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Temple of Fortuna Virillis (Portunus) in Rome from ~1st c. BCE • This is probably the oldest temple remaining in the city of Rome. If you look at this, you can see what the Etruscans contributed. o You have a temple on a high base, one stairway at the front that is the only way to get onto the stylobate. You also have a fairly deep porch, columns all the way around but by the time you get to the back of the temple you can see that the columns are not free standing, they are engaged, or attached to the wall. We don’t find any sculpture in the pediment, but you can see we have an architrave presenting that there is divided into three, and above it there is a
frieze, which is now disappeared. At any rate, some of this obviously relates to the influence of the Greek, the style is ionic, but you wouldn’t find the high base or only stairs in the front of a Greek temple. This is only in the Estruscan or Roman. You also wouldn’t have the cella extending out as far in the Greek temple as you do here. o This sets the style of what we’re going to find in temples in Rome.
Temple of Sibyl in Tivoli from the 1st century This is out of Tivoli, which is by Rome, and it’s the remains of a round temple, like the Tholos at Delphi. • Here we have something you can derive from Greece because it’s round, but it’s differet b/c of the high base and a staircase (only one entrance to the stylobate) • You’ve got what appears to be Corinthian columns, and again an architrave and you can see the whole entablature. • However, when you get to look at the wall of the cella, it’s different: marble in columns, door frame, window sills/outlining all the way around, but the wall is made of a mixture of rocks and probably some dirt and a good bit of cement. Cement is a material they really exploited, and many of their buildings couldn’t have been built without cement, or they would have been much more expensive to make. • They used cement b/c didn’t have as much marble as Greece, so they used the marble sparingly. What was probably the case was that it was cased with a thin layer of marble when it was first built so that it looked completely like a marble building, but it either fell off or what is more likely the case people took it off and used it for other buildings/other purposes. So you have something here that is purely Roman in terms of construction materials. •
Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia in Palestrina from the 1st century This is a building that keeps appearing in tests and textbooks. This was a center, that you can’t see much of today because it has suffered a lot through the centuries (lots due to WWII because the hillsite above it was hit by bombs). It’s been re-excavated since then, so the buildings like this we see are built postWWII, but probably build on remains oft his building. • It’s a sanctuary, probably dedicated to many gods. But the reason that it’s always included is the use of the arch here. This is the other thing that we talked about the Etruscans giving to the Romans, which again the Romans exploited. You have what appear to be larch arch openings, and probably they went back into the hillside and other rooms in the sanctuary. There is a whole series that makes the archave, and many were entrances to spaces used for various different things o Important thing is the use of the arch, and this will be continued and exploited in different ways. •
Aulus Metullus • • • This particular piece, Laringa Toray in Italian, or the Orator, makes a nice transition between the Estruscan and the Roman. It’s the portrait of the man of a name we know, Anulus Metullus, but we believe that the sculptor was an Estruscan. It’s in bronze. This is the head of a man that is speaking. He has his arm stretched out as though he is talking to a group of people and wants to make a point, so he raises his arm as he speaks to them. This is definitely a citizen, possibly an upper-class member of the senate, which he must have been to have a status like this made. Unlike the Greek hero, he is fully clothed, even with boots, and he’s not a perfect figure. He’s not bad, but you’ll notice a bump that hasn’t been smoothed out or a doctored figure. This is the kind of portrait you’d find in Rome. We’re going to be looking at a couple of things that we think are examples of republican portraiture, that is works done during the republic before it became the empire, and you’ll find that they are very good/accurate portraits of individuals. And they are also figures of people we know from history, which we know because there are often names on the sculpture itself.
