MARINE POLLUTION: Heavy Metals

BIO 508-001 EVPP 505-001

What is marine pollution?
According to the UN Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP): Marine pollution is the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy to the marine environment resulting in deleterious effects such as: hazards to human health; hindrance of marine activities, including fishing; impairment of the quality for the use of seawater, and reduction of amenities.

What is contamination?
Contamination is caused when an input from human activities causes the increase of a substance in seawater, sediments, or organisms above the natural background level for that area and for those organisms.

Measuring contamination?
Contamination is usually measured as parts (of pollutant) per million (ppm) = µg.g-1 or parts per billion (ppb) = ng.g-1 = µg.kg-1 it is measured as “wet weight”
(e.g. contamination in moist water containing tissues)

or as “dry weight”
(e.g. contamination in dehydrated tissues)

as water content can vary a lot – dry weight is a better measure

Heavy metal pollution
High atomic weight metals (mercury, lead etc.) Sometimes the term trace elements is used to include non-metal and lower atomic weight elements Many of these elements are essential to the body in very low concentrations: Iron – essential for hemoglobin Copper - essential for hemocyanin (in invertebrates) Cobalt – in vitamin B12 Zinc – essential component of many enzymes

   

g. lead) and any concentrations can be harmful .g. one asprin tablet is a useful medicine but 100 tablets are lethal Some heavy metals have no essential function in the body (e. mercury. e.Heavy metal pollution But in high concentrations these can be toxic.

g.Clark (2001) Toxicity of metals can vary according the their valency (e. 2+ or 3+) and their combination with other elements LC50: contaminant concentration level required for 50% of the test species to die .

e. they aren’t broken down by bacteria etc and are effectively permanent Most plants and animals can regulate their metal content to a certain point – but metals that can’t be excreted build up in an organism over its lifetime = BIOACCUMULATION .Bioaccumulation Pollutants like heavy metals are CONSERVATIVE pollutants – i.

e. long-living. and bioaccumulate even greater concentrations and so on… with animals at the highest trophic level obtaining highest concentrations = BIOMAGNIFICATION i. which bioaccumulate within themselves Those animals feeding on them gain even higher inputs of contaminants.Biomagnification Animals feeding on bioaccumulators take in a higher level of contaminants. top predators bioaccumulate and biomagnify the highest contaminant levels .

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Sources of heavy metal pollution ATMOSPHERIC  Forest fires  Volcanic activity  Dust particles  Anthropogenic emissions coal fired power stations  car exhausts  .

Clark (2001) .

Sources of heavy metal pollution ATMOSPHERIC Metals can be transferred by the atmosphere in gas or particle form (aerosol)  Particles can fall from the atmosphere onto the land or sea = dry deposition  Also precipitation can carry particles or dissolved gases = wet deposition  Gaseous state elements (Boron. Selenium) can also dissolve at the surface of water bodies (gaseous exchange)  Bubbles breaking the surface of the sea can release salt particles containing metals – can travels from sea to atmosphere as well as atmosphere to sea . Mercury.

Clark (2001) .

Sources of heavy metal pollution RIVERS  Erosion of rocks containing metals  Surface runoff sweeps up naturally formed and anthropogenic metal particles Metals often bind with sediments and are deposited on the seabed – but these can enter the marine environment again is there is:  Dredging  Trawling  Severe weather .

Sources of heavy metal pollution GROUNDWATER SEEPAGE  Dissolved substances are carried via ground water movement – contamination in soil may be picked up by the moving waters DELIBERATE DISCHARGE  Contaminated waste dumping  Industrial discharges  Sewage .

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Clark (2001) .

Clark (2001) .

.Islam & Tanaka (2004).

MERCURY (Hg) .

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Toxic effects of mercury  Mercury can cause neurological damage. (2004). von Burg and Greenwood (1991) ]  In humans it has been associated with various neurological effects. Grandjean et al. immune system suppression and can cause fetal abnormalities in mammals [Clarkson (1987). Clarkson et al. (2002). (2003). (2004) ] . abnormal development and heart damage [Guallar et al... Murata et al.

spasticity Hair loss  If fetuses / infants are exposed to mercury: •Mental retardation •Seizures •Cerebral palsy •Blindness and deafness •Disturbances of swallowing. (2003)] .Mercury toxicity  In human adults mercury toxicity symptoms include:     Visual field constriction Behavioral changes. headaches Tremor. loss of fine motor control. memory loss..muscle rigidity [Clarkson et al. sucking. and speech •Hypertonia .

