CHAPTER :- 1 Project Overview



Introduction Of Project
1.1 Project Definition:


The objective of this project is to make a controller based model to count number of persons visiting particular room and accordingly light up the room. Here we can use sensor and can know present number of persons. In today’s world, there is a continuous need for automatic appliances with the increase in standard of living, there is a sense of urgency for developing circuits that would ease the complexity of life.

Also if at all one wants to know the number of people present in room so as not to have congestion. This circuit proves to be helpful.


1.2 Project Overview
This Project ―Automatic Room Light Controller with Visitor Counter using Microcontroller is a reliable circuit that takes over the task of controlling the room lights as well us counting number of persons/ visitors in the room very accurately. When somebody enters into the room then the counter is incremented by one and the light in the room will be switched ON and when any one leaves the room then the counter is decremented by one. The light will be only switched OFF until all the persons in the room go out. The total number of persons inside the room is also displayed on the seven segment displays.

The microcontroller does the above job. It receives the signals from the sensors, and this signal is operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM. Microcontroller AT89S52 continuously monitor the Infrared Receivers, When any object pass through the IR Receiver's then the IR Rays falling on the receiver are obstructed , this obstruction is sensed by the Microcontroller



1 Basic Block Diagram [5] .2.1 Basic Block Diagram Enter Enter Sensor Signal Conditioning Exit Exit Sensor Signal Conditioning Power Supply A T 8 9 S 5 2 Relay Driver Light Fig. 2.

Power Supply 2. Mainly this block diagram consist of the following essential blocks. The main function of this block is to provide the required amount of voltage to essential circuits.2. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic hip. high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8KB of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). Enter and Exit Circuits:This is one of the main part of our project. Entry and Exit sensor circuit 3. +12V is given to relay driver. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the MCS-51TM instruction set and pin out. which provides the +5V dc regulated power supply. By using this sensor and its related circuit diagram we can count the persons. To get the +5V dc power supply we have used here IC 7805. the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful [6] . 89S52 Microcontroller:It is a low-power.2 Block Diagram Description The basic block diagram of the bidirectional visitor counter with automatic light controller is shown in the above figure. 3. The main intention of this block is to sense the person. 1. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. +12 voltage is given. 2. Power Supply:Here we used +12V and +5V dc power supply. AT 89S52 micro-controller 4. Relay driver circuit 1. For sensing the person and light we are using the light dependent register (LDR).

4.Microcontroller. which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution so many embedded control applications. which we are further energizing the particular relay. Because of this appropriate device is selected and it do its allotted function. One relay driver circuit we are using to control the light. Output signal from AT89S52 is given to the base of the transistor. [7] . In this block mainly we are using the transistor and the relays. Relay Driver Circuit:This block has the potential to drive the various controlled devices.


Transmission Circuit:- Fig.1 Transmitter circuit [9] . 3.

3.2 Receiver circuit [10] .Receiver Circuit:- Fig.

[11] . Receiver Circuit (Sensors) 1.3 Transmitter circuit This circuit diagram shows how a 555 timer IC is configured to function as a basic monostable multivibrator. Transmission Circuits (Infrared LEDs) 2. 3. A monostable multivibrator is a timing circuit that changes state once triggered. It got its name from the fact that only one of its output states is stable. 1. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION: There are two main parts of the circuits. Transmission Circuit: Fig. but returns to its original state after a certain time delay. It is also known as a 'one-shot'.

.e. t=R1C1. around 1. this time making the pin 3 output 'low' and turning on pin 7's discharge transistor. produces a pulse at pin 3 whose width t is just the product of R1 and C1.4K we get a 38 kHz signal. i. a negative pulse applied at pin 2 triggers an internal flipflop that turns off pin 7's discharge transistor. When capacitor C1 as charged up to about 2/3 Vcc. Then you point it over the sensor and its o/p will go low when it senses the IR signal of 38 kHz. which discharges C1 to ground. in effect. At the same time. Adjust the preset in the transmitter to get a 38 kHz signal at the o/p. the flip-flop is triggered once again. the flip-flop brings the output (pin 3) level to 'high'. This circuit. allowing C1 to charge up through R1. IR Transmission circuit is used to generate the modulated 36 kHz IR signal. [12] . The IC555 in the transmitter side is to generate 36 kHz square wave.In this circuit.

