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Table of Contents
CopyrightlPublisher/Editor/Disclaimer ii
Preface VlJ
Acknowledgments ix
Suggestions for Improvement / Errata Notifi cation xi
Introduction I
How to Use This Document 2
Notation 3
Definitions 18
EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION ASCEISEI 705 PAGE
Example i Classification/Importance Factors §11.51 25
Seismic Design Category §11.6 26
Example I Earthquake Load Combinations:
Strength Design §12.4.2.3 27
Example 2 Comb inat ions of Loads §2.4 32
Example 3 Design Spectral Response Accelerat ions §11.4 36
Introduction to Vertical Irregularities §12.3.2.2 41
Example 4 Vertical Irregul arity Type l a and Type Ib §12.3.2.2 42
Example 5 Verti cal Irregul arity Type 2 §12.3.2.2 46
Example 6 Vertical Irregularity Type 3 §12.3.2.2 48
Example 7 Vertical Irregularity Type 4 §12.3.2.2 50
Example 8 Vertical Irregular ity Type 5a §12.3.2.2 52
Example 9 Vertical Irregularity Type 5a §12.3.3.1 54
Introduction to Horizontal Irregularities §12.3.2.1 58
Example 10 Horizontal Irregularity Type Ia and Type Ib .. §12.3.2.1.. 59
Example I I Horizontal Irregul arity Type 2 §12.3.2.1 63
Example 12 Horizontal Irregularity Type 3 §12.3.2.1 65
Example 13 Horizontal Irregularity Type 4 §12.3.2. 1 67
Example 14 Horizontal Irregularity Type 5 §12.3.2. 1 68
Example 15 Redundancy Factor p §12.3.4 69
Example 16 Pdelta Effects §12.8.7 74
Example 17 Seismic Base Shear §12.8. 1... 78
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I iii
EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION ASCE/SEI 705 PAGE
iv 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 18
Example 19
Example 20
Example 21
Example 22
Example 23
Example 24
Example 25
Example 26
Example 27
Example 28
Example 29
Example 30
Exampl e 31
Example 32
Example 33
Example 34
Example 35
Example 36
Example 37
Example 38
Example 39
Example 40
Example 41
Exampl e 42
Example 43
Example 44
Example 45
Example 46
Example 47
Example 48
Example 49
Approximate Fundamental Period §12.8.2. I 80
Simpli fied Alternative Structural Design Procedure §I 2. 14 83
Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical §I 2.2.3. I 86
Combination of Framing Systems:
in Different Directions §I2.2.2 90
Combin ation of Structural Systems:
Along the Same Axis §I 2.2.3.2 92
Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force §12.8.3 93
Horizontal Distribution of Shear §12.8.4 97
Amplification of Accident al Torsion §I2.8.4.3 102
Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §I 2.3.3.3 106
Elements Supporting Disconti nuous Walls or Frames §12.3.3.3 I 10
Soil Pressure at Foundati ons §2.4
§I2.I3.4 I I3
Drift §12.8.6 I 16
Story Drift Limitations §12.12 I 19
Vertical Seismic Load Effect. §12.4.2. 2 121
Design Response Spectrum §11.4.5 124
Dual Systems §12.2.5. I 126
Lateral Forces for OneStory Wall Panels §12.11 129
OutofPlane Seismic Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel §12.11. I
§I2.11.2 133
Rigid Equipment.. §I 3.3. 1 137
Flexibl e Equipment §13.3.1 140
Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments §I3.3.2 143
Deformation Compatibility for Seismic Design
Categories D, E, and F.· §I2. 12.4 145
Adjoining Rigid Elements §12.7.4 148
Exterior Elements: Wall Panel §I3.5.3 150
Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel. §13.5.3 153
Beam Horizontal Tie Force §12.1.3 160
Collector Elements §12. 10.2 162
OutofPlane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry §12.11.2
Walls to Flexible Diaphragms §12.11.2.1 165
Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §12.11.2.1 167
Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
:
Lowrise §12.10.1.1 170
Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
:
Highrise §12.10.1 174
Building Separations §12.12.3 176
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Table of Contents
EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION ASCE/SEI 705 PAGE
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Example 50
Example 51
Example 52
Example 53
Example 54
Example 55
Example 56
Example 57
Flexible Nonbuilding Structure §15.5 179
Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure §15.0 182
Rigid Nonbuilding Structure §15.4.2 186
Tank With Supported Bottom §15.7.6 188
Pile Interconnections IBC §1808.2.23. 1 190
Simplified Wind Loads on 2Story Buildings §6.4 193
Simplified Wind Loads on LowRise Buildings §6.4 200
Wind Loads  Analytical Procedure §6.5 205
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Man ual, Vol. I V
vi 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Preface
This document is the initial volume in the threevolume 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design
Manual, It has been developed by the Structural Engineers Association of California
(SEAOC) with funding provided by SEAOC. Its purpose is to provide guidance on the
interpretation and use of the seismic requirements in the 2006 l llfem ational Building Code
(IBC), published by the International Code Council , Inc., and SEAOC's 2005 Recommended
Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (also called the Blue Book).
The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual was developed to fill a void that exists
between the commentary of the Blue Book, which explains the basis for the code provisions,
and everyday structural engineering design practice. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic
Design Manual illustrates how the provisions of the code are used. Volume 1: Code
Application Examples, provides stepbystep examples for using individual code provisions,
such as computing base shear or building period. Volumes 1I and lIl: Building Design
Examples, furnish examples of seismic design of common types of buildings. In Volumes"
and III, important aspects of whole buildings are designed to show, calculationby
calculation, how the various seismic requirements of the code are implemented in a realistic
design.
The examples in the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual do not necessarily illustrate
the only appropriate methods of design and analysis. Proper engineering judgment should
always be exercised when applying these examples to real projects. The 20061BC
Structural/Seismic Design Manual is not meant to establish a minimum standard of care but;
instead, presents reasonable approaches to solving problems typically encountered in
structural /seismic design.
The example problem numbers used in the prior Seismic Design Manual  2000 IEC
Volume I code application problems have been retained herein to provide easy reference to
compare revised code requirements.
SEAOC, NCSEA and ICC intend to update the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual
with each edition of the building code.
Jon P. Kiland and Rafael Sabelli
Project Managers
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I vii
viii 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Acknowledgments
The 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual Volume J was written by a group of highly
qualified structural engineers. They were selected by a steering committee set up by the
SEAOC Board of Directors and were chosen for their knowledge and experience with
structural engineering practice and seismic design. The consultants for Volumes I, II, and III
are:
Jon P. Kiland, CoProject Manager
Rafael Sabell i, CoProject Manager
Douglas S. Thompson
Dan Werdowatz
Matt Eatherton
John W. Lawson
Joe Maffei
Kevin Moore
Stephen Kerr
A number of SEAOC members and other structural engineers helped check the examples in
this volume. During its development, drafts of the examples were sent to these individuals.
Their help was sought in review of code interpretations as well as 'detailed checking of the
numerical computations.
I ' _.
'l,. ,
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•• L...
Close collaboration with the SEAOC Seismology Committee was maintained during
the development of the document. The 20042005 and 20052006 committees reviewed
the document and provided many helpful comments and suggestions. Their assistance is
gratefully acknowledged.
ICC
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I ix
Sugges tion s for Improvement
Inkeeping with SEAOC's and NCSEA's Mission Statements: "to advance the structural
engineering profession" and "to provide structural engineers with the most current
information and tools to improve their practice," SEAOC and NCSEA plan to update this
document as structural/seismic requirements change and new research and better
understand ing of building performance in earthquakes becomes available.
Comments and suggestions for improvements are welcome and should be sent to
the following:
Structural Engi neers Association of Cal ifornia (SEAOC)
Attention: Executive Director
14 14 K Street, Suite 260
Sacramento, California 95814
Telephone: (916) 4471198 ; Fax: (916) 9322209
Email: leeiWseaoc.org; Web address: www.seaoc .org
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SEAOC and NCSEA have made a substantial effort to "ensure that the information inthis
document is accurate. Inthe event that corrections or clarifi cations are needed, these will be
posted on the SEAOC web site at h/lP://11 1111'.seaoc.org or on the ICC websit e at
http:// wll1l..iccsaf e.org. SEAOC. ati ts sole discretion, mayor may not issue written
errata
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic DesIgn Manual, Vol. I
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Introduction
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Volume I of the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual: Code Application Examples
deals with interpretation and use of the structural/seismic provisions of the 2006
l ntemational Building Code'" (!BC). The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is
intended to help the reader understand and correctly use the mc structural/seismic provisions
and to provide clear, concise, and graphic guidance on the application of specific provisions
of the code. It primarily addresses the major structural/seismic provisions of the !BC, with
interpretation of specific provisions and examples highl ighting their proper application.
The 2006 !BC has had structural provisions removed from its text and has referenced several
national standards documents for structural design provisions. The primary referenced
document is ASCE/SEI 705, which contains the "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
Other Structures." ASCE/SEI 705 is referenced for load and deformation design demands on
structural elements, National Material design standards (such as ACI, AISC, MSJC and
NOS) are then referenced to take the structural load demands from ASCE/SEI 705 and
perform specific material designs.
Volume I presents 58 examples that illustrate the application of specific struct ural/seismic
provisions of the !Be. Each example is a separate problem, or group of problems, and deals
primarily with a single code provision. Each example begins with a description of the
problem to be solved and a statement of given information. The problem is solved through
the normal sequence of steps, each of which is illustrated in full. Appropriate code references
for each step are identified in the righthand margin of the page.
The complete 2006 lBCStructural/Selsmic Design Ma nual will have three volumes.
Volumes II and III will provide a series of structural/seismic design examples for buildings
illustrat ing the seismic design of key parts of common building types such as a large three
story wood frame building, a tiltup warehouse, a braced steel frame building, and a concrete
shear wall building.
While the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 !BC, there are
some provision ofSEAOC's 2005 Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary
(Blue Book) that are applicable. When differences between the !BC and Blue Book are
significant they are brought to the attention of the reader.
The 2006 lBC St ructural/Seismic Design Manual is intended for use by practicing structural
engineers and structural designers, building departments, other plan review agencies , and
structural engineering students.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual , Vol. I 1
How to Use This Do cum ent
• :JC . . '>;
The various code applicat ion examples of Volume I are organized by topic consistent with
previous editions. To find an example for a particular provision of the code, look at the
upper, outer comer of each page, or in the table of contents.
Generally, the ASCE/SEI 705 notat ion is used throughout. Some other notation is defined in
the followi ng pages, or in the examples.
Reference to ASCE/SEI 705 sections and formulas is abbreviated. For example, "ASCE/SEI
705 §6.4.2" is given as §6.4.2 with ASCE/SEI 705 being understood. "Equation (12.83)"
is designated (Eq 12.83) in the righthand margins. Similarly, the phrase "T 12.31" is
understood to be ASCE/SEI 705 Table 12.31, and "F 2215" is understood to be Figure 22
15. Throughout the document, reference to specific code provisions and equations is given in
the righthand margin under the category Code Reference.
Generally, the examples are presented in the following format. First, there is a statement
of the example to be solved, including given information, diagrams, and sketches. This is
followed by the "Calculations and Discussion" section, which provides the solution to the
example and appropriat e discussion to assist the reader. Finally, many of the examples have
a third section designated "Commentary." In this section, comments and discussion
on the example and related material are made. Commentary is intended to provide a better
understanding of the exampl e and/or to offer guidance to the reader on use of the information
generated in the example.
In general, the Volume I examples focus entirely on use of speci fic provisions of the code.
No building design is illustrated. Building design examples are given in Volumes II and III.
The 2006 lEe Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 IBC, and the
referenced Standard ASCE/SEI 705 unless otherwise indicated. Occasionally, reference is
made to other codes and standards (e.g., 2005 AISC Steel Construction Manual 13
th
Edition,
ACI 31805, or 2005 NOS). When this is done, these documents are clearly ident ified.
2 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Notation
The following notations are used in this document. These are generall y consistent with those
used in ASCE/SEI 705 and other Standards such as ACI and AISC. Some new notations
have also been added. The reader is cautioned that the same notation may be used more than
once and may carry entire ly different meanings in different situations, For example, E can
mean the tabulated elastic modulus under the AISC definition (steel) or it can mean the
earthquake load under §12.4.2 of ASCE/SEI 705. When the same notation is used in two or
more definitions, each definition is prefaced with a brief descript ion in parentheses (e.g. ,
steel or loads) before the definition is given.
A
ABM =
area of floor or roof supported by a member
crosssectional area of the base material
area of anchor, in square inches
the combined effective area, in square feet, of the shear walls
in the first story of the structure
AI
A
g =
A
g =
Ai =
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A ch
A
e
=
=
=
=
crosssectional area of a struct ural member measured outtoout of
transverse reinforcement
net area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of
section in the directio n of shear force considered
the minimum crosssectional area in any horizontal plane in
the first story, in square feet of a shear wall
flange area
gross area of section
the gross area of that wall in which ADis identified
the floor area in square feet of the diaphragm level immediately above
the story under consideration
area of the loadcarrying foundation
the effective area of the projection of an assumed concrete failure
surface upon the surface from which the anchor protrudes , in square
inches
area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 3
Nota tion
Ash = total crosssectional area of transverse reinforcement (including
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supplementary crossties) having a spacing s" and crossing a section
with a core dimension of he
Ask = area of skin reinforceme nt per unit height in one side face
A Slmin =
area having minimum amount of flexural reinforcement
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As, =
area of link stiffener
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AT = tributary area
A
v = area of shear reinforcement within a distance s, or area of shear
reinforcement perpendicular to flexural tension reinforcement within a
distance s for deep flexural members
A,'J = required area of leg reinforcement in each group of diagonal bars in a
diagonally reinforced coupling beam
Avr = area of shearfriction reinforcement
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All'
=
(web) link web area
Aw =
(weld) effective crosssectional area of the weld
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A., =
the torsional amplification factor at Level x  §12.8.4.3
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a = (concrete) depth of equivalent rectangular stress block
a =
(concrete spandrel) shear span, distance between concentrated load
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and face of supports
a
e
= coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete strength to
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wall strength
ad =
incremental factor relating to the Pdelt a' ef fects as determined in
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§12.8.7
a, = the acceleration at Level i obtained from a modal analysis (§13.3. 1)
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p
= amplification factor related.to the response of a system or component
as affected by the type of seismic attachment determined in §13.3.1
b = (concrete) width of compression face of member
br
= flange width
bu. =
web width
4 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Notation
bit member widththickness ratio
Cd
= deflection amplification factor as given in Tables 12.21 or 15.41 or
15.42
C
e
= snow exposure factor
em
coefficient defined in §Hl of AISC/ASD, 9
th
Edition
C, = the seismic response coefficient determined in §12.8.1.1 and §19.3.1
Cr
= building period coefficient  §12.8.2.1
C, snow thermal factor
C1'X
= vertical distribution factor  §12.8.3
c distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis of a flexural
member
D dead load, the effect of dead load
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De
= the length, in feet, of a shear wall in the first story in the
direction parallel to the applied forces
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Dh gross weight of helicopter
D
p
= relative seismic displacement that a component must be designed to
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accommodate  §13.3.2
d effective depth of section (distance from extreme compression fiber to
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centroid of tension reinforcement)
db
= (anchor bolt) anchor shank diameter
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= (concrete) bar diameter
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d,
= column panel zone depth
E
= (steel) modulus of elasticity
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(§12.4)
seismic load effect including overstrength factors (§§12.4.3.2 and
Em
=
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12.14.2.2.2)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 5
Notation
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£1 = fl exural sti ffness of compression member
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s,
=
modules of elasticity of concrete , in psi
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E., = (concrete) modulus of elastic ity of reinforcement
e = EBF link length
F = load due to fluids
Fa = site coefficient defi ned in §11 .4.3
Fa =
axial compressive stress that would be permitted if axial force alone
existed
Fa =
flood load I
Fb = bending stress that would be permitted if bending moment alone
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FaM =
nominal strength of the base material to be welded
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Fexx
= classification number of wel d metal (minimum specified strength)
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Fi,Fu,P, = portion of seismic base shear, V, induced at Level i.n, or x as
determined in §12.8.3.
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p = seismic force, induced by the parts being connected, centered at the
component's center of gravity and distributed relative to the
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component' s mass distri bution, as determined in §12.8.3
F
p
, = the diaphragm design force
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F"
specified minimum tensile strength, ksi =
F"
= throughthickness weld stresses at the beamcolumn interface
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Fill = mini mum specified tensile strength of the anchor
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F,. long period site coefficient (at 1.0 second period) see §11.4.3 =
F, = the design lateral force applied at Level x
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r, = the lateral force induced at any Level i  §12.8.3
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F
w = (steel LRFD) nominal strength of the weld electrode material
FII' = (steel ASD) allowable weld stress
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6 2006 1BC Structura l/Seis mic Design Manual, Vo/./
notation
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he = assumed web depth for stability
h;, hn,h, = height in feet above the base to Level i , 11or x, respectively
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h, = height in feet of the roof above the base
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h
sx =
the story height below Level x
hll' =
height of entire wall or of the segment of wall considered
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I = the importance factor determined in accordance with §11.5.1
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I = moment of inertia of section resisting externally applied factored loads
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a =
moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete
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g
= (concrete, neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross
concrete section about centroidal axis
t; =
moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member
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cross section.
I , =
moment of inertia of structural steel shape, pipe or tubing about
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centroidal axis of composite member cross section.
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g =
(concrete, neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross
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concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement.
t, =
component importance factor that is either 1.00 or 1.5, as determined
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in §13.3. 1
K = (steel) effecti ve length factor for prismatic member
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k =
a distribution exponent  §12.8.3
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L live load, except rooflive load, including any permitted live load
=
reduction (i.e, reduced design live load). Live load related internal
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moments or forces. Concentrated impact loads
L
o
= unreduced design live load
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Lb = (steel) unbraced beam length for determining allowable bending stress
L
p
= limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength,
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uniform moment case
L,
=
roof live load including any permitted live load reduction
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8 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Notation
Ie (steel RBS) length of radius cut in beam flange for reduced beam
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section (RBS) design
t: length of a compression member in a frame, measured from center to
center of the joints in the frame
/;,
=
distance from column centerl ine to centerline of hinge for reduced
bending strength (RBS) connection design
I"
= clear span measured facetoface of supports
I"
unsupported length of compression member
Ill'
= length of entire wall, or of segment of wall considered, in direction of
shear force
Level i
Leveln =
Level ,r =
level of the structure referred to by the subscript i.
" i = I" designates the first level above the base
that level that is uppermost in the main portion of the structure
that level that is under design consideration.
"x = I" designates the first level above the base
M
= (steel) maximum factored moment
factored moment to be used for design of compression member
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Mer =
"1; =
moment at centerline of column
moment at which flexural cracking occurs in response to externally
applied loads
limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength,
uniform moment case
moment at face of column
(concrete ) modified moment
(steel) maximum moment that can be resisted by the member in the
absence of axial load
(steel) nominal moment strength at section
(concrete) required plastic moment strength of shearhead cross section
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. J 9
Notation
u, = (steel) nominal plastic flexural strength, FyZ
M
pa = nominal plastic flexural strength modified by axial load
1
u; = nominal plastic flexural strength using expected yield strength of steel
Mpr = (concrete) probable moment strength determined using a tensile
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strength in the longitudinal bars of at least 1.25;;. and a strength
reduction factor cjJ of 1.0
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pr = (steel RBS) probable plastic moment at the reduced beam section
(RBS)
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M, = (concrete) moment due to loads causing appreciable sway
M, = torsional moment
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M,a = accidental torsional moment
M"
= (concrete) factored moment at section
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M"
=
(steel) required flexural strength on a member or joint
M,•. =
moment corresponding to onset of yielding at the extreme fiber from
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an elastic stress distribution
M
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=
smaller factored end moment on a compression member, positive if
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member is bent in single curvature, negative if bent in double
curvature
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M) larger factored end moment on compression member, always positive
=
N =
number of stories
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P =
ponding load
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P =
(steel) factored axial load
P =
(wind) design wind pressure
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PDL, i», r.; =
unfactored axial load in frame member
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Pb = nominal axial load strength at balanced strain conditions
Pbl
= connection force for design of column continuity plates
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r , = (concrete) critical load
10 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Notation
Pc
= (concrete anchorage) design tensile strength
P"
= nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity, or nominal
axial strength of a column
Po
= nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity
P si
=
FyA
p"
(concrete) factored axial load, or factored axial load at given
eccentricity
p"
= (steel) nominal axial strength ofa column, or required axial strength
on a column or a link
p"
(concrete anchorage) required tensile strength from loads
r,
nominal axial yield strength ofa member, which is equal to F),A
g
p., total unfactored vertical design load at and above Level x
PE
= axial load on member due to earthquake
Pu
= axial live load
QE
= the effect of horizontal seismic forces
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R
= rain load
R The response modification factor from Table 12.21
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R"
nominal strength
1
R
p
= component response modification factor that varies from J.00 to 3.50
as set forth in Table J3.5 J or Table J3.61
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R"
required strength
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R)'
= ratio of expected yield strength F)'cto the minimum specified yield
strength Fy
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R, Rl R2
= live load reduction in percent  !Be §§1607.9.2/1607. J1.2
r rate of reduction equal to 0.08 percent for floors
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r (steel) radius of gyration of cross section of a compression member
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r
= radius of gyration about y axis
y
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 11
Notation
S = snow load
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So = design spectral response acceleration
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= 0.6 (SosIT
o)
T + 0.4 (Sos), for T less than or equal to To
= (SOl ) 1T, for T greater than T,
Sos = 5% damped, design, spectral response acceleration parameter at short
period (i.e., 0.2 seconds) =(2/3) S,«..  §11.4.4
S, = Mapped, MCE, 5% damped, spectral acceleration parameter at short
periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) as determined by §11.4.1
SOl = 5% damped, design, spectral response acceleration parameter at I
l second period =(2/3) Ssn
SI = Mapped, MCE, 5% damped, spectral acceleration parameter for a
ls econd period as determined in §11.4.1
s'IIS = MCE, 5% damped, spectral response acceleration parameter for short
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periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) =FoS,. adj usted for site class effects
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S,I/I = MCE, 5% damped , spectral response accel eration parameter for
l second peri od =F•.SJ, adjusted for site class effects
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SRBS = section modulus at the reduced beam section (RBS)
S = spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction parallel to
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longitudinal reinforcement, or spacing of transverse reinforcement
measured along the longitud inal axis
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T = selfstraining force arising from contracti on or expansion resulting
from temperature change, shrinkage, moisture change, creep in
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component materials, movement due to differential settlement or
combinations thereof
T = elastic fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, of the structure in
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the direction under consideration, see §11.4. 5 for limitations
To = approximate fundamental period as determined in accordance with
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§12. 8.2.1
To = 0.2 (SOl 1Sos)
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If
= thickness of flange
t
w = thickness of web
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Notation
I; ratio of expected yield strength F,.<to the minimum specified yield
strength F."
