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Contents
Group 20 General Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wear tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tightening torques . . . . . . . . . . . . Special tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine. removal and installation . . Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Construction and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Service Procedures Starting heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Exhaust pressure governor . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . 82

Group 26 Cooling System

Group 2 1 Engine Assembly Construction 'and Function . . . . . . . Service Procedures Cylinder heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder liners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timing gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crank mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Construction and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Service Procedures Coolant. etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:'89 Thermostats, coolant pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 'Thermostat fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Group 29 Turbo-Compressor Construction and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Service Procedures Checking the charging pressure. etc . . . . . . . 96 Overhauling the turbo-compressor ........ 97 Replacing turbo-compressor on engine . . . . . 102

..

Group 22 Lubricating System Construction and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Service Procedures Oil$pump. pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Oil cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Oil filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Group 24 Fuel System Construction and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Service Procedures Injection pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Injectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Feed pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 . fuel filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Air cleaner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Illustrations

1 FuelFsystem. 8 6 2 Fuel system. N7 3 Cooling system. F86 4 Cooling system. N7 5 Turbo-compressor. AiResearch 6 'TD70E engine

Reproduction permitted if source quoted

Main bearing shells

.

Diameter. bearing shell location in block Thickness. standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . undersize 0.0 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.020 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.030" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Big-end bearings
Connecting rod pins
Big-end bearing. radial clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bearing pin length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diameter. standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . undersize 0.0 10" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.020" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 0.030" . . . : - . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.040" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Connecting rod shells
Thickness. standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . undersize 0.0 10" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.020" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.030 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Connecting rods
Marked 1 to 6 "FR0hIT"-marking on stem faces forwards Provided with replaceable bearing shells Diameter. connecting rod bushing bearing seat . . . . . . . . bearing shell bearing seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gudgeon pin bushing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Axial clearance. connecting rod - crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . .

a

49.89 1-49.930 m m (1.9642-1.9657") 73.740-73.753 mm (2.903 1-2.9037") See heading "Gudgeon pins" 0.15-0.35 m m (0.006-0.0 14")

Flywheel. fitted
Max. permissible axial throw (measuring radius 150 m m = 6") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ring gear on flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.15 mm (0.006") 140 teeth

Flywheel casing. fitted
Max. permissible axial throw for contact surface against clutch casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Max. permjssible radial throw for steering diameter against clutch casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.15 m m (0.006")
Max. 0.25 mm (0.010")

Camshaft
Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front bearing pin. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2nd bearing pin. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd bearing oin. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4th bearing pin. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68.996-69.015 66.62 1-66.640 64.223-64.252 63.44G63.465

Gear 7 m m (2.7 164-2.7 17 1") m m (2.6229-2.6236") m m (2.5385-2.5296") mm (2.4979-2.4986")

6 1.058-6 1.077 mm (2.4039-2.4046") 5th bearing pin. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60.27 1-60.290 mm (2.3729-2.3736") 6th bearing pin. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.29C56.3 15 m m (2.2164-2.2 17 1") 7th bearing pin. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.05-0.0 13 mm (0.002C-O.005 1") Axial clearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.035-0.79 mm (0.00 14-0.003 1") Radial clearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the camshaft setting (cold engine and valve clearance = 0) TD7OD TD7OE At flywheel position lo0 A.T.D.C., the inlet valve for No. 3.6 mm (0.14") 1 cyl. should have opened. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.0 m m

Camshaft bearings
Front bearing. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2nd bearing. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd bearing. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4th bearing. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5th bearing, diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 t h bearing. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7th bearing. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69.050-69.075 66.675-66.700 64.287-64.3 12 63.50C63.525 6 1.1 12-6 1.137 60.325-60.350 56.350-56.375 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm (2.7 185-2.7 195") (2.625C2.6260") (2.53 1C2.5320") (2.500C2.5010") (2.406&2.4070") (2.375C2.3760") (2.2185-2.2 195")

Timing gears
Crankshaft gear. number of teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lntermediate gear for oil pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drive gear for oil pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intermediate gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drive gear for injection pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drive gear for compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drive gear for servo pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backlash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journal for intermediate gear. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bushing for intermediate gear. diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radial clearance for intermediate gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Axial clearance for intermediate gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Valve system
Valves
Intake: DISC diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stem diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve seat angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seat angle in cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clearance, cold engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exhaust: Disc diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stem diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve seat angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seat angle in cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I ... .. Clearance. cold engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Valve seat

Valve seat location

Valve seats
Valve seat for intake valve: Diarnter (rneas. A). standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oversize . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Height (rneas. B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve seat location. intake valve: Diameter (rneas. C). standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . overslze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depth (meas. D). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seat bottom radius (meas. I?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve seat for exhaust valve: Diameter (rneas. A). standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Height (meas. 6 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve set location. exhaust valve: Diameter. (rneas. C). standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depth (rneas. D). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seat bottom radius (meas. R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The measurement between the valve disc and the cylinder head face must be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46.074-46.090 rnrn ( 1.8 140- 1.8 146") 46.274-46.290 rnrn (1.8218-1.8227") 6.1-6.2 rnrn (0.240-0.244") 46.000-46.025 rnrn ( 1.81 10-1.8 120") 46.200-46.225 rnrn ( 1.8 189- 1.8 199") 8.95-9.05 rnrn (0.352-0.356") 0.5-0.8 rnrn (0.020-0.031") 0.05-0.8 rnrn (0.002-0.030") 44.05G44.082 rnrn (1.7345-1.7355") 9.4-9.5 rnrn (0.370-0.374") 44.000-44.025 rnrn ( 1.732S1.7333") 44.20C-44.225 rnrn (1.7401-1.741 1") 9.8-9.9 rnrn (0.38G0.390) 0.5-0.8 rnrn (0.020-0.030") 10.55 rnrn (0.022") TD70D 0.45 rnrn (0.018")

Valve guides
Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Height above cover spring face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clearance valve stem - guide: Intake valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exhaust valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 rnrn (2.5984") 1 1.032-1 1.050 rnrn (0.4343-0.4350") 22 rnrn (0.866") 0.032-0.068 rnrn (0.00 13-0.0027") 0.064-0.100 rnrn (0.0025-0.0039")

Valve springs
Outer valve spring Length. off.load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With 270-330 hl (27-33 kp = 59-72 Ibf) load . . . . . . 480-600 N (48-60 kp = 105- 132 Ibf) load . . . . Coil by coil. rnax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inner valve spring Length. off.load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With 120-1 3 0 N (12-1 3 kp = 2 G 2 8 ibf) load . . . . . . 195-225 N (19.5-22.5 kp = 43-56 Ibf) load . . . Coil by coil. rnax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64.1 rnrn (2.52") 48.6 rnrn (1.91") 36 rnrn (1.42") 31 rnrn (1.22")

60.1 rnrn (2.37") 44.6 rnrn (1.76") 32 rnrn (1.26") 27 rnrn (1.06")

Lubricating system
Oil capacity. incl. lubricating oil filter (and oil cooler). . . . . Oil capacity. excl. lubricating oil filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil pressure. idle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viscosity. when starting difficulties can be anticipated or temperatures below -1 O°C (14OF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . between -lO°C and +20°C (14 and 68OF) . . . . . . . . . . . above +20°C (68OF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating oil pump. type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . number of teeth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 litres (3.3 Irnp.gals. = 3 . 4 US gals.) 12 litres (2.6 Irnp.gals. = 3 . 1 US gals.) 300-500 kPa (3-5 kp/crn2 = 42-71 lbf/in2) Min. 50 kPa (0.5 kp/crn2 = 7 lbf/in2) Engine oil for service CD (DS) SAE 10 W or SAE 10 W / 2 0 SAE 20/20 W or SAE 20 W / 3 0 SAE 3 0 or SAE 20 W / 3 0 Gear 11

axial clearance. pump gear . . . . . . . . backlash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diam., interm. gear bearing sleeve diam.. bushing for interm. gear . . . radial clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relief valve springs: Length. off-load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loaded with 5.5-5.9 kp (12-13 Ibf) . . . . . . . . . loaded with 4.1-4.5 kp (9-10 Ibf) . . . . . . . . . . .

Fuel system
lnjection pump's direction of rotation seen from the front lnjection sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clockwise 1-5-3-6-2-4 Electrical

Fuel injection pump
TD70D
Make. designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . Pump element. daim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injection quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feed pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feed pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch PE 6 P 100 A 3 2 0 RS 269 18-1 9' B.T.D.C. 10 mm (0.39") Bosch RQV 250-1200 PA 231 /2R See "Diesel Test Standards" Bosch FP/K 2 2 P 9 60-98 kPa (0.6-1.0 kp/cm2 = 8.5-14 lbf/in2)

TD70E
Make. designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pump element. diam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injection quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feed pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feed pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

:

Bosch PE 6 P 110 A 3 2 0 RS 272 20-2 1 B.T.D.C. 11 m m (0.43") Bosch RQV 250-12000 PA 235/2R See "Diesel Test Standards" Bosch FP/K22 P9 98-147 kPa (1.0-1.5 kp/cm2 = 14-21 lbf/in2)

.
By-pass valve
Type designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TD70D
Bosch PVE 5 3 s

TD70E
Bosch PVE 53S52

Fuel filter
Type designation

......................................

Bosch FJ/ DB/ W 6x2/ 102

Injectors TD70D
Nozzle holder. make and type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injector. opening pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . adjusting pressure (new spring). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch KBAL 100s 2 4 / 4 Bosch DLLA 150 S 633 17.5 MPa (175 kp/cm2 = 2488 lbf/in2) 18.0-18.8 MPa (180-1 8 8 kp/cm2 = 2560-2673 lbf/in2 0.325 mm (0.013") 818

Nozzle holder. make and type

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch KBAL 100s 2 4 / 4

Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch DLLA 150 S 138 Injector opening pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 MPa (200 kp/cm2 = 2844 lbf/in2) MPa (205-21 3 kp/cm2 adjusting pressure (new spring). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5-21.3 29 15-3029 lbf/in2) Bore.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.355 mm (0.014") Marking.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814

.

=

Cooling system
Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiator cap valve opens at.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermostats: Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starts opening at.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fully open at.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overpressure with expansion tank 0.23-0.32 kp/cm2 (3-4.5 lbf /in2) 30 litres (6.6 Imp.gals. = 8.0 US gals.) 2 Wax 76 74-78OC (165-1 72OF) 84-88OC (182-1 90°F)

Drive belts
. Alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HC 38 x 1050
Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coolant pump (F86) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fan (N7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HC 50 x 1100 2 HC 50 x 1200 2

Wear tolerances
Cylinder head
Height
a

................................................

Min. 108.65 mm (4.2776")

Cylinders
Cylinder liners and pistons with piston rings should be changed with wear of 0.35-0.40 mm (0.014-0.01 6")

Crankshaft
Max. permissible out-of-roundness on main and connectingrod journals.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.075 mm (0.0030") Max. permissible taper on main and connecting-rod journals 0.05 mm (0.0020") Max. axial clearance on crankshaft.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.40 mm (0.160")

Valves
Valve stem, max. permissible wear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Max. permissible clearance between valve stem and valve guide: Intake valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exhaust valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve disc edge should be min. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve seat may be ground down so far that the distance from the valve disc (new valve) to cylinder head face is max. . 0.02 mm (0.0008")

0.15 mm (0.0059") 0.17 mm (0.0067") 2.0 mm (0.079") 2.0 mm (0.079")

Camshaft
Max. permissible out-of-roundness (with new bearings). .. Bearings, max. permissible wear.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.05 mm (0.0020") 0.05 mm (0.0020")

Tightening torques
Cylinder head. long bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . short bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecting-rod bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injection pump: Pressure valve holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drive shaft. pump cam flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injectors: Retaining nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vibration damper. retaining screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Centre bolt for hub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shaft journal for intermediate gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lbfft

Special tools

110286

Fig. 2.Special tools

999 (SVO) No. 1084 1531 1801 1819 2002 2013 207 1 2124 2139 2178 2182

2265 2266
Drift for removing valve guides Extractor excl. puller plate, for extracting cylinder liners Standard handle 18x200 mm Extractor for flywheel ball bearings Puller for pulley Drift for installing flywheel ball bearings Drift for removing/installing ,gudgeon pins Expander plugs (4)for cylinder head pressure teg~ng . - .. Ring for installing pistons .._ .,. _, .Puller plate used with 1531 -.-- . . Extractor for injector copper sleeve

2267

2268 2269 2270 2429 2479':

~-

- '

Puller for camshaft gear Counterhold for disassembling/assen~bling coolant Pump Socket for removing/installing ball bearings on pulley, coolant pump and bearings in injection pump drive Drift for removing/installing ball bearings, shaft and sealing in coolant pump Fixture for installing pulley with bearings Drift.for.installing coolant pump seal Press washer for removing coolant pump ball bear.. . ,Ings. id indicator holder used when checking liner collar . . . , ..".: . .' >height above cylinder block face
'

,

Drift for removing/installing connecting rod bushings Extractor for oil pump gear and flange on injection Pump Extractor for crankshaft polygon hub Tool for installing crankshaft polygon hub Puller for crankshaft gear Press tool installing crankshaft gear Drift for installing valve guide Washer for pressure testing cylinder head Connection washer for pressure testing cylinder head 'ress. tool for pressing down cylinder liner when measuring liner height above cylinder block face Drift for removing/installing rocker arm bushings

Puller for camshaft gear and injection pump gear Device for testing leakage in cooling system Expander plugs (5)for cylinder head pressure testing Extractor for injectors Spanner for removing fuel filter Tool for 2682 when removing injectors Remaining tool for injector copper sleeve Device for pressure testing oil cooler Face milling tool for cleaning copper sleeve seat Pressure gauge with hose for connection to banjo nipple 6066 Banjo nipple with rapid coupling for checking fuel feed pressure Drift for removing/installing bushings on exhaust pressure governor

Fig. 3. Milling and grooving tools

9505 9508 9514

Tool for marking grooves in cylinder head (cutter 9517) Milling tool, complete, for milling cylinder liner seats (miller 95 18) Expander for turning cylinder liner when lapping cylinder liners seats

6049

Rapid coupling with hose for draining coolant (N7)

Concerning hoist equipment for engine, see page 17.

General

engine (F86)

engine (F86)

Fig. 6. TD7OE engine (F86)

Fig. 7. TD70E engine (N7)

The TD70D and the TD70E engines are a further development of the earlier TD70B engine. The TD70D is fitted only on F86 trucks and is primarily intended for trucks used in densely populated areas where there are great demands on low noise level and clean exhaust gases. Characteristic of the TD70D engine is the low, specific fuel consumption and high low-speed torque.

A number of constructional improvements have been introduced with the TD70D and TD70E. The following pages shows those components which differentiate the TD70D and TD70E from the TD70B.

The thickness of the material in the upper part of the liner has been reduced by approx. 1 m m (0.04")in order t o achieve better cooling and lower piston-ring temperature.

New material in the valve seats for the exhaust valves increase their lifespan. Double valve springs and new valve guides. The outer diameter of the guides have been adapted to suit the new, double valve springs. New valve spring retaining locks, valves and valve spring washers. The change here consists of altered lock lugs inside the valve spring retaining locks as well as corresponding modification to the valve stem. The cone angle between the valve spring retaining locks and the valve spring washers has been reduced.

This engine is fitted with the D70B-engine camshaft, which gives it improved low-speed performance.

TD7OE
This engine has been given an entirely new camshaft with large valve overlap, which makes for better function. Performance has thereby also been improved throughout the entire speed range.

TD7OD

A new belt pulley where the position for the belts has been moved forwards 18 mm (0.72").

TD7OE

A new vibration damper with greater moment of inertia. The number
of retaining bolts has been increased from four to eight so that a new hub has had to be fitted. The vibration damper is approx. 20 mm (0.8") wider and for this reason a new pulley has also been introduced.

1 New piston with compression ratio 16: and four piston rings. The second compression ring is filled with ferrox.
TD7OE
New piston with lower compression ratio (14.5:l) four piston rings. and The second and third compression rings are ferrox-filled.

TD70E
Because a wing-type servo pump is fitted, its position has been moved from the timing gear casing to the timing gear cover.

Since the vibration damper requires more space, the position for the drive belts has been moved forwards. A new pulley on the coolant pump as well as a new tensioning pulley have had to be installed as a result.

TD7OE (F86)
Oil cooler, the function of which is to lower the oil temperature, particularly when the engine is under heavy load. Introduced after start of production.

15

TD7OE
An electrically operated starting heater with an output of approx. 2.7 kW has been introduced as a separate unit in the engine intake pipe to assist in starting at temperatures down to -20°C (-4OF).

An exhaust pressure governor connected to the exhaust system immediately after the exhaust turbine. It has two functions: 1. To increase the exhaust back-pressure at idling and to assist in warming up the engine so that the combustion rises. The higher combustion temperature gives a more effective combustion and reduces the volume of white smoke and smelly exhaust gases. 2. To replace the earlier exhaust brake.

TD7OD
A new Bosch in-line pump without smoke eliminator. Dwell angle 18-1 9 O B.T.D.C. New injector with smaller bag to reduce unburnt hydrocarbons.

TD7OE
New injection equipment. The injection pump has through-flow, which means that it is cooled by fuel flowing back to the tank. The relief valve has therefore been moved from the fuel filter to the injection pump. The pump element diameter is 11 mm (0.04"). 'The opening pressure for the injectors has been raised to 200 kp/cm2 (2844 lbf/in2).

TD70D
hlew Holset-turbo with smaller turbine housing supplies more air at low speeds.

TD70E
New turbine compressor of make AiResearch.
120 28:l

TD70E - engine versions
The TD70E engine for the F86 differs from the TD7OE for the N7 among other things by a different location for the turbo-compressor, different pipe routing for the fuel system and location for the cooling fan. As far as the N7FFA (front axle moved forwards) is concerned, the oil sump and oil piping to the oil pump differs from that on the N7NFA (normal front-axle location). Because of the special legislation in Switzerland concerning output - overall weight ratio (minimum 8 h.p. engine output/tons total weight), another version of the TD70E engine has been constructed and has been given the designation TD7OES. The injection pump for the TD70ES-engine has a "2" after the ordinary pump designation, which means that the injection volume has been altered. Otherwise the TD7OES does not differ from the TD7OE.

Service Procedures
Removing and installing the engine
Hoist tools:

Fig. 10. Hoist tools

Hoist tool 2760, complete, includes the following:
999

(SVO)
No. 2516" 2754"2755"2756"2757

Extension piece for cab support Hoist beam for lifting engine Block and tackle with hook Lifting wire Lifting wire with holed beam

2758* 2759 2762 2770 2771 2772

Lifting Lifting Lifting Lifting Lifting Lifting

wire lug (N84, N88) eyelet (N84) lug (N86) lug (N88) lug (N88)

+

-

Used for F86 Used for N7

108 3'5

505s Dollies (two) for removing and installing engine
(N7)

108 376

6052

Crossbeam with lifting slings for engine (N7)

2994

Wrench for torquing propeller shaft flanges (see illustrations for F86, N7 part 4)

Removing the engine (F86)
1. Take off the battery case cover and disconnect the (+) battery cable from the battery. Remove the bracket round the steering column.

2. Tilt up the cab and place extension sleeve 25 16 on the cab stop (Fig. 11).

9. Disconnect the discharge hose for the exhaust pressure governor at the connection to the, solenoid. Unscrew the retaining bolts for the cab crossmember on the left-hand side.
10. Remove the clamp for the speedometer wire and the high-low gear control at the cab crossmember. Separate the return fuel line at the flywheel casing. 1 1. Disconnect the throttle control at the throttle arm, the stop control and the bracket for the cold-start chain. 12. Remove the side plate at the lever carrier and the cover plate at the gear lever. Remove the controls from the gear control housing. 13. Remove the split-pin bolts for the lever carrier and move to the side the gear lever and cover plate. 14. Remove the leading silencer and the exhaust pipe from the exhaust pressure governor shutter housing. Remove the exhaust pipe mounting from the engine.

