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A Third Reading James Joyce and Paul Howard and the Monstrous Aporia

A Third Reading James Joyce and Paul Howard and the Monstrous Aporia

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PASSAGES. MOMENTS AND MOJEMENTS IN TEXT AND THEORY, EDITED BY MARIA BEVILLE,
MAEVE TYNAN AND MARITA RYAN. CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE SCHOLARS PRESS, PAGES 131-
148



CHAPTER NINE
A 'THIRD¨ READING:
JAMES JOYCE AND PAUL HOWARD AND THE MONSTROUS APORIA
EUGENE O`BRIEN


The title oI the conIerence Irom which this publication derives is thematically interesting in
the context oI this chapter. It stems Irom Old French passage and denotes an 'action oI
passing¨. Originally 'a road, passage,¨ the sense oI its reIerring to a 'corridor in a building¨
was Iirst recorded in 1611, while the reIerence to 'a portion oI writing¨ is also Irom 1611,
and the added sense oI reIerring to a piece oI music, is Irom 1674. So the term is both a verb
and a noun, implying an act oI moving between two diIIerent places, or two parts oI a
building, as well as denoting a structure through which such movement or passing can take
place. That there should then accrue culturally symbolic meanings, as the term applies both to
a piece oI writing and also to a piece oI music, is signiIicant because it indicates how
meanings, both at the level oI the text and context , are Iluid and in constant negotiation.
One can cite two axioms oI Jacques Derrida which are pertinent here. One oI these is his
Iamous dictum: 'Il n`y a pas de hors-texte¨ (there is nothing outside the text) (Derrida 1976,
158). This has been taken to mean that all communication is conIined to textuality, that there
is no outside reality or that the connection between text and the real world is non-existent. In
Iact, what he was suggesting was that knowledge is a social and linguistic construct and that
all such knowledge could be interpreted as a Iorm oI textuality. Six years aIter this phrase had
appeared in Of Grammatology , and aIter much discussion and argument, Derrida
reconceptualised this dictum in the Iollowing phrase: 'Il n`y a pas de hors contexte¨ (there is
nothing outside oI context) (Derrida 1988a, 136). This more developed position suggests that
all meaning is socially created, and that every utterance, in every discourse, needs to be
located within a speciIic context. In other words: meaning is never simple or pure but is

132

haunted by an interaction oI text and context . Everything, in cultural terms, is a process oI
negotiation, and the attribution oI value, culturally speaking, is just another aspect oI this
process.
Derrida traces the etymology oI 'negotiation¨ to the Latin neg-otium: 'not-ease, not-
quiet... no leisure.¨

He sees this '|no|-leisure¨ as the 'impossibility oI stopping or settling in a
position... establishing oneselI anywhere.¨ This process is typiIied by the image oI a shuttle,
going back and Iorth between diIIerent positions (Derrida 2002a, 11-12). I would argue that
this process oI negotiation is an accurate paradigm oI cultural valuation. I would Iurther
argue that one oI the signiIicant indices oI whether a work is high or popular culture has to
do with this very interaction between text and context , on a number oI levels, and I will
illustrate this thesis through an articulation oI the works oI James Joyce and Paul Howard .
This chapter is concerned with a passage or a corridor which I see as connecting two
Iictional representations oI Dublinthat oI James Joyce`s Dublin Irom 1904 to 1914 and Paul
Howard `s Dublin Irom 2000 to 2008. Joyce provides a narrator and character oI Stephen
Dedalus , while Howard looks at Dublin through the eyes oI his narrator, Ross O`Carroll-
Kelly . One is a paradigm oI high culture ; the other oI popular culture . Stephen Dedalus is
an aesthete, a paradigm oI the tortured writer, and someone who agonises about art and its
role in representing liIe accurately. He is obsessed with language , and indeed with the
creative power oI language, and his world is one oI signiIicant issueslanguage, religion ,
nationality, identity, the human soul. Thus he speaks oI 'a symbol oI the artist Iorging anew
in his workshop out oI the sluggish matter oI the earth a new soaring impalpable imperishable
being¨ (Joyce 1993, 186); he is concerned with the object oI the artist which is 'the creation
oI the beautiIul¨ (Joyce 1993, 204); he ponders the nature oI 'that beauty which the artist
struggles to express Irom lumps oI earth¨ (Joyce 1993, 208). He is very much the synecdoche
oI high culture and oI the artist as a privileged and uniquely sensitive being who is distant
Irom both his art and his or her audience.
Formally, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a classic Bildungsroman and more
speciIically a Kùnstlerroman where we see the selI-conscious coming oI age oI an artist, and
this level oI introspection and metawriting is a synecdoche oI modernism and high art.
Indeed, some oI the most quoted passages in literature dealing with the role and Iunction oI
the artist come Irom this book.
The esthetic image in the dramatic Iorm is liIe puriIied in and reprojected Irom the
human imagination. The mystery oI esthetic, like that oI material creation, is
accomplished. The artist, like the God oI creation, remains