Patrician Carrying Two Ancestor Portraits from the 1st century This is a portrait of a man with busts of his ancestors. The Romans were very much conscious of their ancestors, so they made wax masks, taken from a dead person, so they could have a likeness of a person. But in Rome, wax didn’t last long, so someone decided to cut the figures in stone instead. This is two busts, undoubtedly stone because you can see the way the bust was created, a conventional way of treating Roman portrait busts. The man is holding possibly father and grandfather. This is a very good understanding of how to carve the flesh beneath the gown and the robe as well. But these busts would have been placed in the house in a prominent place, but also they were carried in. Let’s say that your grandson or someone
else in your family died, there may be a whole procession of family members holding busts of ancestors. It was to impress, but also to carry on the idea of the importance of the family, particular upper-class patrician families. The head on this standing figure is not the one that was on it oringinally. Another head was substituted b/c didn’t want to waste the rest of the statue. This emphasizes the importance of portraiture. Head of Pompey from c. 100 This is Pompey, a fighter, a man who got into brawls, and you can see some evidence of that in the portrait: cut on upper lip, cut in eyebrow, he has a sort of mole on mouth, bulbus nose, and coarse hair. Nothing has been eliminated or smoothed down—probably what he really looks like. These are nice to have for us so we can have a face to the name in history. Note: Greeks tended to only do full body portraits; had no busts like this •
Forum in Pompeii from 2nd century BCE • When we look at the way in which the Romans lived, we go back to Pompeii, Herculaen, and Bosco reali, because these are settlements founded long before the explosion of Vesuvius, and they have been preserved by all the lava/ash that fell over them and have been excavated at least in part today. So we can get some of what idea what these cities and others looked like at the time—Rome probably looked like this, too. • These are two views of the central version of the town , like a town center, with an open piazza-type area, and the buildings all the way around it. • There is nothing that is really identifiable in those two slides, but if you look at a drawing of one of the temples in that square/center of town, you can see a temple to Apollo. From the ruins, we can see that you had a very ____ because it is on a very high base. The porch, columns all the way around, in the back must have been engaged columns. o This drawing shows us how close the buildings were. Amphitheater This is the oldest known ampitheater and is an early example of Roman concrete technology. 20,000 people could watch gladiator fights an animal hunts. Concrete was not known to Greeks.
Painting styles: 1st (aka Masonry Style): aim was to imitate costly marble panels using painted stucco relief. First style is well documented in Greek world from late 4th century BCE on shows the Hellenization of Roman architecture 2nd: Seen as a Roman invention, this wasn’t meant to make a wall look like elegant marble. Rather, it was meant to ‘dissolve a room’s confining walls and replace them with the illusion of an imaginary 3-D world’ 3rd: Artists decorated walls with delicate linear fantasies sketched on predominantly monochromatic backgrounds (no more illusionism—either for marble or 3-D) 4th: Illusionism is back. Walls are an austere creamy white. Some motifs are on a monochromatic background. Also, there are paintings with frames painted directly onto the wall (i.e. the frames were painted, too). Architecture became another motif with 4th style painting.
Villa of Mysteries This is a particular house of interest in Pompeii. Pompeii has some industry, but not much. It was where Romans usually came for the summer. This was one of the finer houses and is called the Villa of Mysteries because of what we think is a dining room (pictured to he right). This is done in second style to create the illusion of an imaginary 3-D world on the walls of Roman houses. The figures in this room are acting out the initiation rites of the Dionysiac mysteries. Dionysus was the focus of an unofficial mystery religion popular among women at the time. Nothing comparable to this exists in Hellenistic Greece. There are figures from Greek mythology, but this is a Roman design. Villa of Livia—Garden This is the ultimate representation of Second Style painting. It comes from the wife of emperor Augustus. There is an atmospheric prospective here, which indicates depth by the increasingly blurred appearance of objects in the distance. It’s from ~20 BCE.
Still Life—Fresco transferred to panel Roman interest in illusionism explains the popularity of stilllife paintings. This painter paid lots of attention to the play of light and shadow on different shapes and textures. This piece was done in fresco, It is from the 1st century CE.
Alexander Mosaic -Alexander defeating Darius -Copy, this time done in glass
10/17/11 Augustus of Primaporta (Early Empire) c. 20 BCE His right arm is raised as though he is speaking. He is a conqueror and has taken over the country and made it into an empire, but he is not standing here in his armor; he has very light sandals. He seems like he is trying to be more of a politician than a soldier. There is a third leg that is a dolphin with a little Heros figure riding tha dolphin/hanging onto Augustus. Augustus’s idealized portraits were modeled on Classical Greek statues and depict a never-aging son of a god. Augustus is not a nude athlete and statue carries political messages (i.e. diplomatic victories). Cupid at his feet suggests his divine descent. Made of marble.