3. Drain the coolant and the engine oil.
4. Disconnect the propeller shaft at the gearbox and the attachment for the intermediate bearing fixed to the frame crossmember. Disconnect the speedometer cable at the angle gear and remove the gear-control rod from the gearbox and the wire for the high-gear and low-gear control. Disconnect the hose for the exhaust pressure governor solenoid and the hose from the exhaust pressure governor. Disconnect the inhibitor valve hose from the T-branch in the arm. Separate the compressed-air line at the right-hand side of the clutch casing.
5. Remove the nuts for the silencer suspension from k the rubber b l o ~ and disconnect the control cylinder for the clutch from the gearbox arid the thrust rod from the clutch lever.

6. Unscrew the six lower nuts round the clutch casing. Slacken and turn down the clamp for the exhaust pipe.

15. Disconnect the fuel line at the feed pump. Disconnect the electric cables from the temperature gauge and speedormeter gauge senders, also from the alternator.

7. Place a jack under the gearbox.

16. Disconnect the hose for the power steering at
the frame. Disconnect the upper and lower radator hoses and the hose to the expansion tank. Disconnect the water hose for the heating system at the thermostat housing and the hose at the air compressor.

8. Unscrew the six upper nuts round the clutch casing and pull the gearbox backwards. Remove the heat-guard plate at the left-hand side of the engine.

Fig. 11. Removing the engine, F 86

115009

17. Disconnect the intake hose from the turbo and
the hose between the air intake and air cleaner. Disconnect the hose to the compressor and the hose to the pressure-drop indicator. Remove the air cleaner.

starter motor and the oil pressure sender, also the electric cable t o the solenoid for the starting heater.

20. Remove the fan hub from the vibration damper.
Place the lifting tools according to the Fig. Hoist slightly and remove the bolts from the engine mounts. Lift out the engine. Concerning adjusting clutch clearance, see F 86 and N7 respectively, Part 4.

18. Disconnect the compressed-air line to the exhaust pressure governor solenoid and undo the retaining bolts for the cab crossmember at the right-hand side. 19. Remove the clamp for the battery at the flywheel casing. Disconnect the electric cables from the

Installing the engine (F86)
1. Lift the engine into the engine compartment and lower it down onto the front engine mounts. Tighter: up the bolts. Fit the rear brackets and the rubber mounting pads. Remove the hoist unit.

2. Push in the gearbox against the flywheel casing.
Fit the bolts round the clutch casing and connect up the propeller shaft and the speedometer cable.

3. Fit the control cylinder for the clutch and the
thrust rod to the clutch lever. Check and if necessary adjust clutch clearance.

4. Fit the hose for the T-branch inhibitor valve to the frame. Assemble the compressed-air line.
5. Connect the hoses to the exhaust pressure governor and its solenoid.

6. Fit the leading exhaust pipe and silencer.
7. Connect the electric cables to the alternator, speedometer and temperature gauge senders, also the fuel line to the injection pump.

8. Fit the lever carrier and the nuts on the brackets
for the silencer and exhaust pipe. Tighten up the member under the gearbox. Connect the wire for the high-gear and low-gear controls to the gearbox.

9. Connect up the fuel line over the flywheel casing.
Fit the gear-control rod. 10. Connect the stop control and throttle control to the injection pump. Fit the cover plate at the lever carrier. 11. Position the cab member and fit the retaining bolts on the left-hand side. Fit the cold-start chain. 12. Fit the coolant hoses. Tension the drive belts. Fit the splash plate. Fit the hoses for the power steering.

Fig. 13. Air-compressor connections

Fig. 14. Hose routing over gearbox

16. Connect the compressed-air pipe to the solenoid and fix the battery cable to the flywheel casing. 17. Connect the electric cables to the starter motor and oil pressure sender. Connect the oil-pressure hose. 18. Fit the air cleaner. Connect up the hoses.

19. Fill the engine and power steering with oil.
Fig. 12. Positioning the coolant hoses and hoses for the servo pump

20. Fill the cooling system with coolant according to
the recommendations. 21. Start the engine and check the controls and instruments.

13. Cmnect the compressed-air hoses t o the compressor. 14. Remove extension 25 16 from the cab stop. 15. Fit the retaining bolts for the cab member (r-h side).

Removing the bonnet and casing
The bonnet is locket in position by means of two levers, one on each side of the cab. Lever position: forwards - bonnet locked; rearwards - bonnet open. 1. Tilt up the bonnet.

Fig. 15. Engine bonnet lever

Fig. 17. Bonnet retaining bolts

2. Remove the calbe harness connections from the electrical distribution centre and the three adjacent couplings and the electric cable to the pressure-drop indicator. Release the cable harnessfrom the cowl wall. Remove the earth leads at the radiator attachments.

Note: The bonnet can suitably be supported at the front according to Fig. 18 when working on the engine which concerns the bracket for the attachment for the stop wires and which does not require bonnet removal.

3. Off-load the stop wires and disassemble the
damper springs.

Fig. 18. Bonnet support

Removing the engine, N7
1. Remove the bonnet according to the instructions
Fig. 16. Disassemblingthe damper spring

and lift off the engine casing.

2. Drain the coolant (use drain hose 6049) and the engine oil. 4. Close the bonnet and then remove the retaining .bolts at the front end of the bonnet, two on each side.

3. Remove the cover over the battery case and the
clamp for the starter motor cable at the battery case. 4. Disconnect the positive cable from the battery or from the battery separator. Disconnect the cable from the battery case.

5. Lift off the bonnet and place it where it can be
protected. 6. Release the four locks on the engine casing and lift off the casing.

5. Remove the bumper and radiator.

jection pump and the pipe from the frame member. 15. Remove the throttle controls from the injection Pump-

16. Remove the stop control lever from the pump.

17. Remove the I-h bumper retaining bracket.
18. Fetch and place a vessel for collecting the powersteering oil. Drain the oil from the power steering by disconnecting the power-steering hoses from the pipes on the engine. 19. Remove the rear gearbox suspension. 20. Remove the speedometer wire (spanner 27 mm).
Fig. 19. Draining the coolant

2 1. Disconnect the propeller shaft from the gearbox. Place a support under the propeller shaft.
22. Disconnect the hose from the inhibitor valve and the power take-off control cylinder. 23. Remove the control wire from the high-gear and low-gear control cylinder and the wire clamp on the gearbox cover.

24. Remove the retaining bolts for the exhaust pipe
joint at the silencer. 25. Remove the retaining bolts for the gear control on the gearbox cover.

26. Remove the clutch hydraulic hose from the pipe on the power cylinder.
27. Remove the retaining bolts for the rubber seal round the gear lever. Remove the metal ring, lift up the gear control and place the control so that it remains in position.
Fig. 20. Removing the radiator

6. Remove the air cleaner
7. Remove the coolant hoses between the engine and expansion tank. 8. Release the engine cable harness from the connections on the cowl. Attach the cable harness to the engine.

9. Remove the hose from the pressure governor. Separate the two fuel hoses and the compressor feed hose at the right-hand engine mounting. 10. Remove the retaining bolts for the two front retaining brackets on the suspension rail for the brake hoses. 11. Remove the r-h bumper retaining bracket from the frame. 12. Disconnect the electric cables from the horn and the hoses from the rapid - release valve. 13. Disconnect the hose from the exhaust pressure governor. 14. Remove the cold-start cord bracket from the in-

Fig. 21. Removing the gear control

28. Remove the starter motor earth cable from the starter motor.

29. Remove the bracket for the stop cable and hand throttle. Move the wires to the one side.
30. Clean the top of the frame members in front of the engine mounts.

31. Remove the retaining bolts for the attachment of the engine mounts to the frame. 32. Place a jack under the gearbox with a wooden block on the lifting head. Lift the rear end of the engine and fit creepers 6050, one under each rear engine mount. Lower the jack and chek that the creepers centre on the frame. 33. Remove the centre nut for the front engine mounting block (Spanner 2 4 mm.)

Fig. 23. Removing and installing front member

35. Remove the front crossmember. 36. Pull forwards the engine so far that the rear lifting eyelets are free from the cab. Check that the dollies run in the centre of the frame. Place two trestles under the front engine mount. Lower the front end of the engine. 37. Place lifting beam 2754 in the hoist unit together with lifting sling 2756 at the front end and 2755 and 6052 at the rear end. Hoist the engine together with the gearbox.

Fig. 22 Placing dolly 6050 under I-h engine mount

34. Fit lifting sling 2756 to the engine front lifting eyelet. Lift the front end of the engine with hoist unit.

Fig. 24. Removing and installning the engine (N 7 )

Installing the engine (N 7)
Before installing the engine, fit the clutch and the gearbox onto the engine. Then hoist engine, clutch and gearbox into position as follows: 1. Fit dollies 6050, one at each rear engine mount. Fit the hoist unit.

18. Assemble the rear exhaust pipe and silencer. 19. Fit the propeller shaft. Use wrench 2994. Tightening torques 55 Nm (5.5 kpm = 4 0 Ibfft). 20. Connect the speedometer wire. Lead-seal it according to instructions. 2 1. Fit the crossmember under the gearbox. 22. Connect the hose to the exhaust pressure governor. Fit the stop control lever on the pump. 23. Connect the throttle control push rod to the control on the cab. 24. Fit the retaining bracket for the I-h shock absorber. 25. Fit the cold-start cord together with pipe and clamp. 26. Connect the power steering hydraulic hoses to the pipes on the engine.
27. Connect the hoses to the rapid-release valve and the electric cables to the horn.

2. Coat the shift control contact surface with adhesion (see Fig. 2 1).
3. Lift the engine off the trestles. Push the engine as far as possible into the vehicle. Lower it and check that the dollies centre on the frame members. Place two trestles under the front engine mount. Lower the engine. 4. Remove the lifting beam and lifting slings.

5. Lift the front end of the engine from the front life eyelet. Remove the trestles and push the engine into position.
6. Fit the front crossmember. Lower the engine and position it on the front engine mount rubber block on the crossmember. Note: check-tighten the bolts for the front engine mount. Tightening torque 118-147 Nm (12-15 kpm) = 88-1 10 Ibfft).

7. Raise the rear end of the engine with a jack placed under the gearbox. Remove the dollies from the rear engine mounts.
8. Slightly lower the jack. Fit the retaining bolts and the nuts for the rear mounts. Lower the engine rear end fully. Do not forget to attach the bracket for the air-compressor feed hose on the front retaining bolt for the r-h engine mount. 9. Tighten the retaining bolts for the rear engine mounts and the retaining nut for the front engine mount. Note: The late prod. type bolt for the rear engine mount hassize M 10, previouslyit was M8. Where the bolting is exposed to excessive load when driving, the M 8 bolts (where fitted) should be replaced with MlOs. The bolt holes must then be widened from 9 mm to 10 mm 0. 10. Fit the stop wire and the hand throttle wire to the bracket on the engine. 11. Connect up the starter motor earth cable. 12. Place the gear control in position and fit the two front retaining bolts. 13. Fit the gear lever rubber seal and metal ring. 14. Fit the rear retaining bolts for the gear control. 15. Connect the clutch hydraulic hose to the pipe on the servo cylinder. 16. Fit the control wire for the gearbox control cylinder. Fit the clamp on the gearbox cover. 17. Connect the hose to the inhibitor valve and the power take-off control cylinder.
Fig. 26. Routing pipes and hoses, r-h side

Fig. 25. Routing pipes and hoses, I-h side

28. Fit the compressor feed line and the hose to the governor. 29. Fit the suction and return fuel lines. 30. Fit the r-h shock absorber retaining bracket. Do not forget the retaining bracket for the electric cables on the front, upper retaining bolt. 31. Fit the t w o front retaining brackets for the suspension rail for the brake hoses. Check that the plastic clamps are positioned correctly. 32. Connect all cables between engine and cowl and electric cables. Fit the clamps, plastic clamps and connect up the rapid couplings. 33. Fit the coolant hoses between the engine and expansion tank. 34. Install the radiator and bumper. 35. Install the bonnet and air cleaner according to instructions. 36. Fit the battery cable and the cover on the battery case. 37. Bleed the fuel system and fill the engine with oil. 38. Fill the cooling system with coolant and the power steering with oil. Bleed the power steering and clutch system. 39. Check function and for leakage. Install the engine casing.

Installing the bonnet (N 7 )
1. Place the bonnet in position folded down. Fit the retaining bolts to the front end.
2. Tilt the bonnet up halfway and fit the stop wires. Tilt up the bonnet fully. 3. Connect the earth cables to the rear retaining bolt on the radiator mounting. 4. Connect the rapid coupling for the headlights, etc.

5. Close the bonnet.
6. Check the function of the lighting, direction indicators and position lights.

Install the engine casing (N 7 )
Check the sealing strip for the engine casing. Replace if damaged. An engine casing with poor sealing means that there will be greater engine noise inside the cab and the risk of dust getting into the cab. Secure well the clasps so that the sealing strip is pressed down against the floor.

Group 2 1 Engine Assembly
Construction and Function

Cylinder heads
'The engine has two cylinder heads, each of which Cover three cylinders. The cylinder heads are bolted to the cylinder block by means of thirteen 9 / 16" bolts per head. The cylinder head face has special sealing grooves, which determine the size of the sealing surface so that the necessary sealing pressures are obtained without having to have excessive tightening torque which could deform the liner shelf on the cylinder block.

The cylinder heads are made of special-alloy, cast iron. The cylinder head gasket is of solid steel plating.

Cylinder block
The cylinder block is cast in one piece of special-alloy, cast iron. The pulling stresses in the cylinder head bolts from the combustion pressure is transmitted via reinforced sections of the cylinder block walls directly to the main bearings.

The camshaft bearings are first fitted before being drilled t o the correct dimension.

Pistons
The pistons are made of light-alloy. The upper compression ring, which transfer most of the heat being transmitted through the piston rings, lies in a ring carrier of high-alloy, special-cast iron, which is cast in the piston. This gives the piston ring groove a long lifespan, in spite of the heat stresses. The piston ring groove for the second and third compression rings and the one for the oil scraper ring are machined directly in the piston. The engine combustion chambers are situated entirely in the piston crown.

Piston rings
Each piston has four piston rings. The top compression ring is chromed. The glide surface against the cylinder wall has an extra, thick layer of chrome and is slightly rounded. The second and third compression rings are slightly tapered and the slide surfaces (applies to TD70E, only second compression ring on TD70D) have ferrox-filled grooves. Because the rings are tapered, the text TOP is marked on the top to ensure that this side faces upwards. The oil scraper ring is provided with two, chromed scraper pegs, which are pressed against the cylinder wall, partly through the ring's own spring force and partly through the expander spring which is placed on the inside of the ring. Thanksto the expander spring the ring aligns itself to the cylinder wall in a more effective way and thus limits oil consumption.
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Fig. 27. Pistons

D classification letter Meas. in mm

Cyli~ider liners
The cylinder liners are of the wet, replaceable type, centrifugally cast and made of cast iron. Three rubber O-rings are sued for the cylinder liner outer sealing. The lower rings are placed in milled grooves in the cylinder block.
120 294

The ring which is placed furthest down is of silicon rubber and can be recognized by its red colour. Sealing against the upper end of the cylinder liners is by means of an O-ring placed under the liner flange and by the cylinder head gasket pressing down the flange on the liner against the shoulder on the cylinder block.

Fig. 28. Piston rings (TD7OE)

Fig. 29. Cylinder liner w i t h seals

Valve System
Valves and valve seats
The valves are made of chrome nickel steel. The valve stems are chromed. The exhaust valves have stellitelined sealing surfaces in order t o cope with the heat.

The valve seats are made of special steel and are replaceable. Standard size seats and oversize seats are available as spares. The oversize seat has a 0.2 m m (0.08")greater outer diameter and is used when new valve seat position have t o be milled because of the cylinder head.

Fig. 30. Cylinder head and valve arrangement

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 Lock nut Adjusting screw Wear hat Valve spring retaining lock Rubber seal Spring dish Valve spring, outer Valve spring, inner Valve

Camshaft
The camshaft is journalled in seven bearings. Axial clearance is determined by the camshaft gear, the sho-

ulder on the camshaft front journal and on the thrust washer bolted to the front of the cylinder block.

Fig. 31. Camshaft and valve mechanism

Timing Gears
The timing gear assembly consists of helical spur gears. The fuel injection pump and camshaft are driven from the crankshaft via an intermediate gear. In addition to the camshaft, the camshaft gear also drives the drive gear for the air compressor and for the powerassisted pump. The engine lubricating oil pump is also driven from the crankshaft gear. The advantage of having a gear drive for components connected to the engine is, of course, that it gives us greater reliability.

Air compressor drive

Camshaft gear assembly (includes also intermediate gear for

Steering servo pump operating gear

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Fig. 32. Timing gears

Crank Mechanism
Crankshaft
The crankshaft is journalled in seven main bearings. Axial journalling consists of thrust washers placed at the fourth main bearing. The crankshaft is statically and dynamically balanced. The working impulses of the engine are balanced by eight counterweights so that torque is divided equally. crankshaft front end has a polygon profile and the rear end a flange to which the flywheel is bolted. -rhe crankshaft can be ground to all the undersizes without re-hardening.

Flywheel adapted to automatic transmission

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Fig. 33. Crank mechanism

Main bearings and connectingrod bearings
The main bearings and connecting-rod bearings consist of indium-plated, lead-bronze lined steel shells. The bearings are precision-made and are entirely ready for fitting. Five undersizes can be obtained as spare parts. Thrust washers for the axial journalling of the crankshaft are available in three oversizes.

Connecting rods
The connecting rods have an I-section. Each connecting rod is drilled throughout for pressure-lubrication of the gudgeon pin. Because the connecting rods have dividing bearing seats which are oblique, the connecting rods can be drawn up through the cylinder liners when removing. The gudgeon pin bushings are of steel and overlapped with a light layer of tin.

Flywheel
The flywheel is bolted to a flange on the rear end of the crankshaft. It is statically balanced and fully machined. The ring gear is shrunk onto the flywheel.
Fig. 34. Vibration damper

Vibration damper
The vibration damper consists of a hermetically sealed housing in which a freely moving damping ring with a rectangular section is fitted. The centre of the damping ring rests on a bushing and all the other sides are surrounded by a viscous fluid (silicon).

1 2 3 4 5 6

Crankshaft Flat washer Hub Crankshaft oullev . . Alternator pulley Vibration mass

7 Cover 8 Bushing 9 Fluid chamber 10 Felt seal 1 I Oil deflector

Service Procedures Cylinder Heads
Removing the cylinder heads
1.

Drain the coolant. Removethe rocker arm covers. Removethe water connection pipe between the heads. Disconnect the delivery pipes and the leak-off fuel pipe from the injectors. Fit protective caps over the injectors. Remove the injectors. If they are difficult to remove, use tool 2683 with 299 1 (Fig. 35). Remove the intake and exhaust manifolds. bearing brackeg. Remove the rocker arm mechanism and thkib?g?sh rods.

2. 3.

4.

5. Release the retaining bolts for the rocker arm

6.
7.

Unscrew the cylinder head bolts and remove the .-. cylinder heads. Removethe cylinder head gasket, the rubber seals and their guides from the .block.
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Fig. 35. Removing an injector

Disassembling the cylinder heads 1. Remove the valves and valve springs. Use a valve spring tensioner for compressing the springs to remove the valve spring retaining lock. Place the valves in order on a valve rack. Clean all the parts. Pay particular attention to oil and coolant channels. Check for leakage by pressure-testing.
3

The cylinder head is provided with sealing grooves immediately above the cylinder liner collar. If more than 0.1 mm (0.04) material is removed from the head yben grinding, new sealing grooves must also be mil12d. :t Make sure that the stud bolts are securely fitted. Always change the cylinder head gaskets and rubber seals.
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~geksure-testing cylinder heads the
Connect a water hose to the cylinder head according to Fig. 36. Use connection 2664, sealing washer 2663, expander bolts 2 124 (3) and 2682 (5).The rubber gasket will be damaged if the wing nut is tightened too hard.
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,,,Face-grindingthe cylinder heads
- When face-grinding thecyli;l&i heads, check the surface evenness according t w h e instructions given under the heading ':Inspecting the cylinder heads". The surface finish may be max. 6 p. The distance from the face of the valve disc to the cylinder head fac~~bfter face-grinding may not be the less than 1.0 mmJ@CM;I'?,.;lf;;f,"rther machining of the cylinder tiead.-isiGquf the'Qzilveseat locations must ed, also be milled .dow$sThe distancefrom the face of the valve discso that of the cylinder head must be max. 1.4 h m (0.~6"). machining, the height of$'. After the cylinder.hea&:must not be less t~ap:~108.65 6 . m (4.278'7. Clean thi"&linder head after the machinind,;:<,:;+$
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Cutting new sbali'ng grooves in the cylinder heads '
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Before cutting new grooves in the cylinder heads, completely obliterate the old grooves. The sealing grooves are cut with tool 9505.
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Check that the cutter steel is marked D70. Proceed as follows:

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Fig. 36. Pressure testing a cylinder head

1.