U = required strength to resist factored loads or related intemal moments
and forces
V the total design seismic lateral force or shear at the base of the building
or structure
V
c
= (concrete) nominal shear strength provided by concrete
I V
c
(concrete anchorage) design shear strength
VDL, Vu , V,ei, = unfactored shear in frame member
v,,,
=
shear correspond ing to the development of the "nominal flexural
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strength  calculated in accordance with Chapter 19"
v, (concrete) nominal shear strength at section
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(steel) nomina l shear strength of a member
V
p
= (steel) shear strength of an act ive link
V
pa
= nominal shear strength of an active link modified by the axial load
magnitude
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px
the portion of the seismic shear force at the level of the diaphragm,
requi red to be transferred to the components of the vertical seismic
lateralforceresisting system because of the offsets or changes in
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stiffuess of the components above or below the diaphragm
V, = (concrete) nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement
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V, (steel) shear strength of member, 0.55 Fidt
V"
= (concrete anchorage) required shear strength from factored loads
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V"
(concrete) factored shear force at section =
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v, = (loads) factored horizontal shear in a story
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(steel) required shear strength on a member
v.
= the seismic design story shear (force) in story x, (i.e.• between Level x
andxI )
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Notation
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w = the total effective seismic dead load (weight) defined in §12.7.2
and §12. l4.8. l
W = (wind) load due to wind pressure
1
WI' = component operating weight
l1'c = weights of concrete, in pcf
11';, 11'r = that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x, respectively
w
p =
the weight of the smaller portion of the structure
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w
p = the weight of the diaphragm and other elements of the structure
tributary to the diaphragm
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lVp:c = the weight of the diaphragm and elements tributary thereto at
Level x, including applicable portions of other loads defined in
1
§12.7.2
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) VII' = weight of the wall tributary to the anchor
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11,= = column panel zone width
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X = height of upper support attachment at Level x as measured from the
base
y
=
height of lower support attachment at Level Yas measured from the
base
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Z (steel) plastic section modulus
=
z = height in structure at point of attachment of component , §13.3.1
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ZeDs = plastic section modulus at the reduced beam sect ion (RBS)
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(concrete) capacityreduction or strengthreduction factor
<I>
=
<l>b
= (steel) resistance factor for flexure
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<l>c
=
(steel) resistance factor for compression
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<1>,.. = resistance factor for shear strength of panel zone of beamto
column connections
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a = (concrete) angle between the diagonal reinforcement and the
longitudinal axis of a diagonally reinforced coupling beam
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Notation
1
a , ~
(steel) centroid locations of gusset connection for braced frame
diagonal
U
c
coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete strength
to wall strength
~ c
ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load or reaction
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area
= the ratio of shear demand to shear capacity for the story between
Level x and x I
P
= a redundancy factor determined in accordance with §12.3.4
P
= (conc rete) ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement (As/b
d
)
Ph
reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions
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pn = ratio of area of distributed reinforcement parallel to the plane of
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A
c"
to gross concrete area perpendicular to the reinforcement
ps = ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total volume of core
(outtoout of spirals) ofa spirally reinforced compression
member
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p"
ratio of area of distributed reinforcement perpendicular to the
plane of A«,to gross concrete area A
c
"
I = lightweight aggregate concrete factor; 1.0 for normalweight
concrete, 0,75 for "all lightweight" concre te, and 0,85 for "sand
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lightweight" concrete
A
p
= limiting slenderness parameter for compact element
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fo = length of radius cut in beam flange for reduced beam section
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(RBS) connection design
distance from column centerline to centerline of hinge for RBS
flo
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connection design
f n =
clear span measured facetoface of supports
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f u = unsupported length of compression member
f ll'
length of entire wall or of segment of wall considered in direction
of shear force
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Notation
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1
1
coefficient offriction
8 =
design story drift, shall be computed as the differences of the 1
deflections at the center of mass at the top and bottom or the story
under consideration. Note: Where ASD is used, 8 shall be
1
computed using earthquake forces without dividing by 1.4, see
§12.12
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8 =
design story drift
8
a
allowable story drift, as obtained from Table 12.121 for any story
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8
aA
= allowable story drift for structure A
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8
aB
allowable story drift for structure B =
no
=
system overstrength factor as given in Table 12.21
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Ox
= inelastic deflections of Level x  §12.8.6
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O,WE the average of the displacements at the extreme points of the structure
at Level x
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ONl4X
= the maximum displacement at Level x
OX4
=
deflection at structure Level x of structure A I
s, =
the deflections determined by an elastic analysis of the seismicforce
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resisting system
OM
=
maximum of Ox
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OAlI,OM2
=
displacements of the adjacent building where 0M2 is at same level as
OAII
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Ol:4 deflection at structure level y of structure A
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OrB
=
deflection at structure level y of structure B
8 stability coefficient  §12.8.7 I
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Definitions
Active Fault/Active Fault Trace. A fault for which there is an average historic slip rate of
I mm per year or more and geologic evidence of seismic activity within Holocene (past I 1,000
years) times. Active fault traces are designated by the appropriate regulatory agency and/or
registered design professional subject to identification by a geologic report.
Allowable Stress Design. A method of proportioning structural members, such that elastically
computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable
stresses (also called working stress design).
Attachments, Seismic. Means by which components and their supports are secured or
connected to the seismicforeeresisting system of the structure. Such attachments include
anchor bolts, welded connections and mechanical fasteners.
Balcony, Exterior. An exterior floor projecting from and supported by a structure without
additional independent supports.
Base. The level at which the horizontal seismic ground motions are considered to be imparted
to the structure.
Base Shear. Total design lateral force or shear at the base.
Boundary Elements. Chords and collectors at diaphragm and shear wall edges, interior
openings, discontinuities, and reentrant corners.
Boundary Members. Portions along wall and diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal
and transverse reinforcement and/or structural steel members.
Brittle. Systems, members, materials and connections that do not exhibit significant energy
dissipation capacity in the inelastic range.
Cantilevered Column System. A structural system relying on column elements that cantilever
from a fixed base and have minimal rotational resistance capacity at the top with lateral forces
applied essentially at the top and are used for lateral resistance.
Collector. A diaphragm or shear wall element parallel to the applied load that collects and
transfers shear forces to the verticalforeeresisting elements or distributes forces within a
diaphragm or shear wall.
Component. A part or element of an architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural system.
Component, equipment. A mechanical or electrical component or element that is part
of a mechanical and/or electrical system within or without a building system.
Component, flexible. Component, including its attachments, having a fundamental
period greater than 0.06 second.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 17
Definitions
Component, rigid. Component, including its attachments, having a fundamental
period less than or equal to 0.06 second.
Confined Region. The portion of a reinforced concrete component in which the concrete is
confined by closely spaced special transverse reinforcement restraining the concrete in
directions perpendicular to the applied stress.
Coupling Beam. A beam that is used to connect adjacent concrete wall piers to make them act
together as a unit to resist lateral forces. .
Dead Loads. The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building, including
but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, builtin partitions, finishes, cladding,
and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed service equipment,
including the weight of cranes.
Deck. An exterior floor supported on at least two opposing sides by an adjacent structure, and/or
posts, piers, or other independent supports .
Deformability. The ratio of the ultimate deformation to the limit deformation,
High deformability element. An element whose deformability is not less than 3.5 when
subjected to four fully reversed cycles at the limit deformation,
Limited deformability element. An element that is neither a low deformability nor a
high deformability element.
Low deformability element. An element whose deformability is 1.5 or less.
Deformation.
Limit deformation. Two times the initial deformation that occurs at a load equal to 40
percent of the maximum strength.
Ultimate deformation. The deformation at which failure occurs and which shall be
deemed to occur if the sustainable load reduces to 80 percent or less of the maximum
strength.
Design Earthquake. The earthquake effects that are 2/3 of MCE earthquake effects.
Design Strength. The product of the nominal strength and a resistance factor (or strength
reduction factor).
Designated Seismic System. Those architectural, electrical, and mechanical systems and their
components that require design in accordance with Chapter 13 that have a component
importance factor, lp , greater than 1.0.
Diaphragm, Flexible. A diaphragm is flexible for the purpose of distribution of story shear and
torsional moment when the lateral deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the
average story drift of the associated story, determined by comparing the computed maximum in
plane deflection of the diaphragm itself under lateral force with the story drift of adjoining
vertical lateralforceresisting elements under equivalent tributary lateral force.
Diaphragm, Rigid. A diaphragm that does not conform to the definition of flexible diaphragm.
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Definitions
Displacement.
Design Displacement. The design earthquake lateral displacement, excluding
additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion, required for design of the
isolation system.
Total Design Displacement. The design earthquake lateral displacement, including
additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion. required for design of the
isolation system.
Total Maximum Displacement. The maximum considered earthquake lateral
displacement, including additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion,
required for verification of the stability of the isolation system or elements thereof,
design of building separations, and vertical load testing of isolator unit prototype.
Displacement Restraint System. A collect ion of structural elements that limits lateral
displacement of seismically isolated structures due to the maximum considered earthquake.
Duration of Load. The period of continuous application of a given load, or the aggregate of
periods of intermittent applications of the same load.
Effective Damping. The value of equivalent viscous damping corresponding to energy
dissipated during cyclic response of the isolation system.
Effective Stiffness. The value of the lateral force in the isolation system, or an element
thereof, divided by the corresponding lateral displacement.
Element
Ductile element. An element capable of sustaining large cyclic deformations beyond the
attainment of its strength.
Limited ductile element. An element that is capable of sustaining moderate cyclic
deformations beyond the attainment of nominal strength without significant loss of
strength.
Nonductile element. An element having a mode of failure that results in an abrupt loss
of resistance when the element is deformed beyond the deformation corresponding to the
development of its nominal strength. Nonductile elements cannot reliably sustain
significant deformation beyond that attained at their nominal strength.
Equipment Support. Those structural members or assemblies of members or manufactured
elements, including braces, frames, lugs, snubbers, hangers, or saddles that transmit gravity load
and operating load between the equipment and the structure.
Essential Facilities. Buildings and other structures that are intended to remain operational in the
event of extreme environmental loading from flood, wind, snow, or earthquakes.
Factored Load. The product of a nominal load and a load factor.
Flexible Equipment Connections. Those connections between equipment components that
permit rotational and/or translational movement without degradation of performance.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 19
Definitions
Frame.
Braced frame. An essentially vertical truss, or its equi valent , of the concentric or
eccentric type that is provided in a building frame system or dual frame system to resist
shear.
Concentrically braced frame (CBF). A braced frame in which the members are
subjected primarily to axial forces.
Eccentrically braced frame (EBF). A diagonally braced frame in which at least one
end of each brace frames into a beam a short distance from a beamcolumn or from
another diagonal brace.
Ordinary concentrically braced frame (OCBF). A steel concentrically braced frame
in which members and connections are designed for moderate duct ility.
Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF). A steel or composite steel and concrete
concentrically braced frame in which members and connections are designed for ductile
behavior.
Frame, Moment.
Intermediate moment frame (IMF). A moment frame in which members and joints are
capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members.
Ordinary moment frame (OMF). A moment frame in which members and joints are
capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis ofthe members.
Special moment frame (SMF). A moment frame in which members and joints are
capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members.
Frame System.
Building frame system. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame
system providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by shear
walls or braced frames.
Dual frame system. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame
system providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by a
momentresisting frame and shear walls or braced frames.
Space frame system. A structural system composed of interconnected members, other
than bearing walls, that is capable of supporting vertical loads and that also may provide
resistance to seismic forces .
Gravity Load (W). The total dead load and applicable portions of other loads as defined in
§§12.7.2 and 12.14.8.1.
Hazardous Contents. A material that is highly toxic or potentially explosive and in sufficient
quantity to pose a significant lifesafety threat to the general public if an uncontrolled release
were to occur.
Impact Load. The load resulting from moving machinery, elevators, craneways, vehicles, and
other similar forces and kinetic loads, pressure, and possible surcharge from fixed or moving
loads.
Importance Factor. A factor assigned to each structure according to its occupancy category
as prescribed in §11.5.1.
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Definitions
Inverted Pendulumtype Structures. Structures that have a large portion of their mass
concentrated near the top and, thus, have essentially one degree of freedom in horizontal
translation. The structures are usually Tshaped with a single column supporting the beams or
framing at the top.
Isolation Interface. The boundary between the upper portion of the structure, which is
isolated, and the lower portion of the structure, which moves rigidly with the ground.
Isolation System. The collection of structural elements that includes individual isolator units,
structural elements that transfer force between elements of the isolation system and
connections to other structural elements.
Isolator Unit. A horizontally flexible and vertically stiff structural element of the isolation
system that permits large lateral deformations under design seismic load. An isolator unit may
be used either as part of or in addition to the weightsupporting system of the building.
Joint. A portion ofa column bounded by the highest and lowest surfaces of the other members
framing into it.
Limit State. A condition beyond which' a structure or member becomes unfit for service and is
judged to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe
(strength limit state).
Live Loads. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure
and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load,
earthquake load, flood load,ordead load.
Live Loads (Roof), Those loads produced I) during maintenance by workers, equipment, and
materials; and 2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters and by
people.
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). A method of proportioning structural members
and their connections using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is
reached when the structure is subjected to appropriate load combinations. The term "LRFD" is
used in the design of steel and wood structures.
Load Factor. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nominal load, for
uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability
that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously,
Loads. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of building materials, occupants and
their possessions, environmental effect , differential movement, and restrained dimensional
changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small
magnitude. Other loads are variable loads (see also "Nominal loads").
Loads Effects. Forces and deformations produced in structural members by the applied loads.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 21
Definitions
Maximum Considered Earthquake. The most severe earthquake effects considered by this
code.
Nominal Loads. The magnitudes of the loads specified in this chapter (dead, live, soil, wind,
snow, rain, flood, and earthquake.)
Nonbuilding Structure. A structure, other than a building, constructed of a type included in
Chapter 15 and within the limits of §15. 1.1.
Other Structures. Structures, other than buildings, for which loads are specified in this
chapter.
Pdelta Effect. The second order effect on shears, axial forces and moments of frame
members induced by axial loads on a laterally displaced building frame.
Panel (Part of a Structure). The section of a floor, wall, or roof located between the
supporting frame of two adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor or
roof construction.
Resistance Factor. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the
nominal strength and the manner and consequences of failure (also called strength reduction
factor).
Seismic Design Category. A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy
category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site, see §11.4.
Seismicforceresisting system. The part of the structural system that has been considered in
the design to provide the required resistance to the seismic forces prescribed herein.
Seismic Forces. The assumed forces prescribed herein, related to the response of the structure
to earthquake motions, to be used in the design of the structure and its components.
Seismic Response Coefficient . Coefficient C" as determined from §12.8.
Shallow Anc hors. Shallow anchors are those with embedme ntlengthtodiameter ratios of
less than 8.
Shear Pa nel. A floor, roof, or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.
Shear Wall. A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall.
Shear Wallframe Interactive System. A structural system that uses combinations of shear
walls and frames designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to their rigidities, considering
interaction between shear walls and frames on all levels.
Site Class . A classification assigned to a site based on the types of soils present and their
engineering properties as defined in §11.4.2.
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Dennltions
Site Coefficients. The values of Faand F
"
indicated in Tables 11.4 1and 11.42, respect ively.
Special Transverse Reinforcement. Reinforcement composed of spirals, closed stirrups, or
hoops and supplementary crossties provided to restrain the concrete and qualify the portion of
the component, where used, as a confined region.
Story Drift Ratio. The story drift divided by the story height.
Strength, Nominal. The capacity of a structure or member to resist the effects of loads, as
determined by computations using specified material strengths and dimensions and formulas
derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of
scaled models, allowing for modeling effects and differences between laboratory and field
conditions.
Strength Design. A method of proportioning structural members such that the computed
forces produced in the members by factored loads do not exceed the member design strength
(also called load and resistance factor design.) The term "strength design" is used in the design
of concrete and masonry structural elements.
Strengt h Required. Strength of a member, cross section, or connection required to resist
factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated by
these provisions.
Torsiona l Force Distributio n. The distribution of horizontal seismic forces through a rigid
diaphragm when the center of mass of the structure at the level under consideration does not
coincide with the center of rigidity (sometimes referred to as a diaphragm rotation).
Toughness. The ability of a material to absorb energy without losing significant strength.
Wall, Loadbearing. Any wall meeting either of the following classifications:
I. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 pounds per linear foot
(1459 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 200 pounds per linear foot
(2919 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
Wall, Nonloadbearing. Any wall that is not a loadbearing wall.
Windrest raint Seismic System. The collection of structural elements that provides restraint
of the seismicisolatedstructure for wind loads. The windrestraint system may be either an
integral part of isolator units or a separate device.
2006 IBC Structural/Sei smic Design Manual, Vol. I 23
Definitio ns
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Example i • Classlficationllmportance Fact ors/Seismic Des ign Cat egor y §11.51
§11.6
Determine the importance factors and the seismic design category for a faci lity given the
following information.
Type of occupancy  Elementary School with capacity greater than 250
SDS = 1.17
SOl = 0.70
SI = 0.75
Determine the following.
[!J Building category and importance factors for general occupancy and for
one building to be used for emergency shelter
[!J Seismic Design Category (SOC)
and Discussion
[!J Building category and importance factors.
From Table 1\.5 1, "Importance Factors ," for the given occupancy category, the general
category is II. The occupancy category is used to determine the "Se ismic Design Category,"
§11 .6 1. The one building to be used for an emergency shelter is Category IV.
The importance factors for seismic loads are from Table 11 .51. Importance factors for snow
loads are from Table 74. Importance factors for wind loads are from Table 61.
Category
II
IV
Seismic
Factor f
\.0
1.5
Snow
Factor 1
\.0
1.20
Wind
Factor f
1.0
\.15
2006 IBC Str uctural/Sei smi c Des ign Manu al, Vol . I 25
§11. S· 1 Example i • Cla ssification/Importance Factors Sei smic Des ign Cat egory
§11. 6
~ Seismic Design Category
All structures are assigned to a Seismic Design Category (SDC) based on their Occupancy
Category and the spectral response acceleration coefficients So< and SOl, irrespective of the
fundamental period of vibration of the structure T. Each building and structure shall be
assigned to the most severe SDC in accordance with Table 11.6 I or I 1.62 as follows.
Table 2.1 Occupancy Category vs Seismic Design Category
Nature of Occupancy Table I 1.61 Table 11.62 SDC
Occupancy Category
SDS
SDC
SOl SDC USE*
School II 1.I7 D* 0.70 D* E
Emergency IV 1.17 0 * 0.70 0 * F
Shelter
Recall: SI = 0.75% for this table
*Note that for Occupancy Categories I, II, and III having S, equal to or greater than 0.75 (recall Sj =
0.75), the building shall be assigned to SDC E. Also for Occupancy Category IV having S, ~ 0.75,
the building shall be assigned to SDC F.
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Ex amp le 1 • Earth quake Load Combi nations: St rength Design §12. 4.2.3
This example demonstrates the application of the strength design load combinations that
involve the seismi c load E given in §12.4;2.3 . This will be done for the momentresisting
frame structure shown below.
8
D
s = 1. 10
I = 1.0
P = 1.3
I I =0.5
Snow load S = 0
A B
, / // / r r • / r r r >
c
D
Beam AB and Column CD are elements of the special momentresisting frame.
Structural analysis has provi ded the following beam moments at A, and the
column axial loads and moments at C due to dead load, office building live load,
and left toright ( ~ ) and righttoleft () directions oflateral seismic loading.
Dead Load Live Load LefttoRight RighttoLeft
D L Seismic Load Seismic Load
(+QI;; ) ( QI;;)
Beam Mome nt at A  100 kipft 50 kipft +120 kip ft 120 kipft
Column CD Axial Load
+90 kips
+40 kips +110 kips  110 kips
Column Moment at C
+40 kipft
+20 kipft +160 kipft ) 60 kipIt
Sign Convention: Positive moment induces flexural tension on the bottom side of a beam and
at the right side of a column. Positi ve axial load induces compression. Note that for the
particular location of Column CD, the seismic Axial Load and Moment at C are both
positive for the lefttoright ( ~ ) loading and are both negative for the righttoIeft ()
loading. This is not necessarily true for the other elements of the structure.
