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The War of the Spanish Succession

The War of the Spanish Succession

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Published by: Richard Taylor Pleite on Dec 12, 2011
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1PL WA8 Cl 1PL SÞAnlSP SuCCLSSlCn (1700Ŵ1714


W 1he SevenLeenLh CenLury wlLnessed revoluLlonary changes ln LuropeŦ ldeas abouL
sclenceţ socleLy and phllosophy changed dramaLlcallyŤ agrlculLure advanced ln ways
LhaL would Lransform Lhe producLlon of food and Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of laborŤ and mlllLary
LacLlcs and Lechnology lmproved Lo Lhe polnL where Luropean arms were superlor Lo
any ln Lhe worldŦ uurlng Lhe sevenLeenLh cenLuryţ Luropean sclence made Lhe
LranslLlon Lo Lhe modern eraŦ
W ln Lhe soclal sLrucLure of Lhe old reglme was malnLalnedţ alLhough Lhelr sLrucLures
began Lo falLer wlLh new ldeas and economlc advancemenL of cerLaln groupsŦ

Þollcy ln Lurope
W ln Lurope Lhere were varlous forms of governmenLsť
a) 8epubllcsţ mosL 17Lh CenLury Luropean sLaLes were monarchlesŦ 1he ma[or
excepLlons were Lhe unlLed Þrovlncesţ venlceţ and Lhe Swlss CanLonsŦ
b) LlmlLed Monarchlesţ Þolandţ uenmark and Sweden were elecLlve monarchles LhaL
placed slgnlflcanL resLrlcLlons on royal powerŦ Sweden and uenmark
c) AbsoluLe monarchlesť 1he klngs of lrance (especlally Louls xlv) are generally
regarded as Lhe mosL absoluLlsL ln LuropeŦ 1he klngs were forced Lo rely upon Lhe
landownlng arlsLocracy and Lhe urban ellLes Lo lmplemenL Lhelr declslonsŦ AusLrlaţ
8ohemlaţ royal Pungaryţ Lhe Spanlsh Monarchy and Lngland are also examples of absoluLe

SocleLy sLrucLure

W ln medleval Lheoryţ Lhere were Lhree LsLaLes or Lypes of peopleť clergy (who prayedţ
and helped people geL Lo heaven)Ť nobles (who commanded ln baLLleţ and proLecLed
Lhe land from lLs enemles)Ť and commoners (who produced food)Ŧ 1hls way of looklng
aL Lhlngs survlved ln Lhe sevenLeenLh cenLuryţ buL had become far Loo slmple Lo
explaln Lhe complexlLles of soclal sLrucLureŦ klngs asserLed lncreaslng conLrol over Lhe
arlsLocracyţ and allled wlLh nonŴnobles Lo llmlL Lhe power of Lhe noblllLyŦ
W Churchmenţ Looţ varled ln sLaLusŦ 1hose aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe churchƌs hlerarchy
ranked hardly above peasanLsţ whlle blshopsţ archblshops and abboLs were Lhe equals
of noblesŦ
W ÞeasanLs (or small farmers) varled ln wealLh and sLaLus dependlng on how much land
Lhey heldţ and on Lhe condlLlons upon whlch Lhey held lLŦ
W Such professlonals as physlclansţ lawyers and Lraders also clalmed noble sLaLusŦ

W Lconomlc changeť beglnnlng of agrlculLural revoluLlonŦ
W uurlng Lhe 16Lh CenLury Lhe populaLlon of Lurope had grown rapldlyţ buL durlng Lhe
17Lh CenLury Lhls growLh slowed and was even reversed ln some placesŦ
W Landowners also branched ouL lnLo manufacLurlngţ lnvesLlng ln Lhe producLlon of cloLh
for exampleţ and Lrled Lo supply new markeLs ln Amerlca and AslaŦ
W WesLern Luropeans expanded wesLwardţ colonlzlng Lhe new Worldţ and 8usslans
began Lo seLLle Lhe vasL areas easL of Lhe uralsŦ ln Lhe 17Lh CenLuryţ Lhe ALlanLlc Lrade
rouLes became far more lmporLanLţ Lhe cenLer of economlc gravlLy shlfLed Lo norLhern
Luropeţ and lL was Lhere LhaL lnLellecLualţ agrlculLural and lndusLrlal developmenLs
moved mosL rapldlyŦ
8ellglon ln Lurope
W ln Lhe 17Lh CenLury Lurope was overwhelmlngly ChrlsLlanţ such LhaL ƍLuropeƍ and
ƍChrlsLendomƍ were commonly equaLedŦ
W Creekţ 8usslan and many 8alkan ChrlsLlans were CrLhodoxŦ 1he 8usslan ÞaLrlarchţ
nlkonƌs aLLempLs afLer 1633 Lo ƍreformƍ 8usslan eccleslasLlcal rlLual produced a spllL ln
Lhe ChurchŦ
W ln Lhe 8alkan lands occupled by Lhe 1urksţ all nonŴMusllms had Lo pay addlLlonal
LaxaLlonţ and Lhls placed conslderable pressure on (aL leasL Lhe male heads of
households) Lo converL Lo lslamŦ
W 1he resL of Lurope was dlvlded beLween 8oman CaLhollcs and ÞroLesLanLsŦ ln addlLlonţ
!ewlsh communlLles llved ln Lhe neLherlands and ÞolandŴLlLhuanla (cŦ 430ţ000)Ŧ