Toxic effects of mercury  Mercury in the marine environment identified as a health risk for humans – Minamata disease  In 1952 a factory in Minamata Japan was using mercury as a catalyst – mercury washed into bay In 1953 fishermen and farmers showed symptoms – neurological damage and fetal deformity etc.  .

Minamata disease  Disease diagnosed in 1956 – linked to fish consumption 1957 fishing banned in area    1959 – mercury identified as cause 1960 source identified – factory effluent  2000 cases – 41 deaths and 700 permanent disabilities fish: 10-55 ppm (dry weight). bivalves 10-39 ppp (dry weight) .

000 newborns a year are at risk from developmental and neurological damage due mercury [Mahaffey (2004)]  The source of this mercury is contaminated seafood Around the world seafood with mercury levels over 0.5 to 1.Toxic effects of mercury  In the US an estimated 650.0 ppm are considered unsafe for human consumption  .

6 ppm. 95% >0.5 ppm health regulation 75% more contaminated than 0.Red drum (Scaenops ocellatus) also contaminated: up to 3.5 ppm health regulation Little tunny (Euthynnus alletterus) up to 3.Mercury in fish   Most fish species have mercury levels of approximately 0.4ppm   Recreational fish .15 ppm in muscle tissue However cod have been found with levels of 1.29 ppm in Sweden and Denmark Tuna highly contaminated     [Adams (2004)] Blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus) up to 2ppm 81% more contaminated than 0.5 ppm health limit [Adams & Onorato (2004)] .

Blackfin tuna are primarily near-shore species and show elevated Hg concentrations .Adams (2004) Yellowfin tuna are pelagic and have lower levels of Hg.

(1983)]  Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) 13. (1992)] .156 ppm dry weight [Leonzio et al.Mercury in marine mammals  As long-lived top predators marine mammals accumulate very high concentrations of mercury Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis)  900 ppm dry weight  [Parsons (1999)] Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) 485 ppm wet weight (~ 1600 ppm dry weight) [Honda et al...

. (1995)]  High mercury (and other heavy metal) levels have also been associated with disease induced mortality i. Siebert et al. mercury may damage the immune system [Bennett et al.e..Mercury in marine mammals  Toxic effects reported in marine mammals include:  Lesions in the liver and other tissues.. decrease nutritional state and fatty degeneration [Rawson et al. (2001)] . (1993).

(2002.Mercury in whale meat Recent research has shown that cetacean meat being sold in Japan for human consumption had extremely high levels of mercury Mean contamination levels in cetacean red meat were 22 and 18 times higher than levels permitted by the Japanese government for total mercury (0..4 ppm) Levels were exceeded by up to 200x Mercury levels in boiled liver were even higher: 1.980 ppm (wet weight). 2003b. Rats fed contaminated meat showed signs of kidney abnormalities after a single dose Endo et al. 2003a. 2004) .

(2004) ] .Mercury in whale meat Another study in the Faeroe islands looked at the effects on the population of eating contaminated longfinned pilot whale meat Effects linked with mercury contamination included mental retardation. Grandjean et al. (2004). neurological abnormalities and brain stem damage in children Abnormal heart activity also linked to mercury contamination Prenatal exposure to mercury was believed to be causing irreversible neurological damage [ Murata et al.

Imputs of Mercury 6000-7500 tons a year .

Clark (2001) .

S. Anthropogenic Mercury Emissions ~ 158 Metric Tons Mercury emissions MercuryEmissions  33% coal fired power 19% burning municipal waste 10% burning medical waste 6% Global US   10% manufacturing 3% all other sources Mercury production Mercury Production 1996 15% • 2/3 deposited outside US •~53 tons deposited inside US + 35 tons deposited in US from outside sources Data & Images: Moore (2002) .Sources  87% combustion   U.

Mercury trends Over past 100 years there’s been a 20 x increase in the deposition of mercury  70% of this mercury has been from anthropogenic sources  Over past 10 years – deposition has declined – BUT deposition rate is still 11x higher than in the pre-industrial era  Schuster (2002) .

Schuster (2002) .

Every other major source of pollution has been subject to the requirements of the Clean Air Act. you will have seven times more mercury released into the waters than if we just simply followed the Clean Air Act as it is written today. .CONTROVERSIAL: Mercury and US Policy    During the Clinton Administration the Environmental Protection Agency conducted research on the impacts of mercury and the role of coal-fired power plants in mercury emissions. “Under the Bush plan. until now.” Felice Stradler of the National Wildlife Federation  Several states decided the Bush Administration plan is insufficient and are attempting to follow the original Clinton Administration plan is too lenient and they will follow the original. There will be no overall reduction in mercury. The Bush Administration altered these plans: emissions would be lowered by only 70% by 2018. The EPA introduced a plan in which mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants would be reduced by 90% by 2008. The Bush Administration has simply decided that the coal-fired power industry will be exempt.