within or behind or beyond or above his handiwork, invisible, reIined out oI existence,
indiIIerent, paring his Iingernails (Joyce 1993, 241).

And possibly the most ringing lines that describe the artistic vocation are to be Iound at the
end oI that book.

133

April 26. Mother is putting my new secondhand clothes in order. She prays now, she
says, that I may learn in my own liIe and away Irom home and Iriends what the heart is
and what it Ieels. Amen. So be it. Welcome, O liIe, I go to encounter Ior the millionth
time the reality oI experience and to Iorge in the smithy oI my soul the uncreated
conscience oI my race (Joyce 1993, 290).

The amount and number oI books on Joyce in academic liIe has led to the term 'The Joyce
Industry¨ being coined. And in terms oI cultural capital, there is not an academic who
specialises in modern English who could admit that he or she had not read Joyce without
attracting a high degree oI proIessional opprobrium.
Paul Howard , on the other hand, has written eight highly popular novels about an
imaginary character, Ross O`Carroll-Kelly . These books are hugely popular and deal with
issues connected with aspects oI the Celtic Tiger in upper middle class Dublin Four. Dealing
with Ross and his Iriends, Oisin, Christian, J.P. and Fionn, and their various relationships
with women, his world depicts a very materialistic Ireland where the old nets by which
Stephen wished to avoid'nationality, language , religion . I shall try to Ily by those nets¨
(Joyce 1993, 227)are well and truly avoided: indeed they have been packed away in cultural
mothballs.
There are eight books in the series. The Miseducation Years describes Ross`s last two
years at Castlerock College and his Leinster Senior Cup victory. The Teenage Dirtbag Years
sees Ross in his Iirst year in a sports management course in UCD. The Orange Mocha-Chip
Frappucino Years shows us Ross leaving home and working Ior his Iriend J.P.`s Iather as an
estate agent. PS,

134

I Scored The Bridesmaids deals with his marriage to his long-term 'portner¨ Sorcha. The
Curious Incident of the Dog in the Nightdress tells oI Ross`s discovery that he has an eight
year old son called Ronan, living in the North side; Should Have Got Off at Sydney Parade
deals with the birth oI Ross and Sorcha`s daughter Honor, and Ross`s participation in his new
nightclub, Lillie`s Bordello; This Champagne Mofito is the Last Thing I Own , deals with his
Iall Irom grace as his Iather goes to prison and Ross is Iorced to take up paid work, while
Sorcha Iinally leaves him. There are strings oI intertextual reIerences throughout the books,
including the titles, with reIerence The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill, Teenage Dirtbag, Adrian
Mole. The Cappuccino Years, PS, I Love You and The Curious Incident of the Dog in the
Night-time respectively. The title oI Should Have Got Off at Sydney Parade reIers to getting
oII the DART beIore the last stop at Sandymount and is part oI the speciIic idiolect used in
the books, alluding in this context to the withdrawal method oI contraception. The latest book
in the series is called Mr S and the Secrets of Andorras Box, and deals with his new job as
the rugby coach oI the Andorran national team and also with his attempts to cope with
separation Irom Sorcha and Honor.
The humour is classic and works on a number oI levels, with some stock comic characters.
Rugby dominates the books, with Ross`s Iull name being Ross Kyle Gibson McBride
O`Carroll-Kelly, a name encompassing some oI the greatest Irish rugby players (Jackie Kyle,
Mike Gibson and Willie John McBride). The style oI writing is a little like reading Chaucer
or Shakespeare it takes a little time to get used to the unusual register. The writing is
phonetic, as the spelling attempts to mirror the Southside accent that is spoken by practically
all oI the main characters. Thus the vowel changes stress the pronunciation so we get 'orm¨
Ior 'arm¨ and 'hort¨ Ior 'heart¨ as well as the rhyming slang: 'jo¨ is a taxi ('jo maxi);
'chicken`s neck¨ is a cheque; 'jack¨ is the story (jackanory) and we have already seen that
'portner¨ stands Ior 'partner¨. Allied to this is the punctuation oI almost every Iourth
sentence with 'roysh¨, and acronyms like 'TMI¨ (too much inIormation) and you begin to
get the Ieel oI the discourse oI these books. Ross is sexist, a snob, politically incorrect,
extremely vain, insensitive to the Ieelings oI others, easily duped and selI-obsessedbut Paul
Howard makes us actually like him by taking the reader into Ross`s conIidence. Generically,
the style is that oI the Iirst person Iallible narrator, and the technique oI all oI the books is to
use the voice oI the narrator to undercut himselI.
So one book is seen as high culture and deals with a sensitive and introspective
individual, while the other is seen as popular culture and deals with a character that is
extrovert and actively un- or even anti-intellectual. One book deals with culture, art, politics
and religion while the other one deals with a very materialistic contemporary middle-class
culture. One book is avowedly serious while the other is a comedy. One book is a staple part
oI most literature syllabi at second and third level courses in English while the other is most
unlikely to Iigure on such syllabi. Indeed one could ask the question as to what business we
have studying the works oI Paul Howard in an academic institution in the Iirst place?
However, one could well ask about the nature oI these discriminations? The passage
between these two branches oI culture is one Iraught with