Find the following.
ILJ Strength design seismic load combinations (Comb.)
[!J Strength design moments at beam end A for seismic load combinations
[!J Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the
design of column section at C for seismic load combinations
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§12.4.2.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design
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Governing strength design seismic load combinations
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1.2D+ I.OE +0.5L ... (Note 0.2S =0) (Comb. 5)
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0.9D + 1.0E (Comb. 7)
where for a given type of load action such as moment M or axial load P
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E=E,,+E,.
(Eq 12.41)
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(Eq 12.43)
E,. =0.2S
DSD
(Eq 12.44)
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Combined, these yield
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DSD
(Eq 12.43)
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when the algebraic sign, ±, of QE is taken as the same as that for D, and
E =PQE  0.2SDSD
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when the algebraic sign, ±, of QE is taken as opposite to that for D.
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For the given values of: p =1.3, SDS= 1.10, the load combinations are
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1.2D + 1.3QE+ (0.2)( I.I)D + 0.5L =1.42D+ 1.3QE+ 0.5L (Comb. 5)
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when the signs of QEand D are the same, and
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1.2D +1.3QE (0.2)(1.1)D +0.5L =0.98D + 1.3QE+0.5L (Comb. 5)
when the signs of QEand D are opposite .
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0.9D + 1.3QE + (0.2)(1.1)D =1.I2D + 1.3QE (Comb. 7)
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when the signs of QE and D are the same, and
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Exampl e 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design §1 2. 4.2.3
0.9 D + 1.3QE (0.2)( 1.l)D =0. 68D + 1.3Q£ (Comb. 7)
when the signs of Q£ and D are opposite.
By inspection, the governing seismic load combinations are
when the signs of Q£ and D are the same,
0.68D + 1.3QE
when the signs of QE and D are opposite.
Strength design moments at beam end A for seismic load combinations
~ For the governin g load combination when the signs of Q£ and D are the same
1.42D + 1.3QE+0.5L
M
A
=1.42 ( 100) + 1.3(120) + 0.5(50) = 323 kipft
~ For the governing load combination when the signs of Q£ and D are opposite
0.68D + 1.3QE
with D = M
D
=  100 and QE= 120
M
A
= 0.68(100) + 1.3(120) = 88 kipft
: . Beam section at A must be designed for
M
A
=  323 kipft and + 88 kipft
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 29
§12.4.2.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design
[!J Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the
design of column section at C for seismic load combinations
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The seismic load combinations using the definitions of E given by Equations 12.41
through 12.44 can be used for the design requirement of a single action such as the
moment at beam end A, but they cannot be used for interactive pairs of actions such
as the axial load and moment at the column section C. These pairs must occur
simultaneously because of a common load combination. For example, both the axial
load and the moment must be due to a common direction of the lateral seismic
loading and a common sense of the vertical seismic acceleration effect represented by
0.2 SDsD. There can be cases where the axial load algebraic signs are the same for QE
and D, while the moment algebraic signs are different. This condition would prohibit
the use of the same load combination for both axial load and moment.
To include the algebraic signs of the individual actions, the directional property of the
lateral seismic load effect QE, and the independent reversible property of the vertical
seismic load effect 0.2 SDsD, it is proposed to use
E = p(>QE) ± 0.2 SDSD, and p(Qd ± 0.2 SDsD.
The resulting set of combinations is
1.2D + p(>QE)  0.2 SDsD +L
0.9D + p(>Qd  0.2 SDsD
0.9D + p(Qd + 0.2 SDsD
0.9D + p(Qd  0.2 SDsD
(Note: a factor of 0.5 applies to L if L :0: 100 psf [except at garages and public
assembIy areas])
For the specific values of p = 1.3 and SDS = l.l 0, the load combinations provide the
following values for M
A
, and the interaction pair Pc and Me. Note that the interaction
pair Pc and Me must occur simultaneously at a specific load combination of gravity
load, and lateral and vertical seismic load effects. The interaction design of the
column section must satisfy all of the eight pairs of P
e
and Me from the seismic load
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Example 1 a Earthquake Load Combi nations: Strength Desi g n §1 2.4.2 .3
combinat ions along with the pairs from the gravity load combinations and wind load
combinati ons.
Combination M
A
kipft Pc kips and Me kipft
1.420 + 1.3 (Qi;) + O.5L 35 +268.8 and +242. 8
O.98D+ 1.3 (QE) + O.5L 9 +26.8 and +225.2
1.42D  1.3 (Qd + 0.5L 299 +229.2 and  109.2
0.98D 1.3 (Qd + 0.5L 255  12,8 and · 126. 8
1.12D + 1.3(Qd +20 +22 1.8 and +220 .8
0.68D+ 1.3 (QE) +64 + 182.2 and +203 .2
1. 12D  1.3 (Qd 244 20.2 and 131.2
0.68D 1.3 (QE) 200 59.8 and  148.8
The governing values are underlined for M
A
[same as det ermined in Part (2) ] and for the
interaction pairs of Pc and Merequired for the design of the col umn section at C.
...
The eight seismic load combinations resulting from the proposed definition of E provide an
automatic method of considering the individual algebraic signs of the load actions, the
direction of the lateral seismic load, and the independent ± action of 0.2 SDCD. There is no
need to use the "same sign" and "opposite sign" limitations of Equations 12.42 and 12.43
si nce all possible combinations are represented. Thi s is important for interactive pa irs of
actions that must be evaluated for a common load combination.
When the Modal Response Spectrum Analysis' procedure of §12.9 is used, the algebraic signs
of seismic load actions are lost because of the process of combining the individual modal
responses. The signs to be used for an interaction pai r of actions due to a given direction of
lateral loading can be obtained from the pr imary mode response where the primary mode is
the mode having the largest participati on factor for the given direction of lateral seismic
loading. Or, alternatively, the signs can be obtained from the equivalent lateral force
procedure of §12.8.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 31
§2.4 Example 2 • Combinations of Loads
:
The code permits the use of allowable stress design for the design of wood members and
their fastenings (ASCE/SEI 705 §2.4 and §12.4.2.3). Section 2.4 defines the basic load
combinations for allowable stress design.
This example illustrates the application ofthis method for the plywood shear wall shown
below. The wall is a bearing and shear wall in a light wood framed building.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category B
J = 1.0
P =1.0
5
DS
=0.3
E =Ell = bQ£ = 4 kips (seismic
force due to the base shear
determined from§12.4.2)
Gravity loads
Dead lVD = 0.3 kif (tr ibutary dead
load, including weight of
wall
Live lIIL = (roof load supported by
other elements)
Gravity loads
ITnTTTTm
Plywood
shear wall
Shear Wall Elevati on
Moment arm from center of post to center of holddown bolt
L = 10 ft  (3.5 + 2.0 +3.5/2) = 10 ft 7.25 in = 9.4 ft
Determine the required design loads for shear capacity q and holddown capacity T
for the following load combinations.
[!J Basic allowable stress design
32 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 2 • Combinations of Loads
. . , . , . ~
..
§2.4
[IJ Basic allowable stress design §12.4.2.3
The governing load combinations for basic allowable stress design are Basic ASD
Combi nations 5, 6, and 8, as modified in §12.4.2.3. These are used without the usual one
third stress increase.
§12.4.2 defines the seismic load effect E for use in load combi nations as
= D(J.O 0.968) + 0.75 L,.  0.525 QE for D and QEwith the opposite sense
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= QE+ 0.06D when D and QEare in the same sense
and E = PQE  0.2SosD
=QE 0.06D when D and QEhave oppos ite sense
For ASD Basic Combi nation 5 the load combination is:
D +0.7E
= D(I .O) +0.7 (0.6D + QE)
= ( 1.042)D+0.7QE for D and QE with the same sense
and D(1.0)+0.7(0.6DQd
= 0.958D  O.7QE for D and QEwith opposite sense
For ASD Basic Combination 6 the load combination is:
D +0.75(0.7E) +0.75 (L + Lr)
= D(1.0 + (0.75)(0.7)(0.06)) + (0.75)(0.70)(1.0)QE+0.75 L,.
= J.032D+0.75L,. +0.525 QE for D and QEwith the same sense
For ASD Basic Combination 8 the load combination is:
0.6D + 0.7E
(Eq 12.41)
(Eq 12.43)
(Eq 12.44)
(Comb. 5)
(Comb. 6)
(Comb. 8)
2006 IBC Struct ural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 33
§2.4 Example 2 • Combinations of Loads
=D(0.06) + 0.7(1.0) QE+0.7(0.06)D
= (0.6 + 0.042)D + 0.7QE
=0.642D + O. TQE for D and QE in the same sense
= (0.6  0.042)D  0.7QE
=0.558D  O.TQE for D and QE in the opposite sense
For the determination of design shear capacity, dead load and live load are not
involved, and all load combinations reduce to
For the design holddown tension capacity the governing load combination is
0.558D  0.7QE
For the wall boundary element compression capacity, the governing load combination
would be
1.042D + 0.7QE
~ Required unit shear capacity q
Base shear and the resulting element seismic forces QE determined under §12.8.1
are on a strength design basis. For allowable stress design, QE must be factored by 0.7
as indicated.
For design shear capacity the seismic load effect is
QE = 4000 Ib
For the governing load combination ofO.7QE, the design unit shear is
= 0.7QE = 0.7(4000) = 280 If
q L 10ft P
This unit shear is used to determine the plywood thickness and nailing requirements
from lBe Table 2306.4.1, which gives allowable shear values for shorttime duration
loads due to wind or earthquake. For example, select 15/32 structural I sheeting
(plywood) with 10d common nails having a minimum penetration of 11/2 inches
1
34 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des;gn·Manual, Vol. I
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Example 2 • Comb/nations of Loads §2.4
into 2x members with 6inch spacing of fasteners at panel edges; allowable shear of
340 plf.
Required holddown tensile capacity T
Taking moments about point 0 at center of post at right side of wall with
E" =oQ£=4000 Ib, the value of the holddown tension force T due to horizontal
seismic forces is computed
0.558(300 pit) I0 ft(5 ft  ~ )  o. 7(4000 Ib)(9 ft) + T(9.4 ft) = 0
2(12)
Thus:
8125.88 Ib ft  25,200 Ib ft + 9.4 ft(T) = 0
T = 1816.39 Ib tension
Similarly the boundary element compression capacity is computed
1.042(300 pit) lOft (5 ft  ~ ) + 0.7 (4000 Ib)(9 ft)  C(9.4 ft) = 0
2(12)
Thus:
15,1741b ft + 25,200 Ib ft9.4 ft C=O
c =4295 Ib compression
The tension value is used for the selection of the premanufactured holddown
elements. Manufacturer's catalogs commonly list holddown sizes with their "1.33 x
allowable" capacity values. Here the 1.33 value represents the allowed Load Duration
factor for resisting seismic loads. This is not considered a stress increase (although it
has the same effect). Therefore, the catalog "1.33 x allowable" capacity values may
be used to select the appropriate holddown element.
Equations 12.41 and 12.42 for E create algebraic sign problems in the
load combinations. It would be preferable to use
E = pQ£+ 0.2 SDsD
and use ± E in the load combinations.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 35
§11.4 Des ign Spectral Response Accel eraOons
For a given building site, the maximum considered earthquake spectral response
accelerations S, at short periods, and S) at Isecond period are given by the accelerat ion
contour maps in §22. This example illustrates the general procedure for determining the
design spectral response parameters Sosand SDl from the mapped values of Ss and 8). The
parameters Sos and So, are used to calculate the design base shear in §12.8 and the Design
Response Spectrum in §11.4.5. 
Note that by far the most accurate, easiest, and most efficient way to obtain the spectral
design values is to use the USGS website iwww.eqhazmaps.usgs.govr. Given the longitude
and latitude of the site, the website provides values of Ss and S). The site longitude and
latitude can be obtained from an internet site such as by simply in
putting the address.
From u\I'lI'\I'. geocode.com " it is determined that a buil ding site near Sacramento, California
is located at Latitude 38. 123° North and Longitude  121.123D (or 121.123D west). The soi l
profile is Site Class D.
Determine the following.
[!.J Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations s,
and Sl
!TI Site coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral
response acceleration parameters SMS and SMl
[!J Design spectral response acceleration parameters Sos and SOl
Plot the general procedure response spectrum
Calculation of seismic response coefficient c,
Given: soil site class D, R =6, T=0.60 sec, and I = 1.0
36 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Design Spectral Response Accelerations §11.4
. ""
,.
.
Code.8eference· "
[!J Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations §11.4.1
For the given position (Near Sonora  NW of Sacramento, California) of 38° North
(Latit ude = 38.123°) and 121.123° West (Longitu de = 121.123'), USGS provides the
values of
5s = 46.2%g = 0.462g
5, = 20.3%g = O.203g
~ Site coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral
response accelerations §1 1.4.3
From the USGS for the given site class D, and Ss = 0.462g, 5\ = O.203g, the site coeffi cients
are as follows
The adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations (based 011
§11.4.3) are also given on the CD ROM as follows
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Fa= 1.58
F,. =1.99
SMS=FaS, =1.58(0.462g) =O.730g
S'/I =F,S, =1.99(O.203g) =0.404g
TII.41
T 11.42
(EqI1.41)
(Eq 11.42)
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 37
§ 11. 4 Design Spectral Response Accel erations
~ Design spectral response acceleration parameters
2 2
S DS = SMS = (0.73g) =0.49g
3 3
'J ?
SOl =~ S.I{I =~ (0.404g) =0.27g
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§1l.4.4 I
(Eq 11.43)
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(Eq 11.44)
For periods greater than or equal to Toand less than or equal to T" the design spectral
response acceleration So shall be taken equal to Sos
For periods greater than T:" and less than T
L
, the design spectral response acceleration Sa
shall be given by
For periods less than or equal to To, the design spectral response shall be given by
38
General procedure response spectrum
SDS
So = 0.6 T +0.4 Sos
r:
Sa = (SOI) / T
Where: To = 0.20 (SOl / Sos)
= 0.2 (0.27 /0.49)
= O. I I sec
T, = SOl / 50s
= 0.27 / 0.49
= 0.55 sec
Tt. = 8 sec
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
§1l .4.5
(Eq 11 .45)
(Eq 11.46)
(F 22 15)
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Thus:
T =Period
0.00
0.11
0.55
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
2.00
ScJg
0.18
0.49
0.49
0.34
0.27
0.23
0.19
0.17
0.135
Des ign Spectral Response Accelera ti ons §11 A
Computation for Sa
0.4 (0.49)
0.49
0.27 /0.55
0.27 / 0.8
0.27 / 1.000.27 / 1.2
0.27 / 1.4
0.27 / 1.6
0.27 /2.0
...
.....
S. in g's
0.5
S DS = 0.49g
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.18
0. 1
...
...
... 
... 
... 
o
o
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
To=0.11 sec T, =0.55 sec
General Procedure Response Spectrum
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 39
Calculation of seismic response coefficient C
s
(Recall Soil Site Class D,
f = 1.0 and T= 0.60) §12.8.1
§11.4
40
Design Spectral Response Accelerations
The seismic response coefficient shall be determined by
C, = SDS I (RIl)
= 0.49 I (6.0/1.0)
= 0.082 ... Governs
The value of C, need not exceed
C,. = SDI I (RIlE) T
=0.27 I (6.0/1.0) (0.6)
=0.D75
But shall not be taken less than
C, = 0.01
where SI 2: 0.6g C, shall not be less than
C, =0.5S
1
I (RIl)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
(Eq 12.82)
(Eq 12.83)
(Eq 12.85)
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,':
Introduction to Vertical Irregul arities
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§12.3.2.2
§12.3.2.2
1
Table 12.32 defines vertical structural irregularities and assigns analysis and design
procedures to each type and seismic design category. These irregularit ies can be divided into
two categories. The first, dynamic forcedistribution irregularities, which are Types Ia, Ib, 2,
and 3. The second, irregularities in load path or force transfer, which are Types 4 and 5. The
vertical irregularities are
Ia. Stiffness Soft Story Irregularity
Ib. Stiffness Extreme Soft Story Irregularity
2. Weight (mass) irregularity
3. Vertical geometric irregularity
4. Inplane discontinuity in vertical lateralforceresisting element
Sa. Discontinuity in Lateral Stength  Weak Story Irregularity
5b. Discontinui ty in Lateral Strengt h  Extreme Weak Story Irregularity
Structures in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F possessing dynamic force distribut ion
irregularities shall be analyzed using the dynamic analysis procedure (or modal analysis
procedure) prescribed in §12.7. (Refer to Table 12.6.1) Structure Description 3. The vert ical
force distribution provided by §12.8.3 may be assumed to be adequate for structures lacking
vertical irregulari ty Types Ia, Ib, 2, and 3. However, stiffness and mass discontinuities may
significantly affect the vertical distribution of forces and, for this reason the modal analysis
procedure, which can account for these discontinuities, is necessary.
Although designers may opt to use the dynamic analysis procedure and bypass checks for
irregularity Types Ia, Ib, 2, and 3, the reference sections listed in Table 12.32 should still be
checked for limitations and design requirements. Note that §12.3.3.1 prohibits structures with
vertical irregularity Types Ib, Sa, or 5b for Seismic Design Categories E and F.
Regular structures are assumed to have a reasonably uniform distribution of inelastic
behavior in elements throughout the lateral forceresisting system. When vertical irregularity
Types 4 and 5 exist. there is the possibility of having localized concentrat ions of excessive
inelastic deformations due to the irregular load path or weak story. In this case, the code
prescribes addi tional strengthening to correct the deficiencies for structures in cert ain seismic
design categories (SDCs) . In the case of vertical irregularity Type 5b, limits are placed on the
building height for all SDCs except S DC A.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 41
§12.3.2.2 Example 4 • Vertical1rregularlty Type 1
1
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&le4
.Vertical Irr egularity Type 1a and Type 1b § 12.3.2.2
A Seismic Design Category D fivestory concrete special momentresisting frame is shown
below. The codeprescri bed lateral forces F, from Equation 12.8 11 have been applied and
the corresponding floor level displacements O.re at the floors' centersofmass have been
determined as shown below.
Ft + Fs
10'
10'
10'
' 0'
' 2'
[';'==::;1;:: ' =::::::;1
1
     ;,. 0" . 2.02
i:
F, .. / :
DD
.• 0' , _1.75
Triangular .'"
shape ; I
F, .. "' : !
DD
/ · 0;\... 1.45
F .' /
, .. ! !
DD
./ , 02",.0B
F i "
'.. /.' 0
.I,' It_ 0.71
!",
Actual shape
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[!J Determine if a Type 1a vertical irregularity from Table 12.32 (Stiffness
Soft Story Irregularity) exists in the first story
Calculations and Discussion CodeReference
[L] To determine if this is a Type 1a vertical irregularity (StiffnessSoft Story
Irregularity) there are two tests
I. The lateral story stiffness is less than 70 percent of that ofthe story above.
2. The lateral story stiffness is less than 80 percent of the average stiffness of the three
stories above.
42 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 4 • Venicallrregularity Type 1 §12. 3.2.2
1
If the stiffness of the story meets at least one of the two criteria above, the structure is
deemed to have a soft story, and a modal analysis (§12.9) is generally required by Table
12.6 I.
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The definit ion of soft story in the code compares values of the lateral stiffness of individual
stories. Generally, it is not practical to use stiffness properties unless these can be easily
determined. There are many structural configurations where the evaluat ion of story stiffness
is complex and is often not an available output from computer programs. Recogni zing that
the basic intent of this irregularity check is to determine if the lateralforce distribution will
differ significantly from the pattern prescribed by §12.8.3, which assumes a prescribed shape
for the first dynamic mode of response, this type of irregularity can also be determined by
comparing values of drift ratios due to the prescr ibed lateral forces. This deformat ion
comparison may even be more effective than the stiffness comparison because the shape of
the first mode shape is often closely approximated by the structure displacements due to the
specified §12.8.3 force pattern. Floor level displacements and corresponding storydrift ratios
are directly available from computer programs. To compare displacements rather than
stiffness, it is necessary to use the reciprocal of the limiting percentage ratios of 70 and 80
percent as they apply to story stiffness, or reverse their applicability to the story or stories
above. The following example shows this equivalent use of the displacement propert ies.
I
From the given displacements , story drifts and the storydrift rat io' s values are determi ned.
The storydrift ratio is the story drift divided by the story height. These storydrift ratios will
be used for the required comparisons because they better represent the changes in the slope
of the mode shape when there are significant differences in interstory heights. (Note: story
displacements can be used if the story heights are nearly equal.)
I
In terms of the calculated storydrift ratios, the soft story occurs when one of the following
conditions exists.
or
t. ,
0,.  0"
=
(1.08  0.71) = 0.00308
 '=
h, h, 120
~ =
Ii,.  0,.
=
(1.45  1.08) = 0.00308
h, h, 120
s s  Ii
When 70 percent of " exceeds ,. ,.
h, h,
Ii, I [(0, Ii,.) (0,  Ii, ) (0, Ii ,)]
When 80 percent of  ' exceeds  .• , + • _. + • .•
h, 3 h, h, h,
= 0.00493
(0.71 0)
=
144
~ = o ..
h, h,
the storydrift ratios arc determi ned as
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 4 3
§12. 3.2.2 Example 4 • Vertical Irregularity Type 1
1
_t:J._, = Ii"  Ii" =
Iz, s,
(1.751.45) = 0.00250
120
44
~ ( 0 . 0 0 3 0 8 + 0.00308 + 0.00250) = 0.00289
3
Checking the 70percent requirement:
O.70(1i,,) =0.70(0.00493) =0.00345 > 0.00308 ... NG
hi
: . Soft story exists. . .
