending technical enquiries to the product supplier, attending
the technical presentation conducted by the product supplier will be carried out.
1.3.4 Design Approach
Upon completion of the literature review, design approach is then developed. The storage
tank design consists of two major designs, that is (1) the shell design analysis and (2) the
floating roof design.
In the shell design analysis, shell stress design will be performed taking into
consideration of all the considerably loading including hydrostatic pressure, wind loading
and seismic loading.
4
In the roof design, it consists of two sections, that is (1) roof stress design and the (2) roof
fitting and accessories design.
Design calculation sheet using excel will be establish in the project.
Evaluation of the different type of roof fitting from different supplier with be carried out
and selection of the fitting base the evaluation result.
1.3.5 Consequential effect of the design failure
The relative importance of each fittings and accessories will be defined as well as the
consequential effects it would have in case of malfunction.
1.3.6 Special Design and Construction
Upon completion of the tank design, special consideration on the design and construction
will be addressed base on the case study on the lesson learn and design process.






5
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
Storage tanks had been widely used in many industrial established particularly in the
processing plant such as oil refinery and petrochemical industry. They are used to store a
multitude of different products. They come in a range of sizes from small to truly
gigantic, product stored range from raw material to finished products, from gases to
liquids, solid and mixture thereof.
There are a wide variety of storage tanks, they can be constructed above ground, in
ground and below ground. In shape, they can be in vertical cylindrical, horizontal
cylindrical, spherical or rectangular form, but vertical cylindrical are the most usual used.
In a vertical cylindrical storage tank, it is further broken down into various types,
including the open top tank, fixed roof tank, external floating roof and internal floating
roof tank.
The type of storage tank used for specified product is principally determined by safety
and environmental requirement. Operation cost and cost effectiveness are the main
factors in selecting the type of storage tank.
Design and safety concern has come to a great concern as reported case of fires and
explosion for the storage tank has been increasing over the years and these accident cause
injuries and fatalities. Spills and tank fires not only causing environment pollution, there
would also be severe financial consequences and significant impact on the future business
due to the industry reputation. Figure 1.1 shows the accident of the tanks that caught on
fire and exploded. Lots of these accidents had occurred and they are likely to continue
unless the lessons from the past are correctly learnt.
6



Figure 1.1 Fire and explosion incidents in the tanks
7
2.2 Types of Storage Tank
Figure 1.2 illustrates various types of storage tank that are commonly used in the industry
today.




Figure 1.2 Types of storage tank

2.2.1 Open Top Tanks
This type of tank has no roof. They shall not be used for petroleum product but may be
used for fire water/ cooling water. The product is open to the atmosphere; hence it is an
atmospheric tank.
Type of Storage Tank
Open Top Tank
(Atmospheric)
Fixed Roof Tank
(Atmospheric, Low
Pressure, High
Pressure)

Other Types
Cone Roof (Supported/
self supported)
Internal Floating Roof
(Supported/ self
supported)
Dome Roof (Supported/
self supported)
Floating Roof Tank
External Floating Roof
Internal Floating Roof
Bullet Tank
Bolted Tank

Sphere Tank
8
2.2.2 Fixed Roof Tanks
Fixed Roof Tanks can be divided into cone roof and dome roof types. They can be self
supported or rafter/ trusses supported depending on the size.
Fixed Roof are designed as
Atmospheric tank (free vent)
Low pressure tanks (approx. 20 mbar of internal pressure)
High pressure tanks (approx. 56 mbar of internal pressure)
Figure 1.3 shows the three types of Fired Roof Tanks.




Figure 1.3 Types of Fixed Roof Tanks [EEMUA 2003, vol.1, p.11]


9
2.2.3 Floating Roof Tanks
Floating roof tanks is which the roof floats directly on top of the product.
There are 2 types of floating roof:
Internal floating roof is where the roof floats on the product in a fixed roof tank.
External Floating roof is where the roof floats on the product in an open tank and the
roof is open to atmosphere.
Types of external floating roof consist of:
Single Deck Pontoon type ( Figure 1.4)
Double deck ( Figure 1.5)
Special buoy and radially reinforced roofs
Floating roof tank will be further discussed in details in later chapter.


Figure 1.4 Single Deck Pontoon Type Floating Roof [Bob. L & Bob. G, n.d, p.155]

10


Figure 1.5 Double Deck Type Floating Roof [Bob. L & Bob. G, n.d, p.155]

2.3 Design Codes and Standards
The design and construction of the storage tanks are bounded and regulated by various
codes and standards. List a few here, they are:
• American Standards API 650 (Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage)
• British Standards BS 2654 (Manufacture of Vertical Storage Tanks with Butt-
welded Shells for the Petroleum Industry
• The European Standards
- German Code Din 4119 – Part 1 and 2 (Above Ground Cylindrical Flat
Bottomed Storage Tanks of Metallic Materials)
- The French Code, Codres – (Code Francais de construction des reservoirs
cylindriques verticauz en acier U.C.S.I.P. et S.N.C.T.)
• The EEMUA Standards (The Engineering Equipments and Materials Users
Association)
• Company standards such as shell (DEP) and Petronas (PTS)
11
2.4 Floating Roof Tanks

2.4.1 History and Introduction
Floating roof tank was developed shortly after World War I by Chicago Bridge & Iron
Company (CB & I). Evaporation of the product in fixed roof caused a great lost of
money; this led to research to develop a roof that can float directly on the surface of
product, reducing the evaporation losses.
2.4.2 Principles of the Floating Roof
The floating roof is a circular steel structure provided with a built-in buoyancy which
allowing it to sit/ float on top of the liquid product in a close or open top tank.
The overall diameter of the roof is normally 400 mm smaller than the inside diameter of
the tank, which has about 200 mm gap on each side between the roof and the inside tank
wall. This is due to the limitation on the accuracy of dimension during construction for
the large diameter tank. The gaps allow the floating roof to rise and fall without binding
on the tank wall.
To protect the product inside the tank from evaporation to the atmosphere and
contamination from the rain water through the gaps between the outer rim of the floating
roof and the tank wall, the gaps will be closed or sealed up by mean of flexible sealing
system.
Due to environmental issue, selection of the roof seal is one of the major concerns in the
floating roof tank design.
12
In single deck roof which shown in Figure 1.6, is also called pontoon roof, the buoyancy
is derived in the pontoon, an annular circular pontoon radially divided into liquid tight
compartments.
The center deck which is formed by membrane of thin steel plates are lap welded
together and connected to the inner rim of the pontoons.
Double deck roof (Figure 1.7) consists of upper and lower steel membranes separated by
a series of circumferential bulkhead which is subdivided by radial bulkhead. The outer
ring of the compartments is the main liquid tight buoyancy for the roof.
Double deck roof is much heavier than single deck one, hence it is more rigid. The air
gap between the upper and bottom plates of the deck has insulation effect which helps
against the solar heat reaching the product during the hot climate and preventing heat loss
of the product during cold climate.





Figure 1.6 Single Deck Floating Roof Tank [EEMUA 2003, vol.1, p.15]



13


Figure 1.7 Double Deck Floating Roof Tank [EEMUA 2003, vol.1, p.15]
2.4.3 Advantages of the floating roof storage tank
As the roof floats directly on the product, there is no vapour space and thus eliminating
any possibility of flammable atmosphere. It reduces evaporation losses and hence
reduction in air pollution. Vapour emission is only possible from the rim seal area and
this would mainly depend on the type of seal selected and used.
Despite of the advantages of the floating roof, to design and construct a floating roof tank
will be much more complicated and costly than the fixed ones. In term of tank stability
and design integrity, floating roof tank is never better than the fixed roof tank as there are
still many unknown parameters and factors in designing the floating roof.
2.5 Design Data Overview
Site geometric data are:
The plant is located in Kiyanli, Balkanabad District in Turkmenistan located onshore by
Caspian Sea.
The climate is sub tropical with hot dry summer and cold wet winter. The climate
condition is as follow:

14
a. Temperature:
• Ambient: Mean annual = 14.6ºC
Extreme low = -17.0ºC (January 1969)
Extreme high = +44.0ºC (July 1983)
• Design temperature change = +30ºC
b. Rainfall Intensity:
Maximum daily rainfall (4
th
May 1972) : 68 mm
Maximum rain density once in 100 years : 0.69 mm/min
Maximum rain density once in 50 years : 0.59 mm/min
Maximum rain density once in 2 years : 0.3 mm/min
c. Humidity:
Summer : 50% at 34ºC
Winter : 74% at 7ºC
d. Wind Speed at 10 m above Ground level:






e. Earthquake (MSK 64):

Earth Tremor Intensity (severe damage to building) : 9
Index of Earth Tremor Category (once in 1000 years) : 2

Equivalent to Uniform Building Code (UBC) Zone 4
f. Design Snow Loading : 56 kg/m²
Operating 1 yr 10 yr 50 yr 100 yr
1 hour mean m/s 12 17 21 24 25
10 minutes mean m/s 13 19 23 26 27
1 minute mean m/s 14 21 25 28 29
3 second gust m/s 15 23 27 31 32
15
2.6 Process Description and Requirements
Capacity determination is the one of the first steps in designing the tank. Only after the
capacity is known, the tank can be sized up.
The definition of the maximum capacity can be explained easily in Figure 1.8.




Figure 1.8 Storage Tank Capacities and Levels
The maximum or total capacity is the sum of the inactive capacity (minimum operating
volume remaining volume in tank), actual or net working capacity and the overfill
protecting capacity.
Overfill
Overfill protection level
Net working capacity
Minimum operating volume
remaining in the tank
Maximum capacity
Minimum fill
level
Normal fill level
(HLL)
Design liquid
level
Top of shell
height
Top of bottom plate at
shell
16
The net working capacity is the volume of available product under normal operating
conditions, which is between the low liquid level (LLL) and the high liquid level (HLL).
The storage tank capacity is sized in accordance with 85, 000 barrel tanker and 3 days of
unavailability of the off loading system at production rate 51 000 barrels per day.
2.7 Process Description and Design Considerations
This storage tank is designed to store the stabilised condensate which runs down from the
condensate stabiliser column. The stabilised condensate processed in the stabilsed system
is pumped to Stabilsed Condesate Tank prior to export via underwater pipeline to the
Single Buoying Mooring for ship loading.
Due to the waxy nature of the condensate, the liquid is heated above the wax dissolution
temperature (WDT) of 39°C to prevent wax precipitation and formation in the pipeline.
The condensate in the tank is circulated in an external heating circuit to maintain the
operating temperature at 44°C.
The stabilised condensate storage tanks are also equipped with motorized side entry tank
stirrers to blend the storage fluid to ensure uniform temperature distribution in the tanks.
It helps to prevent localized cooling that will result in wax formation in the storage tank.
The schematic sketch of the stabilized condensate tank is shown in Figure 1.9 with the
process design data and nozzle data in Tables 1.1 and 1.2 respectively.

17


Figure 1.9 Schematic Sketch of the Stabilised Condensate Tank

Service Stabilised Condensate Tank
Tank Type Floating Roof
Number Required Two ( 2)
Working Capacity 20000 m³
Nominal Capacity 24278 m³
Diameter 39000 mm
Height 20700 mm
Design Pressure Atmospheric
Operating Temperature 44 °C
Design Temperature 70 / -17 °C
Specific Gravity at 15°C/ at T 0.7903/ 0.7804
Normal Filling Flow Rate 338 m³/h
Maximum Filling Flow Rate 427 m³/h
Normal Draw-Off Flow Rate 660 m³/h
Maximum Draw-Off Flow Rate 792 m³/h
Heater Type External Heater
Vent Yes
Drain Yes (Roof and shell)
Thermowell Yes
Gauging Hole No
Level Indicator/ Alarms Yes
Mixing Propeller Yes
Manhole/ Inspection Hatches Yes
Insulation Yes (Shell and roof)
M3
D1
N5
N1
N2
N4
M1

N15
M2
N8 N6
N7 N12
D2
D3
N13
18



Table 1.1 Process Design Data






















Table 1.2 Nozzle Data
The following points are to be included in design considerations:
1) Quantity and size of the roof drain shall be designed and size up accordance to the
rainfall intensity.
2) Auto Bleeder vent is required as per API 650 code, quantity and size to be
designed accordance to the maximum filling and draw off rate [API650, 2007].
3) Tanks are fixed with 3 mixing propellers, they shall remain submerged below the
low liquid level during operation.
4) Clean out door shall be suitable for wheel barrow access for facilitating sediment/
sludge cleaning process.
5) Tank bottom to be cone-up toward center.
Category of Product Hydrocarbon Condensate

Nozzle Data
Tag No. Req. Size (DN) Service Remark
N1 1 250 Inlet
N2 1 450 Pump Suction
N4 1 200 Recirculation Inlet
N5 1 300 Recirculation Inlet
N6 1 Note 2 Auto Bleeder Vent
N7 1 100 Level Indicator
N8 1 200 Level Transmitter
N12 1 50 Temperature Transmitter
N13 3 600 Mixing Propeller Note 3
N15 1 200 Minimum Flow
D1 1 100 Drain
D2/ D3 2 100 Roof Drain Note 1
M1 1 600 Shell Manway
M2 1 600 Roof Manway
M3 1 1200 x 1200 Clean Out Door Note 4
19
2.8 Material Selection and Corrosion Assessment
Material selection study was carried out by the material specialist to review the
conceptual design basic of the plant and assess expected longevity of materials for
various piping and equipment, he/she then proposes materials suitable for the required
design life of 30 years. The approach of this material selection is to evaluate the internal
corrosivity of the fluids with respect to utilisation of carbon steel.
Carbon Steel is considered as first choice, due to its lower cost, ready availability and
well understood requirements to fabrication and testing. Material selection for the
hydrocarbon system is based on detail evaluation of fluid properties, particularly using
the carbon dioxide models.
2.8.1 CO
2
Corrosion
Carbon dioxide dissolves in water and dissociates to form weak carbonic acid which
causes corrosion on carbon steels. Higher partial pressures of CO
2
imply more dissolved
CO
2
and hence higher corrosion rate. Higher temperatures and pressure increase the
corrosion rate, but in certain conditions, about 70 to 80°C, a protective carbonate scale
can form on the steel surface that reduces the corrosion rate, compared to lower
temperatures where the scale does not form.
Corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) are used to avoid corrosion at high CO
2
contents, and in
less corrosive condition and where required lifetime is limited, but it would be more
economical to use carbon steel with a corrosion allowance and/or chemical inhibitor
treatment. The presence of CO
2
infers that carbon steel will have finite life due to the
wall thinning, a corrosion allowance is practical to accommodate up to 6mm.
20
Other concerns for the material selection are:
i) Material at minimum temperature
At low temperatures, ferritic steels (unalloyed and low alloy steels, and
ferrictic-austenitic duplex stainless steels), lose their ductility spontaneously
as the materials are cooled, allowing any cracks and crack-like defects, that
are harmless at normal operating temperatures, to propagate under load.
To have greater resistance to low temperature embrittlement, materials and
welds are to be heat treated where applicable eg. normalised and post weld
heat treated low alloy and carbon steel). For an even lower service
temperature, fine grained materials are required, high nickel steels, or
austenitic materials have to be used.
The seasonal changes in ambient temperatures require that low temperature
properties of materials must be selected.
ii) Mercury
Stabilised condensate from Turkmenistan was measured to contain Hg
4µg/kg. [13]
Mercury (Hg) is a trace component of all fossil fuels. It is therefore present in
liquid hydrocarbon and natural gas deposits, and may transfer into air, water
and soil.
Materials unsuitable for hydrocarbon streams in presence of mercury due to
liquid metal embrittlement, which will result in crack are:
21
Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys
Titanium and Titanium Alloys
Copper and Copper Alloys
Zinc and Zinc Alloys
Recommended materials are:
Carbon steels and low allow steels
Stainless steels (Austenitic stainless steel, Duplex stainless steel)
Nickel Alloys (Inconel 625, 825 and Monel)
2.8.2 Carbon Dioxide Corrosion Modeling
In the material selection study report, the design corrosion rate for carbon steel was
calculated using the NORSOK “CO2 Corrosion Rate Calculation Model” - M-506” [14].
This model is a development of the original work by De, Waard, Milliams and Lotz , and
includes some effects due to the wall fluid shear stress.
The calculated results for the corrosion rate sensitivity for 50% summer and 50% winter
condition is summarized in Table 1.3.

mm/ year
Without Inhibitor 0.0033 Corrosion rate Case Sensitive (Summer)
With Inhibitor 0.00033
Without Inhibitor 0.0495 Corrosion Allowance for 30yrs Design Life
(50% Summer condition) With Inhibitor 0.00495
Without Inhibitor 0.0033 Corrosion rate Case Sensitive (Winter)
With Inhibitor 0.00033
Without Inhibitor 0.0495 Corrosion Allowance for 30yrs Design Life
(50% Winter condition) With Inhibitor 0.00495

Table 1.3 Corrosion Rate Sensitively Result for 50% Summer and 50% Winter Condition
22
The design life of 30 years is required and a typical 3 and 6mm corrosion allowance is
used as the basic for the selection of carbon steel. For 30 years service, the maximum
time-averaged corrosion rates that can be accommodated by a 3mm and 6mm corrosion
allowance are 0.1 mm/years and 0.2 mm/year respectively. Therefore, based on the
calculated result, low temperature carbon steel (LTCS) + 3 mm corrosion allowances +
internal lining is recommended.
2.9 Mechanical Selection of Carbon Steel Grade
Mechanical selection of material is based on their mechanical properties and their
constructability. A 516 Gr 65N (ASTM low temperature carbon steel with minimum
tensile of 65 ksi) is selected for its well known properties in low temperature. The
material will be normalised.
Accordance to UCS-66, ASME VIII division 1 [2], A 516 Gr 65 without normalisation
with fall under curve B and the material A 516 Gr 65N (Normalised) with fall under
curve D (Figure 1.10).
From the impact test exemption curve in Figure 1.10 , it can be found that with the
minimum design temperature of -17°C, impact test will be required when the plate
thickness exceed 15mm for materials in Curve B, whereas impact test is exempted up to
thickness 58 mm for material in Curve D.

23


Figure 1.10 Impact Test Exemption Curve [ASME VIII, Div.1, 2007, UCS-66]
Mechanical properties for A 516 Gr 650N listed below are accordance to ASME II Part D
– Material Property [3].

Minimum Tensile Strength 450 Mpa
Minimum Yield Strength 245 Mpa
Maximum Allowable Stress from -17°C to 100°C 128 Mpa

Table 1.4 Stress table for SA 516 Gr 65N


24
Tank Shell/ Bottom Plate SA 516 Gr. 65N
Floating Roof SA 516 Gr. 65N
Stiffener Ring SA 516 Gr. 65N
Nozzle Neck Pipe (SMLS) SA 333 Gr.6
Nozzle Flange/ Blind Flange SA 350 Gr. LF2 Class 1
Nozzle Fitting SA 420 Gr. WPL 6
Gasket Flexible Graphite With Tanged Insert
Bolt & Nuts (External) SA 320 – L7M/ SA 194 Gr. 2H (Flurocarbon
Coated)
Internal ( Bolting/ Piping/ Supports) Stainless Steel SS 316L

Table 1.5 Material Specifications for Stabilised Condensate Tank
The material specification for the stabilised condensate tank is shown in Table 1.5. Table
1.6 illustrate the material selection guide, using design temperature to choose a readily
available and cost effective material.



Table 1.6 Material Selection Guide [Moss, cited in Bednar 1991]

25
2.10 Mechanical Design
Stress design and analysis of the storage tank is the greatest concern to engineer as it
provides the basic for the tank stability and integrity.
The basic stress analyses to be taken care in tank design are as follow:
Tank shell wall due to internal and external loading
Bottom plate/ Tank flooring
Tank roof – In this case, floating roof
Storage tanks always look big and strong, and there are also often being referred as ‘tin
can’. Some simple comparison in term of their sizes and strength is made here.

Typical Bake Bean Can Storage Tank

Diameter, D 75 mm 10, 000 mm
Height, H 105 mm 14, 000 mm
Wall thickness, t 0.15 mm 5 mm
D/H ratio 1 / 1.4 1 / 1.4
t/D ratio 0.002 0.0005

Table 1.7 Bake Bean Can and Storage Tank Comparison Table

From the Table 1.7, it can be seen found the tank ratio (t/D) is 4 times less than the
typical bean can which show that how relatively flimsy the shell of the tank it would be if
it is subjected to partial vacuum. Figure 1.11 shows an example of tank exploding due to
vacuum loading.

26


Figure 1.11 Tank Exploding [Bob.L & Bob.G, n.d, p.26]
2.11 Tank Shell Design Method as Per API 650

2.11.1 Calculation of thickness by 1-Foot Method
The 1-foot method calculates the thickness required at design points 0.3 m (1 ft) above
the bottom of each shell course.
The formula for the minimum required thickness is as followed:
For design shell thickness,

A C
Sd
G H
t
d
.
) 3 . 0 ( 9 . 4
+

=


For hydrostatic test shell thickness,
St
H
t
t
) 3 . 0 ( 9 . 4 −
=

27
Where

d
t = Design shell thickness, in mm

t
t = Hydrostatic test shell thickness, in mm
D = Nominal Tank Diameter, in m
H = Design liquid level, in m
G = Design specific gravity of the liquid to be stored
C.A = Corrosion allowance, in mm
Sd = Allowable stress for the design condition, in MPa
St = Allowable stress for the hydrostatic test condition, in MPa

This method is shall not be used for tanks larger than 60 m in diameter.
2.11.2 Calculation of thickness by Variable-Design-Point Method
Design using variable-design-point method gives shell thickness at design points that in
the calculated stressed being relatively closed to the actual circumferential shell stress.
This method normally provides a reduction in shell-course thickness and total material
weight, but more important is its potential to permit construction of large diameter tanks
within the maximum plate thickness limitation.
This method may only be used when 1-foot method is not specified and when the
following is true:

6
1000

H
L







28
2.11.3 Calculation of thickness by Elastic Analysis
For tanks where L / H is greater than 1000/6, the selection of shell thickness shall be
based on an elastic analysis that shows the calculated circumferential shell stress to be
below the allowable stress.
2.12 Mechanical Design Consideration
The principal factors in determine the shell thickness is the loads, the primary loading to
determine the basic shell thickness is as follow:
The internal loading due to the head of liquid
The pressure in the vapour space
(This factor is not applicable for floating roof tanks as the roof sit directly on the
liquid, there is no vapour space.)
Other external loading shall be taken into consideration are:
External pressure – Vacuum condition
Wind loading
Seismic Loading
Localized loads resulting from nozzles, attachments, ladder/ stair and platform
etc.
The primary loadings exerted to the tank shell are illustrated in Figure 1.12:
29

Figure 1.12 Loading Diagram on a Tank Shell
The internal pressure exerted on the tank shell is the product liquid head; the pressure is
at the highest at the tank shell bottom and decreases linearly along its height. External
loading of wind and seismic act on the tank shell and create an overturning moment about
the shell to bottom joint, this results in the uplift reaction of the tank and affected the tank
stability.
The various stresses to which the shell of a tank is subjected are
• Hoop tension which is caused by the head of product in the tank, together with
any overpressure in the roof space of a fixed roof tank.
• Axial compression which comes from the tank self-weight, internal vacuum,
wind and seismic loading acting on the shell which causes an overturning effect.
• Vertical bending due to the expansion of shell under normal service loading

Moment about shell to
bottom joint
Dead Load
Liquid hold down weight
Wind & Seismic uplift load
Internal
Pressure
due to
liquid static
head
Wind load on shell
Seismic force on shell
30
2.13 Bottom Plate Design
API 650 has a very straight forward requirement on the bottom plate thickness and width
requirement.
2.13.1 Vertical Bending of Shell
When the tank is filled with product, the shell will expand radially due to the elasticity of
the shell plate material. This natural expansion is restricted at the point where the shell is
welded to the bottom plate.
The shell-to-bottom joint is very rigid and it rotates as a unit when the tank is under
hydrostatic load.



Figure 1.13 Rotation of the shell-to-bottom connection [Bob.L & Bob.G, n.d, p.47]

The shell tends to rotate in an outward direction about the rigid joint as depicted in Figure
1.13, the bottom plate will also rotate and cause it to lift off the foundation for a distance
31
inside the tank until the pressure of the product acting on the floor, balances the lifting
effect.
This action causes high bending stresses in the bottom plate and the toe of the internal
fillet weld. Due to the continual filling and emptying of the tank, the load is cyclic and
this area is subject to low cycle fatigue.
2.14 Floating Roof Design


Figure 1.14 Single Deck Roof Sagged with Flooding Rain Water
In API 650 (2007), the external floating roof is covered in Appendix C, it gives guidance
and provides minimum requirement on the external floating roof design. Similar
minimum requirement were also provided in the BS 2654 where they both stated that the
pontoon volume shall be designed to have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat on the
liquid with specific gravity of the lower of the product specific gravity or 0.7 with the
primary drain inoperative for the following conditions:

• the deck plate and any two adjacent pontoon compartments punctured and
flooded the single deck or double deck pontoon roof.

• Rainfall of 250 mm (10 in.) in 24 hour period over the entire horizontal roof
area.
These two codes also provide some minimum requirements on the roof fittings and
accessories to optimize the floating roof design ensuring the roof is functioning
effectively.
Flooded
Center Deck Sagged
32
Though the codes addressed the minimum requirement on the pontoon volume, there is
no mention on the structural adequacy. There is no proper procedure or standard and firm
rules stated in any code or engineering handbook in designing the floating roof, as in
structural integrity and buoyancy stability. It is always left to the designer or
manufacturer to develop their own approaches to meet the minimum requirement stated
in API 650 (2007) or BS 2654. Industry or purchaser will have to rely on the tank and
roof manufacturer for the safe design.
Hence, there is a wide variation in the floating roof design approach, wide variation in the
durability and reliability of the tank, in which there are also many tank failure due to
various design problem in each different approach.
If the floating roofs are inadequately designed or wrong approaches were applied to the
design, the roof will fail, pontoon will buckled and damaged. The most common failure
on the floating roof is the sinking of the floating roof. The floating roof overtopped by the
liquid inside the tank and the roof sunk. To the worst case, the tank will catch fire due to
the spark generated during the unstable movement of the roof.
2.15 Special Consideration
2.15.1 Soil Settlement
Tank foundation shall be carefully designed to ensure adequate for the tank support. Soil
investigation and study are required to monitor the soil settlement. Soil settlement is a
common problem in compressible soil, and it has consequential problems on the floating
roof tank.
Storage tanks are relatively large but flimsy structures, having very flexible envelopes
such that the tank shell and bottom will generally follow the settlements of the subsoil.
33
The dead weight of the tank structure is relatively small compared with the live load of
the contents, hence at location where weak, compressible layers are present in the subsoil,
excessive soil settlement may occur due to the weight of the tank and its liquid content.
Excessive soil settlement can affect the integrity of tank shells and bottoms, and causes a
dozens of consequential problems. Having reference from the EEMUA Publication No,
159 (2003) [5], a few of consequential problems are quoted below:

• Jamming of floating roof structure around guide pole
• Jamming of roof seals due to (progressively increasing) out-of-roundness of the
tank shell
• Roof seals giving a gap as the result of out-of-roundness and/or tilting of the roof
• Loss of buoyancy of floating roofs due to liquid in pontoon
• Roof drain leaking or being blocked
• Derailing of rolling ladder on top of a floating roof
• Buckling of the supporting legs of a floating roof tank due to inadequate support,
or vacuum conditions
• Wear and tear scratching shoe plates/ tank shell
2.15.2 Seismic Design For Floating Roof
As mentioned earlier that the minimum requirement provided in the API 650 (2007) and
BS 2654 addressed only the floating consideration. The floating roof was simplified and
assumed as rigid body, dynamic of the flooding and sloshing of the product was not
considered. The behavior of floating roofs under seismic condition is very less, and
sloshing behavior during seismic is complicated. Industry and owner normally depend on
the tank and roof manufacturer for safe design, however, most of the floating roof tanks
built do not consider the seismic condition in their roof design as code never addresses it.
Tanks had suffered significant damage during past earthquakes, some history cases of
tank failure due to the sloshing wave are:
34
• Hokkaido, Japan in 2003 [John, 2006]
- Fully Involved Tank Fires
- Fully Involved Due to Floating Roof Collapse from Sloshing waves
- 50% due to Sloshing Wave

• Ismit, Turkey in 1998 [John, 2006]
- 23 Major Tank Firs
- 17 Due to Sloshing Wave
- 50% Due to Sloshing Wave
2.16 Failure Modes Due To Seismic Effects On Floating Roof Tank
There are three cases of a few on the roof,
- Roof collapse or Sinking
- Overtop of floating roof by the liquid inside the tank (Figure 1.15)
- Pontoon Buckling (Figure 1.16)


Figure 1.15 Floating roof overtopped Figure 1.16 Pontoon buckling [Tetsuaya, 2007)
[Praveen, 2006]


35
There is one case on shell,
- Shell Buckling caused by combination of outward pressures generated by
vertical motion and compressive stresses generated by horizontal motion




Figure 1.17 Diamond buckling (slender tanks)
[Praveen, 2006]

Figure 1.18 Elephant-foot buckling (broad tanks)
[Praveen, 2006]
And one case on Tank Farm/ Plant
- Tanks burn down, the tanks caught fire due to sparks generated by up-
down movement of the roof against the guides



Figure 1.19 Tanks Burn Down [John, 2006] Figure 1.20 Tank Farm on Fire [Praveen, 2006]

36
2.17 Fitting Design and Requirement
A complete set of fitting and accessories are required for the floating roof to operate
properly. It is essential to understand the function of each accessories and the situation
that could cause the accessories to malfunction.
There are minimum requirements outlined for the fitting in API 650 (2007), and Petronas
Technical Specification (PTS) has specified a requirement on the minimum number of
fitting to be installed on the floating roof tank. Tables 1.8 (a) and (b) below show the
fitting requirement as per PTS in the tank shell and floating roof respectively.

Fitting Description Minimum Number Required
Shell Manhole 2 nos. of DN 600
Shell Inlet Nozzles
Shell Outlet Nozzles
Product Drain Nozzle and piping
Water Drain Nozzle and piping
Drain Sump
Earthing Bosses on shell
Shell manhole for mixers
Clean out door
As specified by process design

Spiral Staircase One Set
Table 1.8 (a) Fitting Requirements on Tank Shell [PTS, 1986]

Fitting Description Minimum Number Required
Roof Drain System One set
Roof drain sump One set
Roof earthing equipment One set
Roof Seal Mechanism As specified by process design
Roller Ladder One set
Roof Manhole As specified by process
Roof Compartment manhole As specified by process
Emergency Drain One set for double deck only
Rim Vent As specified
Roof Vent (Pressure/ Vacuum) As Specified by process design
Automatic Bleeder Vent One set
Dip Hatch One set
Guide Device One
Roof Supporting Legs One set
Table 1.8 (b) Fitting Requirement on Floating Roof [PTS, 1986]
37
2.18 Typical Fitting and Accessories For Floating Roof
2.18.1 Roof Seal System
As mentioned early in the principal of floating roof, roof seal is used to prevent the
escape of vapour from the rim gap and to minimise the amount of rain water entering the
product. The sealing system has to be flexible enough to allow for any irregularities on
the construction of the roof and shell when the roof moves up and down and for any
radial or lateral movement of the roof due to wind and seismic.
There are several types of roof sealing system which consists of primary seal and
secondary seal. Primary seals may comprise metallic shoes having flexible seals with a
weight or spring-operated pusher mechanism, or be non-metallic tube seal, a fabric seal.


Figure 1.21 Mechanical Seal Figure 1.22 Liquid-filled fabric seal
38
Primary seals were only used when floating roofs were first devised; secondary seals
were the recent innovation to suit the new legislation in which the new limits of vapour
emission was set. Secondary seals were mounted above the primary seal in which it can
further reduce the vapour and odour losses from the floating roof tank.
The seals showing in Figure 1.21 and Figure 1.22 had been used for many years since
floating roof were developed. The most recent innovation on the primary seal is the
compression plate type and most of the tank owners are moving toward this new sealing
system.
2.18.2 Support Leg
Support leg is the supporting element for the floating roof when the tank is empty where
the roof fall to its lowest position. The roof needed to be supported at a certain height
above the floor not only that the roof will not foul with any internal accessories that
installed at the lowest shell such as heating coil, mixing propeller, it also provide access
room for maintenance personnel. As stated in API 650 (2007), the supporting legs can be
either removable or non- removable type. The area of the tank floor in which the legs
land shall be reinforced with a fully welded doubler plate which can distribute the leg
loads into the floor plating.
More careful consideration will be required for the supporting requirement for the single
deck pontoon roof as this type of roof is less rigid. Figure 1.23 shows that the deck is
weak in bending and allows lateral deflection of the support leg.





39











Figure 1.23 Lateral Deflection of Supporting Leg
There is minimum requirement stated in API 650 (2007) where the legs and attachments
shall be designed to the roof and a uniform live load of at least 1.2kPa. The legs thickness
shall be Schedule 80 minimum and sleeves shall be schedule 40 minimum.
2.18.3 Roof Drain System
Roof drainage is one of the concerns in the roof designing; a reliable drainage system is
indispensable for floating roof storage tanks. Improper roof drainage system would
impair tank operation and threatens the safety of the stored product.
As addressed in API 650, the roof drains shall be sized and positioned to accommodate
the rainfall rate while preventing the roof from accumulate a water level greater then
design, without allowing the roof to tilt excessively or interfere with its operation.
The rain water which accumulates on the floating roof is drained to the sump which
normally set in the low point of the deck. The sump will then be drained through a closed
pipe work system inside the tank and drained out though the shell nozzle at the bottom
side of the shell wall. A check valve is installed at the inlet of the drain.
Applied Force
40
The pipe work system which operates inside the tank has to be flexible to allow for the
movement of the roof. The two most common used systems are the articulated piping
system and the flexible pipe system.
Articulated piping system uses solid steel pipe with a series of articulated knuckle joints
or flexible swing joint. Figure 1.24 shows the articulated piping system in a floating tank.

Figure 1.24 Articulated Piping System

Flexible pipe system is installed in a single continuous length without ballasting or other
devices. It maintains constant repeatable lay-down pattern on the tank floor, expanding
and contracting with the rise and fall of the roof, not interfere with the equipment of
accessories inside the tank.
Flexible pipe system consists of flexible rubber hose or steel pipe. However rubber is not
recommended for oil industry. As stated in API 650 (2007), siphon type and non-armored
hose-type are not acceptable as primary roof drain. Figure 1.25 shows photo of a flexible
steel pipe system installed in a floating roof tank.
41


Figure 1.25 Flexible Steel Pipe System Inside the Tank
Emergency roof drain shall be installed, but only to double deck roof. Its purpose is to
allow natural drainage of rainwater in case of malfunction of the primary drain.
Emergency roof drains are prohibited by API 650 (2007) on the single deck pontoon
roofs as the product level in the tank is always higher than the rainwater level in the
centre deck, this would cause the product to discharge through the drain onto the roof
rather than allow water to drain into the tank. It will also allow vapour to escape from the
tank as it is an open drain. Even though emergency drain was addressed in the API 650
(2007) for double deck roof, some company had already banned the usage of the
emergency drain.
Figure 1.26 and Figure 1.27 were taken in November 1993 at one of the refinery plant in
Singapore where it showed an articulated drain system installed in the tank. This system
had only in service for approximately 2.5 years; however considerable corrosion was
observed on the end connector and the galvanized side plate.

42


Figure 1.26 Articulated drain pipe system installed inside the tank




Figure 1.27 Flexible Swing Joint

43
2.18.4 Vent – Bleeder Vents
Automatic bleeder vents shall be furnished for venting the air to or from the underside of
the deck when filling and emptying the tank. This is to prevent overstress of the roof deck
or seal membrane. These vent only come to operate when the floating roof landed, and
the tank is drained down or being filled.
Figure 1.28 shows the operation of the valve. The length of the push rod is designed in a
way that as the tank is emptied, the rod touches the tank floor before the roof support leg
landed and the will open automatically, freely venting the space beneath the deck.
Similarly, when the tank is filling up, the valve closes after all the air beneath the deck
has been expelled and the roof floats.
The number and size of the bleeder vent shall be sized accordance to the maximum filling
and emptying rates.




Figure 1.28 Bleeder vents [EEMUA 2003, vol.1, p.15]

Roof floating

Roof on support legs
Tank filling
Roof on support legs
Tank emptying

44
2.18.5 Centering and Anti-Rotation Device
Anti-rotation devices also called guide pole is required as stated in API 650 (2007) to
maintain the roof in central position and prevent it from rotation. It shall be located near
to the gauger platform and capable of resisting the lateral forces imposed by the roof
ladder, unequal snow load and wind load.
2.18.6 Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform
Rolling ladder is the mean of access on to the floating roof. The upper end of the ladder is
attached to the gauger platform and the lower end is provided with an axle with a wheel
on side of ladder which runs on a steel track mounted on a runway structure supported off
the roof. This is so that as the roof moves up and down, the ladder can slide along and
take up vary angle as required. This is why the floating roof is always sized up in such a
way that the tank diameter shall at least be equal to its height to enable the use of the
rolling ladder for access to the roof.
There will be a reaction at the lower end of the ladder causing a localized and eccentric
load on the roof, this has to be taken into consideration while designing the roof. Gauger
platform is a small access area overhangs the shell to allow the guide pole, and some
other instrument to pass through providing access for the maintenance personnel.
2.19 Fire Fighting System and Foam Dam
A fire detection system shall be installed when required, fires in floating roof tanks are
usually in the area between the shell and the rim of the floating roof. The floating roof
tanks shall be equipped with the fire fighting system, the foam system, which the system
is designed to deliver a flame smothering expanded foam mixture into the tank rim space
to extinguish the fire. A foam dam which consists of a short vertical plate is to welded to
45
the top pontoon plate at a short distance from the seal, with the height higher than the
upper tip of the seal, to allow the whole seal area to flooded with the foam and
extinguishes the fire effectively.
Figure 1.29 shows a typical arrangement of the foam system which it consists of a foam
generated and pourer, installed around the tank periphery.



Figure 1.29 Foam Fire Fighting System



46
CHAPTER 3: TANK DESIGN
3.1 Introduction
Storage tank design consists of 2 main sections – Shell Design and Roof Design. The
shell design include the shell stress design which is to size up the shell wall thickness, top
and intermediate stiffener ring, stability check against the wind and seismic load and
sizing up the anchor bolt. The roof design will consist of roof stress design, and the roof
accessories and fitting design.
3.2 Shell Design
The tank shell is designed accordance to the API 650 (2007) and the design
considerations had been stated in the literature review under Chapter 2.12, Mechcanical
Design Consideation. It was also mentioned in the literature review that there are several
methods stated in API 650 (2007) to determine the shell wall thickness. Based on the tank
size of 39 m diameter, 1-Foot Method was the most appropriate method to be used. The
1-foot method calculates the thickness required at design points 0.3 m (1ft) above the
bottom of each shell course.
The required minimum thickness of shell plates shall be the greater of the value
computed as followed [API 650, 2007]:
Design shell thickness:

Hydrostatic test shell thickness:

A C
S
G H D
t
d
d
.
). 3 . 0 ( 9 . 4
+

=
t
t
S
H D
t
) 3 . 0 ( 9 . 4 −
=
47
Pi
D
FL
L
t FL
Where
t
d
= design shell thickness, mm
t
t
= hydrostatic test shell thickness, mm
D = nominal tank diametr, m
H = design liquid level, m
G = design specific gravity of the liquid stored
C.A = corrosion allowance, mm
S
d
= allowable stress for the design condition, MPa
S
t
= allowable stress for the hydrostatic test condition, MPa
The equation in the API 650 (2007) 1-Foot Method can be derived from the basic
membrane theory, the two main stresses exerting on the cylindrical shell due to the
internal pressure are longitudinal stress and circumferential stress. Let’s look into each
stress individually by analyzing the stresses in the thin-walled cylindrical shell which an
internal pressure exerted on it.
3.2.1 Longitudinal Stress
Figure 2.1 show a thin walled cylindrical in which the longitudinal force F
L
resulted from
the internal pressure, Pi, acting on the thin cylinder of thickness t, length L, and diameter
D.





Figure 2.1 Longitudinal forces acting on thin cylinder under internal pressure

48
Longitudinal force, F
L
= Pi x π/4 x D
2

Area resisting F
L
, a = π x D x t
(Shade area)


We call this equation as Longitudinal Stress Thickness Equation.

3.2.2 Circumferential Stress
Similarly Figure 2.2 considers the circumferential stresses caused by internal pressure, Pi,
acting on the thin cylinder of thickness t, length L, and diameter D.
Figure 2.2 Circumferential l forces acting on thin cylinder under internal pressure





Longitudinal Force, F
L
Resisting Area, a
Longitudinal Stress, S
L
=

Pi. D
4. t
S
L
=

In term of thickness, Pi. D
t
L
=

4. S
L
L
Pi
½ FC ½ FC
½ FC ½ FC
D
t
49
Circumferential force, FC = Pi x D x L

Area resisting FC, a = 2. L x t
(Shade area)

We call this equation as Circumferential Stress Thickness Equation.

3.2.3 Longitudinal Stress versus Circumferential Stress
Comparing the both thickness equations due to the longitudinal stress and circumferential
stress, with a specific allowable stress, pressure and fixed diameter, the required wall
thickness to withstand the internal pressure, Pi, for circumferential stress will twice that
required for the longitudinal stress. Circumferential stress in the thin wall will be the
governing stress and hence the Circumferential Stress Thickness Equation (t
C
) is used.
3.2.4 Circumferential Stress Thickness Equation and 1-Foot Method
From the Circumferential Stress Thickness Equation, replace the internal pressure, pi to
the hydrostatic pressure due to product liquid head (ρgh), consider the effective head at
0.3 m height (H – 0.3), and consider the corrosion allowance (C.A) by adding in to the
equation as per Figure 2.3. The minimum required thickness from the 1-Foot method can
be now be derived.
Circumferential Force, F
C
Resisting Area, a
Circumferential Stress, S
C
=

Pi. D
2. t
S
C
=

In term of thickness, Pi. D
2. S
C
t
C
=

50

Figure 2.3 Circumferential Stress Thickness equation to 1-Foot method equation
3.2.5 Shell Design Thickness Calculation
The design calculation for the shell wall thickness is attached in Appendix B. The
calculation result for the shell wall thickness is summaries in Table 2.1 and Figure 2.4.




Table 2.1 Shell wall design thickness summary
Where,
t.design = Minimum required thickness due to design condition,
t.hydo. = Minimum required thickness due to hydrostatic test,
t.min = The greater value of t,design and t.hydro., and
tsc = Actual thickness used.
ϕ g h
Sc
D Pi
t
. 2
.
=
+ C.A
(H – 0.3)
Allowable design stress, S
d

A C
Sd
G H D
t .
). 3 . 0 ( 9 . 4
+

=
51


Figure 2.4 Diagrammatic sketch of shell wall with design thickness
From the 1-Foot equation, it can be seen that the minimum required shell thickness is
directly proportional to the liquid static height; hence the shell thickness diagram shall
follow the same shape profile with the hydrostatic pressure due to the design liquid height
as shown in Figure 2.4. However it is impractical to construct the tank with the taper
thickness, therefore different shell course with different thickness is used. The use of
courses with diminishing thickness will has the effect that, at the joint between two
adjacent courses, the thicker lower course provides some stiffening to the top, thinner
course and this cause an increase in stress in the upper part of the lower course and a
reduction in stress in the lower part of the upper course. API 650 (2007) assumes that the
Hydrostatic
Pressure
(ρ ρρ ρgh)

1715.2
3,735.2
8,195.2
10,635.2
13.075.2
15,515.2
17,955.2
20,395.2
5,755.2
304.8
2440
(28t)
2440
(25t)
2440
(22t)
2440
(19t)
2440
(16t)
2440
(13t)
2440
(11)
2440
(11t)
2440
(11t)
2
0
,
7
0
0

Shell
Course
Shell Thk
Diagram
Static head
@ 1 ft
Excessive Thickness
52
reduction in stress in the upper course reaches a maximum value at one foot (300 mm)
above the joint and it is at this point, on each course from which the effective acting head
is measured [Bob, 2004]. This shows how the 1-Foot method was employed.
3.2.6 Top Stiffener and Intermediate Wind Girder Design
3.2.6.1 Top Stiffener/ Top Wind Girder
Stiffener rings of top wind girder are to be provided in an open-top tank to maintain the
roundness when the tank is subjected to wind load. The stiffener rings shall be located at
or near the top course and outside of the tank shell. The girder can also be used as an
access and maintenance platform. There are five numbers of typical stiffener rings
sections for the tank shell given in API 650 (2007) and they are shown in Figure 2.5 [API
650, 2007].


Figure 2.5 Typical stiffener ring section for ring shell

53
The requirement in API 650 (2007) stated that when the stiffener rings or top wind girder
are located more than 0.6 m below the top of the shell, the tank shall be provided with a
minimum size of 64 x 64 x 4.8 mm top curb angle for shells thickness 5 mm, and with a
76 x 76 x 6.4 mm angle for shell more than 5 mm thick. A top wind girder in my tank is
designed to locate at 1 m from the top of tank and therefore for a top curb angle of size 75
x 75 x 10 mm is used in conjunction with the stiffener detail a) in Figure 2.5. The top
wind girder is designed based on the equation for the minimum required section modules
of the stiffener ring [API 650, 2007].
2
2
2
190 17
|
¹
|

\
|
=
V H D
Z
Where
Z = Minimum required section modulus, cm³
D = Nominal tank diameter, m
H
2
= Height of the tank shell, in m, including any freeboard provided above the
maximum filling height
V = design wind speed (3-sec gust), km/h
The term
17
2
H D
on the equation is based on a wind speed of 190 km/h and therefore the
term
2
190
|
¹
|

\
| V
is included in the equation for the desire design wind speed. The design
calculation for the top wind girder is attached in Appendix B section 4.0. From the design
calculation, a fabricated Tee-girder of size T 825 x 250 x 8 x 10 with toe plate length 250
mm, web plate length 825 mm, toe plate thickness 10 mm and web plate thickness 8mm
is used. The detail of the Tee-girder used for the top wind girder is shown in Figure 2.6.



54

Figure 2.6 Fabricated Tee Girder for Top Wind Girder
With the design wind speed of 140 km/h, nominal tank diameter of 39,000 mm and
height of tank shell 20,700 mm, the minimum required section modulus for the top wind
girder was found to be 1,007,140 mm³ and the available section modulus for Tee girder T
825 x 250 x 8 x 10 is 2,655,662 mm³. Therefore the selected girder size is sufficient.
Accordance to API 60 (2007) clause 5.9.5, support shall be provided for all stiffener rings
when the dimension of the horizontal leg or web exceeds 16 times the leg or web
thickness [API 650, 2007]. The supports shall be spaced at the interval required for the
dead load and vertical live load. The web length of 825 mm had exceeded the 16 times of
its thickness (16 x 8 = 128 mm), supports for the girders will be provided.
3.2.6.2 Intermediate Wind Girder
The shell of the storage tank is susceptible to buckling under influence of wind and
internal vacuum, especially when in a near empty or empty condition. It is essential to
analysis the shell to ensure that it is stable under these conditions. Intermediate stiffener
or wind girder will be provided if necessary.
To determine whether the intermediate wind girder is required, the maximum height of
the un-stiffened shell shall be determined. The maximum height of the un-stiffener shell
will be calculated as follows [API 650, 2007]:
10 mm
Web plate
825 mm
Toe plate
2
5
0

m
m

8 mm
Shell plate
55
3 3
1
190
47 . 9 |
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
V D
t
t H
Where
H
1
= Vertical distance, in m, between the intermediate wind girder and top wind girder
t = Thickness of the top shell course, mm
D = Nonimal tank diameter, m
V = design wind speed (3-sec gust), km/h
As stated in earlier section 3.25, the shell is made of up diminishing thickness and it
makes the analysis difficult. The equivalent shell method is employed to convert the
multi-thickness shell into an equivalent shell having the equal thickness as to the top shell
course. The actual width of each shell course in changed into a transposed width of each
shell course having the top shell course thickness by the following formula [API 650,
2007]:

5
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
actual
uniform
tr
t
t
W W
Where
W
tr
= Transposed width of each shell course, mm
W = Actual width of each shell course, mm
t
uniform
= Thickness of the top shell course, mm
t
actual
= Thickness of the shell course for which the transpose width is being
calculated, mm
The sum of the transposed width of the courses will be the height of the transformed shell
(H
2
). The summary of transform shell height is shown in Figure 2.7.