135

relative negotiations. The gap between high and popular culture is one oI the most ill-
deIined and mobile, yet at the same time tyrannically-Iixed, distinctions in the academic
world. To write a thesis on James Joyce is laudable and seen to have cultural value whereas
to write one on Paul Howard is to court all sorts oI questions, where terms such as
'standards¨ and 'taste¨ and 'suitability¨ are used as shibboleths whereby to call into question
the value oI studying such writings. The same is true oI many theoretical explorations.
Theorists, who espouse the egalitarian as a right, oIten conIine their work to the study oI
well-deIined works oI high art. In this chapter, the passage Irom and between high and
popular culture, as exempliIied synecdochically by Joyce and Howard , will be seen to be a
two-way routewith multi-lane access Irom each side oI the passage which will allow Iree
and unrestricted passage Ior the diIIerent passages oI writing about Dublinone Irom the
early 20
th
and the other Irom the early 21
st
century.
Each text stands in metonymic relationship to an enIolding cultural context. Joyce stands
Ior 'literature¨ or Ior 'high¨ culture, whereas Howard stands Ior 'low¨ or 'popular¨ culture.
It is the passage and negotiation between these texts as metonymic oI the passages and
negotiations between their contexts that is oI interest. In terms oI literature as a canonical
system, as an institution wherein works oI deIined value are collected and passed on to the
next cohort as a Iorm oI Althusserian cultural interpellation, Joyce would certainly be part oI
this institutional structure. However, I would argue that there are passages Irom this level oI
high culture to a counter-culture, one which in turn, destabilises the seemingly hypostasised
core oI high culture. In this sense, the passage oI negotiation in question between Joyce and
Howard , between Stephen and Ross, is metonymic oI a broader one between the system oI
canonical literature itselI and its other. In this sense, there is a deconstruction involved, as
Derrida has made the point that 'deconstruction, without being anti-systematic, is on the
contrary, and nevertheless, not only a search Ior, but itselI a consequence oI the Iact that the
system is impossible¨ (Derrida 2001, 4).
In terms oI our passage, it is not my aim to discuss the intrinsic value oI Joyce at the
expense oI Howard I would suggest that the value oI these texts is to be Iound as much in
their mode oI reception as in their mode oI production. Mainly, Joyce is read by academics
while a broad cross-section oI the public read Howard . This is indeed a question that is
worthy oI study as there is oIten a perception that the realms oI high culture and popular
culture are very clearly delineated. However it is important to note that these delineations oI
value are not dei ex machinis, they do not Iall