Portrait Bust of Livia (Early Empire) This shows an imperial woman who is also eternally youthful, like Augustus. Her hair is Roman, with the hair rolled over the forehead and knotted at the nape of the neck, and her skin is blemish-free with sharply defined features, resembling a Classical Greek goddess. However, you likely wouldn’t ever find the bust like this in Greece because they were more inclined to full figure portraits. Ara Pacis Augustae (Early Empire) 13-9 BCE -This is built of stone and we’ve already talked about the Roman’s fondess for creating alters. This is not as old as the one we saw, but impressive for the carvings we saw on it. (listen) -It was very badly destroyed in its original position, probably something to do with its placement. More recently, in the past 100-150 years, it has been moved to a safer place -On top is a small alter, but it has lots of protection/walls, which makes it much gradner in appearance -The decoration is divided into two registers: upper register has a procession with a big arade recognizing what Augustus has done. The lower panel is covered with this flower or vine design. It’s almost to the Romans what’s equivalent to the Greek key design -This celebrates Augustus’s most important achievement, the establishment of peace. Procession This was inspired by the Panathenaic procession frieze from the Pantheon, but the Ara Pacis frieze depicts recognizable individuals, including children. Augustus promoted marriage and child-bearing because he was concerned about he decline of birthrate among Roman nobility—he enacted a series of laws designed to promote marriage, marital fidelity, and raising children. Also, Augustus wanted to have a Golden Age like that of Athens in the mid-5th century BCE—emulation of Classical models made a political and artistic statement. This depicts a specific event. Children look like children, not miniature adults. Also notice the Greek key pattern at the bottom (?)
Allegorical panel of Mother Earth flanked by two winds This depicts a lively matron with two lively babies in her lap, though we aren’t certain of her identity (but usually assumed to be Mother Earth). She epitomizes Pax Augusta. The earth is filled with lots of plants and different animal specifies living side by side. There is also a personification of wind on either side of her. Earth, sky, and water are all parts of this picture of peace and fertility.
Pont du Gard from Nimes, France (16 BCE) Roman engineers constructed roads and bridges throughout the empire. This aqueduct bridge brought water from a distant mountain spring to the city of Nimes. This demonstrates the skill of Roman engineers and it provided 100 gallons of water per day to each inhabitant. *Use of arches Maison Carree from Nimes France (20 BCE) This is a very well preserved Corinthian temple from France modeled after a temple in Rome. It exemplifies the conservative Neo-Classical Augustan architectural style. It dates to the beginning years of the 1st century CE. Things to note: (1) only one set of stairs (one entrance), (2) large porch area, (3) some columns are freestanding, others are engaged, (4) elevated/high base
Arch of Titus (81 CE) • This was a triumphal arch that belonged to Titus, who went to Jerusalem to conquer the city. When those conquering troops came home to Rome, there would be a parade and they marched through it. Notice how much architecture is in it: you have a high base, engaged columns, an entablature, and a kind of ‘second story’ or an ‘attic story’ and sometimes it has an inscription on it that can tell a story. But you can also have an vault/tunnel, sometimes called a tunnel or barrel vault. You have a barrel vault here, but you also have two interior walls, and in this case they have some decoration that related to the conquest of Jerusalem There is only one passageway
Spoils from the temple in Jerusalem This relief commemorates the emperor’s greatest achievement—the conquest of Judea. It is showing the Roman army marching along and they’re taking their carrion, things that they stole from the temple, including the menorah. The energy and swing of the column of soldiers suggests a rapid march. It is a very high relief. Some of the forward-facing soldiers no longer have a head because they stood free from the block. There is a play of light and shadow to enhance the sense of movement.