2.

Fill the cylinder head with water. pressure of- 3 kp/cm2 (43: l ~ f /in2).

3. Test the cylinder head for leakage with a water
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After the test, remove the expandeF seals, the sealing and connection , . shers.
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Set the steel cutter vertically by placing the to61 , in accordance with Fig. 37. Slacken the steel cutter retainer screws and allow the cutter to drop down towards the recess in the template and then tightening up the retaining screws. Repeat this procedure with both the other cutters. Checkthat the template is the right one for the edgise ih ,dfOest~on--.

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Inspecting the cylinder heads ,:.;;);#;r;!. . ..
The maximum unevenness for the'~~i/!iiide;':heda,:face is 0.03 mm (0.0012"). This check .should be'made with a feeler gauge and straight edge, the $ides yl wh&h are shaved to an accuracy degree in a c t g f @ % $ f ? with DIN 874/Normal. If the unevenness is ab$ifej{t') permitted value or ifsthereare blister ridges, the'cyz linder head should be machined smoothed or replaced.
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Fig. 37. Adjusting the cutter

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If the sealing plugs have been removed, fit these and apply sealing agent, e.g., Permatex.

Fig. 39. Valve spring washer and valve spring retaining lock

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Fig. 38. Cutting sealing grooves

A. Groove

intake valve guide. Also make sure that the right hole is used so that the tool is symmetrically placed with the cylinder bore. The reason for this is that the tool guide plate has two holes for each dowel due to the fact that the intake ports are located differently in relation to the exhaust ports. Tighten up the dowels properly so that the guide plate is securely fixed.

NOTE! The late prod. gaskets are made of plastic which requires much less tightening compared with the aluminium type. The plastic gaskets must be fitted dry, i.e., no sealing agent must be used, nor may the gasket be hammered into position. IMPORTANT! Only aluminium washers may be fitted on the cleaning plugs under the rocker-arm covers.

Installing the cylinder heads
1. Clean the cylinder head and cylinder block face. If necessary clean the threads with a die, sieze 9/1&12 UNC. The liner is at the correct Check the liner he~ght. height when the stepped edge of the collar is 0.29-0.34 mm (0.0 114-0.0 1 3 4 ) above the cylinder block face. The liners under the same cylinder head may not differ more than 0.02 mm (0.0008") In height. Concering measuring and adjusting, see page 38. 3. Position the cylinder head gasket and sealing rings on the cylinder block. Fit the cylinder head.

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3. Rotate the tool without pressing downwards.
After cutting the grooves, clean the heads carefully from any filings, etc. The groove width is 0.25k0.1 mm (0.0 100.004"). NOTE! The steel cutters must be sharpened in a "forward" motion, that is, on the side where the handle is flat. No cutting must be done on oblique surfaces since this can alter the position of the cutter in relation to the centreline and thus also the distance between the grooves.

2.

Assembling the cylinder heads
1. Fit the valve springs. Oil the valve stems and fit the valves in their guides. Compress each spring with a valve spring compressor and fit the spring washer and valve spring retaining lock. Then fit the sealing rings and valve caps. Note! If a valve spring washer or a valve spring retaining lock has to be replaced, check that the spring washer or valve spring retaining lock fitted is the correct one with regard to cone angle and lock lug design.

Fig. 40. Location of sealing rings

4.

Dip the cylinder head bolts in rustproofing (Volvo art No. 282036) or corresponding. loose.

5. Fit the intake manifold and screw on the bolts
6. Tighten the cylinder head bolts according to the sequence given in Fig. 41.
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1 1. Adjust the valves. To do this turn over the engine to the compression stroke for No. 1 cylinder. With No. 1 piston in the top dead centre position, adjust rocker arms 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9. . Then rotate the crankshaft one turn, and adjust the clearance on rocker arms 3, 6, 8, 10, 1 1, 12.
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The clearance should be 0.40 m m (0.016") for ,$he intake and 0.55 mm (0.022) for the exhaust valves.(TD70D 0.45 mm (0.018 ) for the exhaust valves).

12. Fit the i n j W T @ h t e n up the nuts alternatively and e v g a t o avoid uneven stress on the nozzle contact&su?face.The tightening torque is 2 0 Nm (2 kpm = 15 lbfft). Tighten up the delivery pipes, and the leak-off fuel line. 13. Fit the rocker arm covers. Tighten the bolts to a torque of 10 Nm (1.0 kpm = 7 Ibm. It is important that this torque is not exceeded.%xcessive tightening can cause leakage.

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Cylinder block
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when the engine . : be allowed to c o $ o$r approx.
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Cylinder heads used for the pr A Water pipe

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.;,:j: ~i~hteen,t~@'bolts~i~'the order numbere Nm (4 k$n = .29jlbfffq < 2nd sa ; t d. ~i~hten:the,holtsnumbered sequence to 14 in Nm (14 kpm = 103 lbfft Final Order:3~~~~~4,5,6,7,13,.10,12,11,3an 1 t0,?.90Nm (19 kpm = 140 lbfft: ~dte'that certain bolts must be tightened twic
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4 , ?. ~inal-tight& the intake manifold.&lt$~ss
the exhshst manifold. Make s"t%;that:fhepisto6:rings for, the,j o w s&al a,& m.fif"P~&@~$a &..,. :- th&f~eir~gap$'$'~f~d(;: 1~00*$<r&lationto each ....*.; ot'h,er,,;,<.'- ;"':.' . ;~, : . .:"' ..,- ...+*'* . -. , ," . . x i ' .. . . ... . 8. Fig new manifid gaskets, Turn thk gaskets so that the'folded-over side'on the gasket faces the cylinder head.
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Remove the sump and cylinder heads.

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NOTE! Two of the gaskets differ'in design. These should b e b c e d next to theexhaust flange for No. and No. 6 cylinders, and faced so that the clipbed-off edge points straight forwards.. !,: ,
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Fit retainers 2667 for the cylinder linerskifore pistons. Should a cylinder liner glide oving a piston, the liner should also ere is great risk of impurities .; ween the liner and block and$;, this would . cause leakage. . . ; \;I;!
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"sinland turn over the engine until the con-';: necting rod in question is at the bottom dead cent- : '! - re. Remove the connecting-rod cap together with , # " . .. ,,A . . P . the lower bearing half.
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Knock up the piston and connecting rod so that the piston rings are released from the cylinder. Revove the piston together with the connecting rod. *Mi Rem6%b2thespiston piston ring pliers. -= -. -Remove the gudgeon pln with drift 2071

siderable Importance wlth regard to the time when the piston ring should be changed.
Piston ring clearances in grooves: Upper compresslon ring 0.09-0.12 mm (0.0035-0.0047") 2nd and 3rd compresslon rlngs

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'inspecting the piston rihgs
Ch& t i h e a r surfaces sides. Black spots on the surfaces point to poor contact, In whlch case the piston rings should be replaced. Otherwrse, the plston nngs should be replaced if there IS noticeable wear Or out-of-roundness In the cyli?ders, since the rings not take up the same posltlon they had sumptlon 1 of cons
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0.08-0.12 mm (0.003 1-0.0047") Oil scraper ring . 0.04-0.06 mm (0.0016-0.0027") Piston ring gap measured in ring opening, compresslon rings . . . . . . . . . . . 0.30-0.60 mm (0.01 186.0236") 01 Scraper ring. 0.30-0.60 mm (0.01 186.0236.') 1

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Check the pistons for cracks, dented.piston ring lap,& and worn piston ring grooves If the piston h q deep.'.. ' , scoring on the jacket surface, the piston must'be discarded. If the plston is zpproved after the first ocular inspect~on, measure *e plston d~ametefikd&eelfl&; piston rinflclearance In the groove. Carry out a'crack - " test aeordlng to 'the lime-milk method.

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Inspecting the connecting rods
Check the connecting rods for cracks. Also check straightness and for warp. A connecting rod may not be out-of-straight or wraped more than 0.01 mm (0.004) on a measured length of 100 mm (4").The measuring is done with a fixture for indicating connecting rods. Bent or wraped connecting rods must be replaced. Check also the connecting-rod bushings. The most suitable way to do this is to use a gudgeon pin as a gauge. There must not be any noticeable looseness.

4. Fit the other circlip.

5 Check to make sure that the connecting rod func.
tions smoothly in the gudgeon pin journalling. 6. Fit the new piston rings in the cylinder liner. 7. Check the clearance of the rings in the piston ring grooves (Fig. 43). 8. Fit the piston rings on the piston with piston ring pliers. First fit the oil scraper ring with the gap in any position. The opening in the oil ring spring should be placed opposite the oil ring gap. Fit the compression rings according to the Fig. 46 below.

Replacing connecting-rod bushings
1.

Press out the old bushing with drift 2497. Press in the new bushing with the same drift. Make sure that the bushing is fitted properly in position as shown in the Fig. 45 below.

2.

Fig. 46. Fitting the piston rings

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Fig. 45. Installing a connecting-rod bushing

9. Lubricate the piston and piston rings with engine oil. Turn the rings so that the piston ring gap is not in line with the gap on the other piston rings.

3.

Ream the bushing. With correct fit, an oiled gudgeon pin should be able to glide through the bushing from its own weight (temp. 17-20°C = 6368OF). Check the connecting rod with a dial indicator.

4.

Installing pistons, piston rings and connecting rods
1. Fit one of the circlips "dn the piston.
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2. Oil the gudgeon gh and connecting-rod bushing.
3. Heat the pisto; to approx. 1O ° (2 12OF). Place OC the piston and connecting rod in such a way that the "Front" marking on the piston and connecting rod face in the same direction. Push in the gudgeon pin with drift 207 1. ,,

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NOTE! No great force should be needed to press in the gudgeon pin.

Fig. 47. Installing a piston in a cylinder

10. Check to make sure that the "Front" marking on the piston and connecting rod are turned in the same direction. Fit the piston and connecting rod in the respective cylinder. The arrow on the piston should point forwards. Use installation ring 2 139. 11. Place the bearing shells in position in the connecting rod and caps. The bearing seats for the connecting rods are provided with recesses for the guide lugs on the bearing shells. It is important that the bearing shells are turned properly when being installed so that the steering lugs enter their respective recesses and the oil holes are opposite the holes in the connecting rods. Check when installing that the guide pin which guides the connecting rod cap axially is properly fitted. 12. Oil the gudgeon pin with engine oil, fit the bearing cap and tighten the connecting-rod bolts t o a torque of 160 Nm (16 kpm= 118 Ibfft). It is not necessary to replace undamaged bolts. They can be re-fitted.

Removing the cylinder liners
1. 2. Remove the cylinder heads, sump, pistons and connecting rods. Remove the cylinder liner with puller 1431 andb puller plate 2178. NOTE! Do not remove the cylinder liner until you are assured by measuring that it has to be replaced.
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Cylinder liners
Measuring and inspecting the cylinder liners
This consists in measuring wear and checking for cracks. Before measuring the cylinders, clean them thoroughly. The cylinder bores are measured with a dial indicator. The measuring should be carried out at several points diametrically, and also at different heights. In order to find out the actual amount of wear, first set-the dial indicator with a gauge ring, using the original bore of the cylinder liner as a reference measurement. The cylinder liner bores are classified as follows: Class Bore, mm (in.) A 104.74-1 04.75 B 104.75-104.76 C 104.76-104.77 D 104.77-104.78 E 104.78-104.79 mm mm mm mm mm (4.1236-4.1240) (4.1240-4.1244) (4.1244-4.1248") (4.1248-4.1252") (4.1252-4.1256)
Fig. 48. Removing a cylinder liner

Installing the cylinder liners
All surfaces near the liner must be entirely free from deposits, etc. Clean the upper and lower liner seats with cleaning fluid, a brush and then blow them dry with compressed air. Under no circumstances may a scraping tool be used for this purpose. NOTE! It is most important that the stepped edge of the liner is protected from damage. It should, therefore, be protected during installation with, e.g., a plastic cover. Installation is as follows: 1. 2. Coat the underside of the liner flange with a light layer of marking paste. Push the liner down onto its seat without the sealing rings and rotate it a couple of timer or so. Pull up the liner and check if the paint has covered the entire area of the seat shoulder. If the pattern of the paint shows that poor contact has been made, slight damage can be repaired with grinding paste. If the damage is more significant, the liner seats must be machined with a special miller,

If wear amounts to 0.35-0.40 mm (0.0138-0.0 157'7, the liners must be replaced, this assuming, of course, that there is heavy oil consumption. The degree of wear will decide what action should be taken. Magnaflux testing is the most effective way of checking for cracks.

3.

5.

Fit one of the lower sealing rings on the block and the upper sealing ring on the cylinder liner. also the rings in order to make sure that they don't move round when being installed.

6. Soap the lower guide on the cylinder liner. Soap

7.

Press but do not force down the liner. It should go down relatively easily.

NOTE! The red-coloured sealing ring is placed in the bottom groove at the lower cylinder liner guide. It is most important that the ring is placed correctly since its material is adapted just for this particular position.

Overhauling the cylinder liner seats
1.
Fig. 49. Checking a cylinder liner height above cylinder block face

Place the cylinder liner in the cylinder block and check the liner height. Note the reading on the dial indicator. The correct cylinder liner height should be 0.24-0.29 mm (0.0094-0.01 14"). Add to this a machining allowance of 0.02 mm (0.008") when grinding this liner seat with grinding paste after the milling. Use shims, which are available in different thicknesses, to compensate for removed material. Strive to use as few shims as possible.

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Fig. 50. Height of cylinder liner above cylinder block face

A = 0.29-0.34 mm (0.014.01 8 ) 1

9502, and the amount of material removed must be riplaced with shims. 4. Check that the stepped edge on the liner is 0.29-0.34 mm (0.01 14-0.0394) above the cylinder block face and that the difference in height between liners under the same cylinder head does not exceed 0.02 mm (0.0079). If necessary, adjust further according to point 3. Liner seats can be checked with a dial indicator and holder 2479 (Fig. 49). Set the dial indicator to 0, and the indicator pointer should then glide towards the cylinder block face. Thereafter move the indicator up onto the stepped edge of the liner flange and read off. The holder should always be moved in the longitudinal direction of the cylinder block. NOTE! When checking with the sealing rings fitted, for example, before the liner has been removed, a couple of clamp washers 2667 must be fitted in order to hold the liner down on the .^O shoulder.

Fig. 5 1. Machining the cylinder liner seat

Calculate the shim thickness required to compensate for the material removed bearing in mind the correct height of the liner collar above the cylinder block face. Before milling a liner seat, its surface should be roughed up with an emery cloth in order not to blunt the milling tool, particularly if the seat has been ground previously with grinding paste. Put in order milling tool 9508 for the particular engine in question and place the tool guide in the lower liner seat. Make sure that the collar is free from the intermediate web in the block. Place the milling tool in the liner seat and fit the yoke. Bolt the tool to the cylinder block Place suitable flat washers under the bolt heads. Make sure that the feed screw does not press onto the tool. Place a dial indicator as shown in Fig. 5 1. Screw down the feed sleeve so that it lightly presses against the miller and zero-set the dial indicator. Use a ratchet handle with a 3 / 4 connection and a 25 mm (I") socket for turning the milling tool. Rotate slowly and smoothly in order t o get an even feed. When the dial indicator indicates the measurement to which the liner seat is to be adjusted, discontinue the feeding and rotate the milling tool several turns without feeding. Check the contact surface of the liner seat. Re-check the liner height. Coat grinding paste underneath the liner collar. Place the liner in the block and rotate it back and forth until the grinding paste wears out. Take up the liner and wipe off the paste. Repeat this procedure until good contact is obtained. Use expander 9514 for rotating the liner.

cleaned and the surface shaved with-a suitable shaver in order not to slow up the milling tool.

Valve mechanism
Adjustin9 the valves
Note!

Due to the fact that the piston crowns are designed as combustion chambers, the pistons travel up so high towards the valves that the valves must not be adjusted while the engine is running otherwise the valves will strike against the piston and cause serious damage. The valve clearance should be adjusted with a cold engine. TD70D Valve clearance: Intake Exhaust 1. 0,40 mm (0.0 16") 0.45 mm (0.0 18") TD70E 0,40 mm (0.01 6 ) '0,55 mm (0.022")

Make sure that the stop control is pulled out. flywheel casing.

2. Remove the inspection cover underneath the
3.
Turn over the engine in its direction of rotation until No. 1 piston is at top dead centre after the compression stroke (0° on the flywheel). Adjust the following valves: 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9.

4.

0

lntake
Exhaust

Fig. 53. Valve location (viewed from the top of the engine) Fig. 52. Expander tool for turning cylinder liner

5.

Check the contact with marking paint and mark the liner so that it takes up the same position as it had when the contact surface was checked. Clean. all parts thoroughly. .. Warning! If a milling tool must be used on any liner seat which has been ground with grinding pbste, the liner seat must first be thoroughly

Turn over the engine again in its direction of rotation (one turn) until No. 6 piston is at top dead centre after the compression stroke (0° on the flywheel). Adjust the following valves: 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12.

Grinding the valves
Sealing surfaces of the valves Intake .................................. 29.5O * Exhaust ................................. 44.5O
. -

39

Sandpaper the sealing surface as little as possible, but just enough so that it is clean. If the edge on the exhaust valve is less than 1 mm (0.04) and the edge of the intake valve less than 1.4 mm (0.056"), the valve should be scrapped. Check for leakage. In the event of leakage, re-grind the valve seat but not the valve and re-check.

Check the angle with a valve seat gauge after coating the seat contact surface with a light layer of marking paint.

Changing the valve seats
1. Remove the old valve seat by cracking it or by welding a used valve to the seat to enable the seat to be knocked out. ~ h o r o u ~clean the location of the seat in the hl~ cylinder head and check the head for cracks. Measure the diameter of the valve seat location. With this measurement as a basis, examine to see if it is possible to fit a standard-size seat or if an oversize is required. Carry out any machining of the valve seat position that is necessary. Cool the seat in carbon dioxide snow (dry ice) to minus 6@70°C (minus 7&94OF) and, if necessary, heat the cylinder head with warm water, e.g., by hosing it. Press in the seat with a drift.
.

2.

3.

I
Fig. 55. Machining an exhaust valve seat

IA
,0244"

"

4.

A = Max. 2 mm (0.08")

5.

~ a c h i n e seats to the right angle and width. the

Inspecting the valve guides
In order to assess the wear of the valve guides, fit a new valve on the guide and then measure the clearance with an indicator (Fig. 56). Wear limits: Intake valve, max. clearance . 0.15 mm (0.006") Exhaust valve, max. clearance 0.17 m m (0.007") When wear exceeds the above measurements, replace the valve guides.

Grinding the valve seats
Before grinding, check the valve guides and replace them if the wear limits have been exceeded. Do not grind off too much material from the valve seat but just enough to give it its correct from and to ensure good contact. The valve seat should be replaced when the gap A (Fig. 54) exceeds 2 mm (0.08"), measured with a new valve.

A new seat is ground so far that the distance between the cylinder head face and the upper area (A, Fig. 55) of the valve is 1.@I .4 mm (0.04-0.06"), both for the intake and the exhaust valves.