3ppm) Wearing down of car tyres (20-90 ppm) Corrosion of galvanised metal (impurity: 0.5 ppm) and oil (0. solder and as a pigment for plastics But less frequently now due to health concerns  Main sources of current production: By product of zinc mining Nickel-Cadmium battery production  Other sources: Burning coal (0.CADMIUM (Cd)  Cadmium was used in: Electroplating.2% Cd) Phosphate fertilisers (phosphate rock 100 ppm Cd) Sewage sludge (30 ppm)  Input of Cadmium into oceans: 8000 tons/year .50% anthropogenic .25-0.

kidney damage. foetal deformity. cardiac enlargement. hypertension.CADMIUM (Cd) TOXIC EFFECTS High cadmium levels can lead to:       depressed growth. cancer [Kostial (1986). Stoeppler (1991)] In humans cadmium concentrations above 200-400 ppm in kidney tissue can lead to renal damage Piotrowski & Coleman (1980) .

(1988) . Fujise et al.Kidney dysfunction has been reported in cetaceans when liver concentrations of cadmium exceed 20 ppm wet weight.

pipes. sheets etc 43 million tons produced a year  10% of lead production is for lead-based additives for gas (e.LEAD (Pb)  Lead is used in: Battery casings.High levels of lead in UK cetaceans were attributed to lead additives in fuel (up to 4.g.e. 10 ppm in fish caught 300 miles off California coast . (1992)] ..3 ppm wet weight ~ 14 ppm dry weight) [Law et al.g. tetraethyl lead)  High levels of lead have been found in marine life near areas of high car density .

LEAD (Pb)  The toxic effects of lead include: anaemia.  Immune system suppression (antibody inhibition) neurological damage  Quaterman (1986) .  cardiac disease.  kidney damage.  hypertension.

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. 2004) Tin….OTHER HEAVY METALS OF CONCERN          Aluminium Arsenic Copper chromium Iron Silver Nickel Zinc – linked with decreasing health in porpoises (Das et al..

Superfund site in Tacoma: a copper smelter deposited slag containing lead and arsenic along the shoreline from 1890 to 1985. In 1980 (Carter Administration) the Superfund system was established to cleanup old waste sites that may pose an environmental or human health threat – including heavy metal contaminated sites .over 900 sites have been cleaned to date. .

. Mercury. K. F.P. T. and Kirkwood. M. Contamination by mercury and cadmium in the cetacean products from the Japanese market. pp.. L. Archives Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 44:412-416. and Myers G. . 1987..J..M.. Hotta. 2001. J.V.. T. 2003a. P. Clarkson.H. 2005. J.. Vol. Bennett. 2001. Marine Ecology Progress Series 281: 283-295.. 2004.. Baker. Y. M. K. T. Mertz).. Y. 2003. J.References Clark.. Environmental Science and Technology 37: 2681-2685.. Exposure to heavy metals and infectious disease mortality in harbour porpoises from England and Wales. L. K. T. K. and Sakata. D.. and Sakata. Endo. Das. Jepson.. G. 1 (Ed. Academic Press. 2004.W. 5th Ed. Ecological and pathological factors related to trace metal concentrations in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from the North Sea and adjacent areas.K. Endo.. Mercury contamination in the red meat of whales and dolphins marketed for human consumption in Japan. W.. Haraguchi. Jauniaux. and Bouquegneau. In: Marine Pollution. T.R. 98125. Renal toxicity in rats after oral administration of mercury-contaminated boiled whale livers marketed for human consumption. Rogan. M. Simmonds. 2003b. New England Journal of Medicine 349: 1731-1737.. Chemosphere 54:1653-1662. D. Adams. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50: 291-300. Florida. and Sakata. Sciaenops ocellatus. Total mercury levels in tunas from offshore waters of the Florida Atlantic coast. U.-M. and Onorato. M. T.R.. P. E.. Mercury concentrations in red drum. R. Holsbeek. Hotta. Law. Cipriano.. T. Siebert.D. Magos.. Clarkson. Oxford University press. Endo. Metals. Haraguchi. B. Fontaine. Haraguchi.J.B. Environmental Pollution 112: 33-40. R. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49: 659-663 Adams. Oxford. The toxicology of mercury . Jones. 2004. from estuarine and offshore waters of Florida.current exposures and clinical manifestations.H. Kuiken. M. In: Trace Metals in Human and Animal Nutrition.