56

Figure 2.7 Height of transform shell
If the height of transformed shell is greater than the maximum height of un-stiffened
shell, intermediate wind girder is required. The total number intermediate wind girder
required can be determined by simply divide the height of transformed shell with the
maximum un-stiffened shell height. The maximum un-stiffened shell height is calculated
to be 9,182 mm which is less then the transformed shell height; hence an intermediate
wind girder is required. The detail calculation is the intermediate wind girder is attached
in Appendix B section 5.0.
Similarly, minimum required section modulus of the intermediate wind girder has to be
determined. The same equation in the top wind girder can be used, but instead of the total
shell height H
2
, the vertical distance between the intermediate wind girder and top wind
girder is used. The equation will become [API 650, 2007]:
2
1
2
190 17
|
¹
|

\
|
=
V H D
Z

57
Where
Z = Minimum required section modulus, cm³
D = Nominal tank diameter, m
H
2
= Height of the tank shell, in m, including any freeboard provided above the
maximum filling height
V = design wind speed (3-sec gust), km/h
The minimum required section modulus for the intermediate wind girder was calculated
to be 225,812 mm³ and a fabricated Tee-girder of size T 405 x 150 x 8 x 8 with toe plate
length 150 mm, web plate length 405 mm, toe plate thickness 8 mm and web plate
thickness 8 mm is used. The available section modulus for intermediate Tee girder is
863,143 mm³ and proven that the selected girder size is sufficient. The detail of the
selected intermediate Tee-girder is shown in Figure 2.8.
Figure 2.8 Fabricated Tee Girder for Intermediate Wind Girder
3.2.7 Overturning Stability against Wind Load
The overturning stability of the tank shall be analyzed against the wind pressure, and to
determine the stability of the tank with and without anchorage. The wind pressure used in
the analysis is given as per API 650 (2007). The design wind pressure on the vertical
projected areas of cylindrical surface area (ws) shall be 0.86 kPa (V/190)² and 1.44 kPa
(V/190)² uplift on horizontal projected area of conical surface (wr). These design wind
8 mm
Web plate
405 mm
Toe plate
1
5
0

m
m

8 mm
Shell plate
58
pressure are in accordance with American Society of Civil Engineer - ASCE 7 for wind
exposure Category C [ASCE 7, 2005]. The loading diagram due to the wind pressure on
the floating roof tank is shown in Figure 2.9.

Figure 2.9 Overturning check on tank due to wind load
The wind load (Fs) on the shell is calculated by multiplying the wind pressure ws to the
projected area of the shell, and the wind load (Fr) on the roof will be zero as the roof will
be floating on the liquid into the tank, where there will be no projected area for the roof.
As per API 650 (2007), the tank will be structurally stable without anchorage when the
below uplift criteria are meet [API 650, 2007].
i. 0.6 M
w
+ M
pi
< M
DL
/ 1.5
ii. M
w
+ 0.4 M
pi
< (M
DL
+ M
F
) / 5

Wind load on
shell, Fs
H/2
Dead Load (W
DL
)
Liquid hold down weight (W
a
)
Internal pressure load
Wind uplift load
D/2
Moment about
shell to bottom
joint
59
Where
M
pi
= moment about the shell-to-bottom from design internal pressure (Pi) and it can be
calculated by the formula D Pi D
2
1
4
1
2
× |
¹
|

\
|
× × π .
M
w
= Overturning moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from horizontal plus vertical
wind pressure and is equal to Fr.Lr + Fs.Ls. Fr and Fs is the wind load acting on the roof
and shell respectively and Lr and Ls is the height from tank bottom to the roof center and
shell center respectively.
M
DL
= Moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from the weight of the shell and roof
supported by the shell and is calculated as 0.5 D. W
DL
. The weight of the roof is zero
since the roof is floating on the liquid.
M
F
= Moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from liquid weight and is equal
to
2 1000
D D wa
× |
¹
|

\
| × ×π
.
The liquid weight (wa) is the weight of a band of liquid at the shell using a specific
gravity of 0.7 and a height of one-half the design liquid height H. Wa will be the lesser of
0.90 H.D or H Fby t
b
× × 59 . Fby is the minimum specified yield stress of the bottom
plate under the shell and t
b
is the thickness of Bottom plate under the shell.
The detail calculation for the overturning stability against wind load is in Appendix B
section 6.0. The calculation had shown that both the uplift criteria are met and the tank
will be structurally stable even without anchorage. A summarized result is shown in
Figure 2.10.



Figure 2.10 Summary Result for Overturning Stability against wind load
0.6 Mw + Mpi = 4,345,020,578 < MDL / 1.5
Mw + 0.4 Mpi = 7,241,700,964 < (M
DL
+M
F
) / 2
60
3.2.8 Seismic Design
The seismic design of the storage tank is accordance to API 650 (2007) – Appendix E.
There are three major analyses to be performed in the seismic design, and they are:
i) Overturning Stability check - The overturning moment will be calculated and
check for the anchorage requirement. The number of anchor bolt required and
the anchor bolt size will also be determined based on the overturning moment.
ii) Maximum base shear
iii) Freeboard required for the sloshing wave height – It is essential for a floating
roof tank to have sufficient freeboard to ensure the roof seal remain within the
height the tank shell.


Figure 2.11 Seismic Diagram for a Floating Roof Tank

Base Shear, V
Impulsive
Convective
Uplift force due to seismic
Free board
Overturning Moment, Mrw
61
The behavior of liquid in a vertical cylindrical container when subjected to an earthquake
was clarified by G.W. Houser in his paper “Earthquake Pressures on Fluid Containers”
and the theory is now widely used and also applied in API 650 (2007). The seismic
design addressed in API 650 (2007) Appendix E is based on the Allowable Stress Design
(ASD) Method with the specific load combination and the ground motion requirements
are derived from ASCE 7, which is based on a maximum considered earthquake ground
motion defined as the motion due to an event with a 2% probability of exceed within a
50-year period [API 650, 2007]. The pseudo-dynamic design procedures are based on the
response spectra analysis methods and two response modes of the tank and its content –
impulsive and convective are considered.
The impulsive component is the part of the liquid in the lower part of the tank which
moves with the tank as though it were a solid. It experiences the same accelerations and
displacement as the tank. The convective component is the part of the liquid in the upper
part of the tank which is free to form waves or to slosh. It has a much longer natural
frequency time than the impulsive portion. The detail of the convective frequency is
discussed in section 3.2.8.4. The impulsive mode is based on a 5% damped response
spectral and 0.5% damped spectral for the convective mode. Impulsive and convective
shall be combined by the direct sum or the square roof of the sum of the squares (SRSS)
method.
The tank is presumed to be rigid but this is not exactly true. This presumption is normally
made for the ambient tanks and it provides answers of sufficient accuracy, but only to the
tank shell. This seismic design is only apply to the tank shell, seismic design of floating
roofs is beyond the API 650 (2007) scope and it will be a challenge for engineer to
analyses the seismic effect on the floating roof.

62
3.2.8.1 Site Geometry Design Data for Seismic Design
The site geometry design data for seismic design to be used in the analysis are as follow:
i) Seismic Peak Ground Acceleration, Sp = 0.3g
ii) Importance Factor, I = 1.50
iii) Site Class = D
iv) Seismic Group, SUG = III
This tank is to be built and installed in Turkmenistan, which is outside the U.S.A region
and not defined in ASCE 7. For site not defined in ASCE 7, API 650 (2007) defined the
following substitution [API 650, 2007]:
• For 5% damped spectral response acceleration parameter at short period of 0.2
sec, Ss = 2.5 Sp
• For 5% damped spectral response acceleration parameter at period of 1.0 sec,
S1 = 1.25 Sp
3.2.8.2 Overturning Stability
The seismic overturning moment at the base of the tank shall be the SRSS summation of
the impulsive and convective components multiply by the respective moment arms to the
center of action of the forces.
For tanks supported by the concrete ring wall, the equation for calculating the ringwall
moment, Mrw is as follow [API 650, 2007]:

63


Where
Ai = Impulsive design response spectrum acceleration coefficient, %g
Ac = Convective design response spectrum acceleration coefficient, %g
Wi = Effective impulsive portion of liquid weight, N
Ws = Total weight of the tank shell and appurtenances, N
Wr = Total weight of fixed tank roof including framing, knuckles, any permanent
attachments and 10% of the roof design snow load, N
Wc = Effective convective (sloshing) portion of liquid weight, N
Xi = Height from the bottom of the tank shell to the center of action of the lateral
seismic force related to the impulsive liquid force for ring wall moment, m
Xs = Height from the bottom of the tank shell to the shell’s center of gravity, m
Xr = Height from the bottom of the tank shell to the roof and roof appurtenances center
of gravity, m
Xc = Height from the bottom of the tank shell to the center of action of the lateral
seismic force related to the convective liquid force for ring wall moment, m
This overturning moment is important for the mechanical to design the anchorage
requirement and determine the minimum the number and size of the anchor bolt for the
storage tank. It is also important to the civil engineer to design the tank foundation in
which the tank is being supported.


[ ] ( ) [ ]
2 2
) ( WcXc Ac WrXr WsXs WiXi Ai Mrw + + + =
64
3.2.8.3 Design Spectral Accelerations
The spectral acceleration parameters are given in the equation below and they are based
on the response spectrum pictured in Figure 2.12. The parameter in equation are defined
the section 8.2.8.4.
• Impulsive spectral acceleration parameter, Ai [API650, 2007]:
But, Ai ≥ 0.007
And, site class E and F only,:

• Convective spectral acceleration parameter, Ac[API650, 2007]:
For Tc ≤ T
L
,


For Tc > T
L
,

Rwi
I
So Fa Q
Rwi
I
S Ai
DS
. . 5 . 2 = |
¹
|

\
|
=
Rwi
I
Sp
Rwi
I
S Ai 875 . 0
1
5 . 0 = |
¹
|

\
|
=
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Rwc
I
Tc
L
T Ts
So Fa Q K
Rwc
I
C
T
L
T
D
KS Ac
2
.
. . . 5 . 2
2
1
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Rwc
I
c
T
Ts
So Fa Q K
Rwc
I
c
T
D
KS Ac . . . 5 . 2
1
1
65

Figure 2.12 Design Response Spectral for Ground-Supported Liquid Storage Tanks [API650, 2007]
3.2.8.4 Parameter Required for Seismic Design
i) Convective (Sloshing) Period, Tc
The first mode sloshing wave period (Tc), in second is calculated by the following
equation [API650, 2007].


Where Ks = sloshing period coefficient and is defined as

|
¹
|

\
|
=
D
H
Ks
68 . 3
tanh
578 . 0


Or it can also be determined from the figure 2.13.

D Ks
c
T . 8 . 1 =
66

Figure 2.13 Sloshing Period Coefficient, Ks [API650, 2007]
ii) Regional-dependent transition period for longer period ground motion, T
L

It was defined in API 650 (2007) that for regions outside U.S.A, T
L
shall be taken as
4 seconds [API650, 2007].
iii) Scaling Factor, Q
The scaling factor, Q was defined to be taken as 1.0 in API 650 (2007) unless it was
otherwise defines in the regulatory requirement where ASCE 7 does not apply
[API650, 2007].
iv) Acceleration-based site coefficient (at 0.2 sec period), Fa
The acceleration- based site coefficient at 0.2 second period, Fa was determined
directly from the Table 2.2.




67

Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods
Site Class Ss ≤ 0.25 Ss = 0.50 Ss = 0.75 Ss = 1.0 Ss ≥ 1.25
A 0.8 0.8
0.8 0.8 0.8
B 1.0
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0
D 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0
E 2.5 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.9
F a a a a a
a
Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis is required.
Table 2.2 Value of Fa as a Function of Site Class [API650, 2007]
For site class of D and Ss as 2.5 Sp, where Sp = 0.3g, Ss = 0.75, therefore Fa is taken
as 1.2.
v) Velocity-based site coefficient (at 1.0 sec period), Fv
Similarly, the velocity-based site coefficient at 1.0 second period, Fv was determined
directly from the Table 2.3.

Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration at 1 Sec Periods
Site Class S
1
≤ 0.1 S
1
= 0.2 S
1
= 0.3 S
1
= 0.4 S
1
≥ 0.5
A 0.8 0.8
0.8 0.8 0.8
B 1.0
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3
D 2.4 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5
E 3.5 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.4
F a a a a a
a
Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis is required.
Table 2.3 Value of Fv as a Function of Site Class [API650, 2007]
For site class of D and S
1
as 1.25 Sp, where Sp = 0.3g, S
1
= 0.375, Fa is to be
interpolate between the value in S
1
= 0.3 and S
1
= 0.4. The interpolated value for Fv
is 1.65.
68
vi) Response modification factors for ASD Methods, Rw
The ASD response modification factors, Rwi for impulsive and Rwc for convective
are normally defined by the regulations, and if these value are not defined by the
regulations, the values defined in API 650 (2007) shall be used. There is no value
defined by the regulation for this project, therefore value from API 650 (2007) will be
used. The response modification factors for ASD method defined in API 650 (2007)
as shown in Table 2.4.

Anchorage System Rwi (Impulsive) Rwc (Convective)
Self-anchored 3.5 2
Mechanically - anchored 4 2
Table 2.4 Response Modification Factors for ASD Methods [API650, 2007]
The tank was designed to be mechanically anchored, therefore the response modification
factors for Impulsive (Rwi) is 4 and for Convective (Rwc) is 2.
The design parameters are summarized in the Table 2.5 and the spectral accelerations can
be calculated.

Impulsive Convective
Q 1
Fa 1.2
Fv 1.65
I 1.5
Rw 4 2
Tc 6.63 s
T
L
4 s
S
o
0.3
S
DS
0.9
S
D1
0.6187
Table 2.5 Summary of design parameter
69
Impulsive Spectral Acceleration,

Convective Spectral Acceleration,
(Tc > T
L
)


And the response spectrum curve is plotted as shown in Figure 2.14.

Figure 2.14 Response Spectrum Curve
3.2.8.5 Effective Weight of Product
The effective weights Wi and Wc are determine by multiplying the total product weight,
Wp by the weight ratio (Wi / Wp) and (Wc / Wp) respectively as per equation below.
These equations are originally developed by Housner and it is now employed by the API
650 (2007). The relationships between the equations are also graphically illustrated in
Figure 2.15. The proportion of the product liquid in the impulsive and convective
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Periods, T (sec)
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

S
a

Sai (Impulsive)
Sac (Convective)
Ac = 0.0633%g
Tc = 6.63

Ai = 0.34%g
S D

Ts = 0.69s
T
0
= 0.138s
Rwi
I
So Fa Q
Rwi
I
S Ai
DS
. . 5 . 2 = |
¹
|

\
|
= = 0.34% g
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= |
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Rwc
I
Tc
T Ts
So Fa Q K
Rwc
I
T
T
KS Ac
L
C
L
D 2 2 1
.
. . . 5 . 2 = 0.0633% g

70
portions is a function of the tank shape and the calculation methods will be different for
short tanks with D/H greater than 1.333 and for tall tanks with D/H less than 1.333.
• For effective impulsive weight,
When D/H ≥ 1.333,

When D/H < 1.333,

• For effective convective weight,


Figure 2.15 Effective weight of Liquid ratio [API650, 2007]

Wp Wi
H
D
.
866 . 0
866 . 0 tanh |
¹
|

\
|
=
Wp
H
D
Wi . 218 . 0 0 . 1
(
¸
(

¸

− =
Wp
D
H
H
D
W
c
.
367 . 0
tanh 230 . 0 |
¹
|

\
|
=
71
3.2.8.6 Center of Action for Effective Lateral Forces
The moment arm from the base of the tank to the center of action for the equivalent
lateral forces from the liquid has to be defined for the overturning moment. The center of
action for the impulsive lateral forces for the tank shell, roof and appurtenances is
assumed to act through the center of gravity of the component.
The heights from the bottom of the tank shell to the center of action of the lateral force
seismic force applied to the effective weights Wi and Wc, Xi and Xc are determine by
multiplying the maximum design liquid height H by the ratio (Xi / H) and (Xc / H)
respectively as per equation below [API 650, 2007]. The relationships between the
equations are also graphically illustrated in Figure 2.16.
• For impulsive force,
When D/H ≥ 1.333,

When D/H < 1.333,

• For convective force,


H Xi 375 . 0 =
H
H
D
Xi . 094 . 0 5 . 0
(
¸
(

¸

− =
H
D
H
D
H
D
H
Xc .
67 . 3
sinh
67 . 3
1
67 . 3
cosh
0 . 1
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− |
¹
|

\
|
− =
72






Figure 2.16 Center of Action for Effective Forces [API650, 2007]
3.2.8.7 Ring Wall Moment
The ring wall moment, Mrw now can be determine after all the parameters in 3.2.8.3 to
3.2.8.6 are defined, this moment is the portion of the total overturning moment that acts
at the base of the tank shell perimeter and is used to determined loads on a ring wall
foundation, the tank anchorage forces, and to check the longitudinal shell compression.
3.2.8.8 Base Shear Force
The seismic base shear is defined as the SRSS combination of the impulsive and
convective components with the following equation [API 650, 2007].


Where
Vi = Impulsive force and is defined as
Vi = Ai ( Ws + Wr + Wf + Wi),
X
/
H

Xc /H
Xi /H
2 2
Vc Vi V + =
73
Vc = Convective force and is defined as
Vc= Ac.Wc
And
Wi = Effective impulsive portion of liquid weight, N
Ws = Total weight of the tank shell and appurtenances, N
Wr = Total weight of fixed tank roof including framing, knuckles, any permanent
attachments and 10% of the roof design snow load, N
Wf = Total weight of the tank bottom, N
Wc = Effective convective (sloshing) portion of liquid weight, N
Not that the tank is a floating roof tank, therefore Wr = 0 and the total weight of the tank
roof is added to the weight of the tank content, as the roof is floating on the liquid.
The base shear force and the ring wall moment due to the seismic effect is summarized
the seismic moment and force diagram in Figure 2.17.

Figure 2.17 Seismic Moment and Force Diagram
Impulsive
Convective
W
c
= 100,998 KN
137,636 KN
Wi

=
Xi = 7.8 m
Xc =12.7 m
V = 48,327 KN
Mrw = 381,453
KNm
74
3.2.8.9 Resistance to Overturning
There are three resisting components to resist against the overturning due to the seismic;
they are the i) anchorage, ii) annular plate width which sits directly under the first shell
course and iii) the shell compression at the bottom of the shell.
i) Anchorage requirement
The resistance to the design ring wall overturning moment at the base of the shell will be
provided by the weight of the tank shell, weight of the roof reaction, Wrs, by the weight
of a portion of the tank contents adjacent to the shell for unanchored tanks or provided by
the mechanical anchorage devices.
The anchorage requirement is checked by the Anchorage Ratio, J, and the anchorage ratio
criteria in Table 2.6 will determine whether the tank can be self-anchored or
mechanically anchored.

Anchorage Ratio,
J
Criteria
J ≤ 0.785
No calculated uplifted under the design seismic overturning
moment. The tank is self-anchored.
0.785 < J ≤ 01.54
Tank is uplifting, but the tank is stable for the design load providing
the shell compression requirements are satisfied. Tank is self-
anchored.
J > 1.54
Tank is not stable and cannot be self-anchored for the design load.
Modify the annular plate if L < 0.035D is not controlling or add
mechanical anchorage.

Table 2.6 Anchorage Ratio Criteria [API650, 2007]
75
The anchorage ratio, J is determined as follow [API650, 2007]:

Where
wt = Weight of tank shell & portion of roof supported by shell and is define as

wa = Resisting force of annulus which is defined as

And Fy = Min. specified yield strength of bottom annulus, = 241 N/mm2
H = Maximum design product level, m
Ge = Effective specific gravity including vertical seismic effect
= G.(1 - 0.4 Av) ; G = 1, Specific gravity
Av = Vertical earthquake acceleration coefficient
= 0.7 (as defined in Site Design Data)
Wint = Uplift due to product pressure
= 0 (for floating roof tank )
wrs = Roof load acting on shell, including 10% of specified snow load
= 0 (for floating roof)
The anchorage ratio was found to be 2.19 which is more the 1.54; therefore the tank has
to be mechanically anchored. Anchor bolt will have to be design and sized up.

( ) [ ]
int
2
4 . 0 4 . 0 1 w wa Av wt D
Mrw
J
− + −
=
wrs
D
Ws
wt + =
. π
Ge H Fy ta . . 9 . 7
Ge D H . . 28 . 1 ≤
76
ii) Annular plate requirement
Before going into the anchor bolt design, annular plate width shall be check to the
stability due to the seismic. For the thickness of the bottom plate or annular plate (ta)
under the shell is thicker than the remainder, the minimum projection of the supplied
thicker annular plate inside the tank wall shall be at least equal to L and not more than
0.035 times the tank nominal diameter, and

(450 ≤ L ≤ 0.035D)
The minimum annular width, L was calculated as 1,108.57 mm and the actual width used
in 1,200 mm. Hence the annular plate width is sufficient for the seismic loading.


Figure 2.18 Annular Plate Requirement
iii) Shell Compression
The maximum shell longitudinal compression stress at the bottom of the shell for the
mechanical-anchored tanks is determined by the below formula, and ts is the thickness
bottom shell course less corrosion allowance [API 650, 2007].
( )
ts
D
Mrw
Av w
t c
1000
1 273 . 1
4 . 0 1
2
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + = σ

e
a
G H
Fy
t L
.
01723 . 0 ⋅ =
t
a
= 16 mm

Shell Bottom
Bottom Plate
Annular Plate
t
s
= 28
L = 1,108.57 mm
77
The calculated maximum longitudinal shell compression stress has to be less than the
allowable stress Fc, which can be determined as follow [API 650, 2007]:
When , 44
2
2

t
GHD

D
ts
Fc
83
=

When , 44
2
2
<
t
GHD

) ( 5 . 7
5 . 2
83
H G
D
ts
Fc ⋅ + =

And
Fty Fc 5 . 0 <

The maximum longitudinal shell compression stress, σ
c
is calculated to be 12.69 N/mm²,
2
2
t
GHD
is 40.22 which is less than 44; and Fc is found to be 57.94 N/mm² which is less
than 0.5 time the minimum specific yield stress of the bottom shell, Fty. Therefore, the
tank is structurally stable.
3.2.8.10 Anchorage Design
As the tank was found to be structurally unstable and cannot be self-anchored for the
design load, the tank has to be anchored with the anchor bolts. The anchor bolts are sized
to provide the minimum anchorage resistance, the design uplift load on the anchor bolts
due to the seismic is determined by the following [API650, 2007]:

And it calculated to be 36.796 KN. The tensile stresses in the anchor bolt which the uplift
load applied on have to be check against the allowable tensile strength, which is 0.8 time
its specify yield stress, Sy. The material used for the anchor bolts is the high strength bolt
SA 320 Gr.L7, with the minimum specific yield stress of 551.5 N/mm², and the allowable
int
2
) 4 . 0 1 (
273 . 1
w Av w
D
Mrw
w
t AB
+ |
¹
|

\
|
− − =
78
tensile strength for the bolt will be 0.8Sy = 441.2 N/mm². Total 86 numbers of M64 bolts
are pre-selected for the design, and hence the tensile stress on each of the anchor bolt can
be is determine by
Ab N
W
AB
b

= σ and found to be 161.94 N/mm², hence proving that the
selected number (N) and the anchor bolt size (Ab) is sufficient.
3.2.8.11 Freeboard
The minimum freeboard required above the top capacity is determined by considering the
sloshing of the liquid inside the tank.

Figure 2.19 Sloshing Wave of Liquid Inside Tank
The sloshing wave height above the product design height can be estimated by the
following equation [API 650,2007]:


Where, for Tc > T
L
in the seismic group SUG III,


δs = 0.5 D. A
f
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= =
2 2
1
. . 5 . 2 .
C
L s
C
L
D f
T
T T
FaSo Q K
T
T
S K A
δs
Impulsive
Convective
79
A
f
was found to be 0.08 and δs will be 1,647 mm. Accordance to API 650 (2007), the
minimum required freeboard for the SUG III tanks and shall be equal to the sloshing
wave height, δs [API 650, 2007].
3.2.8.12 Seismic Design Summary
The complete seismic design calculation can be found in Appendix B - section 7 at the
end of the report.
80
3.3 Roof Design
There is limited procedure and rules provided for the floating roof design as most of the
components; particularly the fitting and accessories in the floating roof are proprietary
design. The roof design consists of roof type selection, buoyancy design, roof stress
design and the fitting and accessories design and operation.
3.3.1 Roof Type Selection
Different types of floating roof had been discussed in the previous chapter – literature
review. Therefore it is not worth to repeat here. The pontoon type - single deck floating
roof was normally used for tank diameter less than 65 m due to flexibility of the deck
plate, double deck will be used for larger diameter tank as double is more rigid and
stable. In view of out tank diameter of 39 m, and the cost effectiveness, the single deck
floating roof was selected. Further consideration of the insulation effect of the double
deck roof was also considered. As our tanks are to be built in a country with extreme
winter and snow, the consideration of melting the snow from the product is essential,
where the insulation effect due to the air gap between the decks plate in the double deck
floating roof is not favorable.
Figure 3.1 Single deck Floating roof
81
3.3.2 Pontoon and Center Deck Design
The basic requirement as stated in API 650 (2007) for the pontoon design is that the
pontoon has to be designed to have sufficient buoyancy to remain on the product with the
design specific gravity of 0.7 or lower for the product and inoperative of roof drain for:
– Deck plate & any two adjacent pontoon compartments punctured and
flooded the center deck as per figure 3.2.
– Rainfall of 10” (250 mm) in 24 hour period over roof area.

Figure 3.2 Center deck and 2 adjacent compartments puncture

API 650 (2007) required all the deck plate to have a minimum nominal thickness of 5
mm and the deck of the single deck pontoon floating roof has to be designed to be in
contact with the liquid during normal operation. The design shall be able to accommodate
the deflection of the deck caused by trapped vapour. A nominal thickness of 8 mm was
used in my center deck design, and this thickness will be verified the design calculation.
Figure 3.3 shows the minimum requirement for the single deck pontoon floating roof
2 adjacent pontoon & center deck flooded
Bulkhead
Pontoon
82
with the inoperative roof drain, compartments puncture and deck plate flooded and
holding of 250 mm of rainfall.

Figure 3.3 Minimum Requirement for Single Deck Pontoon Floating Roof [EEMUA 2003, vol.1,
p118]
3.3.2.1 Roof Stress Design
Roof stress design is performed on the center deck by studying the stresses and analyzing
the effects of the stresses on the roof. There are two load cases used,
i) Dead Load Only – No flooding in center deck








Figure 3.4 Case 1 – Dead Load Only
Deck self weight,
W(deck)
Buoyant force, Fb
83
( )
Area Deck
Fb deck W
essure Lateral Unit

= Pr

ii) Dead load plus 250 mm of rain accumulation

Figure 3.5 Case 2 – Dead Load + 10” Rain Accumulation
Area Deck
Fb rain W deck W
essure Lateral Unit
− +
=
) ( ) (
Pr

3.3.2.2 Effect of Large Deflection on Center Deck
When a flat plate deflects under the normal condition, the middle surface, halfway
between top and bottom surfaces will remains unstressed; at other points there will be
biaxial stressed in the plane of the plate. When the deflection becomes larger and exceeds
one-half the plate thickness, the middle surface will become appreciably strained and the
stresses in it would cause defect or failure and hence it should not be ignored. This will
be the case in the thin deck plate of 8 mm. Figures 3.6 (a) and (b) show the defection of
the center deck under the two cases.
Deck self weight,
10" Rain
Rain weight
Buoyant force, Fb
84
Figure 3.6 (a) Deck Deflection in Case 1

Figure 3.6 (b) Deck Deflection in Case 2
This middle surface stress is called the diaphragm stress, or direct stress, and it enables
the plate to carry part of the load as a diaphragm in direct tension. This tension may be
balanced by radial tension at the edges if the edges are held or by circumferential
compression if the edges are not horizontally restrained. This circumferential
compression may cause buckling in the thin plate.
Bouyant Force
Fixed and held by pontoon
Unit lateral pressure
δ
Rain
Fixed and held by pontoon
Bouyant Force
Unit lateral pressure
δ
85
In the large deflection of the thin plate, the plate is stiffer than indicated by the ordinary
theory and the load-deflection and load-stress relation become non-linear. For circular
plates, where the maximum deflection exceeded half the thickness, the below formula
shall be used for more accurate and precise result [Roark, 2002].







Where
t = Thickness of plate (deck plate), mm
α = Outer radius of deck plate, mm
q = Unit lateral pressure on deck, N/mm²
y = Maximum deflection, mm
σ = Maximum stress due to flexure and diaphragm tension combined
= σ
b
+

σ
d
σ
b
= Bending stress, N/mm²
σ
d
= Diaphragm stress, N/mm²

The K constants are determined in the Roark’s Formula for Stress and Strain for different
cases and edge condition. The center deck plate is fixed and held at its outer edge by the
pontoon, hence the condition is considered as case no. 3 – edge condition fixed and held
with uniform pressure q over entire plate. The constants will then be determined as
below, v is the poisson ratio which is equal to 0.3 [Roark, 2002].


3
2 1 4
4
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
t
y
K
t
y
K
Et

2
4 3 2
2
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
t
y
K
t
y
K
Et
σα
2
1
1
33 . 5
v
K

=
= 5.86
2
2
1
6 . 2
v
K

=
= 2.86
86
At Center :


At Edge :


The maximum deflection and the stresses for the both cases are summarized the Table
3.1.

LOAD CASE 1 LOAD CASE 2
Deck Center Deck Edge Deck Center Deck Edge
Max. Deflection, y (mm) 215.81 214.38
σ total (N/mm2) 35.92 62.84 33.94 59.37
σ bending (N/mm2) 3.52 5.41 3.34 5.14
σ diaphragm (N/mm2) 32.40 57.43 30.0 54.38

Table 3.1 Summary Result for Maximum Deflection and Stresses in Center Deck

3.3.2.3 Pontoon Stability – Pontoon Ring Design
The diaphragm stresses at the deck edge caused the tension at the outer edge of the deck;
hence there will be radial force acting at the inner rim of the pontoon. The relationship
between the radial force and the diaphragm stress as shown below.
Rh = σ diaphgram x deck thickness
v
K

=
1
2
3
= 2.86
K
4
= 2.86
2
3
1
4
v
K

=
= 4.40
K
4
= 1.73
87
Rh acting on the Inner Rim is modeled as load point at each mm of circumference, with a
very small angle between load points approximated to uniform distributed load in the
circular ring design.
Number of point loads at each mm is,
Nlp = π x Rim Diameter (Øir)
, and angle α =
Nlp
360
2
1



Figure 3.7 Radial Forces Acting on Pontoon Inner Rim
The pontoon stability due to the radial loads is designed with reference to the Roark’s
Formula for Stress and Strain, it is model as closed circular ring and regarded as a
statically indeterminate beam and analyzed by the use of Castigliano’s second theorem
[Roark, 2002]. Formulas used are taken directly from the Table 9.2 in Roark’s Formula
for Stress and Strain, and they are based on several assumptions as listed below [Roark,
2002].
i) The ring is of uniform cross section and has symmetry about the plane of
curvature.
ii) All loading are applied at the radial position of the centroid of the cross
section. This is not the case for our pontoon ring as the radial load acting on
the inner rim are in the lower position, however this assumption is of little
concern for thin ring.
iii) It is nowhere stressed beyond the elastic limit.
iv) It is not so severely deformed as to lose its essentially circular shape.
v) Its deflection is due primarily to bending.


Rh
α
mid-pt
88
Case 7 - Ring under any number of equal radial forces equally space from Table 9.2 in
Roark’s Formula for Stress and Strain is selected and the formulas for the bending
moment and circumferential tensile force between and at the load point are as follow
[Roark, 2002]:
i) At mid-point:
Bending Moment,

Cir. Tensile Force,
ii) At load-point:
Bending Moment,
Cir. Tensile Force,
The pontoon ring stability is checked against the pontoon properties. Figure 3.8 shows
the basic geometry for the pontoon and the results are summarized in the Table 3.2. The
pontoon section modulus, Za is calculated to 27,019,626 mm³.





Figure 3.8 Sectional Detail of Pontoon
α
525
Rh
2187
900
2160
9
12
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
α α
1
sin
1
4
.Do Rh
Mm
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
α α tan
1 1
4
.Do Rh
Mr
α sin 2
Rh
Tm =
α tan 2
Rh
Tr =
89

LOAD CASE 1 LOAD CASE 2
RING STABILITY CHECK
MID - POINT LOAD- POINT MID - POINT LOAD- POINT
Bending Moment (Nmm) 19.14 -38.29 18.08 -36.15
Circ. Force (N) 7,867,429 7,867,429 7,429,209 7,429,209
Bending Stress (N/mm2) 0.0000007 -0.000001 0.0000007 -0.000001
Circ. Stress (N/mm2) 159.98 159.98 151.07 151.07
Allow. Bending Stress
(N/mm2)
183 183 183 183
Allow. Axial Stress (N/mm2) 165 165 165 165
Unity Check 0.97 0.97 0.92 0.92
Condition OK OK OK OK

Table 3.2 Summary Result for Pontoon Ring Stability

Where,

The complete design calculation on the roof stress design in attached in Appendix B
section 5 of this thesis report.
3.3.3 Fitting and Accessories Design
Figure 3.9 shows the typical standard accessories and fitting for single deck floating roof
which are essential for the operation of the floating roof tank. Each of the fitting and
accessories has its own unique importance; malfunction of any one of the fitting would
cause roof failure and potentially leading to fatality. The minimum requirement for the
roof fitting had been outlined in the Table 1.8 discussed in the Literature Review chapter.
Actual Bending Stress
Allow. Bending Stress
Actual Circ. Stress
Allow. Comp. Stress
+ Unity =
90


Figure 3.9 Standard Fitting and Accessories for Single Deck Roof


3.3.3.1 Roof Seal System
As discussed in the chapter 2.4.2 principles of the floating roof, there will be a 200 mm of
gap between the inside of tank shell and the outer rim of the floating roof pontoon. The
main purpose of the roof seals are to close up the gap between pontoon & shell wall,
hence preventing the escape of vapor from the tank product to the atmosphere and
minimize the amount of rain and pollutant entering the product. The seals are also to
allow irregularities of the tank and roof construction and to account any radial or lateral
movement of the roof due to the wind and seismic. Therefore the seal must be flexible
enough to take in all these purposes.
Normally there will be two types of seals installed in the floating roof tank; they are i)
primary seal and ii) secondary seal. There are several different types of primary seal
available in the market today, and the appropriate seal has to be selected for suit the tank
service. The seals design are the proprietary design by the seal company, the most that
the engineer or tank designer can do is to study on each of the different seal and based on
the previous experience to do the seal selection.
Gauge Hatch
Liquid
Bleeder Vent
Pontoon
Manway
Deck

Support
Leg


Drain Sump with isolation
valve
Rim Seal
















Roller Ladder
Gauger
Platform
Rail Track
Drain Pipe

Deck Manway
91
i) Primary Seal
The functions of the primary seal are to minimize vapour loss, centralize the floating
roof and exclude snow, rain form the rim gap. Primary seal could be in metallic
(Mechanical Shoe Seal) or non metallic (Resilient Filled Seal) type.
• Mechanical (Metallic) Shoe Seal
The Mechanical Shoe Seal which was recommended in API 650 (2007) has two
different kinds of seals, which are Pantograph Hanger and Scissor Hanger.
Pantograph Hanger as shown in Figure 3.10 is the convectional mechanical seals, it
consists of a galvanized steel or stainless steel sealing ring with the bottom located
below the liquid surface, a vapour tight fire-resistant continuous seal to close the rim
space, and stainless steel shunts for lighting protection. The sealing ring was
supported by the weighted pantograph system which the steel weights activate the
tank lever system, pressing the sealing ring against the tank shell, ensuring the sealing
ring is held in constant contact with the tank shell. The shoe plate is designed with
Flexures built into the sheet at intervals of approximately 550mm to ensure
conformity with the tank shell and allow expansion and contraction. This seal is able
to provide a rim space variation of ± 130 mm in a nominal 200 mm rim space.
Scissor Hanger as shown in Figure 3.11 was introduced to the market in the recent
years. Different seal supplier could have different name for it. The design principles
are basically similar to the Pantograph Hanger; it is the pusher bar to push the shoe
plate instead of the counter weight. Scissor Hanger is more much simple design and
economic compared to the Pantograph Hanger, also the easier installing and assembly
without any hot welding work.

92








Figure 3.10 Pantograph Hanger Figure 3.11 Scissor Hanger
(Courtesy of VACONOSEAL) (Courtesy of HMT)


Figure 3.12 and Figure 3.13 shows the complete assembled and the end section of the
Pantograph Hanger respectively.











Figure 3.12 Completed Assembled Pantograph Figure 3.13 End Section Pantograph
Hanger (Courtesy of WB) Hanger (Courtesy of WB)
93
• Resilient Filled (Non-Metallic) Seal
The resilient filled seal can be of the foam filled or liquid filled. Figure 3.14 shows the
foam filled and Figure 3.15 shows the liquid filled.
In the foam filled seal, the mechanical force is obtained by taking a compressible foam
material and inserting it between the floating roof rim and the tank shell. Resistance to
the scuffing action of the roughened tank shell plates is achieved by wrapping the
resilient foam in an envelope of reinforced plastic sheet or rubber sheet. The foam and
envelope may be mounted in a number of variants, where the lower part of the seal
touches the stored liquid, the seal is said to be liquid mounted, and if it is mounted above
the liquid, it is vapour mounted. The liquid mounted seal has better vapour conservation
characteristics.



Figure 3.14 Foam-Filled Seal Figure 3.15 Liquid-Filled Seal
(Courtesy of VACONOSEAL) (Courtesy of VACONOSEAL)


94
In the liquid filled seal, a looped envelope of reinforced rubber sheet is supported in the
rim gap and the envelope is filled with a neutral liquid such kerosene. By virtue of its
depth and density the liquid spreads the envelope and exerts a force against the tank shell.
The envelope is normally ribbed and a tube may be fitted to contain the kerosene.

After the study of the above seal system, the Mechanical Shoe Seal Scissor type was
selected for its highly reputed performance, lower cost and simple installation. It was
recommended by the API 650 (2007) and the liquid filled resilient seal was prohibited by
some of the oil company.
ii) Secondary Seal

Secondary seal is mounted on top of the primary seal, it reduced vapour loss which in
turn cost saving, enhanced safety by protection against rim fires, environmental
protection with less odour and compliance with the air standards and it significantly
reduces the amount of rainwater entering the tank contents by running down the shell.
Figure 3.16 show one kind of the secondary seal.


Figure 3.16 Secondary Seal (Courtesy of VACONOSEAL)
95
3.3.3.2 Roof Seal Material

It is essential to select the correct material for the primary and secondary rim seals. The
basic requirement of the seal material is the chemical resistance, which is related to the
stored product, the ultraviolet resistance in which the seal expose to direct sunlight and
the material has to be flame retardant.

The primary seals should always be hydro-carbon resistance since they are in direct
contact with the product and product vapour and the top coat of the secondary seals shall
be ultraviolet resistant and flame retardant. The tip structure of the secondary seals which
slides along the tank shell would preferably be made of two kinds of material, which is
hydrocarbon resistance material at the bottom section and Ultraviolet resistance at the top
section. Some common materials for the selected product are listed in the Table 3.3 and
the properties of the common material are shown in Table 3.4.








Table 3.3 Common Material for Select Product









Fluoropolymers, nitrile Gasoline/ MTBE blend
Fluoropolymers, urethane, urethane laminate,
fluoroelastomers, or Buna-N-Vinyl
Refined Products
Fluoropolymers,urethane, nitrile Crude Oil
Seal Material Fluid Stored
96
Resistance Against
Material
Hydrocarbons UV light
Flame
Retardant?
Vition ® (FPM)/ nylon (PA) Very Good Very Good Yes
Teflon ® (PTFE)/ glass Very Good Very Good Yes
Neoprene (CR)/ calcium silicate Reasonable Good No
Polyurethane (EU)/ nylon (PA) or
polyester (TPE-E)
Good Good No
PVC-nitrile (PVC-NBR)/ nylon
(PA) or polyester (TPE-E) or
glass
Good Reasonable No
Nitrile (NBR)/ Nylon (PA) or
polyester (TPE-E)
Reasonable Poor No

Table 3.4 Properties of Common Seal Material [EEMUA 2003, vol.1, p118]

3.3.3.3 Roof Support Leg
Roof support legs are provided in the floating roof tank to support the roof when landed
and keep the roof away from any tank appurtenances that locate at or near bottom of the
tank such as inlet and outlet connection, mixers, heating coil and drainage system. The
supports legs are adjustment in height to provide both a low operating position and a high
cleaning position.
The basic requirement for the roof support legs had been discussed in the Literature
Review in chapter 2.18.2. In designing the roof support legs, the number of support legs
required for a single deck roof can be roughly approximated before a structural check on
the legs is performed. There will be two type of roof support which is the pontoon
support leg and the deck support leg. For the pontoon support leg, one leg per 6 m of tank
circumference was approximated, and for the centre deck support leg, for tanks diameter
up to 60 m, one leg per 34 m² of center deck area and for tanks diameter larger than 60 m
one leg per 26 m² of center deck area was approximated.
97
The supports legs are to be designed to carry only the weight of the roof and a uniform
live load of 1.2 KN as specifed in API 650 (2007) [API 650, 2007], but not the weight of
any accumulated rain water on the deck. Therefore it is important to ensure that drain out
all the rain accumulation before landing the roof.
Numbers and location of the support legs for the floating roof was as shown in Figure
3.17. Standard pipe are used to design and fabricate the support legs and the pips size
used are 3” Schedule 80 which has a thickness of 7.62 mm.












Figure 3.17 Number and Location of Support Legs

The compressive stress in each support leg at each radius location was determined and
checked against the allowable stress as per AISC standard [ANSI/AISC 360, 2005] using
the slenderness ratio. The complete stress design calculation for the roof support leg is
attached in Appendix B Section 6. The summary stress result was tabulated in Table 3.5
and it shows that the actual stresses of all the legs are less than the allowable stress hence
proven that the pre-selected number and size of the support legs are sufficient.

Pontoon
Leg
Deck
Leg
15 Nos. at R 13,716
10 Nos. at R 8839
5 Nos. at R 4267
L
o
w

P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

22 Nos. at R 18,541
H
i
g
h

P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

98

Leg at
radius
No. of leg
Actual
stress,
(N/mm2)
Allowable
stress,
(N/mm2)
RESULT
4267.00 5.00 25.18 75.08 OK
8839.00 10.00 24.70 75.08 OK
13716.00 15.00 21.59 75.08 OK
18541.00 22.00 31.33 74.62 OK
Table 3.5 Summary Result for Roof Support Legs
3.3.3.4 Venting System
The venting system is designed to API 2000 (1998) – Venting Atmospheric and Low-
Pressure Storage Tanks [API 2000, 1998]. It should not be over design; venting
requirement shall be at minimal to prevent vapour loss. Automatic Bleeder Vent is the
only venting fitting installed on the floating roof. They only vent the air to and from
under of a floating roof during filling and emptying. The bleeder vent is simply a short
piece of steel pipe fabricated with a push rod inside attached to the top cover or stopper.
3.3.3.4.1 Operation of Bleeder Vent
Automatic bleeder vents/ valves only come into operation when the floating roof is
landed and tank is drained down or tank is filled up. It allows product movement, where
during in-breathing, it allows air to enter space under the roof as product drain out from
tank, hence avoid vacuum. Similarly during out-breathing, it allows the air under the roof
to escape when tank is filled up, hence avoid vapour pocket and pressure formation.
Operation of the automatic bleeder vent can be explained by the Figures 3.18 (a) and (b)
for emptying (In-Breathing) and Figures 3.19 (a) and (b) for filling in (Out-Breathing).


99

Figure 3.18 (a) Operating of Bleeder Vent during In-Breathing (Starting)
In the case of emptying (In-breathing), the roof is floating on the product when the tank
start emptying and the valve is intially closed. The product continue flowing out of the
tank till the push rod in the valve touches the tank floor before the support legs, pushing
the valve opens and letting air flowing in freely, venting the space beneath the deck.

Figure 3.18 (b) Operating of Bleeder Vent during In-Breathing (Finishing)
Emptying
Air in
Air in
Push rod touches floor before roof legs
Valve opens
Start Emptying

Valve
closes
100
In the case of filling in (Out-breathing), the roof is resting on the support legs and the
valve is initally opened. The product start filling in, taking up the air space underneath
the deck hence pushing the air/ vapour out through the valve. The valve will close after
all the air beneath the roof had been expelled and the roof start floating on the product.



Figure 3.19 (a) Operating of Bleeder Vent during Out-Breathing (Starting)


Figure 3.19 (b) Operating of Bleeder Vent during Out-Breathing (Finishing)

Filling In
Roof floats
Valve closes
Product
Filling In
Air / Vapour out
Roof resting on support leg
Valve initially open
Air / Vapour out
Product
101
3.3.3.4.2 Bleeder Vent Design
The bleeder vent is to design accordance to API 2000 (1998) and sized up by using
general flow equation. The requirements for normal venting capacity specified in API
2000 (1998) is that the total normal venting capacity shall be at least the sum of the
venting requirements for oil movement and thermal effect [API 2000, 1998].
The design data for the venting design is as follow:
Nominal Capacity = 24,000 m³
Product Flash point = 67°C
Design Filling Rate, Vi = 427 m³/hr
Design Emptying Rate, Vo = 1,100 m³/hr

The venting capacity for both In-Breathing (Vacuum venting) and Out-Breathing
(Pressure venting) has to be determined as per API 2000 (1998) requirement before the
bleeder vent can be sized up. The maximum flow of the vacuum venting and pressure
venting will be used to determine the minimum size and number of the bleeder vent.
i) The vacuum venting (In-Breathing)
The requirement for venting capacity for maximum liquid movement out of a tank will be
15.86 m
3
/h of free air for each 15.9 m
3
/h of maximum empty rate at any flash point [API
2000, 1998], which is
Flow rate of free air for liquid movement, Vv
1
= Vo/ 15.9 *15.86 = 1,097.23 m³/h
Thermal Breathing consideration is not requirement for the floating roof tank, therefore
102
Flow rate of free air for thermal breathing, Vv
2
= 0 m³/h
The total vacuum flow required will be,
Vv = V
v1
+ V
v2
= 1,097 m³/h
ii) The pressure venting (In-Breathing)
The requirement for venting capacity for maximum liquid movement out of a tank will be
17 m³/h of free air for each 15.9 m³/h (100 Barrel) of maximum filling rate [API 2000,
1998], which is
Flow rate of free air for liquid movement, Vp
1
= Vo/ 15.9 *17 = 457 m³/h
Thermal Breathing consideration is not requirement for the floating roof tank, therefore
Flow rate of free air for thermal breathing, Vv
2
= 0 m³/h
The total pressure flow required will be,
Vp = Vp
1
+ Vp
2
= 457 m³/h
Therefore the maximum flow, Q is the vacuum flow which is 1,097 m³/h.
The below general flow equation below will be used,



H g A K Q . . 2 . =
103
Where
H = Head measures as pressure different, where
; ∆P = Pressure different
γ = Specific weight of air
g = gravity of acceleration, 9.81 m²/s
A= Cross sectional area of vent
K= Discharge Coefficient, 0.62 for circular
Re-arranging it to have it in term of area required, the equation becomes

Based on the equation, the minimum required venting area for the maximum flow
capacity, Q was found to be 24,124 mm². A vent size of 8” was pre-selected and the
cross-sectional area available is 32, 251 mm². There fore, the minimum number of
bleeder vent required for the pre-selected size will be determine as
= 1 no. of vent required (Minimum)
However, total of 2 numbers will be installed in case one of it was blocked or not able
function.