136

Irom the sky but rather are crested through the interactions and negotiations oI class,
power and various agendas. There is always a choice to be made and as Derrida has noted it
is 'always a determinate oscillation between possibilities¨ (Derrida 1988a, 148). As Pierre
Bourdieu has noted 'taste classiIies, and it classiIies the classiIier¨ (Bourdieu 1984, 6). In
other words, the choices that we make in terms oI our cultural arteIacts are both reIlective oI,
and reIlexive oI, the social class and societal and cultural power oI us as classiIiers. Thus
when I say that I am currently reading Ulysses , that reIlects a certain sense oI social class
and oI cultural class (or what Bourdieu would term 'cultural capital¨). The selection oI
cultural objects is a series oI negotiations in terms oI high and popular culture, but it is also a
series oI negotiations in terms oI my own sense oI identity.
I would argue that the whole idea oI high culture is one in need oI interrogation. In the
Iirst place, any system or structure is not monadic in that it exists and operates diIIerentially
Ior there to be a system oI high culture there must be one oI low culture (and the adjective
'low¨ is the technically correct term in this context as it is the binary opposite oI 'high¨ but it
has been attenuated Ior the purposes oI political correctness into 'popular¨). As Bourdieu
has noted, each position in the Iield oI high culture, or in a particular canonical system

receives its distinctive value Irom its negative relationship with the co-existent
positiontakings to which it is objectively related and which determine it by delimiting
it (Bourdieu 1993, 30).

So what is interesting in this context is not to decide whether, and how, Joyce is better, or
more valuable than Howard , but rather to examine the system and instructional structure that
causes us to ask this question in the Iirst place. And the negotiations involved between these
two institutional systemic terms mean that we need some Iorm oI mediation, a passage oI
negotiation, which will allow Ior a questioning oI the institutional structures oI both high and
popular cultures, and in this case I would look to Derrida `s book A Taste for the Secret ,
where he talks about what he terms 'the third¨: Derrida goes on immediately to generalise
this as an interest in the 'third¨ as something that both participates and does not participate,
both at once, in any system:

|a|nd in the end everything we have said about the system comes down to a question oI
the 'third¨. This third term, can be taken as the mediator that permits synthesis,
reconciliation, participation; in which case that which is neither this nor that permits the
synthesis oI this and that. |t|he third oI

137

neither-this-nor-that and this-and-that can indeed also be interpreted as that whose
absolute heterogeneity resists all integration, participation and system, thus designating
the place where the system does not close (Derrida 2001, 5).

As Hillis Miller perceptively notes, the third is a 'dialectical Aufhebung that does not
sublate, but rather prohibits sublation¨ (Miller 2007, 280). This sense oI the third is one
which allows Derrida to interrogate the systemacity oI systems as well as the institutionality
oI institutions. His work generally involves probing such institutions to test their structures
Ior stress Iractures. All too aware oI the dehumanising and hypostasising power oI systems
and structures, and yet also aware oI their necessity to any Iorm oI human interaction,
Derrida has spent a lot oI his career probing them and that probing is oI some value to this
discussion.
So what does Derrida mean when he says the system is impossible? Well, the Iirst thing
to do in the building oI this passage is to clear away any blockages and deposits oI solidiIied
material that have stood in the way oI clear modes oI connection between the respective
ediIices oI high and popular culture . And the Iirst oI these is to be Iound in the 'given¨ that
high culture , or in our speciIic case 'literature¨ is somehow autotelic and that its distinctions
and qualities transcend materiality and ideology . It is a cultural tendency which is oIten
operative through synecdoche with the term 'Joyce¨ connoting all oI the trappings oI high
culture, and this is true oI the proper names oI many authors. So, iI I set out the list as
Iollows: Flaubert , Tolstoy Dickens , Joyce, then I am talking about 'literature¨ and there is a
legitimate canon upon which I can draw.
However, the Iormation oI this canon is in need oI some unpacking. Both oI the writers in
question in this chapter are novelists, so genre is clearly not a current issue in terms oI
discriminating between the institutions oI high and popular culture . Interestingly, when the
novel emerged as a genre in the eighteenth century, critics censured it as a 'low¨ Iorm. Thus
when Flaubert began writing in the novel genre, he was not participating in high culture .

Although the French novel was to assume in the nineteenth century an unprecedented
prestige, usurping as it were the traditional preeminence oI dramatic and epic poetry,
|.| Iictional literature was on the whole not taken seriously (Brombert 1966, 16).