Note that 70 percent of first story drift is larger than second story drift. Alternately:
0.00493 > (0.00308 x 1.30= 0.0040) . . . thus soft story.
Also note that structural irregularities of Types Ia, Ib, or 2 in Table 12.32 do not
apply where no storydrift ratio under design lateral force is greater than 130 percent
of the storydrift ratio of the next story above, §12.3.2.2, Except ion 1.
Checking the 80percent requirement:
0 . 8 0 ( ~ ) = 0.80(0.00493) =0.00394 > 0.00289 ... NG
h,
.', Soft story exists. . . condition Ia
Alternately: 0.00493 > (0.00289 x 1.20 = 0.00347) . .. thus soft story.
Check for extreme soft story, (Vertical Structural Irregularity, Type l b)
Checking the 60percent requirement:
0.60(0.00493) = 0.002958 < 0.00308 . . . o. k.
Alternately: 0.00493 > (0.00308 x 1.4 = 0.004312) .. . o.k.
Checking the 70percent requirement:
0.70 (0.00493) = 0.003451 > 0.00289 . .. NG
Al ternately: 0.00493 > (0.00289 x 1.3 = 0.00375) . .. NG
Thus: StiffnessExtreme Soft Story exists  condition lb.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 4 tI Vertical Irr egularity Type 1 §12.3.2.2
Recall from Table 12.32 for Ib, extreme soft story, reference §12.3.3. 1. This building is
SOC 0 , and is permitted, Structures having SDC E or F and also having vertical irregularity
Type Ib shall not be permitted.
Commentary
Section 12.8.6 requires that story drifts be computed using the maximum inelastic response
displacements b.r , which include the deflection amplification factor Cd
s = Cdb.rr
x I
(Eq 12.815)
However, for the purpose of the story drift, or storydrift ratio, comparisons needed for soft
story determination, the displacement b
xe
due to the design seismic forces can be used as in
this example. In the exampl e above, only the first story was checked for possible softstory
vertical irregularity. In practice, all stories must be checked, unless a modal analysis is
performed. It is often convenient to create tables to facilitate this exercise, see Tables 4.1
and 4.2.
Tabl e 4. I SoftStory Status ln
Sto ry Story Storydrift 0.8x (Story 0.7x (Story Avg . of Story drift Ratio
Leve l Displacement Drift Rat io drift Ratio) drift Ratio) of Next 3 Stories
5 2.02 in 0.27 in 0.00225 0.00180 0.00 158
4 1.75 0.30 0.00250 0.00200 0.00175
3 1.45 0.37 0.00308 0.00246 0.00216
2 1.08 0. 37 0.00308 0.0024 6 0.00 216 0.00261
0.71 0.71 0.00493 0.00394 0.00345 0.00289
Tabl e 4.2 SoftStory Status Ib
Story Story Storydrift 0.7x (Story 0.6x (Story Avg, of Storydrift Rat io
Level Displacement Drift ratio drift Ratio) dr ift Ratio) of Next 3 St ories
5 2.02 in 0.27 in 0.00225 0.001 58 0.00 135
4 1.75 0.30 0.00250 0.00175 0.00150
3 1.45 0.37 0.00308 0.002 16 0.001 85
2 1.08 0.37 0.00308 0.002 16 0.00185 0.0026 1
0.71 0.71 0.00493 0.00345 0.00296 0. 00289
Soft Story
Status la
No
No
No
No
Yes
Soft Story
Status lb
No
No
No
No
Yes
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 45
§12.3.2.2 Example 5 • Vertical Irregularity Type 2
...' a!nple 5
; Type 2
The fivestory special moment frame office building has a heavy utility equipment
installation at Level 2. This results in the floor weight distribution shown below.
Ws =90 k
W,= 110k
W, = 110 k
W,= 100k
[!J Determine if there is a Type 2 vertical weight (mass) irregularity
. , .
:Calci!li!tions and Discussion Code Reference
A weight, or mass, vertical irregularity is considered to exist when the effective mass of any
story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story. However, this
requirement does not apply to the roof if the roof is lighter than the floor below. Note that it
does apply if the roof is heavier than the floor below.
Checking the effective mass of Level 2 against the effective mass of Levels 1 and 3
At Levell
1.5 X WI = 1.5(100 kips) =150 kips
At Level 3
1.5 X W
3
= 1.5(110 kips) = 165 kips
Wz = 170 kips > 150 kips
.. Weight irregularity exists.
46 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 5 • Verti cal Irregul arity Type 2 §12.3.2.2
I , • ..,
.Commentary
As in the case of vertical irregul arity Type l a or Ib, this Type 2 irregularity also results in a
primary mode shape that can be substantially different from the triangular shape and lateral
load distribution given by §12.8.3. Consequently, the appropriate load distribution must be
determined by the modal analysis procedure of §12.9, unless the irregular structure is not
more than two stories and is Occupancy Category l or II (see Table 12.61).
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 47
§12.3.2.2 Ex ample 6 • Vertical Irregularity Type 3
ample 6
Vertical Irregularity Type 3 § 12.3.2.2
The lateralforeeresi sting system of the fivestory special moment frame building shown
below has a 25foot setback at the third, fourth, and fifth stories.
4@2S' 100'
I.....

....
..... ...
5
DDD
DDD
3
DDD
2
D.DDD
'/ "/ //"/ // / / / , / //, /
Level
4
[!J Determine if a Type 3 vertical irregularity (vertical geometric irregularity)
exists
and Discussion Code Reference
A vertical geometric irregulari ty is considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the
lateralforeeresisting system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in the adjacent
story. Onestory penthouses are not subject to this requirement.
In this example, the setback of Level 3 must be checked. The ratios of the two levels are
Width of Level 2 = (lOa ft) =1.33
Width of Level 3 (75 ft)
133 percent > 130 percent
.'. Vertical geometric irregulari ty exists.
48 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual, Vol . I
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Example 6 • Vertical Irregularity Type 3 §12.3.2.2
, .
Commentary
The more than l30percent change in width of the lateralforceresisting system between
adjacent stories could result in a primary mode shape that is substantially different from the
shape assumed for proper applications of Equation 12.8 11. If the change is a decrease in
width of the upper adjacent story (the usual situation), the mode shape difference can be
mitigated by designing for an increased stiffness in the story with a reduced width.
Similarl y, if the width decrease is in the lower adjacent story (the unusual situation), the
Type la softstory irregularity can be avoi ded by a proportional increase in the stiffness of
the lower story. However, when the width decrease is in the lower story, there could be an
overturning momentloadtransfer discontinuity that would require a dynamic analysis per
Table 12.61.
Note that if the frame elements in the bay between lines 4 and 5 were not included as part of
the designated lateralforceresisting system, the vertical geometric irregularity would not
exist.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol.J 49
§12. 3.2.2 Ex ample 7 11 Vertical Irre gul ar i ty Type 4
,Ex, mple 7
Vertical Irregularity Type 4 § 12.3.2.2
A concrete building has the building frame system shown below. The shear wall
between lines A and B has an inplane offset from the shear wall between lines C
and D.
3@25'=75'
r r r T
Level IE <     ~
12'
12'
12'
12'
12'
5
'DO'

L
4
0

e:
3
00
25'
2
50'
1
// '/ / , ' / / / '/ / / " /
Shear wall
Shear wall
[!J Determine if there is a Type 4 vertical irregularity (inplane discontinuity)
in the verticallateralforceresisting element
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
A Type 4 vertical irregularity exists when there is an inplane offset of the lateralforce
resisting elements greater than the length of those elements . In this example, the left
side of the upper shear wall (between lines A and B) is offset 50 feet from the left
side of the lower shear wall (between lines C and D). This 50foot offset is greater
than the 25foot length of the offset wall clements .
: . Inplane discontinuity exists.
50 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Examp le 7 • Vertical Irregularity Type 4 §12.3.2.2
s: '"
C;ommentary
The intent of this irregularity check is to provide correction offorce transfer or load
path deficiencies. It should be noted that any inplane offset, even those less than or equal
to the length or bay width of the resisting element, can result in an overturning moment
loadtransfer discontinuity that requires the application of §12.3.3.3. When the offset
exceeds the length of the resisting element, there is also a shear transfer discontinuity
that requires application of §12.3.3.4 for the strength of collector elements along the
offset. In this example, the columns under wall AB are subject to the provisions of
§12.3.3.3, and the collector element between lines Band C at Level 2 is subject to the
provisions of §12.3.3.4.
2006 IBC Structlirall Suismic Design Manual. Vol . I 51
§12.3.2.2 Exa mple 8 • VertIc al Irregul ar ity Type 5a
IE. ampleB
Verfi cal l r r egularity Type 5a §12.3.2,,2
A concrete bearingwall bui lding has the typical transverse shearwall configuration
shown below. All walls in this direction are identical, and the individual piers have
the shear contribution given below. Then, V, is the nominal shear strength calculated in
accordance with Chapter 19, and V
m
is defined herein as the shear corresponding to the
development of the "nominal flexure strength also calculated in accordance with Chapter
19." Note that VII/ is not defined in ACI or Chapter 19.
Level J
PIER \I V",
n
1 20 kips 30 kips
2 30 40
3 15 10
4 80 120
5 15 10
[!J Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity (discontinuity in capacity weak
story) condition exists
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
A Type Sa weakstory disconti nuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less
than 80 percent of that in the story above. The story strength is the total strength of all
seismicforceresisting elements shari ng the story shear for the direction under consideration.
Using the smaller values of VII and VII/ given for each pier, the story strengths are
First story strength = 20 + 30 + 10 = 60 kips
Second story strength =80 + 10 = 90 kips
Check if firststory strength is less than 80 percent of that of the second story.
60 kips < 0.8(90) = 72 kips
:. Weak story condition exists.
52 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 8 • VerlicallrregularJty Type Sa §12.3.2.2
Check if firststory strength is less than 65 percent of that of the second story (Irregularity
Type 5b).
60 kips < 0.65(90 kips) = 58.5 kips
:. 60 kips > 58.5 kips
. . Therefore the lower story is not an extreme soft story, Irregularity Type 5b.
Commentary
This irregularity check is to detect any concentration of inelastic behavior in one
supporting story that can lead to the loss of vertical load capacity. Element s
subject to this check are the shearwall piers (where the shear contribution is
the lower of either the shear at development of the flexural strength, or the
shear strength), bracing members and their connections, and frame columns.
Frame columns with weak columnstrong beam condit ions have a shear
contribution equal to that developed when the top and bottom of the column
are at flexural capacity. Where there is a strong columnweak beam condition,
the column shear resistance contribution should be the shear corresponding to
the development of the adjoining beam yield hinges and the column base
connection capacity. In any case, the column shear contribution shall not
exceed the column shear capacity.
An extreme weak story is prohibited (under §12.3.3.1) for structures more than two
stories or 30 feet in height if the "weak story" has a calculated strength ofless
than 80 percent of the story above. A weakstory condition is absolutely prohibited in
SDC E and F.
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2006 IBC Slructural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 53
§12.3.3.1 Example 9 II Vertical Irregularity Type 5a
Example 9
Verticallrregulaljty Type Sa § 12.3.3. 1
A fivestory building has a steel special momentresisting frame (SMRF). The frame
consists ofW24 beams and W14 columns with the following member strength
properties.
5
4
.
.
3
~ ..
'
.. .
2
1
.. ......
// "/ / / / //
. /
///
Beams at Levels I and 2:
Mllb =ZF."=250 kipft
Columns on lines Band C at
both levels:
M" c=250 kipft at
axial loading of 1.2PD + 0.5P
L
Column base connections at grade
(based on gradebeam strength):
Jvf"GB=100 kipft
In addition, assume for the purposes
of illustration only, that the columns
have been designed such that a
strong beamweak column condi tion
is permitted.
12'
12'
12"
12'
14'
Level
A o
Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity (discontinuity in capac ityweak story)
cond ition exists in the first story.
[!J Determine firststory strength
[!J Determine secondstory strength
~ Determi ne if weakstory exists at first story
Calculations andDiscussion Code Reference
A Type 5 weakstory discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80
percent of that of the story above (where it is less than 65 percent, an extreme weak story
exists) . The story strength is consi dered to be the total strength of all seismicforeeresisting
elements that share the story shear for the directi on under consideration.
To determine if a weak story exists in the first story, the sums of the column shears
in the first and second storieswhen the member moment capacities are developed
by lateral loadingmust be determined and compared.
In this example, it is assumed that the beam moments at a beamcolumn joint are
54 2006 IBC Stru ctur al/Se ismic Desig n Manual, Vol. I
Example 9 • Vertical Irregularity Type Sa §12.3.3.1
distributed equally to the sections of the columns directly above and below the joint.
Given below are the calculations for first and second stories.
[!J Determine first story strength
Columns A and D must be checked for strong columnweak beam considerations
200
2M
c
=400 > M; =250
: . Strong columnweak beam condition exists.
....
~ ) 250
... FOR MOMENT
200
v
Next, the shear in each column must be determined.
Note moment capacity of beam (25012) governs over
moment capacity of column (200) to determine shear
a M. /2 =125 kipft
1 2 5 ~
L) 250
125 I
''
Clear height = 14 ft  2 ft = 12 ft
125+100 187k'
  = .) "iPS
12 v
•
o Mf=100kip·ft
FOR SHEAR
Checking columns Band C for strong columnweak beam
considerations
2M
c
= 400 < 2Jvfb =500
200.........
250(+)250
200"
:. Strong beamweak column condition exists.
Next, the shear in each column must be determined.
Note moment capacity of column governs over v
moment capacity of beam to determine shear.
Clear height = 14 ft  2 ft =12 ft
FOR MOMENT
200..........
a 200(+) 200
Me = 200 kipft
200''
200 r'
VB= Vc=
200 + 100 = 25.0 kips
12
V
4
M =100 klpft
G
100 .....J
FOR SHEAR
First story strength = VA + VB + VD =2(18.75) + 2(25.0) =87.5 kips
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 55
§12.3.3.1 Example 9 • Ver tical Irregularity Type 5a
~ Determine second story strength
Columns A and D must be checked for st rong columnweak beam at Level 2
:. strong columnweak beam condition exists.
FOR MOMENT
''
125
Mb I 2= 125 kipft
v
"""" 200
Clear height = 12 ft  2 ft = 10ft 125
r
V
 tr  125 + 125 ?5 0 k'
"  " D   _. IpS
. 10
J
125
FOR SHEAR
v
•
Mb I 2= 125 kipft
125" J
Checking columns B and C for strong columnweak beam considerations
2M
c
=400 < 2Mb=500
: . Strong beamweak column condition exists .
v
FOR MOMENT
Me = 200 kipft
Clear height = 12 ft  2 ft = IOft
10'
200........
200( + )200
200........
VB = Vc = 200 + 200 = 40.0 kips
10
200 J1"""'
FOR SHEAR
v
•
Me =200 klpft
200 '"
Second story strength
= VI + VB + Vc+ V
D
+ 2(25.0) +2(40.0) = 130.0 kips
56 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Exampl e 9 ~ Vertical Ir regul ari ty Type Sa §12.3. 3. 1
~ Determine if weak story exist s at first story
First story strength = 87.5 kips
Second story strength = 130.0 kips
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87.5 < 0.80(130) = 104
:. Weak story condition in first story exists.
(T 12.32, Item 5a)
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 57
§ 12. 3.2.1 Intr oducti on 10 Hor/zonla/lrregularitles
Horizontal structural irregularities are identified in Table 12.31. There are five types of
horizontal irregularities:
l a. Tor sional Irregularity  to be considered when diaphragms are not flexible as
determined in §12.3.1.2
lb. Extreme Torsional Irregularity  to be considered when diaphragms are not
flexible as determined in §12.3.1.2
2. Reentrant Comer Irregularity.
3. Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity.
4. Outofplane Offsets Irregularity.
5. Nonparallel Systems  Irregularity.
Introduction to
Horizontal Irregularities §12.3.2.1
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These irregularities can be categorized as being either special response conditions
or cases of irregular load path. Types Ia, Ib, 2, 3, and 5 are special response condit ions:
Type 1a and 1b. When the ratio of maximum story drift to average story drift exceeds the
given limit, there is the potential for an unbalance in the inelastic deformation demands at the
two extreme sides ofa story. As a consequence, the equivalent stiffness of the side
having maximum deformation will be reduced, and the eccentr icity between the
centers of mass and rigidity will be increased along with the corresponding torsions.
An amplification factor Ax is to be applied to the accidental torsion M'ato represent the
effects of this unbalanced stiffness, §I2.8.4. I to 12.8.4.3.
Type 2. The opening and closing deformation response or flapping action of the
projecting legs of the building plan adjacent to reentrant comers can result in
concentrated forces at the comer point. Element s must be provided to transfer
these forces into the diaphragms.
Type 3. Excessive openings in a diaphragm can result in a flexible diaphragm
response along with force concentrations and load path deficienci es at the
boundari es of the openings. Elements must be provided to transfer the forces
into the diaphragm and the structural system.
Type 4. The outofplane offset irregul arity represents the irregular load path category. In this
case, shears and overturning moments must be transferred from the level above the offset to
the level below the offset, and there is a horizontal offset in the load path for the shears.
Type 5. The response deformations and load patterns on a system with nonparallel
lateralforceresisting elements can have significant differences from those of a regular
system. Further analysis of deformation and load behavior may be necessary.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 10 a Horizontal Irregularity Type 1a and Type 1b §12.3.2.1
ri3fnple 1
oui on a/Irregulari ty Type 1a and ype'lb § 12.3,,2.
A threestory special momentresisting frame building has rigid floor diaphragms.
Under codeprescribed seismic forces, including the effects of accidental torsion, it has
the following elastic displacements OXl! at Levels I and 2.
OL.: ! = 1.20 in OR,:!. = 1.90 in
A Type 1a torsional irregularity is considered to exist when the maxi mum story
drift, including accidental torsion effects, at one end of the structure transverse to
an axis is more than 1.2 times the average of the story drifts of the two ends of the
structure, see §12.8.6 for story drift determination
[}J Determine if a Type 1a or Type 1b torsional irregularity exists at the
second story
If it does:
~ Compute the torsional amplification factor Ax for Level 2
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Level
3
2
C€l'cu'ations and Discussion
OR,2
>
OR,1
 7
Code Reference
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 59
§12.J.2.1 Exampl e 10 . Horizon'al Irregula rit y Type 1a and Type 1b
ITI Determine if a Type 1a torsional irregularity exists at the second story
Referri ng to the above figure showing the displacements b
Je
due to the
prescribed lateral forces, this irregularity check is defined in terms of story
drift D.
x
=(b
x
 bxd at ends R (right) and L (left) of the structu re. Torsional
irregularity exists at Level x when
where
Determining story drifts at Level 2
D.L,2 = 1.20  1.00 = 0.20 in
D.R.2 = 1.90  1.20 = 0.70 in
A = 0.20 +0.70 = 0 45 .
U al'g . I n
2
Checking 1.2 criteria
D. """ = 0.7 = 1.55 > 1.2
D.
a
,, 0.45
:. Tors ional irregularity exis ts  Type Ia.
Check for extreme torsional irregulari ty
D. 0_70 I 55 h .  I  . T Ib
"!!!!. =   = . . . .t us, extreme torsion lrregu an ty exists  ype .
D. .", 0.45
60 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
T 12.31
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Example 10 . Horizontal Irr egularity Type 1a and Type 1b
~ Compute amplifi cati on factor Ax for Level 2
§12.3.2.1
§12.8.4.3
1
When torsional irregularity exists at a Level x, the accidental torsional moment M'nmust be
increased by an amplification factor Ax. This must be done for each level, and each level may
have a different Ax value. In this example, A., is computed for Level 2.
Note that Ax is a function of the displacements as opposed to/versus the drift.
( )
2
4 = (jmtI.'
' .' 1.26
0
' 8
b
ma
., = 1.90 in... (b
R
.
2
)
b = bL,] + bR., = 1.30 + 1.90 = 1.60 in
avg 2 2
A, = ( 1.90 )2= 0.98 < 1.0 . . . Note Ax shall not be less than 1.0
 1.2(1.60)
:. use Ax = 1.0.
Commentary
(!BC Eq 1644)
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In §12.8.4.3, there is the provision that the more severe loading shall be considered. The
interpretation of this for the case of the story drift and displacements to be used for the
average values I'l.b",.gand b
m·g
is as follows . The most severe condition is when both bR,X and
bL,Xare computed for the same accidental centero fmass displacement that causes the
maximum displacement b
max
. For the condition shown in this example where b
RX
= bma.n the
centersofmass at all levels should be displaced by the accidental eccentricity to the right
side R, and both bR,Xand bL..rshould be evaluated for this load condition.
Tabl e 12.31 triggers a number of special design requirements for torsionally irregular
structures. In fact, if irregularity Type Ib (Extreme Torsional Irregularity) is present,
§12.3.3. 1 is triggered, which prohibits such structures for SOC E or F. It is important to
recognize that torsionai irregularity is defined in terms of story drift I'l.." while the evaluation
of A.r by Equati on 12.814 is, in terms of displacements b
xc
• There can be instances where the
storydrift values indicate torsional irregul arity and where the related displacement values
produce an Ax value less than 1.0. This result is not the intent of the provision, and the value
of Ax used to determine acci dental torsion should not be less than 1.0.