Triumph of Titus This shows Titus in his triumphal chariot. Victory (Nike?) crowns Titus in his triumphal chariot. There are also personifications of Honor and Valor in this first known instance of the intermingling of human and divine figures in Roman historical relief (but we did see it at the Villa of Mysteries in Pompeii). These allegorical figures transform the relief from a record of Titus’s battlefield success into a celebration of imperial virtues. Soon after Titus’s death, this kind of interaction between mortals and immortal because a staple of Roman narrative relief structure, even on monuments in honor of a living emperor. Colosseum (70-80 CE) This was built during the rule of Vespian (Flavian). A complex system of concrete barrel vaults once held up the seats in the world’s largest amphitheater, where 50,000 spectators could watch gladiator fights and wild animal hunts (similarity to amphitheater in Pompeii). Like the amphitheater at Pompeii, the Colosseum could not have been built without concrete. Part the reason it is so destroyed now is because after the fall of Rome, it was easy-pickings for building materials, and there was lots of marble used for seats (?). This is a prime example of Roman eclecticism. The architect mixed Greek columns and Roman arches on the façade, which masked a skeleton of concrete vaults. There is a use of engaged columns and a lintel to frame the openings in the Colosseum’s façade (influence of Etruscans). Influences: Greek and Etruscans Head of a Flavian Woman (Early Empire) 90 CE There are portraits of people of all ages in Flavian Portraiture, which is different to the earlier Republic when only elders were deemed worthy of depiction. This shows a young woman in contrapposto. Purpose: to represent idealized beauty through contemporary fashion instead of images of Greek goddesses
Forum of Trajan (High Empire) 112 CE It was twice the size of the forum of Augustus and glorified Trajan’s victories in his two wars against the Dacians. Architect: Apollodorus of Damascus. You entered the form through an impressive gateway resembling a triumphal arch, and inside were other reminders of Trajan’s military prowess. There were clerestory windows, made possible by elevating the timber-roofed nave above the colonnaded aisles. Column of Trajan -This is hollow with a staircase inside -There are some little openings that you can’t see -It was also a place meant for the ashes of Trajan and his wife -Originally, there was a statue of Trajan on top, but as soon as Christianity came to Rome he was removed and the figure of Christ was put thereinstead what you see here is the story of Trajan’s success in a series of battles, but he went up the Danub River after a people called the Daitians, so we wanted to show that here so people could see and read what he had done (read on the column) -What’s interesting is that there are no battle scenes here • it shows everyday activities, but not actually killing or encountering the Deitians • http://www.sandrashaw.com/images/AH1L26TC1.jpg o at the bottom, you can see a minor/River god. You have this human figure—he personifies the river, and seeing him there would say to the person reading this is that this is a river and there are boats (to the right) and they’re about to go off) -This is placed right between Greek and Latin library and they have several stories, so if you wanted to see what happens at the top you could go up libraries -The upper carving in relief is much deeper relief than on bottom so it is easier to see -He may have used this device of going round and round to the top because they read in scrolls. You started with a roll in one hand and unrolled it and kept unwinding it, and that’s what this is doing. It makes it much more difficult to see because there is so much, but if you want to get the whole story in this is the way Trajan decided to have it done
Pantheon (High Empire) 118-125 CE The Pantheon is a temple to all the gods, or at least the 7 planetary gods (the days of the week are named after them). On the right is the floor plan, which shows the dome as a perfect circle. In order to support this dome, it was made of a bunch of different materials, most importantly concrete. Because walls are support the dome, you need very thick walls. But it wasn’t the same thickness all the way around; it change as you got up. There were statues of each of the gods in the walls. Concrete is used here both for building material and as a means for shaping architectural space. The only part of the Pantheon that was like the past was its Corinthian columns. The design is the intersection of two circles, one horizontal and one vertical, so that the interior space can be imagined as the orb of the earth and the time as a vault to the heavens. They used coffers, sunken decorative panels, that lessened the dome’s weight
