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COMPUTER NETWORKS SUBJECT CODE – MI0035 ASSIGNMENT SET - 1
Q.1 Explain all design issues for several layers in Computer. What is connection – oriented and connectionless service?

Answer:The various key design issues are present in several layers in computer networks. The important design issues are: 1. Addressing: Mechanism for identifying senders and receivers, on the network need some form of addressing. There are multiple processesrunning on one machine. Some means is needed for a process on one machine to specify with whom it wants to communicate. 2. Error Control: There may be erroneous transmission due to several problems during communication. These are due to problem in communication circuits, physical medium, due to thermal noise and interference. Many error detecting and error correcting codes are known, but both ends of the connection must agree on which one being used. In addition, the receiver must have some mechanism of telling the sender which messages have been received correctly and which has not. 3. Flow control: If there is a fast sender at one end sending data to a slow receiver, then there must be flow control mechanism to control the loss of data by slow receivers. There are several mechanisms used for flow control such as increasing buffer size at receivers, slow down the fast sender, and so on. Some process will not be in position to accept arbitrarily long messages. Then, there must be some mechanism to disassembling, transmitting and then reassembling messages. 4. Multiplexing / demultiplexing: If the data has to be transmitted on transmission media separately, it is inconvenient or expensive to setup separate connection for each pair of
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communicating processes. So, multiplexing is needed in the physical layer at sender end and demultiplexing is need at the receiver end. 5. Routing: When data has to be transmitted from source to destination, there may be multiple paths between them. An optimized (shortest) route must be chosen. This decision is made on the basis of several routing algorithms, which chooses optimized route to the destination.

Connection Oriented and Connectionless Services: Layers can offer two types of services namely connection oriented service and connectionless service. Connection oriented service: The service user first establishes a connection, uses the connection and then releases the connection. Once the connection is established between source and destination, the path is fixed. The data transmission takes place through this path established. The order of the messages sent will be same at the receiver end. Services are reliable and there is no loss of data. Most of the time, reliable service provides acknowledgement is an overhead and adds delay. Connectionless Services: In this type of services, no connection is established between source and destination. Here there is no fixed path. Therefore, the messages must carry full destination address and each one of these messages are sent independent of each other. Messages sent will not be delivered at the destination in the same order. Thus, grouping and ordering is required at the receiver end, and the services are not reliable. There is no acknowledgement confirmation from the receiver. Unreliable connectionless service is often called datagram service, which does not return an acknowledgement to
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the sender. In some cases, establishing aconnection to send one short messages is needed. But reliability is required, and then acknowledgement datagram service can be used for these applications. Another service is the request-reply service. In this type of service, the sender transmits a single datagram containing a request from the client side. Then at the other end, server reply will contain the answer. Requestreply is commonly used to implement communication in the client-server model. Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services Two distinct techniques are used in data communications to transfer data. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. They are the connection-oriented method and the connectionless method: • Connection-oriented Requires a session connection (analogous to a phone call)

be established before any data can be sent. This method is often called a "reliable" network service. It can guarantee that data will arrive in the same order. Connection-oriented services set up virtual links between end systems through a network, as shown in Figure 1. Note that the packet on the left is assigned the virtual circuit number 01. As it moves through the network, routers quickly send it through virtual circuit 01. • Connectionless Does not require a session connection between sender and

receiver. The sender simply starts sending packets (called datagrams) to the destination. This service does not have the reliability of the connection-oriented method, but it is useful for periodic burst transfers. Neither system must maintain state information for the systems that they send transmission to or receive transmission from. A connectionless network provides minimal services.

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Figure 1 Connection-oriented methods may be implemented in the data link layers of the protocol stack and/or in the transport layers of the protocol stack, depending on the physical connections in place and the services required by the systems that are communicating. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a connection-oriented transport protocol, while UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a connectionless network protocol. Both operate over IP. The physical, data link, and network layer protocols have been used to implement guaranteed data delivery. For example, X.25 packet-switching networks perform extensive error checking and packet acknowledgment because the services were originally implemented on poor-quality telephone connections. Today, networks are more reliable. It is generally believed that the underlying network should do what it does best, which is deliver data bits as quickly as possible. Therefore, connection-oriented services are now primarily handled in the transport layer by end systems, not the network. This allows lower-layer networks to be optimized for speed. LANs operate as connectionless systems. A computer attached to a network can start transmitting frames as soon as it has access to the network. It does not need to set up a connection with the destination system ahead of time. However, a transport-level protocol such as TCP may set up a connection-oriented session when necessary.

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The Internet is one big connectionless packet network in which all packet deliveries are handled by IP. However, TCP adds connection-oriented services on top of IP. TCP provides all the upper-level connection-oriented session requirements to ensure that data is delivered properly. MPLS is a relatively new connection-oriented networking scheme for IP networks that sets up fast label-switched paths across routed or layer 2 networks. A WAN service that uses the connection-oriented model is frame relay. The service provider sets up PVCs (permanent virtual circuits) through the network as required or requested by the customer. ATM is another networking technology that uses the connection-oriented virtual circuit approach.

Q.2 discuss OSI Reference model. Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) is a standard reference model for communication between two end users in a network. The model is used in developing products and understanding networks. Also see the notes below the figure.

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Illustration republished with permission from The manual Page . OSI divides telecommunication into seven layers. The layers are in two groups. The upper four layers are used whenever a message passes from or to a user. The lower three layers are used when any message passes through the host computer. Messages intended for this computer pass to the upper layers. Messages destined for some other host are not passed up to the upper layers but are forwarded to another host. The seven layers are: Layer 7: The application layer ...This is the layer at which communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. (This layer is not the application itself, although some applications may perform application layer functions.) Layer 6: The presentation layer ...This is a layer, usually part of an operating system, that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another (for example, from a text stream into a popup window with the newly arrived text). Sometimes called the syntax layer.
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Layer 5: The session layer ...This layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogs between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination. Layer 4: The transport layer ...This layer manages the end-to-end control (for example, determining whether all packets have arrived) and error-checking. It ensures complete data transfer. Layer 3: The network layer ...This layer handles the routing of the data (sending it in the right direction to the right destination on outgoing transmissions and receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level). The network layer does routing and forwarding. Layer 2: The data-link layer ...This layer provides synchronization for the physical level and does bit-stuffing for strings of 1's in excess of 5. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management. Layer 1: The physical layer ...This layer conveys the bit stream through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier. OSI Reference Model The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the OSI reference model in the early 1980s. OSI is now the de facto standard for developing protocols that enable computers to communicate. Although not every protocol follows this model, most new protocols use this layered approach. In addition, when starting to learn about networking, most instructors will begin with this model to simplify understanding. The OSI reference model breaks up the problem of intermachine communication into seven layers. Each layer is concerned only with talking to its corresponding layer on the other machine (see Figure 6-1). This means that Layer 5 has to worry only about talking to Layer 5 on the receiving machine, and not what the actual physical medium might be.

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Figure 6-1. OSI Reference Model

In addition, each layer of the OSI reference model provides services to the layer above it (Layer 5 to Layer 6, Layer 6 to Layer 7, and so on) and requests certain services from the layer directly below it (5 to 4, 4 to 3, and so on). This layered approach enables each layer to handle small pieces of information, make any necessary changes to the data, and add the necessary functions for that layer before passing the data along to the next layer. Data becomes less human-like and more computer-like the further down the OSI reference model it traverses, until it becomes 1s and 0s (electrical impulses) at the physical layer. Figure 6-1 shows the OSI reference model. The focus of this chapter is to discuss the seven layers (application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link, and physical). Understanding these layers allows you to understand how IP routing works and how IP is transported across various media residing at Layer 1.

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The Internet Protocol suite (see Figure 6-1) maps to the corresponding OSI layers. From the IP Suite figure, you can see how applications (FTP or email) run atop protocols such as TCP before they are transmitted across some Layer 1 transport mechanism. The Application Layer Most users are familiar with the application layer. Some well-known applications include the following: • • • E-mail Web browsing Word processing

The Presentation Layer The presentation layer ensures that information sent by the application layer of one system is readable by the application layer of another system. If necessary, the presentation layer translates between multiple data formats by using a common data representation format. The presentation layer concerns itself not only with the format and representation of actual user data, but also with data structures used by programs. Therefore, in addition to actual data format transformation (if necessary), the presentation layer negotiates data transfer syntax for the application layer. Common examples include • • • Encryption Compression ASCII EBCDIC

The Session Layer As its name implies, the session layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between applications. Sessions consist of dialogue between two or more presentation entities (recall that the session layer provides its services to the presentation layer).
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The session layer synchronizes dialogue between presentation layer entities and manages their data exchange. In addition to basic regulation of conversations (sessions), the session layer offers provisions for data expedition and exception reporting of sessionlayer, presentation-layer, and application-layer problems. The Transport Layer The transport layer is responsible for ensuring reliable data transport on an internetwork. This is accomplished through flow control, error checking (checksum), end-to-end acknowledgments, retransmissions, and data sequencing. Some transport layers, such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), have mechanisms for handling congestion. TCP adjusts its retransmission timer, for example, when congestion or packet loss occurs within a network. TCP slows down the amount of traffic it sends when congestion is present. Congestion is determined through the lack of acknowledgments received from the destination node. The Network Layer The network layer provides for the logical addressing which enables two disparate systems on different logical networks to determine a possible path to communicate. The network layer is the layer in which routing protocols reside. On the Internet today, IP addressing is by far the most common addressing scheme in use. Routing protocols such as Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (Enhanced IGRP, or EIGRP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Intermediary System to Intermediary System (IS-IS), and many others are used to determine the optimal routes between two logical subnetworks (subnets). Note You can switch IP traffic outside its own subnetwork only if you use an IP router.

Traditional routers route IP packets based on their network layer address. Key functions of the network layer include the following:
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• •

Packet formatting, addressing networks and hosts, address resolution, and routing Creating and maintaining routing tables

The Data Link Layer The data link layer provides reliable transport across a physical link. The link layer has its own addressing scheme. This addressing scheme is concerned with physical connectivity and can transport frames based upon the data link layer address. Traditional Ethernet switches switch network traffic based upon the data link layer (Layer 2) address. Switching traffic based on a Layer 2 address is generally known as bridging. In fact, an Ethernet switch is nothing more than a high-speed bridge with multiple interfaces. The Physical Layer The physical layer is concerned with creating 1s and 0s on the physical medium with electrical impulses/voltage changes. Common physical layer communication specifications include the following: • EIA/TIA-232Electrical Industries Association/Telecommunications Industry

Association specification used for communicating between computing devices. This interface is often used for connecting computers to modems, and might use different physical connectors. • V.35International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) signaling mechanism that defines signaling rates from 19.2 Kbps to 1.544 Mbps. This physical interface is a 34-pin connector and also is known as a Winchester Block. • RS-449Specification used for synchronous wide area communication. The physical connector uses 37 pins and is capable of significantly longer runs than EIA/TIA-232. • 802.3One of the most widely utilized physical mediums is Ethernet. Currently, Ethernet speeds are deployed from 10Mbps to 1000Mbps.
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Q.3. describe different types of data transmission modes? Transmission modes A given transmission on a communications channel between two machines can occur in several different ways. The transmission is characterised by: • • • the direction of the exchanges the transmission mode: the number of bits sent simultaneously synchronisation between the transmitter and receiver

Simplex, half-duplex and full-duplex connections There are 3 different transmission modes characterised according to the direction of the exchanges: • A simplex connection is a connection in which the data flows in only one direction, from the transmitter to the receiver. This type of connection is useful if the data do not need to flow in both directions (for example, from your computer to the printer or from the mouse to your computer...).