Due to the eIIorts oI writers like Flaubert , Balzac, Henry James and Dickens , the novel has
gradually attained the status oI high culture , but even in this list, there are some negotiations
to be done. One oI the core areas oI diIIerence between high and popular culture is to be
Iound in the

138

areas oI the audience and their levels oI involvement in the work in question.
Bourdieu argues that one oI the key diIIerences between middle- and working-class tastes
is that between 'distance¨ and 'participation¨: middle-class 'distance¨ reIers to both the
distance oI the reader Irom the text, the notion oI aesthetic distance, and at another level, the
distance oI the work oI art Irom everyday liIe (Bourdieu 1984, 488-489). I would add a
Iurther level oI distancenamely the distance Irom the canon to its inception or Iormation.
By having a canon that is not modern, the choice oI books can seem almost transhumant in
that it seems an organic list oI books that occurs almost naturally, through a process oI
osmosis. The general term Ior selection is that these works have stood the test oI time, but
this, oI course, is a suasive Iormulation which has no rational basis. In Iact, as Bourdieu and
others have pointed out, the canon is oIten chosen by political, social, cultural and gender
power-criteria and the aesthetic is very much a camouIlaging agency Ior these more overt
agencies. Through the seeming impersonality oI the canon, the class-based ideas oI distance,
particular to middle-class tastes, become hegemonic oI the aesthetic in general. Working
class tastes, on the other hand 'tend toward participation, that is, reader participation in the
experience oI the work oI art, and the participation oI the work oI art in the culture oI
everyday liIe¨ (Fiske 1991, 138). Bourgeois aesthetics oI high culture locate the work oI art
in the timeless and universal areas, where the idea oI contextual relevance is not really
valued. In A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , Stephen makes this very point.

Beauty expressed by the artist cannot awaken in us an emotion which is kinetic or a
sensation which is purely physical. It awakens, or ought to awaken, or induces, or ought
to induce, an esthetic stasis, an ideal pity or an ideal terror, a stasis called Iorth,
prolonged, and at last dissolved by what I call the rhythm oI beauty (Joyce 1993, 231).

Hence it is no surprise that a middle-class aesthetic would value a work with such an overt
deIinition oI middle-class aesthetics. In terms oI value, it is the context that is the ascriber oI
value, namely the audience. In this sense, the institution oI high culture is not really some
sort oI ineIIable canon oI works which have an intrinsic value or worth; rather it is a selI-
perpetuating system which sets out values and then rewards those works which enunciate
those values. It is very much a closed system in a synchronic sense, though diachronically as
the values change, so does the canon change, as witnessed by the generic enculturation oI the
novel in French, and indeed, world, literature.

139


In the negotiations between text and context , high culture values separation while popular
culture values relevance. And the immediate context oI a work oI art is oI course the
audience. Thus, comedy is generally not considered high culture because oI the imperative oI
audience reaction and participation while ballet is because audience participation is conIined
to applause at the end oI the perIormance.

The aesthetics oI the bourgeoisie demand that their art should be valued to the degree oI
its appeal to human and aesthetic universals rather than to the speciIics oI the here and
now: even though some art may be realistic` and reIer explicitly to the details oI the
everyday, the middle-class appreciation` must be able to look through these to the
universals` underlying them. Relevance to one`s immediate social context is not a
middle-class criterion Ior the evaluation and enjoyment oI art (Fiske 1991, 138).

And iI we turn to Stephen Dedalus `s theory oI artistic creation we Iind an uncanny echoing
oI this very point:

I thought he might mean that claritas is the artistic discovery and representation oI the
divine purpose in anything or a Iorce oI generalization which would make the esthetic
image a universal one, make it outshine its proper conditions (Joyce 1993, 239).

So it would seem that literature has a divine association, and a universal oneboth terms that
have been validated by that notion oI distance that we already spoke about. Interestingly,
Bourdieu notes that the Kantian idea oI aesthetic disinterest is in Iact a marker oI social
class in itselI:

it should not be thought that the relationship oI distinction (which may or may not
imply the conscious intention oI distinguishing oneselI Irom common people) is only
an incidental component in the aesthetic disposition. The pure gaze implies a break
with the ordinary attitude towards the world which, as such, is a social break (Bourdieu
1984, 31).

In the light oI the criteria that we have seen as central to the institution oI literature, and the
idea oI the canon , the gap between this distanced persona and that oI Ross would seem like
one that could not be connected by any passage.
The world oI Ross O`Carroll-Kelly is a parallel universe in terms oI the qualities oI
literature outlined above. It has connections with the real south Dublin but these are largely
tangential. Howard has created a place where reIerences to contemporary Ireland are made in
order to deconstruct