γ
P
H

=
P g K
Q
A
req v

=
. . 2
_
γ
v
req v
vent
A
A
N
_
=
104
3.3.3.5 Roof Drain System
The roof drain system is to be installed in the floating roof tank to effectively drain the
rain water from the floating roof without causing rain water to enter & contaminate the
store product. The rainfall accumulated on the surface of the floating roof is drained to
center sump which set into the lower point of the roof deck. The sump is then drained
through a closed pipe work which operated with the tank. There is a non-return valve
fitted to the outlet of the sump, which is to prevent the roof from being flooded with
product in the event of a failure in the drain system. The drain pipe has to be removable
for maintenance purposes, if required.
As the floating roof moves along with the product height, the basic requirement of the
roof drain system has to be flexible to accommodate the roof movement. Figure 3.20 (a)
and (b) show the drain system within the tank with the roof movement.

Figure 3.20 (a) Roof Drain with Roof Rise Figure 3.20 (b) Roof Drain with Roof Fall
There are several different drain systems available such as Articulated Piping System,
Armoured Flexible Hose, Helical Flexible Hose or Pipe system. Rubber hose are strictly
prohibited to be use in the oil tank and the two common systems used in the oil industry
are the Articulated Piping System and Flexible Drain Pipe System. Therefore these two
systems are selected for the study and evaluate their pros and cons, and then final
selection of the system at the end of the evaluation.
105
3.3.3.5.1 Articulated Piping System
This drain system uses solid steel pipe with series of articulated knuckle joints such as
flexible swing joint/ swivel joint. It also requires chain, shackles and pad eyes. Figure
3.21 shows the typical arrangement of an articulated piping system inside a floating roof
tank.

Figure 3.21 Articulated Drain Pipe System
The rigid pipes in the system caused the heavy weight to the system and may stress and
distort the deck plate in the floating roof. There is also possibility of causing horizontal
forces on to the roof which leads to wearing of the roof seal. The rigid pipes are
connected to the swing/ swivel joint by flange connection, as can be seen in Figure 3.21,
there will eight (8) connections, and two per each joints and each of these connections are
potential to leak and also causes effect on the flow rate. There is a short 90° bend in the
system and this short bend radius would able accumulate foreign material and blocked
the drain.














Flexible Swing Joint Rigid Pipe
Min. 8 flange connections
90° bend
106
Although this drain system is cheaper as compared to the Flexible Pipe System, but the
installation of this system is considerably complicated and requires longer time which in
turn causes a higher labour cost. The swing/ swivel joints and the flange connections are
not easily accessible, which causes difficulties to perform any preventive maintenance.
Figure 3.22 (a) and (b) show a diagram of a typical swing joint and its assembly. The
actual articulated system and swing installed inside a floating tank can be seen in the
Figure 1.26 and 1.27 in the Literature Review Chapter.



Figure 3.22 (a) Typical Swing Joint in Articulated Drain Pipe System

Figure 3.22 (b) Swing Joint Assembly (Courtesy of WB)

107
3.3.3.5.2 Flexible Drain Pipe System
The flexible drain system consist only single continuous pipe which expands and
contracts with the rise and fall of the floating roof. Full length of the pipe is flexible and
uniform without any joint. Figure 3.23 shows typical arrangement of the flexible drain
system inside the floating roof tank.

Figure 3.23 Flexible Drain Pipe System
There are no joints in the full length of the flexible pipe, the only connection is at the end
fitting where it joins the flexible pipe to the top and bottom rigid pipe. The end fitting are
integral part of the flexible pipe and hence the possibility of leakage is eliminated. The
preventive maintenance is also eliminated. The flexible pipe is considerably much lighter
then rigid pipe in the articulated pipe system and the arrangement is much simple, hence
easy installation with lower installation and labour cost. However the material cost for the
flexible is expensive. The flexible pipe in the system is known as COFLEXIP Flexible
Flexible Pipe
Rigid Pipe
End Fitting
108
pipe which the structure composed of an articulated stainless steel grade 304, spiral
wound inner carcass covered by an outer extruded sheath of RILSAN Nylon 11. Figure
3.24 (a) shows the inner section of a COFLEXIP pipe and Figures 3.24 (b) shows the cut
section of several different size of flexible pipe.

1. Inner interlocked Stainless Steel carcass
(anti collapse) AISI 304.
2. External plastic sheath (RILSAN)

Figure 3.24 (a) Inner Section of COFLEXIP Pipe (Courtesy of TECHNIP-COFLEXIP)
The inner carcass is strong and flexes like hose but it will not kink or collapse. This inner
carcass is designed to prevent leakage, instead it is the thick outer protective
thermoplastic jacket made of RILSAN Nylon 11 which extruded over the inner carcass
and form the water tight seal. Figure 3.25 shows the end fitting which is swaged around
the drain pipe. A slip on Class 150 ANSI, rotating raised face flange is fitted behind the
neck.


Figure 3.24 (b) COFLEXIP Pipe of Figure 3.25 End fitting of COFLEXIP
different size (Courtesy of TECHNIP-COFLEXIP) Pipe (Courtesy of TECHNIP-COFLEXIP)
109
3.3.3.5.3 Drain System Selection
It is obvious that the flexible drain pipe system has more advantage over the articulate
piping system, except for the higher material cost. By looking into the cost saving of
future maintenance and the service life, the flexible drain pipe is selected for my roof
drain system. Figure 3.26 shows some example of actual flexible drain pipe system
installed in different tank. It can be seen that the flexible pipe gives repeatable lay pattern
which ensure no-fooling with the roof support leg.

Figure 3.26 Flexible Drain Pipe System Installed in Different Tank
110
3.3.3.5.4 Drain Pipe Design
The roof drain pipe is sized up using the general flow equation of Q = A. V. The drain
pipe size was pre-selected as 4” Schedule 80 and the minimum number of drain pipe
required is to be determined. The drainage design data is as follow:
• Design Rain Fall, RH = 50 mm/hr
• Design Drainage Required = RH x deck area = 46.01 m³/hr
• Design Drain Pipe = 4” Sch 80 (O.D 101.6 x 8.56t)
• Drain Pipe Inside Diametr, d = 84.48 mm
• Roof Lowest Height = 1500 mm
• Drain outlet nozzle elevation, z = 225 mm
The total head equation is given as,
g
v
h H
2
2
+ = ;
And the total head loss of drain,
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ × =
d
L K
d
L K
g
v
h
'
2 2
'
1 1
2
2
;
Then, the total head equation becomes
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + = 1
2
'
2 2
'
1 1
2
d
L K
d
L K
g
v
H .
Re-arrange the equation, the flow velocity can be determined as follow:


|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
=
1
2
'
2 2
'
1 1
d
L K
d
L K
gH
V
111

Where
K = Flow Coefficient
- Rigid Pipe, K
1
= 0.0168
- Flexible Pipe, K
2
= 0.03
L’ = Total Equivalent Pipe Length
- Rigid Pipe, L
1

- Flexible Pipe, L
2

The equivalent pipe length of valve and fitting is determined accordance to Table 3.6
[NFPA 15, 2007]. The total equivalent pipe length will be the summation of the total
equivalent length of the valve, fitting and the rigid and flexible pipe lengths.


Table 3.6 Equivalent Pipe Length Chart [NFPA 15, p15]
The flow velocity was calculated as 1.15m²/s, and substitute it into the flow equation of Q
= A.V, the drainage flow rate for one drain pipe is found to be 23.3 m³/h. Therefore the
minimum roof drain required are determined as
Minimum two number of drain pipe with size of 4” schedule 80 will be used.
Drainage Flow Rate Req.
Actual Flow Rate
N
req
=
= 1.97
112
3.3.3.6 Rolling Ladder & Gauger Platform
The rolling ladder installed on the floating roof tank is to provide safe access onto the
floating roof. The ladder consists of self-levelling treads and it slides along the track as
the roof move up and down. The track and ladder length are matched to maximum and
minimum roof height. The upper end of the ladder is attached to the gauger platform by
hinged brackets and the lower end is provided with an axle with a wheel at each side of
the ladder. The wheels run on a steel track mounted on a runway structure support off the
roof.
The gauger platform is a small access area which overhangs on the shell, allowing
instrumentation and guide pole to pass though. It also provides access for the
maintenance personnel. Figure 3.27 shows the sketch of the rolling ladder and the gauger
platform. Figure 3.28 shows some typical rolling ladder with the wheel and gauger
platform installed in a floating roof tank.

Figure 3.27 Sketch of Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform in a Floating Roof Tank














113



Figure 3.28 Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform Installed in a Floating Roof Tank

3.3.3.7 Fire Fighting System and Foam Dam
Fire on the floating roof tanks are common and it usually happened in the rim space
where the vapour escaped, this was called as rim fires. The main cause of he the floating
roof rim fires is lighting. Most lighting ignited rim fires result from induced charges on
the roof and not direct strikes. Fire fighting system is to be designed and installed on the
floating roof to fight over and extinguishes the rim fire. There are several techniques
available for the fire fighting and multiples foam chamber method is one it which will be
discussed in detail here.
The multiple chamber method is which the foam is discharged by the foam chambers or
foam pourer which mounted at equal spaced around tank periphery as shown in Figure
3.29. The system is to be designed accordance to NFPA-11 (Standard for low-medium- &
high-expansion foam) [NFPA 11, 2005].
114


Figure 3.29 General Arrangement of the Multiple Foam Chamber on the Floating Roof Tank [NFPA
11, P53]
When the fires were detected, measures amounted of propriety foam making compound
will be injected into the fire water system leading to the foam generating point of the
tank. The foam generations are designed in such a way that to draw air into the mixture,
causing the foam to expand as it was injected to the tank via pourer. The pourer inject the
foam onto the internal surface of the extension of plate and hence onto the tank shell,
causing it to flow down to the shell and collect and spread around the rim space. Figure
3.30 (a) show a typical arrangement of the fire protection for a floating roof tank and
Figure 3.30 (b) show an actual foam dam installed on a floating roof tanks.
The foam is contained and concentrated within the rim space by a foam dam. Foam dam
is a short vertical plate welded to pontoon at short distance from the seal. It's height shall
be higher than upper tip of seal, allowing the whole seal area to be flooded with foam and
extinguish fire effectively.


115
Figure 3.30 (a) Fire Protection for Floating Roof Tank
Figure 3.30 (b) Foam Chamber Figure 3.31 Typical Foam Dam [NFPA 11, p20]
116

CHAPTER 4: TANK CONSTRUCTION
4.1 Introduction
Just as most of the construction task, welded vertical tanks can be erected satisfactorily in
several ways, erector contractors normally have a particular method, which they have
adopted as the result of experience, and have developed the erection technique most
suitable for economical working and good workmanship by their field crews. Few
erection methods are illustrated in Figure 4.1 (a) and (b). The method discussed here are
simply the general method to give a basic idea on how a tank is built.
To build tanks which are of sound quality, good appearance and free from excessive
buckles or distortion, correct welding sequences should be adhered to and adequate
supervision provided.

Figure 4.1 (a) Progressive Assembly & Welding and Complete Assembly Followed by Welding of
Horizontal Seam Method for Welded Vertical Tank [PTS, 1986]
117


Figure 4.1 (b) Jacking-Up and Flotation Method for Welded Vertical Tank [PTS, 1986]
4.2 Foundation
Foundation has to be prepared well ahead before the tank construction start. A successful
construction and operation of the tank relies on the tank being built on a firm foundation.
API 650 (2007) Appendix B provides recommendations for design and construction of
Foundation for above ground storage tanks. The construction and design will not be
discussed in detail as our main concern is the tank itself.
One of the majar parameter in designing and construction the tank foundation is the
overturning moment and base shear force of the tank due to seismic and the anchor bolt
arrangement and size. The foundation was built in a height of 300 mm from the ground
level, anchor bolts are to be cast into the foundation as shown in Figure 4.2.
118

Figure 4.2 Tank Foundation with anchor bolt installed
4.3 Bottom Plate Placement
When the tank foundation is done and ready for the tank erection, bottom plate will start
laying on top of the foundation and welded in sequence. It is important to lay and weld
the bottom plate in correct sequence to avoid any weld distortion.

Anchor Bolt
Bottom Plate
Concrete Ring Foundation
119

Figure 4.3 Bottom Plate Layout [PTS, 1986]
The welding sequence for bottom plate layout with annular plates, with reference to
Figure 4.2 is as follow:
1. Lay plates and lightly tack –weld
2. Weld centre sump in position 1 and 2
3. Weld rectangular plates together commencing at centre, welding short seams
first 3 to 11, seams between rows of plates shall be free of tack-welds before
making final weld
4. Weld only outer part of radial seams of annular plates before erection of shell
plates at 12a
5. After complete assembly and welding of lower shell courses, weld lower shell
course to annular 12b for prevention of welding distortion.
6. Weld remaining part of radial weld of annulars at 12c
7. Weld rectangular and sketch plates together at 13 to 22 and finally to annulars
at 23.
120
Figure 4.4 shows the actual bottom plate laying in top of the foundation on site, it shows
that the bottom plates are laid in the lapping way. Figure 4.5 shows the detail of lap joints
where three thicknesses occur.

Figure 4.4 Bottom Plate Laid on Foundation

Figure 4.5 Typical Cross Joint in Three Plate Lap
121
Requirement in API 650 (2007) stated that the three-plate laps in the tank bottoms shall
be at least 300 mm from each others, from the tank shell, from butt-welded annular plate
joints, and from joints between annular plates and the bottom [API 650, 2007]. And the
bottom plate need to be welded on the top side only, with continuous full-fillet weld on
all seams as shown in the welding detail in Figure 4.6.
Figure 4.6 Welding Detail for Bottom Plate
4.4 Shell Erection
Shell plates will be erected when the bottom plates are done, the shell plates are held in
place, tacked and completely welded. This will be done course by course, working
upwards to the top curb angle. No course can be added as long as the previous course had
not been entirely welded.
For the floating roof tank, Flotation Method as shown in Figure 4.1 (b) might be used,
where upon completion of the bottom plating and erection of the two lower course of the
tank, the floating roof is assembled on the tank bottom and completed. The tank is then
filled with water and, using the floating roof as a working platform, the third and
subsequent course are erected and welded, water being pumped in as each course is
completed. However this method may only be used only at site where soil settlement is
very limited. Refer to Chapter 5 for the soil settlement topic. Figure 4.7 show the
complete erection of the first shell course and Figure 4.8 (a) and (b) show the erection of
the upper shell course from the inside and outer of the tank respectively.
122

Figure 4.7 Completed Erection of First Shell Course


Figure 4.8 (a) Erection of Upper Shell Course – Inside Tank


Figure 4.8 (b) Erection of Upper Shell Course – Outside Tank
123
4.5 Tank Testing
4.5.1 Tank Bottom Testing
After welding of the bottom plates has been completed, all welds will be tested to ensure
that the tank bottom is free from leaks. This can be done by using a vacuum box, which
enables any leaks in the seams to be positively located by visual examination. The test is
preferably be made as soon as possible after welding of the bottom but before any surface
coating is applied. The bottom plates has to be tested before water is put into the tank for
hydrostatic testing.
A typical vacuum box and pump is shown in Figure 4.9, where the vacuum box is fitted
with a glass viewing panel on its top and has an open bottom, around which a continuous
rubber seal and former are secured. The seal forms an airtight joint around the section of
the weld to be tested when the box is pressed against the bottom plates. A partial vacuum
can be created by means of a hand or motor-driven vacuum pump. A vacuum gauge is
incorporated in the box which has two connections: one is the suction tap fitted with a
non-return valve; the other is a vacuum release valve.
4.5.2 Tank Shell Testing
The tank shells should be water tested/ hydrotested after completion of the wind girder.
The tank will be filled up with water to its design level. The water test not only to ensure
no leakage of the tank, it also tested the foundation for its capability of taking the filled
tank load. Settlement will also be measured during the water testing.
124


Figure 4.9 Vacuum Box and Pump [PTS, 1986]
125
4.5.3 Floating Roof Testing
The floating roof has to be liquid-tight in order for it to function safely and effectively,
for all the weld seams and joints has to be liquid-tight, they will be inspected and tested
in a more careful way, as follows [PTS, 1986]:
i) Centre Deck
The weld seams of the centre deck plates should be controlled on liquid-tightness by the
vacuum box method or by the penetration oil/chalk method.
ii) Pontoon
Before the top plates of the pontoons are installed, the following seams have to be tested
for tightness, using liquid dye- penetrants.
- The single-fillet welds on the upper surface of the pontoon bottom plates.
- The single-fillet welds between the bottom and the side walls of the
pontoon.
- The single-fillet welds between the bulk heads and the bottom and side
walls of the pontoon.
- The welds at the bottom comers of the bulk heads. These should be tested
with particular care, as the bulk heads are mostly shaped at these points to
clear the longitudinal weld between the bottom and the side walls. The
gaps so formed in the comers must be effectively closed, as leaks in one
compartment win allow oil to penetrate into the adjacent compartments.
- The longitudinal welds joining the centre deck to the pontoon.
126
iii) Air Testing of Pontoon Compartments
After the completion of the liquid-tightness test for the floating roof pontoon, each
individual pontoon compartment will also be checked by filling it with compressed air at
a maximum pressure of 0.25 bar.
iv) Roof Drain
The roof drain pipe systems for the floating roof will be tested with water to a pressure of
3.5 bar, and during the flotation test, the roof drains should be kept open and observed for
leakage of tank contents into the drain lines.
127
CHAPTER 5: SPECIAL CONSIDERATION
5.1 Design Consideration
5.1.1 Design Consideration of Foundation
As mentioned earlier in Chapter 4 that providing adequate foundation is an important part
of ensuring an economical and safe installation of storage tank. Pour foundation would
threaten the integrity of the tank, no matter how good the tank design is. Uneven
foundation settlement on floating tank is a special problem. The roof seal as discussed in
Chapter 3.3.3.1 were designed to compensate for variation in tank diameter such as out-
of-round, however in extreme condition; it will impair the roof seal efficiency and caused
roof jamming. Therefore proper design of the foundation is essential to avoid the
problem.
There are several types of soil settlement and only two of the common will has most
effect on the floating roof will be discussed here.
i) Center-to-edge Settlement
Center-to-edge settlement results stretching of bottom plate, give rise to biaxial
membrane tensile stresses. Excessive sagging causes the bottom-to-shell joint stress
become excessive and eventually causes buckling. The maximum allowable sagging, see
Figure 5.1, can be calculated as follow [PTS, 1986]:


75 . 3
100
100
2
+ |
¹
|

\
|
=
D
f D
f
o
128
Where
f = Maximum allowable sag in the tank bottom, cm
D = Diameter of tank, cm
f
o
= Deflection of bottom center, cm, inrelation to bottom curb when the tank is
erected (positive, zero or negative)
Figure 5.1 Maximum Allowable Sag [EEMUA 2003, vol.1, p82]
Some suggestion to the tank designer is that when large settlement is predicted, the
bottom can be specified as cone-up bottom to minimise stresses in bottom plate and shell-
to-bottom joint. The tank can also be lifted and re-pack the foundation before the
settlement occurs.
ii) Uneven Settlement around Circumference
Uneven or differential shell settlement around tank circumference would cause the tank
tilted and significant out-of-roundness which result the floating roof to malfunction such
as holding up, jamming, excessive emission of product vapours though seal gap and roof
sinking.
129
As recommended in the EEMUA (2003), an in service settlement survey should be
carried out preferably with the tank full, or nearly full, taking elevation reading at each
survey point around the circumference. The minimum number of survey points would be
diameter D in metres divided by 3.05, but should not be fewer than 8 and spacing
between the survey points should not exceed a circumferential distance of 10 m. The
maximum differential settlement between any two points at 10-metre intervals should not
exceed 100 m, that is 1%. This limit was established to avoid severe localised stress
increase in tank components. And the maximum out-of verticality at top of tank shell
should not exceed 1/100 of tank height, see Figure 5.2. When limit is exceeded, re-
levelling the tank and foundation should be considered. The limitation will have
significant influence to the roof rim and rim seals design.

Figure 5.2 Maximum Tolerances for Out-of Verticality of the Tank Shell [EEMUA 2003, vol.1, p81]
5.1.2 Design Consideration on Tank Shell
One of the major considerations on the tank shell is the local load acting on the tank shell
wall. Shell wall are relative thin with respect to the large diameter, hence it has filmsy
behavior. Any significant load acts on the shell wall has the potential causing buckling in
the tank shell wall. Pipe support for the nozzle is one of the attachments which attached
to the shell wall and exert a significant of load to it. The pipe supports shall be designed
for the minimum load.
130
5.2 Construction Consideration
5.2.1 Nominal Diameter Versus Inside Diameter
Shell plate shall be aligned with inside diameter instead of the outside or nominal
diameter during shell fit up. This is so that the shell wall would have a smooth surface for
the roof seal to smoothly slide up and down without any jamming.


Figure 5.3 Alignment of Shell Plate for Welding
5.2.2 Plate Square-ness
Constructing a large tank requires plenty of steel plate, the plates are normally milled in
rectangular shape, and the whole piece will use directly without any cutting except the
edge preparation for the welding. However it is never the case, there are always plates
come in an irregular shape where the square-ness were out. Therefore, extra length and
width should be ordered for this irregularities and allowance to trim off the un-square
side without affecting the over tank height and dimension.
( √ ) ( X )
131
5.2.3 Wind Damage
The partial erected tank is very vulnerable to severe damage from the high wind load,
temporary steel angle to be stitch welded to the shell acting as the temporary wind girder
to resist buckling.
5.3 Testing Consideration
5.3.1 Hydrotest/ Water Test
Water is always an issue on construction site to fill up and test the huge tank. Some
contractor who has limited knowledge on the tank and material properties, for cost saving
purpose, they would use sea water as water medium to perform the water test. However
sea water contains very high chlorine and it would cause corrosion to the tank. The
materials selected were not designed for the sea water.
After the water test, never dewatering from the Manway or the clean out door, the tank
venting were not designed for emptying in such big opening.


132
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION
In completion of this thesis, I have understood what exactly a floating roof tank is all
about. In the thesis, I had provided a basic design guideline on how to design a new
floating roof tank with the special consideration upon the completion of the tank design.
Throughout the design process in the project, the design code - API 650 (2007) was
strictly followed together with other standard such API 2000 (1998), NFPA 11 (2005),
NFPA 15 (2007), Petronas Technical Specification (PTS) and many more. Several design
spreadsheets was created to perform the tank design. The spreadsheet was created
accordance to design codes and standard and the following designs were completed in the
project:
i) Shell Stress Analysis
ii) Roof Stress Design
iii) Selection of roof fitting
iv) Sizing of roof fitting
In the shell stress analysis, by using the 1-foot method in API 650 (2007), the minimum
shell wall thickness at the bottom course is 28 mm, and the thickness reduces accordingly
with the liquid static head to 11 mm at the upper top course. The tank was found to be
structurally stable without anchorage during the wind load; however it was structurally
unstable for the seismic. Therefore anchorage is required.
In the roof stress design, the roof buoyancy was checked for the pontoon volume and the
pontoon stresses was check and found structurally stable. Total 22 numbers of pontoon
support legs and 30 numbers of deck support legs with size 4” pipe schedule 80 was
designed. The bleeder vents were sized up to (Ø 200 mm) 8” schedule standard pipe;
minimum one number is required but total two were used as one will be designed for the
standby purpose. Flexible drain pipe system was selected for the roof drain system and
133
minimum 2 numbers with size Ø 100 mm is required. The Scissor Hanger Type in
Metallic Mechanical Shoe Seal was selected for the primary seal in the roof seal system.
In the middle of the project, design verification was performed by using the finite
element analysis (FEA) software - Abaqus, however after spending numerous of hour on
the software, it was realized that the result given from the analysis is not helpful and
essential. The design code used in my shell stress design had been well established; and
had been used worldwide in the petrochemical industry over the past decades since 1919.
It is not practical to verify their design in this project; however some derivation of
formula were performed by studying and research of the basic stress theory. One example
is the formulas for the minimum shell thickness in API 650 (2007) were derivate from the
basic stress theory.
In completion of this dissertation, the operation of the floating tank was addressed
thought the tank design. The tank can only be design only when the operation of the tank
is well understood. Mechanical stress design for the tank and research of different type of
roof fittings from different suppliers were carried out in the roof fitting design. The tank
construction chapter had provided a basic understanding on how a floating tank is built
and tested. Special consideration on the design and construction was also addressed. In
summary, this dissertation had gives a basic guideline and summary to the tank designer
on the Floating Roof Tank.

134
REFERENCE

1. API Standard 650, June 2007. Welded Steel Tanks For Oil Storage. Eleventh Edn,
American Petroleum Institute.

2. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 2007. Section VIII, Division, Rules of
Construction for Pressure Vessels, Amer. Soc. Of Mech. Eng., New York.

3. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 2007. Section II, Part D, Maximum
Allowable Stress Values – Ferrous Materials, Amer. Soc. Of Mech. Eng., New
York.

4. BS 2654: 1989, 1989. Manufacture of Vertical Steel Welded Non-Refrigerated
Storage Tanks with Butt-welded Shells for the Petroleum Industry. British
Standards Institution.

5. EEMUA Publication No. 159:2003, 2003. Users’ Guide to the Inspection,
Maintenance and Repair Of Aboveground Vertical Cylindrical Steel Storage
Tanks. Volume 1, 3
rd
Edition, The Engineering Equipment and Materials Users’
Association.

6. John M. Lieb., 2004. “Floating Roof Design Considerations”, Tank Issue 37-2,
Spring/ Summer 2004.

7. John M. Lieb., 2006. “Update API 650 Appendix E – Seismic Design of Liquid
Storage Tank”, Proceedings of API’s annual storage tank conference, American
Petroleum Institute, Houston Texas.

135
8. Hendry H. Bednar, P.E. 1991, Pressure Vessel Design Handbook. 2
nd
Edn,
Krieger Publishing Company, cited in Moss, D.R., 2003. “Pressure Vessel Design
Manual,” 3
rd
ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.

9. NFPA 11, 2005. Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam.
National Fire Protection Association.

10. Praveen K. Malhotra, 2006. “Seismic Design of Liquid Storage Tanks”, American
Society of Civil Engineers.

11. PTS 20.156A, 1986. Manual - Standard Tanks. Vol. 1 – Part 1. Petronas
Technical Standards.

12. W. B. Young, “Design and Application of Floating Roofs for Refinery Storage
Tanks” Oil and Gas Journal, Vol. 71, No. 49, Dec 1973, pp.48-51.

13. “Material Selection Study for OGT”, Turkmenistan Block 1 Project Specification.

14. Norsok Standard M-056, Rev. 1 June 1998, “ CO
2
Corrosion Rate Calculation
Model”, http://www.standard.no/imaker.exe?id=535

15. Mark.B, 2006. “Floating Roof Working safety”, Proceeding of 2006 storage tank
conference and safety workshop.

16. R.S. Wonzniak & W.W.Mitchell, 1978. Basic of Seismic Design Provisions For
Welded Steel Oil Storage Tanks, Presented at session on Advance in Storage Tank
Design API, Refining 43
RD
Midyear Meeting.

17. G.W. Housner, 1954. Earthquake Pressures on Fluid Containers, A report on
research Conducted under contract with the Office of Naval Research, California
Institute of Technology, Pasedana, Earthquake Research Laboratory.
136
18. API Standard 2000, April 1998. Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage
Tanks. Fifth Edn, American Petroleum Institute.
19. ANSI/ AISC 360-05, March 2005. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.
American Institute of Steel Construction.
20. NFPA 15, 2007. Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection.
2007 Edn, National Fire Protection Association.
21. Warren C.Young & Richard G. Budynas, 2002. Roark’s Formulas For Stress and
Strain. Seventh Edn, McGraw-Hill International Edition.
















APPENDIX A
(PROJECT SPECIFICATION)













APPENDIX B
(DESIGN CALCULATION)



STORAGE TANK DESIGN CALCULATION - API 650
1 .0 DESIGN CODE & SPECIFICATION
DESIGN CODE : API 650 11th Edition
1 .1 TANK
Item number : 7061T-3901
Roof ( Open/Close ) : Close
Type of roof ( Cone-roof / Dome-roof / Flat-roof / NA ) : Floating Roof
1 .2 GEOMETRIC DATA
Inside diameter , Di ( corroded ) (@ 39,000 mm ) = 39,006 mm
Nominal diameter, Dn ( new ) ( based on 1st shell course ) = 39,028 mm
Nominal diameter, Dc ( corroded ) ( based on 1st shell course ) = 39,031 mm
Tank height (tan/tan), H = 20,700 mm
Specific gravity of operating liquid , S.G. (Actual) = 0.790
Specific gravity of operating liquid , S.G. (Design) = 1.00
Nominal capacity , V = 24736 m³
Maximum design liquid level, HL = 20,700 mm
1 .3 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE
Design pressure : Upper , Pu (Atmospheric) = 0.00 mbarg
: Lower , Pl = 0.00 mbarg Vac
Design temperature : Upper , Tu = 70 °C
: Lower , Tl = -17 °C
1 .4 MATERIAL & MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Component Material Tensile Yield Corrosion
Stress Stress Allowance
St(N/mm²) Sy(N/mm²) c.a.(mm)
PLATE
Shell Plate ( Mat'l Code # 1 ) (bot) A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 3.000
( Mat'l Code # 2 ) (top) A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 3.000
Annular Plate A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 3.000
Bottom Plate A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 3.000
Roof Plate A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 3.000
STRUCTURE MEMBERS
Roof structure (rafter,bracing,etc ) A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 3.00
Top Curb Angle A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 3.00
Intermediate Wind Girder A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 3.00
SHELL THICKNESS CALCULATION BY ONE-FOOT METHOD
2 .0 SHELL DESIGN
2 .1 GEOMETRIC DATA
Plate size used : 2,440 mm
Shell plate min. width as per PTS 34.51.01.31 clause 6.3 : 1,500 mm
2 .2 MATERIAL & MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
No Material Specified Specified Yield stress Max. allow Max. allow Corrosion
used min. tensile min. yield reduction fac design hydro.test allowance
stress stress ( App. M ) stress stress
St (N/mm²) Sy (Nmm²) k Sd (N/mm²) St (N/mm²) c.a (mm)
1 A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 1.000 160.67 180.75 3.00
2 A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 1.000 160.67 180.75 3.00
3 A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 1.000 160.67 180.75 3.00
4 A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 1.000 160.67 180.75 3.00
5 A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 1.000 160.67 180.75 3.00
6 A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 1.000 160.67 180.75 3.00
7 A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 1.000 160.67 180.75 3.00
8 A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 1.000 160.67 180.75 3.00
9 A 516 GR. 65N 448.00 241.00 1.000 160.67 180.75 3.00
10 - - - - - - -
2 .3 SPECIFIED MINIMUM SHELL THICKNESS
Specification : API 650 11th Edition
Minimum thickness as per API 650 cl 5.6.1.1 = 8.00 mm
Minimum thickness as per PTS 34.51.01.31 = 11.00 mm
2 .4 SHELL THICKNESS CALCULATION BY ONE-FOOT METHOD ( CLAUSE 5.6.3.1 )
SI METRIC UNIT :-
Design shell thickness, ( in mm )
4.9Dc ( [H+Hi] - 0.3 ).G
td = + c.a
Sd
Hydrostatic test shell thickness , ( in mm ) t.min = Min. of t.design, t.hydo &
4.9Dn ( H - 0.3 ) min. thickness as per PTS.
tt =
St tsc = Thicknes selected & used
Gravitational force = 9.81 m/s
2 .5 CALCULATION & RESULTS
No. Mat'l Material Width Height t.design t.hydro. t.min tsc. Result
Code (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
No.
1 1 A 516 GR. 65N 2,440 20,700 27.30 21.60 27.30 28.00 O.K.
2 1 A 516 GR. 65N 2,440 18,260 24.40 19.02 24.40 25.00 O.K.
3 1 A 516 GR. 65N 2,440 15,820 21.49 16.43 21.49 22.00 O.K.
4 1 A 516 GR. 65N 2,440 13,380 18.58 13.85 18.58 19.00 O.K.
5 1 A 516 GR. 65N 2,440 10,940 15.67 11.26 15.67 16.00 O.K.
6 1 A 516 GR. 65N 2,440 8,500 12.77 8.68 12.77 13.00 O.K.
7 1 A 516 GR. 65N 2,020 6,060 9.86 6.10 11.00 11.00 O.K.
8 1 A 516 GR. 65N 2,020 4,040 7.45 3.96 11.00 11.00 O.K.
9 1 A 516 GR. 65N 2,020 2,020 5.04 1.82 11.00 11.00 O.K.
2 .6 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS
No. Height t.min tsc. H' H' max ∆ H P'max Pmax
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) N/m² N/m²
1 20,700 27.30 28.00 20,700 21,306.77 606.77 5,952.41 5,952.41
2 18,260 24.40 25.00 18,260 18,786.53 526.53 5,165.29 5,165.29
3 15,820 21.49 22.00 15,820 16,266.30 446.30 4,378.18 4,378.18
4 13,380 18.58 19.00 13,380 13,746.06 366.06 3,591.06 3,591.06
5 10,940 15.67 16.00 10,940 11,225.82 285.82 2,803.94 2,803.94
6 8,500 12.77 13.00 8,500 8,705.59 205.59 2,016.82 2,016.82
7 6,060 11.00 11.00 6,060 7,025.43 965.43 9,470.87 2,016.82
8 4,040 11.00 11.00 4,040 7,025.43 2985.43 29,287.07 9,470.87
9 2,020 11.00 11.00 2,020 7,025.43 5005.43 49,103.27 29,287.07
H' = Effective liquid head at design pressure
H' max = Max. liquid head for tsc.
P'max = Max. allowable stress for tsc.
Pmax = Max. allowable stress at shell course.
BOTTOM & ANNULAR PLATE DESIGN
3 .0 BOTTOM PLATE & ANNULAR PLATE DESIGN
Annular plate used ? ( yes/no ) : yes
BOTTOM PLATE
(i) Minimum thickness as per API 650 Clause 5.4.1 = 6.00 mm
Minimum thickness required (@ 3.00 mm c.a ) = 9.00 mm
Therefore, use thickness of 9.00 mm (tb) is satisfactory.
(ii) - = - mm
(iii) Min. width of overlapping (cl. 5.1.3.5) = 25 mm
(iv) Min. width of plate (cl. 5.4.1) = 1800 mm
(v) - = 50 mm
ANNULAR PLATE
(i) Nominal thickness of 1st shell course, tsc1 = 28.00 mm
Hydro. test stress in 1st shell course,
4.9Dn(H-0.3) = 139.33 N/mm²
tsc
1
where
Dn = Nominal diameter, Dn ( new ) ( based on 1st shell course ) = 39.028 m
H = Design liquid level = 20.700 m
tsc
1
= Nominal thickness of 1st shell course = 28.000 mm
Annular plate thickness ( As per Table 5-1a ) = 6.00 mm
Minimum thickness required (@ 3.00 mm c.a. ) = 9.00 mm
Therefore , use thickness of 16.00 mm (ta) is satisfactory.
(ii) Min. shell-to-bottom fillet welds size (cl. 5.1.5.7) = 13.00 mm
(iii) Min. width projected inside of shell to edge of overlapping (cl. 5.5.2) = 600 mm
(iv) Min. radial width of annular plate (cl. 5.5.2)
215 ta
(HL. SG )
0.5
where
ta = Annular plate thickness = 16.000 mm
HL = Maximum design liquid level = 20.70 m
SG = Design specific gravity = 1.00
(v) Min. width projected outside of shell ( cl. 5.5.2) = 50 mm
mm
St =
La = = 756.09
ROOF TO SHELL JUNCTION CALCULATION
4 .1 DESIGN OF OPEN ROOF TANK - TOP STIFFENER RING
4 .1.1 TOP CURB ANGLE
If the top wind girder is located 600 mm below top of the tank, top curn angle shall be provided.
Location of top wind girders from top of tank, L = 1000 mm
Since L is > 600mm from top of tank, top curb angle is required.
MINIMUM REQUIREMENT
Minimum required size as per API 650 clause 5.9.3.2 = 76 x 76 x 6.4
Section modulus,Z min = 8380 mm
3
MEMBER SIZE USED FOR TOP CURB ANGLE
Actual size for top curb angle = 75 x 75x 10
Section modulus, Za = 13500 mm
3
Since Za > Zmin , therefore the angle size selected is satisfactory.
4 .1.2 TOP WIND GIRDER
The required minimum section modulus of the stiffening ring shall be as follows:-
Dc².H2 V
2
= 1007 cm³
17 190 = 1,007,140 mm³
where
Dc = Nominal Tank Diameter = 39.031 m
H2 = Height of tank shell = 20.7 m
V = Wind Velocity = 140.00 km/hr
MEMBER SIZE USED FOR TOP WIND GIDER
Available section modulus
Fabricated Tee- Girder : T 825 x 250 x 8 x 10
Web plate length, L2 = 825 mm
Toe plate length, L3 = 250 mm
Web plate thk, t2 = 8 mm
Toe plate thk, t3 = 10 mm
Min. shell thickness where top wind girder located, tsc.cor = 8.00 mm
tsc.cor = 8.00 mm
10 mm D = 39037 mm
X
2 C1
8
250
1 L1=16.tsc.cor = 128 mm
3 X
825
A Y AY h A.h² I = (bd³)/12
(mm²) (mm) (mm³) (mm) (mm4) (mm4)
1 2048 4.00 8192 433.61141 385062615 10,923
2 6600 420.5 2775300 17.1114101 1932482.35 374343750
3 2,500 838.00 2,095,000 400.39 400,777,557 20,833
TOTAL 11,148 4,878,492 787,772,655 374,375,506
Neutral axis of combined section, C1 = 438 mm
Moment of inertia of section , Ix-x = 1,162,148,161 mm
4
Section modulus available, Za = 2,655,662 mm³
Since Za > Zmin , therefore the angle size selected is satisfactory.
Z =
mm
mm
INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS CALCULATION
5 .0 INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS DESIGN
5 .1 MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF THE UNSTIFFENED SHELL ( CLAUSE 5.9.7.1 )
SI METRIC UNIT :-
ts.cor
3
190 ² = 9.182 m
Dc V = 9182 mm
where ts.cor = Top shell course thickness = 8.00 mm
Dc = Nominal tank diameter = 39.03 m
V = Wind design speed = 140.00 km/hr
5 .2 LOCATION OF INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS
Shell Shell Actual Transposed Since H1 < H2, therefore the intermediate
course thickness width width wind girder is/are required
tsc.cor W Wtr
(mm) (mm) (mm) Minimum number of intermediate wind
1 25.00 2,440 141 girders required,
2 22.00 2,440 195 = 1
3 19.00 2,440 281
4 16.00 2,440 431 Location of intermediate wind girders from
5 13.00 2,440 725 top of tank,
6 10.00 2,440 1,397 L1 = 4615 mm
7 8.00 2,020 2,020 L2 = - mm
8 8.00 2,020 2,020 L3 = - mm
9 8.00 2,020 2,020 L4 = - mm
10 - - - L5 = - mm
11 - - -
12 - - -
13 - - -
14 - - -
15 - - -
Height of transformed shell, H2 = 9,230 mm
= (9.47 ts.cor) H
1 x
5 .3 SIZE OF INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS
(a) Required minimum section modulus of intermediate wind girder ( clause 5.9.7.6 )
SI METRIC UNIT :-
Dc². H1 V
2
= 225.812 cm³
17 190 = 225,812.032 mm³
where
Dc = Nominal tank diameter = 39.031 m
H1 = Vertical dist. between inter. wind girder & top angle = 4.615 m
V = Wind design speed = 140.40 km/hr
(b) Available section modulus for intermediate wind girder
Fabricated Tee- Girder : T 405 x 150
Web plate length, L2 = 450 mm
Toe plate length, L3 = 150 mm
Web plate thk, t2 = 8 mm
Toe plate thk, t3 = 8 mm
Min. shell thickness where top wind girder located, tsc.cor = 8.00 mm
tsc.cor = 8.00 mm
8 mm D = 39037 mm
X
2 C1
8
150
1 L1=16.tsc.cor = 128 mm
3 X
450
A Y AY h A.h² I = (bd³)/12
(mm²) (mm) (mm³) (mm) (mm4) (mm4)
1 2048 4.00 8192 200.642523 82447200.6 10,923
2 3600 233 838800 28.3574766 2894927.33 60750000
3 1,200 462.00 554,400 257.36 79,479,445 6,400
TOTAL 6,848 1,401,392 164,821,573 60,767,323
Neutral axis of combined section, C1 = 205 mm
Moment of inertia of section , Ix-x = 225,588,896 mm
4
Section modulus available, Za = 863,143 mm³
Since Za > Zmin , therefore the angle size selected is satisfactory.
Z.min =
mm
mm
6 .0 WIND LOAD CALCULATION (OVERTURNING STABILITY)
6 .1 WIND DESIGN CALCULATION
Internal design pressure, Pi ( @ 0.0 mbarg. ) = 0 N/mm²
Insulation thickness, ti = 75 mm
Nominal diameter of tank, D = 39,000 mm
Tank height , Hs = 20,700 mm
Roof slope, ß° = 0.000 °
Roof height, Hr = 0 mm
Height from tank bottom to shell centre, Ls = 10,350 mm
Height from tank bottom to roof centre,Lr = 20,700 mm
Min. depth of product (always present in tank) , Hw = 0 mm
Weight of tank,Wt (corroded condition) (@ 550,045 kg ) = 5,395,939 N
Weight of product (always present in tank) , Ww = 0 N
Weight of shell + top angle (corroded ), W
DL
(@ 327,512 kg ) = 3,212,898 N
6 .2 WIND FORCE CALCULATION
As per API 650 clause 5.2.1(j), the wind pressure are as follows:-
Wind pressure on conical surfaces, wr (@ 30.00 psf ) = 0.0014369 N/mm²
Wind pressure on cylindrical surfaces, ws (@ 18.00 psf ) = 0.0008621 N/mm²
Wind correction factor, kw (= V /190)² = 1.00
Projected area of roof, Ar ( = 0.5.k.Do.Hr ) = 0 mm²
Projected area of shell, As ( = k.Do.Hs ) = 811,564,200 mm²
Total wind load exerted on roof, Fr ( = wr.kw.Ar ) = 0 N
Total wind load exerted on shell, Fs ( = ws.kw.As ) = 699,681 N
Total wind moment on tank, Mw ( = Fr.Lr + Fs.Ls ) = 7,241,700,964 Nmm
6 .3 OVERTURNING STABILITY AGAINST WIND LOADING
Wind Uplift Load
Internal Pressure Load
Wind load on H
shell, Fr
H/2 Momment about
shell to bottom joint
Dead Load (W
DL
)
Liquid hold down weight (wa)
For tank to be structurally stable without anchorage, the following uplift criteria shall satisfy:
Criteria 1: 0.6 Mw + Mpi < M
DL
/ 1.5
Criteria 2: Mw + 0.4 Mpi < (M
DL
+M
F
) / 2
where:
Mpi = Moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from design internal pressure
= Uplift thrust on roof due to internal pressure x 1/2 tank diameter
= ( 1/4 π. D
2
. Pi ). 1/2. D = 0 Nmm
Mw = Overturning moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from horizontal
D/2
plus vertical wind pressure
= Total wind moment on tank, ( = Fr.Lr + Fs.Ls ) = 7,241,700,964 Nmm
M
DL
= Moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from the weight of the
shell and the roof supported by the shell.
= 0.5. D. W
DL
= 62,651,502,376 Nmm
Weight of roof = 0,since it is floating on liquid
M
F
= Moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from liquid weight (wa) = 153,419,379,181 Nmm
= (wa. π D). D
1000 2
wa = Weight of liquid = 59 tb Fby. H = 64,214.21 N/m
H = Design liquid height = 19.2 m
tb = Thickness of Bottom plate under the shell = 16 mm
Fby = Minimum specified yeid stress of the bottom plate under the shell = 241 N/mm
2
FOR CRITERIA 1 0.6 Mw + Mpi < M
DL
/ 1.5
0.6 Mw + Mpi = 4,345,020,578 Nmm
M
DL
/ 1.5 = 41,767,668,251 Nmm
FOR CRITERIA 2 Mw + 0.4 Mpi < (M
DL
+M
F
) / 2
Mw + 0.4 Mpi = 7,241,700,964 Nmm
(M
DL
+M
F
) / 2 = 108,035,440,779 Nmm
Since,
0.6 Mw+ Mpi < M
DL
/1.5, and
Mw+0.4 Mpi < 1/2 (M
DL
+ M
F
)
The tank anchorage is NOT REQUIRED.
7 .0 SEISMIC FORCE CALCULATION
7 .1 SEISMIC LOADS DESIGN
7 .1.1 GEOMETRIC DATA
Seismic peak ground acceleration, Sp = 0.3 g
Importance factor, I = 1.50
Site Class = D
Seismic Use Group, SUG = III
Nominal diameter of tank, D = 39,031 mm
Total height of tank shell, Ht = 20,700 mm
Ht.from bottom shell to COG of shell,Xs = 10,350 mm
Maximum design liquid level, H = 20,700 mm
Ht.from bottom shell to COG of roof,Xr = 0 mm
Design specific gravity of liquid, G = 1
Total weight of tank shell, Ws ( @ kg ) = 3,462,418 N
Total weight of tank roof, Wr ( @ kg ) = 0 N
Total weight of tank contents, Wp ( @ kg ) = 242,581,931 N
Total weight of tank bottom, Wf ( @ kg ) = 833,471 N
Note: The total weight of the tank roof will be added to the weight of tank content,
since the roof is floating on the liquid.
7 .1.2 DESIGN SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATIONS
Impulsive spectral acceleration parameter, Ai
I
Rwi
Convective spectral acceleration parameter, Ac
When Tc ≤ T
L
Ts I
Tc Rwc
When Tc > T
L
Ts .T
L
I
Tc
2
Rwc
where
Q = Scaling factor = 1
K = Coefficient to adjust the spectral damping from 5% - 0.5% = 1.5
Fa = Acceleration based site coefficient as per Table E-1 = 1.2
Fv = Velocity-based site coefficient as per Table E-2 = 1.65
So = Substitution for seismic peak ground acceleration Sp = 0.3
Rwi = Force reduction coefficient for impulsive mode as per Table E-4 = 4
Rwc = Force reduction coefficient for convective mode as per Table E-4 = 2
T
L
= Regional dependent transition period for longer period = 4 s
ground motion
Tc = First mode sloshing wave period for convective mode = 6.63 s
Ts = Fv. S1/ Fa. Ss = 0.69
Ai =
Ac = 2.5 K Q Fa So
≤ Ai
≤ Ai
Ac = 2.5 K Q Fa So
0
352,948
84,961
24,728,026
= 0.34
=
=
-
0.063298299
2.5 Q Fa So
7 .1.3 CONVECTIVE (SLOSHING ) PERIOD
The first mode sloshing wave period,
Tc = 1.8 Ks √ D = 6.63 s
where,
Ks = sloshing period coefficient
Ks = 3.68 H = 0.59
D
Fv . S1
Fa . Ss
where,
Fa = Acceleration based site coefficient (at 0.2 sec perios)
as per Table E-1 = 1.2
Fv = Velocity-based site coefficient (at 1 sec. period) as per Table E-2 = 1.6500
S1 = Maximum considered earthquake, 5% damped, spectral response
acceleration parameter at the period of one second, %g
Ss = Maximum considered earthquake, 5% damped, spectral response
acceleration parameter at shorts period of 0.2 second, %g
For regions outside USA, sites not defined by ASCE 7 method,
S1 = 1.25 Sp = 0.375
Ss = 2.5 Sp = 0.75
Since Tc > TL , the convective spectral acceleration parameter Ac = 0.06
and the impulsive spectral acceleration parameter Ai = 0.34
7 .2 OVERTURNING STABILITY AGAINST SEISMIC LOADING
7 .2.1 EFFECTIVE MASS OF TANK CONTENTS
Effective impulsive portion of the liquid weight,
For D/H ≥ 1.333,
For D/H < 1.333,
D
H
Since D/H > 1.333 , effective impulsive portion of the liquid weight, Wi = 137,636,499.10 N
Effective convective weight,
D 3.67H
H D
Wi =
Wc = tanh
N
N
N
137,636,499.10 =
100,998,137.14
tanh
0.578
Ts =
= 0.69
Wi = . Wp 1.0 - 0.218
0.866. D/H
tanh (0.866.D/H)
. Wp
=
= -
0.230 . Wp
7 .2.2 CENTER OF ACTION FOR EFFECTIVE LATERAL FORCES
The height from the bottom of the Tank Shell to the center of action of the lateral
seismic forces related to the impulsive liquid force for ringwall moment,
For D/H ≥ 1.333,
Xi = 0.375H = 7762.5 mm
For D/H < 1.333,
D
H
Since D/H > 1.333 , Xi = 7,762.50 mm
The height from the bottom of the Tank Shell to the center of action of the lateral
seismic forces related to the convective liquid force for ringwall moment,
3.67 H
D
3.67H 3.67 H
D D
7 .2.3 OVERTURNING MOMENT
Ringwall moment,
Mrw = [Ai ( Wi. Xi + Ws. Xs + Wr. Xr)]
2
+ [Ac (Wc. Xc)]
2
= 3.81453E+11 Nmm
= 381453029.8 Nm
7 .2.4 SHEAR FORCE
The seismic base shear shall be defined as the SRSS combination of the impulsive and convective components.
V= Vi
2
+ Vc
2
= 48,326,902.75 N
where, Vi = Ai (Ws + Wr +Wf + Wi) = 47,902,181.05 N
Vc = Ac. Wc = 6,393,010.26 N
7 .3 RESISTANCE TO OVERTURNING
7 .3.1 THICKNESS OF THE BOTTOM PLATE UNDER THE SHELL & ITS RADIAL WIDTH
Bottom/Annular plate thickness , ta = 16.00 mm
Thickness of bottom shell course, ts = 28.00 mm
Bottom/Annular plate radial width, Ls = 1200.0 mm
Min. specified yield strength of bottom annulus, Fy = 241.0 N/mm
2
Min. specified yield strength of bottom shell course, Fty = 241.0 N/mm
2
Anchorage Ratio, J
D
2
( Wt (1 - 0.4 Av) + Wa )
where,
Av = Vertical earthquake acceleration coefficient = 0.7
Wt = Tank and roof weight acting at base of shell = 28.24 N/mm
wa = Resisting force of the annulus = 94.93 N/mm
J =
Xc = 1.0 -
0.5 - 0.094 Xi =
= 2.17
Mrw
mm = -
= 12,722.55
The seismic overturning moment at the base of the tank shell shall be the SRSS summation of the impulsive and
convective components multiplied by the respective moment arms to the center of action of the forces.
mm
cosh - 1
sinh
. H
. H
Weight of tank shell and portion of roof supported by the shell,
Ws
π. D
wrs = Roof load acting on the shell, including 10% of specified
snow load. ( Zero for floating roof)
The resisting force of the annulus,
wa = 99 ta Fy. H. Ge ≤ 196. H. D. Ge = 94,932.54 N/m
wa < 196.H.D.Ge =
Ge = Effective specific gravity including vertical seismic effect
= G. (1 - 0.4 Av) = 0.72
Since the anchorage ratio, J > 1.54, the tank is not stable and cannot be self-anchored
for the design load. The tank shall be mechanically anchored.
7 .3.2 ANNULAR PLATE REQUIREMENT
If the thickness of the bottom plate under the shell is thicker than the remainder
of the bottom, then the minimum radial width of the bottom plate,
Fy
H. Ge
The maximum width of annulus for determining the resisting force, 0.035 D = 1,366.09 mm
Since L < 0.035 D, the minimum radial width should be = 1,108.57 mm
And,
Since Ls > L, the bottom/ annular plate width is satisfactory.
7 .3.3 SHELL COMPRESSION
MECHANICALLY-ANCHORED TANKS
Maximum longitudinal shell compression,
D
2
ts = 12.67 N/mm
7 .3.4 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SHELL COMPRESSION
GHD² ( D in m ) = 40.223 m³/mm²
ts²
For GHD²/(ts²) < 44 m³/mm²,
83.ts
2.5D = 57.94 N/mm²
For GHD²/(ts²) ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 44 m³/mm²,
83.ts = - N/mm²
D
Therefore, Fa ( < 0.5Fty ) = 57.94 N/mm²
Since σc < Fc, therefore the tank is structurally stable.
Fc =
Fc = + 7.5{G.H}
½
A =
=
mm 0.01723 ta
28.24
= 1,108.57
114,016,732,704.00
0 =
+ wrs N/mm
N/mm
σc =
1.273 Mrw 1
wt ( 1 + 0.4 Av) +
Wt =
L=
7 .4 FREE BOARD FOR SLOSHING WAVE HEIGHT
Sloshing wave height above the product design height,
δ
s
= 0.5 D. A
f = 1,647.06 mm
where:
For SUG I and II,
When Tc ≤ 4
1 Ts
Tc Tc
When Tc > 4
4 4Ts
Tc
2
Tc
2
For SUG III
When Tc ≤ T
L
1 Ts
Tc Tc
When Tc > T
L
T
L
Ts. T
L
Tc
2
Tc
2
Since SUG is III and Tc > TL , A
f
= 0.08
For S
DS
= Q Fa Ss = 0.9 > 0.33g,
Minimum required freeboard, δsreq ( as per Table E-7) = 1,647.06 mm
7 .5 TANK ANCHORAGE
7 .5.1 GEOMETRIC DATA
Number of bolts , N = 86
Dia. of anchor bolt, d = 64 mm
Dia. of anchor bolt,d.corr (less c.a.= 3.000 mm) (min.size.25.4 mm ) = 58 mm
Bolts circle diameter, Da = 39,320 mm
Root area of each hold down bolt, Ab = 2,642 mm²
Spacing between anchor bolts, Sp = 1,436 mm
7 .5.2 MATERIAL & MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Material used : SA 320 Gr L7
Specific minimum yield stress, Sy = 551.5 N/mm²
Allowable tensile strength, St.all ( 0.80Sy ) ( Table 5-21a ) = 441.20 N/mm²
Uplift force due to seismic loading,
1.273 Mrw = 36,592,019 N
Dc²
where
Mrw = Overturing moment due to seismic = 3.81453E+11 Nmm
Dc = Nominal diameter of tank = 39,031 mm
wt = Tank and roof weight acting at base of shell, = 28.24 N/mm
Av = Vertical earthquake acceleration coefficient = 0.70
w
int
=
Uplift thrust due to internal pressure = 0 N/mm
Tensile stress,
σb = W
AB
/ N.Ab = 161.04 N/mm²
Since σb < St.all,therefore the anchor bolt size is satisfactory.
- wt ( 1 - 0.4 Av) + w
int
W
AB
=
A
f
= K. SD
1
. I. 2.5 K Q Fa So I
= K. SD
1
. I. A
f
= 2.5 K Q Fa So I
A
f
= K. SD
1
2.5 K Q Fa So
A
f
= K. SD
1
2.5 K Q Fa So 0.14
= 0.08
=
= 0.13
0.21 =
=
=
=
=
8 .0 DESIGN OF SINGLE DECK FLOATING ROOF FOR A STORAGE TANK
75
1
64 Top pontoon plt 8
Rafter L 75 x 75 x 6
Outer Rim Inner Rim 15
975 Post
525
Btm Angle Deck Plate 8
Bulkhead
198 2181 34248
38610
Shell I.D 39006
( All dimensions in mm unless otherwise stated. )
8 .1 TANK GEOMETRY DATA
Inside diameter , Di ( corroded ) (@ 39,000 mm ) = 39,006 mm
Tank height (tan/tan), H =
Material of Construction : SA 516 Gr 65N
Specific Minimum Yield Stress, Sy = 275 N/mm²
Modulus of Elasticity = 209,000 N/mm²
Density of Material, ρ (plate) = 7,850 kg/m³
Corrosion Allowance = 3 mm
Min. Specific Gravity of product = 0.7
Max. Specific Gravity of product = 1
8 .2 GEOMETRY DATA
Outer Rim Height, Hor = 975 mm
Inner Rim Height, Hir = 525 mm
Pontoon width, w = 2181 mm
Rim Gap = 198 mm
Outer Rim Extend above pontoon, Hext = 75 mm
No. of Pontoons, N = 22
Outer Rim Diameter, Øor = 38610 mm
Inner Rim Diameter, Øir = 34248 mm
Bulkhead Outer heigh, Boh = 884 mm
Bulkhead Inner heigh, Bih = 509 mm
Bulkhead Width, wb = 2157 mm
8 .3 MEMBER SIZE & PROPERTIES
Outer Rim Thk, Tor = 9 mm
Inner Rim Thk, Tir = 15 mm
Top Pontoon Thk, Ttp = 8 mm
Btm Pontoon Thk, Tbp = 8 mm
Bulkheads Thk, Tb = 8 mm
Deck Plate Thickness, Td = 8 mm
Circumferential Truss Plates = 8 mm
Rafter 44 Nos. of L 75 x 75 x 6 @ unit weight of 6.85 kg/m
Posts 44 Nos. of L 75 x 75 x 6 @ unit weight of 6.85 kg/m
8 .4 ROOF SUPPORT LEG ( Refer to Design of Supporting Legs)
8 .4.1 PONTOON LEG
No. of Pontoon Leg, Np = 22
Pontoon Leg Size 3" pipe x Sch. 80 @ unit wt 15.27 kg/m
Pontoon Leg Housing 4" pipe x Sch. 80 @ unit wt 22.32 kg/m
Pontoon Leg length = 2940 mm
Pontoon Leg Housing length = 1084 mm
8 .4.2 DECK LEG
No. of Deck Leg, Nd (Area od deck / 30m² / leg ) = 30
Deck Leg Size 3" pipe x Sch. 80 @ unit wt 15.27 kg/m
Deck Leg Housing 4" pipe x Sch. 80 @ unit wt 22.32 kg/m
Deck Leg length = 2927 mm
Deck Leg Housing length = 823 mm
8 .5 WEIGHT CALCULATION
Top Pontoon = π /4 x( Øor² - Øir²) x Ttp x ρ (plate) = 15,675.18 kg
Bottom Pontoon π /4 x( Øor² - Øir²) x Tbp x ρ (plate) = 15,675.18 kg
Inner Rim = π x Øir x Hir x Tir x ρ = 6,651.28 kg
Outer Rim = π x Øor x Hor x Tor x ρ = 8,355.38 kg
Bulkheads = 1/2 x (Boh - Bih)x wb x Tb x ρ x N = 2,075.65 kg
Deck Plate = π /4 x Øir x Td x ρ = 57,852.21 kg
Pontoon Legs = 987.66 kg
Pontoon Legs housing = 532.29 kg
Deck Legs = 1340.86 kg
Deck Legs housing = 551.08 kg
TOTAL WEIGHT
Pontoon Components: - (Wpontoon) = 55,248.45 kg
Deck Components: - (Wdeck) = 57,852.21 kg
Total Weight of Floating Roof, (Wroof) = 113,100.66 kg
9 .0 PONTOON VOLUME
O. Rim Ø 38610mm
I. Rim Ø + 2 x 2/3 w 37156 mm
h3 = 0.03
I. Rim Ø 34248 mm
h2 = 0.53
h1 = 0.35
2
Volume 1 = 40.70 m³
Volume 2 = 120.17 m³
Volume 3 = 3.85 m³
Total Pontoon Volume, Vol(pontoon) = 164.72 m³
2
1
3
9 .0 SETTING DECK LEVEL
9 .1 OPERATION FLOATATION LEVEL - DECK
Deck Floatation Depth Density of Deck
Deck Thk Density of Product
ρ (deck)
ρ (product)
9 .2 OPERATION FLOATATION LEVEL - PONTOON
Buoyant Force, FB = Fpontoon
ρ x Vdisplacement x g = W (Pontoon) x g
Pontoon Weight, W(pontoon)
ρ (product)
To find Floatation Depth of Pontoon from Inner Corner of Pontoon,
Vol. Displacement above Inner corner of Pontoon
Pontoon Cross Area in Vol. 2
Vdisplacement - Vbackslope (Vol.1)
1/4 x π x (Øor² - Øir²)
Freeboard above deck,
Product Level
89.71
153.15 Deck Level
63.44 mm
The Deck is set at the difference of floation depth in Pontoon & Deck,
D(deck) - D(pontoon) = 63.44 mm
9 .3 NORMAL OPERATION FLOATATION LEVEL FOR ROOF - PONTOON & DECK
Actual Product
Level 161.57 m³
Deck
Level Deck
H, Floatation Height Above Deck
Total Volume Displaced by the roof
Volume Displaced by the Backslope, V1
Partial Volume Displaced in Pontoon below the deck level, Va
Volume Displaced by the Deck, Vb
Total Volume Displaced by the roof, Vdisplacement (roof):
Roof Total Weight, W(roof)
ρ (product)
m³ 161.57 =
Product Displacement, Vdisplacement = 78.93
D(pontoon) =
m³ =
= 153.15
D(pontoon) =
89.71
494.56
mm
mm
=
=
x Td Floatation Depth, D(deck) =
+
+
Vdisplacement (roof) =
=
2
1
3
i) Volume Displaced by the Backslope, Volume 1 = 40.70
ii) Partial Volume Displaced in Pontoon below the deck level:
Deck level Height, h
Bulk head outer height, Bih
iii) Volume Displaced by the Deck:
Area of Deck Plate x Floatation Height Above Deck
π /4 x Øir
2
x H = 921.21 H
Hence, The Floatation Height Above Deck, H = 0.11 m
114.95 mm
9 4 FLOATATION LEVEL FOR ROOF - PONTOON & DECK FOR 10" (254MM) OF ACCUMULATED RAIN WATER
For deck to support 10" (254mm) of rain water:
Volume of rain water collected at the deck, Vrain =
V
rain
= A
deck
x H
rain
= 233.99 m³
where
A
deck
= Area of deck = π /4 x Øir
2
= 921,213,536.64 mm
2
H
rain
= Rain accumulation of 10" = 254.00 mm
Total Volume Displaced by the roof with the 10" of rain water accumulation, Vdisplacement (rain):
W(roof) + Wt(rain)
where
W(roof) = Total weight of roof
Wt(rain) = Weight of 10" rain water
Floatation Height above Deck,
H(rain) = Vdisplacement (rain) - Vol.1 - partial of Vol.2 (ii) = 0.38 m
Area of roof = 375.95 mm
10 0 CHECKING THE STRESSES AND DEFLECTION IN THE CENTRE DECK
(Ref. to Roark's Formulas For Stress And Strain, 7th Edition)
10 1 CASE 1: NORMAL CASE - NO PONTOON PUNCTURED
Where:
t = Plate thickness, Deck (mm) = Td = 8
α = Outer radius of the deck plate = Øir / 2 = 17124
q = Unit lateral pressure (equiv. weight of deck that float on product)
= Td x ( ρ(plate) - ρ(product) ) = 0.000561 N/mm
2
y = Maximum deflection
σb = bending stress
σd = diaphragm stress
σ = σb + σd = Maximum stress due to flexure and diaphragm tension combined
v = Poisson's ratio = 0.3
E = Modulus of Elasticity = 209,000 N/mm²
m³ =