Fig. 54. Machining an intake valve seat

\

\

102 836

A = Max. 2 mm (0.08")

Fig. 56. Checking the wear on a valve guide

Changing the valve guides
1. 2. Press out the valve guides with drift 1084. Oil the outside of the guides and press them in with tool 266 1. This drift gives the correct height above the cylinder head's spring surface ( " A 22 mm = 0.9). If necessary, ream the valve guides. Concerning the clearance between the valve and valve guide, see under "Specifications".

3.

Fig. 58. The rocker arm mechanism

Timing Gears
Fig. 57. Removing and installing a valve guide

.-

Removing the timing gears
1.
Slacken the belt tensioner and remove the drive belts for the fan, coolant pump and alternator. Remove the crankshaft pulley and the vibration damper, which are bolted to the polygon hub.

Rocker arm mechanism
1.
2. Remove the circlips, rocker arms and bearing brackets from the rocker arm shaft. Clean the parts, paying particular attention to the oil channel in the bearing bracket and the rocker arm shaft oil channels as well as the oil' holes in the rocker arms. Check the wear on the rocker arm shaft and the tightness of the cap plugs on the shaft end, and also make sure that the spherical part of the ball pin is not deformed or worn. The threads on the pin and lock nut must be in good condition. This also applies to the hex side of the nut. The surface of the rocker arms which is in contact with the valve must not be worn or pitted. For minor wear, adjust with a grinding machine. 4. An oval-worn rocker arm bushing must be replaced. The bushing is removed and installed with drift 2677. Check when installing the bushing that its lubricating channels coincide with that in the rocker arm. After pressing in the bushing, ream it to an accurate slight fit on the shaft. Remove any filings, etc. Oil the rocker arm shaft and fit the parts. Note that the rocker arms are placed opposite each other as matched pairs. Make sure that the circlips on the ends of the rocker arm shaft lock properly in their grooves.

2.

3. Remove the polygon centre bolt and pull off the polygon hub with puller 2655 (Fig. 59).

5.

Fig. 59. Removing the polygon hub

41

4. Remove the cover far the timing gear casing.
5. Remove the camshaft gear after having released the three retaining bolts: If necessary use puller 2679 according to Fig. 60. Proceed in the same way for the injection pump drive gear.

Fig. 61. Removing the crankshaft gear

Inspecting the timing gears
Fig. 60. Removing the camshaft gear

6.

Remove the intermediate gear and its bearing pin after having released the three retaining bolts.

Check the timing gears thoroughly after cleaning them. Heavily worn or defective gears must be replaced by new ones. Max. permitted backlash is 0.17 mm (0.007"). The axial clearance for the intermediate gears is 0.05-0.15 mm (0.002-0.006).

7.. Remove the splash guard plate in front of the oil pump intermediate gear. Earlier engines do not have this splash guard plate. Remove the crankshaft gear with puller 2658 (Fig.

Fig. 62. Timing gears

Installing and adjusting the timing gears
All the timing gears which are of importance with regard to adjustment, are marked with a punch pop opposite a gear tooth or gear tooth opening (Fig. 63).

2.

Check. that the camshaft gear guide pin is fitted. Fit the camshaft gear. Adjust the crankshaft with No. 1 cylinder piston at drop dead centre (the key groove in the crankshaft faces straight upwards). Fit the intermediate gear according to the line-up marks on Fig. 63. Fit the injection pump gear. Make sure that the line-up marks are according to Fig. 63. Fit the splash guard plate in front of the intermediate gear for the oil pump. Lock the bolts. Fit the oil deflector with the dished side facing outwards (forwards). Place the felt ring in the timing gear cover. Fit the gasket and then the cover. Centre the cover with the two guide pins on the lower part of the casing. Grease the crankshaft journal with molybdenum disulphide grease. Heat the polygon hub to approx. 1OO°C (2 12OF). Fit centring drift 2657 on the crankshaft journal. Rapidly tap the gear onto the pin up to approx. 5 mm (0.02") from the gear wheel face (Fig. 65).

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

Fig. 63. Adjusting the timing gears

1, 2 and 3 are line-up marks

1. Check to make sure that the crankshaft key is fitted. Fit the crankshaft gear with tool 2659 (Fig. 64).

Fig. 65. Installing the polygon hub

After the hub has cooled, install it with the help of a washer and the centre bolt. The tightening torque is 260 Nm (26 kpm = 192 Ibfft).

9. Fit the crankshaft pulley and the vibration damper. Tighten the retaining bolts to 6 0 Nm (6 kpm = 44 Ibfft).
10. Fit the belt tensioner and the drive belts. The drive belts are properly tensioned when they can be depressed approx. 10 mm ( 5 / 8 ) midway between the pulleys.

Fig. 64. Installing the crankshaft gear

IVOTE! The vibration damper must not be exposed to blows or impacts since this could alter its characteristics entirely should the accurately balanced fluid chamber alter its shape and volume.

lnjection pump drive assembly
In order to be able to remove the injection pump drive assembly (Fig. 66), we must first remove the injection pump, the crankshaft pulley, the vibration damper, the polygon hub, the timing gear cover, the pump coupling, the tachometer drive assembly and the injection pump gear. After all this has been carried out, we release the retaining bolts for the pump drive assembly on the rear side of the timing gear casing and we pull the assembly out backwards.

Fig. 66. Injection pump drive assembly

1 2 3 4 5 6

Shaft Lock washer Washer Sealing ring Ball bearing S ~ a c e rsleeve

7 Ball bearing 8 Bearing housing 9 Cover plate 10 Gasket 1 1 Sealing ring

Disassembling the drive assembly
1. 2. 3. Remove the key (10, Fig. 67). Remove the retaining bolts (2) and the washer (3). Press the shaft together with the bearing, spacer sleeve and (tachometerworm, certain models)out of the housing. It may happen when doing this that the bearing (8) does not accompany the rest of the parts, in which case the removal must be done in two stages. Remove the bearings and the tachometer gear from the shaft. Take the shaft seal (9) out of the housing.

4.

Assembling the drive assembly
1. 2. Fit the rear bearing (8) in the housing with drift 2667. Press the front bearing (5) onto the shaft. Fit the spacer sleeve (7)and press the (tachometerworm, certain models) (6) onto the shaft. Fit the spacer sleeve (8) on the shaft. Place a counterhold against the inner ring of the rear bearing (8) and press the entire unit into the housing. Fit the washer (3) and tighten up the retaining bolts (2). Lock them with tab washers. Press the sealing ring (9) into the housing. Fit the key ( 10).

Fig. 67. Injection pump drive assembly

1 Shaft 2 Retaining bolt 3 Lock washer

6 Spacer sleeve (also

tach. worm on certain models) 4 Housing 7 Spacer sleeve 5 Front bearing 8 Rear bearing 9 Seal 10 Key

3.

4. 5.

Installing the drive assembly
Install the complete drive assembly in the timing-gear casing. Tighten up the retaining bolts. Do not forget the spring washers.

mm (0.48") for the intake and 12.64 mm (0,49") exhaust valve (rocker arm ratio 1:1.528). This corresponds to a cam height of 8.006 mm (0.32") on the camshaft (ratio 1: 1.528 for the intake valve and 8.208 mm (0.33") for the exhaust valve (rocker arm ratio 1:1.528). With 0 valve clearance, the max. valve life for the TD70D is 12.24 mm (0.48") for both the intake and exhause valves. This corresponds to a cam height of 8.006 mm (0.32") on the camshaft (rocker arm ratio 1: 1.528).

Camshaft
Checking the valve lift height
Cam wear can be assessed with engine installed by measuring the valve lift heigt. With 0 valve clearance, the max. valve height for the TD70E should be 12.24

Fig. 69. Removing the polygon hub

Fig. 68. Checking the lift height

Fig 70. Removing the camshaft gear

A. Camshaft cam height

B. Valve lift

9.

Removing the camshaft
1. Remove the rocker arm covers. Remove the rocker arm mechanism. Lift out the push rods. Remove the two inspection covers and the breather pipe opposite the valve tappets. Lift up the valve tappets and place them in order on a rack belts for the fan, coolant pump and alternator. 6. Remove the crankshaft pulley and vibration damper, which are bolted to the polygon hub. the hub with puller 2655 (Fig. 69). Remove the cover over the timing gear casing.

Remove the flange (Fig. 7 1).This leaves the camshaft loose for removing forwards. Pull the camshaft straight out to avoid damaging the bearings.

2. 3.
4.
\

Inspecting the camshaft
Check the camshaft for wear on the bearing races and the cam fillets. It can happen that the cams are obliquely worn axially. Slight wear here can be remedied by honing the cams. If the damage is more advanced or if there is considerable wear, replace the camshaft.

5. Slacken the belt tensioner and remove the drive
Measuring
Wear on the camshaft bearing races is measured with a micrometer. The max. wear and out-of-roundness is 0.07 mm (0.0028"). Check the straightness of the camshaft with a dial indicator. Maximum permissible radial throw relative to the end bearings is 0.04 mm (0.00 16"). When checking the cam height, secure the camshaft between the studs.

7. Release the polygon hugcentre bolt and pull off

8. Unscrew the three retaining bolts for the camshaft gear and remove the gear. If necessary use puller 2679 (Fig. 70).

Concerning the measurements for the camshaft and camshaft bearings, see under "Specifications".

Changing the camshaft bearings
Press the bearings into their seats and then drill them. Because of an operation like this, the camshaft bearings can only be changed in connection with a complete overhaul of the engine. Check carefully when pressing in the bearings that the bearings are pressed in in sich a way that the oil ports are opposite their corresponding oil ports in the block

onto the crankshaft pin. Quickly drive the gear onto the pin with drift 2657, into approx. 5 mm (0.2") from the face of the gear wheel. After the hub has cooled, fit it with the help of a washer and the centring bolt. Tightening torque is 260 Nm (26 kpm = 192 Ibfft). 5. Fit the pulley and the vibration damper. Tighten the bolts to a torque of 6 0 Nm (6 kpm = 44 Ibfft). 6. Fit the belt tensioner and the fan belts. These are properly tensioned when they can be depressed approx. 10 mm (5/8"J midway between the pulleys.

'

7. Fit the valve tappets in the order in which they were removed.

Installing the camshaft
1. Carefully push in the camshaft so as not to damage the bearings. Fit the flange, which locates the position of the shaft axially. Tighten up the bolts and lock them. Adjust the timing gears according to page 43. the camshaft gear. Tighten up the three retaining bolts and lock them with tab washers.

8. Fit the push rods and rocker arm mechanism.
9. Fit the inspection covers for the valve tappet housings and the breather pipe. 10. Adjust the valves and fit the rocker arm covers.

2.

Crank Mechanism
Replacing the'flywheel bearings
1. 2. Knock up the lock washers for the flywheel retaining bolts. Remove the bolts and the washers. Remove the flywheel bearingwith bearing remover 1819.

Fig. 7 1. Camshaft flange retaining bolts ( 1) Fig. 72. Removing the flywheel bearing

3.

Check to make sure the oil deflector is in position and fit the cover over the timing gears. Replace the felt ring for the crankshaft seal. Grease the crankshaft pin with molybdenum disulphide grease. Heat the polygon hub t o approx. 1OO°C (2 12OF). Fit the centring section of 2657 3. Fit the flywheel bearing with drift 2013 and standard handle 1801.

4.

Fig. 73,Installing the flywheel bearing

Fig. 74. Flywheel measurement

4.

Place the lock washer in position and fit the bolts. The tightening torque is 160-180 Nm (16-18 kpm = 115-130 Ibfft). Remove the inspection cover underneath the flywheel casing in order to be able to hold the flywheel securely while tightening up the bolts. Lock the bolts. Fit the inspection cover.

Changing the flywheel
1. Remove the flywheel. Check and if necessary replace the flywheel bearing. Clean the contact surface on the crankshaft flange. Check and if necessary replace the guide pin in the crankshaft flange. If necessary, clean the flywheel contact surface against the crankshaft flange. of 160-180 Nm (16-18 kpm= 115-130 Ibfft). See page 49 for instructions on checking the flywheel for warp, etc.

2.
3. 4. 5.

5. 6.

6. Fit the flywheel. Tighten the bolts to a torque

Flywheel
\

Minor scoring or cracks in the flywheel can be removed by grinding, but not more than 0.5 rnm (0.020") may be ground off. With more severe damage, replace the flywheel. The flywheel depth, that is, the distance from the clutch plate face to the face of the clutch retaining plate should be:
Clutch Single plate Double plate Meas. A mm (in.) 49.2 (1.94) Meas. B mm (in.) 40.0+ 0.08 (1.57f 0.003)

160-180~m (16-18kpm)

41.3 (1.63)
.<,,a "0,""

This measurement must be maintained. The retaining plate, therefore, must be ground down as much as the clutch plate if this is necessary.

Fig. 75. Installing the flywheel

Changing the ring gear
1. Drill one or two holes in one of the gear covers on the ring gear and break open the cover with a chisel in order to get at and remove the ring gear. Clean the contact surface on the flywheel with a steel brush. Heat the ring gear enevly all round. This can be done in an oven. If a welding flange is ned (not to be recommended) observe great caution not to overheat the ring gear. To check this, polish the ring gear clean at several points. If the temperature is correct, these areas will be blue-annealed (temp. 180-200°C = 356-392OF), at which point discontinue the heating. Place the heated ring gear on the flywheel. Drive it on with the help of a soft drift and hammer. The ring gear should then be allowed to cool in the open air.

Checking the flywheel casing
1. Check the fit of the flywheel casing against the clutch casing. This should be at right angles to the crankshaft within 0.15 mm (0.006").

2.
3.

4.

.

~

.

I i i ;? . I

Fig. 77.Flywheel casing, axial throw

2.

Checking the flywheel for warp, etc.
1. Use a dial indicator with magnetic attachment. Zero-set the indicator, rotate the flywheel and note the highest reading. This reading must not exceed 0.15 mm (0.006") at a measuring radius of 150 mm ( 6 ) . If the warp is excessive, remove the flywheel. Check to see whether there is dirt or unevenness between the flywheel and crankshaft flange.

Its inner edge must be concentrical with the flywheel within 0.25 mm (0.0 10"). Check these values with a dial indicator. If the values exceed these, check the flywheel casing contact against the cylinder block.

2.

Fig. 78. Flywheel casing, radial throw

Crankshaft
Removing the crankshaft
1.

Lift the engine out of the vehicle. Remove the sump, oil pump and strainer and the delivery lines. Remove the crankshaft pulley, vibration damper and polygon hub.

2. 3.
Fig. 76. Flywheel, axial throw

4. 5. 6.

Remove the timing gear cover. Remove the clutch, flywheel and flywheel casing. The crankshaft should then be free for removal after the main-bearing bolts have been released and the main bearing caps removed. A hoist block and tackle intended for removing crankshafts should be used for taking out the crankshaft.

Inspecting the crankshaft
Clean thoroughly all the channels in the crankshaft when it has been removed. Measure wear and outof-roundness with a micrometer. The most reliable way to localize cracks, indents and fractures is by means of the magnaflux test. The shaft must be demagnetized after such a test. Maximum permissible out-of-roundness on the main bearing and connectingrod journals is 0.08 mm (0.0031") and max. taper 0.05 mm (0.0020"). If these values are exceeded, grind the crankshaft to a suitable undersize.

10, 479

Fig. 79. Width of pilot bearing

4.

After grinding the shaft, carefully remove all grinding residues and other impurities. Flush through and clean the oil channels. Check the crankshaft for warp with an indicator. The radial throw must not be more than 0.05 mm (0.0020"). Check the crankshaft for cracks and de-magnetize
It.

5.

Grinding the crankshaft
1. 2. The crankshaft is ground in a grinding machine to the undersize given in the "Specifications". It is important to remember when grinding the crankshaft that the fillet radii at the transit between bearing journals and flange are kept to R 3.25-3.50 mm (0.128M.1378"). Measure the radius with a template. Particular care is necessary when grinding the centre bearing journal, which involves the width measurement "A" (Fig. 79).

Installing the crankshaft
1. Check to make sure that the crankshaft channelse are clean, likewise the contact surfaces for the bearing shells, cylinder block and caps. Place the bearing shells in position in the block and cap, Make sure that the shells are fitted properly and that shells and caps have no burr on or are not pitted. Oil the bearings. Lubricate the bearing journals with engine oil and carefully fit the crankshaft in position. Fit the thrust washers for the intermediate main bearing (pilot bearing). The washers can be fitted in only one position (Fig. 80) because of the locating recesses. Fit the caps. The intermediate cap has a recess which is faced so that it is over the guide pin. This ensures that the bearing cap is always placed in the right position axially. Note the number for the main-bearing cap, which indicates where it is to be placed.

3.

2.

Width measurement for pilot bearings: 45.975-46.025 mm ( 1.8 100-1.8 120") Standard Oversize 0.2 mm (0.0079") (0.1 mm = 0.0039" oversize thrust washers) 46.175-46.225 mm (1.817!3-1.8199) 0.4 mm (0.0 158") (0.2 mm = 0.0079" oversize thrust washers) 46.375-46.425 mm ( 1.8258-1.8278") 0.6 mm (0.0236") (0.3 mm = 0.0 118" oversize thrust washers) 46.575-46.625 mm ( 1.8337- 1.8356")

3. 4.

5.

NOTE! If grinding the bearing races results in sharp edges at the intake holes for the oil channels, rough these smooth with a grinding stone or emery cloth.

The bearing shell has a protecting lug which fits the recess in the bearing :seat in the crankcase. Because of this lug, the crankshaft can only be rotated in one direction, which means that the engine is turned over in its direction of rotation when rolling out the bearing shell.

106310

Fig. 80. Installing thrust washers

6. Fit the main-bearing bolts after oiling the threads. Tightening torque is 140 Nm ( 14 kpm = 103
Ibfft). 7. Check the crankshaft axial clearance (0.068-0.268 mm = 0.0027-0.0105).

Changing the crankshaft seals
The rear sealing ring (felt ring) is changed when overhauling the engine since it is necessary to remove the flywheel and flywheel casing in order to replace this seal. The front felt seal can be changed with the engine installed in the vehicle, but see under "Timing gears".

Fig. 8 1. Guide lug ( 1) and guide pin for main-bearingcap (2)

5.

Wipe the bearing journal clean and check it for damage. With severe damage or if excessive outof-roundness is suspected, the shaft should be removed for measuring if there is access to a crankshaft gauge. Fit the new bearing shells by rolling in the upper bearing shell with the pin mentioned in pos. 4. Anti-clockwise rotate the shaft when fitting. Check that the projecting lug on the shells are placed correctly, likewise that the oil hole in the upper bearing comes opposite the oil channel in the block Fit the lower bearing and cap. Tighten the bolts to a torque of 140 Nm ( 14 kpm = 103 Ibfft). Fit. the sump, oil strainer and pipe. Fill with oil.

Main bearings
Inspecting the main bearings
Check the main bearing shells for wear, fracture or peeled surfaces on the lead-bronze lining. Worn bearing shells or flaked lead-bronze linings must be replaced.

6.

Changing the main bearings with the engine in vehicle
'

7.

1.

Drain the engine oil and remove the sump together with oil strainer and pipe. main bearing cap together with bearing shell.

2. Unscrew the main-bearing bolts and remove a

3.
4.

Remove the injectors since this makes it easier to turn over the engine. Rotate the crankshaft until its oil hole is exposed. Place a pin in this hole. The pin should be of such a constructionthat when the crankshaft is rotated it also rotates the upper bearing shells.

Group 22 Lubricating System
Construction and Function

n

Fig. 82. Lubricating system

1 2 3 4 5 6

Oil pressure gauge/warning light Camshaft bearing Main oil gallery Delivery oil line, turbo-compressor Rocker arm mechanism Oil gallery t o rocker arm mechanism

7 Main bearings 8 Connecting-rod bearings 9 Oil filter 10 Sump I I Oil pump 12 Oil cooler

General
The oil pump is situated at the front of the sump and is driven from the engine timing gears. Oil is forced from, the discharge side of the pump through the cooler and oil filter and out into the various channel of the lubricating system. All bearings and gudgeon pins, also the rocker arm mechanism and timing gears, are pressure-lubricated.

The timing gears are shot-lubricated from the intermediate gear bearing journal, which is connected via the main oil gallery to subsidiary channels. The air compressor, turbo-compressor and the injection pump are also pressure-lubricated. The oil pressure is limited by a relief valve. It is located immediately in front of the oil filter. When the pressure of the lubricating oil becomes excessive, it opens and allows the oil to flow back to the sump.