140

some oI the pretensions oI that place. His books poke Iun at all sorts oI conventions. The
initials oI the Iamily spell out 'ROCK¨, 'COCK¨ and 'FOCK¨, respectively, and these 'in¨
jokes abound in the series. Thus when Ross is told that his mother`s chic-lit book is to be
published by Penguin (the publishers oI the last Iour oI his own books), he scoIIs that he has
never heard oI them, and on the back oI the current tome he includes reviews Irom the Irish
Times ('Hilarious¨) and In Dublin ('Un-Iocking-missable¨) and himselI ('Like John
Banvillebut with riding¨). It is this level oI satire that makes the books so Iunny. He takes
upper-middle class types and turns them into caricatures. Thus Ross is the spoiled son who
just looks to his parents Ior money and treats them with total contempt, as he drives oII in his
'old BMW Z4¨ (Howard 2006, 30) paid Ior by his parents, taxed by his parents and insured
by his 'old pair¨! Sorcha is the classic rich liberal, concerned with all good causes; his
mother is into other sorts oI causes such as banning poor children Irom attending the National
Gallery and taking Funderland to the Northside oI Dublin. One Iriend, Oisin, dreams oI
creating perIumes that will be worn all over the world and the other, Christian, dreams oI
scripting new Star Wars movies. All oI the girls are obsessed with appearance and dieting,
and every new girl in the book is equated with a star oI Iilm, TV or music in order to express
how desirable she is.
In This Champagne Mofito is the Last Thing I Own, the trust-Iund runs out as his Iather
has his assets conIiscated by the Criminal Assets Bureau; his mother, having become a major
star oI the chick-lit scene, begins an aIIair with an anal-obsessive (in every sense oI that
word) literary agent, and his baby, Honor, reIuses to bond with him. As ever, Ross sails
through most situations with a calm conIidence that he is God `s giIt to almost everything.
The Iollowing passage gives a Ilavour oI what the style oI the books is like.

You`d have to be up pretty early in the morning to put one over on me. Actually, that`s
not strictly true, especially since I`m hordly out oI the scratcher beIore Home and Away
storts. Anytime beIore midday would probably do you. My point is that it`s pretty much
impossible to get anything past me (Howard 2006, 175).

This is very diIIerent Irom the sense oI taste that validates and valorises the writings oI Joyce.
To valorise this type oI writing would not seem to be part oI the institution oI literature. And
as we have already noted, part oI the social Iunction oI literature is to allow us to accrue some
Iorm oI cultural capital. To extend the earlier quote Irom Bourdieu :

|t|aste classiIies, and it classiIies the classiIier. Social subjects, classiIied by their
classiIications, distinguish themselves by the distinctions they make, between the
beautiIul and the ugly, the distinguished and the vulgar, in which their position in the
objective classiIications is expressed or betrayed (Bourdieu 1984, 6).

141


For Bourdieu utterances or texts are not just signs to be deciphered, they are also 'signs of
wealth, intended to be evaluated and appreciated, and signs of authority, intended to be
believed and obeyed¨ (Bourdieu 1991, 66). The notions oI wealth and authority do not just
come Irom the text, but as Derrida has indicated earlier, Irom the context and Irom the
negotiation between text and context . It is their part in the institution oI literature that makes
these texts and utterances valuable.
It is in the area oI the institution that the writing oI Joyce and Howard is diIIerentiated.
The binary 'Joyce/Howard ¨, like all binaries, is hierarchical, and the criteria oI that
hierarchy are institutional. Aesthetic distance, aesthetic disinterest, a sense oI the universal ,
these are all the qualities prized by one social group, and these are also the seemingly
disinterested aesthetic criteria oI quality (it is interesting that there is an almost
psychoanalytic process oI denial going on here with the personal agencies oI the qualities
being overtly denied in their names). The notion oI minority and popularity are others that
add to this debate, with high culture being seen as that oI the minority while popular culture
is by deIinition 'popular¨. In this context, it is interesting to look at points oI similarity in the
early publishing careers oI the two writers.
Joyce wrote 'The Sisters¨ Ior the Irish Homestead in 1904 and went on to write the rest
oI the stories oI Dubliners , which he submitted to the publisher Grant Richards in the same
year. Richards accepted them but in April oI that year, he inIormed Joyce that a new story
'Two Gallants¨ had produced problems with the printer who objected to certain passages .
Joyce`s response was that he had written the book

in accordance with what I understand to be the classical tradition oI my art. You must
thereIore allow me to say that your printer`s opinion oI it does not interest me in the
least (Gilbert 1957, 160).