( 11.11.2)
14.98
( 11.11.1)
= 495.84 Vdisplacement (rain) =
ρ (product)
x Vol. 2
3
2 1
4
4






+ =
t
y
K
t
y
K
Et
q α
2
4 3
2
2






+ =
t
y
K
t
y
K
Et
σα
The deck plate is fixed and held at its outer edge by the pontoon, hence condition is consider as:
Fixed and Held. Uniform pressure q over entire plate (Case 3 in Roark's Formulas)
5.33
1 - ν
2
2.6
1 - ν
2
At the Centre,
2
1 - ν
K
4
= 0.976
At the edge,
4
1 - ν
2
K
4
= 1.73
For q α
4
Et
4
And
y y
3
q α
4
t t
Et
4
y = 215.81 mm
Solving equation 11.11.2
σα² y y 2
E. t
2
t t
= 787.3494954 (at Deck Center)
= 1377.567315 (at Deck Edge)
At Deck Center,
σtotal = 35.92 N/mm
2
σbending = 3.52 N/mm
2
σdiaphgram = 32.40 N/mm
2
At Deck Edge,
σtotal = 62.84 N/mm
2
σbending = 5.41 N/mm
2
σdiaphgram = 57.43 N/mm
2
It is the diaphragm stress at the edge which causes the tension at the outer edge of the Deck.
Hence, the radial force on the inner rim,
Rh = σ diaphgram x deck thickness = 459.44 N/mm
4.40
2.86
=
=
=
=
5.86
2.86
56,249.31
= 56,361.13
= K
1
+ K
2
K
1
=
K
2
=
K
3
=
K
3
=
= K
3
+ K
4
=
10 2 PONTOON STRESS DESIGN - CASE 1
10 .2.1 PONTOON PROPERTIES
Nominal diameter of Inner Rim, Øir = 34248 mm
2 2160 Pontoon Inside Width = 2160 mm
525 Inner Rim Thickness, Tir = 12 mm
4 Outer Rim Thickness, Tor = 9 mm
900 Top Pontoon Thk, Ttp = 8
Btm Pontoon Thk, Tbp = 8
2187 3
Top Pontoon slope angle @ 1 : 64 = 0.02 rad
Backslope angle, α = 0.16 rad
A Y AY h A.h² I = (bd³)/12
(mm²) (mm) (mm³) (mm) (mm4) (mm4)
1 6300 6 37,800 1,126 7,980,578,762 75,600
2 17282 1092 18,872,063 40 26,969,435 6,720,924,525
3 17494 1092 19,103,800 40 27,300,602 6,971,562,462
4 8100 2176.5 17,629,650 1,045 8,845,340,202 54,675
TOTAL 49,176 55,643,313 13,692,617,263
Neutral axis of combined section, C1 = 1132 mm
Moment of inertia of section , Ix-x = 30,572,806,264 mm
4
Section modulus available, Za = 27,019,626 mm³
10 .2.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Material Properties : SA 516 Gr. 65N
Specified minimum yield stress, Sy = 275.00 N/mm²
Yield strength reduction factor, k ( Table M-1 ) = 1.000
Allowable stress reduction factor ( App. M.3.5 ), Ks ( = k.Sy/206.7 ) = 1.00
Allowable bending stress, Fb = 183.33 N/mm²
Allowable compressive stress, Fc = 165.00 N/mm²
10 .2.3 PONTOON RING DESIGN
The uniform radial force acting on the Inner Rim is modelled as load point at each mm of circumference,
with a very small angle between load point approximtaed to uniform distributed load in the circular ring design.
Rh
Number of load point @ each mm,
α° Nlp = π x Øir = 107,593.27
Mid Point Angle α° = 1/2 x 360/ Nlp = 0.001673 °
Radial load on rim, Rh = 459.44 N
( Note : Rh is negative for inward force )
(Reference to Roark's Formulas For Stress and Strain, 7th Edition, Table 9.2 Case 7)
At Mid-Point,
Bending moment, Circ. tensile force,
Rh.Do 1 1 Rh
Mm = - Tm =
4 sin α α 2.sin α
At Reaction-Point,
Bending moment, Circ. tensile force,
Rh.Do 1 1 Rh
Mr = - - Tr =
4 α tan α 2 tan α
( Do= Qir, nonimial diamter of inner ring)
16,880,189,001
α
10 .2.4 RESULT
Bending Moment ( Nmm )
Circumferential force ( N )
Bending Stress ( N/mm² )
Circumferential stress ( N/mm² )
Allow. bending stress ( N/mm² )
Allow. axial stress ( N/mm² )
Unity Check
Condition
10 .3 CASE 2: INFLUENCE OF 10" (254mm) OF RAIN ACCUMULATED ON CENTER DECK
10" Rain
For deck to support 10" (254mm) of rain water:
Volume of rain water collected at the deck,
V
rain
= A
deck
x H
rain
= 233.99 m³
where
A
deck
= Area of deck = π /4 x Øir
2
= 921,213,536.64 mm³
H
rain
= Rain accumulation of 10" = 254 mm
Weight of 10" accumulated rain water, Wrain = Vol. rain x ρ rain = 233,988.24 kg
Upward Bouyant Load = Deck Area x Floatation Height x Product density
= π /4 x (Øir)
2
x H(rain) x ρ = 242,429.27 kg
Downward load due to deck steel and rain water,
= Wdeck + Wrain = 291,840.45 kg
Nett downward force acting on deck =
(Upward bouyant load - Downward Load)
75 Deck Area
Where:
t = Plate thickness, Deck (mm) = Td = 8
α = Outer radius of the deck plate = Øir / 2 = 17124
q = Unit lateral pressure = 0.000526 N/mm
2
y = Maximum deflection
σb = bending stress
σd = diaphragm stress
σ = σb + σd = Maximum stress due to flexure and diaphragm tension combined
v = Poisson's ratio = 0.3
E = Modulus of Elasticity = 200,000 N/mm²
( 11.11.1)
( 11.11.2)
kg/m
2
= 53.64 =
OK.
183
165
0.97 0.97
19.14
RING STABILITY CHECK
183.33
165
LOAD-POINT
-38.29
MID-POINT
159.98
7,867,429
0.0000007
OK.
-0.000001
159.98
7,867,429
3
2 1
4
4






+ =
t
y
K
t
y
K
Et
q α
2
4 3
2
2






+ =
t
y
K
t
y
K
Et
σα
The deck plate is fixed and held at its outer edge by the pontoon, hence condition is consider as:
Case 3 - Fixed and Held. Uniform pressure q over entire plate
5.33
1 - ν
2
2.6
1 - ν
2
At the Centre,
2
1 - ν
K
4
= 0.976
At the edge,
4
1 - ν
2
K
4
= 1.73
For q α
4
Et
4
And
y y
3
q α
4
t t
Et
4
y = 214.38325 mm
Solving equation 11.11.2
σα² y y 2
E. t
2
t t
= 777.4581306 (at Deck Center)
= 1360.154003 (at Deck Edge)
At Deck Center,
σtotal = 33.94 N/mm
2
σbending = 3.34 N/mm
2
σdiaphgram = 30.60 N/mm
2
At Deck edge,
σtotal = 59.37 N/mm
2
σbending = 5.14 N/mm
3
σdiaphgram = 54.23 N/mm
4
It is the diaphragm stress at the edge which causes the tension at the outer edge of the Deck.
Hence, the radial force on the inner rim,
Rh = σ diaphgram x deck thickness = 433.85 N/mm
55,140.73 K
1
+ K
2
=
= 4.40
= 55,228.70
= 5.86
= 2.86
= 2.86
K
2
=
K
1
=
= K
3
+ K
4
K
3
=
K
3
=
v
K

=
1
2
3
=
10 4 PONTOON STRESS DESIGN - CASE 2
10 .4.1 PONTOON PROPERTIES
Nominal diameter of Inner Rim, Øir = 34248 mm
Section modulus available, Za2 = = 27019626.01 mm
3
Cross sectional area, Aa = 49,176 mm²
10 .4.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Material Properties : SA 516 Gr. 65N
Specified minimum yield stress, Sy = 275.00 N/mm²
Yield strength reduction factor, k ( Table M-1 ) = 1.000
Allowable stress reduction factor ( App. M.3.5 ), Ks ( = k.Sy/206.7 ) = 1.00
Allowable bending stress, Fb = 183.33 N/mm²
Allowable compressive stress, Fc = 165.00 N/mm²
10 .4.3 PONTOON RING DESIGN
The uniform radial force acting on the Inner Rim is modelled as load point at each mm of circumference,
with a very small angle between load point approximtaed to uniform distributed load in the circular ring design.
Rh
Number of load point @ each mm,
Nlp = π x Øir = 107593.27
α° Angle α° = 1/2 x 360/ Nlp = 0.001673 °
Mid Point Radial load on rim, Rh = 433.85 N/ load pt
( Note : Rh is negative for inward force )
(Reference to Roark's Formulas For Stress and Strain, 7th Edition, Table 9.2 Case 7)
At Mid-Point,
Bending moment, Circ. tensile force,
Rh.Do 1 1 Rh
Mm = - Tm =
4 sin α α 2.sin α
At Reaction-Point,
Bending moment, Circ. tensile force,
Rh.Do 1 1 Rh
Mr = - Tr =
4 α tan α 2 tan α
10 .4.4 RESULT
Bending Moment ( Nmm )
Circumferential force ( N )
Bending Stress ( N/mm² )
Circumferential stress ( N/mm² )
Allow. bending stress ( N/mm² )
Allow. axial stress ( N/mm² )
Unity Check
Condition
10 .4.5 STRESSES SUMMARY
Deck Edge
σtotal ( N/mm² ) 59.37
σbending ( N/mm² ) 5.14
σdiaphgram
( N/mm² ) 54.23
OK. OK.
183 183
165 165
0.92 0.92
LOAD CASE 1
151.07
18.08 -36.15
7,429,209 7,429,209
0.0000007 -0.000001
151.07
RING STABILITY CHECK MID-POINT LOAD-POINT
30.60
Deck Center
35.92
3.52
32.40
Deck Edge
62.84
5.41
57.43
LOAD CASE 2
Deck Center
33.94
3.34
11 .0 ROOF SUPPORT LEG DESIGN
22 Nos. at R4 18541.00
15 Nos. at R3 13716.00
10 Nos. at R2 8839.00
5 Nos. at R1 4267.00
11 .1 GEOMETRIC DATA
Support leg size = 3" Sch. 80
Pipe outside diameter = 88.9 mm
Pipe Thickness, = 7.62 mm
Pipe Area, A
leg
= 1,945.76 mm
2
Radius of gyration, r = I Do2 - Di2
A
leg
4
11 .2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Material of Construction for roof support leg : SA 333 Gr 6
Specific Minimum Yield Stress, Sy = 241 N/mm²
Modulus of Elasticity = 209,000 N/mm²
Density of Material, ρ (plate) = 7,850 kg/m³
Leg Material
11 .3 LOADING DATA
Support leg length at
i) R1 : Lsp1 = 2927 mm
ii) R2 : Lsp2 = 2927 mm
iii) R3 : Lsp3 = 2927 mm
iv) R4 : Lsp4 = 2940 mm
Deck O.D = 34231 mm
Deck Thickness, td = 8 mm
Deck Area, A
deck
= 920,299,220.87 mm
2
Center deck weight, W
deck
= 57,794.79 kg
Design Live Load, L
live
= 1.2 KN/m
2
Effective radius for area of deck supported by leg:
R3
eff
= 1/2(Øir/2-R3) = 15415.75
R2
eff
= 1/2(R3-R2) = 11277.5
R1
eff
= 1/2(R2-R1) = 6553
Area of deck supported by legs at
i) R1 = π(R1
eff
)
2
= 134,905,671.69 mm
2
ii) R2 = π((R2
eff
)
2
- (R1
eff
)
2
) = 264,648,384.82 mm
2
iii) R3 = π((R3
eff
)
2
- (R2
eff
)
2
) = 347,030,823.13 mm
2
iv) R4 = p((Ø
deck
)
2
- (R3
eff
)
2
) = 173,714,341.24 mm
2
= 24.89
11 .4 SUPPORT LEG AT INNER DECK R1
No. of legs at R1 = 5
Area of deck supported by legs at R1, A1 = 134,905,671.69 mm
2
Deck area on each leg, A1' = 26,981,134.34 mm
2
A1'
A
deck
= 16.62 KN
Live load on one leg = L
live
x A1' = 32.38 KN
Total load on one leg = Deck load + Live load = 49.00 KN
Stress on support leg at inner deck R1, P1 = Total Load / A
leg
= 25.18 N/mm
2
11 .4.1 ALLOWABLE STRESS
As per AISC code,
Slenderness ratio,
λ = K.Lsp1 / Rx-x = 118
where
K = 1
Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling,
2π²E
Cc = = 130.84
Sy
When λ ≤ Cc,
[ 1 - λ² / 2Cc² ].Sy
Sc.all = (i) = 75.08 N/mm²
5/3 + 3λ /8Cc - λ³/8Cc³
When Cc ≤ λ ≤ 120,
12π²E
Sc.all = (ii) = 77.80 N/mm²
23 λ²
When 120 ≤ λ ≤ 200,
Smaller of (i) or (ii)
Sc.all = = 74.20 N/mm²
1.6 - λ/200
In this case, the allowable stress Sc.all is = 75.08 N/mm²
Since P1 < Sc.all, the support leg at inner deck R1 is satisfactory.
11 .5 SUPPORT LEG AT INNER DECK R2
No. of legs at R2 = 10
Area of deck supported by legs at R2, A2 = 264,648,384.82 mm
2
Deck area on each leg, A2' = 26,464,838.48 mm
2
A2'
A
deck
= 16.30 KN
Live load on one leg = L
live
x A2' = 31.76 KN
Total load on one leg = Deck load + Live load = 48.06 KN
Stresses on support leg at inner deck R2, P2 = = 24.70 N/mm
2
11 .5.1 ALLOWABLE STRESS
As per AISC code,
Slenderness ratio,
λ = K.Lsp2 / Rx-x = 118
where
K = 1
Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling,
2π²E
Cc = = 130.84
Sy
kg Deck load on one leg = W
deck
x = 1,661.99
Deck load on one leg = W
deck
x 1,694.42 = kg
When λ ≤ Cc,
[ 1 - λ² / 2Cc² ].Sy
Sc.all = (i) = 75.08 N/mm²
5/3 + 3λ /8Cc - λ³/8Cc³
When Cc ≤ λ ≤ 120,
12π²E
Sc.all = (ii) = 77.80 N/mm²
23 λ²
When 120 ≤ λ ≤ 200,
Smaller of (i) or (ii)
Sc.all = = 74.20 N/mm²
1.6 - λ/200
In this case, the allowable stress Sc.all is = 75.08 N/mm²
Since P2 < Sc.all, the support leg at inner deck R2 is satisfactory.
11 .6 SUPPORT LEG AT INNER DECK R3
No. of legs at R3 = 15
Area of deck supported by legs at R3, A3 = 347,030,823.13 mm
2
Deck area on each leg, A3' = 23,135,388.21 mm
2
A3'
A
deck
= 14.25 KN
Live load on one leg = L
live
x A3' = 27.76 KN
Total load on one leg = Deck load + Live load = 42.02 KN
Stresses on support leg at inner deck R3, P3 = Total Load / A
leg
= 21.59 N/mm
2
11 .6.1 ALLOWABLE STRESS
As per AISC code,
Slenderness ratio,
λ = K.Lsp3 / Rx-x = 118
where
K = 1
Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling,
2π²E
Cc = = 130.84
Sy
When λ ≤ Cc,
[ 1 - λ² / 2Cc² ].Sy
Sc.all = (i) = 75.08 N/mm²
5/3 + 3λ /8Cc - λ³/8Cc³
When Cc ≤ λ ≤ 120,
12π²E
Sc.all = (ii) = 77.80 N/mm²
23 λ²
When 120 ≤ λ ≤ 200,
Smaller of (i) or (ii)
Sc.all = = 74.20 N/mm²
1.6 - λ/200
In this case, the allowable stress Sc.all is = 75.08 N/mm²
Since P3 < Sc.all, the support leg at inner deck R3 is satisfactory.
kg Deck load on one leg = W
deck
x = 1,452.90
11 .7 SUPPORT LEG AT PONTOON
No. of legs at R4 = 27
Area of deck supported by legs at R4, A4 = 173,714,341.24 mm
2
Deck area on each leg, A4' = 6,433,864.49 mm
2
A4'
A
deck
= 3.96 KN
Pontoon weight, W
pontoon
= 55,248.45 kg
Pontoon weight on one leg, W
pontoon'
= 5,022.59 kg
= 49.27 KN
Live load on one leg = L
live
x A4' = 7.72 KN
Total load on one leg = Deck load + Live load + Pontoon weight = 60.96 KN
Stresses on support leg at Pontoon, P4 = Total Load / A
leg
= 31.33 N/mm
2
11 .7.1 ALLOWABLE STRESS
As per AISC code,
Slenderness ratio,
λ = K.Lsp4 / Rx-x = 118
where
K = 1
Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling,
2π²E
Cc = = 130.84
Sy
When λ ≤ Cc,
[ 1 - λ² / 2Cc² ].Sy
Sc.all = (i) = 74.62 N/mm²
5/3 + 3λ /8Cc - λ³/8Cc³
When Cc ≤ λ ≤ 120,
12π²E
Sc.all = (ii) = 77.12 N/mm²
23 λ²
When 120 ≤ λ ≤ 200,
Smaller of (i) or (ii)
Sc.all = = 73.93 N/mm²
1.6 - λ/200
In this case, the allowable stress Sc.all is = 74.62 N/mm²
Since P3 < Sc.all, the support leg at inner deck R3 is satisfactory.
11 .8 STRESSES SUMMARY
4267.00 5.00 25.18 75.08 OK
8839.00 10.00 24.70 75.08 OK
13716.00 15.00 21.59 75.08 OK
18541.00 22.00 31.33 74.62 OK
Deck load on one leg = W
deck
x = 404.05 kg
No. of leg Leg at radius
Actual
stress,
(N/mm2)
Allowable
stress,
(N/mm2)
RESULT
BLEEDER VENT CALCULATION
12 .0 DESIGN OF AIR VENTING SYSTEM
12 .1 GEOMETRIC DATA
Design Code : API STD 2000
Inside diameter, Di = 39000 mm
Tank height, H = 20700 mm
Nominal Capacity 24000 m³
Design pressure, Pi = 2.50 mbarg
Flash point (FP)/Normal boiling point (NBP) (@ FP ) = 67 °C
Filling rate ( Pumping in/Flow rate to tank ), Vi = 427 m³/hr
Emptying rate ( Pumping out/Flow rate from tank ), Vo = 1,100 m³/hr
OPERATINGVENTING
12 .2 NORMAL VACUUM VENTING
12 .2.1 Maximum liquid movement out of a tank
Flow rate of free air, Vv1 ( = Vo/15.9 x 15.89 ) = 1097.23 m³/hr
12 .2.2 Thermal inbreathing
Tank capacity, V = 155,535 barrels
From Table 2, column 2 (Thermal Venting Capacity Req't ),
Flow rate of free air,Vv2 ( @ 0 ft³/hr ) = 0 m³/hr
Total vacuum flow required, Vv ( = Vv1 + Vv2 ) = 1,097 m³/hr
12 .3 NORMAL PRESSURE VENTING
12 .3.1 Maximum liquid movement into a tank
Rate of free air per 0.159m³/hr of product import rate, m = 0.17 m³/hr
Flow rate of free air, Vp1 ( = Vi/0.159 x m ) = 457 m³/hr
12 .3.2 Thermal outbreathing
From Table 2, column 3 (Thermal Venting Capacity Req't),
Flow rate of free air,Vp2 ( @ 0 ft³/hr ) = 0 m³/hr
Total pressure flow required, Vp ( = Vp1 + Vp2 ) = 457 m³/hr
OPEN VENT SIZING( BLEEDER VENT SIZING)
12 .4 OPEN VENT SIZING CALCULATION
Maximum flow, Q ( @ Vacuum flow at ( @ 2.50 mbarg. ) = 1,097 m³/hr
Q = K. A. 2. g. H
where
K = Discharge coefficient 0.62
A = cross sectional area of vent
g = acceleration due to gravity
H = Head as measure pressure differential
Dp
g
Minimum require cross sectional area of vent,
Q Q g = 0.0241 m²
K. 2. g. H K 2. g. Dp = 24,124 mm²
where
Q = Max. Air flow required = 0.3048 mm³/s
g = Specific weight of Air = r g = 11.812 kg/m
2
s
2
r = Air density = 1.204 kg/m³
Dp = Differential pressure = 250 N/m²
12 .5 BLEEDER VENT SELECTED
Selected bleeder vent size : 8" Sch Std
Number of vent, N = 1
Outside diameter of the vent, do 219
Inside Dia. of one vent , di ( @ vent pipe thickness = 8.18 mm ) = 202.64 mm
Total cross sectional area of vents, Av_actual = 32,251 mm²
Since Av_actual > Ar_gnv, therefore the nos. & size of vents is satisfactory.
21 m
Av_req =
H = =
=
13 .0 ROOF DRAIN DESIGN
Rigid Pipe
1275 Flexible pipe
225
Rigid Pipe
13 .1 GEOMETRIC DATA
Tank Nominal Diameter = 39,000 mm
Tank Height, = 20,100 mm
Roof lowest height, H = 1500 mm
Drain outlet nozzle elevation, z = 225 mm
Roof Deck Area = 920.30 m
2
Design Rain Fall = 50 mm/hr
Design drainage required, Qreq. = 46.01 m
3
/ hr
No. of Roof Drain, N = 2
Roof drain pipe size (rigid & fitting) = 4" Sch 80
Dain Pipe Outside Diameter, Do = 101.6 mm
Drain pipe thickness = 8.56 mm
Drain Pipe length :
L1 = Rigid 20 m x 2 nos. = 40 m
L2 = Flexible 23.14 m x 1 nos. = 23.14 m
13 .2 Number of Fitting & Accessories per drain pipe
-
45º elbow N
45º
= 2
-
90º elbow N
90º
= 1
- Valve N
v
= 1
- Rigid pipe = 2
- Flexible pipe = 1
13 .3 TOTAL HEAD
V
2
2g
H = h +
13 .4 TOTAL HEAD LOSS OF ROOF DRAIN PIPE
V
2
K L'
2g D
Where
H = Total head between the lowest position of deck and the = 1.275 m
roof drain nozzle
G = Gravity acceleration
K = Friction Coefficient
- For rigid pipe : K
1
= 0.0168
- For flexible pipe : K
2
= 0.03
L' = Total equivalent length of drain pipe
D = Inside Diameter of drain pipe = 0.08448 m
13 .5 EQUIVALENT PIPE LENGTH OF VALVE AND FITTING
Accordance to NFPA 15 Table 8.5.2.1,
Equivalent length for 4" 45º elbow, L
45º
= 3.1
90º elbow, L
90º
= 1.2
Valve, L
v
= 0.6
Total equivalent pipe length for RIGID PIPE:
L
1
' = L
1
+ N
45º
x L
45
º + N
90º
x L
90º
+ N
v
x L
v
= 48 m
Total equivalent pipe length for Flexible PIPE:
L
2
' = L
2
= 23.14 m
13 .6 TOTAL HEAD LOSS OF ROOF DRAIN PIPE
V
2
K
1
L
1
' K
2
L
2
'
2g D D
V
2
K
1
L
1
' K
2
L
2
'
2g D D
13 .7 FLOW VELOCITY
2 g H
V = K
1
L
1
' K
2
L
2
' = 1.15 m/s
D D
13 .8 DRAINAGE FLOW RATE PER DRAIN PIPE
Q = AREA x Velocity
= π/4 x D
2
x V x 3600 (s/hr) = 23.30 m
3
/ hr
13 .9 MINIMUM ROOF DRAIN REQUIRED
Drainage flow rate required
Actual flow rate per drain
MINIMUM REQUIRED = 2
1.97 =
+ 1
+ 1
Nreq =
h =
x
h =
x +
H =
H =
+
+
14 WEIGHT ANALYSIS
ITEM NO : 7061T-3901
1 GENERAL
Design Type of roof support : Type of roof
code : API 650 11th Edition NA : Floating Roof
Inside Tank height
diameter : 39,000 mm : 20,700 mm
Steel density Roof plates lapping Annular/Bottom plates lapping
Shell / Btm : 7,850 kg/m³ factor : 20.70 factor : 1
Roof : 8,027 kg/m³
2 SHELL COURSES
ONE - FOOT METHOD (OUTER TANK) Y
Course No. Material Thickness Width Weight
(mm) (mm) (kg)
1 A 516 GR. 65N 28.00 2,440 65,757
2 A 516 GR. 65N 25.00 2,440 58,707
3 A 516 GR. 65N 22.00 2,440 51,658
4 A 516 GR. 65N 19.00 2,440 44,611
5 A 516 GR. 65N 16.00 2,440 37,564
6 A 516 GR. 65N 13.00 2,440 30,518
7 A 516 GR. 65N 11.00 2,020 21,377
8 A 516 GR. 65N 11.00 2,020 21,377
9 A 516 GR. 65N 11.00 2,020 21,377
10 - - - -
Total weight of shell plates = 352,948 kg
3 BOTTOM PLATES Y
Material Thickness Outside Dia. Weight
(mm) (mm) (kg)
A 516 GR. 65N 9.00 39,130 84,961 = 84,961 kg
4 TOP CURB ANGLE Y
Material Size Qty Length Unit Weight Weight
(mm) (kg/m) (kg)
A 516 GR. 65N 76 x 76 x 6.4 1 122,827 10.33 1,269 = 1,269 kg
5 TOP WIND GIRDERS Y
Material Size Qty Length Unit Weight Weight
(mm) (kg/m) (kg)
A 516 GR. 65N T 825 x 250 x 8 x 10 1 125,183 87.51 10,955 = 10,955 kg
6 INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS Y
Material Size Qty Length Unit Weight Weight
(mm) (kg/m) (kg)
A 516 GR. 65N T 405 x 150 1 124,476 53.76 6,691 = 6,691 kg
7 NOZZLES Y
Total weight of nozzles 1,500 = 1,500 kg
8 MISCELLANEOUS Y
Assuming 5.00 % of total weight 22,916 = 22,916 kg
9 STAIRWAY & PERIMETER PLATFORM Y
Platform Weight 165.00 KN 16,820 = 16,820 kg
10 OPERATING LIQUID WEIGHT
Operating liquid height (@ = 20,700 mm & sg @= 1.00 ) = 24,728,026 kg
11 HYDROSTATIC WATER WEIGHT
Hydrostatic water height (@ 20,700 mm ) = 24,728,026 kg
ERECTION WEIGHT (Exclude roof) = 498,060 kg
OPERATING WEIGHT = 25,226,086 kg
FIELD HYDROSTATIC TEST WEIGHT = 25,226,086 kg

ABSTRACT

Storage tanks have been widely used in many industrial particularly in the oil refinery and petrochemical industry which are to store a multitude of different product with crude oil as one if it. There are different types of tank such as fixed roof tank, open roof tank, floating roof tank etc. Floating roof tank is which the roof floats directly on top of the product, with no vapour space and eliminating the possibility of flammable atmosphere.

There are various industrial code and standard available for the basic requirement for tank design and construction. Commercial software are also available in the market for the basic design, hence tank designer would rely wholly on the software without detail understanding. Despite of the various standard and code, there is limited procedure and rules in designing the floating roof which result lots of floating roof failure and caused injuries and fatalities accident. Design and safety concern has been a great concern for the increasing case of fire and explosion due the tank failure.

The main objective of this project is “HOW TO DESIGN A NEW FLOATING ROOF TANK”. The aim of this project is to develop basic rules and procedures, highlighting the concerns in designing, construction and operation of a floating roof by taking an existing Oil Development Project with it’s readily available information as a base, to design the tank, and identify the problematic and lesson learnt throughout the project.

i

University of Southern Queensland Faculty of Engineering and Surveying

ENG 4111 & ENG 4112 Research Project
Limitations of Use
The Council of the University of Southern Queensland, its Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, and the staff of the University of Southern Queensland, do not accept any responsibility for the truth, accuracy or completeness of material contained within or associated with this dissertation.

Person using all or any part of this material do so at their own risk, and not at the risk of the Council of the University of Southern Queensland, its Faculty of Engineering and Surveying or the staff of the University of Southern Queensland.

This dissertation reports an education exercise and has no purpose or validity beyond this exercise. The sole purpose of the course pair entitled “Research Project” is to contribute to the overall education within the student’s chosen degree program. This document, the associate hardware, software, drawings, and other material set out in the associated appendices should not be used for any other purpose: if they are so used, it is entirely at the risk of the user. Prof Frank Bullen Dean Faculty of Engineering and Surveying

ii

KUAN SIEW YENG 0050012450 _____________________ Signature _____________________ Date iii .Certification I certify that the ideas. analyses and conclusions set out in this dissertation are entirely my own effort. results. I further certify that the work is original and has not been previously submitted for assessment in any other course or institution. except where specifically stated. except where otherwise indicated and acknowledged. designs and experimental work.

Beside that. I would like express my great appreciation toward them for their kind valuable assistance and advice through out the project. I would like to thanks the library of Technip Malaysia which had provided me a lot of handful information and reference book as this project requires lot of reference and international code. Talal. iv . Harry Ku and the cosupervisor is Dr.Acknowledgment This research was carried out under the principal supervision of Dr.

3 Research Methodology CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.3 Open Top Tank Fixed Roof Tanks Floating roof Tanks 5 7 7 8 9 v .1 1.2 2.3.2.2.2 Type of Storage Tank 2.TABLE OF CONTENT CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGMENT LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES PAGE i iv xi xvi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.4 1.1 2.6 Project Aims Project Objective Literature Review Case Study Product Enquiries Design Approach Consequential Effect of the Design Failure Special Design and Construction 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 1.2.2.3.3.5 1.2 1.3.1 Rationale 1.1 1.3.3.1 Introduction 2.3 1.2 1.2 Research Goal 1.2.

6 Process Description and Requirements 2.1 2.12 Mechanical Design consideration 2.11.2 2.1 2.9 Mechanical Selection of Carbon Steel Grade 2.15.3 Calculation of thickness by 1-Foot Method Calculation of thickness by Variable-DesignPoint Method Calculation of thickness by Elastic Analysis 2.8.13 Bottom Plate Design 2.4.15 Special Consideration 2.4.14 Floating Roof design 2.10 Mechanical Design 2.11.15.4 Floating Roof Tank 2.1 2.4.11.7 Process Description and Design Consideration 2.2 2.16 Failure Mode Due to Seismic Effects on Floating Roof Tank 2.3 History and Introduction Principles of the Floating roof Advantages of the Floating Roof Storage Tank 10 11 11 11 13 13 15 16 19 19 21 22 25 26 26 27 28 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 34 36 37 2.8.1 Vertical Bending of Shell 2.17 Fitting Design and Requirement 2.2 Soil Settlement Seismic Design for Floating roof 2.13.5 Design Data Overview 2.8 Material Selection and Corrosion Assessment 2.3 Design Code and Standard 2.11 Tank Shell Design Method as Per API 650 2.2.2 CO2 Corrosion Carbon Dioxide Corrosion Modeling 2.18 Typical Fitting and Accessories for Floating Roof vi .1 2.