January 28.D. Delayed brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in 14-year-old children exposed to methylmercury. A. P. Academic Press. Guallar. cadmium. J. New England Journal of Medicine 347: 1747-1754. Cardiac autonomic activity in methylmercury neurotoxicity: 14-year follow-up of a Faroese birth cohort. E.. 2004. S. 1999. M. C. In: Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition.. and Weihe. and Fujiyama. R. 5th Ed. Miyazaki. Science of the Total Environment 119: 77-84. F. E. Riemersma..and mercury – a general report.I. Kark... 2004. Mahaffey. Tatsukawa. N. Cadmium.. C. and Tanaka M.M. P. and Kok.J. E. 2004.A. Grandjean.. Heavy metals and selenium in stranded dolphins of the northern Tyrrhenian (NW Mediterranean). Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 47: 1219-1228. K. Murata. Environmental hazards of heavy metals: summary evaluation of lead. P. Y. Journal of Pediatrics 144 177-183. Jørgensen. K. P. Grandjean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 19: 226-30.Endo. 2004. Weihe. Haraguchi. Sanz-Gallardo. 1980. 1988. 1986. K. Hertz). . liver and kidney tissue of Striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba and their variations with body length. D. 1992. Orlando.M.. 2004. (Ed.C. and Coleman.. Piotrowski. K. K. fish oils. Mercury and selenium concentrations in the internal organs of toothed whales and dolphins marketed for human consumption in Japan. Methylmercury: epidemiology update. M. Science of the Total Environment 300: 15-22 Fujise. Aro.. Trace metal concentrations in the tissues of cetaceans from Hong Kong’s territorial waters.. R. 2002. Murata. J. Honda. 2.J. Vol. Honda. R.R. Islam.S. E. and Mishima. J. San Diego.. Mercury.. and Sakata. W. K. Nairobi. Itano.. J. Leonzio. Budtz-Jørgensen. Bode. Budtz-Jørgensen. and the risk of myocardial infarction. K. Kostial. Journal of Pediatrics 144:169-176. T. Tatsukawa.. P. M. weight.. Environmental Conservation 26: 30-40. K. Gomez-Aracena. 2002. age and sex. P.. S and Fossi. T. Tissue distribution of heavy metals in Dall’s porpoise in the northwestern Pacific. van't Veer. UNEP. Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis Marine Pollution Bulletin 48: 624-649.O... P.. Focardi. Martin-Moreno.. Heavy metal concentrations in muscle.K. 1983.. Parsons. Presentation at the National Forum on Contaminants in Fish.

Jorgensen. and neonatal neurologic function. Mercury. In: Trace metals in human and animal nutrition. Benkes. Frese. Rawson. 1991. 1993. Mobile. J. Bjerve. Holsbeek.. Germany. D. B.... Maternal seafood diet. Atmospheric mercury deposition during the last 270 years: a glacial ice core record of natural and anthropogenic sources. 1986. Rawson. K. Olson.G..P.D. by E. Paper presented at the Mercury Forum. Merian). L. Weihe. Siebert. D. Mercury Forum.. Green. W..L. E. G. M. May 20-21. SLIDE IMAGES: Moore. M. L. U.. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38: 285-295. VCH Publishers. Von Burg. E. Pietra. Pietra.D. Stoeppler. S. (Ed. Cadmium.L. and Grandjean. Mertz). Liver abnormalities associated with chronic mercury accumulation in stranded Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 25: 41-47. Merian). methyl mercury exposure.J. Patton.. S.. K. and Johns. J. and Greenwood. A. Cecil.. 2002.htm> . Steuerwald.. Joiris. TX. Hofmann. Historical background of mercury in the environment. Vol. R. P. Liver abnormalities associated with chronic mercury accumulation in stranded Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. Heinzow. Failing. Hofmann. Schuster. J. U. K. Patton. Potential relation between mercury concentrations and necropsy findings in cetaceans from German waters of the North and Baltic Seas. 2002. 1999. Lead. Brock.. L. and Abbott.. G.masgc..F. C.F.. M.. and Petzinger. 1993. Weinheim. Florida. VCH Publishers. G. 2000. D. L. In: Trace Metals and their Compounds in the Environment (Ed.. E. Germany.J. Journal of Pediatrics 136: 599-605. P. M. <http://www. and Johns. 1991.. A.L. Academic Press. G. Naftz. H.. P. Environmental Science and Technology 36: 2303-2310.R.. Weinheim.. Dewild. C. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 25: 41-47.R. 2 (Ed. 2002.org/mercury/ppt/Moore-ppt_files/frame.G. J. Susong. In: Metals and their compounds in the environment..W.. P. Krabbenhoft. Budtz-Jorgensen.Quaterman.W.J.

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