In 1907, he completed the last oI the stories 'The Dead¨, which has come to be regarded as
one oI the Iinest short stories oI the 20
th
century, but in the same year, Richards decided not
to publish Dubliners . In 1909, George Roberts, oI the Dublin Iirm Maunsel, accepted
Dubliners and in August Joyce signed a publication contract, but Roberts then had second
thoughts about publishing it because oI the risk oI libel due to various reIerences to

142

actual people in the stories. Roberts wrote to Joyce inIorming him that his legal advisors
recommended that he sue Joyce to recover all costs, charges and expenses so Iar incurred by
handling the volume oI stories. It was in June 1914, that Grant Richards Iinally published
Dubliners.
The diIIiculties oI the publication process here are oIten seen as an index oI how
problematic it is Ior high art to attain a place in the public consciousness. Indeed, the travails
oI writing and publishing become part oI the cultural capital that accrues Irom the work: a
diIIicult birth equating with a quality Iinished product. However, Paul Howard `s experiences
with the early books in the Ross O`Carroll-Kelly series traces a broadly similar trajectory. In
an interview with Paula Murphy, Paul Howard discussed the early problems associated with
the Ross O`Carroll-Kelly series:

I couldn`t get a publisher, and it had already been running as a column in the Tribune
Ior a couple oI years and I couldn`t get a publisher. I wanted to put together a book, and
they kept sayingno, I can`t really see it; it doesn`t Iit in with any genreit`s not chick-
lit, it`s not exactly lad-lit, it`s not a sports book; nobody could see who would buy it. So
I went ahead and published the book myselI. You kind oI think it`ll be easier because
you`re thinkingI won`t have to give it to the publisher and everything will be mine.
And then 5000 books arrive, and I don`t know iI you`ve ever seen what 5000 books
look like but it`s Iive pallets; big wooden pallets piled high. So these arrived at the door
oI the Tribune, and I`m thinkingwhat am I going to do with them? Christmas week, I
was literally driving around to bookshops and warehouses like Eason`s warehouse and
the Argosy warehouse with these books weighing down the back axle oI this Nissan
Micra, sayingwill you take some books? And they`d saywell, maybe 50, ormight
take a hundred (Murphy 2007, 9).

II Howard was part oI the institution oI literature, this narrative would be one oI wealth and
authority and cultural capital, in Bourdieu `s terms, and would be renarrated as an index oI
how diIIicult it is to have new styles oI writing accepted by an innovative artist. However, as
Howard is not high culture , the narrative is seen in diIIerent terms.
So at this point, what is the passage that I wish to negotiate? I would suggest that this
passage is in Iact an aporia, a passage that is impassable unless we look to Derrida `s notion
oI the 'third¨: the third oI

neither-this-nor-that and this-and-that can indeed also be interpreted as that whose
absolute heterogeneity resists all integration, participation and system, thus designating
the place where the system does not close (Derrida 2001, 5).

143


In this sense, I think that our contrastive and comparative reading oI Joyce and Howard as
metonymic and synecdochic representations oI aspects oI the institution oI literature and high
culture is a monstrous act, and I use the adjective in a very speciIic sense. I am using it in the
sense that Derrida uses it in an interview very appropriately called 'Passages¨, where he
speaks about the 'monster ¨ as hybrid and aporetic. The monster, to quote Derrida , is

a composite Iigure oI heterogeneous organisms that are graIted onto each other. This
graIt, the hybridization, this composition that puts heterogeneous bodies together may be
called a monster (Derrida 1992, 385).

For Derrida , however the 'monster is also that which appears Ior the Iirst time and,
consequently, is not yet recognised. A monster is a species Ior which we do not yet have a
name¨ (Derrida 1992, 386). It is this aspect oI the monstrous that I want to concentrate on.
According to Derrida , the monster 'shows itselI¨ (emphasis in original, Derrida 1992, 386),
which is the etymological meaning oI monster 'it Irightens precisely because no anticipation
had prepared one to identiIy this Iigure¨ (Derrida 1992, 386). However,

as soon as one perceives a monster in a monster, one begins to domesticate it, one
begins. to compare it to the norms, to analyze it, consequently to master whatever
could be terriIying in this Iigure oI the monster (Derrida 1992, 386).