4 Longitudinal Stress Circumferential Stress Longitudinal Stress versus Circumferential Stress Circumferential Stress Thickness Equation and 1-Foot Method 3.1 Introduction 3.6 Shell Design Thickness calculation Top Stiffener and Intermediate Wind Girder Design 3.6 Roof Seal System Support Leg Roof Drain System Vent – Bleeder vents Centering and Anti-Rotation Device Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform 37 38 39 43 44 44 44 2.2.6.1 Site Geometry Design Data for Seismic Design 3.2 3.8.2.1 3.1 2.2.18.19 Fire Fighting System and Foam Dam CHAPTER 3: TANK DESIGN 3.4 2.2.8.2 Shell Design 3.3 Overturning Stability Design Spectral Accelerations 62 62 64 vii .3 2.2.5 3.2 2.18.8.1 3.2.6.18.18.2.7 3.3 3.18.2.2 3.5 2.18.2.2.2 3.8 Top Stiffener/ Top Wind Girder Intermediate Wind Girder 51 54 57 60 49 50 46 46 47 48 49 Overturning Stability against Wind Load Seismic Design 3.2.2.2.2.

8.3.2 Bleeder Vent Design 3.2.5.3.3.3 Fitting and Accessories Design 3.3.4.11 3.6 3.1 3.3.9 3.3.2.3.3.4 3.3.3.3.3.7 3.3 Roof Design 3.10 3.4.1 3.3.12 3.3.8.2.2.3.3.8.3 3.8.2.2 3.2.8 3.8.5 Roof Drain System 3.3.8.3 Roof Stress Design Effect of large Deflection on Center Deck Pontoon Stability – Pontoon Ring Design 3.2.1 Articulated Piping System 3.2.8.3.3.3.8.2 3.4 Roof Seal System Roof Seal Material Roof Support Leg Venting System 3.5 3.8.2.3.3.2.3.1 3.5.3.1 Operation of Bleeder Vent 3.2.3.2 Parameter required for Seismic Design Effective Weight of Product 65 69 Center of Action for effective Lateral Force 71 Ring Wall Moment Base Shear Force Resistance to Overturning Anchorage Design Freeboard Seismic design Summary 72 72 74 77 78 79 80 80 81 82 83 86 89 90 95 96 98 98 101 104 105 107 Roof type Selection Pontoon and Center deck Design 3.2.2 Flexible Drain Pipe System viii .

3.3 Nominal Diameter Versus Inside Diameter Plate Square-ness Wind Damage 130.3 Drain System Selection 3.3.1 5.2.2.1.3 Bottom Plate Placement 4.1 4.3.3.3.2 Design Consideration of Foundation Design consideration on Tank Shell 127 129 5.6 3.3 Tank Bottom Testing Tank Shell Testing Floating Roof Testing 123 123 125 116 117 118 121 CHAPTER 5: SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 5.1 Introduction 4.1 Design consideration 5.3.4 Drain Pipe Design 3.3. 130 131 5.2 Construction Consideration 5.5.7 Rolling Ladder & Gauger Platform Fire Fighting System and Foam Dam 109 110 112 113 CHAPTER 4: TANK CONSTRUCTION 4.2.5.3.2 4.2 5.2 Foundation 4.5.3.4 Shell Erection 4.1.5 Tank Testing 4.5.3 Testing Consideration ix .5.1 5.

1 Hydrotest/ Water Test 131 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION 132 REFERENCE APPENDIX A: APPENDIX B Project Specification Design Calculation 134 A1 B1 x .3.5.

4: Single Deck Pontoon Type Floating Roof Figure 1.20: Tank Farm on Fire Figure 1.1: Fire and explosion incidents in the tanks Figure 1.23: Lateral Deflection of Supporting Leg PAGE 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 15 17 23 26 29 30 31 34 34 35 35 35 35 37 37 39 xi .16: Pontoon buckling Figure 1.10: Impact Test Exemption Curve Figure 1.6: Single Deck Floating Roof Tank Figure 1.13: Rotation of the shell-to-bottom connection Figure 1.5: Double Deck Type Floating Roof Figure 1.9: Schematic Sketch of the Stabilised Condensate Tank Figure 1.LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1.22: Liquid-filled fabric seal Figure 1.8: Storage Tank Capacities and Levels Figure 1.19: Tanks Burn Down Figure 1.17: Diamond buckling (slender tanks) Figure 1.7: Double Deck Floating Roof Tank Figure 1.2: Types of storage tank Figure 1.11: Tank Exploding Figure 1.21: Mechanical Seal Figure 1.12: Loading Diagram on a Tank Shell Figure 1.15: Floating roof overtopped Figure 1.14: Single Deck Roof Sagged with Flooding Rain Water Figure 1.3: Types of Fixed Roof Tanks Figure 1.18: Elephant-foot buckling (broad tanks) Figure 1.

8: Fabricated Tee Girder for Intermediate Wind Girder Figure 2.24: Articulated Piping System Figure 1.14: Response Spectrum Curve Figure 2.12: Design Response Spectral for Ground-Supported Liquid Storage Tanks Figure 2.2: Circumferential l forces acting on thin cylinder under internal Pressure Figure 2.10: Summary Result for Overturning Stability against wind load Figure 2.9: Overturning check on tank due to wind load Figure 2. Ks Figure 2.28: Bleeder vents Figure 1.3: Circumferential Stress Thickness equation to 1-Foot method Equation Figure 2.26: Articulated drain pipe system installed inside the tank Figure 1.4: Diagrammatic sketch of shell wall with design thickness Figure 2.29: Foam Fire Fighting System Figure 2.1: Longitudinal forces acting on thin cylinder under internal Pressure Figure 2.5: Typical stiffener ring section for ring shell Figure 2.13: Sloshing Period Coefficient.15: Effective weight of Liquid ratio Figure 2.Figure 1.11: Seismic Diagram for a Floating Roof Tank Figure 2.25: Flexible Steel Pipe System Inside the Tank Figure 1.7: Height of transform shell Figure 2.6: Fabricated Tee Girder for Top Wind Girder Figure 2.27: Flexible Swing Joint Figure 1.16: Center of Action for Effective Forces 40 41 42 42 43 45 47 48 50 51 52 54 56 57 58 59 60 65 66 69 70 72 xii .

11: Scissor Hanger Figure 3.2: Center deck and 2 adjacent compartments puncture Figure 3.16: Secondary Seal Figure 3.6: (a) Deck Deflection in Case 1 Figure 3.17: Number and Location of Support Legs Figure 3.4: Case 1 – Dead Load Only Figure 3.18: (b) Operating of Bleeder Vent during In-Breathing (Finishing) Figure 3.9: Standard Fitting and Accessories for Single Deck Roof Figure 3.12: Completed Assembled Pantograph Figure 3.10: Pantograph Hanger Figure 3.18: Annular Plate Requirement Figure 2.8: Sectional Detail of Pontoon Figure 3.5: Case 2 – Dead Load + 10” Rain Accumulation Figure 3.19: (a) Operating of Bleeder Vent during Out-Breathing (Starting ) Figure 3.6: (b) Deck Deflection in Case 2 Figure 3.Figure 2.7: Radial Forces Acting on Pontoon Inner Rim Figure 3.17: Seismic Moment and Force Diagram Figure 2.18: (a) Operating of Bleeder Vent during In-Breathing (Starting) Figure 3.3: Minimum Requirement for Single Deck Pontoon Floating Roof Figure 3.19: (b) Operating of Bleeder Vent during Out-Breathing (Finishing) 73 76 78 80 81 82 83 83 84 84 87 88 90 92 92 92 92 93 93 94 97 99 99 100 100 xiii .15: Liquid-Filled Seal Figure 3.19: Sloshing Wave of Liquid Inside Tank Figure 3.13: End Section Pantograph Figure 3.1: Single deck Floating roof Figure 3.14: Foam-Filled Seal Figure 3.

27: Sketch of Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform in a Floating Roof Tank Figure 3.22: (a) Typical Swing Joint in Articulated Drain Pipe System Figure 3.25: End fitting of COFLEXIP Pipe Figure 3.29: General Arrangement of the Multiple Foam Chamber on the Floating Roof Tank Figure 3.1: (b) Jacking-Up and Flotation Method for Welded Vertical Tank Figure 4.23: Flexible Drain Pipe System Figure 3.22: (b) Swing Joint Assembly Figure 3.26: Flexible Drain Pipe System Installed in Different Tank Figure 3.30: (a) Fire Protection for Floating Roof Tank Figure 3.4: Bottom Plate Laid on Foundation 104 104 105 106 106 107 108 108 108 109 112 113 114 115 115 115 116 117 118 119 120 xiv .28: Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform Installed in a Floating Roof Tank Figure 3.21: Articulated Drain Pipe System Figure 3.1: (a) Progressive Assembly & Welding and Complete Assembly Followed by Welding of Horizontal Seam Method for Welded Vertical Tank Figure 4.3 Bottom Plate Layout Figure 4.30: (b) Foam Chamber Figure 3.31: Typical Foam Dam Figure 4.20: (a) Roof Drain with Roof Rise Figure 3.24: (b) COFLEXIP Pipe of Different Size Figure 3.20: (b) Roof Drain with Roof Fall Figure 3.Figure 3.2: Tank Foundation with anchor bolt installed Figure 4.24: (a) Inner Section of COFLEXIP Pipe Figure 3.

9: Vacuum Box and Pump Figure 5.6: Welding Detail for Bottom Plate Figure 4.3: Alignment of Shell Plate for Welding 120 121 122 122 122 124 128 129 130 xv .5: Typical Cross Joint in Three Plate Lap Figure 4.Figure 4.8: (a) Erection of Upper Shell Course – Inside Tank Figure 4.1: Maximum Allowable Sag Figure 5.8: (b) Erection of Upper Shell Course – Outside Tank Figure 4.2: Maximum Tolerances for Out-of Verticality of the Tank Shell Figure 5.7: Completed Erection of First Shell Course Figure 4.

1: Shell wall Design Thickness Summary Table 2.4: Stress table for SA 516 Gr 65N Table 1.7: Bake Bean Can and Storage Tank Comparison Table Table 1.2: Value of Fa as a Function of Site Class Table 2.5: Material Specifications for Stabilised Condensate Tank Table 1.LIST OF FIGURE PAGE Table 1.5: Summary of Design Parameter Table 2.8 (b): Fitting Requirement on Floating Roof Table 2.2: Nozzle Data Table 1.3: Value of Fv as a Function of Site Class Table 2.5: Summary Result for Roof Support Legs Table 3.4: Properties of Common Seal Material Table 3.1: Summary Result for Maximum Deflection and Stresses in Center Deck Table 3.8 (a): Fitting Requirements on Tank Shell Table 1.6: Anchorage Ratio Criteria Table 3.2: Summary Result for Pontoon Ring Stability Table 3.3: Common Material for Select Product Table 3.4: Response Modification Factors for ASD Methods Table 2.3: Corrosion Rate Sensitively Result for 50% Summer and 50% Winter Condition Table 1.6: Material Selection Guide Table 1.1: Process Design Data Table 1.6: Equivalent Pipe Length Chart 17 18 21 23 24 24 25 36 36 50 67 67 68 68 74 86 89 95 96 98 111 xvi .

tank owner and also the tank designer or engineer need to have a simple rules and formula to ensure the floating roof is adequately designed and strong enough for the various loading during operation. These had resulted lots of floating roof failure in the industry. There is limited procedure and rules in design the floating roof. Some would only rely on the commercial software for the basic design. 1 . understanding of how the stresses behave in the tank material is essential for a complete safe design. chemical. Their designs are basically based on the code and standard requirements and basic theory from reference book. mechanical. they have limited knowledge on the actual tank operation which limit them on cost effectiveness and even safety detail design. particularly on the floating roof tank. Hence industry. commissioning and operation. There are a variety of codes and standards stating the similar common minimum requirements and some additional requirements from company standards or specifications.1 Rationale Floating roof tank is not a new technology or equipments and it had been widely used over the world in many industries. Storage tanks are designed. fire safety. Engineer or tank designer who do the preliminary and detail design are normally not familiar or not exposed to the actual site condition. construction. fabricated and tested to code and standard.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1. Floating roof tanks are usually built in a gigantic size and this would involve various disciplines such as civil. inspection. Beside of the procedures and rules.

1. Hence it is essential for the engineers or tank designer to know how and what effects each interdiscipline’s design would have on one’s tank that affected the tank integrity. and identify the problematic and lesson learnt throughout the project. 1. and taking all these consideration into his design.2 Project Objective The main objective of this project is “HOW TO DESIGN A NEW FLOATING ROOF TANK”.1 Project Aims The aim of this project is to develop basic rules and procedures. Taking an existing Oil Development Project with it’s readily available information as a base.2 Research Goal 1. construction and operation of a floating roof. one example is the tank foundation which is designed by the civil staff. highlighting the concerns in designing. Improper design would result in foundation sagging or excessive soil settlement which in turn induces extra stresses to bottom of tank and tank shell. The foundations are to be designed to withstand the load of the tank with its content.2. to design the tank.The work scope of each disciplines would have a direct effect on the tank design. 2 .2.

1. The storage tank design consists of two major designs. wind loading and seismic loading. In the shell design analysis.4 Design Approach Upon completion of the literature review.1. company standard specification and information from different disciplines.2 Case Study Case studies on the previous project for the lesson learnt will be carried out.3.3 Research Methodology 1.3. Further studies on the tank design were made from other reference book. that is (1) the shell design analysis and (2) the floating roof design.3.3 Product Enquiries Research and study the role and application of the tank fittings and accessories by searching information and sending technical enquiries to the product supplier. attending the technical presentation conducted by the product supplier will be carried out.3. 1.1 Literature Review Literature review is conducted to study the basic design and requirement of the floating roof storage tank in the storage tank design code (API 650 – Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage). 3 . 1. design approach is then developed. shell stress design will be performed taking into consideration of all the considerably loading including hydrostatic pressure.

special consideration on the design and construction will be addressed base on the case study on the lesson learn and design process. that is (1) roof stress design and the (2) roof fitting and accessories design.3. Design calculation sheet using excel will be establish in the project. 1.5 Consequential effect of the design failure The relative importance of each fittings and accessories will be defined as well as the consequential effects it would have in case of malfunction. it consists of two sections. 1.3.In the roof design.6 Special Design and Construction Upon completion of the tank design. Evaluation of the different type of roof fitting from different supplier with be carried out and selection of the fitting base the evaluation result. 4 .

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. spherical or rectangular form. external floating roof and internal floating roof tank. including the open top tank. There are a wide variety of storage tanks. they can be in vertical cylindrical. but vertical cylindrical are the most usual used. Figure 1. Lots of these accidents had occurred and they are likely to continue unless the lessons from the past are correctly learnt. In shape. it is further broken down into various types. solid and mixture thereof. there would also be severe financial consequences and significant impact on the future business due to the industry reputation. The type of storage tank used for specified product is principally determined by safety and environmental requirement. In a vertical cylindrical storage tank. They are used to store a multitude of different products.1 shows the accident of the tanks that caught on fire and exploded. horizontal cylindrical. Spills and tank fires not only causing environment pollution. in ground and below ground. fixed roof tank. Operation cost and cost effectiveness are the main factors in selecting the type of storage tank. product stored range from raw material to finished products.1 Introduction Storage tanks had been widely used in many industrial established particularly in the processing plant such as oil refinery and petrochemical industry. they can be constructed above ground. from gases to liquids. Design and safety concern has come to a great concern as reported case of fires and explosion for the storage tank has been increasing over the years and these accident cause injuries and fatalities. They come in a range of sizes from small to truly gigantic. 5 .

Figure 1.1 Fire and explosion incidents in the tanks 6 .

2 illustrates various types of storage tank that are commonly used in the industry today.2. hence it is an atmospheric tank.2 Types of Storage Tank Figure 1. The product is open to the atmosphere.1 Open Top Tanks This type of tank has no roof. Type of Storage Tank Open Top Tank (Atmospheric) Fixed Roof Tank (Atmospheric. They shall not be used for petroleum product but may be used for fire water/ cooling water.2 Types of storage tank 2.2. Low Pressure. High Pressure) Floating Roof Tank Other Types Cone Roof (Supported/ self supported) External Floating Roof Bullet Tank Dome Roof (Supported/ self supported) Internal Floating Roof Bolted Tank Internal Floating Roof (Supported/ self supported) Sphere Tank Figure 1. 7 .

Figure 1.1. 20 mbar of internal pressure) High pressure tanks (approx.3 shows the three types of Fired Roof Tanks.2. Fixed Roof are designed as Atmospheric tank (free vent) Low pressure tanks (approx.2. vol. 56 mbar of internal pressure) Figure 1. They can be self supported or rafter/ trusses supported depending on the size.3 Types of Fixed Roof Tanks [EEMUA 2003. p.11] 8 .2 Fixed Roof Tanks Fixed Roof Tanks can be divided into cone roof and dome roof types.

4 Single Deck Pontoon Type Floating Roof [Bob.2. n.3 Floating Roof Tanks Floating roof tanks is which the roof floats directly on top of the product.d. External Floating roof is where the roof floats on the product in an open tank and the roof is open to atmosphere. L & Bob.155] 9 . There are 2 types of floating roof: Internal floating roof is where the roof floats on the product in a fixed roof tank. Types of external floating roof consist of: Single Deck Pontoon type ( Figure 1.5) Special buoy and radially reinforced roofs Floating roof tank will be further discussed in details in later chapter. p. Figure 1. G.4) Double deck ( Figure 1.2.

155] 2.d. n.N.) The EEMUA Standards (The Engineering Equipments and Materials Users Association) • Company standards such as shell (DEP) and Petronas (PTS) 10 . L & Bob.T.C. they are: • • American Standards API 650 (Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage) British Standards BS 2654 (Manufacture of Vertical Storage Tanks with Buttwelded Shells for the Petroleum Industry • The European Standards • German Code Din 4119 – Part 1 and 2 (Above Ground Cylindrical Flat Bottomed Storage Tanks of Metallic Materials) The French Code.5 Double Deck Type Floating Roof [Bob. List a few here. et S.P.Figure 1.I.C. Codres – (Code Francais de construction des reservoirs cylindriques verticauz en acier U.S. p.3 Design Codes and Standards The design and construction of the storage tanks are bounded and regulated by various codes and standards. G.

This is due to the limitation on the accuracy of dimension during construction for the large diameter tank. 11 . To protect the product inside the tank from evaporation to the atmosphere and contamination from the rain water through the gaps between the outer rim of the floating roof and the tank wall. selection of the roof seal is one of the major concerns in the floating roof tank design. which has about 200 mm gap on each side between the roof and the inside tank wall.2.4.4. Due to environmental issue. reducing the evaporation losses.2 Principles of the Floating Roof The floating roof is a circular steel structure provided with a built-in buoyancy which allowing it to sit/ float on top of the liquid product in a close or open top tank. Evaporation of the product in fixed roof caused a great lost of money.1 History and Introduction Floating roof tank was developed shortly after World War I by Chicago Bridge & Iron Company (CB & I). the gaps will be closed or sealed up by mean of flexible sealing system.4 Floating Roof Tanks 2. this led to research to develop a roof that can float directly on the surface of product. 2. The overall diameter of the roof is normally 400 mm smaller than the inside diameter of the tank. The gaps allow the floating roof to rise and fall without binding on the tank wall.

Figure 1. p.6. vol.7) consists of upper and lower steel membranes separated by a series of circumferential bulkhead which is subdivided by radial bulkhead. The center deck which is formed by membrane of thin steel plates are lap welded together and connected to the inner rim of the pontoons.1.6 Single Deck Floating Roof Tank [EEMUA 2003. The air gap between the upper and bottom plates of the deck has insulation effect which helps against the solar heat reaching the product during the hot climate and preventing heat loss of the product during cold climate. The outer ring of the compartments is the main liquid tight buoyancy for the roof. hence it is more rigid. Double deck roof (Figure 1. the buoyancy is derived in the pontoon.In single deck roof which shown in Figure 1. is also called pontoon roof. Double deck roof is much heavier than single deck one.15] 12 . an annular circular pontoon radially divided into liquid tight compartments.

15] 2. 2. Balkanabad District in Turkmenistan located onshore by Caspian Sea.5 Design Data Overview Site geometric data are: The plant is located in Kiyanli.4. It reduces evaporation losses and hence reduction in air pollution. vol.7 Double Deck Floating Roof Tank [EEMUA 2003. to design and construct a floating roof tank will be much more complicated and costly than the fixed ones. p. floating roof tank is never better than the fixed roof tank as there are still many unknown parameters and factors in designing the floating roof. The climate condition is as follow: 13 . The climate is sub tropical with hot dry summer and cold wet winter. In term of tank stability and design integrity.3 Advantages of the floating roof storage tank As the roof floats directly on the product. there is no vapour space and thus eliminating any possibility of flammable atmosphere. Despite of the advantages of the floating roof.Figure 1. Vapour emission is only possible from the rim seal area and this would mainly depend on the type of seal selected and used.1.

Design Snow Loading : 56 kg/m² 14 . Earthquake (MSK 64): Earth Tremor Intensity (severe damage to building) Index of Earth Tremor Category (once in 1000 years) : : 9 2 Equivalent to Uniform Building Code (UBC) Zone 4 f.6ºC -17. Rainfall Intensity: Maximum daily rainfall (4th May 1972) Maximum rain density once in 100 years Maximum rain density once in 50 years Maximum rain density once in 2 years : : : : 68 mm 0.a.0ºC (July 1983) +30ºC b.69 mm/min 0.3 mm/min c. Temperature: • Ambient: Mean annual = Extreme low = Extreme high = • Design temperature change = 14.59 mm/min 0. Humidity: Summer Winter : : 50% at 34ºC 74% at 7ºC d. Wind Speed at 10 m above Ground level: Operating 12 1 hour mean m/s 10 minutes mean m/s 13 14 1 minute mean m/s 15 3 second gust m/s 1 yr 17 19 21 23 10 yr 21 23 25 27 50 yr 24 26 28 31 100 yr 25 27 29 32 e.0ºC (January 1969) +44.

Only after the capacity is known. Overfill Top of shell height Design liquid level Overfill protection level Normal fill level (HLL) Maximum capacity Net working capacity Minimum operating volume remaining in the tank Minimum fill level Top of bottom plate at shell Figure 1. the tank can be sized up.2. The definition of the maximum capacity can be explained easily in Figure 1.6 Process Description and Requirements Capacity determination is the one of the first steps in designing the tank.8. 15 .8 Storage Tank Capacities and Levels The maximum or total capacity is the sum of the inactive capacity (minimum operating volume remaining volume in tank). actual or net working capacity and the overfill protecting capacity.

The net working capacity is the volume of available product under normal operating conditions. which is between the low liquid level (LLL) and the high liquid level (HLL). The stabilised condensate processed in the stabilsed system is pumped to Stabilsed Condesate Tank prior to export via underwater pipeline to the Single Buoying Mooring for ship loading.1 and 1. It helps to prevent localized cooling that will result in wax formation in the storage tank. 2. Due to the waxy nature of the condensate. 16 . The condensate in the tank is circulated in an external heating circuit to maintain the operating temperature at 44°C.7 Process Description and Design Considerations This storage tank is designed to store the stabilised condensate which runs down from the condensate stabiliser column. The schematic sketch of the stabilized condensate tank is shown in Figure 1.9 with the process design data and nozzle data in Tables 1. The stabilised condensate storage tanks are also equipped with motorized side entry tank stirrers to blend the storage fluid to ensure uniform temperature distribution in the tanks. The storage tank capacity is sized in accordance with 85. 000 barrel tanker and 3 days of unavailability of the off loading system at production rate 51 000 barrels per day.2 respectively. the liquid is heated above the wax dissolution temperature (WDT) of 39°C to prevent wax precipitation and formation in the pipeline.

9 Schematic Sketch of the Stabilised Condensate Tank Service Stabilised Condensate Tank Tank Type Floating Roof Number Required Two ( 2) Working Capacity 20000 Nominal Capacity 24278 Diameter 39000 Height 20700 Design Pressure Atmospheric Operating Temperature 44 Design Temperature 70 / -17 Specific Gravity at 15°C/ at T 0.N8 M2 N6 N7 N12 N1 N15 D2 D3 N5 N13 M3 M1 N4 D1 N2 Figure 1.7903/ 0.7804 Normal Filling Flow Rate 338 Maximum Filling Flow Rate 427 Normal Draw-Off Flow Rate 660 Maximum Draw-Off Flow Rate 792 Gauging Hole No HeaterIndicator/ Alarms Type External Heater Level Yes Vent Propeller Yes Mixing Drain Yes (Roof and shell) Manhole/ Inspection Hatches Yes Thermowell Yes Insulation Yes (Shell and roof) m³ m³ mm mm °C °C m³/h m³/h m³/h m³/h 17 .

Req.Category of Product Hydrocarbon Condensate Table 1. 5) Tank bottom to be cone-up toward center. N1 1 N2 1 N4 1 N5 1 N6 1 N7 1 N8 1 N12 1 N13 3 N15 1 D1 1 D2/ D3 2 M1 1 M2 1 M3 1 Size (DN) 250 450 200 300 Note 2 100 200 50 600 200 100 100 600 600 1200 x 1200 Service Inlet Pump Suction Recirculation Inlet Recirculation Inlet Auto Bleeder Vent Level Indicator Level Transmitter Temperature Transmitter Mixing Propeller Minimum Flow Drain Roof Drain Shell Manway Roof Manway Clean Out Door Remark Note 3 Note 1 Note 4 Table 1. 3) Tanks are fixed with 3 mixing propellers. they shall remain submerged below the low liquid level during operation.1 Process Design Data Nozzle Data Tag No. 4) Clean out door shall be suitable for wheel barrow access for facilitating sediment/ sludge cleaning process. 2007]. quantity and size to be designed accordance to the maximum filling and draw off rate [API650. 18 .2 Nozzle Data The following points are to be included in design considerations: 1) Quantity and size of the roof drain shall be designed and size up accordance to the rainfall intensity. 2) Auto Bleeder vent is required as per API 650 code.

compared to lower temperatures where the scale does not form. ready availability and well understood requirements to fabrication and testing. Corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) are used to avoid corrosion at high CO2 contents. Higher temperatures and pressure increase the corrosion rate.1 CO2 Corrosion Carbon dioxide dissolves in water and dissociates to form weak carbonic acid which causes corrosion on carbon steels. The approach of this material selection is to evaluate the internal corrosivity of the fluids with respect to utilisation of carbon steel. a protective carbonate scale can form on the steel surface that reduces the corrosion rate. and in less corrosive condition and where required lifetime is limited.8 Material Selection and Corrosion Assessment Material selection study was carried out by the material specialist to review the conceptual design basic of the plant and assess expected longevity of materials for various piping and equipment. The presence of CO2 infers that carbon steel will have finite life due to the wall thinning. 2.8. Material selection for the hydrocarbon system is based on detail evaluation of fluid properties. due to its lower cost. he/she then proposes materials suitable for the required design life of 30 years. about 70 to 80°C. particularly using the carbon dioxide models. but in certain conditions. Higher partial pressures of CO2 imply more dissolved CO2 and hence higher corrosion rate. Carbon Steel is considered as first choice.2. 19 . but it would be more economical to use carbon steel with a corrosion allowance and/or chemical inhibitor treatment. a corrosion allowance is practical to accommodate up to 6mm.

For an even lower service temperature. Materials unsuitable for hydrocarbon streams in presence of mercury due to liquid metal embrittlement. ii) Mercury Stabilised condensate from Turkmenistan was measured to contain Hg 4µg/kg. which will result in crack are: 20 . or austenitic materials have to be used. that are harmless at normal operating temperatures. ferritic steels (unalloyed and low alloy steels. It is therefore present in liquid hydrocarbon and natural gas deposits. The seasonal changes in ambient temperatures require that low temperature properties of materials must be selected. materials and welds are to be heat treated where applicable eg. high nickel steels. and ferrictic-austenitic duplex stainless steels). fine grained materials are required. To have greater resistance to low temperature embrittlement. water and soil. and may transfer into air. normalised and post weld heat treated low alloy and carbon steel). [13] Mercury (Hg) is a trace component of all fossil fuels. to propagate under load. allowing any cracks and crack-like defects. lose their ductility spontaneously as the materials are cooled.Other concerns for the material selection are: i) Material at minimum temperature At low temperatures.

2 Carbon Dioxide Corrosion Modeling In the material selection study report. the design corrosion rate for carbon steel was calculated using the NORSOK “CO2 Corrosion Rate Calculation Model” .00033 0.Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys Titanium and Titanium Alloys Copper and Copper Alloys Zinc and Zinc Alloys Recommended materials are: Carbon steels and low allow steels Stainless steels (Austenitic stainless steel.00495 0.0033 0.0495 0.00495 Table 1.M-506” [14]. This model is a development of the original work by De.8. Corrosion rate Case Sensitive (Summer) Without Inhibitor With Inhibitor Corrosion Allowance for 30yrs Design Life Without Inhibitor (50% Summer condition) With Inhibitor Corrosion rate Case Sensitive (Winter) Without Inhibitor With Inhibitor Corrosion Allowance for 30yrs Design Life Without Inhibitor (50% Winter condition) With Inhibitor mm/ year 0.0495 0.3. Duplex stainless steel) Nickel Alloys (Inconel 625. Milliams and Lotz .0033 0. and includes some effects due to the wall fluid shear stress. 825 and Monel) 2.00033 0.3 Corrosion Rate Sensitively Result for 50% Summer and 50% Winter Condition 21 . The calculated results for the corrosion rate sensitivity for 50% summer and 50% winter condition is summarized in Table 1. Waard.

22 . impact test will be required when the plate thickness exceed 15mm for materials in Curve B. based on the calculated result.10). it can be found that with the minimum design temperature of -17°C. From the impact test exemption curve in Figure 1. The material will be normalised. 2. ASME VIII division 1 [2]. whereas impact test is exempted up to thickness 58 mm for material in Curve D. the maximum time-averaged corrosion rates that can be accommodated by a 3mm and 6mm corrosion allowance are 0. A 516 Gr 65N (ASTM low temperature carbon steel with minimum tensile of 65 ksi) is selected for its well known properties in low temperature.9 Mechanical Selection of Carbon Steel Grade Mechanical selection of material is based on their mechanical properties and their constructability. Accordance to UCS-66.2 mm/year respectively.1 mm/years and 0. Therefore.The design life of 30 years is required and a typical 3 and 6mm corrosion allowance is used as the basic for the selection of carbon steel. A 516 Gr 65 without normalisation with fall under curve B and the material A 516 Gr 65N (Normalised) with fall under curve D (Figure 1. For 30 years service. low temperature carbon steel (LTCS) + 3 mm corrosion allowances + internal lining is recommended.10 .

Figure 1.4 Stress table for SA 516 Gr 65N 23 . Div. UCS-66] Mechanical properties for A 516 Gr 650N listed below are accordance to ASME II Part D – Material Property [3].10 Impact Test Exemption Curve [ASME VIII. Minimum Tensile Strength 450 Mpa Minimum Yield Strength 245 Mpa Maximum Allowable Stress from -17°C to 100°C 128 Mpa Table 1. 2007.1.

5.5 Material Specifications for Stabilised Condensate Tank The material specification for the stabilised condensate tank is shown in Table 1. Table 1. LF2 Class 1 SA 420 Gr.6 Material Selection Guide [Moss. WPL 6 Flexible Graphite With Tanged Insert SA 320 – L7M/ SA 194 Gr.6 illustrate the material selection guide. 2H (Flurocarbon Coated) Stainless Steel SS 316L Table 1. 65N SA 333 Gr. using design temperature to choose a readily available and cost effective material.Tank Shell/ Bottom Plate Floating Roof Stiffener Ring Nozzle Neck Pipe (SMLS) Nozzle Flange/ Blind Flange Nozzle Fitting Gasket Bolt & Nuts (External) Internal ( Bolting/ Piping/ Supports) SA 516 Gr. cited in Bednar 1991] 24 . 65N SA 516 Gr. 65N SA 516 Gr. Table 1.6 SA 350 Gr.

it can be seen found the tank ratio (t/D) is 4 times less than the typical bean can which show that how relatively flimsy the shell of the tank it would be if it is subjected to partial vacuum.4 0.10 Mechanical Design Stress design and analysis of the storage tank is the greatest concern to engineer as it provides the basic for the tank stability and integrity. D Height. and there are also often being referred as ‘tin can’. floating roof Storage tanks always look big and strong.11 shows an example of tank exploding due to vacuum loading. Typical Bake Bean Can Storage Tank Diameter.7. 25 . t D/H ratio t/D ratio 75 mm 105 mm 0. 000 mm 14.2.4 0.15 mm 1 / 1. Some simple comparison in term of their sizes and strength is made here. H Wall thickness. 000 mm 5 mm 1 / 1. Figure 1.002 10.7 Bake Bean Can and Storage Tank Comparison Table From the Table 1.0005 Table 1. The basic stress analyses to be taken care in tank design are as follow: Tank shell wall due to internal and external loading Bottom plate/ Tank flooring Tank roof – In this case.

9( H − 0. p. td = 4.1 Calculation of thickness by 1-Foot Method The 1-foot method calculates the thickness required at design points 0.11 Tank Exploding [Bob.d. n.11. A Sd For hydrostatic test shell thickness.11 Tank Shell Design Method as Per API 650 2. tt = 4.3) St 26 .3 m (1 ft) above the bottom of each shell course.L & Bob.G. The formula for the minimum required thickness is as followed: For design shell thickness.9( H − 0.3)G + C.26] 2.Figure 1.

in MPa This method is shall not be used for tanks larger than 60 m in diameter. in mm = Hydrostatic test shell thickness. 2. This method normally provides a reduction in shell-course thickness and total material weight. in mm = Allowable stress for the design condition.11.2 Calculation of thickness by Variable-Design-Point Method Design using variable-design-point method gives shell thickness at design points that in the calculated stressed being relatively closed to the actual circumferential shell stress. This method may only be used when 1-foot method is not specified and when the following is true: L 1000 ≤ H 6 27 . in MPa = Allowable stress for the hydrostatic test condition. in mm = Nominal Tank Diameter. but more important is its potential to permit construction of large diameter tanks within the maximum plate thickness limitation. in m = Design specific gravity of the liquid to be stored = Corrosion allowance.A Sd St = Design shell thickness.Where td tt D H G C. in m = Design liquid level.

11. there is no vapour space. attachments.12: 28 .12 Mechanical Design Consideration The principal factors in determine the shell thickness is the loads. the selection of shell thickness shall be based on an elastic analysis that shows the calculated circumferential shell stress to be below the allowable stress. the primary loading to determine the basic shell thickness is as follow: The internal loading due to the head of liquid The pressure in the vapour space (This factor is not applicable for floating roof tanks as the roof sit directly on the liquid. 2.2.) Other external loading shall be taken into consideration are: External pressure – Vacuum condition Wind loading Seismic Loading Localized loads resulting from nozzles.3 Calculation of thickness by Elastic Analysis For tanks where L / H is greater than 1000/6. The primary loadings exerted to the tank shell are illustrated in Figure 1. ladder/ stair and platform etc.

Wind & Seismic uplift load Wind load on shell Seismic force on shell Moment about shell to bottom joint Internal Pressure due to liquid static head Dead Load Liquid hold down weight Figure 1. External loading of wind and seismic act on the tank shell and create an overturning moment about the shell to bottom joint. internal vacuum. this results in the uplift reaction of the tank and affected the tank stability. together with any overpressure in the roof space of a fixed roof tank. The various stresses to which the shell of a tank is subjected are • Hoop tension which is caused by the head of product in the tank. wind and seismic loading acting on the shell which causes an overturning effect.12 Loading Diagram on a Tank Shell The internal pressure exerted on the tank shell is the product liquid head. the pressure is at the highest at the tank shell bottom and decreases linearly along its height. • Axial compression which comes from the tank self-weight. • Vertical bending due to the expansion of shell under normal service loading 29 .

p.d.13.L & Bob. the bottom plate will also rotate and cause it to lift off the foundation for a distance 30 .G.1 Vertical Bending of Shell When the tank is filled with product.2. Figure 1.13 Bottom Plate Design API 650 has a very straight forward requirement on the bottom plate thickness and width requirement.47] The shell tends to rotate in an outward direction about the rigid joint as depicted in Figure 1. the shell will expand radially due to the elasticity of the shell plate material. n.13 Rotation of the shell-to-bottom connection [Bob. This natural expansion is restricted at the point where the shell is welded to the bottom plate. The shell-to-bottom joint is very rigid and it rotates as a unit when the tank is under hydrostatic load. 2.13.

14 Single Deck Roof Sagged with Flooding Rain Water In API 650 (2007). Similar minimum requirement were also provided in the BS 2654 where they both stated that the pontoon volume shall be designed to have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat on the liquid with specific gravity of the lower of the product specific gravity or 0. the load is cyclic and this area is subject to low cycle fatigue. These two codes also provide some minimum requirements on the roof fittings and accessories to optimize the floating roof design ensuring the roof is functioning effectively. 31 . • Rainfall of 250 mm (10 in.inside the tank until the pressure of the product acting on the floor. the external floating roof is covered in Appendix C.) in 24 hour period over the entire horizontal roof area. Due to the continual filling and emptying of the tank.14 Floating Roof Design Flooded Center Deck Sagged Figure 1.7 with the primary drain inoperative for the following conditions: • the deck plate and any two adjacent pontoon compartments punctured and flooded the single deck or double deck pontoon roof. balances the lifting effect. it gives guidance and provides minimum requirement on the external floating roof design. 2. This action causes high bending stresses in the bottom plate and the toe of the internal fillet weld.

2. If the floating roofs are inadequately designed or wrong approaches were applied to the design.Though the codes addressed the minimum requirement on the pontoon volume. having very flexible envelopes such that the tank shell and bottom will generally follow the settlements of the subsoil. 32 . there is a wide variation in the floating roof design approach. There is no proper procedure or standard and firm rules stated in any code or engineering handbook in designing the floating roof. there is no mention on the structural adequacy.15. the tank will catch fire due to the spark generated during the unstable movement of the roof.15 Special Consideration 2. The floating roof overtopped by the liquid inside the tank and the roof sunk. pontoon will buckled and damaged.1 Soil Settlement Tank foundation shall be carefully designed to ensure adequate for the tank support. Soil settlement is a common problem in compressible soil. It is always left to the designer or manufacturer to develop their own approaches to meet the minimum requirement stated in API 650 (2007) or BS 2654. The most common failure on the floating roof is the sinking of the floating roof. wide variation in the durability and reliability of the tank. Industry or purchaser will have to rely on the tank and roof manufacturer for the safe design. in which there are also many tank failure due to various design problem in each different approach. Storage tanks are relatively large but flimsy structures. To the worst case. the roof will fail. Hence. Soil investigation and study are required to monitor the soil settlement. and it has consequential problems on the floating roof tank. as in structural integrity and buoyancy stability.

and causes a dozens of consequential problems. hence at location where weak.The dead weight of the tank structure is relatively small compared with the live load of the contents. excessive soil settlement may occur due to the weight of the tank and its liquid content. dynamic of the flooding and sloshing of the product was not considered. Industry and owner normally depend on the tank and roof manufacturer for safe design. a few of consequential problems are quoted below: • • Jamming of floating roof structure around guide pole Jamming of roof seals due to (progressively increasing) out-of-roundness of the tank shell • • • • • Roof seals giving a gap as the result of out-of-roundness and/or tilting of the roof Loss of buoyancy of floating roofs due to liquid in pontoon Roof drain leaking or being blocked Derailing of rolling ladder on top of a floating roof Buckling of the supporting legs of a floating roof tank due to inadequate support. or vacuum conditions • Wear and tear scratching shoe plates/ tank shell 2. however.15. Tanks had suffered significant damage during past earthquakes. compressible layers are present in the subsoil. 159 (2003) [5]. The floating roof was simplified and assumed as rigid body. and sloshing behavior during seismic is complicated. Excessive soil settlement can affect the integrity of tank shells and bottoms.2 Seismic Design For Floating Roof As mentioned earlier that the minimum requirement provided in the API 650 (2007) and BS 2654 addressed only the floating consideration. The behavior of floating roofs under seismic condition is very less. Having reference from the EEMUA Publication No. most of the floating roof tanks built do not consider the seismic condition in their roof design as code never addresses it. some history cases of tank failure due to the sloshing wave are: 33 .

2007) 34 .• Hokkaido.15) Pontoon Buckling (Figure 1.16) Figure 1. 2006] 23 Major Tank Firs 17 Due to Sloshing Wave 50% Due to Sloshing Wave 2.16 Pontoon buckling [Tetsuaya. Japan in 2003 [John.15 Floating roof overtopped [Praveen.16 Failure Modes Due To Seismic Effects On Floating Roof Tank There are three cases of a few on the roof. Turkey in 1998 [John. Roof collapse or Sinking Overtop of floating roof by the liquid inside the tank (Figure 1. 2006] Fully Involved Tank Fires Fully Involved Due to Floating Roof Collapse from Sloshing waves 50% due to Sloshing Wave • Ismit. 2006] Figure 1.

2006] Figure 1.20 Tank Farm on Fire [Praveen. 2006] Figure 1. 2006] 35 .There is one case on shell. 2006] And one case on Tank Farm/ Plant Tanks burn down.17 Diamond buckling (slender tanks) [Praveen. Shell Buckling caused by combination of outward pressures generated by vertical motion and compressive stresses generated by horizontal motion Figure 1.19 Tanks Burn Down [John. the tanks caught fire due to sparks generated by updown movement of the roof against the guides Figure 1.18 Elephant-foot buckling (broad tanks) [Praveen.

It is essential to understand the function of each accessories and the situation that could cause the accessories to malfunction. There are minimum requirements outlined for the fitting in API 650 (2007).2.8 (a) Fitting Requirements on Tank Shell [PTS. 1986] Fitting Description Roof Drain System Roof drain sump Roof earthing equipment Roof Seal Mechanism Roller Ladder Roof Manhole Roof Compartment manhole Emergency Drain Rim Vent Roof Vent (Pressure/ Vacuum) Automatic Bleeder Vent Dip Hatch Guide Device Roof Supporting Legs Minimum Number Required One set One set One set As specified by process design One set As specified by process As specified by process One set for double deck only As specified As Specified by process design One set One set One One set Table 1.17 Fitting Design and Requirement A complete set of fitting and accessories are required for the floating roof to operate properly. Fitting Description Shell Manhole Shell Inlet Nozzles Shell Outlet Nozzles Product Drain Nozzle and piping Water Drain Nozzle and piping Drain Sump Earthing Bosses on shell Shell manhole for mixers Clean out door Spiral Staircase Minimum Number Required 2 nos. of DN 600 As specified by process design One Set Table 1. and Petronas Technical Specification (PTS) has specified a requirement on the minimum number of fitting to be installed on the floating roof tank. Tables 1.8 (a) and (b) below show the fitting requirement as per PTS in the tank shell and floating roof respectively.8 (b) Fitting Requirement on Floating Roof [PTS. 1986] 36 .

Figure 1. There are several types of roof sealing system which consists of primary seal and secondary seal.18.22 Liquid-filled fabric seal 37 . Primary seals may comprise metallic shoes having flexible seals with a weight or spring-operated pusher mechanism.21 Mechanical Seal Figure 1. or be non-metallic tube seal. a fabric seal.1 Roof Seal System As mentioned early in the principal of floating roof. The sealing system has to be flexible enough to allow for any irregularities on the construction of the roof and shell when the roof moves up and down and for any radial or lateral movement of the roof due to wind and seismic.2.18 Typical Fitting and Accessories For Floating Roof 2. roof seal is used to prevent the escape of vapour from the rim gap and to minimise the amount of rain water entering the product.

Figure 1. 2. The area of the tank floor in which the legs land shall be reinforced with a fully welded doubler plate which can distribute the leg loads into the floor plating. More careful consideration will be required for the supporting requirement for the single deck pontoon roof as this type of roof is less rigid.2 Support Leg Support leg is the supporting element for the floating roof when the tank is empty where the roof fall to its lowest position.Primary seals were only used when floating roofs were first devised. the supporting legs can be either removable or non.21 and Figure 1. it also provide access room for maintenance personnel. The most recent innovation on the primary seal is the compression plate type and most of the tank owners are moving toward this new sealing system. As stated in API 650 (2007).removable type.18. mixing propeller.23 shows that the deck is weak in bending and allows lateral deflection of the support leg.22 had been used for many years since floating roof were developed. The seals showing in Figure 1. 38 . The roof needed to be supported at a certain height above the floor not only that the roof will not foul with any internal accessories that installed at the lowest shell such as heating coil. Secondary seals were mounted above the primary seal in which it can further reduce the vapour and odour losses from the floating roof tank. secondary seals were the recent innovation to suit the new legislation in which the new limits of vapour emission was set.

39 .23 Lateral Deflection of Supporting Leg There is minimum requirement stated in API 650 (2007) where the legs and attachments shall be designed to the roof and a uniform live load of at least 1. Improper roof drainage system would impair tank operation and threatens the safety of the stored product. a reliable drainage system is indispensable for floating roof storage tanks. A check valve is installed at the inlet of the drain. the roof drains shall be sized and positioned to accommodate the rainfall rate while preventing the roof from accumulate a water level greater then design.18.Applied Force Figure 1.3 Roof Drain System Roof drainage is one of the concerns in the roof designing. The rain water which accumulates on the floating roof is drained to the sump which normally set in the low point of the deck. As addressed in API 650. The legs thickness shall be Schedule 80 minimum and sleeves shall be schedule 40 minimum. 2. without allowing the roof to tilt excessively or interfere with its operation.2kPa. The sump will then be drained through a closed pipe work system inside the tank and drained out though the shell nozzle at the bottom side of the shell wall.

siphon type and non-armored hose-type are not acceptable as primary roof drain. expanding and contracting with the rise and fall of the roof. 40 . not interfere with the equipment of accessories inside the tank.24 shows the articulated piping system in a floating tank.The pipe work system which operates inside the tank has to be flexible to allow for the movement of the roof. Figure 1.24 Articulated Piping System Flexible pipe system is installed in a single continuous length without ballasting or other devices. It maintains constant repeatable lay-down pattern on the tank floor. However rubber is not recommended for oil industry. Flexible pipe system consists of flexible rubber hose or steel pipe. Figure 1. The two most common used systems are the articulated piping system and the flexible pipe system. As stated in API 650 (2007). Figure 1.25 shows photo of a flexible steel pipe system installed in a floating roof tank. Articulated piping system uses solid steel pipe with a series of articulated knuckle joints or flexible swing joint.

but only to double deck roof. Emergency roof drains are prohibited by API 650 (2007) on the single deck pontoon roofs as the product level in the tank is always higher than the rainwater level in the centre deck.26 and Figure 1. 41 .25 Flexible Steel Pipe System Inside the Tank Emergency roof drain shall be installed. Its purpose is to allow natural drainage of rainwater in case of malfunction of the primary drain.5 years.27 were taken in November 1993 at one of the refinery plant in Singapore where it showed an articulated drain system installed in the tank. however considerable corrosion was observed on the end connector and the galvanized side plate. Even though emergency drain was addressed in the API 650 (2007) for double deck roof. This system had only in service for approximately 2. this would cause the product to discharge through the drain onto the roof rather than allow water to drain into the tank.Figure 1. Figure 1. It will also allow vapour to escape from the tank as it is an open drain. some company had already banned the usage of the emergency drain.