A half-duplex connection (sometimes called an alternating connection or semiduplex) is a connection in which the data flows in one direction or the other, but not both at the same time. With this type of connection, each end of the connection transmits in turn. This type of connection makes it possible to have bidirectional communications using the full capacity of the line.

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A full-duplex connection is a connection in which the data flow in both directions simultaneously. Each end of the line can thus transmit and receive at the same time, which means that the bandwidth is divided in two for each direction of data transmission if the same transmission medium is used for both directions of transmission.

Serial and parallel transmission The transmission mode refers to the number of elementary units of information (bits) that can be simultaneously translated by the communications channel. In fact, processors (and therefore computers in general) never process (in the case of recent processors) a single bit at a time; generally they are able to process several (most of the time it is 8: one byte), and for this reason the basic connections on a computer are parallel connections. Parallel connection Parallel connection means simultaneous transmission of N bits. These bits are sent simultaneously overN different channels (a channel being, for example, a wire, a cable or
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any other physical medium). Theparallel connection on PC-type computers generally requires 10 wires.

These channels may be: • N physical lines: in which case each bit is sent on a physical line (which is why parallel cables are made up of several wires in a ribbon cable) • one physical line divided into several sub-channels by dividing up the bandwidth. In this case, each bit is sent at a different frequency... Since the conductive wires are close to each other in the ribbon cable, interference can occur (particularly at high speeds) and degrade the signal quality... Serial connection In a serial connection, the data are sent one bit at a time over the transmission channel. However, since most processors process data in parallel, the transmitter needs to transform incoming parallel data into serial data and the receiver needs to do the opposite.

These

operations

are

performed

by

a

communications

controller

(normally

a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) chip). The communications controller works in the following manner:
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The parallel-serial transformation is performed using a shift register. The shift register, working together with a clock, will shift the register (containing all of the data presented in parallel) by one position to the left, and then transmit the most significant bit (the leftmost one) and so on:

The serial-parallel transformation is done in almost the same way using a shift register. The shift register shifts the register by one position to the left each time a bit is received, and then transmits the entire register in parallel when it is full:

Synchronous and asynchronous transmission Given the problems that arise with a parallel-type connection, serial connections are normally used. However, since a single wire transports the information, the problem is how to synchronise the transmitter and receiver, in other words, the receiver can not necessarily distinguish the characters (or more generally the bit sequences) because the bits are sent one after the other. There are two types of transmission that address this problem: • An asynchronous connection, in which each character is sent at irregular intervals in time (for example a user sending characters entered at the keyboard in real time). So, for example, imagine that a single bit is transmitted during a long period of silence... the receiver will not be able to know if this is 00010000, 10000000 or 00000100... To remedy this problem, each character is preceded by some information indicating the start of character transmission (the transmission start information is called a START bit) and ends by sending end-of-transmission information (called STOP bit, there may even be several STOP bits).
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In a synchronous connection, the transmitter and receiver are paced by the same clock. The receiver continuously receives (even when no bits are transmitted) the information at the same rate the transmitter send it. This is why the transmitter and receiver are paced at the same speed. In addition, supplementary information is inserted to guarantee that there are no errors during transmission.

During synchronous transmission, the bits are sent successively with no separation between each character, so it is necessary to insert synchronisation elements; this is called character-level synchronisation. The main disadvantage of synchronous transmission is recognising the data at the receiver, as there may be differences between the transmitter and receiver clocks. That is why each data transmission must be sustained long enough for the receiver to distinguish it. As a result, the transmission speed can not be very high in a synchronous link.

Q.4. define switching. What is the difference between circuit switching and packet switching? switching: The controlling or routing of signals in circuits to execute logical or arithmetic operations or to may transmit data between be performed by specific electronic, points optical, in or a network. Note:Switching electromechanical devices.

Packet-switched and circuit-switched networks use two different technologies for sending messages and data from one point to another. Each have their advantages and disadvantages depending on what you are trying to do. • In packet-based networks, the message gets broken into small data packets. These packets are sent out from the computer and they travel around the network seeking out the most efficient route to travel as circuits become available. This does not necessarily mean that they seek out the shortest route. Each packet may go a different route from the others.

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Each packet is sent with a ‘header address’. destination is, so it knows where to go.

This tells it where its final

The header address also describes the sequence for reassembly at the destination computer so that the packets are put back into the correct order.

One packet also contains details of how many packets should be arriving so that the recipient computer knows if one packet has failed to turn up.

If a packet fails to arrive, the recipient computer sends a message back to the computer which originally sent the data, asking for the missing packet to be resent.

Difference between circuit switching and packet switching: • Packet Switching • • Message is broken up into segments (packets). Each packet carries the identification of the intended recipient, data used to assist in data correction and the position of the packet in the sequence. Each packet is treated individually by the switching centre and may be sent to the destination by a totally different route to all the others. Packet Switching
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Advantages: • • • • • Security Bandwidth used to full potential Devices of different speeds can communicate Not affected by line failure (rediverts signal) Availability – do not have to wait for a direct connection to become available • During a crisis or disaster, when the public telephone network might stop working, e-mails and texts can still be sent via packet switching

Disadvantages • • • • Under heavy use there can be a delay Data packets can get lost or become corrupted Protocols are needed for a reliable transfer Not so good for some types data streams e.g real-time video streams can lose frames due to the way packets arrive out of sequence.

Circuit switching was designed in 1878 in order to send telephone calls down a dedicated channel. This channel remained open and in use throughout the whole call and could not be used by any other data or phone calls.

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There are three phases in circuit switching: • • • Establish Transfer Disconnect

The telephone message is sent in one go, it is not broken up. The message arrives in the same order that it was originally sent.

In modern circuit-switched networks, electronic signals pass through several switches before a connection is established.

• •

During a call, no other network traffic can use those switches. The resources remain dedicated to the circuit during the entire data transfer and the entire message follows the same path.

• •

Circuit switching can be analogue or digital With the expanded use of the Internet for voice and video, analysts predict a gradual shift away from circuit-switched networks.

A circuit-switched network is excellent for data that needs a constant link from end-to-end. For example real-time video.

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Disadvantages: • Inefficient – the equipment may be unused for a lot of the call, if no data is being sent, the dedicated line still remains open • • Takes a relatively long time to set up the circuit During a crisis or disaster, the network may become unstable or unavailable. • It was primarily developed for voice traffic rather than data traffic.

It is easier to double the capacity of a packet switched network than a circuit network – a circuit network is heavily dependent on the number of channel available. • • It is cheaper to expand a packet switching system. Circuit-switched technologies, which take four times as long to double their performance/cost, force ISPs to buy that many more boxes to keep up. This is why everyone is looking for ways to get Internet traffic off the telephone network. The alternative of building up the telephone network to satisfy the demand growth is economically out of the question. • The battle between circuit and packet technologies has been around a long time, and it is starting to be like the old story of the tortoise and the hare. In this case, the hare is circuit switching—fast, reliable and smart. The hare starts out fast and keeps a steady pace, while the tortoise starts slow but manages to double his speed every 100 meters. • If the race is longer than 2 km, the power of compounding favours the tortoise.

Q.5. classify Guided medium (wired). Compare fiber optics and copper wire. 4.2 GUIDED MEDIA Guided media, which are those that provide a conduit from one device to another, include twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable.
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Guided Transmission Media uses a "cabling" system that guides the data signals along a specific path. The data signals are bound by the "cabling" system. Guided Media is also known as Bound Media. Cabling is meant in a generic sense in the previous sentences and is not meant to be interpreted as copper wire cabling only. Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. Twisted pair cable and coaxial cable use metallic (copper) conductors that accept and transport signals in the form of electric current. Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light. There four basic types of Guided Media :

1. Open Wire 2. Twisted Pair 3. Coaxial Cable 4. Optical Fiber

Figure 4.3 : Types of guided media OPEN WIRE Open Wire is traditionally used to describe the electrical wire strung along power poles. There is a single wire strung between poles. No shielding or protection from noise interference is used. We are going to extend the traditional definition of Open Wire to include any data signal path without shielding or protection from noise interference. This can include multiconductor cables or single wires. This media is susceptible to a large
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degree of noise and interference and consequently not acceptable for data transmission except for short distances under 20 ft. TWISTED-PAIR (TP) CABLE Twisted pair cable is least expensive and most widely used. The wires in Twisted Pair cabling are twisted together in pairs. Each pair would consist of a wire used for the +ve data signal and a wire used for the -ve data signal. Any noise that appears on one wire of the pair would occur on the other wire. Because the wires are opposite polarities, they are 180 degrees out of phase When the noise appears on both wires, it cancels or nulls itself out at the receiving end. Twisted Pair cables are most effectively used in systems that use a balanced line method of transmission : polar line coding (Manchester Encoding) as opposed to unipolar line coding (TTL logic). Physical description ·Two insulated copper wires arranged in regular spiral pattern. ·Number of pairs are bundled together in a cable. ·Twisting decreases the crosstalk interference between adjacent pairs in the cable, by using different twist length for neighboring pairs. A twisted pair consists of two conductors (normally copper), each with its own plastic insulation, twisted together. One of the wire is used to carry signals to the receiver, and the other is used only a ground reference. Why the cable is twisted? In past, two parallel flat wires were used for communication. However, electromagnetic interference from devices such as a motor can create noise over those wires. If the two wires are parallel, the wire closest to the source of the noise gets more interference and ends up with a higher voltage level than the wire farther away, which results in an uneven load and a damaged signal. If, however, the two wires are twisted around each other at regular intervals, each wire is closer to the noise source for half the
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time and farther away for the other half. The degree of reduction in noise interference is determined specifically by the number of turns per foot. Increasing the number of turns per foot reduces the noise interference. To further improve noise rejection, a foil or wire braid shield is woven around the twisted pairs. Twisted pair cable supports both analog and digital signals. TP cable can be either unshielded TP (UTP) cable or shielded TP (STP) cable. Cables with a shield are called Shielded Twisted Pair and commonly abbreviated STP. Cables without a shield are called Unshielded Twisted Pair or UTP. Shielding means metallic material added to cabling to reduce susceptibility to noise due to electromagnetic interference (EMI). IBM produced a version of TP cable for its use called STP. STP cable has a metal foil that encases each pair of insulated conductors. Metal casing used in STP improves the quality of cable by preventing the penetration of noise. It also can eliminate a phenomenon called crosstalk. Crosstalk is the undesired effect of one circuit (or channel) on another circuit (or channel). It occurs when one line picks up some of the signal traveling down another line. Crosstalk effect can be experienced during telephone conversations when one can hear other conversations in the background. Twisted-pair cabling with additional shielding to reduce crosstalk and other forms of electromagnetic interference (EMI). It has an impedance of 150 ohms, has a maximum length of 90 meters, and is used primarily in networking environments with a high amount of EMI due to motors, air conditioners, power lines, or other noisy electrical components. STP cabling is the default type of cabling for IBM Token Ring networks. STP is more expensive as compared to UTP. UTP is cheap, flexible, and easy to install. UTP is used in many LAN technologies, including Ethernet and Token Ring. In computer networking environments that use twisted-pair cabling, one pair of wires is typically used for transmitting data while another pair receives data. The twists in the cabling reduce the effects of crosstalk and make the cabling more resistant to
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electromagnetic interference (EMI), which helps maintain a high signal-to-noise ratio for reliable network communication. Twisted-pair cabling used in Ethernet networking is usually unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling, while shielded twisted-pair (STP) cabling is typically used in Token Ring networks. UTP cabling comes in different grades for different purposes. The Electronic Industries Association (EIA) has developed standards to classify UTP cable into seven categories. Categories are determined by cable quality, with CAT 1 as the lowest and CAT 7 as the highest.