Oil pump
The oil pump is of the gear-type. It sucks the oil through a strainer and suction pipe to the suction side of the pump. The oil strainer, which is of the sire-netting type, prevents thicker particles from accompanying the oil, before the oil is sucked up into the pump.

Fig. 83. Oil pump 1 Journal 2 Drive gear 3 Key 4 Drive shaft 5 Axial washer 6 Bushing 7 Bushing 8 Retaining bolt 9 Lock washer 10 Bearing sleeve 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Idler gear Retaining bolt Guide pin Housing Driving pump gear Bushing Cover Driven pump gear Guide sleeve Retaining bolt

Oil cooler
The TD70E (F86) engine is fitted with an oil cooler which is placed in the connection to the oil filter and consists of a tubular assembly through which coolant flows. The oil is forced first through the oil cooler and then through the oil filter. The function of the oil cooler is to lower the oil temperature, particularly with heavy loads on the engine.

Oil filter
The oil filter is of the full-flow type. It consists of a housing (bracket) in which the cleaner insert is screwed tight. The housing is fixed to the right-hand side of the cylinder block. The filter element consists of special filter paper. A relief valve is situated in the bottom of each cartridge and it allows the oil to flow past the filter paper when the insert is clogged. The insert is of the throw-away type and must be scrapped after use. This simplifies maintance both from the viewpoint of time and quality.

u
Fig 84. Oil filter and oil cooler

?, ,, ,,

170 1 1 01

Fig. 85. Oil cooler and piping

for oil pump on N7/FFA (front axle

Service Procedures
Checking the oil pressure
The oil pressure can be checked by connecting up a pressure gauge with hose to the connection for the oil pressure contact. At engine running speed and operating temperature, the oil pressure should be between 300-500 kPa (3-5 kp/cm2 = 43-7 1 lbf/in2). Should the pressure go below 5 0 kPa (0.5 kp/cm2 = 7 lbf/in2) with the engine warm at idling, this does not mean that there is any leakage as long as the pressure during the operating speed of the engine does not go below about 300 kPa (3 kp/cm2 = 4 3 lbf/in2). The bypass valve is accessible for removal after the lubricating oil filter has been removed. Check the valve and valve body for wear. NOTE! The bypass valve should be fitted so that one hole points straight upwards and t w o obliquely downwards.

Fig. 88. Bypass valve

1 Flange 2 O-ring 3 Spring

4 Relief valve body 5 Valve Peg

Oil pump
Removing the oil pump
1. Drain the engine oil. Remove the sump. Disconnect and remove the oil pipes between pump and strainer and between' pump and cylinder block. Remove the four retaining bolts after having knocked up the tab washer. Remove the pump.

2.
3.

4.

Disassembling the oil pump
1.
2. Pull off the gear with puller 2654 (Fig. 89). Re. move the key from the shaft. Remove the idler gear (2, Fig. 90). This gear is attached by means of three bolts and is journalled on a bearing sleeve. Remove the retaining bolts for the pump housing (10) and remove the housing. If the housing is firmly fixed, it can be driven out by using two 5 1 16" bolts. Remove the axial washer (13) and press out the drive shaft together with pump gear. Press out the shaft (12) if it has to be replaced.
Fig. 89. Removing the drive gear

3.

4.

5. Remove the idler gear (11) from the housing.

Fig. 90. Oil pump and drive assembly

Inspecting the oil pump
Check the body for scoring and wear and for leakage between bracket and pump body. Leakage is indicated by blackened surfaces. Wear score is not allowed. Minor defects can be adjusted with an emery cloth. Replace the bushings in the pump body and bracket if the radial clearance between shaft and bushing amounts to 0.15 mm (0.006) or more. Ream the new bushings to accurate slight fits. When reaming, the body must be screwed so tight that it is centred by the guide sleeves. If the radial clearance between the gear and the journal is excessive (above 0.20 mm = 0.008"). replace the gear. Check the pump gears for wear on teeth, outer diameter and end face.

Fig. 92. Axial clearance, oil pump drive

Installing the oil pump
1. Fit the pump and tighten up the four retaining bolts. Lock them with the tab washer. pump. Fit O-rings on the pipe connections.

2 Connect up the suction and delivery lines to the .
3.
Fit the sump. Fill with oil.

Fig. 91. Checking the axial clearance 0.07-0.15 mm (0.0027-0.0059")

Oil cooler
Pressure-testing the oil cooler
1. 2. Remove the oil cooler from the engine. Let the O-rings remain on the oil cooler flange for connection to the oil system. Fit pressure tester 6033. Check that it is properly tight at the O-rings. Connect the pressure tester (A) to a relief valve and pressure gauge. Close the relief valve and connect it to the worksho9 air supply system. Adjust to a pressure of 30 kPa (0.3 kp/cm2 = 4.3 lbf/in2) and allow this pressure to remain for 1 minute. No pressure drop is permitted. Increase the pressure to 500 kPa (5 kp/cm2 = 7 1 lbf/in2) and allow the pressure to remain for 1 minute. No pressure drop is permitted.

Assembling the oil pump
1. If the bushings for the driving gear have been removed, press them in and ream them to 16.016-1 6.034 mm (0.6305-0.63 1 3 ) . Press in the idler gear shaft if it has been removed.
'

3. 4. 5. 6.

2. 3. 4.

Fit the drive shaft and its gear on the bracket (5, Fig. 90). Fit the key (15) in the shaft and press on the drive gear (14). Make sure correct axial clearance is obtained -(Fig. 92). Fit the pump gear (I and the pump housing. 1) Tighten the pump housing to the bracket. Check by rotating that the pump runs easily. Fit the idler gear and tighten up its bearing sleeve. Lock the retaining bolts.

7.

5.

6.

If the pressure does drop, then there is leakage and the oil cooler must be replaced. It is not permitted to repair the oil cooler.

Oil channels
If necessary clean the oil channelse in the cylinder block with cleaning fluid and then with heat or flushing oil under a pressure of 3-4 kp/cm2 (43-57 lbf/in2). Clean the oil channelse in the cylinder block, crankshaft and connecting rods with a brush.

Fig. 93. Pressure testing the oil cooler

Oil filter
Changing the filter cartridge
1.

Clean the outsides of the oil filter. spanner. Scrap the cartridge.

2. Remove the filter cartridge, if necessary, with a
3.
Moisten the cartridge packing in oil and screw the cartridge in by hand until the packing makes contact with the sealing surface. Then turn the cartridge a further half turn. Fill the engine with oil and start it. Check for leakage.

4.

Note! The spanner grip on the lower part of the filter has been removed on the late prod. type. This means that an ordinary spanner no longer can be used for removing the filter cartridge. Use instead special spanner 2923 (see page 74).

Group 24 Fuel System
Construction and Function

Fig. 94. Fuel system, TD70E
1 Leak-off oil line 2 Delivery pipe

3 Inlet pipe, injection pump
4 Feed pump 5 Suction line

6 7 8 9

Tank strainer Inlet pipe, fuel filter Return line Relief valve

General
The fuel injection system is of Bosch make and consists of an injection pump. fuel filter, injectors and pipes. As far as the fuel system is concerned, the main difference between the TD70D and TD70E engines is in the locaticn of the relief valve. The relief valve for the TD70E is connected to the injection pump. This

means that return fuel flows through the injection pump before returning to the tank. The fuel flow then the fuel in the pump fuel chamber and this evens out the temperature of the fuel in the chamber will be the same for all the cylinders in the engine. On the TD70D, the relief valve is placed next to the fuel filters in the same way as on the older versions of, e.g., the TD70B.

Fig. 95. lnjection pump

Cold-start control Pressure intake, smoke eliminator Fuel inlet Delivery valve retainer Pump element bushing Shims of different thicknesses for adjusting the stroke Delivery valve spring Pump cylinder Pump element Pump piston Protective cover Relief valve connection (TD70E)

}

Pressure equalizer for damping pressure waves in fuel chamber Stop lever Link Control arm Oil level plug used when testing on pump test bench Adjuster screw, low idle Throttle lever Adjuster screw, high idle Governor weight Screw plug

-

Oil draining Pump camshaft Tappet Piston spring Hand primer, feed pump Delivery valve in feed pump Shaft end for pump coupling Indication plate, engine adjustment Adjuster screw for max. flow

Injection pump
~ i ~ . the injection pump for the T D ~ O E 95 shows engine. The injection pump for the TD70D engine does not have a pressure-dependent full-load stop (smoke eliminator) (pos. 2). The TD70D-engine, which is specially adapted to city traffic, does not need a smoke eliminator since it operates with a large air surplus

already in the low-speed range. Compared with the TD70E, the TD70D engine also has other types of nozzles and another adjustment for the injection pump. The smoke eliminator on the injection pump for the TD70E engine also has a built-in cold-start function. On the TD70D-engine, the cold-start function is attained by means of a full-load stop of the cross-bolt type (see page 63).

Governor
The RQV governor is an all-speed type centrifugal governor. Speed is thus regulated throughout the entire speed range from low idle to high idle. When engine load increases, the speed drops, providing that the throttle lever is held in the same position all the time. The governor weights then move inwards and this causes the control rod to increase the amount of fuel injected so that the earlier speed is more or less maintained. When the load on the engine reduces, the speed increases. This throws out the governor weights and causes the control rod to reduce the amount of fuel injected at a speed more or less unchanged. Characteristic of the RQV-governor is that the governor arm can move on a curve plate (9, Fig. 96). and this varies the lever ratio on the governor arm. More

torque is available on the arm at low speeds and this makes for more precise control of the lower speeds. At high speeds, the torque on the arm becomes less but the centrifugal force is, nevertheless, sufficiently large at the speed in question that, in spite of the reduced torque on the arm, this force can alter the p ~ sition of the control rod. The smaller torque on the arm is an advantage since it makes the governor more sensitive due to the fact that an alteration in the position of the governor weights would result in more travel on the control rod so that it is easier t o keep the engine speed at the adjusted value with rapidly varying loads. The adjusting values for the governors on the TD70D and TD7OE engines are the same. The governor designation, however, differs due to the fact that the governors are mounted on two different types of injection pumps.

Fig. 96.Centrifugal gow

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Pivot lug
Guide screw Lock ring Adjuster bolt (pivot Plug Shaft Sensing arm Pin Curve plate Slide Throttle arm Link arm Cover Link Stop lever (inner) Guide lug Link bolt Spring Sleeve Stop lever shaft Control rod Adjuster nut Spring dish Governor spring Governor weight Angle lever Lock washer Control shaft Housing

Smoke eliminator
The function of the smoke eliminator is to limit the fuel flow at low turbo-compressor boosting pressure. When turbo speed rises, the pressure in the engine intake manifold increases and at approx. 1200 engine rev/min, the pressure is so high that the smoke eliminator is at position for max. fuel flow (Fig. 98, B). Movement from the diaphragm, which is influenced when pressure changes in the intake manifold, is transferred via a linkage system to an angle lever. At the lower part of the angle lever there is an adjusting screw for adjusting low flow. At low charging pressure, the screw rests against the control rod for low max. flow. At high boost pressure, the other end of the screw goes against an adjusting screw in the governor housing for high max. flow.

*-<-zq
j

VOLVO 1 1 5 027 Fig. 97. Smoke eliminator Cover Pressure intake Diaphragm Diaphragm spring Diaphragm rod Bracket Guide pin Cold-start control

9 Adjuster screw for low max. flow 10 Angle lever 11 Stop screw for high max. flow 12. Leaf spring for preventing cold-start engagement during operation 13 Threaded bushing for adjusting cutout points

Fig. 98. Smoke eliminator function Low boost pressure - small full-load flow High boost pressure - large full-load flow

Cold-start
On the TD70D, the cold-start device consists of a manually operated full-load stop of the transverse-bolt type. When the cold-start engages, the rocker washer (3, Fig. 99) pushes in the release bolt, the end of which pushes aside the transverse bolt so that the control rod is uninhibited and can go forward to the start flow when the accelerator pedal is depressed. After the starting cycle and after the first over-run, the stop bolt is pushed back to its initial position by the force of the spring. The transverse bolt goes back to its original position and thereby limits the control rod travel at full-load flow. On injection pumps fitted with a smoke eliminator, the cold-start function is built into the smoke eliminator housing (see Fig. 100 below). At cold start, the coldstart shaft (Fig. 100 B) is pulled out about 10 m m (3/8"). angle arm of the smoke eliminator and The the stop bolt accompanies the shaft and opens the way for the control rod to move to the start volume. The control rod can only reach the start volume when the governor throttle arm (accelerator)is in the full-load position (pedal fully depressed). To prevent the coldstart shaft from being pulled out when the control rod is not at full load, the leaf spring (Fig. 99) blocks the control rod travel until the control rod has reached the full-load position. The same thing also happens if the cold-start control sticks in the pulled-out position. The control rod cannot then go to either the full-load or start positions after overrun or changing to another gear. This ensures that the engine gets less fuel than it would do at full-load.

,
Full-load volume

pull line released

Starting volume
120309

Fig. 99. Cold start (full-load pin) of cross-bolt type

1 Cross bolt 2 Release bolt 3 ~ o c k e rwasher

4 Spring

5 Stop bolt

Reglerstang

12

I

Fig. 100. Cold-start device, TD70E

A. Normal position

B. Cold-start position

Feed pump
The feed pump is of the plunger-type. The pump camshaft eccentric pushes down the feed pump plunger via the roller (3, Fig. 102)and the thrust bolt (4). This causes a determined amount of fuel to flow from the suction chamber to the discharge side and this causes the plunger spring to tension (intermediate stroke). The thrust bolt, roller and plunger are loosely against each other. Once the eccentric has carried out its stroke, the plunger, push rod and tappet accompany it upwards under pressure from the plunger spring. This causes fuel to be pumped from the pressure chamber across the filter to the fuel injection pump (pump stroke). At the same time, fuel is sucked from the fuel tank via the non-return valve on the suction side to the suction chamber. The feed pump thus pumps almost the whole of the requisite amount of fuel to the fuel injection pump during the pump stroke. On the other hand, however, a smaller amount corresponding to the volume of the thrust bolt is pumped into the discharge chamber during the intermediate stroke. Should the pressure in the fuel line exceed a certain value, the plunger spring pushes the plunger upwards only a part of the full stroke. The fuel amount per stroke will therefore be correspndingly less. The greater the pressure in the fuel line, the less the amount of fuel supplied.

Fuel filter
The fuel filter consists of two filter inserts of the spinon type (box type) connected in parallel. The inserts contain filter paper with a high degree of filtration.

-med~ate stroke

1

11

@
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Pump and suction stroke

Fig. 102. Feed pump Pump camshaft Eccentric Roller Thrust bolt Discharge chamber Plunger Plunger spring Non-return valve (discharge) Suction chamber Non-return valve (suction) Inlet Outlet

VOLVO 115032
Fig. 101. Fuel filter

Injectors
The purpose of the injectors is two-fold. They must atomise fuel in order t o ensure firing and combustion and they must distribute fuel spray in the combustion chamber with the help of air turbulence in order to achieve a balanced mixture of fuel and air. The thrust spring tension, which decides the opening pressure for the injector, is adjusted by means of adjuster washers (6, Fig. 103).

Fig. 103. Injector
1 Banjo screw for leak-off fuel Nozzle holder Washer Delivery pipe connection with rod filter Leak-off channel Washers for adjusting opening pressure

2 3 4
5 6

7 Thrust spring 8 Thrust stop 9 Guide 10 Nozzle sleeve
11 12 Nozzle nut Nozzle needle

Air cleaner
The air cleaner fitted on the F86 and the N7 is of the dry type: the oil-bath type is not fitted. Fig. 104 shows the standard air cleaner for the F86. Special types or air cleaners are fitted in trucks operating where high dust concentration is prevalent. Such an air cleaner on the N7 consists of an insert placed in the bonnet air intakes and are additional t o the standard air cleaner. On the F86 the standard air cleaner is fully replaced by a special type, but because it requires much more space, it is primarily intended for tractive units.

6

7

'8

115 073

Fig. 104. Air cleaner (F86)
1 Cleaner hous~ng

5 Cleaner insert
6 Cover 7 Nut 8 Rubber seal

2 Upper section 3 Connection t o pressure
drop ~ndicator 4 Clamp

Pressure-drop indicator
A pressure-drop indicator has been fitted to indicate the degree of clogging in the air cleaner. When the sighting glass is fully red, then it is time to replace or blow clean the alr cleaner. The pressure-drop indicator is electrically operated on the N7 and actuates a warning lamp on the instrument panel when it is time to replace or clean the cleaner.
i
I

I

Cyclone type cleaner, F86
The cyclone type cleaner on the F86 consists of a standard air cleaner with double filter inserts, the inner one of which is the safety insert. Thespecial air-cleaner on the F86 is also provided with a built-in cyclone cleaner, which consists of a number of vanes placed round the filter housing. These wings are at an angle. Incoming air rotates them rapidly and this separates large dust particles which drop to the bottom of the cleaner and are conveyed out into the atmosphere through a rubber-flap valve. The dust particles that remain are separated from the air when it passes through the outer filter insert. The air continues on through to the inner filter insert but this functions mainly as a safety insert in the case of damage to the outer insert. The safety insert also prevents dust, etc., from getting to the clean side of the air cleaner when cleaning or replacing the outer filter insert.
Fig. 105. Pressure-drop indicator, F 8 6 (standard type)

Fig. 106. Pressure-drop indicator, N 7

Fig. 107. Cyclone filter for F86 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cyclone vanes Outer filter insert Inner filter insert Pressure-drop indicator connection Air cleaner housing Bottom Rubber-flap valve

Cyclone cleaner for N7
Each cyclone cleaner consists of an outer housing with grille (the same grille as that used on the ordinary air intake for the vehicle) and an inner housing with cyclone tubes, rubber seal against the bonnet and rubber valve.

Fig. 109. Cyclone cleaner, location 1 Cyclone cleaner

Fig. 108. Cyclone cleaner, function 1 Cyclone tube

2 Inner housing

3 Cleaned air

Service Procedures
Bleeding the fuel system
1. 2.
Open the bleeder nipple on the fuel filter. Fill the fuel system with fuel by pumping with the feed pump hand primer. When fuel free from air bubbles starts flowing, close the fuel filter bleeder nipple while the fuel is'still flowing out. NOTE! Remember that the starting heater is engaged at the same time as the starter motor. You can spare the batteries, if the starter motor is used, by turning over the starter motor only for short periods during the bleeding. In addition to the filter on the TD70D engine, the injection pump should also be bled by slackening the pressure equalizer several turns.

Injection pump
Removing the injection pump
1. 2.
Clean thoroughly the injection pump, the pipe lines and the part of the engine nearest the pump. Disconnect the delivery pipes and other lines and controls to the pump. Fit protective caps on all connections to prevent dirt getting into the pump. Undo the bolts (12, Fig. II I ) on the pump coupling to enable the rear flange to be separated from the intermediate part of the pump coupling. NOTE! The nuts must not be turned when removing or installing.

3.

4.

Remove the pump retaining bolts and lift off the pump. Observe due care not to damage the steel discs.

Fig. 110. Bleeding the fuel system

5. Send the pump to a diesel workshop for servicing.

Fig. 112. Flywheel graduation marking Fig. 1 11. Pump coupling Steel discs Front flange Washer Washer Nut Bolt Intermediate part Bolt TD70D 1a19' B.T.D.C. TD70E 20-21' B.T.D.C.

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Nut Rear flange Nut Bolt Bolt Nut Clamp bolt

112). Make sure that the sighting line from the mark on the flywheel over the pointer to the eye is at right angles from the flywheel. If this is viewed from the side, it is possible to err a few degrees. 3. Mount the pump on the bracket after having released the clamp bolt (15, Fig. II1) and push the coupling forwards on the shaft. Mount the pump coupling rear flange on the pump shaft and rotate it so that the line-up mark is opposite the line-up markon the pump end adjusting plate (Fig. 1 13).

4.