The displacement and storydrift values should be obtained by the equivalent lateralforce
method with the codeprescribed lateral forces. Theoret ically, if the dynamic analysis
procedure were to be used, the values of I'l. ma.' and I'l.m.g would have to be found for each
dynamic mode, then combined by the appropriate SRSS or CQC procedures, and then scaled
to the codeprescribed base shear. However, in view of the complexity of this determinat ion
and the judgmental nature of the 1.2 factor, it is reasoned that the equivalent static force
method is sufficiently accurate to detect torsional irregularity and evaluate the Ax factor.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 61
§12.3.2.1 Example 10 . Horizontal Irregularity Typ e 1a and Type 1b
J
If the dynamic analys is procedure is either elected or required, then §12.7.3 requires the use
of a threedimensional model if there are any irregularities.
For cases oflarge eccentricity and low torsional rigidity, the static force procedure can resul t
in a negative displacement on one side and a positive on the other. For example, this occurs if
Du = DADin. and DR.3 = 1.80 in. The value of Dm'g in Equation 12.8 14 should be calculated
as the algebraic average.
= ( 40) + 1.80 = l AO =0.70 in
2 2
When dynamic analysis is used, the algebraic average value Dm'g should be found for each
mode, and the individual modal results must be properly combined to determine the total
response value for D
m
.
g
•
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Example 11 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 2 §12. 3.2. 1
Example 11
orizontallrregularity T}'J e 2 §12.3.2.. 1
The plan configuration of a tenstory special moment frame building is as shown below.
0
0  ~
o
N
@)
c<)
0
8
G
I
1<
0) ®
I I
4 @l2S= 100'
[!J Determine if there is a Type 2 reentrant corner irregularity
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
A Type 2 reentrant comer irregularity exists when the plan configuration of a structure and
its lateral foreeresisti ng system contain reentrant corners, where both proj ections of the
structure beyond a reentrant comer are greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension of the
structure in the direction considered.
The plan configuration of this building, and its lateralforceresisting system, has reentrant
comer dimensions as shown. For the sides on line I , the proj ection beyond the reentrant
comer is
100 ft  75ft = 25 ft
This is 25 or 25 percent of the 100ft plan dimension . . . More than 15 percent.
100
For the sides on line E, the projection is
60 ft  40 ft = 20 ft
2006 IBC Structura l/Seis mic p esign Manual, Vol . I 63
§1 2.3.2.1 Example 11 • Horiz ontal Irregularity Type 2
This is 20 or 33.3 percent of the 60ft plan dimension . . . More than 15 percent.
~ .
Since both projections exceed 15 percent , there is a reentrant comer irregularity.
Reentrant comer irregularity exists.
Commentary
Whenever the Type 2 reentrant comer irregularity exists, see the diaphragm design
requirements of §12.3.3.4 for SDC D, E, and F.
64 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. J
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Exampl e 12 IZ Horizontal Irregular i ty Type 3 §12.3. 2.1
• a;8V»ple 12
Horizonfal lrregularity ype 3 §12.3.2.1
A fivestory concrete building has a bearing wall system located around the perimeter
of the buil ding. Lateral forces are resisted by the bearing walls acting as shear wa lls.
The floor plan of the second floor of the building is shown below. The symmetrically
placed open area in the diaphragm is for an atrium, and has dimensions of 40 feet by 75 feet.
All diaphragms above the second floor are wi thout significant openings.
? ~ ~ ?
r
125'
1 IE
75'
~
®
®
b
CD
® "
®
Second floor pl an
[!J Determine if a Type 3 diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists at the second
floor level
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
A Type 3 diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exi sts when diaphragms have abrupt
discontinuities or variations in stiffness, including cutout or open areas comprising more than
50 percent of the gross enclosed area of the diaphragm, or changes in effect ive diaphragm
stiffness of more than 50 percent from one story to the next.
The first check is for gross area
Gro ss enclosed area of the diaphragm is 80 ft x 125 ft =10,000 sq ft
Area of opening is 40 ft x 75ft = 3000 sq ft
50 percent of gross area = 0.5(10,000) = 5000 sq ft
3000 < 5000 sq ft
" No diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists.
2006 IBC Structural/SeismIc Design Manual, Vol . I 65
§ 12. 3. 2. 1 Exampl e 12 • Horizonrallrregu/ arit y Type 3
The second check is for stiffness.
The sti ffuess of the second floor diaphragm with its opening must be compared with
the stiffness of the solid diaphragm at the third floor. If the change in stiffness exceeds
50 percent, a diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists for the structure.
This comparison can be performed as follows.
Find the simple beam midspan deflections L12 and L1J for the diaphragms at Levels
2 and 3, respectively, due to a common distri buted load IV such as I kif.
w= 1kif
.
t : . ~ " ' " ....
,     ~   . >
        .. ..... ~ Deflected shape
w =1 kif
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If L12> 1.5L1J, there is diaphragm discontinuity.
66 200 6 IBC St ructural/Se;smic Design Manual, Vol. I
Denected shape
Example 13 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 4 §12.3.2.1
.... an Ie 13
rizontallrregularity TjIj e 4 §12.3.2.1
A fourstory building has a concrete shear wall lateralforceresisting system in a
bui lding frame system configuration. The plan configuration of the shear walls is.
shown below.
10'
10'
10'
10'
Elevation Line E
o
III
0)
"
2 in
'"
@
'"
o
I.
®
I
Typical floor plan
0) @ 0
I I<E 25' ~
4 @25' o l 00' < 1
Ground (first) floor plan
[!J Determine it there is a Type 4 outatplane offset irregularity between the first
and second stories
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
An outofplane offset plan irregularity exists when there are discontinuities in a lateral
force path. For example: outofplane offsets of vertical lateral forceresisting elements such
as shear walls . The first story shear wall on line 0 has a 25foot outofplane offset to the
shear wall on line E at the second story and above. This constitutes an outofplane offset
irregularity, and the referenced sections in Table 12.3.2.1 apply to the design.
: . Offset irregularity exists.
2006 IBC Structura l/Seis mic Desig n Manual, Vol. I 67
§12.3.2.1 Exa mple 14 • Hori zontal Irregularity Type 5
Example 14
Horizont al Irregularity Type 5 §12.3.2.1
A tenstory building has the floor plan shown below at all levels. Special moment
resisting frames are located on the perimeter of the building on lines 1,4, A, and F.
0
0  ~
in
N
~ @ ;
~ M
Typical floor plan
[!J Determine if a Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity exists
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
A Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity is considered to exist when the vertical
lateralforceresisting elements are not parallel to or symmetric about the major
orthogonal axes ofthe building's lateralforeeresisting system.
The vertical lateralforeeresisting frame elements located on line F are not
parallel to the major orthogonal axes of the building (i.e., lines 4 and A).
Therefore a nonparallel system irregularity exists, and the referenced section
in Table 12.31 applies to the design, see §12.5.3, §12.73, and Table 12.61.
:. A nonparallel system irregularity exists.
A 3dimens ional dynamic analysis is recommended.
68 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 15 • Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p §12.3.4
·Ei.rample 15
Redundancy Factor p §12.3.4
The calculation of the redundancy factor p has changed considerably between earlier
codes (1997 UBC; 2000 and 2003 1BC; ASCE/SEI 702) and the ASCE/SEI 705. The
calculation is in some ways simpler, although it nevertheless requir es some effort for
conditions that do not compl y with prescriptive requirements (unless the full penalty is
taken, as described below) .
ASCE/SEI 705 permits the redundancy factor to be taken as 1.0 in the following
circumstances (§12.3.4. 1):
I. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B or C. (Note that the load
combinations that include the redundancy factor are not used for Seismic Design
Category A.)
2. Drift calculation and Pdelta effects.
3. Design of nonstructural components.
4. Design of nonbuilding structures that are not similar to buildings.
5. Design of collector elements, splices and their connections for which the load
combinations with overstrength factor of §12.4.3.2 are used.
6. Design of members or connections where the load combi nat ions with overstrength
of §12.4.3.2 are required for des ign.
7. Diaphragm loads determined using Eq. 12.101 (note that this does not apply to
forces transferred through a diaphragm, such as due to an outofplane offset in
the seismic load resisting system, and the higher p factor may apply as otherwise
required).
8. Structures wit h damping systems designed in accordance wi th 18.
Additionally, §12.3.4.2 ident ifies two other conditions in which p may be taken as 1.0.
Note that the criteria for these condi tions need only be met at floor levels in which more
than 35percent of the base shea r is being resisted; for the top level or levels of taller
structures, the conditions need not be met. The factor may be taken as 1.0 when either of
the conditions listed below is met. In all other conditions, p is taken as 1.0. There is no
longer a calcu lated p factor between the minimum and maximum values.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual , Vol. I 69
§12.3.4 Example 15 II Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p
Condition I
12.3.4.2(a) Configurations in which the removal of one element (as described below
in the summary of Table 12.33) will not result in an increase of more than 33percent
reduction in story shear strength or in an extreme torsional irregularity (as defined in
Table 12.31).
Summary of Table 12.33
Removal of one element is defined as:
1. The removal of a brace (braced frames).
2. Loss of moment resistance at the beamtocolumn connections at both ends of a
single beam (moment frames).
3. Removal of a shear wall or wall pier with a heighttolength ratio greater than 1.0
(shear wall systems).
4. Loss of moment resistance at the base connections of any single cantilever
column (cantilever column systems).
5. For other systems, such as seismically isolated structures, no prescriptive
requirements are given, allowing p to be taken as 1.0.
Condition II
12.3.4.2(b) Configurations with no plan irregularities at any level and with sufficient
perimeter braced frames, moment frames, or shearwalls. Sufficient perimeter bracing is
defined as at least two bays of seismic forceresisting perimeter framing on each side of
the structure in each orthogonal direction. For shear wall systems the number of bays is
calculated as the length of shear wall divided by the story height (two times the length of
shear wall divided by the story height for lightframed construction).
EXAMPLE
To illustrate the application of the method for establishing the redundancy factor, the
structure shown in Figure 15.1 will be analyzed.
Wall E Wall F
Stiffness K. Stiffness Kf
WaliA Walle
Stiffness K
o
Stiffness x,
WailS
Stiffness K
n
Wall G Wall H
Stiffness Kg Stiffness x,
WaliD
Stiffness K!
Figure 151
70 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Example 15 " Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p
Given information:
SDCD
One story, concrete shearwall building
All walls have the same nominal shear strength, R"
The story height is 18 feet.
The length of each shear wall is 15 feet.
§12.3.4
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For purposes of the required strengthof the walls, the redundancy factor must be
determined and used in Equation 12.43 to determine the horizontal seismic load effect.
None of the conditions listed in §12.3.4. 1 apply, and thus §12.3.4.2 must be used to
determine whether is 1.0 or 1.3.
Because there are two bays of shear wall on each of the perimeter lines of resistance and
the building is completely regular, §12.3.4.2(b) might allow a factor of 1.0. However, the
length of each shearwall bay is less than the story height, the number of bays as defined
by §12.3.4.2(b) is less than two, and thus the configuration does not automatically qualify
for a redundancy factor of 1.0. The configuration will therefore be analyzed using the
method outlined in §12.3.4.2(a), namely, by removing a wall and assessing the effect on
story shear strength and on building torsion. In this example Wall C will be removed.
Because of the symmetry of the system, the removal of one wall covers the cases of the
removal of each of the other walls. In a more typical system, a separate check would need
to be performed for several (or even all) of the walls.
The effect on story shear strength can be considered in at least two ways. The most
conventional way to calculate the modified story shear strength is based on the modified
elastic distribution of forces and the capacity of the most heavily stressed wall. Such an
analysis of the structure with all four bays present shows that the seismic forces in each
line of resistance (including the effects of accidental torsion) are 52.5percent of the base
shear, with each bay on each line resisting 26.25percent; this distribution is shown in
Figure 15.2(a). If the stiffness of one line of resistance is reduced by half, the design
seismic forces change to 42percent resisted on the weaker line and on the stronger line;
this distribution is shown in Figure 15.2(b). Thus the increase in the force on the most
heavily loaded bay is 42%/26.25% = 1.6, and the reduced force level causing yielding of
that wall is 1/1.6 = 62.5%. Using this method, then, the effect on story drift is assessed to
be a decrease in capacity of 100%  62.5% = 37.5%, and thus the configuration would
not qualify for a p factor of 1.0.
2006 IBC Strucrural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 7 1
§12.3.4 Example 15 • Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p
2.5% 2.5% 6.5% 6.5%
23.75% 1
~
26.25% 31%
1
$
$
23.75% 1
t
~ 26.25%
31%
t
t
~ 42 %
2.5%
(a)
2.5%
Figure 152
6.5%
(b)
6.5%
While this is an acceptable method of demonstrating compliance with the conditions
justifying a factor p of 1.0, this method is not required. A more direct method of
establishing story shear capacity is to utilize a plastic mechanism analysis. This is the
method envisioned by the committee that authored the redundancy provision, and it is
more consistent with the principles of seismic design (i.e., considering strength and limit
states, rather than elastic design). In this method of analysis, the story shear capacity
before removal of a wall is the sum of the capacities of the 4 walls resisting the seismic
force in the direction under consideration (provided that the orthogonal walls have
sufficient strength to resist the torsion, which in this case is only the accidental torsion).
This is shown in Figure 15.3(a), where R
n
denotes the capacity of the wall. If one wall is
removed, the story shear capacity is the sum of the capacities of the 3 remaining walls
resisting the seismic force in the direction under consideration; again, the orthogonal
walls must be checked for the forces resulting from building torsion, which in this case is
substantial. This is shown in Figure l5.3(b). Thus the reduction in capacity is only 25
percent. The resulting building torsional forces must be resisted by the frames in the
orthogonal direction. This interpretation of the story shear capacity has been endorsed by
the SEAOC Seismology Committee.
e. = 50/ aRtf n;> 5% R. Ru = 32.5% R. Ru = 32.5% R.
R. ~ ~ n, R. ~
$
$
R. ~ j
t
~ R. R. ~
t
~ R.
n, =5% R. Ru =5% R.
(a)
Ru = 32.5% R. e, = 32.5% R.
(b)
Figure 153
72 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Examp le 15 • Reliability/Re dundancy Coeffici ent p §12.3.4
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To qualify for a factor of 1.0, the system with one wall removed must also be checked
for an extreme torsional irregularity as defined in Table 12.31. For the example, using
the plastic mechanism analysis, the deflection in the direction ofloading is R,,1K
n
• The
additional deflection at each perimeter line due to rotation is 0.325RnlK
n
• This is less than
the 40percent maximum that is allowed by Table 12.3 1 before an extreme torsional
irregularity is deemed to exist. Thus, the configuration qualifies for a p factor of 1.0.
2006 IBC Strucr ural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 73
§12.8.7 Example 16 • Pdelta Effec ts
. xample 16
P.d Ita ERects §12.8.7
In highrise building design, 'important secondary moments and addi tional story drifts
can be developed in the lateralforceresisting system by Pdelta effects. Pdelta
effects are the result of the axial load P in a column being moved laterally by
horizontal displacements, thereby causing additional secondary column and girder
moments. The purpose of this example is to illustrate the procedure that must be used
to check the overall stabili ty of the frame system for such effects.
A ISstory building has a steel special moment frame (SMF).
T
/ /
" " " " "
R = 8
Cc/ = 5.5
1 =1.0
At the first story, hi = 20'
l:.D = W= 8643 kips
l:.L = 3850 kips
VI = V=0.042W=363.0 kips, ~ = 0.80
h, = 20 ft
Deflection at level x = I due to seismic base shear V (without Pdelta effects)
Ol e = 0.00311
1
= 0.72 in
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
Seismic Use Group I
Determine the following.
[!J Initial design story drift l:!. in first story
~ Pdelta criteria for the building
~ Check the first story for Pdelta requirements
~ Final design story drift and story shear in first story
~ Check for story drift compliance in first story
74 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 16 • P del ta Effects §12 .B.7
,
,Calculations and Discussion
OJ Initial design story drift !:J. in first story
At story x = I, the preliminary design story drift is
where
b) = Cdb'r = 5.5(0.72) =3.96 in
I 1.0
Now: !:J. = 3.96
Code Reference
§12.8.6
(Eq 12.8 15)
§12.8.7
J
This value is termed initial because it may need to be increased by the incremental factor
Gd = 1.0/(16) as determined in Part []] of this example.
~ Pdelta criteria for the building
Pdelta effects must be considered whenever the ratio of secondary moments
to primary moments exceeds 10 percent. This ratio is defined as stability
coefficient 6
6= (Eq 12.8 I6)
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where
6 = stability coefficient for story x
P, = total design vertical load on all columns in story x
(Note: no factor above 1.0 is required)
!:J. = initial design story drift in story x occurring simultaneously with CdT!,
v, = seismic shear force in story x
lis.< = height of story x
C: = deflection ampl ification factor in Table 12.21 (given = 5.5)
Pdelta effects must be considered when 6> o.I0
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 75
Section 12.8.7 requires that the total vertical load P l at the first story be considered the
total dead J:.D plus floor live J:.L and snow load S above the first story. These loads are
unfactored for determination of Pdeltaeffects.
When 8 > 0.10, the initial design story drift and design story shear must be augmented
by the incremental factor ad related to Pdeita effects
§12.8. 7
76
Example 16 • P·delta Effects
Check Pdelta requi rements for the fi rst story
Using S = 0 for the building site,
PI = 8643 + 3850 = 12,493 kips
For story x = I,
8, = ?,I'J. = (8643+ 3850)(3.96) =0. 103 > 0. 100
V,h"Cd (363.0)(20 ft)(l2)(5 .5)
: . Pdelta effects must be considered.
Check for 8 :'0 8
max
using the given ~ = 0.80
8 = 0.5 = 0.5 =0. 1136
lII ax ~ C d (0.80)(5.5)
0.103 < 0.1136 ... o.k.
Final design story drift and story shear in first story
ad= ~ = \.0 = 1.\15
18 10.103
The final design story drift in the first story is
I'J.
1
=adI'J. =(1.\15)(3.96) =4.415 in
The final design story shear is
VI =adVI =(1.\15)(363.0) =404.7 kips
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
§12.8.7
(Eq 12.817)
§12.8.7
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Example 16 • Pdelta Effects
Check for st ory dri ft compliance i n the first story
Allowable story drift /:; ,,110'" = 0.020 hi
/:;0110'" =0.020(20 ft)( 12) =4.80 in
/:;; = 4.415 < 4.80 in .. . o.k.
§12.B.7
§12. 8.7
T 12.121
,
Commentary
In §12.8.7 the Pdeltaeffects on the design story drift and the design story shear are
evaluated by the following procedure:
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2.
Given the initial design story drift /:;" = 0., 0".1 at story x: compute for each story x
the stability coefficient 8
x
given by Equation 12.8 16. For each story where 8., is
equal to, or greater than 0.10, compute the corresponding incremental factor relating
to Pdelta effects ad = 1/( I  8.,). This factor accounts for the multiplier effect due to
the initial story drift /:;., leading to another increment of story drift, leading to another
story drift, which would lead to yet another increment, etc. Thus both the drift and the
shear in the story would be increased by a factor equal to the series of I + 8 + 8
2
+ 8
3
+ , which converges to 1(1  8) = ad. As a result the initial story drift /:;" and story
shear V, need to be multiplied by the factor ad to represent the total final Pdelta
effect.
The final resulting story drift IJ. ~ = ad IJ.., needs to comply with the drift limitations of
§12.12.
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3. In each story requiring consideration ofPdelta effects the initial story shears are
increased to ,':=ad V" . The structural elements must be designed to resist the
resulting final story shears, overturning moments and element actions.
Some computer programs for frame analysis state that Pdeltaeffects are incl uded directly in
the analysis. The engineer should verify that the total gravity load employed and the method
used in these programs will provide results that are essentially equivalent to the augmented
story shear method described above.
The provisions in §§12.8.6 and 12.8.7 for the evaluation of the final story drifts state that the
final story drift shall be ad times the initial drift IJ..
However, in a multistory building having 8 > 0.1 in more than one story, the initial story
shears in these stories are increased by the ad factor. This is equivalent to an added latera l
load equal to (adI) V, applied to each story level having 8 > 0.1. Therefore the new story
drifts in the stories below would be increased not only by their own ad but by the added
lateral load effect from the stories above; thus, the fina l drifts should be found by a new
analysis with the added lateral loads equal to (ad  I) V" along with the initi al lateral loads on
the frame.
2006 la c Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 77
17
S,eismic Base Shear
§12.8.1 Exampl e 17 • Seis mi c Bas e Shear
§12.8.1
1
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]
Find the design base shear for a 5story steel special momentresisting frame building
shown below.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
SDS = 0.45g
SOl = 0.28g
J = 1.0
R = 8
W = 1626 kips
11" = 60 feet
To solve this example, follow these steps.
60'
   '  '  '  '
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[I] Determine the structure period §12.8.2.1
The appropriate fundamental period To is to be used. C
r
for steel momentresisting
frames is 0.035.
[L] Determine the structure period
Determine the seismic response coefficient c,
Determine seismic base shear
Calculations and Discussion
T; = CrUd :; = =0.D75 sec
Determine the seismic response coefficient C
s
The design value of C, is the smaller value of
C = Sos = (0.45) = 0 0561
s (R) (8) . 
J 1.0
78 200 6 I BC Structural/ Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Code Reference
(Eq 12.87)
§12.8.1
(Eq 12.82)
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Example 18 D Approximate Fundamental Period §12.8.2.1
~ Concrete special moment frame (SMF) structure
Height of the tallest part of the building is 33 feet, and
this is used to determine per iod. Roof penthouses are
generally not considered in determining hi!> but height s
of setbacks are included. However, if the setback
represents more than a 130percent change in the
lateral force system dimension, there is a vertical 33'
geomet ric irregular ity (Table 12.32). Taller
structures, more than five stories or 65 feet in height,
require dynamic analysis for this type of irregularity.
h« = 33 feet
Setback
kJ
'  '  ' 
L _ L. _ L.