Category CAT 1 CAT 2 CAT 3 CAT 4

Data Rate < 100 Kbps 4 Mbps 10 Mbps 20 Mbps

Digital/Analog Analog Analog/Digital Digital Digital

Use Telephone systems Voice + Data Transmission Ethernet 10BaseT LANs Token based or 10baseT LANs

CAT 5 CAT 6 CAT 7

100 Mbps 200 Mbps 600 Mbps

Digital Digital Digital

Ethernet 100BaseT LANs LANs LANs

Table 4.1: Categories of UTP cable

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Figure 4.5: Unshielded twisted pair cable The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. The tighter the twisting, the higher the supported transmission rate and the greater the cost per foot. Unshielded Twisted Pair Connector The standard connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling is an RJ-45 connector. This is a plastic connector that looks like a large telephone-style connector. A slot allows the RJ45 to be inserted only one way. RJ stands for Registered Jack, implying that the connector follows a standard borrowed from the telephone industry. This standard designates which wire goes with each pin inside the connector. Table 4.2 : STP Cabling categories

STP

Cabling Description

Categories :Category IBM Type 1 IBM Type 1A Token Ring transmissions on AWG #22 wire up to 20 Mbps. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Copper Distributed Data Interface (CDDI), and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) transmission up to 300 Mbps.

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IBM Type 2A

Hybrid combination of STP data cable and CAT3 voice cable in one jacket.

IBM Type 6A

AWG #26 patch cables.

Figure 4.7 : STP cable

COAXIAL CABLE A form of network cabling used primarily in older Ethernet networks and in electrically noisy industrial environments. The name “coax” comes from its two-conductor construction in which the conductors run concentrically with each other along the axis of the cable. Coaxial cabling has been largely replaced by twisted-pair cabling for local area network (LAN) installations within buildings, and by fiber-optic cabling for high-speed network backbones. Coaxial cable (or coax) carries signals of higher frequency ranges than twisted-pair cable. Instead of having two wires, coax has a central core conductor of solid or standard wire (usually copper) enclosed in an insulating sheath, which is, in turn, encased in an outer conductor of metal foil, braid, or a combination of the two (also usually copper).
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Figure 4.8 : Coaxial cable FIBER-OPTIC CABLE Fiber-optic is a glass cabling media that sends network signals using light. Fiber-optic cabling has higher bandwidth capacity than copper cabling, and is used mainly for high-speed network Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) backbones, long cable runs, and connections to high-performance workstations. A fiber-optic cable is made of glass or plastic and transmits signals in the form of light. Light is a form of electromagnetic energy. It travels at its fastest in a vacuum: 3,00,000 kilometers/sec. The speed of light depends on the density of the medium through, which it is traveling (the higher the density, the slower the speed). Light travels in a straight line as long as it is moving through a single uniform substance. If a ray of light traveling through one substance suddenly enters another (more or less dense), the ray changes direction. This change is called. Refraction : The direction in which a light ray is refracted depends on the change in density encountered. A beam of light moving from a less dense into a denser medium is bent towards vertical axis. When light travels into a denser medium, the angle of incidence is greater than the angle of refraction; and when light travels into a less dense medium, the angle of incidence is less than the angle of refraction.
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Figure 4.14: Fiber Optic cable

Comparison Twisted-Pair Cable of No 1. Guided mediasSr It uses

Coaxial Cable

Fiber

Optic

Cable (FOC)

electrical It

uses

electrical It uses optical for form of signal (i.e. light) for transmission. metallic It uses glass or the signal. noise Highest noise than immunity as the rays are by

signals transmission. 2. It uses

for signals transmission. metallic It uses

conductor to carry the conductor to carry the plastic to carry 3. signal. signal. Noise immunity is low. Higher Therefore distortion. more immunity

twisted-pair cable due light shielding conductor. the

to the presence of unaffected

electrical

4.

Affected external filed. Cheapest

due

noise. to Less affected due to Not affected by magnetic the external filed. Moderately costly magnetic filed. Costly

magnetic external

5. 6.

Can support low data Moderately high data Very high data rates. rates. rates.
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7.

Power

loss

due

to Power loss due to Power loss due and conduction. to absorption, scattering,

conduction radiation. 8.

dispersion. Short circuit between Short circuit between Short circuit is two conductors is two conductors is not possible. high Very bandwidth. high possible. Low bandwidth. possible. Moderately bandwidth.

9.

Q.6. what are different types of satellites? Satellites fall into five principal types: 1). Research Satellites, 2). Communication Satellites, 3). Weather Satellites, 4). Navigational Satellites, and 5). Application Satellites.

Communication satellite. It is difficult to go through a day without using a communications satellite at least once. Do you know when you used a communications satellite today? Did you watch T.V.? Did you make a long distance phone call, use a cellular phone, a fax machine, a pager, or even listen to the radio? Well, if you did, you probably used a communications satellite, either directly or indirectly. Communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. Before satellites, transmissions were difficult or impossible at long distances. The signals, which travel in straight lines, could not bend around the
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round Earth to reach a destination far away. Because satellites are in orbit, the signals can be sent instantaneously into space and then redirected to another satellite or directly to their destination. The satellite can have a passive role in communications like bouncing signals from the Earth back to another location on the Earth; on the other hand, some satellites carry electronic devices called transponders for receiving, amplifying, and re-broadcasting signals to the Earth. Communications satellites are often in geostationary orbit. At the high orbital altitude of 35,800 kilometers, a geostationary satellite orbits the Earth in the same amount of time it takes the Earth to revolve once. From Earth, therefore, the satellite appears to be stationary, always above the same area of the Earth. The area to which it can transmit is called a satellite's footprint. For example, many Canadian communications satellites have a footprint which covers most of Canada. Communications satellties can also be in highly elliptical orbits. This type of orbit is roughly egg-shaped, with the Earth near the top of the egg. In a highly elliptical orbit, the satellite's velocity changes depending on where it is in its orbital path. When the satellite is in the part of its orbit that's close to the Earth, it moves faster because the Earth's gravitational pull is stronger. This means that a communications satellite can be over the region of the Earth that it is communicating with for the long part of its orbit. It will only be out of contact with that region when it quickly zips close by the Earth. Wheather satellite. Because of weather satellite technology and communications satellite technology, you can find out the weather anywhere in the world any time of the day. There are television stations that carry weather information all day long. Meteorologists use weather satellites for many things, and they rely on images from satellites. Here are a few examples of those uses: • Radiation measurements from the earth's surface and atmosphere give information on amounts of heat and energy being released from the Earth and the Earth's atmosphere.
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People who fish for a living can find out valuable information about the temperature of the sea from measurements that satellites make.

Satellites monitor the amount of snow in winter, the movement of ice fields in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the depth of the ocean.

Infrared sensors on satellites examine crop conditions, areas of deforestation and regions of drought.

Some satellites have a water vapour sensor that can measure and describe how much water vapour is in different parts of the atmosphere.

• •

Satellites can detect volcanic eruptions and the motion of ash clouds. During the winter, satellites monitor freezing air as it moves south towards Florida and Texas, allowing weather forecasters to warn growers of upcoming low temperatures.

Satellites receive environmental information from remote data collection platforms on the surface of the Earth. These include transmitters floating in the water called buoys, gauges of river levels and conditions, automatic weather stations, stations that measure earthquake and tidal wave conditions, and ships. This information, sent to the satellite from the ground, is then relayed from the satellite to a central receiving station back on Earth.

There are two basic types of weather satellites: those in geostationary orbit and those in polar orbit. Orbiting very high above the Earth, at an altitude of 35,800 kilometres (the orbital altitude), geostationary satellites orbit the Earth in the same amount of time it takes the Earth to revolve once. From Earth, therefore, the satellite appears to stay still, always above the same area of the Earth. This orbit allows the satellite to monitor the same region all the time. Geostationary satellites usually measure in "real time", meaning they transmit photographs to the receiving system on the ground as soon as the camera takes the picture. A series of photographs from these satellites can be displayed in sequence to produce a movie showing cloud movement. This allows forecasters to watch the progress of large weather systems such as fronts, storms, and hurricanes. Forecasters can also find out the wind direction and speed by monitoring cloud movement.
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The other basic type of weather satellite is polar orbiting. This type of satellite orbits in a path that closely follows the Earth's meridian lines, passing over the north and south poles once each revolution. As the Earth rotates to the east beneath the satellite, each pass of the satellite monitors a narrow area running from north to south, to the west of the previous pass. These 'strips' can be pieced together to produce a picture of a larger area. Polar satellites circle at a much lower altitude at about 850 km. This means that polar satellites can photograph clouds from closer than the high altitude geostationary satellites. Polar satellites, therefore, provide more detailed information about violent storms and cloud systems. Navigation satellite.

Satellites for navigation were developed in the late 1950's as a direct result of ships needing to know exactly where they were at any given time. In the middle of the ocean or out of sight of land, you can't find out your position accurately just by looking out the window. The idea of using satellites for navigation began with the launch of Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957. Scientists at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory monitored that satellite. They noticed that when the transmitted radio frequency was plotted on a graph, a pattern developed. This pattern was recognizable to scientists, and it is known as the doppler effect. The doppler effect is an apparent change of radio frequency as something that emits a signal in the form of waves passes by. Since the satellite was emitting a signal, scientists were able to show that the doppler curve described the orbit of the satellite. Today, most navigation systems use time and distance to determine location. Early on, scientists recognized the principle that, given the velocity and the time required for a
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radio signal to be transmitted between two points, the distance between the two points can be computed. The calculation must be done precisely, and the clocks in the satellite and in the ground-based receiver must be telling exactly the same time - they must be synchronized. If they are, the time it takes for a signal to travel can be measured and then multiplied by the exact speed of light to obtain the distance between the two positions. Research satellite.

NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft has entered a new region between our solar system and interstellar space. Data obtained from Voyager over the last year reveal this new region to be a kind of cosmic purgatory. In it, the wind of charged particles streaming out from our sun has calmed, our solar system's magnetic field has piled up, and higher-energy particles from inside our solar system appear to be leaking out into interstellar space. "Voyager tells us now that we're in a stagnation region in the outermost layer of the bubble around our solar system," said Ed Stone, Voyager project scientist at the California Institute of Technology. "Voyager is showing that what is outside is pushing back. We shouldn't have long to wait to find out what the space between stars is really like." Although Voyager 1 is about 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from the sun, it is not yet in interstellar space. In the latest data, the direction of the magnetic field lines has not changed, indicating Voyager is still within the heliosphere, the bubble of charged particles the sun blows around itself. The data do not reveal exactly when Voyager 1 will make it past the edge of the solar atmosphere into interstellar space, but suggest it will be in a few months to a few years. The latest findings, described today at the American Geophysical Union's fall meeting in San Francisco, come from Voyager's Low Energy Charged Particle instrument, Cosmic Ray Subsystem and Magnetometer.
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Scientists previously reported the outward speed of the solar wind had diminished to zero in April 2010, marking the start of the new region. Mission managers rolled the spacecraft several times this spring and summer to help scientists discern whether the solar wind was blowing strongly in another direction. It was not. Voyager 1 is plying the celestial seas in a region similar to Earth's doldrums, where there is very little wind. During this past year, Voyager's magnetometer also detected a doubling in the intensity of the magnetic field in the stagnation region. Like cars piling up at a clogged freeway off-ramp, the increased intensity of the magnetic field shows that inward pressure from interstellar space is compacting it. Voyager has been measuring energetic particles that originate from inside and outside our solar system. Until mid-2010, the intensity of particles originating from inside our solar system had been holding steady. But during the past year, the intensity of these energetic particles has been declining, as though they are leaking out into interstellar space. The particles are now half as abundant as they were during the previous five years. At the same time, Voyager has detected a 100-fold increase in the intensity of highenergy electrons from elsewhere in the galaxy diffusing into our solar system from outside, which is another indication of the approaching boundary. "We've been using the flow of energetic charged particles at Voyager 1 as a kind of wind sock to estimate the solar wind velocity," said Rob Decker, a Voyager Low-Energy Charged Particle Instrument co-investigator at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md. "We've found that the wind speeds are low in this region and gust erratically. For the first time, the wind even blows back at us. We are evidently traveling in completely new territory. Scientists had suggested previously that there might be a stagnation layer, but we weren't sure it existed until now." Launched in 1977, Voyager 1 and 2 are in good health. Voyager 2 is 15 billion km away from the sun. The Voyager spacecraft were built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., which continues to operate both. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. The Voyager missions are a part of the NASA Heliophysics System Observatory, sponsored by the Heliophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate in Washington.
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Satellite Applications

Broadband Digital Communications Broadband satellites transmit high-speed data and video directly to consumers and businesses. Markets for broadband services also include interactive TV, wholesale telecommunications, telephony, and point-of-sale communications, such as credit card transactions and inventory control. Direct-Broadcast Services Direct-broadcast satellites (DBS) transmit signals for direct reception by the general public, such as satellite television and radio. Satellite signals are sent directly to users through their own receiving antennas or satellite dishes, in contrast to satellite/cable systems in which signals are received by a ground station, and re-broadcast to users by cable.

Environmental Monitoring Environmental monitoring satellites carry highly sensitive imagers and sounders to monitor the Earth's environment, including the vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere; the movement and formation of clouds; ocean temperatures; snow levels;
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glacial movement; and volcanic activity. Large-scale computers use this data to model the entire earth's atmosphere and create weather forecasts such as those provided by national weather services in the U.S. and abroad. These satellites are typically self-contained systems that carry their own communications systems for distributing the data they gather in the form reports and other products for analyzing the condition of the environment. Satellites are particularly useful in this case because they can provide continuous coverage of very large geographic regions. Fixed-Satellite Services Satellites providing Fixed-Satellite Services (FSS) transmit radio communications between ground Earth stations at fixed locations. Satellite-transmitted information is carried in the form of radio-frequency signals. Any number of satellites may be used to link these stations. Earth stations that are part of fixed-satellite services networks also use satellite news gathering vehicles to broadcast from media events, such as sporting events or news conferences. In addition, FSS satellites provide a wide variety of services including paging networks and point-of-sale support, such as credit card transactions and inventory control. Government Providing X-band satellite communications services to governments is a new commercial application with substantial growth potential. SS/L has designed and built two X-band satellites, which will be available for lease to government users in the United States and Spain, as well as other friendly and allied nations within the satellites' extensive coverage areas. Government communications use specially allocated frequency bands and waveforms. Beyond environmental applications, government sensors gather intelligence in various forms, including radar, infrared imaging, and optical sensing. Mobile Satellite Services Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) use a constellation of satellites that provide communications services to mobile and portable wireless devices, such as cellular phones and global positioning systems. The satellite constellation is interconnected with landSANTOSH GOWDA.H 3rd semester, Disha institute of management and technology Mobile No.: 9986840143 Reg No.: 521075728

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based cellular networks or ancillary terrestrial components that allow for interactive mobile-to-mobile and mobile-to-fixed voice, data, and multimedia communications worldwide. With repeaters located on orbit, the interference of traditional fixed-ground terminals can be eliminated.

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COMPUTER NETWORKS SUBJECT CODE – MI0035 ASSIGNMENT SET - 2
Q.1. write down the features of fast Ethernet and gigabit Ethernet. Fast Ethernet Technology Fast Ethernet, or 100BaseT, is conventional Ethernet but faster, operating at 100 Mbps instead of 10 Mbps. Fast Ethernet is based on the proven CSMA/CD Media Access Control (MAC) protocol and can use existing 10BaseT cabling (See Appendix for pinout diagram and table). Data can move from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps without protocol translation or changes to application and networking software. Data- Link Layer Fast Ethernet maintains CSMA/CD, the Ethernet transmission protocol. However, Fast Ethernet reduces the duration of time each bit is transmitted by a factor of 10, enabling the packet speed to increase tenfold from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps. Data can move between Ethernet and Fast Ethernet without requiring protocol translation, because Fast Ethernet also maintains the 10BaseT error control functions as well as the frame format and length. Other high-speed technologies such as 100VG-AnyLAN, FDDI, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) achieve 100 Mbps or higher speeds by implementing different protocols that require protocol translation when moving data to and from 10BaseT. This protocol translation involves changes to the frame that typically mean higher latencies when frames are passed through layer 2 LAN switches.

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Physical Layer Media Options Fast Ethernet can run over the same variety of media as 10BaseT, including UTP, shielded twisted-pair (STP), and fiber. The Fast Ethernet specification defines separate physical sublayers for each media type: • 100BaseT4 for four pairs of voice- or data-grade Category 3, 4, and 5 UTP wiring • 100BaseTX for two pairs of data-grade Category 5 UTP and STP wiring • 100BaseFX for two strands of 62.5/125-micron multimode fiber In many cases, organizations can upgrade to 100BaseT technology without replacing existing wiring. However, for installations with Category 3 UTP wiring in all or part of their locations, four pairs must be available to implement Fast Ethernet. The MII layer of 100BaseT couples these physical sublayers to the CSMA/CD MAC layer (see Figure 1). The MII provides a single interface that can support external transceivers for any of the 100BaseT physical sublayers. For the physical connection, the MII is implemented on Fast Ethernet devices such as routers, switches, hubs, and adapters, and on transceiver devices using a 40-pin connector (See Appendix for pinout and connector diagrams). Cisco Systems contributed to the MII specification.Public Copyright © 1999 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Physical Layer Signaling Schemes Each physical sublayer uses a signaling scheme that is appropriate to its media type. 100BaseT4 uses three pairs of wire for 100-Mbps transmission and the fourth pair for collision detection. This method lowers the 100BaseT4 signaling to 33 Mbps per pair, making it suitable for Category 3, 4, and 5 wiring. 100BaseTX uses one pair of wires for transmission (125-MHz frequency operating at 80percent efficiency to allow for 4B5B encoding) and the other pair for collision detection and receive. 100BaseFX uses one fiber for transmission and the other fiber for collision detection and receive. The 100BaseTX and 100BaseFX physical signaling channels are based on FDDI physical layers developed and approved by the American National
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Standards Institute (ANSI) X3T9.5 committee. 100BaseTX uses the MLT-3 line encoding signaling scheme, which Cisco developed and contributed to the ANSI committee as the specification for FDDI over Category 5 UTP. Today MLT-3 also is used as the signaling scheme for ATM over Category 5 UTP.

Gigabit Ethernet: Gigabit Ethernet is a 1-gigabit/sec (1,000-Mbit/sec) extension of the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet networking standard. Its primary niches are corporate LANs, campus networks, and service provider networks where it can be used to tie together existing 10-Mbit/sec and 100-Mbit/sec Ethernet networks. Gigabit Ethernet can replace 100-Mbit/sec FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) and Fast Ethernet backbones, and it competes with ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) as a core networking technology. Many ISPs use Gigabit Ethernet in their data centers. Gigabit Ethernet provides an ideal upgrade path for existing Ethernet-based networks. It can be installed as a backbone network while retaining the existing investment in Ethernet hubs, switches, and wiring plants. In addition, management tools can be retained, although network analyzers will require updates to handle the higher speed. Gigabit Ethernet provides an alternative to ATM as a high-speed networking technology. While ATM has built-in QoS (quality of service) to support real-time network traffic, Gigabit Ethernet may be able to provide a high level of service quality by providing more bandwidth than is needed. This topic continues in "The Encyclopedia of Networking and Telecommunications" with a discussion of the following: • • Gigabit Ethernet features and specification Gigabit Ethernet modes and functional elements
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Gigabit Ethernet committees and specifications, including: • • • • • 1000Base-LX (IEEE 802.3z) 1000Base-SX (IEEE 802.3z) 1000Base-CX (IEEE 802.3z) 1000Base-T (IEEE 802.3ab) 10-Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3ae)

• •

Gigabit Ethernet switches Network configuration and design • • • • • Flat network or subnets Gigabit Ethernet backbones Switch-to-server links Gigabit Ethernet to the desktop Switch-to-switch links

• •

Gigabit Ethernet versus ATM Hybrid Gigabit Ethernet/ATM Core Network

10-Gigabit Ethernet As if 1 Gbits/sec wasn't enough, the IEEE is working to define 10-Gigabit Ethernet (sometimes called "10 GE"). The new standard is being developed by the IEEE 802.3ae Working Group. Service providers will be the first to take advantage of this standard. It is being deployed in emerging metro-Ethernet networks. See "MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)" and "Network Access Services." As with 1-Gigabit Ethernet, 10-Gigabit Ethernet will preserve the 802.3 Ethernet frame format, as well as minimum and maximum frame sizes. It will support full-duplex operation only. The topology is star-wired LANs that use point-to-point links, and structured cabling topologies. 802.3ad link aggregation will also be supported.
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The new standard will support new multimedia applications, distributed processing, imaging, medical, CAD/CAM, and a variety of other applications-many that cannot even be perceived today. Most certainly it will be used in service provider data centers and as part of metropolitan area networks. The technology will also be useful in the SAN (Storage Area Network) environment. Refer to the following Web sites for more information. 10 GEA (10 Gigabit Ethernet Alliance) http://www.10gea.org/Tech-whitepapers.htm Telecommunications the WAN" article on 10http://www.telecoms-

Gigabit Ethernet "Lighting Internet inmag.com/issues/200009/tcs/lighting_internet.html

Q.2. Differentiate the working between pure ALOHA and slotted ALOHA ALOHA: Aloha is a computer networking system which was introduced in the early 1970 by Norman Abramson and his colleagues at university of Hawaii to solve the channel allocation problem. On the basis of global time synchronization. Aloha is divided into two different versions or protocols. i.e Pure Aloha and Slotted Aloha. Pure Aloha: Pure Aloha does not require global time synchronization. The basic idea of pure aloha system is that it allows its users to transmit whenever they have data.A sender just like other users can listen to what it is transmitting, and due to this feedback broadcasting system is able to detect collision, if any. If the collision is detected the sender will wait a random period of time and attempt transmission again. The waiting time must not be the same or the same frames will collide and destroyed over and over. Systems in which multiple users share a common channel in a way that can lead to conflicts are widely known as contention systems.