without weakening its structure. Coffers not only reduced the weight but also added a decorative element to the building. Light and air were brought in by a circle at the top. The walls were very ornate. Now it is a Christian church and has statues of saints, not Roman gods. Insula—model (mid-2nd century CE) This is an insula, which means island, and it’s an apartment house. Most apartments on Ostia were made of brick ; this one was 5 stories high. There would be a smaller doorway to go back to the center of the building of open space, and that’s where you’d have your garden/greenery, and there would be a stairway off that interior space to bring you up to higher stories. Rome and Ostia were densely populated cities, so most Romans lived in multistory brick-faced concrete insulae with shops on the ground floor. Private toilet facilities were rare; only for deluxe apartments. Residents cooked their food in the hallways. Marcus Aurelius (High Empire) 175 CE He was the first foreign emperor, meaning he wasn’t born in what we consider Italy today; he was born in Spain. If you go to rome now, this sits on top of a the hill where Michaelangelo placed it in the 16th century. The figure on the right is still there today, but the one on the left was so badly damaged them put it inside a museum, so now there is a bronze copy in its place. The ruler isi n superhuman grandeur and is much larger in scale to a horse than any normal human being. He stretches his right arm out in a gesture of greeting and mercy (possibly because he’s a foreign emperor). It shows him as an omnipotent conqueror. However, he is not completely idealized—especially in the years leading up to his death, you could see him weary, saddened, and worried. It wasn’t the first time Roman emperors were shown aged, but it was the first time they showed those kind of expressions. *This was a major turning point in the history of ancient art because it marked the beginning of the end of Classical art’s domination in the Greco-Roman world. 10/18/11 (all High Empire) Palace of Diocletian (c. 298-306 CE) Diocletian was wise enough to resign, and when he did he went back to his birthplace (Dalmatia) to build this palace. It looks similar to a temple front, but right in the middle you have an arch, so you have both post and lintel and the arch used here. His palace resembled a fortified Roman city. Within its high walls, two avenues intersected at the forum-like colonnaded courtyard leading to the emperor’s residential quarters.
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus (c. 250 CE) The arrangement of figures have little in the way of order and the most important figure in this scene is difficult to find right away. You can see the confusion in the varying sizes of the figures as well as the placement/abundance of the figures. It is called the Ludovisi Sarcophagus because it belonged to the Ludovisi family, but the name has nothing to do with its origin. This unusually large sarcophagus depicts a chaotic battle scene between Romans and barbarians,
probably the Goths. The sculptor piled up the writhing, emotive (arousing or able to arouse intense feeling) figures in a clear rejection of Classical perspective (1) no illusion of space behind figures This highlights the idea that later in the Roman empire, there was increased dissatisfaction with Classical style. The central horseman stands out because he isn’t wearing a helmet and is not holding a weapon— he’s boasting that he is a fearless commander, sure of victory. Moreover, on his forehead there is an emblem of Mithras, the Persian god of light, truth, and victory over death (can’t see it well). Temple of Venus, Baalbek (3rd century CE) It is small and circular, or at least the cella is, but the stylobate is not so circular, and the same is for the entablature (this is something we’ll see a lot when we get to baroque). You see niches on the exterior of the building, and from the depth of them you can see how small the interior of the building was. This is also an architectural example of a decline in respect for Classical art. (1) It was made of stone, but the circular domed cella set behind a gabled columnar façade was a critique on the concrete Pantheon (2) The platform was scalloped around the cella (3) columns support a scalloped entablature, too (4) concave forms the top and bottom created opposed the convex cella [i.e. ) ( vs, ( )] Unknown architect
Arch of Constantine (312-315 CE) One of the things he constructed was this triumphal arch. Remember the first triumphal arch, the Arch of Titus, and you’ll see differences: (1) this has three openings instead of one, (2) an extended attic story with a description in the center, (3) more ornate (high reliefs and statues) Most of the decoration for this arch came from monuments of Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius. Sculptors re-cut the heads of the earlier emperors with Constantine’s features. The reuse of statues and reliefs suggests a decline in creativity and technical skill in the waning years of the pagan Roman Empire, but also keep in mind that these ‘copies’ were chosen to associate Constantine with ‘good’ emperors, a message that is underscored in one of the arch’s few Constantinian reliefs, which shows Constantine on the speaker’s platform in the Roman Forum between statues of Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius (furthest one on the left).
Head of Constantine (315-330; 4th century) Constantine wanted a huge statue of himself so people would know who was responsible for victories/good things. Like Augustus, Constantine is shown as eternally youthful (i.e. no wrinkles or imperfections). This is only the head of a HUGE enthroned statue of the emperor holding the orb of world power. It’s made of marble. His personality is lost in this immense image of eternal authority (relate to Egyptians wanting to represent eternity?). This statue is meant to exude an overwhelming power for an absolute ruler.