C
T
=0.016; x =0.9
To = CT(hnY=0.016(33)°·9= 0.37 sec
[!J Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF)
EBF structures use the C, for the "all other
buildings" category
C
T
= 0.030; x =0.75
T = CT(hn}T: = 0.030(44)°·75= 0.51 sec
~ Masonry shear wall building
44'
29'
IE
~ T Y P '
60'
Front wall elevation
29'
I~ ~ f "
45'
<
Back wall elevation
For this structure, CTmay be taken as 0.020 and x may be taken as 0.75, the values for "all
other buil dings"
To= CT(h,Y=0.020(29)°·75=0.25 sec
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 81
§12. 8.2.1 Exa mple 18 • Approximate Fundamental Period
~ Tiltup building
Consider a tiltup building 150 feet by 200 feet in plan that has a panelized wood roof and
the typical wall elevation shown below.
2 0 ' I ~ I
• 4  15'typ
~ ' . . .
4t H
I " " , ~ ' " zo' '" I
E )
Typical wall elevation
CT = 0.020; X = 0.75
T =CT(h
n
)' =0.020(20)°·75=0.19 sec
This type of structural system has relatively rigid walls and a flexible roof diaphragm.
The code formula for period does not take into consideration the fact that the real
period of the building is highly dependent on the roof diaphragm construction. Thus ,
the period computed above is not a good estimate of the real fundamental period of
this type of building. It is acceptable, however, for use in determining design base
shear.
comm'fmtaf)'.
The fundamental period Tof the building may also be established by analytical
procedures with the limitation given in §12.8.2.
82 2006 la c Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 19 II Simplified Alternative Structural Design Procedure §12.14
Exam Ie 19
Simplified I ernettve Structural Design Procedure § 12.14
Determine the seismic base shear and the seismic lateral forces for a threestory wood
structural panel wall building using the simplified alternative structural design procedure.
The following information is given.
Occupancy Category I
SDS = 1.0
R = 6X
W = 750 kips
T f ~
Effective
Seismic
I(
20'
+
20'
1
Weight, w,
Level
150 kips
12'
300 kips
12'
300 kips
12'
To solve this example, follow these steps.
[}J Check applicability of simplified alternative method
~ Determine seismic base shear
~ Determine seismic lateral forces at each level
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
[}J Check applicability of simplified alternative method §12.14.1.1
Lightframed construction not more than three stories, or other buildings with bearing walls
or building frame systems not more than three stories, can use the simplified alternat ive
method when general conditions are satisfied.
2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual, Vol . I 83
The following is a comparison of simplified base shear with standard design base
shear. The standard method of determining the seismic base shear is
§12.14 Exampl e 19 • Simplified Alternative Structural Design Procedure
~ Determine seismic base shear
1.2(1.0)(750 kips)
6X
= 138.5 kips
@J Determine seismic lateral forces at each level
W
F =" V
x W
FI = 300 (138.5) = 55.4 kips
750
F2 = ~ ~ ~ (138.5) = 55.4 kips
F
3
= ISO (138.5) = 27.7 kips
750
Commentary
v=csw
wher e
84 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
§12.14.7.1
(Eq 12. 149)
§12.14.7.2
(Eq 12.1410)
§12.8
(Eq 12.81)
(Eq 12.82)
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Example 19 • Simplified Alrernative Structural Design Procedure
The distribution of seismic forces over the height of the structure is
§12.14
1
where
F
x
= C . ~ V
n
2: w,h;
i.. 1
(Eq 12.811)
(IBe Eq 1642)
1
Note: distribution exponent k =1.0 for structures having a peri od of 0.5 second or
less.
Level .r h, U', w,h.
"'xlix
F, Fju '.
}: wi"i
3 36 fl 150 kips 5,400 kipIt 0.333 38.4 kips 0.278
2 24 300 7.200 0.444 51.2 0. 185
I
I 12 300 3.600 0.222 25.6 0.093
L II',", 16.200 L ~ 115.4
The seismic base shear Vand lateral forces F" at each level except the roof are all less
than the simplified method, see table below. The principal advantage of the simplified
method is that period T need not be calculated and design story drift (). may be taken
as I percent of the story height, §12.14.7.5.
Comparison of Simplified VS Standard
Lateral Force F.
% Difference
Level x
Simplified Standard
3 27.7 kips 38.4 kips 72
2 55.4 51.2 108
55.4 25.6 216
Total 138.5 115.2 120
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 85
§12.2.3.1 Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical
'Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical
'12.2.3.1
In structural engineering practice, it is sometimes necessary to design buildings that
have a vertical combination of different lateralforceresisting systems. For example,
the bottom part of the structure may be a rigid frame and the top part may be a braced frame
or shear wall. This example illustrates use of the requirements of §12.2.3.1 to determine the
applicable response modification coefficient R system overstrength factor no and deflection
amplification factor Cd values for combined vertical systems.
For the three systems shown below, determine the required R coefficient, no factor, Cd
factor, and related design base shear requirements.
.Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
[!J Steel Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF) over steel special
moment frame (SMF)
Seismic Design Category C
Ordinary steel concentrically
braced frame
R =6.0
n
u
= 2.0
Cd = 5.0
P = 1.0
Special steel moment frame
R =8.0
no= 3.0
C« = 5.5
P = 1.0
This combined system falls under vertical combinations of §12.2.3.1. Because the rigid
framing system is above the flexible framing system, the exception for a twostage analysis
in §12.2.3.1 cannot be used. Therefore, the structure in this direction must use the lowest
R =6.0 and the largest no =3.0. Recall that lithe floor and roof diaphragms could be
considered to be flexible, n
u
would be 2.5, per footnote g, Table 12.21.
86 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 20 If CombInation of Structural Systems: Vertical §12.2.3.1
~ Ordinary reinforced concrete shear wall (ORCSW) over special reinforced
concrete moment frame (SRCMF)
Seismic Design Category C
Ordinary reinforced concrete
shear wall (non bearing)
R =5
.00 =2.5
Cd =4.5
P = 1.0
Special reinforced concrete
moment frame
R = 8.0
.00 = 3.0
Cd = 5.5
P =1.0
This combined system falls under vertical combinations of §12.2.3. 1. Because the
rigid portion is above the flexible portion, a twostage analysis cannot be used.
Therefore, the structure in this direction must use the lowest, R = 5.0, and the largest,
.00= 3.0. Also note that ordinary reinforced concrete shear wall systems are not permitted
above 35 feet in SOC 0 , E, or F (Tabl e 12.21).
[!J Concrete SRCMF over a concrete building frame system
~ Applicable criteria.
This is a vertical combination of a flexibl e system over a more rigid system.
Under §12.2.3.1, a twostage static analysi s may be used, provi ded the structures
conform to the following four requirements.
Sei smic Design Category B
Concrete special reinforced concret e
mome ntframe
R =8.0
.00 =3.0
C« =5.5
P = 1.3
Stiffness upper portion = 175 kipin
T upper = 0.55 sec
T eoll/billed =0.56 sec
Shear walls
2006 IBC Structur al/Se is mic Design Manual. Vol. I 87
10,000 kipin > 10(175) = 1750 kipin ... o.k.
Check requirements of §12.2.3.1 for a twostage analysis
Also note R is different for bearing wall systems versus building frame systems for special
reinforced concrete shear walls, see Table 12.21.
b. Period of entire structure is not greater than l.l times the period of upper structure
considered a separate structure fixed at the base.
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Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical
a. The stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the stiffness of the upper
portion. For multistory upper or lower portions, the stiffness should be the
stiffness of the first mode.
Special reinforced concrete shear wall
R =6.0
no=2.5
Cd =5
P = 1.0
Stiffness = 10,000 kipin
rlo"er = 0.03 sec
§12.2.3.1
0.56 sec < 1.1 (.55) = 0.61 sec . . . o.k.
88
c. Flexible upper portion supported on the rigid lower portion shall be designed as a
separate structure using appropriate values of Rand p.
d. Rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using appropriate
values of Rand p. Reactions from the upper structure shall be determined from
analysis of the upper structure amplified by the ratio of Rip of the upper structure
over Rip of the lower structure. This ratio shall not be less than 1.0.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. J
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Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical §12.2.3.1
~ Design procedures for upper and lower structures
Design upper SRCMF using
R =8.0
n =3.0
p = 1.3
Design lower portion of the building frame
system for the combined effects of amplified
reactions from the upper portion and lateral
forces due to the base shear for the lower
portion of the structure (using R= 6.0,
Q =2.5, and p =1.0 for the lower
portion).
....... r VIrum.
8.0 /1.3
Amplified Vllil m• =  Vllilme =1.03 Vllilme
6.0/1.0
The reactions from the upper portion shall be determined from the analysis of the upper portion
amplified by the ratio of (Rip) for the upper portion over (Rip) of the lower portion.
Note that for the basic seismic load combinations the factor p must still be applied to forces
corresponding to Vl ower.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 89
90 2006 IBC Structural/Seismi c Design Manual, Vol. I
!TI Determine the R value for each direction
Exampl e 21
") : ' .
gombination of F!"aming Systems in D i f f e r ~ n t Directions §12.2.2
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_ Shear wall
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Exampl e 21 • Combination of Framing Systems in Different Dir ections
Typical floor Plan
Lines I, 2, and 3 are special reinforced concret e moment frames
R =8.0, QQ= 3.0, C
d
= 5.5 Table 12.21 (C5)
Lines A and D are special reinforced concrete shear walls (bearing wall system)
R = 5, Q" = 2.5, Cd=5, Table 12.21 (AI)
Determine the R, Cd, and Q" values for each direction.
Thi s example illustrates the determination of response modification coefficient R, system
over strength factor QQ, and deflection amplification factor Cdvalues for a building that has
different seismic framing systems along different axes (i.e., directions) ofthc building.
In this example, a threestory building has concrete shear walls in one direction and
concrete moment frames in the other. Floors are concrete slab, and the building is SDC D
and Occupancy Category I.
§12.2.2
Example 21 • Combination of Framing Systems in Different Directions §12.2.2
.Calculations and Discussion
., Y ,.
Code Reference
I
The provisions of §12.2.2 require that where different seismicforeeresisting syst ems are
used along the two orthogonal axes of the structure, the appropriate response modification
coefficient R, system overstrength factor Q o' and deflection ampl ification factor Cdfor each
system shall be used.
Use R =5.0, Q
o
=2.5, and Cs=5 for the northsouth direction.
and R = 8.0, Q
o
= 3.0, and Cd= 5.5 for the eastwest direction.
~ ' .
Commentary
Note that since this is SDC D, ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls are not permitted.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 91
§12.2.3.2 Example 22 " Combination of Structural Systems: Along the Same Axis
.. ~ .. 
E X ~ m p l e 2 2
COmbination of Structural Systems:
, , long the Same Axis §12.2.3.2
Occasionally, it is necessary or convenient to have different structural systems in the same
direction. This example shows how the response modification coefficient Rvalue is
determined in such a situation.
A onestory steel frame structure has the roof plan shown below. The structure is assigned to
Seismic Use Group 1.
,
'

 
'
'
Roof Plan
Lines 1 and 4 are ordinary steel moment frames: R= 3.5
Lines 2 and 3 are special steel concentrically braced frames: R = 6.0
[!J Determine the R value for the N/S direction
Calculations and Discussion CodeReference
When a combination of structural systems is used in the same direction, §12.2.3.2 requires
that (except for dual systems and shear wallframe interactive systems) the value of R used
shall not be greater than the least value of any system utilized in that direction.
: . Use R = 3.5 for entire structure.
Commentgl'Y
An exception is given for light frame, flexible diaphragm buildings of Occupancy Category I
or Il two stories or less in height. However, to qualify as a flexible diaphragm, the lateral
deformation of the diaphragm must be more than two times the average story drift of the
associated story; see definition in §12.3.1.3.
92 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 17 • Seismic Base Shear
and
C
 SOl _ (0.28) _
,i)() 0.0467 for T S. T
L
R ~ (0.75)
/ 1.0
but shall not be less than
C, = 0.01
§12. B.l
(Eq 12.83)
(Eq 12.84)
(Eq 12.85)
In addition, for structures located where S, is equal to or greater than 0.6g, C, shall not be
less than
ComtnimtcJry
The So, value of 0.28g given in this example is based on an S, value of 0.2I g. If the S,
value were to have been equal or greater than 0.6g, then the lower bound on C, is
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C = 0.5S,
s ( ~ )
: . Design value of C, =0.0467
~ Determine seismic base shear
The seismic base shear is given by
v =C,W
= 0.0467(1626 kips)
= 75.9 kips
C
0.5/S,
>  
s z: R
(Eq 12.86)
§12.8.1
(Eq 12.81)
(Eq 12.86)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 79
§12.8.2.1 Exampl e 18 • Approximate Fundamental Period
'. ample 18
Fundamental Period § 12.8.2. 1
Determine the period for each of the structures shown below usi ng the appropriate
fundament al period formula
(Eq 12.87)
The coeffici ent C
T
and the exponent x are dependent on the type of structural system used.
[!J Steel special moment frame (SMF) structure
[!J Concrete special moment frame (SMF) structure
@J Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF)
Masonry shear wall building
Tiltup building
Calculatipns and Discussion
[!J Steel special moment frame (SMF) structure
Code Reference
§12.8.2.1
Basemenl
Superslructu re
,
96'
e
,
22'
_L
Grad
To= C
r
(I1"r = 0.028(96)°·8= 1.08 sec
C
r
= 0.028; x =0. 8
Height of the structure above its base is 96 feet.
The additional 22foot depth of the basement
is not considered in determining 11" for period
calculation.
Note: In the SEAOC Blue Book, base is defmed as the level at which earthquake
motions are considered to be imparted, or the level at which the structure, as a
dynamic vibrator, is supported. For this structure the sol ution is the same.
80 2006 IBC Structuraf/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Example 23 • Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forc e §12. B.3
1 Exampl e 23 ·
Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force § 12.8.3
A ninestory building has a momentresisting steel frame for a lateralforceresisting
system. Find the vertical dist ribution oflateral forces F
x
•
' 2'
' 2'
'2'
' 2'
' 2'
' 2'
12'
20'
12'
22k
22k
54k
40k
65k
2
4
4
4
5
4
4
4
4
// " 1' / / 1' / ~ / / / I ' / '/
8 OSk
? f T
3
2
5
7 QSk
6 O ~
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27' I 27' I Story
level ( 0) EO ): weight
9 14k
IV = 3762 kips
C, = 0.062
R = 8.0
Q" =3.0
1 = 1.0
T = 1.06 sec
The following information
IS given.
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This is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of the structure. It is determined
as follows
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To solve this example, follow these steps.
[!J Determine V
~ Find F
x
at each level
~ Find the distribution exponent k
~ Determine vertical force distribution
:Ca/culations and Discussion
[!J Determine V
v= C, IV=0.062 (376zk) =233.8 kips
CodeR... ference
§12.81
(Eq 12.81)
2006 IBC Structural/ Se;smlc Design Manual, Vol. I 93
§12. 8.3 Example 23 • Ver tic al Dis tr ibu tion of Seismic Force
~ Find r, at each level
The vertica l distribution of seismic forces is determined as
(Eq 12.8 11 )
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where
c = lV
xh
l
I'X n
2: IV; hi
i I
(Eq 12.812)
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Since there are nine levels above the ground, 11 = 9
Thus:
Find the distribution exponent k §12.8.3
The distribution exponent k is equal to 1.0 for buildings having a period of T s 0.5 seconds,
and is equal to 2.0 for buildings having a period oi T>: 2.5. For intermediate value of the
building period, k is determined by linear interpo lation.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Exponent, k
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2.5 2.0 1.0 1.5
1.06
0.5 o
o
2.5
2.0
...
1.5
." 1.28
e
' C
~
1.0 0
0.5
F = 233.8w,l1;
x •
~ ,
LJ lV/Ii
i I
Thus:
94
Example 23 • Verti cal Distributi on of Seismic Force
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Now:
for T =1.06 sec
k =1.0 + (1.06 _ 0.5) ( I )
2.5 0.5
=1.28
Use: k =1.28
§12 .B.3
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@J Equation 12.812 is solved in the table below given V= 233.8 kips and k = 1.28
•
•
W . / I . ~
".f
U'.• wxh
x
C ~ , = I
F. = C••V
Level X ii, ( ft) (kips)
kipIt
LW/l
i
(ki ps) F/ w. = Su
9 116 ft 439 214 93.946 0. 116 27.3 0. 127
8 104 382 405 154.710 0. 192 44.8 0.1 II
7 92 326 405 132.030 0.169 38.3 0.094
6 80 273 405 110.565 0. 137 32. 1 0.079
5 68 222 584 129.648 0. 161 37.6 0.064
4 56 173 422 73.006 0.091 21.2 0.050
3 44 127 422 53.594 0.067 15.5 0.037
2 32 84 440 36.960 0.046 10.8 0.024
20 46 465 21,390 0.027 6.2 0.013
~ =3762 ~ = 806.289
1.004 233.2
Commelltary
Note that certain types of vertical irregularity can result in a dynamic response having a load
distribution significantly different from that given in this section. Table 12.6 I lists the
minimum allowable analysis procedures for seismic design. Redundancy requirements must
also be evaluated once the type oflateralforceresisting system to be used is specified,
because this may require modification of the building framing system and vertical
distribution of horizontal forces as a result of changes in building period T.
Often, the horizont al forces at each floor level are increased when p is greater than 1.0. This
is done to simplify the analysis of the framing members. The horizontal forces need not be
increased at each floor level when p is greater than 1.0, provided that, when stress checking
the individual members of the lateralforeeresisting system, the seismic forces are factored
by p. When checking building drift, p = 1.0 (§12.3.4.1) shall be used.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 95
§ 12. 8. 3 Exampl e 23 • Vertical Di stribution of Se ismic Force
Structures that have a vertical irregularity ofType Ia, Ib, 2, or 3 in Table 12.61, or plan
irregular ities of Type l a or Ib in Table 12.61, and having a height exceeding five stories or
65 feet may have significantly different force distributions. Structures exceeding 240 feet in
height shall require dynamic analysis. The configuration and final design of this structure
must be checked for these irregularities. Most structural analysis programs used today
perform this calculation, and it is rarely necessary to manually perform the calculations
shown above. However, it is recommended that these calculations be performed to confirm
the computer analysis and to gain insight to structural behavior. Note that ( So )max is
approximately twice C , and S" = r <pSa from a modal analysis.
96 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 24 • HOlizontal Distribution of Shear §12.BA
1
EKamp!e 24
:Horizontal Distribution of Shear §12.8.4
A singlestory buil ding has a rigid roof diaphragm. See appendix to this example for a
procedure for the distribution of lateral forces in structures with rigid diaphragms and
cross walls and/or frames of any orientation. Lateral forces in both directions are resisted
by shear walls. The mass of the roof can be considered to be uniformly distributed, and in
this example, the weight of the walls is neglected. In actual pract ice, part icularly with
concrete shear walls, the weight of the walls should be included in the determination of
the centerofmass (CM).
The following information is given.
Design base shear: V = 100 kips in northsouth direction
Wall rigidi ties: R
A
= 300 kip/in
RB = 100 kip/in
Rc =RD =200 kip/in
Centerofmass: X
m
=40 ft, Ym =20 ft
Analyze for seismic forces in northsouth direction.
r y
0
,
Shear wall below
•
•
.' XR
A
~
40'
"
,
,
Roof diaphragm
YR
X
)
c
IE
BO'
)1
Roof plan
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 97
§12.B.4 Example 24 • Hor/zontal Dist ribution of Shear
Determine the following.
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[3J Direct shear in walls A and B
[I] Plan irregularity requirements
~ Torsional shear in walls A and B
~ Total shear in walls A and B
Calculations andDiscussion
OJ Eccentricity and rigidity properties
The rigidity of the structure in the direction of applied force is the sum of
the rigidities of walls parallel to this force .
~ o d e Reference
§12.8.4.1
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R =R
A
+ RB = 300 + 100 =400 kip/in
The centers ofrigidity (CR) along the x and y axes are
eccentricity e =X
m
 XR =40  20 =20 ft
Torsional rigidity about the center of rigidity is determine d as
J =R
A
(20) 2+R
B
(60/ +Rc (20)2 +RD(20)2
=300 (20i + 100 (60)2 +200 (20)2 +200 (20i = 64 x 10
4
(kip/in) fe
The seismic force V applied at the CM is equivalent to having Vapplied at the CR
together with a counterclockwise torsion T. With the requirements for accidental
eccentricity es«, the total shear on walls A and B can be found by the addition of the
direct and torsional load cases .
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. 1
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Example 24 • Horizontal Distribution of Shear §1 2. 8A
/ r rr: / /
20'
CR
•
...;
;
20'
20' 60'
/ / /
V
C
A
VO.A
D
Direct shear contribution
VO,S
VT,A D
VT,O VT, a
4
/
fa
T= V(e:: eecc)
VT,C
C
Torsional shear contribution
Direct shear in walls A and B
R 300 .