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Efficiency of Pure Aloha: Let "T" be the time needed to transmit one frame on the channel, and "frame-time" as a unit of time equal to T. Let "G" refer to the mean used in the Poisson distribution over transmission-attempt amounts that is, on average, there are G transmission-attempts per frame-time. Let "t" be the time at which the sender wants to send a frame. We want to use the channel for one frame-time beginning at t, and so we need all other stations to refrain from transmitting during this time. Moreover, we need the other stations to refrain from transmitting between t-T and t as well, because a frame sent during this interval would overlap with our frame.

EFFICIENCY OF ALOHA Vulnerable period for the shaded frame is 2t, if t is the frame time. A frame will not collide if no other frames are sent within one frame time of its start, before and after. For any frame-time, the probability of there being k transmission-attempts during that frametime is: {G^k e^{-G}} / {k!} If throughput (number of packets per unit time) is represented by S, under all load, S =GPo, where Po is the probability that the frame does not suffer collision. A frame does not have collision if no frames are send during the frame time. Thus, in t time Po=(e)^(-G). In 2t time Po=e^(-2G), as mean number of frames generated in 2t is 2G. From the above, throughput in 2t time S=G*(Po)=G*e^(2G) Slotted Aloha Channel: Slotted Aloha does require global time synchronization.

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Efficiency of Slotted Aloha Channel: Assume that the sending stations has to wait until the beginning of a frame time (one frame time is one time slot) and arrivals still follow Poisson Distribution, where they are assumed probabilistically independent: In this case the vulnerable period is just t time units. Then the Probability that k frames are generated in a frame time is effective:Pk=(G^k)*(e^-G)/k! In t time, the probability of zero frames, Po=e^(-G) From the above throughput becomes: S=GPo=G*(e^-G)

Comparison Of Pure Aloha And Slotted Aloha:

PURE ALOHA VS SLOTTED ALOHA Throughput versus offered traffic for pure ALOHA and slotted ALOHA systems, ie, plot of S against G, from S=Ge^(-2G) and S=Ge^(-G) formulas. CSMA: CSMA is a set of rules in which the devices attached to a network first determines whether the channel or carrier is in use or free and then act accordingly. As in this MAC protocol,the network devices or nodes before transmission senses the channel,therefore, this protocol is known as carrier sense multiple access protocol.
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Multiple Access indicates that many devices can connect to and share the same network and if a node transmits anything, it is heard by all the stations on the network.

Q.3. write down distance vector algorithm. Explain path vector protocol Distance Vector Routing algorithm: 1) For each node, estimate the cost from itself to each destination. 2) For each node, send the cost information the neighbors. 3) Receive cost information from the neighbor, update the routing tables accordingly. 4) Repeat steps 1 to 3 periodically.

A path vector protocol is a computer network routing protocol which maintains the path information that gets updated dynamically. Updates which have looped through the network and returned to the same node are easily detected and discarded. This algorithm is sometimes used in Bellman–Ford routing algorithms to avoid "Count to Infinity" problems. It is different from the distance vector routing and link state routing. Each entry in the routing table contains the destination network, the next router and the path to reach the destination. Path Vector Messages in BGP: The autonomous system boundary routers (ASBR), which participate in path vector routing, advertise the reachability of networks. Each router that receives a path vector message must verify that the advertised path is according to its policy. If the messages comply with the policy, the ASBR modifies its routing table and the message before sending it to the next neighbor. In the modified message it sends its own AS number and replaces the next router entry with its own identification.

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BGP is an example of a path vector protocol. In BGP the routing table maintains the autonomous systems that are traversed in order to reach the destination system. Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) does not use path vectors.

Q.4. state the working principle of TCP segment header and UDP header TCP Header Format TCP segments are sent as internet datagrams. The Internet Protocol header carries several information fields, including the source and destination host addresses [2]. A TCP header follows the internet header, supplying information specific to the TCP protocol. This division allows for the existence of host level protocols other than TCP.

TCP Header Format

0

1

2

3

01234567890123456789012345678901 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | | | Data | | | | Source Port | Destination Port | | | Window | Urgent Pointer |
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|

+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number |U|A|P|R|S|F| |G|K|H|T|N|N| Checksum | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Offset| Reserved |R|C|S|S|Y|I| |

+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | Options data | Padding | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ TCP Header Format Note that one tick mark represents one bit position. Figure 3. Source Port: 16 bits The source port number. Destination Port: 16 bits The destination port number. Sequence Number: 32 bits The sequence number of the first data octet in this segment (except when SYN is present). If SYN is present the sequence number is the initial sequence number (ISN) and the first data octet is ISN+1. Acknowledgment Number: 32 bits If the ACK control bit is set this field contains the value of the next sequence number the sender of the segment is expecting to receive. Once a connection is established this is always sent. Data Offset: 4 bits The number of 32 bit words in the TCP Header. This indicates where the data begins. The TCP header (even one including options) is an integral number of 32 bits long. Reserved: 6 bits Reserved for future use. Must be zero.
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Control Bits: 6 bits (from left to right): URG: Urgent Pointer field significant ACK: Acknowledgment field significant PSH: Push Function RST: Reset the connection SYN: Synchronize sequence numbers FIN: No more data from sender Window: 16 bits The number of data octets beginning with the one indicated in the acknowledgment field which the sender of this segment is willing to accept. Checksum: 16 bits The checksum field is the 16 bit one's complement of the one's complement sum of all 16 bit words in the header and text. If a segment contains an odd number of header and text octets to be checksummed, the last octet is padded on the right with zeros to form a 16 bit word for checksum purposes. The pad is not transmitted as part of the segment. While computing the checksum, the checksum field itself is replaced with zeros. The checksum also covers a 96 bit pseudo header conceptually prefixed to the TCP header. This pseudo header contains the Source Address, the Destination Address, the Protocol, and TCP length. This gives the TCP protection against misrouted segments. This information is carried in the Internet Protocol and is transferred across the TCP/Network interface in the arguments or results of calls by the TCP on the IP. +--------+--------+--------+--------+ | | Source Address Destination Address | | +--------+--------+--------+--------+ +--------+--------+--------+--------+ | zero | PTCL | TCP Length |
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+--------+--------+--------+--------+ The TCP Length is the TCP header length plus the data length in octets (this is not an explicitly transmitted quantity, but is computed), and it does not count the 12 octets of the pseudo header. Urgent Pointer: 16 bits This field communicates the current value of the urgent pointer as a positive offset from the sequence number in this segment. The urgent pointer points to the sequence number of the octet following the urgent data. This field is only be interpreted in segments with the URG control bit set. Options: variable Options may occupy space at the end of the TCP header and are a multiple of 8 bits in length. All options are included in the checksum. An option may begin on any octet boundary. There are two cases for the format of an option: Case 1: A single octet of option-kind. Case 2: An octet of option-kind, an octet of option-length, and the actual data octets. The option-length counts the two octets of option-kind and option-length as well as the option-data octets. Note that the list of options may be shorter than the data offset field might imply. The content of the header beyond the End-of-Option option must be header padding (i.e., zero). A TCP must implement all options. Currently defined options include (kind indicated in octal): Kind Length Meaning
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option-

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---0 1 2

-----4

------End of option list. No-Operation. Maximum Segment Size.

Specific Option Definitions End of Option List +--------+ |00000000| +--------+ Kind=0 This option code indicates the end of the option list. This might not coincide with the end of the TCP header according to the Data Offset field. This is used at the end of all options, not the end of each option, and need only be used if the end of the options would not otherwise coincide with the end of the TCP header. No-Operation +--------+ |00000001| +--------+ Kind=1 This option code may be used between options, for example, to align the beginning of a subsequent option on a word boundary. There is no guarantee that senders will use this option, so receivers must be prepared to process options even if they do not begin on a word boundary.
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Maximum Segment Size +--------+--------+---------+--------+ |00000010|00000100| max seg size | +--------+--------+---------+--------+ Kind=2 Length=4 Maximum Segment Size Option Data: 16 bits If this option is present, then it communicates the maximum receive segment size at the TCP which sends this segment. This field must only be sent in the initial connection request (i.e., in segments with the SYN control bit set). If this option is not used, any segment size is allowed. Padding: variable The TCP header padding is used to ensure that the TCP header ends and data begins on a 32 bit boundary. The padding is composed of zeros.

The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a transport layer protocol defined for use with the IP network layer protocol. It is defined by RFC 768 written by John Postel. It provides a best-effort datagram service to an End System (IP host). The service provided by UDP is an unreliable service that provides no guarantees for delivery and no protection from duplication (e.g. if this arises due to software errors within an Intermediate System (IS)). The simplicity of UDP reduces the overhead from using the protocol and the services may be adequate in many cases. UDP provides a minimal, unreliable, best-effort, message-passing transport to applications and upper-layer protocols. Compared to other transport protocols, UDP and its UDP-Lite variant are unique in that they do not establish end-to-end connections between communicating end systems. UDP communication consequently does not incur
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connection establishment and teardown overheads and there is minimal associated end system state. Because of these characteristics, UDP can offer a very efficient communication transport to some applications, but has no inherent congestion control or reliability. A second unique characteristic of UDP is that it provides no inherent On many platforms, applications can send UDP datagrams at the line rate of the link interface, which is often much greater than the available path capacity, and doing so would contribute to congestion along the path, applications therefore need to be designed responsibly [RFC 4505]. One increasingly popular use of UDP is as a tunneling protocol, where a tunnel endpoint encapsulates the packets of another protocol inside UDP datagrams and transmits them to another tunnel endpoint, which decapsulates the UDP datagrams and forwards the original packets contained in the payload. Tunnels establish virtual links that appear to directly connect locations that are distant in the physical Internet topology, and can be used to create virtual (private) networks. Using UDP as a tunneling protocol is attractive when the payload protocol is not supported by middleboxes that may exist along the path, because many middleboxes support UDP transmissions. UDP does not provide any communications security. Applications that need to protect their communications against eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery therefore need to separately provide security services using additional protocol mechanisms. Protocol Header A computer may send UDP packets without first establishing a connection to the recipient. A UDP datagram is carried in a single IP packet and is hence limited to a maximum payload of 65,507 bytes for IPv4 and 65,527 bytes for IPv6. The transmission of large IP packets usually requires IP fragmentation. Fragmentation decreases communication reliability and efficiency and should theerfore be avoided. To transmit a UDP datagram, a computer completes the appropriate fields in the UDP header (PCI) and forwards the data together with the header for transmission by the IP network layer.