MlllLary 8evoluLlon
W 1he 17Lh CenLury was an age of almosL conLlnual warfare ln Luropeţ and mlllLary
LacLlcs and Lechnology lmproved wlLh pracLlceŦ uurlng Lhe ƍmlllLary revoluLlonƍţ
defenslve and offenslve advance leapfrogged unLll Luropean armles were Lhe mosL
effecLlve ln Lhe worldŦ
W MlllLary needs also boLh sLlmulaLed and beneflLed from sclenLlflc advanceť Lhe
Lelescope was lnvenLed for mlllLary reasonsŤ Lhe same maLhemaLlcs LhaL Callleo
applled Lo balllsLlcs (calculaLlng Lhe Lra[ecLorles of canon balls) helped explaln Lhe
movemenL of planeLsŦ
W Cne ma[or consequence of Lhe mlllLary revoluLlon was LhaL warfare became
lncreaslngly expenslveŦ 1o flghL successfullyţ governmenLs had Lo recrulL more men
and ralse more money Lhan ever beforeŦ Large armles requlred Lhe expanslon of
cenLral governmenL and gave lL Lhe power Lo overcome opposlLlon from local ellLes
(nobles and clLles)Ŧ

1he sclenLlflc revoluLlon
W uurlng Lhe sevenLeenLh cenLuryţ Luropean sclence made Lhe LranslLlon Lo Lhe modern
W 1he revoluLlon ln sclenLlflc Lheory was llnked Lo lmporLanL Lechnlcal advancesţ such as
Lhe Lelescope (lnvenLed by Pans Llppersheyţ 1370Ŵ1619) and Lhe mlcroscope
W 1he new sclence and new phllosophy were wldely reslsLed by Lhe esLabllshed churches
of boLh ÞroLesLanL and CaLhollc counLrlesţ where clergy feared a loss of Lhelr powerţ lf
reason were freed from ScrlpLureŦ And lndeedţ durlng Lhe sevenLeenLh cenLuryţ Lhe
Churchƌs auLhorlLy over knowledge and educaLlon wasundermlnedŦ

Þhlllp lv (1603Ŵ1663) ŴŴŴMarlana of AusLrlaŦŦŦŦSonť Char|es II (1661Ŵ1700)ť
W 1663 recelved Lhe LlLle of klng
W 1673 age of mayorlLy
W 1rusL ln courL favourlLe
W ulsasLrous economlcalţ soclal and pollLlcal slLuaLlon
W ueflaLlon of Lhe ºvellon" 1680
W uecrease of Lhe economlcal acLlvlLy
W Marrlages ť Marla Lulsa of Crleans nlece of Louls xlv and Marlana de neoburgo
daughLer of Lhe duke Þhlllp Wllllam of neoburgoŴSaboya
W no helrs

1ŦLack of a helr from Lhe dynasLy holdlng Lhe power (Lhe AusLrlanţ from Lhe Pabsburg famlly)
2Ŧ uecadency of Lhe Spanlsh Monarchy
3Ŧ Maln Luropeans ÞollLlcal Þowers of Lhe Llme amblLlonlng Lhe rlch remalns of Lhe Spanlsh
Monarchyť 1he ulsLrlbuLlon 1reaLyŦ
4Ŧ Þrevlous warllke aLmosphere ln LuropeŤ 1he pollLlcal hegemony ln Lurope aL sLakeť Lhe
accepLance of Lhe LasL Wlll and 1esLamenL of Carlos ll
3Ŧ 1he lnLernal dlvlslon and heLerogenelLy of lnLeresL lnslde Spanlsh Monarchyť Lhe AusLrlan
and lrench parLlesť a clvll war

W Char|es II(1700)ť Lwo candldaLesť Þhlllp of An[ou and Archduke Charles of Pabsburg
W Charles ll proposed Þhlllp v
W CreaL 8rlLalnţ Polland and ÞorLugal vSŦ Spanlsh Monarchy and lrance
W 1he 8aLLle of MalplaqueL
W In the Span|sh Monarchyť C|v|| Warť CasLllle (Þhlllp v) vs Aragon (Archduke Charles )
W oseph Iţ the Lmperor of Austr|a d|ed ť Archduke Charles was declared klng of
AusLrla(Lnu Cl 1PL WA8)
W In the Span|sh Monarchyť Aragon's reslsLance ţ occupaLlon of 8arcelona (1706Ŵ1710)
1reaLy of uLrechL
W Lngland consldered Lhe posslblllLy of recognlzlng Þhlllp v as Lhe Spanlsh klngŦ
W 1he Lalks Lo reach a peace LreaLy sLarLed ln uLrechL ln !anuary 1712Ŧ
W ln 1713 Lhe archduke Charles was appolnLed emperor of CermanyŦ
W 1hls LreaLy meanL Lhe end of Lhe hosLlllLles beLween lrance and mosL of Lhe members
from Lhe ºCran Allanza"Ŧ
W As a consequence Lhe Spanlsh monarchy was dlvldedŦ
1he ºuespoLlsmo llusLrado"
W 1he ºuespoLlsmo llusLrado" was a governmenL sysLem of Lhe xvlll cenLuryŦ
W 1helr slogan was º1odo para el pueblo pero sln el puebloŦ

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