Overhauling the injection pump
Concerning the instructions for overhauling the injection pump and governor, refer to the repair and adjusting data issued by the Bosch Factory or its representatives on the respective markets. If a workshop does not have its own specially trained personnel for repairing injection pumps or the requisite testing equipment, the injection pump and governor must be sent to a Bosch workshop for the overhaul.

Installing/adjusting pump on the engine

the

injection

Before installing the pump, make sure that it is in good condition and, if necessary have it tested and approved. Do not remove the protective plugs until the pipes are ready to be connected up. Check that the pump and governor are filled with oil to the correct level. Adjustment is as follows: 1. Turn over the engine in its normal direction of rotation until both valves for IVo. 1 cylinder are closed (compression stroke). Once both the valves are closed, continue to turn over the engine to the adjustment graduation on the flywheel (see under "Specifications") is opposite the pointer on the flywheel casing (Fig.

2.

Fig. 1 13. Line-up marks, injection pump - pump coupling

Join the intermediate part of the pump coupling to the flange on the pump by pushing back the coupling onto the drive shaft for the timing gears. Make sure that the dished washers are placed between the rear flange on the coupling and steel discs. Tighten the bolts (12). IMPORTANT! The nuts must not be tightened when removing or installing. Finally lock the front flange to the drive shaft by tightening the clamp bolt (15). Make sure that the steel discs are flat in position. Check the adjustment, in other words, the flywheel adjustment and the line-up marks between the pump and coupling by turning back the engine a half turn and thereafter in its normal direction of rotation (until firing position for No. 1 cylinder) until the respective line-up marks coincide.

Fig. 114. Adjusting the speed 1 Stop screw, high idle 2 Stop screw, low idle

7. Screw tight the delivery pipes. Make sure that
they are not fitted obliquely and tighten up the nuts well. Use an open-end spanner. Connect up the fuel lines and a vacuum line (if fitted).

8.

Bleed the fuel system according to the instructions given on page 67.

Seal on injection pump Checking and adjusting the speed
Low idle Warm up the engine before adjusting. Check that the accelerator pedal control pulls the injection pump throttle arm towards the idle position, when the pedal is released, likewise that the throttle arm presses against the rnax. stop when the accelerator pedal is pushed to the bottom. Adjust the control if necessary. 1. 2. Run the engine at low idle and check the speed. Adjust the low idle to 7.9-8.8 r/s (475-525 r/m) by screwing in or out the stop screw (2, Fig. 114) for the throttle arm. In addition to having a lead-seal on the max, speed stop (Fig. 1141, the injection pump must also be leadsealed with a view to the fuel quantity (smokedensity). Certain countries have legally stipulated the max. values for smoke desnity. In Sweden, the smoke density must not exceed 4.5 Bosch units or 60 Hartridge units. This reference to the units points directly to the instrument used for the measuring. Instructions carrying out the tests are issued by the makers these instruments.

" ;

High idle The high idle stop for max. speed is lead-sealed.This seal must not be broken by other than specially qualified personnel. Warm up the engine before checking the speed. 1. Run the engine off-load at rnax. speed. Check that the throttle arm on the injection pump can go against the max. speed stop. Check the speed. If necessary, adjust the stop ( 1, Fig. 114) for max. speed so that a speed of 42.5-44.2 r/s (2550-2650 r/m) is obtained. Lead-seal the adjustment.

Note: Exhaust-emission legislation is not the same in every country, but even where no such legislation exists concerning rnax. smoke density, the smoke level should be as low as possible from the viewpoint of the environment. After the test has been apprdved, lead-seal according to the Fig. and lead-seal between the bolts for the side covers and the diaphragm housing cover on injection pumps with smoke eliminator. Only one smoke density seal is allowed on each injection pump. The cold start is lead-sealed (Fig. 1 15 b) concerning the injection pump without smoke eliminator (TD70D).

2.

Remove the pressure on the diaphragm fully. Move back the throttle arm and then again to max. position. Adjust low rnax. flow by screwing in the adjuster screw (2).Screwing it in towards the control rod cuts down the flow. Check the cut-out points, see Diesel Test Standards. If the cut-out points are not according to for the standards, adjust the bushing ( I) the diaphragm rod. A higher cut-out point is obtained by screwing the bushing upwards.

Fig. 1 15a. Smoke-density seal, TD7OE

Fig. 116. Smoke eliminator
1 Diaphragm rod bushing 2 Adjuster screw for low max. flow 3 Stop screw for high max. flow

Fig. 115b. Smoke-density seal, TD70D

Check the measurements according to Fig. 117 and the cold-start function. The throttle arm should be at max. position when engaging the cold-start. If necessary, bend or displace the spring tongue. 7. Lead-seal the side covers and the cover over the diaphragm housing.

Adjusting the smoke eliminator
Note! This adjustment is to be carried out on a pump test bench. 1. Adjust the throttle arm to max, position. Force down the diaphragm with compressed air (0.4 kp/cm2 = 57 lbf/in2) so that the screw (2, Fig. 116) goes against the stop (3) for max. flow. Adjust high max. flow, see Diesel Test Standards. Adjust with the stop screw (3).
Fig. 1 17. Leaf spring (meas. in mm)

2.

Injectors
Replacing the injectors
A.
Remove the injector. If necessary use puller 2683 with 2991.

Check the nozzle thoroughly. This can be suitably done with a pocket lamp (with magnifying glass) a nozzle microscope. The nozzle sleeve can also be examined under a microscope. If the seat is intended, the needle must be replaced together with a sleeve or, if the damage is slight, it can be lapped in a lapping or nozzle grinding machine. 4.
. . .

26

Check the other parts. Clean and if necessary replace the rod filter. Dip the nozzle parts in clean diesel or testing oil. Assemble the nozzle using an adjuster washer of the same thickness as the original one for the opening pressure.

5.
6.

Testing
The test is carried out in a nozzle tester.

Opening pressure

Two different pressures apply: one for a run-in injector (see under "Specifications" - "Opening pressure"), and one which applies to a new or reconditioned injector with new thrust spring (adjusting pressure). The pressure for a new or reconditioned injector is higher than that for a run-in injector because a certain margin must be allowed for fatigue on the thrust spring.
Fig. 1 18. Removing an injector

'lean the 'Opper the injector.

'Ieeve surface in

'Ontact

with

With a pressure gauge connected, press the lever on the nozzle tester slowly downwards until the nozzle opens and releases oil. Read off the opening pressure at that moment. If it does not agree with the pressure stipulated in the specifications, it must be adjusted. This is done by means of adjuster washers.

Fit the new injector. Torque-tighten the nuts to 20 Nm (2 kpm = 15 Ibfft).

3.

Check for leakage.

Overhauling the injectors
1.
2. Clean the outside of the injector. Disassemble the injector. Pull the nozzle out of the nozzle sleeve and place the parts In a deresinous fluid. If several nozzles are cleaned at the same time, make sure that the nozzle needles and sleeves which belong together are not mixed up with other nozzles and sleeves. To avoid this, therefore, the nozzles should be placed on a nozzle rack or separate reseptacles. B must be available when about to clean a nozzle. Use cleaning petrol, diesel oil or varnolene as cleaning agent.

5
%
\

<.

,

,a
VOLVO 117377

3. A suitable nozzle tool such as Bosch EF 8486

Fig. 1 19. Adjusting the opening Pressure

Spray pattern In the chatterless area, the oil is not atomized but appears in the form of a distorted spray pattern. At a pump speed of 4-6 strokedsec., the spray pattern should be similar and the oil atomized. After completing the test, plug the pipe connections and nozzle points with protective caps.

Changing injector copper sleeves in the vehicle
1. Drain the coolant. 2. Remove the injector.
3. Pull out the copper sleeve with extractor 2 18 1.

4. Remove the O-ring seal in the upper part of the cylinder head. Clean the O-ring groove and the sealing surface between the cylinder head and copper sleeve. Fit a new O-ring in the cylinder head. 5. Remove the inspection cover on the flywheel casing and turn over the engine until the piston in the cylinder where the copper sleeve has been replaced is at bottom dead centre. Fit the inspection cover on the flywheel casing. 6. Fit the copper sleeve with tool 6008.

Fig. 120. Installing a copper sleeve

The indication on the sleeve (see arrow) should point upwards between the valves (when fitting the sleeve). This recess is only on stocked sleeves.

7. Unscrew the tool widening pin and place the new
copper sleeve on the tool. Screw out the nut for the tool spindle.
8. Screw in the widening pin.

9. Oil the outside of the sleeve and push the sleeve
and tool into the cylinder head. Check that the indication mark for the sleeve (recess) points straight upwards (according to Fig. 120). 10. Move down the widening tool with the injector retaining nuts until the copper sleeve bottoms in the cylinder head. 11. Hold securely the widening tool spindle and screw down the large nut. The widening pin is then pressed through the lower part of the copper sleeve.

12. Screw down the nut until the tool spindle releases from the sleeve. Then pull up the spindle and remove the remainder of the tool from the cylinder head. 13. Fit the injector.
14. Fill with coolant. 15. Check for leakage. Note: If the cylinder head contact surface is damaged,
it can be repaired to a certain extent with the special

tool shown overleaf.

Changing the injection copper sleeves
(Cylinder head removedl
The contact surface for the copper sleeve in the cylinder head can be more accurately checked by removing the cylinder head. It is most important that the contact surface is in good condition. If there is rust and carbon deposits on the contact surface, remove these with cleaning tool 6048. The surface must be absolutely clean. Note that the cleaning tool 6048 must only be used on the removed cylinder heads, otherwise there is risk of rust, carbon and metal particles getting into the engine. Otherwise the same method as for changing a copper sleeve in the vehicle applies.

Feed pump
Disassembling the feed pump
1. Screw tight the pump to a mounting plate and fix the plate in a vice. valve.

2. Unscrew the hand primer and remove the suction
3.
4. Remove the plug for the delivery valve and then the valve. Remove the plug for the pump plunger. Remove the spring, plunger and thrust bolt. with a small screwdriver, etc. Then drive out the stop pin and remove the roller and spring. 6. Clean all parts in clean diesel oil.

5. Press in the roller and hold it there in position

Inspecting the feed pump
Examine the feed pump valve seats. If the sealing surface is damaged, it can very often be adjusted with a grinder and grinding paste. Examine the sealing surface on the valves. Replace damaged valves. Check the plunger seal in the liner and the plunger spring tension.

Checking the fuel feed pressure
Connect the banjo nipple 6066 and pressure gauge 6065 to the output on the discharge side of the fuel filter. In other words, the pressure is measured after the fuel has passed through the filter insert. Run the engine at low idle for the check The feed pressure must not go below 10 kPa (1.0 kp/cm2 = 14 lbf/in2) (TD70D = 6 kPa = 0.6 kp/cm2= 8.5 lbf/in2). Read off the pressure gauge within 1 minute.

Check the other parts and replace those that are damaged or worn.

Assembling the feed pump
Observe the greatest cleanliness and wash the parts in clean diesel oil before assemling them. Fit protective plugs on the connections if the pump is not to be installed immediately.

Fig. 122. Plunger-type feed pump

Fig. 121. Checking.the feed pressure

1 Outlet valve 2 Inlet valve

3 Plunger 4 Tappet

Fuel filters
Replacing the fuel filters
1. Clean round the edge of the filters' cover. Unscrew and scrap the filters cartridges. If necessary use 2923.

2.

Fig. 123. Removing the fuel filters Fig. 124.. Fluid gauge, connecting-up for checking pressure-drop indicator

3.

Screw on the new filter cartridge by hand until the gasket makes contact with the cover and then, still by hand, a further half turn. Bleed the fuel system. Start the engine and check round the filters for leakage.

4. 5.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Pressure-drop indicator Measuring scale Vacuum T-piece Hoses Vacuum

If the lamp and circuit are in good condition and the lamp still does not light within the pressure-drop range indicated, replace the pressure-drop indicator.

Air cleaner
Checking the pressure-drop indicator
1. Connect the pressure-drop indicator according to Fig. 124. Suck in the hose (pos. 6). The pressure-drop indicator should give a max. reading at 440-560 mm watercolumn. Replace the pressure-drop indicator if faulty.

Replacing the filter insert, F86 (normal type)
The dry-filter insert is of the throw-away type. 1. Unscrew and remove the pipe between the filter and turbo-compressor or between the filter and shutter housing, depending on engine type. Release the clamps. Lift up the upper section. Remove the filter insert. Clean the filter container and the upper part thoroughly. Fit a new filter insert. The dry-filter insert cannot be washed. Make sure that the gaskets are securely fitted and that the insert is properly clamped so that air cannot flow past at the side. Fit the upper section. Re-fit the remaining removed parts and set the pressure-drop indicator in function.

2.

2.

3.

The pressure-drop indicator on the N7 is electrically operated. Even this indicator can be tested according to the foregoing. But before doing so, check to make sure that the warning lamp and circuit are in good condition by switching on the switch under the lamp. The lamp should then go on. If not, check for a fault in the lamp or the circuit.

4.

Cleaning the air cleaner with double filter inserts
When the sighting glass on the pressure-drop indicator is completely red (note this with the engine switched off since the indicator locks when the glass is red), clean the outer filter insert or replace it. Normally, it is not necessary to replace the inner filter insert. However, should the sighting glass indicate red even after cleaning or replacement of the outer filter insert, then this is a sign that the inner filter insert is also clogged. The inner insert may not be cleaned but must be replaced. Otherwise, the inner insert should be replaced when the outer insert shows cracks or holes in the filter paper or seals. Also when the outer insert has been washed 3-6 times. To prevent the inner insert from becoming clogged when removing the outer insert, make sure that no dirt or dust gets into the inner insert. Clean the inside of the cleaner housing before fitting the outer insert. If the inner insert has to be placed, the entire cleaner housing syould be cleaned. Make sure that no dust gets into the cleaner outlet studs. Before starting the engine, re-set the pressure-drop indicator by depressing the button or rubber on the end of the indicator.

side the insert and out until the water is no longer dirty. Allow the cleaner insert to dry (max. 80°C = 176OF) before fitting it back in the air cleaner. Compressed air must not be used for drying the insert. It is important that the cleaning is done thoroughly. Check the filter insert for cracks by shining through the insert from the inside with a lamp. If the filter paper is cracked, the insert must be replaced.

Replacing the filter insert, N7
1. 2. 3. 4. Remove the wing nut for the air cleaner cover. Remove the cover, remove the wing nut for the insert and lift out the insert. Clean the inside of the air cleaner. Check the cleaner insert. If slightly dirty, the insert can be blown clean with compressed air (max. 6 kp/cm2 = 105 lbf/in2). Note that the air must be blown from inside the insert and out. After the cleaning procedure, check thoroughly the insert, e.g., by shining through with a lamp from the inside to look for any cracks and other damage. If the insert is damaged, it must be replaced. Fit the cleaner insert. Make sure that -the insert gasket fits properly against the bottom of the air cleaner housing otherwise there is risk of the filter being fitted wrongly. Hold the insert pressed against the air cleaner housing inner end and screw on the filter wing nut. Tighten the wing nut well by hand, at least 3 turns from the first contact against the plastic bushing. Fit the air cleaner cover. Make sure that it fits well all round. Tighten up the cover wing nut well.

Cleaning the outer cleaner insert
There are two different methods for cleaning the outer insert. If the filter paper indicates cracks, etc., or if the outer filter has been washed 3-6 times, it must be replaced. Method 1: Use compressed air (max. 7 kp/cm2 = 100 lbf/in2) and blow through the insert from inside and out. Move the air nozzle up and down in the longitudinal direction of the cleaner while turning the cleaner at the same time. Method 2: Clean the insert in a non-foaming washing detergent, e.g., Donaldson D- 1400 or corresponding, approx. 15 grammes per litre water. Allow the cleaner insert to remain in the 35-40°C (95-105OF) warm washing solution for 15 minutes, and then rotate the insert back and forth for about 2 minutes (to enable loose particles to drop off). If the insert is oily and/or dirty in any other way, the steeping time must be increased from 15 minutes to 2-3 hours. Then flush the filter through with clean water (max. 3 kp/cm2 = 43 lbf/in2 pressure) from in-

5.

6.

7.

Installing the complete air cleaner, N7
1. When installing the complete air cleaner, check that the air cleaner housing guide pin guides down into the hole of the retaining bracket which is placed about 80 mm (6") from the lower end of the bracket. This guide is necessary in order to locate the cleaner exactly.

Fit the retaining band and tension tight the air cleaner with eccenter lock. Adjust the eccenter lock to obtain as tight a fit as possible without deforming the filter housing. Connect the rubber bellows between the cleaner and turbo. Push in the bellowsabout 30 mm ( 1.2") on the respective studs and place the hose clamps about 5 mm ( 0 . 4 )from the respective ends of the rubber bellows. If necessary, adjust the hose clamp which clamps the bellows tight against the connection studs on the turbo by folding down the lever (corresponding locked clamps) and then by tighten the tensioning screw so that a firm band is obtained. If the lever cannot be folded downwards, slacken the screw the necessary number of turns. Make sure when installing the sealing collar for the intake opening that it is pressed evenly against the stud.

VOLVO 108 412

Fig. 125. Installing the air cleaner

Cyclone cleaner insert, N7
Normally, it is not necessary to clean the cyclone cleaner insert. The cleaner insert, on the other hand is flushed with water, but it first must be removed from the vehicle. Dust separated from the air here runs out through the rubber valve when the engine stops. By pressing on the valve, e.g., at the daily check on the vehicle, one can make sure that no dust remains in the valve. Note! The function of the rubber valve to act as a non-return valve is decisive for the function of the cyclone cleaner insert. It must not take in air and it is, therefore, important that a damaged valve is replaced et the first servicing opportunity.
Fig. 126. Rapid emptying of rubber valve

Fig. 127. Cyclone cleaner insert for N7

Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems
Construction and Function

F86 - 497630 above means F86 with automatic transmission

General
The intake system consists of an intake pipe, starting heater(TD70E) and connection pipe between the starting heater and the turbo-compressor. There are different kinds of connection pipes to suit the different types of vehicles. The air intake on the F86 is placed behind the cab with the intake opening level with the roof. On the N7, air is taken in through a duct cast in the bonnet. This duct branches out of the intake opening in the sides of the bonnet. The exhaust system is made up of an exhaust manifold, a front-section exhaust pipe, silencer and tail pipe. The exhaust manifold can be divided into a front and rear section sealed together by means of piston-ring type seals. As an alternative to the standard silencer, there is also a silencer which has been approved as a spark extinguisher. On F86s fitted with the TD70D used for special purposes the exhaust pipe can be fitted vertically.

Fig. 128. Intake system, F86
1 Protective cap 2 Stack 3 Bracket

4 Air cleaner 5 Turbo intake

Fig. 129. Intake system, N7

Exhaust pressure governor
The exhaust pressure governor is to the exhaust system immediately after the exhaust turbine in the turbo-unit. Its function is to act as an exhaust brake when braking the vehicle and also to warm up the engine when starting and during idling by pulling a load on the eninge. Loading is achieved by the exhaust pressure governor constricting the exhaust flow so that the engine must work against a backpressure and this increases the combustion temperature. The higher the combustion temperature is, the more effective will be the combustion. This means less white smoke and smelly exhaust gases.

closes off the outlet opening on the diffusor almost wholly except for a few minor holes (2 1). This causes the engine exhaust gases to act as a brake and the pressure rises. At low idling and when warming up the engine, that is, at low speeds with small exhaust quantities, the exhaust gases are able to flow out through the small holes (21) at such a rate that the exhaust gas backpressure does not rise to any higher values. When the speed increases and the exhaust gases increase, the holes (2 1) are insufficient to keep the pressure low so that the pressure rises until the shutter opens. The shutter opens exactly enough for the force from the exhaust gases to balance the force from the compressed air. The compressed air, which issupplied form the vehicle brake system, is operated by a solenoid. At low idle and when the engine is being run warm the exhaust pressure governor is operated by a rocker switch on the dashboard. When the exhaust pressure governor is used as an exhaust brake, engagement is by means of a foot switch.