26 Articulated drain pipe system installed inside the tank Figure 1.Figure 1.27 Flexible Swing Joint 42 .

and the tank is drained down or being filled. This is to prevent overstress of the roof deck or seal membrane. The number and size of the bleeder vent shall be sized accordance to the maximum filling and emptying rates. Figure 1. vol. These vent only come to operate when the floating roof landed.15] 43 . The length of the push rod is designed in a way that as the tank is emptied.18. Similarly.2. p. Roof on support legs Tank filling Roof floating Roof on support legs Tank emptying Figure 1. when the tank is filling up.4 Vent – Bleeder Vents Automatic bleeder vents shall be furnished for venting the air to or from the underside of the deck when filling and emptying the tank.1. the rod touches the tank floor before the roof support leg landed and the will open automatically.28 shows the operation of the valve. freely venting the space beneath the deck. the valve closes after all the air beneath the deck has been expelled and the roof floats.28 Bleeder vents [EEMUA 2003.

the ladder can slide along and take up vary angle as required.18. 2. and some other instrument to pass through providing access for the maintenance personnel. which the system is designed to deliver a flame smothering expanded foam mixture into the tank rim space to extinguish the fire. This is so that as the roof moves up and down.18.5 Centering and Anti-Rotation Device Anti-rotation devices also called guide pole is required as stated in API 650 (2007) to maintain the roof in central position and prevent it from rotation.19 Fire Fighting System and Foam Dam A fire detection system shall be installed when required. It shall be located near to the gauger platform and capable of resisting the lateral forces imposed by the roof ladder. A foam dam which consists of a short vertical plate is to welded to 44 . The floating roof tanks shall be equipped with the fire fighting system. the foam system.6 Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform Rolling ladder is the mean of access on to the floating roof. 2.2. Gauger platform is a small access area overhangs the shell to allow the guide pole. this has to be taken into consideration while designing the roof. There will be a reaction at the lower end of the ladder causing a localized and eccentric load on the roof. unequal snow load and wind load. fires in floating roof tanks are usually in the area between the shell and the rim of the floating roof. This is why the floating roof is always sized up in such a way that the tank diameter shall at least be equal to its height to enable the use of the rolling ladder for access to the roof. The upper end of the ladder is attached to the gauger platform and the lower end is provided with an axle with a wheel on side of ladder which runs on a steel track mounted on a runway structure supported off the roof.

Figure 1. installed around the tank periphery. with the height higher than the upper tip of the seal.29 shows a typical arrangement of the foam system which it consists of a foam generated and pourer. Figure 1.29 Foam Fire Fighting System 45 . to allow the whole seal area to flooded with the foam and extinguishes the fire effectively.the top pontoon plate at a short distance from the seal.

Based on the tank size of 39 m diameter.1 Introduction Storage tank design consists of 2 main sections – Shell Design and Roof Design. The required minimum thickness of shell plates shall be the greater of the value computed as followed [API 650. It was also mentioned in the literature review that there are several methods stated in API 650 (2007) to determine the shell wall thickness. The shell design include the shell stress design which is to size up the shell wall thickness. The roof design will consist of roof stress design. Mechcanical Design Consideation.3). A Sd Hydrostatic test shell thickness: tt = 4. and the roof accessories and fitting design. 1-Foot Method was the most appropriate method to be used.12.9 D( H − 0. stability check against the wind and seismic load and sizing up the anchor bolt.9 D( H − 0.CHAPTER 3: TANK DESIGN 3. 2007]: Design shell thickness: td = 4. The 1-foot method calculates the thickness required at design points 0.3) St 46 .2 Shell Design The tank shell is designed accordance to the API 650 (2007) and the design considerations had been stated in the literature review under Chapter 2.G + C.3 m (1ft) above the bottom of each shell course. 3. top and intermediate stiffener ring.

Let’s look into each stress individually by analyzing the stresses in the thin-walled cylindrical shell which an internal pressure exerted on it. mm The equation in the API 650 (2007) 1-Foot Method can be derived from the basic membrane theory. acting on the thin cylinder of thickness t. the two main stresses exerting on the cylindrical shell due to the internal pressure are longitudinal stress and circumferential stress.1 show a thin walled cylindrical in which the longitudinal force FL resulted from the internal pressure. mm nominal tank diametr. m design liquid level. and diameter D. mm hydrostatic test shell thickness. 3. MPa C.2.Where td = tt = D= H= G= Sd = St = design shell thickness.1 Longitudinal Stress Figure 2. length L.1 Longitudinal forces acting on thin cylinder under internal pressure 47 .A = corrosion allowance. m design specific gravity of the liquid stored allowable stress for the design condition. MPa allowable stress for the hydrostatic test condition. Pi. FL FL t D Pi L Figure 2.

3. SL = SL = Resisting Area. length L. a = π x D x t (Shade area) Longitudinal Force. SL We call this equation as Longitudinal Stress Thickness Equation. and diameter D. acting on the thin cylinder of thickness t.2 Circumferential Stress In term of thickness. tL = Similarly Figure 2.2 considers the circumferential stresses caused by internal pressure. FL = Pi x π/4 x D2 Area resisting FL. t Pi.Longitudinal force. Pi.2 Circumferential l forces acting on thin cylinder under internal pressure 48 .2. FL Longitudinal Stress. D 4. D 4. a Pi. L ½ FC D ½ FC t Pi ½ FC ½ FC Figure 2.

t In term of thickness. replace the internal pressure. 49 . Pi. Circumferential stress in the thin wall will be the governing stress and hence the Circumferential Stress Thickness Equation (tC) is used. 3. 3.2. consider the effective head at 0. L x t (Shade area) Circumferential Force. FC = Pi x D x L Area resisting FC.2. SC We call this equation as Circumferential Stress Thickness Equation. The minimum required thickness from the 1-Foot method can be now be derived.Circumferential force.4 Circumferential Stress Thickness Equation and 1-Foot Method From the Circumferential Stress Thickness Equation. pi to the hydrostatic pressure due to product liquid head (ρgh). with a specific allowable stress. D SC = 2. the required wall thickness to withstand the internal pressure. tC = Pi.3 m height (H – 0. a = 2. SC = Resisting Area. a Pi.A) by adding in to the equation as per Figure 2. and consider the corrosion allowance (C. D 2. for circumferential stress will twice that required for the longitudinal stress.3 Longitudinal Stress versus Circumferential Stress Comparing the both thickness equations due to the longitudinal stress and circumferential stress. FC Circumferential Stress.3).3. pressure and fixed diameter.

ϕgh

(H – 0.3)

t =

Pi . D 2 . Sc

+ C.A

t=

4.9D(H − 0.3).G + C. A Sd

Allowable design stress, Sd
Figure 2.3 Circumferential Stress Thickness equation to 1-Foot method equation

3.2.5 Shell Design Thickness Calculation

The design calculation for the shell wall thickness is attached in Appendix B. The calculation result for the shell wall thickness is summaries in Table 2.1 and Figure 2.4.

Table 2.1 Shell wall design thickness summary

Where, t.design = t.hydo. = t.min tsc = = Minimum required thickness due to design condition, Minimum required thickness due to hydrostatic test, The greater value of t,design and t.hydro., and Actual thickness used.

50

Excessive Thickness
2440 (11t) 2440 (11t) 2440 (11) 2440 (13t) 2440 (16t) 2440 (19t) 2440 (22t) 2440 (25t) 2440 (28t) Shell Course Hydrostatic Pressure (ρgh) ρ Shell Thk Diagram

1715.2 3,735.2 5,755.2 8,195.2 10,635.2 13.075.2 15,515.2 17,955.2 304.8 20,395.2 Static head @ 1 ft

20,700

Figure 2.4 Diagrammatic sketch of shell wall with design thickness

From the 1-Foot equation, it can be seen that the minimum required shell thickness is directly proportional to the liquid static height; hence the shell thickness diagram shall follow the same shape profile with the hydrostatic pressure due to the design liquid height as shown in Figure 2.4. However it is impractical to construct the tank with the taper thickness, therefore different shell course with different thickness is used. The use of courses with diminishing thickness will has the effect that, at the joint between two adjacent courses, the thicker lower course provides some stiffening to the top, thinner course and this cause an increase in stress in the upper part of the lower course and a reduction in stress in the lower part of the upper course. API 650 (2007) assumes that the

51

reduction in stress in the upper course reaches a maximum value at one foot (300 mm) above the joint and it is at this point, on each course from which the effective acting head is measured [Bob, 2004]. This shows how the 1-Foot method was employed.

3.2.6 Top Stiffener and Intermediate Wind Girder Design

3.2.6.1 Top Stiffener/ Top Wind Girder

Stiffener rings of top wind girder are to be provided in an open-top tank to maintain the roundness when the tank is subjected to wind load. The stiffener rings shall be located at or near the top course and outside of the tank shell. The girder can also be used as an access and maintenance platform. There are five numbers of typical stiffener rings sections for the tank shell given in API 650 (2007) and they are shown in Figure 2.5 [API 650, 2007].

Figure 2.5 Typical stiffener ring section for ring shell

52

The requirement in API 650 (2007) stated that when the stiffener rings or top wind girder are located more than 0.6 m below the top of the shell, the tank shall be provided with a minimum size of 64 x 64 x 4.8 mm top curb angle for shells thickness 5 mm, and with a 76 x 76 x 6.4 mm angle for shell more than 5 mm thick. A top wind girder in my tank is designed to locate at 1 m from the top of tank and therefore for a top curb angle of size 75 x 75 x 10 mm is used in conjunction with the stiffener detail a) in Figure 2.5. The top wind girder is designed based on the equation for the minimum required section modules of the stiffener ring [API 650, 2007].
D2H2  V    17  190 
2

Z=

Where Z= D= H2 = V= Minimum required section modulus, cm³ Nominal tank diameter, m Height of the tank shell, in m, including any freeboard provided above the maximum filling height design wind speed (3-sec gust), km/h
D2H

The term

17

on the equation is based on a wind speed of 190 km/h and therefore the

 V 2   term  190  is included in the equation for the desire design wind speed. The design

calculation for the top wind girder is attached in Appendix B section 4.0. From the design calculation, a fabricated Tee-girder of size T 825 x 250 x 8 x 10 with toe plate length 250 mm, web plate length 825 mm, toe plate thickness 10 mm and web plate thickness 8mm is used. The detail of the Tee-girder used for the top wind girder is shown in Figure 2.6.

53

2007]. The maximum height of the un-stiffener shell will be calculated as follows [API 650.140 mm³ and the available section modulus for Tee girder T 825 x 250 x 8 x 10 is 2.9. the maximum height of the un-stiffened shell shall be determined. nominal tank diameter of 39. The web length of 825 mm had exceeded the 16 times of its thickness (16 x 8 = 128 mm).2 Intermediate Wind Girder The shell of the storage tank is susceptible to buckling under influence of wind and internal vacuum. Intermediate stiffener or wind girder will be provided if necessary.000 mm and height of tank shell 20. 2007]: 54 . 3.5.10 mm Web plate 250 mm Shell plate 8 mm 825 mm Toe plate Figure 2. the minimum required section modulus for the top wind girder was found to be 1.2.655. Accordance to API 60 (2007) clause 5.6 Fabricated Tee Girder for Top Wind Girder With the design wind speed of 140 km/h. Therefore the selected girder size is sufficient. It is essential to analysis the shell to ensure that it is stable under these conditions.662 mm³.6. supports for the girders will be provided. To determine whether the intermediate wind girder is required.007. The supports shall be spaced at the interval required for the dead load and vertical live load.700 mm. support shall be provided for all stiffener rings when the dimension of the horizontal leg or web exceeds 16 times the leg or web thickness [API 650. especially when in a near empty or empty condition.

The actual width of each shell course in changed into a transposed width of each shell course having the top shell course thickness by the following formula [API 650. mm Thickness of the shell course for which the transpose width is being calculated. mm Thickness of the top shell course.25.47t     D  V  3 3 Where H1 = t= D= V= Vertical distance. between the intermediate wind girder and top wind girder Thickness of the top shell course. mm Nonimal tank diameter.7. mm The sum of the transposed width of the courses will be the height of the transformed shell (H2). km/h As stated in earlier section 3. mm Actual width of each shell course. The equivalent shell method is employed to convert the multi-thickness shell into an equivalent shell having the equal thickness as to the top shell course. m design wind speed (3-sec gust). the shell is made of up diminishing thickness and it makes the analysis difficult. The summary of transform shell height is shown in Figure 2. tuniform = tactual = 55 . 2007]:  t uniform Wtr = W   t  actual     5 Where Wtr W = = Transposed width of each shell course. in m. t   190  H 1 = 9.

7 Height of transform shell If the height of transformed shell is greater than the maximum height of un-stiffened shell. minimum required section modulus of the intermediate wind girder has to be determined.Figure 2.182 mm which is less then the transformed shell height.0. The total number intermediate wind girder required can be determined by simply divide the height of transformed shell with the maximum un-stiffened shell height. The same equation in the top wind girder can be used. intermediate wind girder is required. Similarly. The detail calculation is the intermediate wind girder is attached in Appendix B section 5. hence an intermediate wind girder is required. but instead of the total shell height H2. The maximum un-stiffened shell height is calculated to be 9. 2007]: Z= D 2 H1  V    17  190  2 56 . the vertical distance between the intermediate wind girder and top wind girder is used. The equation will become [API 650.

143 mm³ and proven that the selected girder size is sufficient. and to determine the stability of the tank with and without anchorage. km/h The minimum required section modulus for the intermediate wind girder was calculated to be 225. including any freeboard provided above the maximum filling height design wind speed (3-sec gust). The available section modulus for intermediate Tee girder is 863.812 mm³ and a fabricated Tee-girder of size T 405 x 150 x 8 x 8 with toe plate length 150 mm. These design wind 57 .7 Overturning Stability against Wind Load The overturning stability of the tank shall be analyzed against the wind pressure.8. The design wind pressure on the vertical projected areas of cylindrical surface area (ws) shall be 0.8 Fabricated Tee Girder for Intermediate Wind Girder 3. toe plate thickness 8 mm and web plate thickness 8 mm is used.86 kPa (V/190)² and 1. The wind pressure used in the analysis is given as per API 650 (2007). 8 mm Web plate 150 mm Shell plate 8 mm 405 mm Toe plate Figure 2.2. in m. web plate length 405 mm.44 kPa (V/190)² uplift on horizontal projected area of conical surface (wr). m Height of the tank shell. cm³ Nominal tank diameter. The detail of the selected intermediate Tee-girder is shown in Figure 2.Where Z= D= H2 = V= Minimum required section modulus.

As per API 650 (2007).pressure are in accordance with American Society of Civil Engineer .4 Mpi < < MDL / 1.9 Overturning check on tank due to wind load The wind load (Fs) on the shell is calculated by multiplying the wind pressure ws to the projected area of the shell. Wind uplift load Internal pressure load D/2 Wind load on shell. ii. the tank will be structurally stable without anchorage when the below uplift criteria are meet [API 650. 2007]. i. 0. and the wind load (Fr) on the roof will be zero as the roof will be floating on the liquid into the tank. where there will be no projected area for the roof. The loading diagram due to the wind pressure on the floating roof tank is shown in Figure 2.5 (MDL + MF) / 5 58 .9.6 Mw + Mpi Mw + 0. 2005]. Fs H/2 Moment about shell to bottom joint Dead Load (WDL) Liquid hold down weight (Wa) Figure 2.ASCE 7 for wind exposure Category C [ASCE 7.

 1000  2 The liquid weight (wa) is the weight of a band of liquid at the shell using a specific gravity of 0.10 Summary Result for Overturning Stability against wind load 59 .Where Mpi = moment about the shell-to-bottom from design internal pressure (Pi) and it can be calculated by the formula  π × D 2 × Pi  × D .5 D.Lr + Fs.0. MF = Moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from liquid weight and is equal to   wa × π × D  D × . Fr and Fs is the wind load acting on the roof and shell respectively and Lr and Ls is the height from tank bottom to the roof center and shell center respectively.4 Mpi = 7.700.241. WDL. The detail calculation for the overturning stability against wind load is in Appendix B section 6.D or 59 × tb Fby × H . A summarized result is shown in Figure 2.020.   1 4  1  2 Mw = Overturning moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from horizontal plus vertical wind pressure and is equal to Fr.5 Mw + 0. 0.6 Mw + Mpi = 4.Ls. Fby is the minimum specified yield stress of the bottom plate under the shell and tb is the thickness of Bottom plate under the shell.7 and a height of one-half the design liquid height H.345.10.964 < (MDL +MF) / 2 Figure 2. Wa will be the lesser of 0. The weight of the roof is zero since the roof is floating on the liquid.90 H.578 < MDL / 1. MDL = Moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from the weight of the shell and roof supported by the shell and is calculated as 0. The calculation had shown that both the uplift criteria are met and the tank will be structurally stable even without anchorage.

3. Mrw Figure 2.8 Seismic Design The seismic design of the storage tank is accordance to API 650 (2007) – Appendix E.11 Seismic Diagram for a Floating Roof Tank 60 .2. and they are: i) Overturning Stability check .The overturning moment will be calculated and check for the anchorage requirement. There are three major analyses to be performed in the seismic design. ii) Maximum base shear iii) Freeboard required for the sloshing wave height – It is essential for a floating roof tank to have sufficient freeboard to ensure the roof seal remain within the height the tank shell. Uplift force due to seismic Free board Convective Impulsive Base Shear. V Overturning Moment. The number of anchor bolt required and the anchor bolt size will also be determined based on the overturning moment.

W.4. but only to the tank shell. The impulsive component is the part of the liquid in the lower part of the tank which moves with the tank as though it were a solid. The detail of the convective frequency is discussed in section 3. It has a much longer natural frequency time than the impulsive portion. The tank is presumed to be rigid but this is not exactly true. It experiences the same accelerations and displacement as the tank. 2007]. 61 .2. The impulsive mode is based on a 5% damped response spectral and 0. which is based on a maximum considered earthquake ground motion defined as the motion due to an event with a 2% probability of exceed within a 50-year period [API 650. This seismic design is only apply to the tank shell. Impulsive and convective shall be combined by the direct sum or the square roof of the sum of the squares (SRSS) method. seismic design of floating roofs is beyond the API 650 (2007) scope and it will be a challenge for engineer to analyses the seismic effect on the floating roof.8. The convective component is the part of the liquid in the upper part of the tank which is free to form waves or to slosh.The behavior of liquid in a vertical cylindrical container when subjected to an earthquake was clarified by G. The pseudo-dynamic design procedures are based on the response spectra analysis methods and two response modes of the tank and its content – impulsive and convective are considered. The seismic design addressed in API 650 (2007) Appendix E is based on the Allowable Stress Design (ASD) Method with the specific load combination and the ground motion requirements are derived from ASCE 7. Houser in his paper “Earthquake Pressures on Fluid Containers” and the theory is now widely used and also applied in API 650 (2007). This presumption is normally made for the ambient tanks and it provides answers of sufficient accuracy.5% damped spectral for the convective mode.

API 650 (2007) defined the following substitution [API 650.S.A region and not defined in ASCE 7.3g Importance Factor.0 sec.2 sec. 2007]: • For 5% damped spectral response acceleration parameter at short period of 0. 2007]: 62 . I = 1.50 Site Class = D Seismic Group. S1 = 1. For tanks supported by the concrete ring wall.8. which is outside the U. the equation for calculating the ringwall moment. Mrw is as follow [API 650.2 Overturning Stability The seismic overturning moment at the base of the tank shall be the SRSS summation of the impulsive and convective components multiply by the respective moment arms to the center of action of the forces.1 Site Geometry Design Data for Seismic Design The site geometry design data for seismic design to be used in the analysis are as follow: i) ii) iii) iv) Seismic Peak Ground Acceleration. SUG = III This tank is to be built and installed in Turkmenistan. For site not defined in ASCE 7.8. Ss = 2.5 Sp • For 5% damped spectral response acceleration parameter at period of 1.2.3.25 Sp 3. Sp = 0.2.

N Xi = Height from the bottom of the tank shell to the center of action of the lateral seismic force related to the impulsive liquid force for ring wall moment. %g Effective impulsive portion of liquid weight. any permanent attachments and 10% of the roof design snow load. m Xc = Height from the bottom of the tank shell to the center of action of the lateral seismic force related to the convective liquid force for ring wall moment.Mrw = Where Ai = Ac = Wi = [Ai(WiXi + WsXs + WrXr )]2 + [Ac(WcXc)]2 Impulsive design response spectrum acceleration coefficient. N Wc = Effective convective (sloshing) portion of liquid weight. N Ws = Total weight of the tank shell and appurtenances. It is also important to the civil engineer to design the tank foundation in which the tank is being supported. %g Convective design response spectrum acceleration coefficient. knuckles. N Wr = Total weight of fixed tank roof including framing. m Height from the bottom of the tank shell to the roof and roof appurtenances center of gravity. m This overturning moment is important for the mechanical to design the anchorage requirement and determine the minimum the number and size of the anchor bolt for the storage tank. 63 . m Xs = Xr = Height from the bottom of the tank shell to the shell’s center of gravity.

Ai ≥ 0.875Sp Rwi  Rwi  • Convective spectral acceleration parameter.5S1   = 0.Fa.3 Design Spectral Accelerations The spectral acceleration parameters are given in the equation below and they are based on the response spectrum pictured in Figure 2.  1 Ac = KS D1 T  c  I   Ts  I    = 2. Ai [API650. 2007]: I  I  Ai = S DS   = 2.Q. Ac[API650.2.Fa.Q.5K .So    Rwc   T  Rwc    c For Tc > TL.3.So Rwi  Rwi  But. • Impulsive spectral acceleration parameter.: I  I  Ai = 0.5K .So 2 D1  Tc   T    C Ac = KS   I   Rwc     64 .2.5Q.12.Fa.T  L  I   L  2  Rwc  = 2. T   Ts.4. 2007]: For Tc ≤ TL.8. The parameter in equation are defined the section 8.007 And. site class E and F only.8.

68H  tanh   D  Or it can also be determined from the figure 2. 2007] 3.578  3. in second is calculated by the following equation [API650. 65 .4 Parameter Required for Seismic Design i) Convective (Sloshing) Period.13. Tc = 1. 2007]. D Where Ks = sloshing period coefficient and is defined as Ks = 0.8Ks.8.Figure 2.12 Design Response Spectral for Ground-Supported Liquid Storage Tanks [API650. Tc The first mode sloshing wave period (Tc).2.

iv) Acceleration-based site coefficient (at 0. iii) Scaling Factor.2 second period.2 sec period).0 in API 650 (2007) unless it was otherwise defines in the regulatory requirement where ASCE 7 does not apply [API650. 2007]. Q The scaling factor. 66 . TL shall be taken as 4 seconds [API650.A. 2007] ii) Regional-dependent transition period for longer period ground motion.Figure 2.2. Fa was determined directly from the Table 2. 2007]. Ks [API650. Fa The acceleration.13 Sloshing Period Coefficient. TL It was defined in API 650 (2007) that for regions outside U. Q was defined to be taken as 1.based site coefficient at 0.S.

3 0. where Sp = 0.65.4 1.0 1. The interpolated value for Fv is 1.0 1. Table 2.Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods Site Class A B C D E a Ss ≤ 0.8 1.6 2.9 a a a a a F Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis is required. Fv was determined directly from the Table 2.3g.7 2.4 1.5 2.1 1.2 Ss = 1.0 1.0 1.8 1.4 S1 ≥ 0. 2007] For site class of D and Ss as 2. 2007] For site class of D and S1 as 1.6 2. Fa is to be interpolate between the value in S1 = 0.4 0.8 2.5 S1 = 0.6 2. Table 2.375.5 1.3. therefore Fa is taken as 1.50 0. Ss = 0.25 0.3 and S1 = 0.1 0.5 Ss = 0.25 0. the velocity-based site coefficient at 1. Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration at 1 Sec Periods Site Class A B C D E a S1 ≤ 0.8 1.8 1.2 0.0 0.0 1. v) Velocity-based site coefficient (at 1.1 0.8 1.0 3.5 Sp.0 1.0 sec period).3 Value of Fv as a Function of Site Class [API650.0 1.8 1.2 1.2.2 Value of Fa as a Function of Site Class [API650.4 a a a a a F Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis is required.2 1.0 second period.0 0.2 1.5 0.4 3.4.0 1.75 0.0 1. Fv Similarly.8 1.0 1.0 1.75.3 1.3g.7 Ss = 0. where Sp = 0.8 S1 = 0.8 1.0 1. S1 = 0.8 1.9 Ss ≥ 1.25 Sp. 67 .8 1.2 S1= 0.

5 and the spectral accelerations can be calculated.6187 Table 2. The response modification factors for ASD method defined in API 650 (2007) as shown in Table 2. Impulsive Q Fa Fv I Rw Tc TL So SDS SD1 1 1. 2007] The tank was designed to be mechanically anchored.vi) Response modification factors for ASD Methods.65 1. Rwi for impulsive and Rwc for convective are normally defined by the regulations.anchored Rwi (Impulsive) 3. Anchorage System Self-anchored Mechanically .4 Response Modification Factors for ASD Methods [API650. and if these value are not defined by the regulations. Rw The ASD response modification factors.2 Convective 1.63 s 4s 0.4. There is no value defined by the regulation for this project.5 4 6. The design parameters are summarized in the Table 2.5 4 Rwc (Convective) 2 2 Table 2.5 Summary of design parameter 2 68 . therefore value from API 650 (2007) will be used. therefore the response modification factors for Impulsive (Rwi) is 4 and for Convective (Rwc) is 2.9 0. the values defined in API 650 (2007) shall be used.3 0.

63 8 9 10 Periods.5 K .14 Response Spectrum Curve 3.138s Sai (Impulsive) Sac (Convective) Ac = 0.7 0.Impulsive Spectral Acceleration.8 0.So Tc 2  Rwc       C  = 0.6 0.2.4 Ai = 0.34% g Convective Spectral Acceleration. Spectral Response Acceleration.Fa.34%g 0.8. Sa 0.0633% g And the response spectrum curve is plotted as shown in Figure 2. The relationships between the equations are also graphically illustrated in Figure 2. These equations are originally developed by Housner and it is now employed by the API 650 (2007).14. T (sec) Figure 2. The proportion of the product liquid in the impulsive and convective 69 .1 0 0 1 2 Ts = 0.So Rwi  Rwi  = 0. (Tc > TL)  T  I   Ts.3 SD 0.2 0.Fa.15.5Q.TL  I  Ac = KS D1  L   T 2  Rwc  = 2.5 Effective Weight of Product The effective weights Wi and Wc are determine by multiplying the total product weight. Wp by the weight ratio (Wi / Wp) and (Wc / Wp) respectively as per equation below.0633%g 3 4 5 6 7 Tc = 6.5 0. I  I  Ai = S DS   = 2.69s T0 = 0.Q.

367 H tanh H  D  . • For effective impulsive weight.218 .Wp D  Wi = 1. Wi = When D/H < 1.Wp  Figure 2.230 D  0.portions is a function of the tank shape and the calculation methods will be different for short tanks with D/H greater than 1. D   tanh  0 .15 Effective weight of Liquid ratio [API650. 866  H   0 .333.Wp H  • For effective convective weight. Wc = 0. When D/H ≥ 1.333 and for tall tanks with D/H less than 1. 866 .333. 2007] 70 .333.0 − 0.

Xi and Xc are determine by multiplying the maximum design liquid height H by the ratio (Xi / H) and (Xc / H) respectively as per equation below [API 650. 2007]. The center of action for the impulsive lateral forces for the tank shell.333. The heights from the bottom of the tank shell to the center of action of the lateral force seismic force applied to the effective weights Wi and Wc.333. The relationships between the equations are also graphically illustrated in Figure 2.H H  • For convective force.5 − 0.16.H    71 .094 . D  Xi = 0.67 H sinh   D  D    . Xi = 0 .2.67 H   3. roof and appurtenances is assumed to act through the center of gravity of the component.8. When D/H ≥ 1.   3. 375 H When D/H < 1.6 Center of Action for Effective Lateral Forces The moment arm from the base of the tank to the center of action for the equivalent lateral forces from the liquid has to be defined for the overturning moment.0 − 3. • For impulsive force.67 H  cosh  −1   D  Xc = 1.3.

6 are defined.8. this moment is the portion of the total overturning moment that acts at the base of the tank shell perimeter and is used to determined loads on a ring wall foundation.3 to 3.2. and to check the longitudinal shell compression. 2007].X/H Xc /H Xi /H Figure 2. 72 .2. 3.8. Mrw now can be determine after all the parameters in 3. V = Vi 2 + Vc 2 Where Vi = Impulsive force and is defined as Vi = Ai ( Ws + Wr + Wf + Wi).8.7 Ring Wall Moment The ring wall moment.2. 2007] 3.16 Center of Action for Effective Forces [API650.2.8. the tank anchorage forces.8 Base Shear Force The seismic base shear is defined as the SRSS combination of the impulsive and convective components with the following equation [API 650.

Wc = 100. N Not that the tank is a floating roof tank. N Wf = Total weight of the tank bottom.8 m Figure 2.7 m V = 48.Vc = Convective force and is defined as Vc= Ac. any permanent attachments and 10% of the roof design snow load. as the roof is floating on the liquid.998 KN Convective Xc =12.Wc And Wi = Effective impulsive portion of liquid weight.17 Seismic Moment and Force Diagram Mrw = 381.327 KN Wi = 137. N Wr = Total weight of fixed tank roof including framing.636 KN Impulsive Xi = 7. knuckles. N Ws = Total weight of the tank shell and appurtenances.17. therefore Wr = 0 and the total weight of the tank roof is added to the weight of the tank content. The base shear force and the ring wall moment due to the seismic effect is summarized the seismic moment and force diagram in Figure 2. N Wc = Effective convective (sloshing) portion of liquid weight.453 KNm 73 .

Tank is selfanchored.9 Resistance to Overturning There are three resisting components to resist against the overturning due to the seismic. weight of the roof reaction. by the weight of a portion of the tank contents adjacent to the shell for unanchored tanks or provided by the mechanical anchorage devices.6 Anchorage Ratio Criteria [API650. and the anchorage ratio criteria in Table 2. they are the i) anchorage. Anchorage Ratio.785 Criteria No calculated uplifted under the design seismic overturning moment. The tank is self-anchored.785 < J ≤ 01. 2007] 0. The anchorage requirement is checked by the Anchorage Ratio. J.035D is not controlling or add mechanical anchorage.3. Tank is uplifting. but the tank is stable for the design load providing the shell compression requirements are satisfied. Tank is not stable and cannot be self-anchored for the design load.54 74 . ii) annular plate width which sits directly under the first shell course and iii) the shell compression at the bottom of the shell.54 J > 1. Wrs. J J ≤ 0. i) Anchorage requirement The resistance to the design ring wall overturning moment at the base of the shell will be provided by the weight of the tank shell. Modify the annular plate if L < 0.2.6 will determine whether the tank can be self-anchored or mechanically anchored.8. Table 2.

= 241 N/mm2 H= Maximum design product level. Specific gravity Av = Vertical earthquake acceleration coefficient = 0. D .(1 . m Ge = Effective specific gravity including vertical seismic effect = G. specified yield strength of bottom annulus.7 (as defined in Site Design Data) Wint = Uplift due to product pressure = 0 (for floating roof tank ) wrs = Roof load acting on shell. therefore the tank has to be mechanically anchored. H .D Resisting force of annulus which is defined as 7 .The anchorage ratio. 2007]: J= Mrw D [wt (1 − 0.54.4 wint ] 2 Where wt = Weight of tank shell & portion of roof supported by shell and is define as wt = wa = Ws + wrs π . 9 ta Fy .4 Av ) + wa − 0.Ge ≤ 1 . Anchor bolt will have to be design and sized up.0. 28 H .Ge And Fy = Min. G = 1. J is determined as follow [API650. including 10% of specified snow load = 0 (for floating roof) The anchorage ratio was found to be 2.4 Av) .19 which is more the 1. 75 .

ii) Annular plate requirement Before going into the anchor bolt design. annular plate width shall be check to the stability due to the seismic. and ts is the thickness bottom shell course less corrosion allowance [API 650. For the thickness of the bottom plate or annular plate (ta) under the shell is thicker than the remainder.035 times the tank nominal diameter. Shell Bottom ts= 28 Annular Plate Bottom Plate ta= 16 mm L = 1. L was calculated as 1.273Mrw  1  D2  1000ts 76 . and L = 0.108. σ c =  wt (1 + 0.4 Av ) +   1.108.200 mm.57 mm and the actual width used in 1.01723 ⋅ t a Fy H .035D) The minimum annular width. the minimum projection of the supplied thicker annular plate inside the tank wall shall be at least equal to L and not more than 0. 2007].18 Annular Plate Requirement iii) Shell Compression The maximum shell longitudinal compression stress at the bottom of the shell for the mechanical-anchored tanks is determined by the below formula.57 mm Figure 2.Ge (450 ≤ L ≤ 0. Hence the annular plate width is sufficient for the seismic loading.

and Fc is found to be 57.5 D And Fc < 0.273Mrw  w AB =  − wt (1 − 0.8. GHD 2 t2 is 40.69 N/mm².8 time its specify yield stress. The material used for the anchor bolts is the high strength bolt SA 320 Gr.4 Av)  + wint D2   And it calculated to be 36. Fty.5 (G ⋅ H ) 2. which can be determined as follow [API 650.796 KN.The calculated maximum longitudinal shell compression stress has to be less than the allowable stress Fc.2. the design uplift load on the anchor bolts due to the seismic is determined by the following [API650. which is 0.5Fty The maximum longitudinal shell compression stress. 2007]: When GHD 2 t 2 ≥ 44.10 Anchorage Design As the tank was found to be structurally unstable and cannot be self-anchored for the design load. the tank has to be anchored with the anchor bolts. σc is calculated to be 12. Therefore. The anchor bolts are sized to provide the minimum anchorage resistance. 3.L7. The tensile stresses in the anchor bolt which the uplift load applied on have to be check against the allowable tensile strength.22 which is less than 44.5 time the minimum specific yield stress of the bottom shell. Fc = 83ts D When GHD 2 t 2 < 44. and the allowable 77 . 2007]:  1. with the minimum specific yield stress of 551.94 N/mm² which is less than 0. Sy. the tank is structurally stable.5 N/mm². Fc = 83ts + 7.

tensile strength for the bolt will be 0.2.Q .2007]: δs = 0. 3. for Tc > TL in the seismic group SUG III.94 N/mm².S D 1 TL T C2 T T = 2 .2 N/mm². A f = K . FaSo  s 2L  T  C     78 .8Sy = 441. Af Where.8.5 D.11 Freeboard The minimum freeboard required above the top capacity is determined by considering the sloshing of the liquid inside the tank. δs Convective Impulsive Figure 2. Total 86 numbers of M64 bolts are pre-selected for the design.19 Sloshing Wave of Liquid Inside Tank The sloshing wave height above the product design height can be estimated by the following equation [API 650. hence proving that the N ⋅ Ab selected number (N) and the anchor bolt size (Ab) is sufficient. and hence the tensile stress on each of the anchor bolt can be is determine by σ b = W AB and found to be 161. 5 K .

Af was found to be 0.section 7 at the end of the report. the minimum required freeboard for the SUG III tanks and shall be equal to the sloshing wave height. Accordance to API 650 (2007).2. 3. δs [API 650.647 mm.12 Seismic Design Summary The complete seismic design calculation can be found in Appendix B . 2007].8.08 and δs will be 1. 79 .

the consideration of melting the snow from the product is essential. particularly the fitting and accessories in the floating roof are proprietary design. The roof design consists of roof type selection. and the cost effectiveness. the single deck floating roof was selected. As our tanks are to be built in a country with extreme winter and snow. Further consideration of the insulation effect of the double deck roof was also considered.1 Roof Type Selection Different types of floating roof had been discussed in the previous chapter – literature review. where the insulation effect due to the air gap between the decks plate in the double deck floating roof is not favorable. 3. In view of out tank diameter of 39 m.3.1 Single deck Floating roof 80 . Therefore it is not worth to repeat here. The pontoon type . double deck will be used for larger diameter tank as double is more rigid and stable.3. buoyancy design.single deck floating roof was normally used for tank diameter less than 65 m due to flexibility of the deck plate. Figure 3.3 Roof Design There is limited procedure and rules provided for the floating roof design as most of the components. roof stress design and the fitting and accessories design and operation.

Figure 3.7 or lower for the product and inoperative of roof drain for: – Deck plate & any two adjacent pontoon compartments punctured and flooded the center deck as per figure 3. A nominal thickness of 8 mm was used in my center deck design. Bulkhead Pontoon 2 adjacent pontoon & center deck flooded Figure 3.2 Pontoon and Center Deck Design The basic requirement as stated in API 650 (2007) for the pontoon design is that the pontoon has to be designed to have sufficient buoyancy to remain on the product with the design specific gravity of 0.2 Center deck and 2 adjacent compartments puncture API 650 (2007) required all the deck plate to have a minimum nominal thickness of 5 mm and the deck of the single deck pontoon floating roof has to be designed to be in contact with the liquid during normal operation. and this thickness will be verified the design calculation.2. – Rainfall of 10” (250 mm) in 24 hour period over roof area. The design shall be able to accommodate the deflection of the deck caused by trapped vapour.3 shows the minimum requirement for the single deck pontoon floating roof 81 .3.3.

2. W(deck) Figure 3.3 Minimum Requirement for Single Deck Pontoon Floating Roof [EEMUA 2003. There are two load cases used. compartments puncture and deck plate flooded and holding of 250 mm of rainfall. i) Dead Load Only – No flooding in center deck Buoyant force. Figure 3.1 Roof Stress Design Roof stress design is performed on the center deck by studying the stresses and analyzing the effects of the stresses on the roof. Fb Deck self weight.3.4 Case 1 – Dead Load Only 82 .with the inoperative roof drain. vol. p118] 3.1.

6 (a) and (b) show the defection of the center deck under the two cases. 83 . Figures 3. halfway between top and bottom surfaces will remains unstressed. the middle surface. Fb 10" Rain Rain weight Deck self weight.2 Effect of Large Deflection on Center Deck When a flat plate deflects under the normal condition.2. Figure 3.Unit Lateral Pr essure = W (deck ) − Fb Deck Area ii) Dead load plus 250 mm of rain accumulation Buoyant force.3. When the deflection becomes larger and exceeds one-half the plate thickness.5 Case 2 – Dead Load + 10” Rain Accumulation Unit Lateral Pr essure = W ( deck) + W ( rain) − Fb Deck Area 3. This will be the case in the thin deck plate of 8 mm. the middle surface will become appreciably strained and the stresses in it would cause defect or failure and hence it should not be ignored. at other points there will be biaxial stressed in the plane of the plate.

6 (b) Deck Deflection in Case 2 This middle surface stress is called the diaphragm stress. and it enables the plate to carry part of the load as a diaphragm in direct tension. 84 .6 (a) Deck Deflection in Case 1 Fixed and held by pontoon Unit lateral pressure Rain δ Bouyant Force Figure 3. This circumferential compression may cause buckling in the thin plate. This tension may be balanced by radial tension at the edges if the edges are held or by circumferential compression if the edges are not horizontally restrained.Fixed and held by pontoon Unit lateral pressure δ Bouyant Force Figure 3. or direct stress.

2002]. 3 – edge condition fixed and held with uniform pressure q over entire plate.33 1− v2 2. mm Unit lateral pressure on deck. mm Maximum stress due to flexure and diaphragm tension combined σb + σd Bending stress. N/mm² Diaphragm stress. N/mm² α= q= y= σ= = σb = σd = The K constants are determined in the Roark’s Formula for Stress and Strain for different cases and edge condition.86 85 . The center deck plate is fixed and held at its outer edge by the pontoon. hence the condition is considered as case no.In the large deflection of the thin plate. the below formula shall be used for more accurate and precise result [Roark. the plate is stiffer than indicated by the ordinary theory and the load-deflection and load-stress relation become non-linear. K1 = 5. v is the poisson ratio which is equal to 0.86 K2 = = 2.3 [Roark. mm Outer radius of deck plate. For circular plates. 2002]. where the maximum deflection exceeded half the thickness. N/mm² Maximum deflection.6 1− v2 = 5. The constants will then be determined as below. qα 4 y  y = K1 + K 2   Et 4 t t 3 σα 2 Where t= y  y = K3 + K 4   2 Et t t 2 Thickness of plate (deck plate).

38 Table 3.92 62. hence there will be radial force acting at the inner rim of the pontoon.3.40 57.0 54.86 K4 = 2.At Center : K3 = 2 1− v = 2. Max.94 59.40 K4 = 1.86 At Edge : K3 = 4 1− v2 = 4.2.43 LOAD CASE 2 Deck Center Deck Edge 214.1 Summary Result for Maximum Deflection and Stresses in Center Deck 3. Rh = σ diaphgram x deck thickness 86 .73 The maximum deflection and the stresses for the both cases are summarized the Table 3.1.37 3. y (mm) σ total (N/mm2) σ bending (N/mm2) σ diaphragm (N/mm2) LOAD CASE 1 Deck Center Deck Edge 215.38 33. The relationship between the radial force and the diaphragm stress as shown below.41 32.52 5.3 Pontoon Stability – Pontoon Ring Design The diaphragm stresses at the deck edge caused the tension at the outer edge of the deck.34 5.14 30. Deflection.81 35.84 3.

2002]. Rh mid-pt α Number of point loads at each mm is.Rh acting on the Inner Rim is modeled as load point at each mm of circumference. ii) All loading are applied at the radial position of the centroid of the cross section.7 Radial Forces Acting on Pontoon Inner Rim The pontoon stability due to the radial loads is designed with reference to the Roark’s Formula for Stress and Strain. with a very small angle between load points approximated to uniform distributed load in the circular ring design. i) The ring is of uniform cross section and has symmetry about the plane of curvature. Nlp = π x Rim Diameter (Øir) . however this assumption is of little concern for thin ring. This is not the case for our pontoon ring as the radial load acting on the inner rim are in the lower position. it is model as closed circular ring and regarded as a statically indeterminate beam and analyzed by the use of Castigliano’s second theorem [Roark.2 in Roark’s Formula for Stress and Strain. Its deflection is due primarily to bending. 87 . and they are based on several assumptions as listed below [Roark. Formulas used are taken directly from the Table 9. 2002]. iii) iv) v) It is nowhere stressed beyond the elastic limit. It is not so severely deformed as to lose its essentially circular shape. and angle α = 1 360 ⋅ 2 Nlp Figure 3.

Figure 3.626 mm³.2 in Roark’s Formula for Stress and Strain is selected and the formulas for the bending moment and circumferential tensile force between and at the load point are as follow [Roark.Case 7 . Za is calculated to 27. 2160 525 12 900 9 2187 α Rh Figure 3.2.Ring under any number of equal radial forces equally space from Table 9.Do  1 1   −  4  α tan α  Rh Cir.Do  1 1 −   4  sin α α  Cir. Mr = Rh. Tm = 2 sin α ii) At load-point: Bending Moment.8 shows the basic geometry for the pontoon and the results are summarized in the Table 3. 2002]: i) At mid-point: Bending Moment. Tensile Force. The pontoon section modulus.019. Tr = Rh 2 tan α The pontoon ring stability is checked against the pontoon properties. Tensile Force. Mm = Rh.8 Sectional Detail of Pontoon 88 .

RING STABILITY CHECK LOAD CASE 1 LOAD CASE 2 MID .867.14 7.0000007 159.000001 151. The minimum requirement for the roof fitting had been outlined in the Table 1.209 -0. malfunction of any one of the fitting would cause roof failure and potentially leading to fatality.98 183 165 0. Bending Stress (N/mm2) Allow.98 183 165 0.2 Summary Result for Pontoon Ring Stability Where.429 0. 89 .97 OK 18.07 183 165 0.POINT LOAD.0000007 151.867.429.POINT Bending Moment (Nmm) Circ.08 7. Unity = Actual Bending Stress Allow. Bending Stress + Actual Circ.15 7.POINT LOAD.9 shows the typical standard accessories and fitting for single deck floating roof which are essential for the operation of the floating roof tank.29 7.07 183 165 0. Each of the fitting and accessories has its own unique importance. Axial Stress (N/mm2) Unity Check Condition 19. Force (N) Bending Stress (N/mm2) Circ. Stress The complete design calculation on the roof stress design in attached in Appendix B section 5 of this thesis report.8 discussed in the Literature Review chapter. Comp.000001 159.92 OK Table 3.209 0.97 OK -38.3 Fitting and Accessories Design Figure 3. 3.92 OK -36.POINT MID .429. Stress Allow.3.429 -0. Stress (N/mm2) Allow.

3. There are several different types of primary seal available in the market today. Normally there will be two types of seals installed in the floating roof tank. there will be a 200 mm of gap between the inside of tank shell and the outer rim of the floating roof pontoon. The main purpose of the roof seals are to close up the gap between pontoon & shell wall. The seals are also to allow irregularities of the tank and roof construction and to account any radial or lateral movement of the roof due to the wind and seismic. hence preventing the escape of vapor from the tank product to the atmosphere and minimize the amount of rain and pollutant entering the product.9 Standard Fitting and Accessories for Single Deck Roof 3.4. and the appropriate seal has to be selected for suit the tank service.1 Roof Seal System As discussed in the chapter 2.Rim Seal Gauge Hatch Pontoon Manway Deck Manway Bleeder Vent Support Leg Deck Liquid Gauger Platform Roller Ladder Rail Track Drain Sump with isolation valve Drain Pipe Figure 3. 90 . Therefore the seal must be flexible enough to take in all these purposes. they are i) primary seal and ii) secondary seal.3. The seals design are the proprietary design by the seal company. the most that the engineer or tank designer can do is to study on each of the different seal and based on the previous experience to do the seal selection.2 principles of the floating roof.

ensuring the sealing ring is held in constant contact with the tank shell. The sealing ring was supported by the weighted pantograph system which the steel weights activate the tank lever system.11 was introduced to the market in the recent years. 91 . which are Pantograph Hanger and Scissor Hanger. The design principles are basically similar to the Pantograph Hanger. it consists of a galvanized steel or stainless steel sealing ring with the bottom located below the liquid surface.i) Primary Seal The functions of the primary seal are to minimize vapour loss. rain form the rim gap. The shoe plate is designed with Flexures built into the sheet at intervals of approximately 550mm to ensure conformity with the tank shell and allow expansion and contraction. Scissor Hanger as shown in Figure 3. and stainless steel shunts for lighting protection. Scissor Hanger is more much simple design and economic compared to the Pantograph Hanger. Primary seal could be in metallic (Mechanical Shoe Seal) or non metallic (Resilient Filled Seal) type. also the easier installing and assembly without any hot welding work. pressing the sealing ring against the tank shell. a vapour tight fire-resistant continuous seal to close the rim space. centralize the floating roof and exclude snow.10 is the convectional mechanical seals. Different seal supplier could have different name for it. This seal is able to provide a rim space variation of ± 130 mm in a nominal 200 mm rim space. it is the pusher bar to push the shoe plate instead of the counter weight. • Mechanical (Metallic) Shoe Seal The Mechanical Shoe Seal which was recommended in API 650 (2007) has two different kinds of seals. Pantograph Hanger as shown in Figure 3.

12 and Figure 3.13 End Section Pantograph Hanger (Courtesy of WB) 92 .12 Completed Assembled Pantograph Hanger (Courtesy of WB) Figure 3.11 Scissor Hanger (Courtesy of HMT) Figure 3. Figure 3.Figure 3.10 Pantograph Hanger (Courtesy of VACONOSEAL) Figure 3.13 shows the complete assembled and the end section of the Pantograph Hanger respectively.

14 Foam-Filled Seal (Courtesy of VACONOSEAL) Figure 3. The liquid mounted seal has better vapour conservation characteristics. and if it is mounted above the liquid. Figure 3.15 Liquid-Filled Seal (Courtesy of VACONOSEAL) 93 . the mechanical force is obtained by taking a compressible foam material and inserting it between the floating roof rim and the tank shell.• Resilient Filled (Non-Metallic) Seal The resilient filled seal can be of the foam filled or liquid filled. The foam and envelope may be mounted in a number of variants. where the lower part of the seal touches the stored liquid. In the foam filled seal. Resistance to the scuffing action of the roughened tank shell plates is achieved by wrapping the resilient foam in an envelope of reinforced plastic sheet or rubber sheet. Figure 3.15 shows the liquid filled.14 shows the foam filled and Figure 3. it is vapour mounted. the seal is said to be liquid mounted.