V = A X (V) = x 100 = 75.0 kips
0.11 R
A
+ R
B
300 + 100
V = R
D
X (V) = 100 x 100 = 25.0 kips
D.n R + R 300 + 100
A n
@J Plan irregularity requirements
The det ermination of torsional irregularity, Items la and lb in Table 12.31, requires
the evaluation of the story drifts in walls A and B. This evaluation must include accidental
torsion caused by an eccentricity of 5 percent of the building dimension.
e
acc
+ 0.05 (80 ft) = 4.0 ft
For the determination of torsional irregularity, the initial most severe torsional shears,
V' and corresponding story drifts (so as to produce the lowest value of the average
story drift) will result from the largest eccentrici ty e + e
acc
• These are
v' = V (e+e"cJ(xR)(RA ) = 100(20 + 4) (20)(300) = 22.5 ki s
T.A j 64 x P
= V(e+eacJ(80 x
R)(
R
B
) = 100(20+4)(60)(100) = 22.5 ki s
T.B j 64 x P
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I 99
§12.8.4 Example 24 • Hor izontal Di stribution of Shear
I
The initial total shears are
V ~ = VD.A  V;.A = 75.0  22.5 =52.5 kips
V; = VD.B + \ ~ . B =25.0 + 22.5 =47.5 kips
(NOTE: This is not the design force for Wall A, as accidental eccentricity here is used to
reduce the force).
The resul ting displacements b', which for this singlestory building are also the story
drift values, are
b' = V ~ = 52.5 = 0. 18 in
R
A
300
)
)
= b ~ = 0.48 in
Section 12.8.4.3 requires the evaluat ion and application of the torsional amplification
factor
= 0.18 +0.48 = 0.33 in
2
= V ~ = 47.5 = 0.48 in
R
B
100
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(IBC Eq 1644)
b"4' = 0.49 = 1.45 > 1.4
b. ,., 0.33
:. Extreme Torsional Irregularity Type Ib exists. (See Exampl e 26) Assuming
SDC D, structural modeling must include 3 dimensions per §12.7.3, and
diaphragm shear transfer forces to collectors must be increased 25 percent per
§12.3.3.4.
A, = ( b"4' )' = ( 0.48 ) ' = 1.47 < 3.0
. 1.2. " 1.2(0.33)
Note: the factor Ax is not calculated iteratively (i.e., it is not recalculated with amplified
torsion).
~ Torsional shears in walls A and B
To account for the effects of torsional irregularity, §12.8.4.2 requires that the accidental
torsional moment, Ve. cc, be multiplied by the torsional amplification factor Ax.
100 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. 1
Example 24 • Horizontal Distribution of Shear
The most severe total shears result from the use of V [e  .{,e
d CC
] for VT,A and
V [e + A,e
acc
] for V
T
•
B
§12.B.4
VT.A =
VT,B =
100 kips[(20  1.47 x 4 ] 2 0 ( ~ 0 0 kip/in) = 13.24 kips
. 64 x 10
4
(kip/injft '
100 kips[(20 + 1.47 x 4]60(100 kip/in) = 24 3 k'
" . IpS
64 x 10 (kip/injft '
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~ Total shear in walls A and B
Total shear in each wall is the algebraic sum ofthc direct and torsiona l shear
components
v:, = V
D
_,  VT.A = 75.0  13.2 = 61.8 kips
VB = V
D
.
B
+ VT,B = 25.0 + 24.3 = 49.3 kips
r
COmmentary
Section 12.8.4.2 requires that the most severe load combination for each element shall be
considered for design. This load combination involves the direct and torsional shears,
and the "most severe" condition is as follows.
I. Where the torsional shear has the same sense, and is therefore added to the direct shear,
the torsional shear shall be calculated using actual eccentricity plus the accidental
eccentricity to give the largest additive torsional shear.
2. Where the torsional shear has the opposite sense to that of the direct shear and is to be
subtracted, the torsional shear must be based on the actual eccentricity minus the
acci dental eccentricity to give the smallest subtractive shear.
The §12.8.4.3 requirement to multiply only the accidental torsional moment by Ax differs
significantly from the 2000 !Be. It restores the requirements of the 1997 UBC and 1999 Blue
Book.
2006 IBC Str uct ural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 101
§12.8.4.3 Example 25 • Amplification of Accidental Torsi on
§ 12.8.4.3
This example illustrates how to include the effects of accidental eccentricity in the lateral
force analysis of a multistory building. The structure is a fivestory reinforced concrete
building frame system. A threedimensional rigid diaphragm model has been formulated
for the evaluation of element actions and deformations due to prescribed loading conditions.
Shear walls resist lateral forces in both directions.
f f f
4 @J20'=80'
A
®g
II
b
N
@
@M
IN
0
Floor plan at Level x
The lateral seismic forces Fein the northsouth direction, structure dimensions, and
accidental eccentricity e
acc
for each Level x are given below.
Level.\" F. L. X es «: =0.05L.r
5 110.0 kips 80.0 ft 24.2 ft ± 4.0 ft
4 82.8 80.0 25. 1 ±4.0
3 65. 1 80.0 27.8 ±4.0
2 42. 1 80.0 30.3 ±4.0
I 23.0 80.0 31.5 ±4.0
In addition, for the given lateral seismic forces F, a computer analysis provides the
following results for the second story. Separate values are given for the application
of the forces F, at the centers of mass and the ±O.05L
x
displacements as required by
§12.8.4.2. In this example, it is assumed for simplicity that the location of the center
ofmass CAtf.e is congruent with the center of rigidity at the level in question , resulting
in zero inherent at torsion.
102 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 25 II Amplification of Accidental Torsion §12.8.4.3
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Wall shear 1'"
Wall shear V.
Story drift II,
Story drift II,
Level 2 displacement 0"
Level 2 displacement 58
x
185.0 kips
115.0 kips
0.35 in
0.62
0.80
1.31
Force Position
X rl  e...
r
196.0 kips
104.0 kips
0.37 in
0.56
0.85
1.1 8
X + 00 e....:
174.0 kips
126.0 kips
0.33 in
0.68
0.75
1.44
For the second story, find the following.
[L] Maximum force in shear walls A and 8
Check if torsional irregularity exists
@J Determine the ampli fication factor Ax
New accidental torsion eccentricity
VB = 126.0 kips
VA = 196.0 kips
Check if torsional irregularity exists
The bui lding may have a torsional irregularity Type I (Table 12.31). The following is a
check of the story drifts.
CodeReference
= 0.68 +0.33 = 0.51 in
2
= 0.68 in
Calculationsand Discussion
[!J Maximum force in shear walls A and 8
The maximum force in each shear wall is a result of direct shear, inherent torsion (center
of mass not being congruent with center of rigidity) and the contribution due to accidental
torsion. As mentioned above, in this example it is assumed that accidental eccentricity is
the only source of torsional moment at this floor level. From the above table, it is
determined that
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2006 IBC St ructur al/Sei smic Desi gn Manual, Vol. I 103
§12. 8.4.3 Example 2S • Ampli fication of Accidental Torsion
li"",. = 0.68 = 1.33 > 1.2
«; 0.51
. . Torsional irregularity Type la exists  Note: if li
ma.
,1li
ao
'g is larger than 1.4,
then torsional irregularity Type 1b exists.
~ Determine the amplification factor Ax
Because a torsiona l irregularity exists, §12.8.4.3 requires that the second story
torsional moment be ampli fied by the following factor. In this example, because the only
source of torsion is the accidental eccentricity, the amplification factor will be used to
calculate a new and increased accidental eccentricity, as shown below.
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x
(Eq 12.814)
Where:
the average story displacement is computed as
= 1.44+0.75 = 1.10 in
2
( )
'
= 1.44 = 1.19 in
(1 .2)(1.10)
~ New accidental torsion eccentricity
Since Az (i.e., Ax for the second story) is greater than unity, a second analysis for
torsion must be performed using the new accidental eccentricity.
e"cc =(1.19)(4.0 ft) =4.76 ft
104 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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,9 gmmentary
Example 25 • Amplification ct Accidental Torsion §12.8.4.3
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Example calculati ons were given for the second story. In practice, each story requi res
an evaluation of the most severe element actions and a check for the torsional irregularity
condition.
If torsional irregularity exists and Ax is greater than 1.0 at any level (or levels) ,
a second torsional analysis must be performed using the new accidental eccentricities.
However, it is 110/ required to find the resulting new Axvalues and repeat the process a
second or third time (until the Ax converges to a constant or reaches the limit of 3.0). The
results of the first analysis with the use ofA., are sufficient for design purposes.
While this example involves wall shear evaluation, the same procedure applies to the
determination of the most severe element actions for any other lateralforeeresisting
system having rigid diaphragms.
When the dynamic analysis method of §12.9 is used, all the requirements of horizontal shear
distribution, given in §12.8.4, including torsion calculations that may be accounted for by
displacing the calculated centers of mass of each level (§12.8.4.1 and §12.8.4.2) also apply.
However, §12.9.5 states that amplification of accidental torsion, need not be amplified by Ax
where accidental torsional effects are included in the dynamic analysis model. Only the
accidental torsion is required to be amplified if torsional irregularity exists . Also note that Ax
is not required to exceed 3.0.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 105
§12.3.3.3 Example 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems
lements Supporting Discontinuous Systems
A reinforced concrete building has the lateralforeeresisting system shown below.
Shear walls at the firstfloor level are discontinuous between lines A and Band
lines C and D.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category C
SDS= 1.10
Ordinary reinforced> concrete shear wall (ORCSW) building
frame system: R =5 and Q
o
=2.5
Note: ORCSW not permitted in SDC D, E, or F.
Office building live load: use factor of 0.5 on L
T 12.21
§12.4.2.3
Axial loads on column C
D = 40 kips
L = 20 kips
QE = 100 kips
12'
12'
12'
12'
4 ,.,....,
Shear wall
Column C
24" x 24"
f c =4000 psi
Determine the following for column C.
[!J Required strength
Detailing requirements
106 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Examplo 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §12.J.J.J
•
Calculations andDiscussion Code Reference
I
This examp le demonstrates the loading criteria and detail ing required for elements
supporting discontinued or offset elements of a seismicforceresisting system.
Required strength
Because of the discontinuous configuration of the shear wall at the first story, the first
story columns on lines A and D must support the wall elements above this level. Column
C on line D is treat ed in this example. Because of symmetry, the column on line A would
have identica l requirements.
Section 12.3.3.3 requires that the column shall have a design strength to resi st special
seismic load combination of §12.4.3.2
where
Pu = 1.2D+ 0.5L+ 1.0Em
P" = 0.9D+ 1.0Em
§12.4.2.3 (Comb. 5)
§12.4.2.3 (Comb. 7)
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E.. =Q" QE+ 0.2 SDS D =2.5( 100) + 0.2( 1.10)(40) =259 kips §12.4.3.2 (Comb. 5)
or E.. = Q" QE  0.2 SDS D = 2.5( 100)  0.2( 1.10)(40) = 24 1 kips §12.4.3.2 (Comb. 7)
Substituting the values of dead, live, and seismic loads
P" = 1.2 (40) +0.5 (20) + 259 = 317 kips compression
and
P" = 0.9 (40)  0.5 (241) = 205 kips tension ·
2006 IBC Structural/Seis mic Design Manual. Vol . I 107
§12.3.3.3 Exampl e 26 ff Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems
Cotpmentary
To transfer the shears from walls AB and CD to the firststory wall BC, collector
beams AB and CD are required at Levell . These would have to be designed
according to the requirements of §12.10.2.
The load requirements of §12.3.3.3 and relat ed sections of the relevant materials chapters
apply to the following vertical irregularities and vertical elements.
1. Discontinuous shear wall. The
wall at left has a Type 4 vertical
structural irregularity. Note that
only the column needs to resist
the special load combi nations
since it supports the shear wall.
2. Discontinuous column. This frame
has a Type 4 vertical structural
irregularity.
108 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
1,14"__rtColumn
DDD
DDD
Transfer
girder
Example 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems
3. Outofplane offset. The wall on
Line A at the first story is
discontinuous. This structure has
a Type 4 plan structural
irregularity, and §12.3.3.3
applies to the supporting
columns. The portion of the
diaphragm transferring shear
(i.e., transfer diaphragm) to the
offset wall must be designed per
the requirements of §12.3.3.4.
Note that the transfer diaphragm
and the offset shear wall are
subject to the p factor, but not to
the special load combinations.
It should be noted that for any of the supporting columns shown above, the load
demand Em of §12.4.3.2 Equations 5 and 7 need not exceed the maximum force that
can be transferred to the element by the lateralforeeresisting system.
§12.3.3.3
Oisconllnued
wall
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 109
7. (0.9  0.2S
DS)D
+ QoE
Appl icable load combinations for allowable strength design are:
1
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Ughl framed wall
with plywood
sheathing
Timber column
§12.3.3.3
Code Reference
Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls or Frames
Dead D = 6.0 kips
Live L = 3.0 kips
Seismic Q£= ±7.0 kips
The following information is given.
Determine the following.
Axial loads on the timber column under the
discontinuous portion of the shear wall are
Seismic Design Category C
S DS = l.IO
R =6.5
no = 3.0
Cd =4
/I = 0.5
[!J Applicable load combinations
~ Required column design strength
This example illustrates the application of the requirements of §12.3.3.3 for the allowable
stress design of elements that support a discont inuous lateralforeeresisting system.
§12.3.3.3
In this example, a lightframed bearingwall building with plywood shear panels has a
Type 4 vertical structural irregularity in one of its shear walls, as shown below.
CalclJlations and Discussion
[1J Applicable load combinations
For vertical irregularity Type 4, §12.3.3.3 requires that the timber column have the
design strength to resist the special seismic load combinations of §12.4.3.2. This is
required for both allowable stress design and strength design. For strength design the
applicable load combinations for allowable strength design are
fI" ':rt:  r
·& ample 2 7
r'!'! .".
~ ~ / e m e n t s Supporting Discontinuous Walls orFrames
110 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Waifs or Frames §12.3.3.3
5. (1.0 + 0. 105 80S) D + 0.525 + QoQE + 0.75L
6. (0.8  0.14 80s) D + 0.7 QuQE
Required column design strength (strength design)
In this shear wall, the timber column carries only axial loads. The appropriate dead,
live, and seismic loads are determined as
D = 6.0 kips
L = 3.0 kips
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Em = n, QE + 0.2 80SD = 3.0(7.0)+ 0.2 (1.10) (6.0) = 22.3 kips
Em = Q
o
QE 0.2 80S D = 3.0(7.0)  0.2 (!.IO) (6.0) = 19.7 kips
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For the required strength designstrength check, both load combinations must be checked.
P = 1.2D+L + Em
P = 1.2 (6.0) + 0.5 (3.0) + 22.3 = 31.0 kips . . . (compression)
P = 0.9D 1.0E
m
P = 0.9 (6.0)  1.0 (19.7) =14.3 kips .. . (tension)
The load factor on L in combination 5 is permi tted to equal 0.5 for all occupancies in
which L; is less than or equal to 100 psf, with the exception of garages or areas occupied
as places of public assembly.
Commentary
For strength design, the timber column must be checked for a compression load of31.0 kips
and a tension load of 14.3 kips.
In making an allowable stress design check, §12.4.3.3 permits use of an allowable stress
increase of 1.2. The 1.2 stress increase may be combined with the duration ofload increase
described in the NOS. The resulting design strengt h = (1.2)(1.0)( 1.33) (allowable stress
design). This also applies to the mechanical holddown element required to resist the tension
load.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 111
§12.3.3.3 Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls or Frames
The purpose of the designstrength check is to confirm the ability of the column to carry
higher and more realistic loads required by the discontinuity in the shear wall at the first
floor. This is done by increasing the normal seismic load in the column QE by the factor
Q
o
= 3.0 to calculate the maximum seismic load effect Em (§12.4.3).
112 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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E::ample 28 • Soil Pr essur e At Foundation §§2A; 12.13.4
III le2
oil Pressure At Foundations §§2.4; 12.13.
Geotechnical investiga tion reports usua lly provide soilbearing pressures on an allowable
stress design basis while seismic forces in ASCE/SEI 705 and most concrete design
(ACI/31805, §15.2.2 and R 15.2), are on a strength design basis. The purpose of this
example is to illustrate footing design in this situation.
A spread footing supports a reinforced concrete column. The soil classification
at the site is sand (SW).
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category C
SDS =1.0, / =1.0
P = 1.0 for structural system
P
D
=50 kips
PD includes the footing and imposed
soil weight)
P
L
= 30 kips
P
E
= ± 40 kips, V
E
= 25 kips,
(these are the QE loads due to base shear V)
Snow load S = 0
Wind load W< QE/1.4
The seismic loads are from an equivalent lateral analysis.
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Grade
The loads given above follow the sign convention shown in the figure.
Perform the followi ng tasks.
I}J Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure
~ Determine footing size
~ Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of the footing
section
2006 IBC Structural/Sei smic Design Manual, Vol. I 11 3
§§2.4; 12.13.4 Example 28 • Soil Pressure At Foundation
:Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
[L] Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure §2.4
The seismicforce reactions on the footing are based on strength design. However, allowable
stress design may be used for sizing the foundat ion using the load combinations given in
§2.4.1.
D + 0.7£
D + 0.75 (0.7£ + L)
0.6D +0.7£
(Comb. 5)
(Comb. 6)
(Comb. 7)
Section 12.13.4 permits reduction of overturning effects at the foundationsoil interface by
25 percent (if an equivalent lateral for ce analysis is used) or 10 percent (if modal analysis is
used). Therefore , for the soil pres sure the seismic effect is reduced
D + 0.75(0.7E)
D + 0.75[0.7(0.75)£ + L]
0.6D + 0.7(0.75)£
Because foundation investigation reports for buildings typically specify bearing
pressures on an allowable stress design basis, crit eria for determining footing size
are also on this basis.
The earthquake loads to be resisted are specified in §12.4.2 by
(Comb. 5)
(Comb. 6)
(Comb . 7)
£=£,, +£,.
Per §12.4.2.2, £1' = 0 for determining soil pressure. Equation 12.4 I reduces to
(Eq 12.4 I)
(Eq 12.43)
For the sand class of material and footing depth of 4 feet, the allowable gross
foundati on pressure pa from a sitespecific geotechnical investigation recommendation is
pa=2.40 ksf for sustained loads and
pa= 3.20 ksf for trans ient loads, such as seismic.
114 2006 I BC Str uc tur al /Se ismi c Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 28 • Soli Pres sure At Foundation
[3J Determine foot ing size
P = D + 0.75(0.7E) = 50 + 0.75(0.7)(40) = 56 kips
P = D + 0.75[0.7(0.75)£ +L]
= 50 + 0.75[0.7(0.75)40 + 30) = 88 kips
P = 0.6D + 0.7(0.75)£
= 0.6(50) + 0.7(0.75)(40) = 9 kips
Equation 6 governs. The required footing size is 88 kips/3.20 ksf = 27.5 sf
Use 5 ft, 3insquare footing. A = 27.6 sf
~ Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of footing
For the design of the concrete elements, strengt h design is used. The reduction in
overturning does not apply, and the vertical seismic load effect is included
§§2.4; 12.13.4
(Comb. 5)
(Comb. 6)
(Comb. 7)
A uniform pressure of 115k/27.6 sf = 4. 17 ksf should be used to determine the internal
forces of the footing. (Note that if the footing also resisted moments, the pressure would
not be uniform.)
Note that this indicates upl ift will occur. ASCE/SEI 705 does not require that foundation
stability be maintained using strengt hlevel seismic forces. This combination is only
used here to determine internal forces of concrete elements of the foundat ion. As it
results in no internal forces, it may be neglected.
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P =I.3D + 0.5L + E
= 1.2(50) + 0.5(30) + 40 + 0.2( 1.0)(50) = 11 5k
The other seismic load combination is
P =0.9D+£
= 0.9(50)  40 + 0.2(1.0)50 = 5k
§2.3.2 (Comb. 5)
§2.3.2 (Comb. 7)
2006 IBC StructuraVSeismic Design Manual, Vol. I 115
§12.8.6 Example 29 • Drift
Example 29
Drift §12"B.6
A fourstory special momentresisting frame (SMRF) building has the typical floor
plan as shown below. The typical elevation of Lines A through D is also shown, and
the structure does not have horizontal irregularity Types 1a or lb.
The following information is given.
Occupancy Importance Category I
Seismic Design Category 0
1 = 1.0
Cd = 5.5
T = 0.60 sec
Seismic force
Typical fluor plan
Level
4
DDD
12'
3
DDD
12'
2
DDD
12'
12'
Typical Elevati on
The following are the deflections (computed from static analysis  effects of Pdelta have
been checked) b
xe
at the centerofmass of each floor level. These values include both
translational and torsional (with accidental eccentricity) effects. As required by §12.8.6.2,
b . ~ c has been determined in accordance with design forces based on the computed
fundamental period without the upper limit (CI/T
a
) of §12.8.2.
11 6 2006 IBC Structura l /Se IsmIc Design Manua l, Vol . I
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Example 29 • Drift §12.B.6
Level
0"
4 1.51 in
1
3 1.03
2 .63
.30
For each floorlevel centerofmass, determine the following.
[L] Maximum inelastic response deflection 05.
~ Design story drift ~ in story 3
~ Check story 3 for storydrift limit
Calculations andDiscussion
[!J Maximum inelastic response deflection Ox
These are determined using the Osevalues and the Cd factor
o= CA, = 5.56" =5.50
.r I 1.0 se
Therefore:
Code Reference
§12.B
CEq 12.815)
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Level
0.(1'
6,
4 1.51 in 8.31 in
3 1.03 5.67
2 0.63 3.47
1 0.30 1.65
~ Design story drift ~ in story 3 due to Ox
Story 3 is located between Levels 2 and 3.
Thus: ~ J = 5.67  3.47 = 2.20 in
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 117
§12.8.6 Example 29 • Drift
@J Check story 3 for storydrift limit §12.12.1
For this fourstory building with Occupancy Importance Category I, §12. 12.1, Table 12.121
requires that the design story drift /1 shall not exceed 0.025 times the story height.