Construction and Function
The exhaust pressure governor consits of an air-operated piston which is connected to a shutter (19, Fig. 131). When the governor is switched on, air under pressure is supplied to the piston (13, connection C) and the piston is pushed into its inner position in the cylinder. When the piston is in this position, the shutter

Fig. 130. Exhaust pressure governor (11, shutter housing (2) turbo-compressor (3) and

Fig. 13 1. Exhaust pressure governor (shutter in rest position) A. From exhaust turbine B. To exhaust manifold C. Connection for compressed-air line 1 Seal 2 Hole for cooling air 3 Bushings 4 Return spring 5 Piston rod 6 Piston sealing ring 7 Washer 8 Nut 9 O-ring 10 Lock nut 11 Cylinder cover 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Washer Nipple Piston Cylinder Wear washer Bearing housing Shutter housing cover Shutter Shutter housing Holes for low speed Diffusor

Fig.

132. Exhaust pressure governor, function

A. L o w idle and when running engine warm Exhaust pressure: 4C-100 kPa (0.4-1.0 kp/cm2 = 6-14 Ibf/in2) depending on speed

B. Exhaust gas braking Exhaust gas pressure: max. approx. 300 kPa (3.0 kp/cm2 = 43 Ibf/in2) Air pressure: 65C-800 kPa

Starting heater
The starting heater is electrically operated. Its function is t o facilitate starting and to reduce exhaust smoke when starting in cold weather. It consists of three band elements connected in series and is placed between the connection pipe from the turbo-compressor and the engine intake manifold. The output is approx. 2.7 kW. The starting heater is engaged with the ignition key, 4 positions: which can be turned to 0-drive-glow-start. When the key is turned to"glow", current flows to a cut-in relay which in its turn cuts

in the current to the starting heater. This heats up the element to a red glow (approx. 700°C = 1292OF). The element then heats up the surrounding air in the intake manifold. The ignition key is then pushed in and turned further to the right to "Start" and this engages the starter motor. To prevent the engine from stopping again immediately after starting because of the cold air flowing in, it is better to move the key back to "Glow" for continued heating up of the air. "Glow" can be engaged on this occasion for several minutes without damaging the starting heater. The engine inlet air cools the element during this time.

Fig. 133. Starting heater

Service Procedures
Checking the starting heater
Check the starting heater with a voltmeter. Turn the ignition key to "Glow". The voltage drop across each of the outer band elements should be approx. 8 volts. If thewoltmeter does not indicate any voltage or if the voltage drop is low, check the following:
-

heater and cause an explosion. The consequences of this could be serious not only to persons but also to the engine components such as the compressor wheel in the turbo, the air intake, etc. In cases of emergency where it is suspected that the starting heater is not functioning, starting spray may be used but on this occasion it is absolutely essential that the wiring to the starting heater is disconnected and the starting heater itself is not warm (feel the element housing with your hand). Difficulties in starting even when the starting heater is functioning are often due to far too short a warmingup time: up to 70 sec. should be used for this at ambient temperatures from -1 5 C (5OF) and downwards. O If the engine does not start after the prescribed preheating, check to make sure that the injection pump is getting fuel and that the fuel is free from air bubbles before making the next attempt at starting.

Battery voltage. If necessary charge the battery. Electric cables, poor contacts or breakages. Ignition key: Check by wiring past the ignition key. Relay. Check by wiring past the relay with a heavy-duty electric cable.

-

If the voltage drop across the starting heater is still not the correct voltage, replace the heater. Warning! Gas (ether, e.g.1 must not be used to assist in starting the engine. All kinds of starting spray, ether, gas, which is sprayed into the air intake can be ignited by the hot starting

Exhaust pressure governor
The first thing that should be done when checking the function of the exhaust pressure governor is to check the exhaust braking function. Increase engine speed to approx. 1500 r / m and engage the exhaust brake with the foot contact. The noise from the engine should then alter noticeably. If it does not, discontinue the test and check the electric circuit for the exhaust pressure governor. If the electric circuit is functioning properly, connect up a pressure gauge to the governor air intake. Check the air supply. If the governor still does not function when engaged, remove it from the engine.

Disassembling the exhaust pressure governor
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Remove the nuts (8, 134)and lift off the cover Fig. (1 1). Remove the lock nut (10). Remove the cylinder together with the piston. Lift out the return spring (4), the bearing housing (17) and the wear washer (16). Remove the shutter housing and the piston rod. Remove the washer and seal (1)from the bearing housing. Use a screwdriver and remove the washer from the seal.

Function test:
After removing the exhaust pressure governor from the engine, apply an air pressure of between 6.5-8.0 kp/cm2(92-1 14 lbf /in2) to the exhaust pressure governor pressure intake. Checkthe length of stroke which should be min. 32.5 mrn (1.28"). Release the compressed air. The shutter should then return to rest position within 1 second. The clearance between shutter and shutter housing is max. 0.3 mm (0.0 12"). The clearance between shutter and diffusor, when exhaust braking, is max. 0.3 mm (0.012").

120 321

Fig. 134. Exhaust pressure governor (also shown on page

1 Seal 3 Bushings 4 Return spring 6 Piston sealing ring 8 Nut 10 Lock nut 1 1 Cylinder cover 12 Washer

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Nipple Piston Cylinder Wear washer Bearing housing Shutter housing cover Shutter

6.

Using drift 6068 remove the bushings from the bearing housing.

3.

Fit the bearing housing bushings with drift 6068. Check that the bushing slots come opposite each other. Fit the. seal and washer in the bearing housing. Lock the washer. Assemble the shutter housing cover and shutter housing and fit the piston rod.

4.

5.

Fig. 135. Removing the bushings

7. 8.

Remove the piston from the cylinder. Take care not to damage the inside of the cylinder. Carefully remove the seal from the piston. Use a screwdriver and pliers for this purpose. Clean and check all the parts. 6.
Fig. 137. Installing the piston ring

9.

Fit the bearing housing.

Assembling the governor
1.

exhaust

pressure

Fit the piston seal on the piston. Observe due care with the grooves on the inside of the seal to make sure they are not damaged. Fit the piston in the cylinder. Use a piston ring compressor (60-120 mm = 2.4-4.7") and a drift. Be careful not to damage the cylinder.

2.

Fig. 138. Installing the bearing housing

7.

Fig. 136. lnstalling the piston

Fit the wear washer and spring. Fit the cylinder together with the piston. Tighten the piston lock nuttoatorqueof 10-11 Nm(1.0-1.1 kpm=7-8 IbfFt).

-. .

Solenoid for exhaust pressure governor
.
..

....

When the exhaust pressure governor engages, the shutter in the governor must not strike against the diffusor too hard.

A special washer ( I , Fig. 141) for constricting the air
has been placed therefore in the angle nipple at the in!et of the solenoid. This washer causes the shutter to close in a slow, smooth way and it thereby reduces the risk of possible damage to the internal parts of the governor.
.. . . .. .

. .

.

.

-

For this reason, always check the location of the washer in the event of damage to the exhaust pressure governor shutter, etc. NOTE! It is important that the washer for constricting the air flow is placed in the correct angle nipple and that it is not omitted. It is easy to lose this washer since it is fitted loose in the nipple. Incorrect location of the washer in the control line angle nipple will still delay the closing of the shutter but, because it is incorrectly placed, it will delay the return of the shutter and this in its turn will give rise to dense exhaust smoke and poor engine pulling power.

Fig. 139. Installing the wear washer

Fig. 140. Tightening piston lock nut

Fig. 14 1. Solenoid

8 Fit the O-ring in the cover. Fit the cover. Tighten .
the nuts to a torque of 4-5 Nm (0.4-0.5 kpm = 3-4 Ibfft).

1 Constriction washer, part number 1507 313-3 2 Feed line 3 Control line 4 Evacuation

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ad!d 6u!iua/\ t. yuei uo!suedx3 E ad!d MOlJJaAO Z ~ole!petlL

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wajsAs 6u!loo3 92 d n o ~ ~

General
The main components of the cooling system are: radiator, fan, pump, thermostat housing with thermostats and expansion tank. Because of space requirements, the external cooling system on the F86 differs in construction from that on the N7, see Figs. 142 and 143. The principle behind the engine's internal cooling system with a channel running the length of the cylinder block, coolant circulating round the cylinder liners and up through the cylinder heads, for cooling valves and injectors and finally coolant flow to the thermostat housing is the same irrespective of differences in the external cooling system.

Expansion tank and air-separation tank, N7
The expansion tank and the air-separation tank are placed on the right-hand side of the cowl. The bottom of the expansion tank is connected to the air-separation tank, which in its turn is connected partly to the heating system and partly to the engine at the coolant pump inlet. When the engine is running, air is separated due t o the connection between the thermostat housing and the air-separation tank. Air bubbles in the air-separation tank rise to the upper part of the expansion tank where there is normally an air cushion. Re-circulation from the heating system and the expansion tank takes place via the connection to the coolant pump intake side. 'The air-separation tank contains an electronic level sender which gives warning of too low coolant level in the system.

Fig. 143. Cooling system, N7

1. 2. 3. 4.

Coolant pump Venting hose Heating system Air-separation tank

5. Expansion tank 6. Heating system venting pipe 7. Heating control valve

Thermostats
The T D 7 0 engine has t w o thermostats. Both have an opening temperature of 76OC (16g°F). The capillary tubes in the thermostats contain wax. When the temperature rises, the heat causes the wax to increase in volume and the thermostat valve opens for coolant circulation through the radiator. At the same time the by-pass valve shuts off the passage for re-circulation inside the engine. When the coolant is cold, the thermostat valve is closed and the by-pass valve open. Under certain conditions, replacing the thermostats because of ambient temperature may be recommended. In the event of extremely high ambient temperatures, one thermostat which opens at 76OC ( 16g°F) together with one which opens at 66OC ( 150°F) alternative or t w o thermostats which open at 66OC ( 150°F): and at very low ambient temperatures there are t w o which open at 8 I 0 C ( 1 78OF).

Fig. 144. Thermostat 1 Thermostat valve 2 Retainer 3 Cartridge 4 By-pass valve

Coolant pump
The coolant pump is of the impeller type. It is driven by twin belts from the crankshaft pulley. The drive belts are adjusted by means of an adjustable tensioning pulley.

105829

Fig. 145. Function of thermostats during heating-up period

A. By-pass pipe for the return of coolant within the engine.

115055

Fig. 147. Coolant pump 1 2 3 4 5 Pulley Circlip Hub Shaft Front bearing 6 Intermediate bearing 7 Rear bearing

8 Pump housing 9 Deflector
10 11 12 13 Impeller Wear ring sling& ring Spacer sleeve Fig. 146. Thermostat function, full circulation

105 830

Thermostat-controlled fan, N7
The thermostat fan consists of a fan and a drive shaft linked together by means of a fluid coupling. This coupling consists of a drive plate (8) placed in a coupling housing (9). A 0.1 mm (0.004") air column is to be found on either side of the drive plate. During full engagement of the fan, the air columns are filled with oil (silicon oil). During driving, the oil flow can flow in either of two ways and it is the temperature round the bi-metal washer which decides which way the oil flows and thereby the extent the fan is engaged. At low temperatures, the valve (6) is closed and oil flows from the coupling housing (9) via the return channel (3) to the oil space in the cover (2). This reduces fan speed to about 1/ 4 of the speed for the drive shaft ( 1 I), which corresponds to the minimum degree of engagement. At higher temperatures, the valve (6) opens and oil then flows through the valve opening t o the drive plate (8) in the coupling housing. The more the valve opens, the more the fan engages. However, the fan speed cannot be higher than 95% of the drive shaft speed, and 5 % constitutes slipping. The fan control function can be maintained by means of t w o inhibitor lugs (10). These are pushed into recesses in the drive shaft. Avoid driving for lengthy periods with the fan blocked otherwise there is risk of damaging the fan bearing.

Fig. 148. Control device a. Oil channel

1 2 3 4 5 6

Temperature-sensitwe bl-metal washer Cover Oil scraper Control pin Valve Intermediate plate and valve arm

7 Dr~veplate

8 Ball bearrng 9 Coupling hous~ng 10 Inhibitor lugs (two, placed diametrically)
11 Drive shaft

Service Procedures
Clogged radiator (reduced through flow) Poorly tensioned drive belts Clogged cooling system Faulty thermostats Faulty temperature gauge Incorrectly adjusted injection pump with respect to dwell angle.

Always use anti-freeze recommended by Volvo (according to British Standard BS315 1, Type B, with copper inhibitor). Other fluids can reduce the coolant performance of the engine due to foam, etc. The coolant system is filled at the factory with 40% anti-freeze and 60% water. This mixture provides protection against freezing down to -25OC (-13OF) and can be used during the first winter period providing that the protection against frost is adequate. The coolant should thereafter be changed once a year, suitably in the autumn. The anti-freeze has a double function: it must protect the cooling system against damage from freezing, and it must protect it against rust. For this reason, never use a mlxture of coolant which has less than 40% anti-freeze in the winter and 30% in the summer. At lower temperatures more anti-freeze is required as follows: Cooling system Requisite amount in litres (gals.) capacity, litres (gals.) for protection against frost down to: -25OC (-1 3OF) -30°C (-22OF) -40°C (-40°F)

Too low coolant temperature
Too low coolant temperature may be due to: Faulty thermostats Faulty temperature gauge.

Checking radiator for clogging
Make sure that the radiator tubular system is not clogged on the outside with insects or other impurities which can prevent air from flowing through. Impurities can be flushed off with water. If the tubular system discs are dented because of flying gravel, put them right. Check to make sure that sealing strips between fan shroud and radiator and, in certain cases, between the radiator and front end, are not loose, etc.

Adjusting the drive belts
approx. 3 0 approx. 12 approx. 13 approx. 16 (16.6) (2.6) (3.5) The lowest protection against freezing, -56OC (-60°F) is obtained if the system is filled with 18 litres (4 gals.) glycol. Replace belts which have become oily, worn or damaged in any other way. Replace both belts at the same time. The belts are tensioned by means of the tensioning pulley. The tension on the belts is correct if it is possible to depress the belts about 10 mm (318") midway. Tighten the tensioner nut to a torque of 120 Nm ( 12 kpm = 88 Ibfft).

Rustproofing
In warm countries where anti-freeze is not required, the system must be filled with water and rustfroofing, Volvo 277 356, or corresponding. The rustproofing supplied by Volvo is packed in bags of 1 13 grammes (4 OZS.) which is sufficient for 8-10 litres (2 gals.) of water. The coolant must be mixed before being added to the system.

Filling with coolant
Mix the anti-freeze with water to the right quantity in a clean, separate vessel, which can be used for filling the cooling system. Then fill through the filler opening in the expansion tank. Do not fill so rapidly that air pockets form in the system. Give the air an opportunity of flowing out through the filler opening.

Draining /filling coolant
The cooling system on the N7 is drained with the help of drain hose 6049, see page 22.

The engine must be switched off when filling the cooling system
The engine must not be started until the cooling system has been bled and fully re-filled. During the filling, the heater control should be at WARM.

Excessive coolant temperature
Excessive coolant temperature can be due to: Low coolant level

Coolant losses
There are two types of coolant losses: Coolant losses during driving Coolant losses when stopping a hot engine. Coolant losses during driving may be due to a leaking cooling system or air or combustion gases are forced into the cooling system and eject the coolant through the delivery valve. The fault may be in the air compressor for the brake system or in leaking cylinder head gaskets. Loss of coolant when stopping a hot engine may be due to a faulty delivery value.

NOTE! The pressure gauge relief valve (adjusting knob) must always be screwed out before the test in order to prevent overpressure from arising. Increase the pressure by screwing in the valve.

Thermostats
Removing the thermostats
1. 2. Drain sufficient coolant. Remove the upper connection pipe from the thermostat housing. On the F-truck, the expansion tank must be removed first. Lift out the thermostats.

Checking the temperature gauge
Remove the temperature gauge sender and lower it into heated water. Use a thermometer and read off the temperature of the water. Compare this with the reading on the temperature gauge. The light-grey field concerns a temperature range between about 60-90°C ( 140- 194OF).

3.

Checking the thermostats
1. Lower the thermostats into heated water. With a thermometer check the temperature when the thermostats start opening and when they are fully open. Marking 76 The thermostats should start opening at 74-76OC (165-1 69OF) Fully open at. . . . . . . . . . 84-88OC (183-190°F) Check the closing function and make sure that the thermostats are fitted tightly against their seats. Remove any rust flakes, deposits, etc. Damaged thermostats or thermostats which do not maintain the opening temperature indicated must be replaced.

2.

Leakage check
Connect pressure tester 2680 to the expansion tank. Adjust the pressure-redcution valve to 0.5 kp/cm2 (7 lbf /in2). Plug the drain line from the delivery valve, if a separate one is fitted. Ease up on the pressure and close the cock so that any leakage can be discovered by seeing if the pressure gauge drops. If the leakage is difficult to trace, drain the coolant and apply air to the while putting soapy water on hose connections, drain cocks, etc., until the leakage is discovered.

Installing the thermostats
Use new seals when installing the thermostats. Fit the seals on the thermostats. Place the thermostats in the thermostat housing and fit the upper connection pipe as well as the expansion tank (applies to F-truck).

Coolant pump
Removing the coolant pump
1.
Fig. 150. Tool 2680 for pressure-testing cooling system
1 Pressure gauge 2 Setting knob 3 Reduction valve housing 4 Shut-off cock 5 Cap for fitting on expansion tank

Drain the cooling system and remove the fan. The fan removal applies to the N7. Undo the nut for the belt tensioner. Disconnect the hose lines and both the retaining screws for the pipe on the suction side of the Pump. Undo the six bolts securing the pump to the block and remove the pump.

2.

3.

4.

Disassembling the coolant pump
1. 2. Remove the retaining bolts for the fan hub. Drive the pump shaft out downwards so far with a drift (014 mm) that the hub releases (Fig. 15 1).

4. 5.

Remove the circlip for the front bearing. Place counterhold 2266 (Fig. 153) on the extended bearing journal in the pump housing and fit puller 2265. Pull off the pulley and bearing.

Fig. 15 1. Removing the pulley hub

I
111059

3.

Place the pump as shown in Fig. 152 and with drift 2268 press out the impeller, shaft, seal, deflector ring and the rear bearing all at one and the same time. NOTE! This operation will damage the deflector ring, which must always be replaced. If the rear bearing should stick on the shaft when pressing out, remove it from the shaft with the help of press washer 2429. 6.

Fig. 153. Removing the pulley

Place the pulley according to Fig. 154 and press out the bearing with the help of drift 2267.

Fig. 154. Removing the bearing

7.
Fig. 152. Removing the impeller, bearing and seal

Clean the pump thoroughly. Make sure that all the old grease is removed.

Checking the coolant pump
Check the bearings. They must not seize but should function easily. Balls and races may not be blue-annealed. Also check the fitted bearings against the shaft and housing also the fit between bearing journal and pulley. The bearings must not rotate when doing this. Damaged bearings must be replaced. Make sure that the impeller is in good condition. The impeller and shaft are stocked only as an integral unit. The seal, wear ring in the impeller and the deflector ring are replaced after each overhaul.

3. Place fixture 2269 where the impeller is to be
fitted (Fig. 156). With drift 2267 press on the pulley and bearings (Fig. 156). Press down until bearings and pulley are firmly located. 4. Fill the space to be occupied with the spacer ring with grease, fit the spacer ring and press in the front bearing with drift 2267. Fit the bearing circlip. Place the pump on a counterhold according to Fig. 157. Press in the rear bearing (housing) with drift 2268 after having filled the bearing with grease and after having placed a small amount of grease in the space inside the bearing seat. The bearing should be turned in such a way that its sealing washer points towards the impeller.

5.

Assembling the coolant pump
1. 2. Pack the bearings with heat-resistant, ball-bearing grease. Press the ball bearings into the pulley with drift 2267 (Fig. 155).

Fig. 157. lnstalling the rear bearing in the housing
115051

Fig. 155. Installing the bearings

Fig. 156. lnstalling pulley and bearings

Fig. 158. Installing the seal

6.

Place the deflector ring and flange turned away from the bearing and press in the shaft seal with drift 2270 (Fig. 158). Place the pump in such a way that the counterhold is against the bearing journal so the pump shaft is free. Oil the shaft. Make sure that the deflector ring is placed properly and insert the shaft through the seal. Press in the shaft with impeller so far that there is a clearance of 0.9- 1.1 m m (0.035-0.043") between the pump housing and impellers.