It was recommended by the API 650 (2007) and the liquid filled resilient seal was prohibited by some of the oil company. Figure 3. it reduced vapour loss which in turn cost saving. enhanced safety by protection against rim fires. The envelope is normally ribbed and a tube may be fitted to contain the kerosene. After the study of the above seal system.16 Secondary Seal (Courtesy of VACONOSEAL) 94 . By virtue of its depth and density the liquid spreads the envelope and exerts a force against the tank shell. Figure 3. the Mechanical Shoe Seal Scissor type was selected for its highly reputed performance. lower cost and simple installation.In the liquid filled seal. a looped envelope of reinforced rubber sheet is supported in the rim gap and the envelope is filled with a neutral liquid such kerosene. ii) Secondary Seal Secondary seal is mounted on top of the primary seal. environmental protection with less odour and compliance with the air standards and it significantly reduces the amount of rainwater entering the tank contents by running down the shell.16 show one kind of the secondary seal.

urethane.3. Some common materials for the selected product are listed in the Table 3.3. fluoroelastomers. or Buna-N-Vinyl Fluoropolymers. urethane laminate. which is hydrocarbon resistance material at the bottom section and Ultraviolet resistance at the top section. The tip structure of the secondary seals which slides along the tank shell would preferably be made of two kinds of material. nitrile Fluoropolymers.4.3 and the properties of the common material are shown in Table 3.3.urethane.3 Common Material for Select Product 95 .2 Roof Seal Material It is essential to select the correct material for the primary and secondary rim seals. The basic requirement of the seal material is the chemical resistance. nitrile Table 3. Fluid Stored Crude Oil Refined Products Gasoline/ MTBE blend Seal Material Fluoropolymers. The primary seals should always be hydro-carbon resistance since they are in direct contact with the product and product vapour and the top coat of the secondary seals shall be ultraviolet resistant and flame retardant. which is related to the stored product. the ultraviolet resistance in which the seal expose to direct sunlight and the material has to be flame retardant.

mixers. p118] 3. one leg per 34 m² of center deck area and for tanks diameter larger than 60 m one leg per 26 m² of center deck area was approximated. vol.1.2. 96 .3.18.4 Properties of Common Seal Material [EEMUA 2003. There will be two type of roof support which is the pontoon support leg and the deck support leg. For the pontoon support leg. and for the centre deck support leg. heating coil and drainage system. the number of support legs required for a single deck roof can be roughly approximated before a structural check on the legs is performed.3 Roof Support Leg Roof support legs are provided in the floating roof tank to support the roof when landed and keep the roof away from any tank appurtenances that locate at or near bottom of the tank such as inlet and outlet connection. one leg per 6 m of tank circumference was approximated. for tanks diameter up to 60 m. The basic requirement for the roof support legs had been discussed in the Literature Review in chapter 2. The supports legs are adjustment in height to provide both a low operating position and a high cleaning position. In designing the roof support legs.3.Material Vition ® (FPM)/ nylon (PA) Teflon ® (PTFE)/ glass Neoprene (CR)/ calcium silicate Polyurethane (EU)/ nylon (PA) or polyester (TPE-E) PVC-nitrile (PVC-NBR)/ nylon (PA) or polyester (TPE-E) or glass Nitrile (NBR)/ Nylon (PA) or polyester (TPE-E) Resistance Against Hydrocarbons Very Good Very Good Reasonable Good Good Reasonable UV light Very Good Very Good Good Good Reasonable Poor Flame Retardant? Yes Yes No No No No Table 3.

5 and it shows that the actual stresses of all the legs are less than the allowable stress hence proven that the pre-selected number and size of the support legs are sufficient.716 22 Nos. at R 18.17. The complete stress design calculation for the roof support leg is attached in Appendix B Section 6. 2005] using the slenderness ratio. but not the weight of any accumulated rain water on the deck. at R 13. . at R 4267 High Position 97 The compressive stress in each support leg at each radius location was determined and checked against the allowable stress as per AISC standard [ANSI/AISC 360. Standard pipe are used to design and fabricate the support legs and the pips size used are 3” Schedule 80 which has a thickness of 7.541 Pontoon Leg Deck Leg Low Position Figure 3.62 mm. The summary stress result was tabulated in Table 3.17 Number and Location of Support Legs 10 Nos.The supports legs are to be designed to carry only the weight of the roof and a uniform live load of 1. at R 8839 5 Nos. 2007]. 15 Nos. Therefore it is important to ensure that drain out all the rain accumulation before landing the roof. Numbers and location of the support legs for the floating roof was as shown in Figure 3.2 KN as specifed in API 650 (2007) [API 650.

of leg 5.00 13716. Automatic Bleeder Vent is the only venting fitting installed on the floating roof. it allows the air under the roof to escape when tank is filled up.5 Summary Result for Roof Support Legs 3.4 Venting System The venting system is designed to API 2000 (1998) – Venting Atmospheric and LowPressure Storage Tanks [API 2000.3.00 10.3.00 22.59 31. hence avoid vacuum. Operation of the automatic bleeder vent can be explained by the Figures 3. 1998]. venting requirement shall be at minimal to prevent vapour loss.1 Operation of Bleeder Vent Automatic bleeder vents/ valves only come into operation when the floating roof is landed and tank is drained down or tank is filled up. 3. (N/mm2) 25.08 74.08 75.3.33 Allowable stress. Similarly during out-breathing.00 No.4.70 21.08 75.18 24.62 RESULT OK OK OK OK Table 3. 98 . it allows air to enter space under the roof as product drain out from tank.00 15.00 18541.19 (a) and (b) for filling in (Out-Breathing).3.Leg at radius 4267. where during in-breathing. They only vent the air to and from under of a floating roof during filling and emptying. (N/mm2) 75. The bleeder vent is simply a short piece of steel pipe fabricated with a push rod inside attached to the top cover or stopper.00 Actual stress. hence avoid vapour pocket and pressure formation. It should not be over design.00 8839. It allows product movement.18 (a) and (b) for emptying (In-Breathing) and Figures 3.

Valve opens Air in Air in Emptying Push rod touches floor before roof legs Figure 3. the roof is floating on the product when the tank start emptying and the valve is intially closed. venting the space beneath the deck.18 (b) Operating of Bleeder Vent during In-Breathing (Finishing) 99 .18 (a) Operating of Bleeder Vent during In-Breathing (Starting) In the case of emptying (In-breathing). The product continue flowing out of the tank till the push rod in the valve touches the tank floor before the support legs.Valve closes Start Emptying Figure 3. pushing the valve opens and letting air flowing in freely.

19 (b) Operating of Bleeder Vent during Out-Breathing (Finishing) 100 . Valve initially open Air / Vapour out Air / Vapour out Product Filling In Roof resting on support leg Figure 3. taking up the air space underneath the deck hence pushing the air/ vapour out through the valve. The product start filling in. The valve will close after all the air beneath the roof had been expelled and the roof start floating on the product.19 (a) Operating of Bleeder Vent during Out-Breathing (Starting) Valve closes Roof floats Product Filling In Figure 3. the roof is resting on the support legs and the valve is initally opened.In the case of filling in (Out-breathing).

The design data for the venting design is as follow: Nominal Capacity = 24. Vo = 1.3. which is Flow rate of free air for liquid movement.097.4. Vi = 427 m³/hr Design Emptying Rate. 1998].9 m3/h of maximum empty rate at any flash point [API 2000. i) The vacuum venting (In-Breathing) The requirement for venting capacity for maximum liquid movement out of a tank will be 15. therefore 101 .86 = 1. The maximum flow of the vacuum venting and pressure venting will be used to determine the minimum size and number of the bleeder vent.3.86 m3/h of free air for each 15. The requirements for normal venting capacity specified in API 2000 (1998) is that the total normal venting capacity shall be at least the sum of the venting requirements for oil movement and thermal effect [API 2000.9 *15.100 m³/hr The venting capacity for both In-Breathing (Vacuum venting) and Out-Breathing (Pressure venting) has to be determined as per API 2000 (1998) requirement before the bleeder vent can be sized up.3.23 m³/h Thermal Breathing consideration is not requirement for the floating roof tank. 1998]. Vv1 = Vo/ 15.2 Bleeder Vent Design The bleeder vent is to design accordance to API 2000 (1998) and sized up by using general flow equation.000 m³ Product Flash point = 67°C Design Filling Rate.

9 *17 = 457 m³/h Thermal Breathing consideration is not requirement for the floating roof tank.Flow rate of free air for thermal breathing. Q = K . which is Flow rate of free air for liquid movement.097 m³/h.097 m³/h ii) The pressure venting (In-Breathing) The requirement for venting capacity for maximum liquid movement out of a tank will be 17 m³/h of free air for each 15. 1998]. Vp = Vp1 + Vp2 = 457 m³/h Therefore the maximum flow.9 m³/h (100 Barrel) of maximum filling rate [API 2000. Vv2 = 0 m³/h The total vacuum flow required will be. A 2. Vp1 = Vo/ 15. The below general flow equation below will be used. Q is the vacuum flow which is 1. Vv2 = 0 m³/h The total pressure flow required will be.g . Vv = Vv1 + Vv2 = 1.H 102 . therefore Flow rate of free air for thermal breathing.

of vent required (Minimum) However. There fore.g. Q was found to be 24. 9. where H= ∆P . the minimum number of bleeder vent required for the pre-selected size will be determine as Av _ req Av N vent = = 1 no.62 for circular Re-arranging it to have it in term of area required. 0. total of 2 numbers will be installed in case one of it was blocked or not able function. 251 mm². 103 . the equation becomes Av _ req = Q K γ 2.124 mm².81 m²/s Cross sectional area of vent Discharge Coefficient. A vent size of 8” was pre-selected and the cross-sectional area available is 32. the minimum required venting area for the maximum flow capacity.Where H= Head measures as pressure different.∆P Based on the equation. γ ∆P = Pressure different γ = Specific weight of air g= A= K= gravity of acceleration.

There is a non-return valve fitted to the outlet of the sump. The sump is then drained through a closed pipe work which operated with the tank. The drain pipe has to be removable for maintenance purposes. which is to prevent the roof from being flooded with product in the event of a failure in the drain system. The rainfall accumulated on the surface of the floating roof is drained to center sump which set into the lower point of the roof deck.20 (a) and (b) show the drain system within the tank with the roof movement. 104 . Therefore these two systems are selected for the study and evaluate their pros and cons.5 Roof Drain System The roof drain system is to be installed in the floating roof tank to effectively drain the rain water from the floating roof without causing rain water to enter & contaminate the store product.3. As the floating roof moves along with the product height. the basic requirement of the roof drain system has to be flexible to accommodate the roof movement. Helical Flexible Hose or Pipe system. Rubber hose are strictly prohibited to be use in the oil tank and the two common systems used in the oil industry are the Articulated Piping System and Flexible Drain Pipe System. Figure 3.20 (b) Roof Drain with Roof Fall There are several different drain systems available such as Articulated Piping System. and then final selection of the system at the end of the evaluation. Armoured Flexible Hose.3.20 (a) Roof Drain with Roof Rise Figure 3. if required. Figure 3.3.

there will eight (8) connections. 8 flange connections Flexible Swing Joint Rigid Pipe 90° bend Figure 3.21 shows the typical arrangement of an articulated piping system inside a floating roof tank. There is also possibility of causing horizontal forces on to the roof which leads to wearing of the roof seal.3.3. as can be seen in Figure 3.21 Articulated Drain Pipe System The rigid pipes in the system caused the heavy weight to the system and may stress and distort the deck plate in the floating roof. Figure 3. There is a short 90° bend in the system and this short bend radius would able accumulate foreign material and blocked the drain. It also requires chain.1 Articulated Piping System This drain system uses solid steel pipe with series of articulated knuckle joints such as flexible swing joint/ swivel joint. The rigid pipes are connected to the swing/ swivel joint by flange connection. Min.5.3. and two per each joints and each of these connections are potential to leak and also causes effect on the flow rate. shackles and pad eyes.21. 105 .

22 (a) Typical Swing Joint in Articulated Drain Pipe System Figure 3.22 (b) Swing Joint Assembly (Courtesy of WB) 106 .Although this drain system is cheaper as compared to the Flexible Pipe System.26 and 1.22 (a) and (b) show a diagram of a typical swing joint and its assembly. Figure 3.27 in the Literature Review Chapter. but the installation of this system is considerably complicated and requires longer time which in turn causes a higher labour cost. The swing/ swivel joints and the flange connections are not easily accessible. which causes difficulties to perform any preventive maintenance. The actual articulated system and swing installed inside a floating tank can be seen in the Figure 1. Figure 3.

The end fitting are integral part of the flexible pipe and hence the possibility of leakage is eliminated.2 Flexible Drain Pipe System The flexible drain system consist only single continuous pipe which expands and contracts with the rise and fall of the floating roof. hence easy installation with lower installation and labour cost.5. the only connection is at the end fitting where it joins the flexible pipe to the top and bottom rigid pipe. The preventive maintenance is also eliminated.3. The flexible pipe in the system is known as COFLEXIP Flexible 107 . However the material cost for the flexible is expensive. End Fitting Flexible Pipe Rigid Pipe Figure 3. The flexible pipe is considerably much lighter then rigid pipe in the articulated pipe system and the arrangement is much simple.23 shows typical arrangement of the flexible drain system inside the floating roof tank. Figure 3.3.23 Flexible Drain Pipe System There are no joints in the full length of the flexible pipe. Full length of the pipe is flexible and uniform without any joint.3.

1.24 (b) COFLEXIP Pipe of different size (Courtesy of TECHNIP-COFLEXIP) Figure 3. Figure 3.24 (a) shows the inner section of a COFLEXIP pipe and Figures 3.24 (b) shows the cut section of several different size of flexible pipe. 2.25 shows the end fitting which is swaged around the drain pipe. External plastic sheath (RILSAN) Figure 3.24 (a) Inner Section of COFLEXIP Pipe (Courtesy of TECHNIP-COFLEXIP) The inner carcass is strong and flexes like hose but it will not kink or collapse. spiral wound inner carcass covered by an outer extruded sheath of RILSAN Nylon 11. Inner interlocked Stainless Steel carcass (anti collapse) AISI 304. Figure 3. A slip on Class 150 ANSI. Figure 3.pipe which the structure composed of an articulated stainless steel grade 304. This inner carcass is designed to prevent leakage.25 End fitting of COFLEXIP Pipe (Courtesy of TECHNIP-COFLEXIP) 108 . rotating raised face flange is fitted behind the neck. instead it is the thick outer protective thermoplastic jacket made of RILSAN Nylon 11 which extruded over the inner carcass and form the water tight seal.

26 shows some example of actual flexible drain pipe system installed in different tank.3. By looking into the cost saving of future maintenance and the service life.3 Drain System Selection It is obvious that the flexible drain pipe system has more advantage over the articulate piping system.3. Figure 3. except for the higher material cost. the flexible drain pipe is selected for my roof drain system. It can be seen that the flexible pipe gives repeatable lay pattern which ensure no-fooling with the roof support leg.3.5. Figure 3.26 Flexible Drain Pipe System Installed in Different Tank 109 .

3.56t) Drain Pipe Inside Diametr. H = h+ v2 . 2g And the total head loss of drain. The drain pipe size was pre-selected as 4” Schedule 80 and the minimum number of drain pipe required is to be determined.6 x 8.48 mm Roof Lowest Height = 1500 mm Drain outlet nozzle elevation.D 101. d = 84. 2g  d d    Then. the total head equation becomes H = v2 2g '  K1 L1 K 2 L'2  + + 1 . z = 225 mm The total head equation is given as.4 Drain Pipe Design The roof drain pipe is sized up using the general flow equation of Q = A. RH = 50 mm/hr Design Drainage Required = RH x deck area = 46.3.5.01 m³/hr Design Drain Pipe = 4” Sch 80 (O.  d  d    Re-arrange the equation. h= ' v 2  K1 L1 K 2 L'2  × + .3. the flow velocity can be determined as follow: V= 2 gH    d  ' K1L1 +  K 2 L'2 + 1  d  110 . V. The drainage design data is as follow: • • • • • • Design Rain Fall.

3 m³/h. L2’ The equivalent pipe length of valve and fitting is determined accordance to Table 3.Rigid Pipe. p15] The flow velocity was calculated as 1.Where K= Flow Coefficient . and substitute it into the flow equation of Q = A. fitting and the rigid and flexible pipe lengths. Therefore the minimum roof drain required are determined as Nreq = Drainage Flow Rate Req. 2007].6 Equivalent Pipe Length Chart [NFPA 15.6 [NFPA 15. 111 . K2 L’ = = 0.97 Minimum two number of drain pipe with size of 4” schedule 80 will be used.V.0168 = 0. Table 3.Flexible Pipe. The total equivalent pipe length will be the summation of the total equivalent length of the valve. Actual Flow Rate = 1. the drainage flow rate for one drain pipe is found to be 23.Flexible Pipe.Rigid Pipe.15m²/s. K1 . L1’ .03 Total Equivalent Pipe Length .

28 shows some typical rolling ladder with the wheel and gauger platform installed in a floating roof tank. Figure 3. The track and ladder length are matched to maximum and minimum roof height. Figure 3. The upper end of the ladder is attached to the gauger platform by hinged brackets and the lower end is provided with an axle with a wheel at each side of the ladder.6 Rolling Ladder & Gauger Platform The rolling ladder installed on the floating roof tank is to provide safe access onto the floating roof.27 shows the sketch of the rolling ladder and the gauger platform.3.3. The gauger platform is a small access area which overhangs on the shell. allowing instrumentation and guide pole to pass though.27 Sketch of Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform in a Floating Roof Tank 112 . The wheels run on a steel track mounted on a runway structure support off the roof. The ladder consists of self-levelling treads and it slides along the track as the roof move up and down. It also provides access for the maintenance personnel.3. Figure 3.

29.3. Fire fighting system is to be designed and installed on the floating roof to fight over and extinguishes the rim fire. The main cause of he the floating roof rim fires is lighting. Most lighting ignited rim fires result from induced charges on the roof and not direct strikes.28 Rolling Ladder and Gauger Platform Installed in a Floating Roof Tank 3.& high-expansion foam) [NFPA 11. 113 .3.Figure 3. There are several techniques available for the fire fighting and multiples foam chamber method is one it which will be discussed in detail here. The multiple chamber method is which the foam is discharged by the foam chambers or foam pourer which mounted at equal spaced around tank periphery as shown in Figure 3. 2005]. this was called as rim fires. The system is to be designed accordance to NFPA-11 (Standard for low-medium.7 Fire Fighting System and Foam Dam Fire on the floating roof tanks are common and it usually happened in the rim space where the vapour escaped.

The foam is contained and concentrated within the rim space by a foam dam. It's height shall be higher than upper tip of seal.30 (a) show a typical arrangement of the fire protection for a floating roof tank and Figure 3. Foam dam is a short vertical plate welded to pontoon at short distance from the seal.30 (b) show an actual foam dam installed on a floating roof tanks. 114 . P53] When the fires were detected.29 General Arrangement of the Multiple Foam Chamber on the Floating Roof Tank [NFPA 11. Figure 3. causing it to flow down to the shell and collect and spread around the rim space. The foam generations are designed in such a way that to draw air into the mixture. causing the foam to expand as it was injected to the tank via pourer. The pourer inject the foam onto the internal surface of the extension of plate and hence onto the tank shell.Figure 3. allowing the whole seal area to be flooded with foam and extinguish fire effectively. measures amounted of propriety foam making compound will be injected into the fire water system leading to the foam generating point of the tank.

p20] 115 .Figure 3.30 (b) Foam Chamber Figure 3.30 (a) Fire Protection for Floating Roof Tank Figure 3.31 Typical Foam Dam [NFPA 11.

Figure 4.1 (a) Progressive Assembly & Welding and Complete Assembly Followed by Welding of Horizontal Seam Method for Welded Vertical Tank [PTS. and have developed the erection technique most suitable for economical working and good workmanship by their field crews.1 (a) and (b). correct welding sequences should be adhered to and adequate supervision provided. welded vertical tanks can be erected satisfactorily in several ways. To build tanks which are of sound quality. which they have adopted as the result of experience.1 Introduction Just as most of the construction task. The method discussed here are simply the general method to give a basic idea on how a tank is built. Few erection methods are illustrated in Figure 4. good appearance and free from excessive buckles or distortion. 1986] 116 .CHAPTER 4: TANK CONSTRUCTION 4. erector contractors normally have a particular method.

A successful construction and operation of the tank relies on the tank being built on a firm foundation.1 (b) Jacking-Up and Flotation Method for Welded Vertical Tank [PTS.2 Foundation Foundation has to be prepared well ahead before the tank construction start. One of the majar parameter in designing and construction the tank foundation is the overturning moment and base shear force of the tank due to seismic and the anchor bolt arrangement and size. API 650 (2007) Appendix B provides recommendations for design and construction of Foundation for above ground storage tanks.Figure 4. 1986] 4. 117 . anchor bolts are to be cast into the foundation as shown in Figure 4. The foundation was built in a height of 300 mm from the ground level. The construction and design will not be discussed in detail as our main concern is the tank itself.2.

2 Tank Foundation with anchor bolt installed 4. 118 . It is important to lay and weld the bottom plate in correct sequence to avoid any weld distortion. bottom plate will start laying on top of the foundation and welded in sequence.Anchor Bolt Bottom Plate Concrete Ring Foundation Figure 4.3 Bottom Plate Placement When the tank foundation is done and ready for the tank erection.

Weld rectangular plates together commencing at centre. After complete assembly and welding of lower shell courses.Figure 4. 1986] The welding sequence for bottom plate layout with annular plates. Weld rectangular and sketch plates together at 13 to 22 and finally to annulars at 23. 6. Weld centre sump in position 1 and 2 3. Weld remaining part of radial weld of annulars at 12c 7. Lay plates and lightly tack –weld 2. seams between rows of plates shall be free of tack-welds before making final weld 4. Weld only outer part of radial seams of annular plates before erection of shell plates at 12a 5.3 Bottom Plate Layout [PTS. welding short seams first 3 to 11. with reference to Figure 4.2 is as follow: 1. 119 . weld lower shell course to annular 12b for prevention of welding distortion.

Figure 4. it shows that the bottom plates are laid in the lapping way.Figure 4.4 Bottom Plate Laid on Foundation Figure 4.5 Typical Cross Joint in Three Plate Lap 120 .5 shows the detail of lap joints where three thicknesses occur.4 shows the actual bottom plate laying in top of the foundation on site. Figure 4.

However this method may only be used only at site where soil settlement is very limited. Figure 4. from the tank shell. the third and subsequent course are erected and welded. where upon completion of the bottom plating and erection of the two lower course of the tank.6 Welding Detail for Bottom Plate 4. with continuous full-fillet weld on all seams as shown in the welding detail in Figure 4. Refer to Chapter 5 for the soil settlement topic.6. For the floating roof tank.1 (b) might be used. using the floating roof as a working platform.4 Shell Erection Shell plates will be erected when the bottom plates are done. from butt-welded annular plate joints. 121 . 2007]. This will be done course by course. and from joints between annular plates and the bottom [API 650.7 show the complete erection of the first shell course and Figure 4. No course can be added as long as the previous course had not been entirely welded. tacked and completely welded. Figure 4.8 (a) and (b) show the erection of the upper shell course from the inside and outer of the tank respectively. working upwards to the top curb angle. And the bottom plate need to be welded on the top side only. water being pumped in as each course is completed. The tank is then filled with water and. Flotation Method as shown in Figure 4.Requirement in API 650 (2007) stated that the three-plate laps in the tank bottoms shall be at least 300 mm from each others. the shell plates are held in place. the floating roof is assembled on the tank bottom and completed.

8 (a) Erection of Upper Shell Course – Inside Tank Figure 4.8 (b) Erection of Upper Shell Course – Outside Tank 122 .7 Completed Erection of First Shell Course Figure 4.Figure 4.

where the vacuum box is fitted with a glass viewing panel on its top and has an open bottom. it also tested the foundation for its capability of taking the filled tank load. 123 . The seal forms an airtight joint around the section of the weld to be tested when the box is pressed against the bottom plates. the other is a vacuum release valve. The test is preferably be made as soon as possible after welding of the bottom but before any surface coating is applied. The bottom plates has to be tested before water is put into the tank for hydrostatic testing.5 Tank Testing 4. A typical vacuum box and pump is shown in Figure 4.1 Tank Bottom Testing After welding of the bottom plates has been completed. Settlement will also be measured during the water testing.4. which enables any leaks in the seams to be positively located by visual examination.2 Tank Shell Testing The tank shells should be water tested/ hydrotested after completion of the wind girder.5. The water test not only to ensure no leakage of the tank. all welds will be tested to ensure that the tank bottom is free from leaks. 4. This can be done by using a vacuum box. around which a continuous rubber seal and former are secured. The tank will be filled up with water to its design level. A partial vacuum can be created by means of a hand or motor-driven vacuum pump.5. A vacuum gauge is incorporated in the box which has two connections: one is the suction tap fitted with a non-return valve.9.

9 Vacuum Box and Pump [PTS. 1986] 124 .Figure 4.

5. These should be tested with particular care. as follows [PTS. The single-fillet welds between the bottom and the side walls of the pontoon. The single-fillet welds between the bulk heads and the bottom and side walls of the pontoon. The single-fillet welds on the upper surface of the pontoon bottom plates. 125 .3 Floating Roof Testing The floating roof has to be liquid-tight in order for it to function safely and effectively. ii) Pontoon Before the top plates of the pontoons are installed. 1986]: i) Centre Deck The weld seams of the centre deck plates should be controlled on liquid-tightness by the vacuum box method or by the penetration oil/chalk method. The welds at the bottom comers of the bulk heads. The gaps so formed in the comers must be effectively closed. for all the weld seams and joints has to be liquid-tight.penetrants. as the bulk heads are mostly shaped at these points to clear the longitudinal weld between the bottom and the side walls. using liquid dye. they will be inspected and tested in a more careful way. The longitudinal welds joining the centre deck to the pontoon. as leaks in one compartment win allow oil to penetrate into the adjacent compartments. the following seams have to be tested for tightness.4.

and during the flotation test.25 bar. iv) Roof Drain The roof drain pipe systems for the floating roof will be tested with water to a pressure of 3.5 bar. each individual pontoon compartment will also be checked by filling it with compressed air at a maximum pressure of 0. 126 .iii) Air Testing of Pontoon Compartments After the completion of the liquid-tightness test for the floating roof pontoon. the roof drains should be kept open and observed for leakage of tank contents into the drain lines.

1 were designed to compensate for variation in tank diameter such as outof-round. The maximum allowable sagging. give rise to biaxial membrane tensile stresses. Excessive sagging causes the bottom-to-shell joint stress become excessive and eventually causes buckling. no matter how good the tank design is.75 100  D  2 127 . There are several types of soil settlement and only two of the common will has most effect on the floating roof will be discussed here. it will impair the roof seal efficiency and caused roof jamming. Pour foundation would threaten the integrity of the tank. Uneven foundation settlement on floating tank is a special problem.1.1.CHAPTER 5: SPECIAL CONSIDERATION 5. 1986]: f = D  100 f o    + 3.3. Therefore proper design of the foundation is essential to avoid the problem. The roof seal as discussed in Chapter 3. i) Center-to-edge Settlement Center-to-edge settlement results stretching of bottom plate. see Figure 5.1 Design Consideration of Foundation As mentioned earlier in Chapter 4 that providing adequate foundation is an important part of ensuring an economical and safe installation of storage tank.3.1 Design Consideration 5. however in extreme condition. can be calculated as follow [PTS.

p82] Some suggestion to the tank designer is that when large settlement is predicted. zero or negative) Figure 5. ii) Uneven Settlement around Circumference Uneven or differential shell settlement around tank circumference would cause the tank tilted and significant out-of-roundness which result the floating roof to malfunction such as holding up. jamming. inrelation to bottom curb when the tank is erected (positive. The tank can also be lifted and re-pack the foundation before the settlement occurs. the bottom can be specified as cone-up bottom to minimise stresses in bottom plate and shellto-bottom joint. cm.1 Maximum Allowable Sag [EEMUA 2003. 128 . excessive emission of product vapours though seal gap and roof sinking.Where f= D= fo = Maximum allowable sag in the tank bottom. cm Deflection of bottom center. cm Diameter of tank.1. vol.

And the maximum out-of verticality at top of tank shell should not exceed 1/100 of tank height.2. but should not be fewer than 8 and spacing between the survey points should not exceed a circumferential distance of 10 m. see Figure 5. Shell wall are relative thin with respect to the large diameter. relevelling the tank and foundation should be considered. hence it has filmsy behavior. The pipe supports shall be designed for the minimum load. The maximum differential settlement between any two points at 10-metre intervals should not exceed 100 m. 129 . p81] 5.1.1. The limitation will have significant influence to the roof rim and rim seals design. The minimum number of survey points would be diameter D in metres divided by 3. vol. Any significant load acts on the shell wall has the potential causing buckling in the tank shell wall. that is 1%.05.2 Maximum Tolerances for Out-of Verticality of the Tank Shell [EEMUA 2003. Pipe support for the nozzle is one of the attachments which attached to the shell wall and exert a significant of load to it. Figure 5. or nearly full. When limit is exceeded.As recommended in the EEMUA (2003).2 Design Consideration on Tank Shell One of the major considerations on the tank shell is the local load acting on the tank shell wall. taking elevation reading at each survey point around the circumference. This limit was established to avoid severe localised stress increase in tank components. an in service settlement survey should be carried out preferably with the tank full.

extra length and width should be ordered for this irregularities and allowance to trim off the un-square side without affecting the over tank height and dimension.2.1 Nominal Diameter Versus Inside Diameter Shell plate shall be aligned with inside diameter instead of the outside or nominal diameter during shell fit up.3 Alignment of Shell Plate for Welding 5. and the whole piece will use directly without any cutting except the edge preparation for the welding. there are always plates come in an irregular shape where the square-ness were out.5. This is so that the shell wall would have a smooth surface for the roof seal to smoothly slide up and down without any jamming.2 Construction Consideration 5. 130 . the plates are normally milled in rectangular shape. Therefore. (√) (X) Figure 5.2 Plate Square-ness Constructing a large tank requires plenty of steel plate. However it is never the case.2.

5. they would use sea water as water medium to perform the water test.3 Testing Consideration 5. the tank venting were not designed for emptying in such big opening. The materials selected were not designed for the sea water. 131 .3. After the water test. temporary steel angle to be stitch welded to the shell acting as the temporary wind girder to resist buckling.3 Wind Damage The partial erected tank is very vulnerable to severe damage from the high wind load. Some contractor who has limited knowledge on the tank and material properties.2. for cost saving purpose.1 Hydrotest/ Water Test Water is always an issue on construction site to fill up and test the huge tank. However sea water contains very high chlorine and it would cause corrosion to the tank. never dewatering from the Manway or the clean out door.5.

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION In completion of this thesis. the roof buoyancy was checked for the pontoon volume and the pontoon stresses was check and found structurally stable. the design code . I had provided a basic design guideline on how to design a new floating roof tank with the special consideration upon the completion of the tank design. Throughout the design process in the project. The bleeder vents were sized up to (Ø 200 mm) 8” schedule standard pipe. NFPA 15 (2007). I have understood what exactly a floating roof tank is all about. The tank was found to be structurally stable without anchorage during the wind load. Several design spreadsheets was created to perform the tank design. Flexible drain pipe system was selected for the roof drain system and 132 . NFPA 11 (2005). Petronas Technical Specification (PTS) and many more.API 650 (2007) was strictly followed together with other standard such API 2000 (1998). Total 22 numbers of pontoon support legs and 30 numbers of deck support legs with size 4” pipe schedule 80 was designed. by using the 1-foot method in API 650 (2007). In the roof stress design. In the thesis. The spreadsheet was created accordance to design codes and standard and the following designs were completed in the project: i) Shell Stress Analysis ii) Roof Stress Design iii) Selection of roof fitting iv) Sizing of roof fitting In the shell stress analysis. and the thickness reduces accordingly with the liquid static head to 11 mm at the upper top course. the minimum shell wall thickness at the bottom course is 28 mm. minimum one number is required but total two were used as one will be designed for the standby purpose. Therefore anchorage is required. however it was structurally unstable for the seismic.

The Scissor Hanger Type in Metallic Mechanical Shoe Seal was selected for the primary seal in the roof seal system.Abaqus. Mechanical stress design for the tank and research of different type of roof fittings from different suppliers were carried out in the roof fitting design. however some derivation of formula were performed by studying and research of the basic stress theory. In the middle of the project. The tank can only be design only when the operation of the tank is well understood. It is not practical to verify their design in this project. however after spending numerous of hour on the software. the operation of the floating tank was addressed thought the tank design. The tank construction chapter had provided a basic understanding on how a floating tank is built and tested. In completion of this dissertation. Special consideration on the design and construction was also addressed.minimum 2 numbers with size Ø 100 mm is required. 133 . In summary. The design code used in my shell stress design had been well established. and had been used worldwide in the petrochemical industry over the past decades since 1919. this dissertation had gives a basic guideline and summary to the tank designer on the Floating Roof Tank. it was realized that the result given from the analysis is not helpful and essential. One example is the formulas for the minimum shell thickness in API 650 (2007) were derivate from the basic stress theory. design verification was performed by using the finite element analysis (FEA) software .

REFERENCE

1. API Standard 650, June 2007. Welded Steel Tanks For Oil Storage. Eleventh Edn, American Petroleum Institute. 2. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 2007. Section VIII, Division, Rules of Construction for Pressure Vessels, Amer. Soc. Of Mech. Eng., New York. 3. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 2007. Section II, Part D, Maximum Allowable Stress Values – Ferrous Materials, Amer. Soc. Of Mech. Eng., New York. 4. BS 2654: 1989, 1989. Manufacture of Vertical Steel Welded Non-Refrigerated Storage Tanks with Butt-welded Shells for the Petroleum Industry. British Standards Institution. 5. EEMUA Publication No. 159:2003, 2003. Users’ Guide to the Inspection, Maintenance and Repair Of Aboveground Vertical Cylindrical Steel Storage Tanks. Volume 1, 3rd Edition, The Engineering Equipment and Materials Users’ Association. 6. John M. Lieb., 2004. “Floating Roof Design Considerations”, Tank Issue 37-2, Spring/ Summer 2004. 7. John M. Lieb., 2006. “Update API 650 Appendix E – Seismic Design of Liquid Storage Tank”, Proceedings of API’s annual storage tank conference, American Petroleum Institute, Houston Texas.

134

8. Hendry H. Bednar, P.E. 1991, Pressure Vessel Design Handbook. 2nd Edn, Krieger Publishing Company, cited in Moss, D.R., 2003. “Pressure Vessel Design Manual,” 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.

9. NFPA 11, 2005. Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam. National Fire Protection Association.

10. Praveen K. Malhotra, 2006. “Seismic Design of Liquid Storage Tanks”, American Society of Civil Engineers. 11. PTS 20.156A, 1986. Manual - Standard Tanks. Vol. 1 – Part 1. Petronas Technical Standards. 12. W. B. Young, “Design and Application of Floating Roofs for Refinery Storage Tanks” Oil and Gas Journal, Vol. 71, No. 49, Dec 1973, pp.48-51.

13. “Material Selection Study for OGT”, Turkmenistan Block 1 Project Specification. 14. Norsok Standard M-056, Rev. 1 June 1998, “ CO2 Corrosion Rate Calculation Model”, http://www.standard.no/imaker.exe?id=535 15. Mark.B, 2006. “Floating Roof Working safety”, Proceeding of 2006 storage tank conference and safety workshop.

16. R.S. Wonzniak & W.W.Mitchell, 1978. Basic of Seismic Design Provisions For Welded Steel Oil Storage Tanks, Presented at session on Advance in Storage Tank Design API, Refining 43RD Midyear Meeting.

17. G.W. Housner, 1954. Earthquake Pressures on Fluid Containers, A report on research Conducted under contract with the Office of Naval Research, California Institute of Technology, Pasedana, Earthquake Research Laboratory.

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18. API Standard 2000, April 1998. Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks. Fifth Edn, American Petroleum Institute.

19. ANSI/ AISC 360-05, March 2005. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. American Institute of Steel Construction.

20. NFPA 15, 2007. Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection. 2007 Edn, National Fire Protection Association.

21. Warren C.Young & Richard G. Budynas, 2002. Roark’s Formulas For Stress and Strain. Seventh Edn, McGraw-Hill International Edition.

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APPENDIX A (PROJECT SPECIFICATION) .

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.

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APPENDIX B (DESIGN CALCULATION) .

Di ( corroded ) (@ 39. 65N A 516 GR. V Maximum design liquid level. HL PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE Design pressure : Upper . 65N A 516 GR. 65N A 516 GR.00 241.00 0.00 24736 20. H Specific gravity of operating liquid .000 3. S.00 448.(mm) 3.790 1.00 241.00 Corrosion Allowance c.000 3. Pu : Lower .3 (Atmospheric) = = = = 0.00 : API 650 11th Edition 1 . 65N . (Design) Nominal capacity .00 241.00 Yield Stress Sy(N/mm²) 241.700 mm mm mm mm m³ mm 1 .00 3.00 448. 65N A 516 GR.000 mm ) Nominal diameter.00 448.000 3.00 70 -17 mbarg mbarg Vac °C °C 1 .a. 65N A 516 GR. Dc ( corroded ) ( based on 1st shell course ) Tank height (tan/tan).00 241. 65N A 516 GR. 65N A 516 GR.00 448.00 448.bracing.2 = = = = = = = = 39.00 241.000 3. Tu : Lower .00 241.000 3.etc ) Top Curb Angle Intermediate Wind Girder A 516 GR. S.4 PLATE Shell Plate ( Mat'l Code # 1 ) (bot) ( Mat'l Code # 2 ) (top) Annular Plate Bottom Plate Roof Plate STRUCTURE MEMBERS Roof structure (rafter.006 39.700 0.1 : 7061T-3901 : Close : Floating Roof 1 .API 650 1 . (Actual) Specific gravity of operating liquid .G. Dn ( new ) ( based on 1st shell course ) Nominal diameter.00 448.00 241.G.STORAGE TANK DESIGN CALCULATION .00 3.031 20. Tl MATERIAL & MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Component Material Tensile Stress St(N/mm²) 448.00 448. Pl Design temperature : Upper .028 39.0 DESIGN CODE & SPECIFICATION DESIGN CODE TANK Item number Roof ( Open/Close ) Type of roof ( Cone-roof / Dome-roof / Flat-roof / NA ) GEOMETRIC DATA Inside diameter .

700 18.00 13.31 Minimum thickness as per : API 650 11th Edition = 8.020 2.00 241.49 18.00 O. M ) stress stress St (N/mm²) Sy (Nmm²) k Sd (N/mm²) St (N/mm²) 448.00 241.3 SPECIFIED MINIMUM SHELL THICKNESS Specification Minimum thickness as per API 650 cl 5.000 160.68 6.43 13.00 3. O.a (mm) 3.67 160.K. ( in mm ) 4.75 180. 65N A 516 GR.00 448. (mm) Result A 516 GR.5 No.440 2.77 11.820 13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CALCULATION & RESULTS Material Width (mm) Height (mm) t. O.00 3.67 160. tsc = Thicknes selected & used 2 .02 16.9Dn ( H . of t.85 11.81 m/s t.test stress stress ( App.000 1.00 241.1.01.3 Shell plate min.2 . O.440 2.00 11.82 27.000 1.00 11.00 448. O. O.00 448.00 mm 2 . allow Max.04 21.design.75 180.1 SHELL THICKNESS CALCULATION BY ONE-FOOT METHOD SHELL DESIGN GEOMETRIC DATA Plate size used PTS 34. (mm) t. 65N A 516 GR.75 180.00 241.K.4 SHELL THICKNESS CALCULATION BY ONE-FOOT METHOD ( CLAUSE 5.75 180.00 11. .0.000 1.020 27.K.000 1.440 2.min (mm) tsc. yield reduction fac design hydro.30 24.040 2.75 180.00 22. 65N A 516 GR.440 mm 1.10 3. 65N A 516 GR.3.00 3. 65N A 516 GR.000 1.30 24.K.3 ).49 18.67 160.00 11. 65N A 516 GR. O.0 2 .60 19.440 2.00 11.58 15.67 160. t.67 180.31 clause 6.1 ) SI METRIC UNIT :Design shell thickness.min = Min.00 241.75 180.67 160.00 mm = 11.K.00 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A 516 GR.hydro.K.00 3.1 PTS 34. 65N A 516 GR.00 1.40 21. 65N A 516 GR.500 mm 2 .6.75 - : : 2.00 3.26 8.86 7. O.58 15.060 4.51.940 8.77 9.40 21.a Sd Hydrostatic test shell thickness .0. O.51.K.67 12.67 160.3 ) tt = St Gravitational force = 9. allow min. 65N A 516 GR.000 1.K.K. 65N A 516 GR.00 448. 65N - 2 . 65N A 516 GR.45 5.00 19.440 2.6.000 1. 65N A 516 GR.020 2.75 180. thickness as per PTS. width as per MATERIAL & MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Material used Specified Specified Yield stress Max.9Dc ( [H+Hi] .440 2.75 180.00 3. 65N A 516 GR.00 28. 65N A 516 GR.67 160.00 448. ( in mm ) 4.00 241.000 1.00 448. Mat'l Code No.020 20.380 10.260 15.design (mm) t. tensile min.500 6. 65N 2.hydo & min.2 No Corrosion allowance c.00 241.00 448.67 160.00 16.00 241.96 1.00 25.67 12. 65N A 516 GR.00 241.00 3.00 448.G td = + c. 65N A 516 GR.00 3.01.

00 11.380 10.020 21.500 6. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS Height (mm) t. .18 3.41 5.940 8.952.165.016.87 29.87 29.952.43 5.43 606.53 446.025.287.40 21.07 Effective liquid head at design pressure Max.82 205.016.30 24.43 7.040 2.94 2.803.016.43 5005.803.59 7.260 15.820 13. Max.225.060 4.18 3.43 2985.00 11.00 19.103.94 2.591.746.82 9. Max.00 11.06 285.266. (mm) H' (mm) H' max (mm) H (mm) P'max N/m² Pmax N/m² 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20.30 13.27 5.82 2.378.00 22.380 10.260 15.700 18. allowable stress at shell course.700 18.500 6.67 12.165.786.00 11. liquid head for tsc.2 .00 16. allowable stress for tsc.940 8.29 4.306.77 11.820 13.30 366.00 28.29 4.00 25.06 2.06 11.040 2.00 13.060 4.025.705.59 965.378.06 2.00 20.53 16.82 8.470.020 H' = H' max = P'max = Pmax = 27.58 15.77 526.41 5.min (mm) tsc.00 11.49 18.43 7.77 18.07 49.6 No.591.470.025.287.82 9.

5 where ta = Annular plate thickness HL = Maximum design liquid level SG = Design specific gravity (v) Min.4. use thickness of = = 28.5) Min. 5.1 3.4. ) mm (ta) is satisfactory.1. use thickness of (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) : yes (@ API 650 Clause 5.00 mm 9.00 mm c.5.00 mm 600 mm 756.a ) 9.028 m 20.7) (iii) Min. radial width of annular plate (cl.000 mm 20. width of overlapping (cl. shell-to-bottom fillet welds size (cl. == = = 6. = = = = = = = 13. 5.00 50 mm (ii) Min.9Dn(H-0.5.09 mm 16.00 16. tsc1 Hydro.00 mm (tb) is = = satisfactory.3) St = tsc1 where Dn = Nominal diameter. Dn ( new ) ( based on 1st shell course ) H = Design liquid level tsc1 = Nominal thickness of 1st shell course Annular plate thickness ( As per Table 5-1a ) Minimum thickness required (@ 3. test stress in 1st shell course.3 .1.700 m 28. width projected inside of shell to edge of overlapping (cl.70 m 1.3. width projected outside of shell ( cl. SG )0.1) - mm 25 mm 1800 mm 50 mm ANNULAR PLATE (i) Nominal thickness of 1st shell course.00 mm Min.33 N/mm² = = = = = 39.00 mm 9. width of plate (cl.00 mm 139.5.000 mm 6. 5.00 Therefore .00 mm mm c. 5.2) (iv) Min.2) .2) 215 ta La = (HL.5.0 BOTTOM & ANNULAR PLATE DESIGN BOTTOM PLATE & ANNULAR PLATE DESIGN Annular plate used ? ( yes/no ) BOTTOM PLATE (i) Minimum thickness as per Minimum thickness required Therefore. 5. 4. 5.a.

4 8380 mm3 = 75 x 75x 10 = satisfactory. L3 Web plate thk.162.TOP STIFFENER RING TOP CURB ANGLE If the top wind girder is located 600 mm below top of the tank.tsc.492 Neutral axis of combined section.ROOF TO SHELL JUNCTION CALCULATION 4 .833 374.00 8192 433.5 2775300 17.500 838.2 Section modulus.Girder Web plate length.39 TOTAL 11.35 400.00 mm mm = 128 mm 3 A Y AY h (mm²) (mm) (mm³) (mm) 1 2048 4.1.772.7 m 140.000 400. t3 Min.148.1 DESIGN OF OPEN ROOF TANK .878.655.375.1 4 . tsc.00 mm 10 mm X 2 8 250 mm 1 X 825 mm L1=16.161 mm4 = 2.cor = 8. shell thickness where top wind girder located.H2 17 V 190 2 = = = = = 1007 cm³ 1.777.148 4. top curb angle is required.Z min MEMBER SIZE USED FOR TOP CURB ANGLE Actual size for top curb angle Section modulus. Location of top wind girders from top of tank.1114101 3 2. L2 Toe plate length.cor tsc. therefore the angle size selected is = = 76 x 76 x 6.007.655 I = (bd³)/12 (mm4) 10.00 km/hr = Nominal Tank Diameter = Height of tank shell = Wind Velocity MEMBER SIZE USED FOR TOP WIND GIDER Available section modulus Fabricated Tee.557 787. Za Since Za 4 . L = Since L is > 600mm from top of tank.140 mm³ 39. .662 mm³ satisfactory.61141 2 6600 420.3.923 374343750 20.cor C1 D= 39037 : T 825 x 250 x 8 x 10 = 825 mm = 250 mm = 8 mm = 10 mm = 8. therefore the angle size selected is A. t2 Toe plate thk. 1000 mm MINIMUM REQUIREMENT Minimum required size as per API 650 clause 5.2 > Zmin . Za Since Za > Zmin . top curn angle shall be provided. 13500 mm 3 TOP WIND GIRDER The required minimum section modulus of the stiffening ring shall be as follows:Z= where Dc H2 V Dc².00 2. Ix-x Section modulus available.506 = 438 mm = 1.9.h² (mm4) 385062615 1932482.095. C1 Moment of inertia of section .1.031 m 20.

1 INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS CALCULATION INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS DESIGN MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF THE UNSTIFFENED SHELL ( CLAUSE 5.397 7 8.440 1.9.00 2.00 2.020 9 8. L1 = 4615 mm L2 = .440 195 3 19.440 281 4 16.00 2.00 mm 39.00 2.00 km/hr ts.020 10 11 12 13 14 15 Height of transformed shell. = 1 Location of intermediate wind girders from top of tank.440 725 6 10. H2 = 9.cor Dc 3 x 190 ² V = = = = = 9.03 m 140.020 2.1 ) SI METRIC UNIT :H1 = (9.0 5 .020 2.7.00 2.2 Since H1 < H2.mm L3 = .440 431 5 13.00 2.020 8 8.5 .mm . therefore the intermediate required wind girder is/are Minimum number of intermediate wind girders required.440 141 2 22.47 ts.00 2.230 mm 5 .cor = Top shell course thickness Dc = Nominal tank diameter V = Wind design speed LOCATION OF INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS Shell Shell Actual Transposed course thickness width width tsc.mm .182 m 9182 mm 8.mm L4 = L5 = .020 2.00 2.00 2.cor W Wtr (mm) (mm) (mm) 1 25.cor) where ts.

h² (mm4) 82447200.cor = 128 mm C1 D= 39037 = = = 39.cor = 8.031 m 4.642523 2 3600 233 838800 28. therefore the angle size selected is A.848 1.401.5 .323 = 205 mm 4 = 225.821.7.923 60750000 6.00 mm 8 mm X 2 8 150 mm 1 X 450 mm L1=16. tsc. t3 Min.392 Neutral axis of combined section. t2 Toe plate thk.812 cm³ 225. L2 Toe plate length. between inter. wind girder & top angle V = Wind design speed (b) Available section modulus for intermediate wind girder Fabricated Tee.6 2894927.445 164.143 mm³ satisfactory. shell thickness where top wind girder located.3574766 3 1.200 462.588.Girder Web plate length. Za Since Za > Zmin .33 79.40 km/hr Dc². L3 Web plate thk.tsc.615 m 140.cor tsc.896 mm = 863.9.36 TOTAL 6. C1 Moment of inertia of section .min = where Dc = Nominal tank diameter H1 = Vertical dist.767.00 8192 200. Ix-x Section modulus available.3 SIZE OF INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS (a) Required minimum section modulus of intermediate wind girder ( clause 5.479.032 mm³ : T 405 x 150 = 450 = 150 8 = = 8 = 8.812.6 ) SI METRIC UNIT :Z. H1 17 V 190 2 = = 225.400 60.573 I = (bd³)/12 (mm4) 10.00 mm mm mm mm mm mm 3 A Y AY h (mm²) (mm) (mm³) (mm) 1 2048 4.400 257.00 554. .