And when counter will be 00 that time Relay will be turned off. Port 2 is used for the Relay Turn On and Turn off Purpose. I. CL100 is to trigger the IC555 which is configured as monostable multivibrator.2.LTS 542 (Common Anode) is used for 7-Segment display. Port 0 is used for the 7-Segment display purpose. Receiver Circuit: Fig.4 Receiver circuit The IR transmitter will emit modulated 38 kHz IR signal and at the receiver we use TSOP1738 (Infrared Sensor). Reset button will reset the microcontroller. Input is given to the Port 1 of the microcontroller. around 1 second.e. The output goes high when the there is an interruption and it return back to low after the time period determined by the capacitor and resistor in the circuit. And that time Relay will get Voltage and triggered so light will get voltage and it will turn on. [13] . 3.


1 Snap of the entire circuit [15] .Hardware Design:- Infrared Sensor TSOP1738 Microcontroller AT89S52 Timer IC 555 7-Segment Display Relay Fig. 4.

After completion of the designing circuit I prepared the layout. [16] . Then soldering process was done.1 Procedure Followed While Designing: In the beginning I designed the circuit in DIPTRACE software. Still the desired output was not obtained and so troubleshooting was done. In the process of troubleshooting I found the circuit aptly soldered and connected and hence came to conclusion that there was error in programming section which was later rectified and the desired results were obtained. Then I programmed the microcontroller using KEIL software using hex file. Dip trace is a circuit designing software. After completion of the soldering process I tested the circuit.4.

CL 100  7-Segment Display [17] .33pF  Reset button switch  Rectifier diode – IN4148  Transistor – BC 547. 500 mA  Preset – 4.4.7K  Disc capacitor – 104.2 List of Components: Following is the list of components that are necessary to build the assembly of the Digital Speedometer Cum Odometer:  Microcontroller – AT89S52  IC – 7805  Sensor – TSOP 1738 (Infrared Sensor)  Transformer – 12-0-12.

grammar. serial port. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. In addition. Watchdog timer. 256 bytes of RAM. three 16-bit timer/counters. a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture. timer/counters. onchip oscillator. [18] . the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. and clock circuitry. 32 I/O lines. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the Industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. two data pointers. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM.3 Description of Components 4. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con.4.tents but freezes the oscillator. and interrupt system to continue functioning. disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory pro.3.1 Microcontroller AT89S52: The AT89S52 is a low-power. a full duplex serial port.

5V  Endurance : 1000 Writes / Erase cycles  Fully static operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz  Three level program memory lock  Power off flag  Full duplex UART serial channel  Low power idle and power down modes  Interrupt recovery from power down modes  256 KB internal RAM  Dual data pointer [19] .  16 bit Timer/Counter—3.  32 Programmable I/O lines.  Power range: 4V – 5.  8 Interrupt sources.FEATURES: 8 KB Reprogrammable flash.

4. the epoxy package is designed as IR filter.2 TSOP1738 (INFRARED SENSOR) Fig.2 Infrared Sensor Description: The TSOP17.10 cycles/burst [20] . Features:          Photo detector and preamplifier in one package Internal filter for PCM frequency Improved shielding against electrical field disturbance TTL and CMOS compatibility Output active low Low power consumption High immunity against ambient light Continuous data transmission possible (up to 2400 bps) Suitable burst length ... TSOP17.3. 4. The demodulated output signal can directly be decoded by a microprocessor. – Series are miniaturized receivers for infrared remote control systems. supporting all major transmission codes. is the standard IR remote control receiver series. PIN diode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame.

3 Block Diagram of TSOP 1738 Application Circuit: Fig. 4. 4.Block Diagram: Fig.4 Application circuit [21] .

005% per °C Normally on and normally off output Available in 8-pin MSOP package [22] . 4. the free running frequency and duty cycle are accurately controlled with two external resistors and one capacitor. the time is precisely controlled by one external resistor and capacitor. In the time delay mode of operation.4.3 555 ( TIMER IC): Fig.3. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling waveforms. Additional terminals are provided for triggering or resetting if desired. For astable operation as an oscillator. Features:          Direct replacement for SE555/NE555 Timing from microseconds through hours Operates in both astable and monostable modes Adjustable duty cycle Output can source or sink 200 mA Output and supply TTL compatible Temperature stability better than 0. and the output circuit can source or sink up to 200mA or drive TTL circuits.5 Timer IC(555) Description: The LM555 is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delays or oscillation.