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The UDP protocol header consists of 8 bytes of Protocol Control Information (PCI) The UDP header consists of four fields each of 2 bytes in length: • Source Port (UDP packets from a client use this as a service access point (SAP) to indicate the session on the local client that originated the packet. UDP packets from a server carry the server SAP in this field) • Destination Port (UDP packets from a client use this as a service access point (SAP) to indicate the service required from the remote server. UDP packets from a server carry the client SAP in this field) • UDP length (The number of bytes comprising the combined UDP header information and payload data) • UDP Checksum (A checksum to verify that the end to end data has not been corrupted by routers or bridges in the network or by the processing in an end system. The algorithm to compute the checksum is the Standard Internet Checksum algorithm. This allows the receiver to verify that it was the intended destination of the packet, because it covers the IP addresses, port numbers and protocol number, and it verifies that the packet is not truncated or padded, because it covers the size field. Therefore, this protects an application against receiving corrupted payload data in place of, or in addition to, the data that was sent. In the cases where this check is not required, the value of 0x0000 is placed in this field, in which case the data is not checked by the receiver. Like for other transport protocols, the UDP header and data are not processed by Intermediate Systems (IS) in the network, and are delivered to the final destination in the same form as originally transmitted. At the final destination, the UDP protocol layer receives packets from the IP network layer. These are checked using the checksum (when >0, this checks correct end-to-end operation of the network service) and all invalid PDUs are discarded. UDP does not make
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any provision for error reporting if the packets are not delivered. Valid data are passed to the appropriate session layer protocol identified by the source and destination port numbers (i.e. the session service access points). UDP and UDP-Lite also may be used for multicast and broadcast, allowing senders to transmit to multiple receivers. Using UDP Application designers are generally aware that UDP does not provide any reliability, e.g., it does not retransmit any lost packets. Often, this is a main reason to consider UDP as a transport. Applications that do require reliable message delivery therefore need to implement appropriate protocol mechanisms in their applications (e.g. tftp). UDP's best effort service does not protect against datagram duplication, i.e., an application may receive multiple copies of the same UDP datagram. Application designers therefore need to verify that their application gracefully handles datagram duplication and may need to implement mechanisms to detect duplicates. The Internet may also significantly delay some packets with respect to others, e.g., due to routing transients, intermittent connectivity, or mobility. This can cause reordering, where UDP datagrams arrive at the receiver in an order different from the transmission order. Applications that require ordered delivery must restore datagram ordering themselves. The burdon of needing to code all these protocol mechanims can be avoided by using TCP!

Q.5. what is IP addressing? Discuss different classs of IP addressing.

n identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 1.160.10.240 could be an IP address.
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Within an isolated network, you can assign IP addresses at random as long as each one is unique. However, connecting a private network to the Internetrequires using registered IP addresses (called Internet addresses) to avoid duplicates. The four numbers in an IP address are used in different ways to identify a particular network and a host on that network. Four regional Internet registries -- ARIN, RIPE NCC, LACNIC and APNIC -- assign Internet addresses from the following three classes. · Class A - supports 16 million hosts on each of 126 networks · Class B - supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks · Class C - supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks The number of unassigned Internet addresses is running out, so a new classless scheme called CIDR is gradually replacing the system based on classes A, B, and C and is tied to adoption of IPv6. IP address classes These IP addresses can further be broken down into classes. These classes are A, B, C, D, E and their possible ranges can be seen in Figure 2 below. Class A B C D Start address 0.0.0.0 128.0.0.0 192.0.0.0 224.0.0.0 Finish address 126.255.255.255 191.255.255.255 223.255.255.255 239.255.255.255 255.255.255.255

E 240.0.0.0 Figure 2. IP address Classes

If you look at the table you may notice something strange. The range of IP address from Class A to Class B skips the 127.0.0.0-127.255.255.255 range. That is because this range is reserved for the special addresses called Loopback addresses that have already been discussed above. The rest of classes are allocated to companies and organizations based upon the amount of IP addresses that they may need. Listed below are descriptions of the IP classes and the organizations that will typically receive that type of allocation.
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Default Network: The special network 0.0.0.0 is generally used for routing. Class A: From the table above you see that there are 126 class A networks. These networks consist of 16,777,214 possible IP addresses that can be assigned to devices and computers. This type of allocation is generally given to very large networks such as multi-national companies. Loopback: This is the special 127.0.0.0 network that is reserved as a loopback to your own computer. These addresses are used for testing and debugging of your programs or hardware. Class B: This class consists of 16,384 individual networks, each allocation consisting of 65,534 possible IP addresses. These blocks are generally allocated to Internet Service Providers and large networks, like a college or major hospital. Class C: There is a total of 2,097,152 Class C networks available, with each network consisting of 255 individual IP addresses. This type of class is generally given to small to mid-sized companies. Class D: The IP addresses in this class are reserved for a service called Multicast. Class E: The IP addresses in this class are reserved for experimental use. Broadcast: This is the special network of 255.255.255.255, and is used for broadcasting messages to the entire network that your computer resides on. Private Addresses There are also blocks of IP addresses that are set aside for internal private use for computers not directly connected to the Internet. These IP addresses are not supposed to be routed through the Internet, and most service providers will block the attempt to do so. These IP addresses are used for internal use by company or home networks that need to use TCP/IP but do not want to be directly visible on the Internet. These IP ranges are: Class A B C Private Start Address 10.0.0.0 172.16.0.0 192.168.0.0 Private End Address 10.255.255.255 172.31.255.255 192.168.255.255

If you are on a home/office private network and want to use TCP/IP, you should assign your computers/devices IP addresses from one of these three ranges. That way your
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router/firewall would be the only device with a true IP address which makes your network more secure.

Common Problems and Resolutions The most common problem people have is by accident assigning an IP address to a device on your network that is already assigned to another device. When this happens, the other computers will not know which device should get the information, and you can experience erratic behavior. On most operating systems and devices, if there are two devices on the local network that have the same IP address, it will generally give you a "IP Conflict" warning. If you see this warning, that means that the device giving the warning, detected another device on the network using the same address. The best solution to avoid a problem like this is to use a service called DHCP that almost all home routers provide. DHCP, or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, is a service that assigns addresses to devices and computers. You tell the DHCP server what range of IP addresses you would like it to assign, and then the DHCP server takes the responsibility of assigning those IP addresses to the various devices and keeping track so those IP addresses are assigned only once.

Q.6. define Cryptography? Discuss two cryptography techniques Cryptography is the science of information security. The word is derived from the Greekkryptos, meaning hidden. Cryptography is closely related to the disciplines of cryptology andcryptanalysis. Cryptography includes techniques such as microdots, merging words with images, and other ways to hide information in storage or transit. However, in today's computer-centric world, cryptography is most often associated with scrambling plaintext(ordinary text, sometimes referred to as cleartext) into ciphertext (a process calledencryption), then back again (known as decryption). Individuals who practice this field are known as cryptographers. Modern cryptography concerns itself with the following four objectives:
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1) Confidentiality (the information cannot be understood by anyone for whom it was unintended) 2) Integrity (the information cannot be altered in storage or transit between sender and intended receiver without the alteration being detected) 3) Non-repudiation (the creator/sender of the information cannot deny at a later stage his or her intentions in the creation or transmission of the information) 4) Authentication (the sender and receiver can confirm each other?s identity and the origin/destination of the information) 3. TYPES OF CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS There are several ways of classifying cryptographic algorithms. For purposes of this paper, they will be categorized based on the number of keys that are employed for encryption and decryption, and further defined by their application and use. The three types of algorithms that will be discussed are (Figure 1): • Secret Key Cryptography (SKC): Uses a single key for both encryption and decryption • Public Key Cryptography (PKC): Uses one key for encryption and another for decryption • Hash Functions: Uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly "encrypt" information

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FIGURE 1: Three types of cryptography: secret-key, public key, and hash function.

3.1. Secret Key Cryptography With secret key cryptography, a single key is used for both encryption and decryption. As shown in Figure 1A, the sender uses the key (or some set of rules) to encrypt the plaintext and sends the ciphertext to the receiver. The receiver applies the same key (or ruleset) to decrypt the message and recover the plaintext. Because a single key is used for both functions, secret key cryptography is also called symmetric encryption. With this form of cryptography, it is obvious that the key must be known to both the sender and the receiver; that, in fact, is the secret. The biggest difficulty with this approach, of course, is the distribution of the key. Secret key cryptography schemes are generally categorized as being either stream ciphers or block ciphers. Stream ciphers operate on a single bit (byte or computer word) at a time and implement some form of feedback mechanism so that the key is constantly changing. A block cipher is so-called because the scheme encrypts one block of data at a time using the same key on each block. In general, the same plaintext block will always
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encrypt to the same ciphertext when using the same key in a block cipher whereas the same plaintext will encrypt to different ciphertext in a stream cipher. Stream ciphers come in several flavors but two are worth mentioning here. Selfsynchronizing stream ciphers calculate each bit in the keystream as a function of the previous n bits in the keystream. It is termed "self-synchronizing" because the decryption process can stay synchronized with the encryption process merely by knowing how far into the n-bit keystream it is. One problem is error propagation; a garbled bit in transmission will result in n garbled bits at the receiving side. Synchronous stream ciphers generate the keystream in a fashion independent of the message stream but by using the same keystream generation function at sender and receiver. While stream ciphers do not propagate transmission errors, they are, by their nature, periodic so that the keystream will eventually repeat. Block ciphers can operate in one of several modes; the following four are the most important: • Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode is the simplest, most obvious application: the secret key is used to encrypt the plaintext block to form a ciphertext block. Two identical plaintext blocks, then, will always generate the same ciphertext block. Although this is the most common mode of block ciphers, it is susceptible to a variety of brute-force attacks. • Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode adds a feedback mechanism to the encryption scheme. In CBC, the plaintext is exclusively-ORed (XORed) with the previous ciphertext block prior to encryption. In this mode, two identical blocks of plaintext never encrypt to the same ciphertext. • Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode is a block cipher implementation as a selfsynchronizing stream cipher. CFB mode allows data to be encrypted in units smaller than the block size, which might be useful in some applications such as encrypting interactive terminal input. If we were using 1-byte CFB mode, for example, each incoming character is placed into a shift register the same size as the block, encrypted, and the block transmitted. At the receiving side, the
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ciphertext is decrypted and the extra bits in the block (i.e., everything above and beyond the one byte) are discarded. • Output Feedback (OFB) mode is a block cipher implementation conceptually similar to a synchronous stream cipher. OFB prevents the same plaintext block from generating the same ciphertext block by using an internal feedback mechanism that is independent of both the plaintext and ciphertext bitstreams. A nice overview of these different modes can be found at progressive-coding.com. Secret key cryptography algorithms that are in use today include: • Data Encryption Standard (DES): The most common SKC scheme used today, DES was designed by IBM in the 1970s and adopted by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) [now the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)] in 1977 for commercial and unclassified government applications. DES is a block-cipher employing a 56-bit key that operates on 64-bit blocks. DES has a complex set of rules and transformations that were designed specifically to yield fast hardware implementations and slow software implementations, although this latter point is becoming less significant today since the speed of computer processors is several orders of magnitude faster today than twenty years ago. IBM also proposed a 112-bit key for DES, which was rejected at the time by the government; the use of 112-bit keys was considered in the 1990s, however, conversion was never seriously considered. DES is defined in American National Standard X3.92 and three Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS): • • FIPS 46-3: DES FIPS 74: Guidelines for Implementing and Using the NBS Data Encryption Standard • FIPS 81: DES Modes of Operation