↑Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus The wealthiest Christians, like the recently Junius Bassus, favored elaborately decorated sarcophagi. Here, biblical episodes from Adam and Eve to Christ Pilate appear in 10 niches. Made of marble. • You’ll notice it’s all post and lintel, before you get to the upper edge where the lid comes down. The scenes alternate between old and new testament • to the right of Adam and Eve is a scene from Palm Sunday, to the right of that is Daniel (who was in the lions den and the lions left him alone), then St. Paul’s being led off to execution • in the center, you have the left picture, which is Jesus is in heaven, which you know because of the bottom figure, which is a personification of the sky. But you look at the center figure that is supposed to be Jesus and he doesn’t look like the common understanding of what he looked like. At this time, most people didn’t know what he looked like, so they wanted to make him look important, and they wanted to make him look important, so they called this the Apollo figure of Christ, which you’ll see a lot until people realized this probably was not what he looked like. You can’t see this very well, but the man to the left is holding a key, so that’s St. Peter, and the other is holding a scroll, that’s St. Paul • The back of this is plain because when you made a sarcophagus like this, it was usually put against a wall, so there was no need to carve the back • Junius Bassus himself is not depicted, nor is the Crucifixion (Crucifixion was rare in Early Christian art, esp. before 5th century; instead emphasized his divinity and life as a teacher/miracle worker) o Alludes to the Crucifixion in the two upper right niches showing Jesus being led to Pontius Pilate for judgment
Christ Teaching (4th century CE) This is one of the rare instances of free-standing Early Christian sculpture. Christ’s hair is like Apollo’s hair, as it is on the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. It is made of marble. Earliest representations of Jesus show him as a young man, but statues of Christ are rare during the Early Christian period because the Second Commandment prohibits idol worship. Santa Costanza (4th century CE) This was a building by Costanza, Constantine’s daughter, who was a true Christian even if Constantine might have just said he was one for political gains. If you look at the exterior, you’ll see a severe brick exterior, but it’s much more ornate inside. This is an example of the centralplan design, which means the dimension of the building’s parts around the center are equal (or almost equal). It was possibly built as the mausoleum of Constanza, and it later became a church. Its central plan features a domed interior, which would become the preferred form for Byzantine churches. Mosaics—Youths harvesting grapes This is a mosaic on the vault and shows putti harvesting grapes and producing wine. The center is a portrait bust. In the Roman world, wine was primarily associated with Bacchus, but for a Christian, the vineyards brought the wine of the Eucharist and the blood of Christ to mind. This is in the fourth style.
10/26/11 Hagia Sophia • Justinian could speak both Greek and Latin • Huge church that doesn’t rely on the styles or plans of churches we’ve seen so far • Four prayer towers are later additions • Huge dome in the center o Centrally planned church o Dome draws your focus • Central focus is not under the dome, it’s at the apse • Side areas like side aisle (though they don’t really look like side aisles) • Two narthex (nartheses?) • Atrium that is no longer in existence, but was in the original plans of the church • Windows at the base of the dome that allow light in • Dome itself is lightened o Supported by ribs that go up s o Ribs that really hold the wall in place • Two-story church o When emperor came to worship, he had a suite where he worshipped o Women were on the right side Gynacium (for women…gynecologist) • Figures of angels were covered over with plaster • Round dome sitting on a rectangular building
Pendentivies—triangular areas between the areas on the sides of the wall o By the time these pendentivies get up to the top space, you have a circular dome that is supported Unlike column capitals, you have rams horn looking scrolls o Holes that are drilled in the surface o Is some relief that is raised, but also things that are carved out
San Vitale (6th century) • Justinian also built • Exterior is all brick, two stories and has a dome • Very ornamental o Marble Very decorative Cut a piece of marble and make a slice • This creates a complex design o Mosaics • Two concentric octagons • Apse with two side chapels • Narthex o Problem here because the entrance faces directly across from the altar o Added two entrances, but only one focuses you on the altar • Windows are alabaster, not glass • Second story is for women (as in Hagia Sophia) • Some columns on the inside that are rather traditional • Column o Design is unlike anything we’ve seen o Is cut into the stone rather than relief on it o Not relief carving o Wall does not sit directly on the capital of the column Sits on an impost block Gives the allusion that the column is taller than it actually is
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