Applications:        Precision timing Pulse generation Sequential timing Time delay generation Pulse width modulation Pulse position modulation Linear ramp generator 4.3.6 7 Segment [23] . Fig.52 inch digit height single digit seven-segment display. This device utilizes Hi-eff. 4. and has a red face and red segment.4 LTS 542 (7-Segment Display) Description: The LTS 542 is a 0. which are made from GaAsP on GaP substrate. Red LED chips.

Features:  Common Anode  0.52 Inch Digit Height  Continuous Uniform Segments  Low power Requirement  Excellent Characters Appearance  High Brightness & High Contrast  Wide Viewing Angle [24] .

thermal shut down and safe operating area protection. making it essentially indestructible. 15. 12.3. Features:      Output Current up to 1A Output Voltages of 5. making them useful in a wide range of applications. 24V Thermal Overload Protection Short Circuit Protection Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection [25] . 10.5 LM7805 (Voltage Regulator) Fig. If adequate heat sinking is provided. 8. 4. 18. 9. 6. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators. these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.7 Voltage Regulator Description: The KA78XX/KA78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulator are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages. Each type employs internal current limiting.4. they can deliver over 1A output current.

4. which cannot provide by the microcontroller. Diode D2 is the standard diode on a mechanical relay to prevent back EMF from damaging Q3 when the relay releases.4. So the driver transistor is added. When the relay operates and releases. Normally the relay remains off. The relay requires 12 volts at a current of around 100ma. As soon as pin of the microcontroller goes high.3. [26] .6 RELAY CIRCUIT: Fig. LED L2 indicates relay on. The relay is used to operate the external solenoid forming part of a locking device or for operating any other electrical devices. the relay operates.8 Relay A single pole dabble throw (SPDT) relay is connected to port RB1 of the microcontroller through a driver transistor.


7 Flow Chart [28] . 4.FLOW CHART: Fig.

 If the sensor 1 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for the sensor 2. if it is first time interrupted.  When the last person leaves the room then counter goes to 0 and that time the relay will turn off.  If the sensor 2 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for the sensor 1. And light will be turn off. [29] . And if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will increment the count and switch on the relay. And if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will decrement the count.


That is easy for me but when we turn toward the main circuit. like component selection. which are I faced. We also had some soldering issues which were resolved using continuity checks performed on the hardware. like component selection. I had issues with better or correct result. We started testing the circuit from the power supply. which I desired.Testing And Results We started our project by making power supply. So we replaced the IC7805. which we faced. As the solder was shorted IC 7805 got burnt. there are many problems and issues related to it. which components is better than other and its feature and cost wise a We started our project by making power supply. And also the software problem. there are many problems and issues related to it. which components is better than other and its feature and cost wise also. which we desired.with the help of the solder we made the necessary paths. then refer the data books and other materials related to its. And also the software problem. There we got over first trouble. After getting 9V from the transformer it was not converted to 5V and the circuit received 9V. [31] . That is easy for me but when I turn toward the main circuit. I also had some soldering issues which were resolved using continuity checks performed on the hardware.also the circuit part around the IC7805 were completely damaged.. We had issues with better or correct result.


 By modifying this circuit and using two relays we can achieve a task of opening and closing the door.FUTURE EXPANSION  By using this circuit and proper power supply we can implement various applications Such as fans. tube lights. etc. [33] .


APPLICATION. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES  Application o For counting purposes o For automatic room light control  Advantages o Low cost o Easy to use o Implement in single door  Disadvantages o It is used only when one single person cuts the rays of the sensor hence it cannot be used when two person cross simultaneously. [35] .


com www.8051. AYALA  Website   www.Bibliography  Reference Books  Programming in ANSI C: E BALAGURUSAMY  The 8051microcontroller and embedded systems: MUHAMMAD ALI MAZIDI JANICE GILLISPIE MAZIDI  The 8051 microcontroller: KENNETH [37] .