Hr ) Projected area of shell.395.350 20.700 0. depth of product (always present in tank) .Lr + Fs. ) Insulation thickness.00 Wind correction factor. D Tank height .200 mm² 0N 699.00 0 mm² 811. D = 0 Nmm Overturning moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from horizontal . Fs ( = ws.6 . wr (@ Wind pressure on cylindrical surfaces.Do.000 0 10.000 20. ws (@ 18. 1/2. ti Nominal diameter of tank.898 N 6 .6 Mw + Mpi < MDL / 1. D .700. ß° Roof height. Pi ( @ 0. the following uplift criteria shall satisfy: Criteria 1: 0.564. Fr H/2 H Momment about shell to bottom joint Dead Load (WDL) Liquid hold down weight (wa) For tank to be structurally stable without anchorage. Hr Height from tank bottom to shell centre.kw.939 N 0N 3. WDL (@ 550.0008621 N/mm² 1.kw.241.1(j). Pi ).512 kg ) kg ) = = = = = = = = = = = = 0 N/mm² 75 mm 39.Lr Min.Do.2.0 mbarg. Fr ( = wr.0 6 . Ar ( = 0.Ar ) Total wind load exerted on shell.Ls ) psf ) psf ) = = = = = = = = 0. Hs Roof slope.212. Mw ( = Fr.00 Wind pressure on conical surfaces. Ls Height from tank bottom to roof centre.700 0 mm mm ° mm mm mm mm 5.As ) Total wind moment on tank. As ( = k.k.045 327.1 WIND LOAD CALCULATION (OVERTURNING STABILITY) WIND DESIGN CALCULATION Internal design pressure.3 OVERTURNING STABILITY AGAINST WIND LOADING Wind Uplift Load Internal Pressure Load D/2 Wind load on shell. Ww Weight of shell + top angle (corroded ).681 N 7. the wind pressure are as follows:30.5.Wt (corroded condition) (@ Weight of product (always present in tank) .4 Mpi < (MDL +MF) / 2 where: Mpi = = = Mw = Moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from design internal pressure Uplift thrust on roof due to internal pressure x 1/2 tank diameter 2 ( 1/4 π.0014369 N/mm² 0. kw (= V /190)² Projected area of roof.5 Criteria 2: Mw + 0. Hw Weight of tank.964 Nmm 6 .2 WIND FORCE CALCULATION As per API 650 clause 5.Hs ) Total wind load exerted on roof.

and 1/2 (MDL+ MF) The tank anchorage is NOT REQUIRED. ( = Fr.181 Nmm wa = H= tb = Fby = = = = = 64.2 m 16 mm 2 241 N/mm FOR CRITERIA 1 0.700.379.578 Nmm = 41. π D).6 Mw + Mpi MDL / 1.668. D. .035.700.21 N/m 19.Lr + Fs.651.345.376 Nmm MF = = = 153.5.5 = 7.502. 0.Ls ) Moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from the weight of the shell and the roof supported by the shell.5.241.440.020.since it is floating on liquid Moment about the shell-to-bottom joint from liquid weight (wa) (wa.4 Mpi < (MDL +MF) / 2 = 7.767.251 Nmm Mw + 0.5 FOR CRITERIA 2 Mw + 0.4 Mpi (MDL +MF) / 2 Since. H Design liquid height Thickness of Bottom plate under the shell Minimum specified yeid stress of the bottom plate under the shell 0.6 Mw + Mpi Mw +0.779 Nmm < < MDL/1.964 Nmm = 108.= MDL = = plus vertical wind pressure Total wind moment on tank. D 1000 2 Weight of liquid = 59 tb Fby.214.6 Mw + Mpi < MDL / 1.4 Mpi = 4.241.419. WDL Weight of roof = 0. 0.964 Nmm = 62.

50 D III 39.65 0. Sp Importance factor.728. Wf (@ (@ (@ (@ 352.0.462.5 K Q Fa So Ts . Ac When Tc ≤ TL Ac = 2.581.5 Q Fa So I Rwi = 0.69 . H Ht.418 0 242. Ws Total weight of tank roof.700 10.1.1.34 Convective spectral acceleration parameter.3 4 2 4s 6.0 7 .Xr Design specific gravity of liquid.1 7 .3 g 1.961 kg ) kg ) kg ) kg ) = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0.5 1.700 0 1 3.2 1.2 Note: The total weight of the tank roof will be added to the weight of tank content.from bottom shell to COG of shell.026 84. G Total weight of tank shell.Xs Maximum design liquid level.5% Acceleration based site coefficient as per Table E-1 Velocity-based site coefficient as per Table E-2 Substitution for seismic peak ground acceleration Sp Force reduction coefficient for impulsive mode as per Table E-4 Force reduction coefficient for convective mode as per Table E-4 Regional dependent transition period for longer period ground motion First mode sloshing wave period for convective mode Fv.471 mm mm mm mm mm N N N N 7 . S1/ Fa.1 SEISMIC FORCE CALCULATION SEISMIC LOADS DESIGN GEOMETRIC DATA Seismic peak ground acceleration. Ss = = = = = = = = = = 1 1.063298299 Scaling factor Coefficient to adjust the spectral damping from 5% .031 20.350 20. DESIGN SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATIONS Impulsive spectral acceleration parameter. Ai Ai = 2.63 s 0.TL Tc 2 I Rwc ≤ Ai = 0. D Total height of tank shell.5 K Q Fa So Ts Tc I Rwc ≤ Ai = - When Tc > TL Ac = where Q = K = Fa = Fv = So = Rwi = Rwc = TL = Tc = Ts = 2.948 0 24.931 833.from bottom shell to COG of roof.7 . Wp Total weight of tank bottom. Ht Ht. SUG Nominal diameter of tank. I Site Class Seismic Use Group. since the roof is floating on the liquid. Wr Total weight of tank contents.

636. S1 Fa .69 Acceleration based site coefficient (at 0. Ks = = 6.6500 For regions outside USA. Fa = Fv = S1 = Ss = Fv . Wi = For D/H < 1.333. the convective spectral acceleration parameter Ac Since Tc > TL and the impulsive spectral acceleration parameter Ai 7 . D/H . S1 = 1.67H D . 5% damped.2.230 D H tanh 3.1 OVERTURNING STABILITY AGAINST SEISMIC LOADING EFFECTIVE MASS OF TANK CONTENTS Effective impulsive portion of the liquid weight. Wp tanh (0.0 . period) as per Table E-2 Maximum considered earthquake.499.2 1.636. Wi = 137.7 .218 D H . Tc = 1.578 Ks = tanh 3.333.06 0.0.1.499.D/H) 0. Wc = 0.5 Sp .375 0. spectral response acceleration parameter at shorts period of 0.10 N Effective convective weight. For D/H ≥ 1.333 . Ss = 0.59 Ts = where.2 7 . %g = = 1.10 N = - N D/H > 1.2 second. spectral response acceleration parameter at the period of one second. %g Maximum considered earthquake. 5% damped.14 N . effective impulsive portion of the liquid weight.3 CONVECTIVE (SLOSHING ) PERIOD The first mode sloshing wave period. Wp = = = = 0.25 Sp Ss = 2. Wi = Since 1.2 sec perios) as per Table E-1 Velocity-based site coefficient (at 1 sec.866. Wp = 100.998.34 = 137. sites not defined by ASCE 7 method.68 H D = 0.137.8 Ks √ D where.63 s sloshing period coefficient 0.75 0.866.

2.55 mm 7 . cosh Xc = 1.375H = 7762. Xi + Ws.5 mm D/H > 1.67H D 3.H H = = mm 0.762.0 3.8 Nm 7 .00 mm 28.722. Vi2 + Vc2 Vi = Vc = Ai (Ws + Wr +Wf + Wi) Ac.3 OVERTURNING MOMENT The seismic overturning moment at the base of the tank shell shall be the SRSS summation of the impulsive and convective components multiplied by the respective moment arms to the center of action of the forces.75 N 47. Xr)] 2 + [Ac (Wc.00 mm 1200. ta = Thickness of bottom shell course. Xi 7.2 CENTER OF ACTION FOR EFFECTIVE LATERAL FORCES The height from the bottom of the Tank Shell to the center of action of the lateral seismic forces related to the impulsive liquid force for ringwall moment.0 mm 241.094 D .5 .81453E+11 Nmm 381453029.7 28. Fty Anchorage Ratio.333 .3.010. specified yield strength of bottom shell course.2. For D/H ≥ 1. ts = Bottom/Annular plate radial width.67 H D sinh -1 3.393. Mrw = [Ai ( Wi.181.0.7 .0.1 RESISTANCE TO OVERTURNING THICKNESS OF THE BOTTOM PLATE UNDER THE SHELL & ITS RADIAL WIDTH Bottom/Annular plate thickness .333. J J= where.333. Xi = Since 0.26 N 7 . Ringwall moment.0 N/mm 2 2.4 SHEAR FORCE The seismic base shear shall be defined as the SRSS combination of the impulsive and convective components.24 N/mm 94. Xc)] 2 = = 3.3 7 . Wc = = = 48.67 H D .4 Av) + Wa ) = = = 16. Fy Min.2.902.326. Xi = For D/H < 1.17 Vertical earthquake acceleration coefficient Tank and roof weight acting at base of shell Resisting force of the annulus = = = 0. V= where.902. Av = Wt = wa = Mrw D2 ( Wt (1 .50 mm The height from the bottom of the Tank Shell to the center of action of the lateral seismic forces related to the convective liquid force for ringwall moment.05 N 6.93 N/mm .0 N/mm 2 241.H = 12. Xs + Wr. Ls = Min. specified yield strength of bottom annulus.

3. Fc = 83.223 m³/mm² For GHD²/(ts²) < 44 m³/mm². L= 0. J > 1. Fc = 83. Since Ls 7 .67 N/mm 7 .09 mm 1.4 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SHELL COMPRESSION A= GHD² ts² ( D in m ) = 40. D wrs = Roof load acting on the shell.00 = 94.273 Mrw D 2 1 ts = 12.94 N/mm² For GHD²/(ts²) ≥ 44 m³/mm².5D + 7. then the minimum radial width of the bottom plate.ts D = N/mm² Therefore.035 D.24 N/mm = 0 N/mm The resisting force of the annulus.732.72 Since the anchorage ratio.0.108. the bottom/ annular plate width is satisfactory. Ge wa < 196. wa = 99 ta Fy.94 N/mm² .H.54 N/m Ge = Effective specific gravity including vertical seismic effect = G. 0.4 Av) = 0. H.57 mm The maximum width of annulus for determining the resisting force. ( Zero for floating roof) = 28.Ge = ≤ 196. (1 .54. the minimum radial width should be L. the tank is not stable and cannot be self-anchored for the design load.3 < > 0.108.366. SHELL COMPRESSION MECHANICALLY-ANCHORED TANKS Maximum longitudinal shell compression.5{G.H}½ = 57.704.2 ANNULAR PLATE REQUIREMENT If the thickness of the bottom plate under the shell is thicker than the remainder of the bottom. Ge = = = 1. = 57. D. 7 . therefore the tank is structurally stable. The tank shall be mechanically anchored. Fa ( < 0.01723 ta Fy H.D.035 D Since L And. Ws Wt = + wrs π.5Fty ) Since σc < Fc.57 mm 1. H.3. Ge 114. σc = wt ( 1 + 0.ts 2.932.3.016.4 Av) + 1. including 10% of specified snow load.Weight of tank shell and portion of roof supported by the shell.

Sy Allowable tensile strength. N Dia. When Tc ≤ 4 Af = When Tc > 4 Af = For SUG III When Tc ≤ TL Af = When Tc > TL Af = Since SUG is K.647.08 0.33g.5 K Q Fa So Ts Tc = 0.647.2 MATERIAL & MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Material used Specific minimum yield stress.corr (less c. TL Tc .5 7 .wt ( 1 .9 Q Fa Ss = Minimum required freeboard. SD1 1 Tc = 2.08 For SDS = 0.000 = = mm) (min.70 0 Nmm mm N/mm N/mm Tensile stress. Af 2 = = 0. δs = 0.592. d Dia. = 161. SD1 III TL Tc and 2 = 1.7 .5 K Q Fa So I 4Ts Tc 2 = 0.81453E+11 39. δsreq 7 . SD1. Sp > 0.5 D. Vertical earthquake acceleration coefficient Uplift thrust due to internal pressure = = = = = 3.21 K. ( as per Table E-7) = 1.5. 4 Tc 2 = 2.642 1.031 28.size. I.14 = 2. Af where: For SUG I and II.04 N/mm² .4 FREE BOARD FOR SLOSHING WAVE HEIGHT Sloshing wave height above the product design height.436 mm mm mm mm² mm 7 .all ( 0. of anchor bolt. W AB = where Mrw = Dc = wt = Av = wint = 1.273 Mrw Dc² . 1 Tc = 2.06 mm 3.13 K.5 K Q Fa So I Ts Tc = 0.= Bolts circle diameter.5 N/mm² 441.Ab Since σb < St. of anchor bolt. Ab Spacing between anchor bolts.1 TANK ANCHORAGE GEOMETRIC DATA Number of bolts .d.0.24 0.a.06 mm K. σb = WAB / N.019 N Overturing moment due to seismic Nominal diameter of tank Tank and roof weight acting at base of shell.4 Av) + wint : = = SA 320 Gr L7 551.80Sy ) ( Table 5-21a ) Uplift force due to seismic loading.320 2.4 mm ) = = = = 86 64 58 39.all.25.5.5 K Q Fa So Tc > TL Ts.20 N/mm² = 36. Da Root area of each hold down bolt. St. I. SD1.therefore the anchor bolt size is satisfactory.

Øir Bulkhead Outer heigh.7 1 8 . Bih Bulkhead Width.000 N/mm² = = 7.8 . of L 75 x 75 x 6 L 75 x 75 x 6 @ unit weight of @ unit weight of = = = = = = = 9 15 8 8 8 8 8 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm 6.D 34248 39006 ( All dimensions in mm unless otherwise stated.850 kg/m³ = = = 3 mm 0. Tor Inner Rim Thk. H Material of Construction Specific Minimum Yield Stress. Td Circumferential Truss Plates Rafter Posts 44 Nos. Specific Gravity of product Max.0 DESIGN OF SINGLE DECK FLOATING ROOF FOR A STORAGE TANK 75 1 64 Top pontoon plt 8 Rafter L 75 x 75 x 6 Inner Rim Outer Rim 15 975 Post 525 Btm Angle Bulkhead Deck Plate 8 198 2181 38610 Shell I. Tb Deck Plate Thickness. Tbp Bulkheads Thk.85 kg/m 6. ) 8 . w Rim Gap Outer Rim Extend above pontoon. Øor Inner Rim Diameter. of Pontoons. Sy Modulus of Elasticity Density of Material.85 kg/m . Hext No.1 TANK GEOMETRY DATA Inside diameter . Tir Top Pontoon Thk. of 44 Nos.000 mm ) = = 39. N Outer Rim Diameter.2 GEOMETRY DATA Outer Rim Height.3 MEMBER SIZE & PROPERTIES Outer Rim Thk. Hir Pontoon width. ρ (plate) Corrosion Allowance Min.006 mm : SA 516 Gr 65N = 275 N/mm² 209. Specific Gravity of product 39. Di ( corroded ) (@ Tank height (tan/tan). Ttp Btm Pontoon Thk. Hor Inner Rim Height. wb = = = = = = = = = = = 975 525 2181 198 75 22 mm mm mm mm mm 38610 mm 34248 mm 884 mm 509 mm 2157 mm 8 . Boh Bulkhead Inner heigh.

45 kg 57.38 kg 2. Rim Ø 34248 mm 38610 mm 37156 mm h2 = 0. Rim Ø I.651.2 (Area od deck / 30m² / leg ) 3" pipe x Sch.21 kg 987.27 22.852.32 2927 823 kg/m kg/m mm mm 8 .248.65 kg 57.35 . 80 4" pipe x Sch.1 ROOF SUPPORT LEG ( Refer to Design of Supporting Legs) PONTOON LEG No.53 h1 = 0.0 PONTOON VOLUME O.86 551.Øir²) x Ttp x ρ (plate) π /4 x( Øor² .355.4. (Wroof) = = = 55.675. Np Pontoon Leg Size 3" pipe x Sch.29 1340.21 kg 113. Vol(pontoon) = = = = 40.85 m³ 164. of Pontoon Leg.27 22. 80 = @ unit wt @ unit wt = = 30 15.4 8 . Nd Deck Leg Size Deck Leg Housing Deck Leg length Deck Leg Housing length WEIGHT CALCULATION Top Pontoon Bottom Pontoon Inner Rim Outer Rim Bulkheads Deck Plate = = @ unit wt @ unit wt = = 22 15.32 2940 1084 kg/m kg/m mm mm 8 .8 .66 532.03 3 2 1 2 Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Total Pontoon Volume.18 kg 6. Rim Ø + 2 x 2/3 w h3 = 0. of Deck Leg. 80 Pontoon Leg length Pontoon Leg Housing length DECK LEG No.5 π /4 x( Øor² .70 m³ 120.17 m³ 3.08 kg kg kg kg = = = = π /4 x Øir x Td x ρ Pontoon Legs Pontoon Legs housing Deck Legs Deck Legs housing TOTAL WEIGHT Pontoon Components: (Wpontoon) Deck Components: (Wdeck) Total Weight of Floating Roof.Øir²) x Tbp x ρ (plate) π x Øir x Hir x Tir x ρ π x Øor x Hor x Tor x ρ 1/2 x (Boh .18 kg 15.100.28 kg 8.075.Bih)x wb x Tb x ρ x N = = = = = = = = = = 15. 80 Pontoon Leg Housing 4" pipe x Sch.675.852.72 m³ I.4.66 kg 9 .

57 m³ .44 m m NORMAL OPERATION FLOATATION LEVEL FOR ROOF .15 1 The Deck is set at the difference of floation depth in Pontoon & Deck.1) 1/4 x π x (Øor² .PONTOON & DECK Actual Product Level Deck Level 161.3 = 63. V1 + Partial Volume Displaced in Pontoon below the deck level.71 mm 9 . Vdisplacement = To find Floatation Depth of Pontoon from Inner Corner of Pontoon. Va + Volume Displaced by the Deck.1 SETTING DECK LEVEL OPERATION FLOATATION LEVEL .57 m³ Deck H. Floatation Height Above Deck Total Volume Displaced by the roof = Volume Displaced by the Backslope.93 m³ Product Displacement. W(roof) ρ (product) = 161. Vb Total Volume Displaced by the roof.56 Product Level Deck Level 63.15 mm D(pontoon) = 3 2 153. 2 Vdisplacement .PONTOON Buoyant Force. Vdisplacement (roof): Vdisplacement (roof) = Roof Total Weight. 494.9 .DECK Deck Floatation Depth Deck Thk Floatation Depth.71 Freeboard above deck.D(pontoon) 9 . FB ρ x Vdisplacement x g = = Fpontoon W (Pontoon) x g Pontoon Weight. D(deck) .Øir²) = 153.2 OPERATION FLOATATION LEVEL .0 9 . Displacement above Inner corner of Pontoon Pontoon Cross Area in Vol. D(deck) = = Density of Deck Density of Product ρ (deck) ρ (product) x Td = 89. D(pontoon) = Vol.Vbackslope (Vol. W(pontoon) ρ (product) = 78.44 mm 89.

38 m 375.1) σα Et Where: t= α= q= = y= σb = σd = σ= v= E= 2 2 = K 3 y + K t 4  y     t  2 ( 11. h Bulk head outer height.536. Vrain = Vrain = Adeck x Hrain where Adeck = Hrain = = 233.70 ii) Partial Volume Displaced in Pontoon below the deck level: Deck level Height.99 m³ π /4 x Øir 2 Area of deck = Rain accumulation of 10" 2 = 921. to Roark's Formulas For Stress And Strain. weight of deck that float on product) 8 17124 N/mm2 Td x ( ρ(plate) . Deck (mm) = Td = Outer radius of the deck plate = Øir / 2 = Unit lateral pressure (equiv. The Floatation Height Above Deck.000561 Maximum deflection bending stress diaphragm stress σb + σd = Maximum stress due to flexure and diaphragm tension combined Poisson's ratio = 0.000 N/mm² .partial of Vol.i) Volume Displaced by the Backslope.213. Vdisplacement (rain): W(roof) + Wt(rain) Vdisplacement (rain) = = 495.95 mm qα Et 4 4 = K 1 y + K t 2  y     t  3 ( 11. H 94 FLOATATION LEVEL FOR ROOF . 2 = 14.3 Modulus of Elasticity = 209.ρ(product) ) = 0.11.11.2 (ii) Area of roof 10 0 10 1 CHECKING THE STRESSES AND DEFLECTION IN THE CENTRE DECK (Ref.PONTOON & DECK FOR 10" (254MM) OF ACCUMULATED RAIN WATER For deck to support 10" (254mm) of rain water: Volume of rain water collected at the deck.21 H 0. 7th Edition) CASE 1: NORMAL CASE .98 m³ iii) Volume Displaced by the Deck: Area of Deck Plate x Floatation Height Above Deck π /4 x Øir 2 x H = = 921.1 .95 mm Hence.00 mm Total Volume Displaced by the roof with the 10" of rain water accumulation.2) Plate thickness.64 mm = 254.NO PONTOON PUNCTURED = = 0.Vol. H(rain) = Vdisplacement (rain) . Volume 1 = 40.84 ρ (product) where W(roof) = Wt(rain) = Total weight of roof Weight of 10" rain water m³ Floatation Height above Deck.11 m 114. Bih x Vol.

13 2 1.361. K3 = K4 At the edge.52 2 32.86 q α4 Et4 3 And K1 y t + K2 y y t = = q α4 Et4 215. K3 = K4 For 4 1 .6 1 . the radial force on the inner rim.86 0. t 2 = K3 y t = = At Deck Center.2 σα² E.44 N/mm .The deck plate is fixed and held at its outer edge by the pontoon.43 N/mm It is the diaphragm stress at the edge which causes the tension at the outer edge of the Deck.33 1 .249.73 56. Hence.976 5.ν2 = = 5.92 N/mm N/mm2 3.ν2 2. = = = σtotal σbending σdiaphgram = = = 2 62. Rh = σ diaphgram x deck thickness = 459. Uniform pressure q over entire plate (Case 3 in Roark's Formulas) K1 = K2 = At the Centre.11.567315 y t 2 (at Deck Center) (at Deck Edge) 2 35.40 N/mm σtotal σbending σdiaphgram At Deck Edge.31 Solving equation 11.86 2.41 N/mm 2 57.ν = = 2.3494954 1377.40 1. hence condition is consider as: Fixed and Held.84 N/mm 2 5.81 mm = 56.ν2 = = = 4. + K4 787.

176 Neutral axis of combined section. Fc AY (mm³) 37.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Material Properties Specified minimum yield stress.019.600 26.Do Mr =1 1 Tr = 2 tan α sin α 1 α 1 Tm = 2. α = A Y (mm²) (mm) 1 6300 6 2 17282 1092 3 17494 1092 4 8100 2176. 7th Edition.CASE 1 PONTOON PROPERTIES Nominal diameter of Inner Rim.126 40 40 1. Rh 4 α tan α ( Do= Qir.264 mm4 27.340.562.578.44 N ( Note : Rh is negative for inward force ) (Reference to Roark's Formulas For Stress and Strain. Rh α° Mid Point Number of load point @ each mm.2.1 PONTOON STRESS DESIGN .001 13.980. k ( Table M-1 ) Allowable stress reduction factor ( App.924.720.435 6.27 Angle α° = 1/2 x 360/ Nlp = 0.5 TOTAL 49.800 17.2. Nlp = π x Øir = 107.626 mm³ : SA 516 Gr. C1 Moment of inertia of section .675 16. Ks ( = k.602 6.00 N/mm² = 1.806.845.572.001673 ° Radial load on rim.10 2 10 .969.00 N/mm² 10 .617.692. M.202 54. Rh. Table 9.525 27.7 ) Allowable bending stress. Tor Top Pontoon Thk. Tbp = = = = = = 34248 2160 12 9 8 8 mm mm mm mm 2 2160 525 4 900 α 2187 3 Top Pontoon slope angle @ 1 : 64 = Backslope angle. tensile force.313 h (mm) 1.800 18.643. nonimial diamter of inner ring) .Do Mm = 4 At Reaction-Point.3.629.462 8.2 Case 7) At Mid-Point. with a very small angle between load point approximtaed to uniform distributed load in the circular ring design.Sy/206. Bending moment. Rh = 459.2.971.33 N/mm² = 165. Za 10 .16 rad A.103.sin α Circ.593. Ix-x Section modulus available. Rh Circ.00 = 183. Rh.h² I = (bd³)/12 (mm4) (mm4) 7. Tir Outer Rim Thickness. Ttp Btm Pontoon Thk.5 ). 65N = 275. Øir Pontoon Inside Width Inner Rim Thickness.000 = 1.263 = 1132 mm = = 30. tensile force.02 rad 0. Sy Yield strength reduction factor. Bending moment.872.045 0.189.650 55.762 75.880.3 PONTOON RING DESIGN The uniform radial force acting on the Inner Rim is modelled as load point at each mm of circumference.063 19. Fb Allowable compressive stress.300.

429 -0.0000007 159.99 m³ π /4 x Øir 2 Area of deck = Rain accumulation of 10" Vol. Deck (mm) = Td = Outer radius of the deck plate = Øir / 2 = Unit lateral pressure = Maximum deflection bending stress diaphragm stress σb + σd = Maximum stress due to flexure and diaphragm tension combined Poisson's ratio = Modulus of Elasticity = 8 17124 0.14 7.24 kg Weight of 10" accumulated rain water.000526 N/mm2 0. = W deck + W rain Nett downward force acting on deck = (Upward bouyant load .3 CASE 2: INFLUENCE OF 10" (254mm) OF RAIN ACCUMULATED ON CENTER DECK 10" Rain For deck to support 10" (254mm) of rain water: Volume of rain water collected at the deck.429 0.33 165 0. LOAD-POINT -38. Vrain = Adeck x Hrain where Adeck = Hrain = = 233.988.64 kg/m2 qα Et 4 4 = K 1 y + K t 2  y     t  3 ( 11.11.840.3 200.98 183 165 0. Wrain = Upward Bouyant Load = Deck Area x Floatation Height x Product density = π /4 x (Øir) 2 x H (rain) x ρ Downward load due to deck steel and rain water. axial stress Unity Check Condition ( Nmm ) (N) ( N/mm² ) ( N/mm² ) ( N/mm² ) ( N/mm² ) MID-POINT 19.4 RESULT RING STABILITY CHECK Bending Moment Circumferential force Bending Stress Circumferential stress Allow. bending stress Allow.10 .1) σα Et Where: t= α= q= y= σb = σd = σ= v= E= 2 2 = K 3 y + K t 4  y     t  2 ( 11.Downward Load) = Deck Area = 242.000 N/mm² .000001 159.536.2.64 mm³ = 254 mm = 233.45 kg 75 = 53.429.2) Plate thickness. 10 .867.11.29 7.97 OK.97 OK. rain x ρ rain = 921.867.213.98 183.27 kg = 291.

86 0. K3 = K4 At the edge.228.34 N/mm 2 30.73 55.11.2 σα² E. hence condition is consider as: Case 3 Fixed and Held. Uniform pressure q over entire plate K1 = K2 = At the Centre.The deck plate is fixed and held at its outer edge by the pontoon.6 1 .ν2 K 3 = 2 1 − v = 5.4581306 1360. Hence. + K4 777.70 qα Et4 y t = And K1 + K2 y y t 3 = = q α4 Et4 214.23 N/mm It is the diaphragm stress at the edge which causes the tension at the outer edge of the Deck. the radial force on the inner rim.ν = = 2.60 N/mm σtotal σbending σdiaphgram At Deck edge.86 2 1. K3 = K4 For 4 1 .94 N/mm 2 3. = = = σtotal σbending σdiaphgram = = = 2 59.73 Solving equation 11.14 N/mm 4 54.ν2 2.33 1 .86 = 2.38325 mm = 55.976 4.85 N/mm .40 1. Rh = σ diaphgram x deck thickness = 433.ν2 = = 4 5.154003 y t 2 (at Deck Center) (at Deck Edge) 2 33.140.37 N/mm 3 5. t 2 = K3 y t = = At Deck Center.

4.43 LOAD CASE 2 Deck Center Deck Edge 33.15 7. 65N = 275. Nlp = π x Øir = 107593. Ks ( = k.92 OK.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Material Properties Specified minimum yield stress. Øir Section modulus available.209 -0.4.4.Sy/206.0000007 151. Fc PONTOON RING DESIGN : SA 516 Gr.84 3.10 4 10 . Rh.4. α 1 tan α 1 Tr = 2 tan α sin α 1 α 1 Tm = 2.CASE 2 PONTOON PROPERTIES Nominal diameter of Inner Rim.41 57. k ( Table M-1 ) Allowable stress reduction factor ( App. Rh = 433. tensile force.176 mm² 10 . with a very small angle between load point approximtaed to uniform distributed load in the circular ring design.37 3.33 N/mm² = 165.00 N/mm² = 1. LOAD-POINT -36.40 5.1 PONTOON STRESS DESIGN .14 54.209 0. Table 9.00 N/mm² 10 .34 30.92 62.08 7. M.sin α Circ.429. Aa = = = 34248 mm 27019626. 7th Edition. Rh 10 . Bending moment. Sy Yield strength reduction factor. Rh Circ.23 σtotal ( N/mm² ) σbending ( N/mm² ) σdiaphgram ( N/mm² ) .92 OK.07 183 165 0. Rh Number of load point @ each mm.5 STRESSES SUMMARY LOAD CASE 1 Deck Center Deck Edge 35.4.000 = 1.4 RESULT RING STABILITY CHECK Bending Moment Circumferential force Bending Stress Circumferential stress Allow.000001 151.Do Mr = 4 10 . Za2 = Cross sectional area.3 The uniform radial force acting on the Inner Rim is modelled as load point at each mm of circumference.5 ). Fb Allowable compressive stress. tensile force.27 Angle α° = 1/2 x 360/ Nlp = 0.52 32. Rh.01 mm3 49.7 ) Allowable bending stress. Bending moment.3. bending stress Allow.07 183 165 0.Do Mm = 4 At Reaction-Point.429.00 = 183.60 5.94 59.001673 ° Radial load on rim.85 N/ load pt ( Note : Rh is negative for inward force ) α° Mid Point (Reference to Roark's Formulas For Stress and Strain. axial stress Unity Check Condition ( Nmm ) (N) ( N/mm² ) ( N/mm² ) ( N/mm² ) ( N/mm² ) MID-POINT 18.2 Case 7) At Mid-Point.

(R2eff) ) R4 = p((Ødeck) .(R1eff) ) R3 = π((R3eff) .2 1/2(Øir/2-R3) = 15415.11 .671.945. at R2 Nos. at R1 18541.299. Aleg Radius of gyration.341.69 mm 2 = 264.62 = 1.00 13716.850 kg/m³ 11 .00 4267.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Material of Construction for roof support leg Specific Minimum Yield Stress.000 N/mm² = = 7. at R4 Nos.3 Lsp1 Lsp2 Lsp3 Lsp4 = = = = 2927 2927 2927 2940 mm mm mm mm = 34231 =8 mm mm 2 = 920. Sy Modulus of Elasticity Density of Material.D Deck Thickness.5 R1eff= 1/2(R2-R1) = 6553 Area of deck supported by legs at i) ii) iii) iv) R1 = π(R1eff)2 R2 = π((R2eff) .0 ROOF SUPPORT LEG DESIGN 22 15 10 5 Nos.76 = 24.Di2 4 = 3" Sch. 80 = 88.87 mm = 57.00 8839.823. Llive Effective radius for area of deck supported by leg: R3eff = : SA 333 Gr 6 = 241 N/mm² 209.(R3eff) ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 134.905.79 kg KN/m2 = 1.794.75 R2eff = 1/2(R3-R2) = 11277. Adeck Center deck weight. ρ (plate) Leg Material LOADING DATA Support leg length at i) R1 : ii) R2 : iii) R3 : iv) R4 : Deck O.24 mm .9 = 7.13 mm 2 = 173. at R3 Nos. td Deck Area.89 mm mm mm2 11 .82 mm 2 = 347. r = I Aleg Do2 . Pipe Area.384.030.00 11 .220.648.714. Wdeck Design Live Load.1 GEOMETRIC DATA Support leg size Pipe outside diameter Pipe Thickness.

Slenderness ratio.99 kg 16.5 SUPPORT LEG AT INNER DECK R2 No.42 kg 16.08 N/mm² 11 . λ = K.all is Since P1 < Sc.84 = 75. A1' Deck load on one leg = Live load on one leg = Total load on one leg = Wdeck x A1' Adeck = = = = = = Total Load / Aleg = 5 26.20 N/mm² 75.38 KN 49.694.69 mm2 Llive x A1' Deck load + Live load Stress on support leg at inner deck R1. the support leg at inner deck R1 is satisfactory.06 KN 2 24.08 N/mm² = 77.λ³/8Cc³ When Cc ≤ λ ≤ 120. Slenderness ratio.11 .1 ALLOWABLE STRESS As per AISC code. [ 1 .48 mm2 1.1 ALLOWABLE STRESS As per AISC code. Smaller of (i) or (ii) Sc. 12π²E Sc. λ = K.all = (i) 5/3 + 3λ /8Cc . = = 118 1 = 130.6 .76 KN 48. A2' Deck load on one leg = Live load on one leg = Total load on one leg = Wdeck x A2' Adeck = = = = = = = 10 26.λ/200 In this case.80 N/mm² = = 74.70 N/mm = 264.82 mm2 Llive x A2' Deck load + Live load Stresses on support leg at inner deck R2. P2 = 11 .λ² / 2Cc² ].Lsp2 / Rx-x where K Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling.34 mm2 1.4 SUPPORT LEG AT INNER DECK R1 No. P1 = 11 .00 KN 2 25.Lsp1 / Rx-x where K Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling. 2π²E Cc = Sy = = 118 1 = 130.Sy Sc.30 KN 31.18 N/mm = 134. of legs at R1 Area of deck supported by legs at R1. A1 Deck area on each leg.661.all = (ii) 23 λ² When 120 ≤ λ ≤ 200.4. the allowable stress Sc.5.464.all.84 .838.384.62 KN 32.671.981. 2π²E Cc = Sy When λ ≤ Cc.all = 1.648. of legs at R2 Area of deck supported by legs at R2.134.905. A2 Deck area on each leg.

λ² / 2Cc² ].6 .76 KN 42. Slenderness ratio. 74.08 N/mm² 5/3 + 3λ /8Cc .all = 1.λ³/8Cc³ When Cc ≤ λ ≤ 120.all is Since P2 11 . Smaller of (i) or (ii) Sc.21 mm2 1. 12π²E Sc.452.λ³/8Cc³ When Cc ≤ λ ≤ 120.λ² / 2Cc² ]. the allowable stress Sc.823.λ/200 In this case. P3 = 11 . the support leg at inner deck R3 is = = 118 1 = 130. 12π²E Sc. λ = K.When λ ≤ Cc.135.6 .all = 1.08 N/mm² Sc.59 N/mm = 347. 74.25 KN 27.6 < (ii) = 77.Sy Sc.Sy Sc.08 N/mm² = 77.030.all = (i) 5/3 + 3λ /8Cc .all.80 N/mm² = = satisfactory.all = (i) = 75.all = 23 λ² When 120 ≤ λ ≤ 200.90 kg 14. Smaller of (i) or (ii) Sc. of legs at R3 Area of deck supported by legs at R3. [ 1 .13 mm2 Llive x A3' Deck load + Live load Stresses on support leg at inner deck R3.08 N/mm² .Lsp3 / Rx-x where K Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling.20 N/mm² 75. the support leg at inner deck R2 is SUPPORT LEG AT INNER DECK R3 No. [ 1 .6.388. A3' Deck load on one leg = Live load on one leg = Total load on one leg = Wdeck x A3' Adeck = = = = = = Total Load / Aleg = 15 23.20 N/mm² 75.all. the allowable stress Sc. 2π²E Cc = Sy When λ ≤ Cc.1 ALLOWABLE STRESS As per AISC code.λ/200 In this case.02 KN 2 21.80 N/mm² = = satisfactory. A3 Deck area on each leg.84 = 75.all is Since P3 < Sc.all = (ii) 23 λ² When 120 ≤ λ ≤ 200.

11 .7

SUPPORT LEG AT PONTOON No. of legs at R4 Area of deck supported by legs at R4, A4 Deck area on each leg, A4' Deck load on one leg = Wdeck x A4' Adeck

= = = = = = = = = =

27 6,433,864.49 mm2 404.05 kg 3.96 KN 55,248.45 kg 5,022.59 kg 49.27 KN 7.72 KN 60.96 KN
2 31.33 N/mm

= 173,714,341.24 mm2

Pontoon weight, Wpontoon Pontoon weight on one leg, Wpontoon' Live load on one leg = Total load on one leg = Llive x A4' Deck load + Live load + Pontoon weight Total Load / Aleg

Stresses on support leg at Pontoon, P4 = 11 .7.1

ALLOWABLE STRESS As per AISC code, Slenderness ratio, λ = K.Lsp4 / Rx-x where K Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling, 2π²E Cc = Sy When λ ≤ Cc, [ 1 - λ² / 2Cc² ].Sy Sc.all = (i) 5/3 + 3λ /8Cc - λ³/8Cc³ When Cc ≤ λ ≤ 120, 12π²E Sc.all = (ii) 23 λ² When 120 ≤ λ ≤ 200, Smaller of (i) or (ii) Sc.all = 1.6 - λ/200 In this case, the allowable stress Sc.all is Since P3 < Sc.all, the support leg at inner deck R3 is

= =

118 1

=

130.84

=

74.62 N/mm²

=

77.12 N/mm²

= = satisfactory.

73.93 N/mm² 74.62 N/mm²

11 .8

STRESSES SUMMARY Actual stress, (N/mm2) 25.18 24.70 21.59 31.33 Allowable stress, (N/mm2) 75.08 75.08 75.08 74.62

Leg at radius 4267.00 8839.00 13716.00 18541.00

No. of leg 5.00 10.00 15.00 22.00

RESULT OK OK OK OK

12 .0 12 .1

BLEEDER VENT CALCULATION DESIGN OF AIR VENTING SYSTEM GEOMETRIC DATA Design Code Inside diameter, Di Tank height, H Nominal Capacity Design pressure, Pi Flash point (FP)/Normal boiling point (NBP) (@ Filling rate ( Pumping in/Flow rate to tank ), Vi Emptying rate ( Pumping out/Flow rate from tank ), Vo OPERATING VENTING NORMAL VACUUM VENTING Maximum liquid movement out of a tank Flow rate of free air, Vv1 ( = Vo/15.9 x 15.89 )

FP

)

: API STD 2000 = 39000 = 20700 24000 = 2.50 = 67 = 427 = 1,100

mm mm m³ mbarg °C m³/hr m³/hr

12 .2 12 .2.1

=

1097.23 m³/hr

12 .2.2

Thermal inbreathing Tank capacity, V From Table 2, column 2 (Thermal Venting Capacity Req't ), Flow rate of free air,Vv2 (@ 0 ft³/hr ) Total vacuum flow required, Vv ( = Vv1 + Vv2 )

= = =

155,535 barrels 0 m³/hr 1,097 m³/hr

12 .3 12 .3.1

NORMAL PRESSURE VENTING Maximum liquid movement into a tank Rate of free air per 0.159m³/hr of product import rate, m Flow rate of free air, Vp1 ( = Vi/0.159 x m ) Thermal outbreathing From Table 2, column 3 (Thermal Venting Capacity Req't), Flow rate of free air,Vp2 (@ 0 ft³/hr ) Total pressure flow required, Vp ( = Vp1 + Vp2 ) OPEN VENT SIZING ( BLEEDER VENT SIZING ) OPEN VENT SIZING CALCULATION Maximum flow, Q ( @ Vacuum flow at ( @ Q= where K= A= g= H= K. A. 2. g. H Discharge coefficient cross sectional area of vent acceleration due to gravity Head as measure pressure differential Dp H= g

= =

0.17 m³/hr 457 m³/hr

12 .3.2

= =

0 m³/hr 457 m³/hr

12 .4

2.50

mbarg. )

=

1,097 m³/hr

0.62

=

21 m

Minimum require cross sectional area of vent, Av_req = where Q= g= r= Dp = 12 .5 Q K. 2. g. H = Q K g 2. g. Dp = = = =rg = = = 0.0241 m² 24,124 mm² 0.3048 mm³/s 11.812 kg/m2s2 1.204 kg/m³ 250 N/m²

Max. Air flow required Specific weight of Air Air density Differential pressure

BLEEDER VENT SELECTED Selected bleeder vent size Number of vent, N Outside diameter of the vent, do Inside Dia. of one vent , di ( @ vent pipe thickness = 8.18 mm ) Total cross sectional area of vents, Av_actual Since Av_actual > Ar_gnv, therefore the nos. & size of vents is

: =

8" Sch Std 1 219 = 202.64 mm = 32,251 mm² satisfactory.

13 .0

ROOF DRAIN DESIGN Rigid Pipe

1275

Flexible pipe

225 Rigid Pipe 13 .1 GEOMETRIC DATA Tank Nominal Diameter Tank Height, Roof lowest height, H Drain outlet nozzle elevation, z Roof Deck Area Design Rain Fall Design drainage required, Qreq. No. of Roof Drain, N Roof drain pipe size (rigid & fitting) Dain Pipe Outside Diameter, Do Drain pipe thickness Drain Pipe length : L1 = Rigid L2 = Flexible 13 .2 = = = = = = = = = = = 39,000 20,100 1500 225 mm mm mm mm

920.30 m2 50 mm/hr 46.01 m3/ hr 2 4" Sch 80 101.6 mm 8.56 mm

20 m x 23.14 m x

2 1

nos. nos.

= =

40 m 23.14 m

Number of Fitting & Accessories per drain pipe - 45º elbow 90º elbow Valve Rigid pipe Flexible pipe

N45º N90º Nv

= = = = =

2 1 1 2 1

13 .3

TOTAL HEAD H = h+ V2 2g

5.4 TOTAL HEAD LOSS OF ROOF DRAIN PIPE V2 x 2g K L' D h= Where H = G = K = L' = D = 13 .7 FLOW VELOCITY 2gH V= K1 L1' D + K2 L2' + 1 D = 1.For rigid pipe : .97 .1.30 m3 / hr 13 . L90º Valve. L45º Equivalent length for 4" 90º elbow.1 1.2.0168 = 0.9 MINIMUM ROOF DRAIN REQUIRED Drainage flow rate required Nreq = Actual flow rate per drain MINIMUM REQUIRED = = 2 1.6 = 48 m = 23. Lv Total equivalent pipe length for RIGID PIPE: L1' = L1 + N45º x L45º + N90º x L90º + Nv x Lv Total equivalent pipe length for Flexible PIPE: L2' = L2 = = = 3.14 m 13 .13 .For flexible pipe : Total equivalent length of drain pipe Inside Diameter of drain pipe = 1.275 m K1 K2 = 0.8 DRAINAGE FLOW RATE PER DRAIN PIPE Q = AREA x Velocity = π/4 x D2 x V x 3600 (s/hr) = 23.08448 m EQUIVALENT PIPE LENGTH OF VALVE AND FITTING Accordance to NFPA 15 Table 8.6 TOTAL HEAD LOSS OF ROOF DRAIN PIPE h= H= H= V2 2g K1 L1' D + K2 L2' + 1 D V2 x 2g K1 L1' D + K2 L2' D 13 . 45º elbow.5 Total head between the lowest position of deck and the roof drain nozzle Gravity acceleration Friction Coefficient .03 = 0.2 0.15 m/s 13 .

518 21.086 kg 25.500 kg 22.4 Qty 1 Length (mm) 122.377 21. 65N A 516 GR. 65N 4 TOP CURB ANGLE Material A 516 GR.00 11.70 Type of roof : Floating Roof mm Annular/Bottom plates lapping factor : 1 Y Thickness (mm) 28.026 kg (@ 20.700 Roof plates lapping factor : 20.183 Unit Weight (kg/m) 87.269 kg T 825 x 250 x 8 x 10 = 10. 65N A 516 GR. 65N A 516 GR.961 kg = 1.51 Y Qty 1 Length (mm) 124.00 19.440 2.827 Unit Weight (kg/m) 10.820 = 22.00 25.948 kg Total weight of shell plates = 3 BOTTOM PLATES Material A 516 GR.000 mm Steel density Shell / Btm : 7. 65N - Type of roof support : NA Tank height : 20.020 2.961 = 84.691 Weight (kg) 10.440 2. 65N Y Thickness (mm) 9.564 30.916 = = Weight (kg) 6.440 2. 65N 5 TOP WIND GIRDERS Material A 516 GR.00 Outside Dia.440 2.611 37.440 2. Material 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A 516 GR.76 Y 1.955 kg 6 INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS Material Size A 516 GR.00 11.00 11.060 kg 25.658 44.33 Y Size Qty 1 Length (mm) 125. 65N A 516 GR.00 Width (mm) 2.500 Y 5.020 Weight (kg) 65.00 % of total weight Y 16.728.027 kg/m³ 2 SHELL COURSES ONE . 65N 7 NOZZLES Total weight of nozzles 8 MISCELLANEOUS Assuming T 405 x 150 = 6.377 352.226.020 2.269 Weight (kg) 84.00 13.728.FOOT METHOD (OUTER TANK) Course No.955 Weight (kg) 1.700 mm ) = = = = 24.00 22. 65N A 516 GR.130 Y Size 76 x 76 x 6. 65N A 516 GR.00 KN 10 OPERATING LIQUID WEIGHT Operating liquid height 11 HYDROSTATIC WATER WEIGHT Hydrostatic water height ERECTION WEIGHT (Exclude roof) OPERATING WEIGHT FIELD HYDROSTATIC TEST WEIGHT 16.00 ) = 24.00 16.14 WEIGHT ANALYSIS ITEM NO : 7061T-3901 1 GENERAL Design code : API 650 11th Edition Inside diameter : 39. 65N A 516 GR. (mm) 39.086 kg .820 kg (@ = 20.757 58.476 Unit Weight (kg/m) 53.691 kg 1.026 kg 498.700 mm & sg @= 1. 65N A 516 GR.226.377 21.850 kg/m³ Roof : 8.916 kg 9 STAIRWAY & PERIMETER PLATFORM Platform Weight 165.707 51.440 2.

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