Changing the cooling fan, F86
The rubber-mounted cooling fan shaft with a rubber brushing, which is fitted on the fan hub before installing the fan. Tighten the retaining bolts evenly and in stages. The final tightening torque is 16-22 Nm (1.6-2.2 kpm = 12-1 6 Ibfft). The large washer holding the fan in position must bottom against the end of the fan shaft.

7.

8.

Press on the fan hub. Tighten up the fan hub retaining bolts.

Fig. 160. lnstalling the rubber-suspended cooling fan

115 065

Fig. 159. lnstalling the pulley hub

Installing the coolant pump
Fit a new gasket between the pump and cylinder block and a new sealing ring between the pump and thermostat housing. Install the pump. Check and if necessary replace the drive belts. Adjust the tension on the drive belt according to the instructions.

Thermostat-controlled fan, N7
Checking
The thermostat fan should be fully engaged at approx. 55OC (131 OF) air temperature round the bi-metal washer. If the fan speed is too low, at temperatures when the fan normally should be fully engaged, the reason may be oil leakage. If this is the case, topping-up may be necessary. This is done through the hole for the control pin behind the bi-metal washer. Fill in doses of about 2 cm3. Special oil, Volvo part number 282792-1, should be used. Because of space, the fan must first be removed from the engine in order to fill-up properly and in order to re-fit the control pin and bi-metal washer.

Radiator
A damaged or clogged radiator should be repaired by a radiator workshop. Internal cleaning isonly necessary if what is clogging the radiator cannot be removed by hosing through it.

A. Control valve closed. Fan rotates at reduced speed. The blmetal washer (1) pushes the control pln (2) towards the valve arm (3).

B. Control valve open. The fan is fully engaged. The bi-metal washer is bent outwards because o f increase in the ambient temperature.

Upper radiator stay, N7
Adjusting
The clearance between the fan ring, rubber seal and fan shroud should be 0.5-4 mm (0.012-0.16") to rpotect the rubber seal from wear because of engine movement. This clearance does not influence the function of the fan. Adjust with nuts A and B, Fig. 161.

Fig. 16 1. Adjusting the upper radiator stay

Group 29 Turbo-Compressor
Construction and Function

discharge

Exhaust gas inlet
Fig. 162. Turbo-compressor

1 Compressor housing 2 Compressor wheel 3 Turbine wheel

4 Turbine housing 5 Oil inlet 6 Oil outlet

General
The TD70D engine is fitted with the Holset turbo and the TD70E with the AiResearch turbo. The operating principle is the same for both. Both turbo-units are slide-journalled. During operation of the engine, exhaust gases from the engine pass through the turbine housing (4) on its way out to the exhaust gas system and this causes the turbine wheel (3)to rotate. The compressor wheel (21, which is mounted on the same shaft as the turbine, rotates with the turbine wheel. The compressor wheel is placed in a compressor housing (1) is connected between the air duct from the air cleaner and the engine intake manifold. When the compressor wheel rotates, it draws in ambient air, compresses the air and delivers it to the engine cylinders at a certain overpressure(charging pressure). The surplus air contributes to increased engine output and cleaner exhaust gases because of better. combustion. The turbo-compressor is lubricated and cooled by the engine lubricating system. Oil is supplied and drained through the outer pipes and connections (5 and 6).

Service Procedures
Checking the charging pressure
1. Connect a pressure gauge t o the engine intake manifold. The pressure gauge must have a connection hose long enough t o enable the pressure gauge t o be placed in the driver's cab. Measure when driving a fully-loaded vehicle up a hill at full throttle (full load) when the engine speed is passed relatively slowly. The charging pressure should be 0.09-0.10 MPa (0.9-1.0 kp/cm2 = 13-14 lbf/in2) with the intake air at 20°C (68OF). If the measuring is done at another temperature, the charging pressure measured must be rectified according to the adjacent diagram. Example: a pressure of 0.8 kp/cm2 (1 1 lbf/in2) measured at -lO°C (14OF) corresponds t o 0.7 kp/cm2 ( 1 0 lbf/in2) at +20°C (6g°F), that is, the pressure drops with rising temperature.

2.

A low charging pressure may be more than due t o a defective turbo-compressor. The following, therefore, should be checked first before investigating the turbo-compressor.

Fig. 163. Charging pressure a t different temperatures

A Measured charging pressure 6 Correction curves C Temperature of intake air

1.
2.

Injection pump Injectors (correct marking) Delivery pipes Checking the throttle control on the injection Pump Feed pressure Air cleaner blockage Exhaust pressure governor shutter Leakage in connections Condition of engine

Overrun, dwell angle, high-idle Opening pressure, spray pattern, faulty or clogged holes Proper size, no staved-in holes Correct travel for throttle arm Fuel leakage

3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

The shutter is not stuck in open position Intake and exhaust manifolds and connections Compression pressure, valve clearance

8.
9.

When checking the charging pressure, the vehicle must be loaded t o prevent running through the speed control too quickly.

Turbo-compressor, rapid check
Check for any visible damage t o the compressor wheel, check that the compressor wheel rotates easily, that the axial and radial clearances are normal, that the compressor wheel does not scrape against the sides of the casing and that it otherwise functions normally. Theaxial and radial clearances are normally only checked in connection with overhauling aimed at establishing wear on the unit. See under "Inspecting".

Trouble Shooting Information Trouble Noisy operation or vibration Probable cause Bearings are not being lubricated Remedy Supply required oil pressure. Clean or replace oil line. If trouble persists, overhaul the turbo charger. Tighten loose connections or replace manifold gaskets if necessary Refer to this manual. Clear all ducting Disassemble and clean Thoroughly clean compressor assembly. Clean air cleaner and check for leakage. tighten loose connections or replace manifold gaskets as necessary. Overhaul turbo-compressor or replace if necessary.

Leak in engine intake or exhaust manifold

Engine will not deliver rated power

Engine faults Clogged manifold system Foreign material lodged in compressor wheel or turbine Excessive dirt build-up in compressor Leak in engine intake or exhaust manifold Rotating assembly bearing seizure

Holset 3LD turbo-compressor
Disassembling the Holset 3LD 1. 2.
Secure the compressor exhaust flanae in a vice. Make line-up marks on the turbine housing, bearing housing, compressor housing and tensioning band. It is important that these components are re-fitted in their original positions when assembling. Remove the compressor housing.

4.

-

Release the tensioning band (bearing housing turbine housing) and transfer it to the bearing housing. Remove the bearing housing. spanner. The hub may possibly be able to fixed in a vice, but observe due care when doing this. Be careful with the turbine-wheel blades. Unscrew the compressor wheel lock nut.

5.

6. Hold securely the bearing wheel with a 5 / 8 U-ring

3.

7. Lift off the compressor wheel.

Fig. 164. Removing the compressor housing

Fig. 165. Removing the circlip

8.

Remove the interlock ring (Seeger ring pliers A6 1) and lift up the cover with the help of two screwdrivers. Remove the ring retainer and the O-ring from the cover.

Assembling the Holset 3LD
Lubricate the bearing bushings, piston rings, the axial bearing components and the turbine wheel shaft when about to assemble.

9. Remove the oil deflector plate, the thrust washer and the thrust bearing. But do not remove the two serrated pins in the bearing housing. 10. Remove the bearing housing from the shaft and take out the bushing. 11. Remove the piston rings from the shaft and the ring retainer.

1.

Fit the piston rings on the turbine-wheel shaft by pushing installation sleeve Holset J 18392 onto the turbine shaft. Carefully open the piston rings and fit them on the installation sleeve, one at a time. Fit the piston ring in its groove with the help of the ring, Holset J17393.

Inspecting the Holset 3LD
Turbine wheel and shaft
Check the turbine wheel and shaft for damage. The turbine wheel blades must not be bent, broken or worn. Never try to straighten out a turbine wheel. Replace damaged parts. Check the shaft for straightness. Max. permitted warp is 0.02 mm (0.0008"). Check the lateral throw for the turbine wheel. Max. laterial throw is 0.051 mm (0.0020") at a measuring radius of 35 mrn (1.4). Check the diameter of the shaft bearing seats. Minimum shaft diameter is 12.190 mm (0.48"). Note! The turbine wheel and shaft, the piston ring retainer and the compressor wheel are separately balanced. This means that no balancing is required irrespective of the part to be replaced. This is prividing that the rotating component is replaced, even when slightly damaged. 2.

Fig. 166. Installation sleeve and ring

Fit the bearing bushing in the bearing hbusing. Centre the piston rings. Place the rings so that their gaps apart and fit the turbine wheel and shaft in the bearing housing. Use Holset . J 17394.

Axial bearing bushings
Check the bearing bushings. If the tin-lining is cracked, replace the bushings. Note that the bushings must have a floating fit in the bearing housing. Max. radial clearance when measuring compressor wheel hub is 0.61 mm (0.0240"). Axial clearance is 0.10-0.20 mm (0.0039-0.0079").

3.

Piston rings
The piston rings must be changed each time overhauling is carried out. The piston ring clearance in the groove is 0.076-0.152 mm (0.007 1-0.0060), max. 0.204 mm (0.0080").

Compressor wheel
Check the compressor wheel-for cracks and other damage. Replace the wheel if deformed. Otherwise, see under the heading "Turbine wheel and shaft".

Bearing housing, compressor housing, turbine housing
Check for cracks and wear caused by piston rings.

Fig. 167. Holset J 1 7 3 9 4 for installing turbine wheel and shaft

4. Fit the thrust bearing(4, fig. 168).Turn the bearing so that the oil groove faces outwards.

5. Fit the thrust washer (10) and the oil deflector plate (1 1).

6. Fit the piston ring (13) in the ring retainer (14) and the 0-ring (3) on the cover (I Place the 21, ring retainer in the cover. Fit the cover. 7. Fit the large circlip (16) with the bevelled side facing outwards.
8. Fit the compressor wheel. Tighten the nut to a torque of 19-22 Nm (1.9-2.2 kpm = 14-1 6 Ibfft). 9. Secure the turbine housing exhaust flange in a vice. 10. Place the tensioning band on the bearing housing. 11. Grease the sealing surfaces of the bearing housing and turbine housing with graphite grease, e.g., Batoyle GEX441 or corresponding
12

I 11 I

\> L 10

Fig. 168. Holset 3LD

1 Bearing housing

2 Washer
O-ring Thrust bearing Bearing bushing Tensioning band 7 Turbine wheel 8 Piston ringw 9 Turbine housing 10 Thrust washer 11 Oil deflector plate 12 Cover 13 Piston ring 14 Piston ring retainer 15 Compressor wheel 16 Large circlip 17 Compressor housing 3 4 5 6

12. Fit the bearing housing on the turbine housing according to the line-up marks. Tighten the tensioning-band nut to a torque of 14 Nm ( 1.4 kpm = 10 Ibfft). 13. Fit the compressor housing according to the lineup marks. 14. Check the free rotation of the unit by rotating the shaft. 15. Fill the bearing housing with engine oil in connection with installing the engine. Plug all openings on the turbo-compressor if the unit is not to be fitted immediately. Concerning installing the turbo-compressor on the engine, see page 103.

Disassembling AiResearch T-04B
Clean the outside of the turbo-compressor with a pressure spray of a non-caustic cleaning solvent before disassembly. Disassemble only as required to make necessary inspection or repairs. As each part is removed, place it in a clean container t o prevent loss or damage. Proceed as follows: 1. Remove the bolts, clamps and lockplates which hold the compressor and turbine housings t o the centre housing group. Tap the housings with a soft-faced hammer if force is needed for removal. Note! Exercise caution when removing housings t o prevent damage t o compressor or turbine wheel. Once damaged, they cannot be repaired. Nver attempt to straighten bent compressor or turbine vents - replace the faulty component. 2. Place the centre housing group in a suitable holding fixture which will prevent the turbine wheel from turning. Use a T-handle wrench when removing the compressor wheel lock nut t o avoid possible bending of the shaft. Lift the compressor wheel off the shaft. Remove the shaft wheel from the centre housing keeping the shaft central with bearings until clear of centre housing. Note! The turbine wheel shroud is not retained to the centre housing and will fall free when the shaft wheel is removed. 5. Remove bolts and lockplates from the backplate. Tap backplate with a soft mallet t o remove from recess in centre housing.

Fig. 169. Fixture made of plywood, hardened wood or aluminium
Meas. in rnrn

7.

Remove thrust collar and thrust bearing from centre housing. Remove bearings and retainers from centre housing. Discard rubber seal ring.

8.

3.

4.

Cleaning
Before cleaning, inspect all parts for signs of rubbing, burning or other damage which might not be evident after cleaning. Soak all parts in clean non-caustic carbon solvent. After soaking, use a stiff bristle brush and remove all dirt particles. Dry the parts thoroughly.

6.

Inspecting the AiResearch T-04B Checking the axial bearing clearance
Place a plunger-type indicator with 8 m m (0.312") locating shank in the dial indicator locating bore. Tighten up the locating screw gently. The plunger of the dial indicator should locate in the centre at the end of the shaft. In some cases if may be necessary to increase the effective length of the plunger by the addition of a suitable extension. If the total indicator reading is less than 0.03 m m (0.00 12") or more than 0.10 mm (0.004"), the rotating assembly must be repaired or replaced.

Ensure that the total radial movement of the turbocompressor shaft is obtained by loading the shaft in both directions, thus obtaining the total radial clearance measurement. Read off the dial indicator. The total radial clearance should not be less than 0.08 mm (0.003) or greater than 0.18 mm (0.007"). Should the radial clearance be out of these limits, the unit should be stripped and repaired.

111417

Meas. in mm
Fig. 17 1. Checking the radial bearing clearance

Fig. 170. Checking the axial bearing clearance

Checking the radial bearing clearance
Check the radial bearing clearance with the help of the dog leg adaptor made from the dimensions shown in Fig. 17 1 and a dial indicator. Insert the dog leg end through the oil outlet so that the dog leg and locates squarely with the turbo-compressor shaft. The adaptor plate should be bolted to the oil outlet. With a dial indicator located on the exposed end of the dog leg shaft, apply an equal pressure to both ends of the turbo-compressor shaft so that this shaft movement is in the same direction as the dial indicator travel. The following inspection requirements apply to a stripped unit: Item General Requirements Parts must not show signs of damage, corrosion or deterioration. Threads must not be nicked, crossed or stripped.

Shaft wheel Turbine wheel must show no signs of rubbing, and vanes must not be torn or worn to a feather edge. Shaft must show little signs of scoring, scratches or seizure with the bearings.

Compressor

Must shows no signs of rubbing or damage from foreign matter. It must be completely free of dirt or other foreign matter. Compressor wheel bore must not be galled. Must show no signs of rubbing or scoring of the running faces. Must show no signs of contact with rotating parts. Oil and air passages must be clean and free of obstructions.

6. Install compressor backplate bolts and lockplate. Torque to 8.6-10 Nm (86-104 kpcm = 75-90 Ibinf.) and secure lockplates. 7. Fit compressor wheel. The larger face of the locknut and front face of the impeller must be smooth and clean. Lightly oil threads and face of nut and tighten nut to 2.1-2.3 Nm (2 1-23 kpcm = 18-20 Ibinf.). Tighten nut using T-handled wrench to avoid side load which may cause shaft to bend. Check axial end play for 0.03 to 0.10 mm (0.001 to 0.004") travel. If requirement is not available to measure shaft stretch, this alternative method may be used: continue to tighten through an angle of 90°. 8. Check for clearance between wheel shroud and turbine wheel. 9. Orientate compressor housing to centre housing. Fit the six bolts and three lockplates. Torque bolts to 11.5-15.0 Nm (1 15-150 kpcm = 100-130 Ibinf.) 10. Orientate turbine housing to centre housing. Coat bolt threads with a high temperature thread lubricant. lnstall bolts, clamps and lockplates. Torque bolts to 11.5-15.0 Nm (115-150 kpcm = 100-1 3 0 Ibinf.). Bend up lockplates. 11. After assembly, push the rotating assembly as far as possible from the turbine end and check for binding. Repeat check, pushing from the compressor end. 12. If unit is to be stored, lubricate internally. Install protective covers on all openings.

Seal parts Housings

Burnish or polish out minor surface damage. Use silicon carbide abrasive cloth for aluminium parts and crocus abrasive cloth for the steel parts. Thoroughly clean parts before reassembly. Replace the following parts: sealing ring, lockplates, piston rings, turbine housing bolts, journal bearings, bearing retaining rings and compressor wheel locknut. Replace if thrust bearing and thrust collar show signs of nicks, scores, varnish deposits or foreign matter embedments. Also replace the centre housing if any of the above conditions exist upon close inspection of bearing bores in the centre housing.

Reassembling the AiResearch T-04B
Check each part prior to installation to ensure cleanliness. Exercise care to prevent entry of foreign matter during assembly. Check thrust collar piston ring groove for nicks or burns. Assemble as follows: 1. lnstall inboard bearing retainers. Lubricate bearings with clean engine oil. Fit bearings and outer bearing retainers. Place turbine wheel upright. Gently guide shaft through shroud and centre housing bearings. Place thrust bearing over thrust collar. Fit piston ring on thrust collar. Place thrust collar over shaft so that thrust bearing is flat against the centre housing and engages the centre housing anti-rotating pins. Install seal ring in groove in centre housing. Ensure that thrust spring is installed in backplate. Align mounting holes of centre housing and backplate and install over shaft and thrust collar. Use care not to break piston ring when engaging seal into backplate bore. Backplate is easily installed if open end position of piston ring is engaged into backplate bore first.

2.

3.

4. 5.

Replacing turbo-compressor on engine
Note! When changing a turbo-compressor, always find out the reason for the replacement. Remedy any reasons for faults before fitting the new turbo-unit. It is most important when replacing installing a turbocompressor that the installation instructions supplied with the compressor are carefully followed.
1.

2.

Before fitting the new turbo, take an oil can and oil the bearing system to ensure that bearings are lubricated during starting. After the unit has started, it is absolutely essential to check that it is being supplied with oil. During replacement, make sure that rust and carbon flakes do not drop down into the exhaust manifold otherwise they will be blown into and damage the turbine. It is also important that the intake line from the air cleaner is cleaned, because it can happen that parts of a damaged compressor wheel may remain and cause immediate damage to the new turbo. Note that the rubber hose (return line) from the turbo to the engine must be oil-resistant.

If the turbo-compressor is to be able to operate satisfactorily, it is vital that the engine oil system iskept in good condition, that is, that oil is changed at definite intervals, that the correct type of oil is used and, above all, the oil filter is serviced properly. One of the first servicing measures, therefore, should be to check the engine oil and the oil filter and, if necessary, replace the filter before installing the new turbo-unit and preferably so that the engine can be run several minutes before the new turbo-compressor is fitted. Note: Strainer 466509-7 can be temperarily placed in the compressor intake connection as an extra safety measure to prevent contaminated oil fram getting into the turbo-compressor. Then run the engine for at least half an hour. Next, remove the strainer, otherwise there is risk of the turbocompressor not getting oil, should the straner become clogged in the event the lubricating system is neglected.

4.

Always check to make sure that the injection equipment is in good condition and that all leadseals are intact and provided with authorized seals. Check to make sure that oil is circulating properly after the engine has started by slackening the union for the return line in the block. To avoid damage to the turbo-compressor, the engine should be turned over with the starter motor and the stop control pulled out until the oil pressure in the turbo is obtained.

5.

Fig. 172. Fuel system F86 (TD70E)

Fig. 173. Fuel system, N7

Q
Fig. 174. Cooling system, F86

Fig. 176. Turbo-compressor, AiResearch

Fig. 177. Rotor unit

Compressor wheel Piston ring, seal compressor end Thrust sleeve O-ring seal Bearing housing Circlip 7. Bearing bushing 8. Safety cover 9. Piston ring seal, turbine 10. Turbine wheel and shaft 1 1. End retaining bolt 12. Lock washer 13. Axial thrust bearing 14. End 15. Compressor wheel lock nut

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Fig. 178. Motor TD7OE

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