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38785106 API Tank Design

38785106 API Tank Design

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Published by: Shinji46 on Dec 12, 2011
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From the 1-Foot equation, it can be seen that the minimum required shell thickness is

directly proportional to the liquid static height; hence the shell thickness diagram shall

follow the same shape profile with the hydrostatic pressure due to the design liquid height

as shown in Figure 2.4. However it is impractical to construct the tank with the taper

thickness, therefore different shell course with different thickness is used. The use of

courses with diminishing thickness will has the effect that, at the joint between two

adjacent courses, the thicker lower course provides some stiffening to the top, thinner

course and this cause an increase in stress in the upper part of the lower course and a

reduction in stress in the lower part of the upper course. API 650 (2007) assumes that the

Hydrostatic

Pressure

(ρρρρgh)

1715.2

3,735.2

8,195.2

10,635.2

13.075.2

15,515.2

17,955.2

20,395.2

5,755.2

304.8

2440

(28t)

2440

(25t)

2440

(22t)

2440

(19t)

2440

(16t)

2440

(13t)

2440

(11)

2440

(11t)

2440

(11t)

20,700

Shell

Course

Shell Thk

Diagram

Static head

@ 1 ft

Excessive Thickness

52

reduction in stress in the upper course reaches a maximum value at one foot (300 mm)

above the joint and it is at this point, on each course from which the effective acting head

is measured [Bob, 2004]. This shows how the 1-Foot method was employed.

3.2.6 Top Stiffener and Intermediate Wind Girder Design

3.2.6.1 Top Stiffener/ Top Wind Girder

Stiffener rings of top wind girder are to be provided in an open-top tank to maintain the

roundness when the tank is subjected to wind load. The stiffener rings shall be located at

or near the top course and outside of the tank shell. The girder can also be used as an

access and maintenance platform. There are five numbers of typical stiffener rings

sections for the tank shell given in API 650 (2007) and they are shown in Figure 2.5 [API

650, 2007].

Figure 2.5 Typical stiffener ring section for ring shell

53

The requirement in API 650 (2007) stated that when the stiffener rings or top wind girder

are located more than 0.6 m below the top of the shell, the tank shall be provided with a

minimum size of 64 x 64 x 4.8 mm top curb angle for shells thickness 5 mm, and with a

76 x 76 x 6.4 mm angle for shell more than 5 mm thick. A top wind girder in my tank is

designed to locate at 1 m from the top of tank and therefore for a top curb angle of size 75

x 75 x 10 mm is used in conjunction with the stiffener detail a) in Figure 2.5. The top

wind girder is designed based on the equation for the minimum required section modules

of the stiffener ring [API 650, 2007].

2

2

2

190

17



=

V

H

D

Z

Where

Z = Minimum required section modulus, cm³

D = Nominal tank diameter, m

H2 = Height of the tank shell, in m, including any freeboard provided above the

maximum filling height

V = design wind speed (3-sec gust), km/h

The term 17

2

H

D

on the equation is based on a wind speed of 190 km/h and therefore the

term

2

190



V

is included in the equation for the desire design wind speed. The design

calculation for the top wind girder is attached in Appendix B section 4.0. From the design

calculation, a fabricated Tee-girder of size T 825 x 250 x 8 x 10 with toe plate length 250

mm, web plate length 825 mm, toe plate thickness 10 mm and web plate thickness 8mm

is used. The detail of the Tee-girder used for the top wind girder is shown in Figure 2.6.

54

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