Information about vulnerabilities of DES can be obtained from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
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Two important variants that strengthen DES are: • Triple-DES (3DES): A variant of DES that employs up to three 56-bit keys and makes three encryption/decryption passes over the block; 3DES is also described in FIPS 46-3 and is the recommended replacement to DES. • DESX: A variant devised by Ron Rivest. By combining 64 additional key bits to the plaintext prior to encryption, effectively increases the keylength to 120 bits. More detail about DES, 3DES, and DESX can be found below in Section 5.4. • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): In 1997, NIST initiated a very public, 41/2 year process to develop a new secure cryptosystem for U.S. government applications. The result, the Advanced Encryption Standard, became the official successor to DES in December 2001. AES uses an SKC scheme called Rijndael, a block cipher designed by Belgian cryptographers Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. The algorithm can use a variable block length and key length; the latest specification allowed any combination of keys lengths of 128, 192, or 256 bits and blocks of length 128, 192, or 256 bits. NIST initially selected Rijndael in October 2000 and formal adoption as the AES standard came in December 2001. FIPS PUB 197 describes a 128-bit block cipher employing a 128-, 192-, or 256-bit key. The AES process and Rijndael algorithm are described in more detail below in Section 5.9. • CAST-128/256: CAST-128, described in Request for Comments (RFC) 2144, is a DES-like substitution-permutation crypto algorithm, employing a 128-bit key operating on a 64-bit block. CAST-256 (RFC 2612) is an extension of CAST-128, using a 128-bit block size and a variable length (128, 160, 192, 224, or 256 bit) key. CAST is named for its developers, Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares and is available internationally. CAST-256 was one of the Round 1 algorithms in the AES process.

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International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA): Secret-key cryptosystem written by Xuejia Lai and James Massey, in 1992 and patented by Ascom; a 64bit SKC block cipher using a 128-bit key. Also available internationally.

Rivest Ciphers (aka Ron's Code): Named for Ron Rivest, a series of SKC algorithms. • • RC1: Designed on paper but never implemented. RC2: A 64-bit block cipher using variable-sized keys designed to replace DES. It's code has not been made public although many companies have licensed RC2 for use in their products. Described in RFC 2268. • • RC3: Found to be breakable during development. RC4: A stream cipher using variable-sized keys; it is widely used in commercial cryptography products, although it can only be exported using keys that are 40 bits or less in length. • RC5: A block-cipher supporting a variety of block sizes, key sizes, and number of encryption passes over the data. Described in RFC 2040. • RC6: An improvement over RC5, RC6 was one of the AES Round 2 algorithms.

Blowfish: A symmetric 64-bit block cipher invented by Bruce Schneier; optimized for 32-bit processors with large data caches, it is significantly faster than DES on a Pentium/PowerPC-class machine. Key lengths can vary from 32 to 448 bits in length. Blowfish, available freely and intended as a substitute for DES or IDEA, is in use in over 80 products.

Twofish: A 128-bit block cipher using 128-, 192-, or 256-bit keys. Designed to be highly secure and highly flexible, well-suited for large microprocessors, 8-bit smart card microprocessors, and dedicated hardware. Designed by a team led by Bruce Schneier and was one of the Round 2 algorithms in the AES process.

Camellia: A secret-key, block-cipher crypto algorithm developed jointly by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) Corp. and Mitsubishi Electric

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Corporation (MEC) in 2000. Camellia has some characteristics in common with AES: a 128-bit block size, support for 128-, 192-, and 256-bit key lengths, and suitability for both software and hardware implementations on common 32-bit processors as well as 8-bit processors (e.g., smart cards, cryptographic hardware, and embedded systems). Also described in RFC 3713. Camellia's application in IPsec is described in RFC 4312 and application in OpenPGP in RFC 5581. • MISTY1: Developed at Mitsubishi Electric Corp., a block cipher using a 128-bit key and 64-bit blocks, and a variable number of rounds. Designed for hardware and software implementations, and is resistant to differential and linear cryptanalysis. Described in RFC 2994. • Secure and Fast Encryption Routine (SAFER): Secret-key crypto scheme designed for implementation in software. Versions have been defined for 40-, 64-, and 128-bit keys. • KASUMI: A block cipher using a 128-bit key that is part of the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3gpp), formerly known as the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). KASUMI is the intended confidentiality and integrity algorithm for both message content and signaling data for emerging mobile communications systems. • SEED: A block cipher using 128-bit blocks and 128-bit keys. Developed by the Korea Information Security Agency (KISA) and adopted as a national standard encryption algorithm in South Korea. Also described in RFC 4269. • ARIA: A 128-bit block cipher employing 128-, 192-, and 256-bit keys. Developed by large group of researchers from academic institutions, research institutes, and federal agencies in South Korea in 2003, and subsequently named a national standard. Described in RFC 5794. • CLEFIA: Described in RFC 6114, CLEFIA is a 128-bit block cipher employing key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits (which is compatible with AES). The CLEFIA algorithm was first published in 2007 by Sony Corporation. CLEFIA is one of the new-generation lightweight blockcipher algorithms
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designed after AES, offering high performance in software and hardware as well as a lightweight implementation in hardware. • SMS4: SMS4 is a 128-bit block cipher using 128-bit keys and 32 rounds to process a block. Declassified in 2006, SMS4 is used in the Chinese National Standard for Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure (WAPI). SMS4 had been a proposed cipher for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11i standard on security mechanisms for wireless LANs, but has yet to be accepted by the IEEE or International Organization for Standardization (ISO). SMS4 is described in SMS4 Encryption Algorithm for Wireless Networks (translated and typeset by Whitfield Diffie and George Ledin, 2008) or in the original Chinese. • Skipjack: SKC scheme proposed for Capstone. Although the details of the algorithm were never made public, Skipjack was a block cipher using an 80-bit key and 32 iteration cycles per 64-bit block. 3.2. Public-Key Cryptography Public-key cryptography has been said to be the most significant new development in cryptography in the last 300-400 years. Modern PKC was first described publicly by Stanford University professor Martin Hellman and graduate student Whitfield Diffie in 1976. Their paper described a two-key crypto system in which two parties could engage in a secure communication over a non-secure communications channel without having to share a secret key. PKC depends upon the existence of so-called one-way functions, or mathematical functions that are easy to computer whereas their inverse function is relatively difficult to compute. Let me give you two simple examples: • Multiplication vs. factorization: Suppose I tell you that I have two numbers, 9 and 16, and that I want to calculate the product; it should take almost no time to calculate the product, 144. Suppose instead that I tell you that I have a number, 144, and I need you tell me which pair of integers I multiplied together to obtain that number. You will eventually come up with the solution but whereas calculating the product took milliseconds, factoring will take longer because you
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first need to find the 8 pairs of integer factors and then determine which one is the correct pair. • Exponentiation vs. logarithms: Suppose I tell you that I want to take the number 3 to the 6th power; again, it is easy to calculate 36=729. But if I tell you that I have the number 729 and want you to tell me the two integers that I used, x and y so that logx 729 = y, it will take you longer to find all possible solutions and select the pair that I used. While the examples above are trivial, they do represent two of the functional pairs that are used with PKC; namely, the ease of multiplication and exponentiation versus the relative difficulty of factoring and calculating logarithms, respectively. The mathematical "trick" in PKC is to find a trap door in the one-way function so that the inverse calculation becomes easy given knowledge of some item of information. (The problem is further exacerbated because the algorithms don't use just any old integers, but very large prime numbers.) Generic PKC employs two keys that are mathematically related although knowledge of one key does not allow someone to easily determine the other key. One key is used to encrypt the plaintext and the other key is used to decrypt the ciphertext. The important point here is that it does not matter which key is applied first, but that both keys are required for the process to work (Figure 1B). Because a pair of keys are required, this approach is also called asymmetric cryptography. In PKC, one of the keys is designated the public key and may be advertised as widely as the owner wants. The other key is designated the private keyand is never revealed to another party. It is straight forward to send messages under this scheme. Suppose Alice wants to send Bob a message. Alice encrypts some information using Bob's public key; Bob decrypts the ciphertext using his private key. This method could be also used to prove who sent a message; Alice, for example, could encrypt some plaintext with her private key; when Bob decrypts using Alice's public key, he knows that Alice sent the message and Alice cannot deny having sent the message (non-repudiation). Public-key cryptography algorithms that are in use today for key exchange or digital signatures include:
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RSA: The first, and still most common, PKC implementation, named for the three MIT mathematicians who developed it — Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. RSA today is used in hundreds of software products and can be used for key exchange, digital signatures, or encryption of small blocks of data. RSA uses a variable size encryption block and a variable size key. The key-pair is derived from a very large number, n, that is the product of two prime numbers chosen according to special rules; these primes may be 100 or more digits in length each, yielding an n with roughly twice as many digits as the prime factors. The public key information includes n and a derivative of one of the factors ofn; an attacker cannot determine the prime factors of n (and, therefore, the private key) from this information alone and that is what makes the RSA algorithm so secure. (Some descriptions of PKC erroneously state that RSA's safety is due to the difficulty in factoring large prime numbers. In fact, large prime numbers, like small prime numbers, only have two factors!) The ability for computers to factor large numbers, and therefore attack schemes such as RSA, is rapidly improving and systems today can find the prime factors of numbers with more than 200 digits. Nevertheless, if a large number is created from two prime factors that are roughly the same size, there is no known factorization algorithm that will solve the problem in a reasonable amount of time; a 2005 test to factor a 200-digit number took 1.5 years and over 50 years of compute time (see the Wikipedia article on integer factorization.) Regardless, one presumed protection of RSA is that users can easily increase the key size to always stay ahead of the computer processing curve. As an aside, the patent for RSA expired in September 2000 which does not appear to have affected RSA's popularity one way or the other. A detailed example of RSA is presented below in Section 5.3.

Diffie-Hellman: After the RSA algorithm was published, Diffie and Hellman came up with their own algorithm. D-H is used for secret-key key exchange only, and not for authentication or digital signatures. More detail about Diffie-Hellman can be found below in Section 5.2.

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Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA): The algorithm specified in NIST's Digital Signature Standard (DSS), provides digital signature capability for the authentication of messages.

ElGamal: Designed by Taher Elgamal, a PKC system similar to Diffie-Hellman and used for key exchange.

Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC): A PKC algorithm based upon elliptic curves. ECC can offer levels of security with small keys comparable to RSA and other PKC methods. It was designed for devices with limited compute power and/or memory, such as smartcards and PDAs. More detail about ECC can be found below in Section 5.8. Other references include "The Importance of ECC" Web page and the"Online Elliptic Curve Cryptography Tutorial", both from Certicom. See also RFC 6090 for a review of fundamental ECC algorithms.

Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS): A set of interoperable standards and guidelines for public-key cryptography, designed by RSA Data Security Inc. • • • • • PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography Standard (Also RFC 3447) PKCS #2: Incorporated into PKCS #1. PKCS #3: Diffie-Hellman Key-Agreement Standard PKCS #4: Incorporated into PKCS #1. PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography Standard (PKCS #5 V2.0 is also RFC 2898) • PKCS #6: Extended-Certificate Syntax Standard (being phased out in favor of X.509v3) • • • • • PKCS #7: Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard (Also RFC 2315) PKCS #8: Private-Key Information Syntax Standard (Also RFC 5208) PKCS #9: Selected Attribute Types (Also RFC 2985) PKCS #10: Certification Request Syntax Standard (Also RFC 2986) PKCS #11: Cryptographic Token Interface Standard
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• • •

PKCS #12: Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard PKCS #13: Elliptic Curve Cryptography Standard PKCS #14: Pseudorandom Number Generation Standard is no longer available

• •

PKCS #15: Cryptographic Token Information Format Standard

Cramer-Shoup: A public-key cryptosystem proposed by R. Cramer and V. Shoup of IBM in 1998.

Key Exchange Algorithm (KEA): A variation on Diffie-Hellman; proposed as the key exchange method for Capstone.

LUC: A public-key cryptosystem designed by P.J. Smith and based on Lucas sequences. Can be used for encryption and signatures, using integer factoring.

For additional information on PKC algorithms, see "Public-Key Encryption", Chapter 8 in Handbook of Applied Cryptography, by A. Menezes, P. van Oorschot, and S. Vanstone (CRC Press, 1996).

A digression: Who invented PKC? I tried to be careful in the first paragraph of this section to state that Diffie and Hellman "first described publicly" a PKC scheme. Although I have categorized PKC as a two-key system, that has been merely for convenience; the real criteria for a PKC scheme is that it allows two parties to exchange a secret even though the communication with the shared secret might be overheard. There seems to be no question that Diffie and Hellman were first to publish; their method is described in the classic paper, "New Directions in Cryptography," published in the November 1976 issue of IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. As shown below, Diffie-Hellman uses the idea that finding logarithms is relatively harder than exponentiation. And, indeed, it is the precursor to modern PKC which does employ two keys. Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman described an implementation that extended this idea in their paper "A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems," published in the February 1978 issue of theCommunications of the ACM
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(CACM). Their method, of course, is based upon the relative ease of finding the product of two large prime numbers compared to finding the prime factors of a large number. Some sources, though, credit Ralph Merkle with first describing a system that allows two parties to share a secret although it was not a two-key system, per se. A Merkle Puzzle works where Alice creates a large number of encrypted keys, sends them all to Bob so that Bob chooses one at random and then lets Alice know which he has selected. An eavesdropper will see all of the keys but can't learn which key Bob has selected (because he has encrypted the response with the chosen key). In this case, Eve's effort to break in is the square of the effort of Bob to choose a key. While this difference may be small it is often sufficient. Merkle apparently took a computer science course at UC Berkeley in 1974 and described his method, but had difficulty making people understand it; frustrated, he dropped the course. Meanwhile, he submitted the paper "Secure Communication Over Insecure Channels" which was published in the CACM in April 1978; Rivest et al.'s paper even makes reference to it. Merkle's method certainly wasn't published first, but did he have the idea first? An interesting question, maybe, but who really knows? For some time, it was a quiet secret that a team at the UK's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) had first developed PKC in the early 1970s. Because of the nature of the work, GCHQ kept the original memos classified. In 1997, however, the GCHQ changed their posture when they realized that there was nothing to gain by continued silence. Documents show that a GCHQ mathematician named James Ellis started research into the key distribution problem in 1969 and that by 1975, Ellis, Clifford Cocks, and Malcolm Williamson had worked out all of the fundamental details of PKC, yet couldn't talk about their work. (They were, of course, barred from challenging the RSA patent!) After more than 20 years, Ellis, Cocks, and Williamson have begun to get their due credit. And the National Security Agency (NSA) claims to have knowledge of this type of algorithm as early as 1966 but there is no supporting documentation... yet. So this really was a digression...

3.3. Hash Functions
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Hash functions, also called message digests and one-way encryption, are algorithms that, in some sense, use no key (Figure 1C). Instead, a fixed-length hash value is computed based upon the plaintext that makes it impossible for either the contents or length of the plaintext to be recovered. Hash algorithms are typically used to provide a digital fingerprint of a file's contents, often used to ensure that the file has not been altered by an intruder or virus. Hash functions are also commonly employed by many operating systems to encrypt passwords. Hash functions, then, provide a measure of the integrity of a file. Hash algorithms that are in common use today include: • Message Digest (MD) algorithms: A series of byte-oriented algorithms that produce a 128-bit hash value from an arbitrary-length message. • MD2 (RFC 1319): Designed for systems with limited memory, such as smart cards. (MD2 has been relegated to historical status, perRFC 6149.) • MD4 (RFC 1320): Developed by Rivest, similar to MD2 but designed specifically for fast processing in software. (MD4 has been relegated to historical status, per RFC 6150.) • MD5 (RFC 1321): Also developed by Rivest after potential weaknesses were reported in MD4; this scheme is similar to MD4 but is slower because more manipulation is made to the original data. MD5 has been implemented in a large number of products although several weaknesses in the algorithm were demonstrated by German cryptographer Hans Dobbertin in 1996 ("Cryptanalysis of MD5 Compress"). • Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA): Algorithm for NIST's Secure Hash Standard (SHS). SHA-1 produces a 160-bit hash value and was originally published as FIPS 180-1 and RFC 3174. FIPS 180-2 (aka SHA-2) describes five algorithms in the SHS: SHA-1 plus SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512 which can produce hash values that are 224, 256, 384, or 512 bits in length, respectively. SHA-224, -256, -384, and -512 are also described in RFC 4634.

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RIPEMD: A series of message digests that initially came from the RIPE (RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation) project. RIPEMD-160 was designed by Hans Dobbertin, Antoon Bosselaers, and Bart Preneel, and optimized for 32-bit processors to replace the then-current 128-bit hash functions. Other versions include RIPEMD-256, RIPEMD-320, and RIPEMD-128.

HAVAL (HAsh of VAriable Length): Designed by Y. Zheng, J. Pieprzyk and J. Seberry, a hash algorithm with many levels of security. HAVAL can create hash values that are 128, 160, 192, 224, or 256 bits in length.

Whirlpool: A relatively new hash function, designed by V. Rijmen and P.S.L.M. Barreto. Whirlpool operates on messages less than 2256 bits in length, and produces a message digest of 512 bits. The design of this has function is very different than that of MD5 and SHA-1, making it immune to the same attacks as on those hashes (see below).

Tiger: Designed by Ross Anderson and Eli Biham, Tiger is designed to be secure, run efficiently on 64-bit processors, and easily replace MD4, MD5, SHA and SHA-1 in other applications. Tiger/192 produces a 192-bit output and is compatible with 64-bit architectures; Tiger/128 and Tiger/160 produce a hash of length 128 and 160 bits, respectively, to provide compatibility with the other hash functions mentioned above.

(Readers might be interested in HashCalc, a Windows-based program that calculates hash values using a dozen algorithms, including MD5, SHA-1 and several variants, RIPEMD160, and Tiger. Command line utilities that calculate hash values include sha_verify by Dan Mares [Windows; supports MD5, SHA-1, SHA-2] and md5deep [cross-platform; supports MD5, SHA-1, SHA-256, Tiger, and Whirlpool].) Hash functions are sometimes misunderstood and some sources claim that no two files can have the same hash value. This is, in fact, not correct. Consider a hash function that provides a 128-bit hash value. There are, obviously, 2128 possible hash values. But there are a lot more than 2128 possiblefiles. Therefore, there have to be multiple files — in fact, there have to be an infinite number of files! — that can have the same 128-bit hash value.
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The difficulty is finding two files with the same hash! What is, indeed, very hard to do is to try to create a file that has a given hash value so as to force a hash value collision — which is the reason that hash functions are used extensively for information security and computer forensics applications. Alas, researchers in 2004 found that practical collision attacks could be launched on MD5, SHA-1, and other hash algorithms. Readers interested in this problem should read the following: • AccessData. (2006, April). MD5 Collisions: The Effect on Computer Forensics. AccessData White Paper. • Burr, W. (2006, March/April). Cryptographic hash standards: Where do we go from here? IEEE Security & Privacy, 4(2), 88-91. • Dwyer, D. (2009, June 3). SHA-1 Collision Attacks Now 252. SecureWorks Research blog. • Gutman, P., Naccache, D., & Palmer, C.C. (2005, May/June). When hashes collide. IEEE Security & Privacy, 3(3), 68-71. • • Klima, V. (March 2005). Finding MD5 Collisions - a Toy For a Notebook. Lee, R. (2009, January 7). Law Is Not A Science: Admissibility of Computer Evidence and MD5 Hashes. SANS Computer Forensics blog. • Thompson, E. (2005, February). MD5 collisions and the impact on computer forensics. Digital Investigation, 2(1), 36-40. • Wang, X., Feng, D., Lai, X., & Yu, H. (2004, August). Collisions for Hash Functions MD4, MD5, HAVAL-128 and RIPEMD. • Wang, X., Yin, Y.L., & Yu, H. (2005, February 13). Collision Search Attacks on SHA1. Readers are also referred to the Eindhoven University of Technology HashClash Project Web site. An excellent overview of the situation with hash collisions (circa 2005) can be found in RFC 4270 (by P. Hoffman and B. Schneier, November 2005). And for additional information on hash functions, see David Hopwood's MessageDigest Algorithms page.
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At this time, there is no obvious successor to MD5 and SHA-1 that could be put into use quickly; there are so many products using these hash functions that it could take many years to flush out all use of 128- and 160-bit hashes. That said, NIST announced in 2007 their Cryptographic Hash Algorithm Competition to find the next-generation secure hashing method. Dubbed SHA-3, this new scheme will augment FIPS 180-2. A list of submissions can be found at The SHA-3 Zoo. The SHA-3 standard may not be available until 2011 or 2012. Certain extensions of hash functions are used for a variety of information security and digital forensics applications, such as: • Hash libraries are sets of hash values corresponding to known files. A hash library of known good files, for example, might be a set of files known to be a part of an operating system, while a hash library of known bad files might be of a set of known child pornographic images. • Rolling hashes refer to a set of hash values that are computed based upon a fixedlength "sliding window" through the input. As an example, a hash value might be computed on bytes 1-10 of a file, then on bytes 2-11, 3-12, 4-13, etc. • Fuzzy hashes are an area of intense research and represent hash values that represent two inputs that are similar. Fuzzy hashes are used to detect documents, images, or other files that are close to each other with respect to content. See "Fuzzy Hashing" (PDF | PPT) by Jesse Kornblum for a good treatment of this topic.

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