I would suggest that the passage between Joyce and Howard is the third oI which Derrida
speaks because it is a space Ior the monster oI the new and the counter institutional to reveal
itselI. Etymologically the signiIier 'monster¨ derives Irom the Latin Irom L. 'monstrum¨
'monster, monstrosity, omen, portent, sign ,¨ Irom root oI monere 'to warn¨, and the
questions we are asking in our passage are monstrous in that they ask the institution oI
literature and the canon to answer Ior their own constructions and exclusionary practices
through a reading oI a work that is counter-institutional.
The passage oI negotiations through which we have been travelling is monstrous in that it
reIuses to grant the closure oI the system and the institution and instead stretches the binary
opposition to its limitin other words, to the third. As Margaret Shildrick , has explained in
her book, Embodying the Monster. Encounters with the Julnerable Self , the monster cannot
be 'Iully containable within the binary structure oI the western logos¨ (Shildrick 2002, 1).
Instead, the monstrous 'signal|s| a

144

transIormation oI the relation between selI and other such that the encounter with the
strange is not a discrete event but the constant condition oI becoming¨ (Shildrick 2002, 1). In
her work, Shildrick interrogates the 'binary that opposes the monstrous to the normal¨
(Shildrick 2002, 3) and proposes a 'new Iorm oI ethics that answers more Iully to the
multiplicity oI embodied diIIerence¨ (Shildrick 2002, 3). In broadly similar terms, Rosi
Braidotti sees the monster as 'neither a total stranger nor completely Iamiliar¨ (Braidotti
1996, 141). It 'exists in an in-between zone¨, solely as 'paradox¨ or 'aporia¨ (Braidotti
1996, 141). And it is here that all oI our explorations and diIIerent negotiations oI text and
context and the micrological and macrological cohere.
The concept oI the 'aporia¨ is a central one in the writing oI Derrida . As Richard
Beardsworth has pointed out, 'aporia comes Irom the Greek aporos which means 'without
passage¨, or 'without issue¨; it is: a route which is impracticable and a route which is
impracticable is 'one that cannot be traversed, it is an uncrossable path. Without Passage. Not
treadable¨ (Beardsworth 1996, 32). It is a passage which is not a passage. To get across or
through an aporia without having to stand in reIlective doubt is one oI those problems that
has been raised by deconstruction Irom the beginning, and in this case, iI our passage Irom
Howard to Joyce, and by extension Irom popular culture to high culture is to be traversed,
then we need to look Ior something monstrous to lead us to Derrida `s 'third¨that sense oI
being part and not part, at the same time, oI an institution.
The purely monstrous is thus, Ior Derrida , an impossibility. Instead, the monster exists as
aporia, crouching in the shadows between the radically other and the wholly same. It 'shows
itselI¨ (Derrida 1992, 386) only through the repetition oI the 'traumatism that is the
perception oI the monster¨ (Derrida 1992, 386) and it is in this repetition that the negotiated
passage I have been traversing lies. It is not enough to see these two synecdochic writers as
parts oI a Ilat binary oI canon versus non-canon, or high culture versus popular culture .
Instead it is the process oI reading, oI careIul reading, oI attempting to see the cultural value
in each work through a close reading oI the text, and through negotiations between text and
context . The ethics oI such a reading are perhaps the most important aspect oI the work
done in academic institutionsas each text is itselI a passage and an aporia, each one is
individual, has the ability to show its monstrosity, its deconstructive Iunction with respect to
the existing institutions oI literature and culture oI which it is a part. The creation oI the
'third¨ in this case is the mutual interrogation oI the two texts, and the questions this
interrogation poses about issues oI value and systematicity and social class and the
independence oI the aesthetic as a given in

145

academic discourse. The negotiation oI text and context is crucial in any sort oI a reading
which looks to negotiate a passage, and it is this negotiation, this shuttling back and Iorth
between the texts and their contexts, and indeed each other, that is oI value here. The
attribution oI cultural capital to works, and the classiIication oI works into the two elements
oI the high and popular binary is actually questioned by such a negotiation, and I would argue
that this leads us, through the passage, the Derridean 'third¨ oI which we have been speaking.
So the type oI reading that we have been doing in this chapter is a 'third¨ readinglooking
at the imbrication oI text and context and showing how each individual reading can help to
put stress on what seems like a Iixed system and which urges, suggests and at times Iorces
that system into a series oI negotiations in order to liberate new meanings. At times it might
seem that all we have done here is to replace the certainties oI the canon with the
reIlexiveness oI the non-canon, but this is not the case. It is not a question oI deciding
whether Joyce is 'better¨ than Howard and by extension whether high culture is 'better¨
than popular culture . Instead it is a question oI using these texts, and a micrological reading
oI these texts, in order to negotiate between values and more importantly, the methods
through which such values are attributed, and to set up those negotiated passages which lead
us to the 'third¨towards a 'third¨ reading which stretches the system to its limit and Iorces it
to account Ior itselI, and its decisions, and its values.

























146



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