For story 3
/1J = 2.20 in
Storydrift limit = 0.025 (144) = 3.60 in > 2.20 in
:. Story drift is within the limit.
118 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. 1
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Example 30 • Stor.! Drift Limitations §12.1 2
lEJralnple 30
Story Drift Limitations *12.12
For the design of new buildings, the code places limits on the design story drifts, /)..
The limits are based on the design earthquake displacement or deflection Oxand not
the elastic response deflections ext! corresponding to the design lateral forces of §12.8.
In the example given below, a fourstory steel special mo mentres isting frame (SMF)
structure has the design force deflections oxt! as shown. These have been determined
according to §12.8, using a static, elastic analysis.
Level ~
f ~
D
Occupancy Category I
Deflected
6.e
shape'
Seismic Design Category D
4
2.44 In
12'
3 1.91
1 = 1.0 12'
2 1.36
Cd =5.5
12'
0.79
= 1.3
16'
P
0
Determine the foll owing.
[}J Design earthquake deflections Ox
~ Compare design story drifts with the limit value
Calculations and Discussion
[}J Design earthquake deflections ax
The design earthquake deflections Ox are determined from the following
Code Reference
§12.8.6
= Cd° ,rr
1
(Eq 12. 8 15)
= 5.5c5.
tr
= 5.50
1.0 oft!
2006 IBC St ructural/SeIsmi c Des ign Manual, Vol . I 119
§12.12 Example 30 a Story Drift Limitations
@J Compare story drifts with the limit value §12.12
For this fourstory building in Occupancy Category I, §12.12, Table 12.21 requi res
that the calculated design story drift shall not exceed 0.025 times the story height.
For SMF in SDC D, E, and F, this limit is reduced by p per §12.12.1.1:
!1alp = 0.0251111.3 = 0.019211
Determine drift limit at each level
Levels 4, 3, and 2
!1S; 0.019211 = 0.0192 (12 ft x 12 in/ft) =2.76 in
Levell
!1S; 0.019211 = 0.0192 (16 ft x 12 in/ft) = 3.68 in
For b. =Cl..  Cl.._I, check actual design story drifts against limits
Level x
C."
Ox D. Limit Status
4 2.08 in 11.43 in 2.51 in 2.76 o.k.
3 1.62 8.92 2.68 2.76 o.k.
2 1.13 6.24 2.65 2.76 o.k.
1 0.65 3.59 3.59 3.68 o.k.
Therefore: The story drift limits of §12.12 are satisfied.
Note that use of the drift limit of 0.02511 requires interior and exterior wall systems
to be detail to accommodate this drift per Table 12.121
. ,
Whenever the dynamic analysis procedure of §12.9 is used, story drift should be determined
as the modal combination of the storydrift value for each mode.
Determination of story drift from the difference of the combined mode deflections may
produce erroneous results because differences in the combined modal displacements can be
less than the corresponding combined modal story drift.
120 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Example 31 • Vertical Sei smi c Load Effect §12.4.2.2
Exal te 31
Vertical Seismic Load Effect §12.4.2.2
Find the vertical seismic load effect, E., on the nonprestressed canti lever beam shown
below.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
Beam unit weight = 200 plf
SDS= 1.0
Find the following for strength design.
[!J Upward seismic forces on beam
~ Beam end reactions
Calculations and Discussion
[!J Upward seismic forces on beam
For SOC 0 , the design of hori zontal cantilever beams must consider
1. The governing load combination including E as defined in §12.4.2
E =E" +E\O
E" = 0.2SDsD
QE= 0 for verti cal load, giving
E =0  0.2(1.0) D = 0.2D
where the negative sign is for an upward action.
Code Reference
§12.4.2.2
(Eq 12.41)
(Eq 12.42)
(Eq 12.43)
(Eq 12.44)
2006 IBC Structural/Se ismi c Desig n Manual, Vol . I 121
§12..1.2.2 Example 31 • Vertical Seismic Load Effect
The governing load combination including the upward seismic effect from
§2.3.2, (7) is
qe = 0.9D + 1.0E = 0.9D + ( 0.2D)
=0.7D
= 0.7(200 plf)
= 140 plf downward
:. no net upward load.
The governing load combination including the downward seismic effect from
§2.3.2, (5) is
qe = 1.2D + 1.0E +L + 0.28
= 1.2D + 1.0(0.2)(1.0)D + 0 + 0
=l.4D
= 1.4 (200 pit)
=280 plf downward
:. this is the maximum downward load on the beam.
2. A minimum net upward seismic force. The terminology of "net upward
seismic force" is intended to specify that gravity load effects cannot be
considered to reduce the effects of the vertical seismi c forces and that the
beam must have the strength to resist the actions caused by this net upward
force without consideration of any dead loads. This force is computed as
0.2 times the dead load
qs =  0.2WD =  0.2(200) =  40 plf §12.4.2.2
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EKample J1 " Vertical Seismic Load Effect
Beam end reactions for upward force of 40 plf
v,J = qEl! = 40 plf(lO ft) = 400 lb
M.4= qe ; = 4 0 ~ 0 ) 2 = 2000 lb/ft
The beam must have strengths .pll;, and .pM. to resist these actions, and the
actions due to the applicable gravity load combinations.
§12.4.2.2
20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol.J 123
§11.4.5 Example 32 • Design Response Spectrum
I
Exampl e 32
. ",
'!.esign Response Spectrum §11.4.5
I
Determine the general design response spectrum for a site where the followi ng
spectra l response acceleration parameters have been evaluated according to the general
procedure of §11 .4.
SDS= 0.45g
SOl = 0.28g
T
L
= 8 sec
[!J Determine design response spectrum
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Section I J.4.5 provides the equations for the 5percent damped acceleration response
spectrum Safor the period T intervals of
'Calculations andDiscussion
os T::: To, and T> T,
Toand T, arc calculated as
"" = 0.2(0.28) = O. I2 sec
0.45
T, = S DI = 0.28 = 0.62 sec
S DS 0.45
124 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Code Reference
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Exampl e 32 " Design Response Spectrum
The spectral accelerations are calculated as
1. For the interval 0:::: T:::: To
Sa =0.6 SDST+ OASDS
T"
= 0.6 (0.45
g
) T + 0.4(OA5g)
0.12
= [2.25T +0.18]g
2. For To < T:::: r.
Sa = SDS = 0.45g
3. For r. < T:::: TL
§11.4.5
(Eq 11 .45)
S
 SOl _ 0.28
a   g
T T
4. For T ~ T
L
s  S TL _ 2.24g
a  DI
T2
 ~
nsc Eq 1621)
From this information the elastic design response spectrum for the site can be drawn as
shown in Figure 33.1 below, per Figure 11.41, in ASCE/SEI 705
So
0.45g
0.28g
0.18g
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: I T _ _ __ ~ L _
To=0.12 sec Ts =0.62 s ec 1.0
'_' .1..._4 .1... T(sec)
TL= 8 sec
Figure 33. 1 Elastic response spectrum
2006 IBC Structur al/Seis mi c Design Manual, Vol . , 125
This example illustrates the determination of design lateral forces for the two basic
elements of a dual system. §12.2.5.1 prescribes the following features for a dual system.
§12.2.5.1 . example 33 II Dual Systems
§ 12.2.5. 1
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In present practice, the frame element design loads for a dual system are usually a
result of a computer analysis of the combined frameshear wall system.
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Moment frame
Point A
~ V=400kips
I. Resistance to lateral load is provided by the combination of the moment frames and by
shear walls or braced frames. Recall that the momentresisting frames provided must be
able to resist at least 25 percent of the design forces.
2. The two systems are designed to resist the total design base shear in proportion to
their relative rigidities.
Design Base Shear
V = 400 kips
QE = MQE = 53.0 kipft
In this example, the Equivalent LateralForeeProcedure of §12.8 has been used to determine
the seismic demand QE at point A in the dual system of the building shown below.
This is the beam moment MQE . Shear wall
The following information is given.
Determine the following for the moment frame system.
Seismic Design Category D
p = 1.0
J = 1.0
From the results of the computer analysis
LV shear walls = 355 kips
L Vcolumns = 45
Total design base shear = 400 kips
[!J Design criteria
[!J Seismic design moment at A = M'QE
126 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
OJ Design criteria
According to the two listed requirements, the moment frame must be designed for the
greater value of either the Q
E
value due to the design base shear V loading on the
combined frame  shear wall system, or the value resulting from at least 25 percent
of the design forces. This 25percent requirement may be interpreted in two ways.
CodeReference
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:Calculations andDiscussion
Example 33 • Dual Systems §12.2.5. 1
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may be found by an equivalent lateralforce analysis of the independent
moment frame using 25 percent of the design base shear V.
may be found by factoring the combined frameshear wall system
value such that corresponds to the action that would occur if the portion
of the base shear resisted by the moment frame VFwere to be at least equal to 25
percent of the design base shear V.
Seismic Design Moment at A = M'QE
It is elected to use the factored QE (opti on b) listed above, because this procedure includes
the interaction effects between the frame and the shear wall
From the combined frameshear wall analysis with forces due to the design base shear
V=400 kips, the portion VFofthe base shear resisted by the momentframe is equal
to the sum of the first story frame column shears in the direction ofl oading. For this
example, assume that
The required values QEcorresponding to a frame base shear resistance equal to 25
percent of V is given by
and the seismic design moment at A is
= (53.0) = 117.8 kipft
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 127
§12.2 .5. 1
;
.Comrriel1Jary
Example 33 • Du al Syst ems
I
Use of a dual system has the advantage of providing the structure with an independent
vertical loadcarrying system capable of resisting 25 percent of the design base shear, while
at the same time the primary system, either shear wall or braced frame, carries its
proportio nal share of the design base shear. For this configuration, the code permi ts use of a
larger R value for the primary system than would be permitted without the 25percent frame
system.
Design Criterion la involving the design of the moment frame independent from the shear
wall or bracing system for 25 percent of the design base shear should be considered for high
rise buildings. The slender configuration of the shear walls or bracing systems can actually
load the moment frame at the upper levels of the combined model, and excessively large
moment frame design actions would result from the use of Design Criterion Ib, where these
. ld b I . I' db O.25V
large aclions wou e mu lip ie y  
V
F
128 2006 1BC Strucrural/Selsmic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One Story Wall Panels §12.11
xa Ie 34
eteret orees for'OlleStar all Panels 12.11
This example illustrates the determi nation of the total design lateral seismic force
on a tiltup wall panel supported at its base and at the roof diaphragm level. Note that the
panel is a bearing wall and shear wall.
For the tiltup wall panel shown bel ow, determine the outofplane sei smi c forces
required for the design of the wall section. This is usually done for a representative
1foot width of the wall length, assuming a uniformly distributed outofplane
loading.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
I = 1.0
SDS= l.Og
Panel thickness = 8 inches
Normal weight concrete ( 150 pet)
Determine the followi ng.
TillUp panel
Top of parapet
4'
Roof
20'
Ground
[!J Outofplane force for wall panel design
~ Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design
~ Loading, shear and moment diagrams for parapet design
:Calculafions andDiscussion
[!J Outofpl ane force for wall panel design
Under §12. I 1.1, the design lat eral loading is determined using
F
p
= 0.40 SDsIw
p
~ 0.1 w
p
where w
p
is the weight of the wal l.
Code Reference
§12.11
Per §12.1 1.2, the force must be taken as no less than 400 lb/ft SDsI, nor less than 280 Iblft
2006 IBC Str uctural/Seis mic Design Manual, Vol. I 129
§12.11 Ex ample 34 :I Lat eral Forces for OneStory Wall Panels
Note that if the diaphragm is flexible, §12.l1.2. 1 requires the anchorage force (but not the
wall force) to be increased.
The force F
p
is considered to be applied at the midheight (centroid) of the panel, but
this must be uniformly distributed between the base and the.top of parapet.
For the given SDS = 1.0 and J = 1.0, the wall panel seismi c force is
F
p
= OAO(1. 0)(1.0)w = OAOw
The weight of the panel between the base and the top of the parapet is
w\\' = L ~ ) (150) (24) = 2400 lb per foot of width
F
p
= 0040 (2400) = 950 Ib/ft
F
p
> 400 lb/ft SDsI = 400( 1)(1) = 400 lb/ft
F
p
> 280 lb/ft
The force F
p
is the total force on the panel. It acts at the centroid. For design of the
panel for outofplane forces, F
p
must be expressed as a distributed load,(p
r = 960 Ib/ft =40.0 lflft
JP 24 ft P
~ Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design
Using the uniformly distributed load,(p, the loading, shear, and moment diagrams are
determined for a unit width of panel. The 40.0 plf/ft uniform loading is also applied to
the parapet. See step 3, below, for the parapet design load.
40.0 plllft
4'
RR
20'
Rs
Loading
384
Shear (Ib/ft)
·3 20
Moment IbftIft
1843
130 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One· Stoi"y Wall Panels §12.11
When the uniform load is also applied to the parapet, the total force on the panel is
40.0 plf/ft (24 ft) = 960 lb
ft
The reaction at the roof and base are calculated as
RR= 960(12) = 576 Ib/ft
20
RR =960  576 =385 lb/ft
The shears and moments are the QEload actions for strength design. Note that the reaction
at the roof RR is not necessarily the face used for walltoroof anchorage design, see
rsc §1620.2.1.
~ Loading, shear and moment diagrams for parapet design §13.3.1
This section requires that the desi gn force for parapets (note that parapets are classified as
architectural components) be determined by Equation 13.31 with the Table 13.51 values of
a
p
= 2.5 and R
p
= 2.5
for the unbraced cant ilever parapet portion of the wall panel.
The parapet is considered an element with an attachment elevation at the rooflevel
z=h
T 13.51
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The weight of the parapet is
Wp = ( 1 ~ ) ( 1 5 0 ) ( 4 ) =400 lb per foot of width
The concentrated force applied at the midheight (centroid) of the parapet is
F = 0.4(2.5)(1.0)(1.0) (1 +2 20)w
p 2.5 20 p
F
p
= 1.2W
p
= 1.2 (400) = 480 lb/ft < 1.6 SDsIpW
p
= 640 lb/f] . . . o.k.
and > 0.3 SDslpWp. . . o.k.
(Eq 13.31)
(Eq 13.32)
(Eq 13.33)
2006 la c Struct ural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 131
§12.11 Example 34 • Lateral Forces for OneStory Wall Panels
The equivalent uniform seismic force is
h = 480 = 120 plf/ft for parapet design
4
120 plrJft
4'
Loading
480
Shear (Ib/ft)
960
Moment (lbfUft)
••f I ..... .
.,.
'I
Note that for a large portion ofthe lower southeast region of the USA (Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana,
Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida) the minimum wind forces may govern over the seismic
forces.
132 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Exampl e 35 • OutofPlan e Seismic Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel §12. 11. 1
§12.11.2
Example 35 OutofPlane Seismic
!Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel §12_11.1 and 12.11.2
This example illustrates determination of outofplane seismic forces for the design
of the twostory tiltup wall panel shown below. A typical solid panel (no door or window
openings) is assumed. Walls span from floor to floor to roof. The typica l wall panel in this
building has no pilasters and the tiltup wall s are bearing walls. The roof consists of 11/2
inch, 20gage metal decking on open web steel joists and has been determined to be a
flexible diaphragm. The second floor consists of Iinch, I Sgage composite decking with a 2
II2inch lightweight conc rete topping. This is considered a rigid diaphr agm.
The followi ng information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
SDS = 1.0
J = 1.0
Wall weight = WI/' = 113 psf
38'
Wall
panel
2'
20'
Wan section
16'
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Determine the following.
[L] Outofplane forces for wall panel design
[3J Outofplane forces for wall anchorage design
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
[L] Outofplane forces for wall panel design §12.11.1
Requirements for outofplane seismic forces are speci fied in §1620.1.7
r, = 0040 Soslw; 2: 0.111'",
= OAO( 1.0)( 1.0)11'", = OAOw", = OAO( 113)
= 45.2 psf
2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual, Vol. I 133
§12. 11.1
§12. 11.2
Examp l e 35 " OutofPlane Seismic Forces for TwoSt ory Wall Panel
For a representative 1footwide strip of wall length, F
p
is appl ied as a uniform load
/p=Fp( I ft) =45.2 plf
~
2'
...
~
r
~
~
~
~
20'
~
~
~
~
~
~
16'
....
~
....
....
~
For the purpose of wall design, the required shears and moments may be evaluated
by using reaction values based on the tri butary area for the lft strip
(
16 ft ) 1"
R1  2YP=8(45.2) = 362 1b
R, [C:) +(2;)}';' ~ 18(45.2) ~ 814 Ib
Note that the 2foothigh parapet must be des igned for the seismic force F
p
specified
in §13.3.1, with hei ght z at parapet centroid 37 ft, G
p
= 2.5 and R
p
=2.5
~ Outatplane torces tor wall anchorage design
[!;] Anchorage force for the flexible roof diaphragm
r, = 0.8 8
D
s/wl\'
where Ww is the weight of the wall tributary to the anchor
w , , ~ [( 2 ~ ft) +2ft](1 13 psf) ~ 1356 pl f
F
p
= 0. 8( 1.0)( 1.0)(1356) = 1085 pl f
§12.11.2.1
(Eq 12.111)
The design force per anchor is F
p
times the anchor spacing. For example
if the spacing is at 4 feet, the anchor mus t be designed for (1085) (4 ft) = 4340 lb.
134 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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35 " Out·of·Plane Solsmic Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel
Anchorage force for the rigid second floor diaphragm .
For the case of rigid diaphragms the anchorage force is given by the greater
of the following:
a. The force set forth in §12.11.1.
b. A force of 400 SDsI (pit).
c. 280 (pit) of wall.
§12.11.1
§12. 11. 2
§12.11.2
)
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z = 16 ft = the height of the anchorage of the rigid diaphragm attachment,
and W
p
is the weight of the wall tributary to the anchor
Wp = ft) +C
6
2
fl
)](113 pst) = 2034 plf
F = 0.4(1.0)(1.0)(1.0) [I + 2 (.!i)] IV
p 2.5 36 p
= 0.302W
p
= 0.302(2034) = 615 plf
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 135
§12.11.1
§12.11.2
Commentary
Example 35 • OutatPlane Seismic Forces for Two·Story Wall Panel
1
For flexible or rigid diaphr agms for all seismic design categories (SDCs), the seismic outof
plane forces for the design of the wall are not dependent on the height of the wall in
relati onship to the total height of the building, §12.11.
For flexible diaphragms of SDCs A and B, the seismic anchorage forces are given in
§12.11.2 and for SDCs C, D, E, and F, the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.11.2.1.
For rigid diaphragms of SDCs A and B, the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.11.2.
For rigid diaphragms of SDCs C, D, E, and F, the seismic anchorage forces are given in
§12.11.2.
136 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 36 • RIgid Equipment §13. 3. 1
Example 36
Rigid Equipmen §13.3.1
Thi s example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments
of rigid equipment (see commentary). Att achment, as used in the code, means those
components, including anchorage, bracing, and support mountings, that "attach" the
equipment to the structure.
The threestory building structure shown below has rigid electrical equipment supported
on nonductile porcelain insulators that provide anchorage to the structure. Identical
equi pment is located at the base and at the roof of the building.
2
12'
W
p
allachmenls
shallow expansion anchors
Roof .....
Level
5 DS = 1.1
I
p
= 1.0
W
p
= 10 kips
Seismic Design Category D
12'
12'
Find the following.
[!J Design criteria
Design lateral seismic force at base
Design lateral seismic force at roof
and Discussion Code Reference
[!J Design criteria §13.31
The total design lateral seismic component force to be transferred to the structure
is determined from
(Eq 13.31)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manua l, Vol. I 137
§13.3.1 Exampl e 36 • Rigid Equipment
Values of Q
p
and R
p
are given in Table 13.61. Also note that for shallow
expansion anchors R
p
= 1.5, see §13.4.2.
~ Design lateral seismic force at base
Zx =0
F = 0.4(1.0)(1.1)(1
0
kips) [1+2 ( ~ ) ] =2.93 ki s
p (1.5/1.0) 36 P
Also §13.3. 1 has a requi rementthat F
p
be not less than 0.3 SDS Jp W
p
Check r, s 0.3 SDs l p W
p
= 0.3 (1. 1) (1. 0) 10 = 3.3 kips
: . F
p
= 3.3 kips . . . Equation 13.33 governs
~ Design lateral seismic force at roof
Zx = h; = 36 ft
F = 0.4(1 .0)(1.1)(1
0
kips) [1+ 2 (36)] =8.8 ki s
p (1.5/1.0) 36 P
Section 13.3.1 states that F
p
need not exceed 1.6 SDS J
p
W
p
Check F
p
S 1.6 SDS I
p
W
p
= 1.6 (1.1) (1.0) 10 = 17.6 kips
:. F
p
= 8.8 kips ... Equation 1667 governs.
pommentary
T 13.61
§13.31
(Eq 13.33)
(Eq 13.32)
The definition of a rigid component (e.g. , item of equipment) is given in §11.2. Rigid
equipment (including its attachments; anchorages, bracing, and support mountings)
that has a period less than or equal to 0.06 seconds.
138 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 36 • Rigid Equipment §13.3 .1
The fundamental period T
p
for mechanical and electrical equipment shall be determined by
the formula given in §13.6.2
(Eq 13.61)
I
Where:
g = acceleration of gravity in inches/sec/
K
p
= stiffness of resilient support system
T
p
= component fundamental period
IV
p
= component operating weight
The component anchorage design force F
p
(i.e., the force in the connected part)
is a function of l/R
p
, where R
p
= 1.5 for shallow anchors, (see §13.4.2).
Generally, only equipment such as anchorage or attachments or components need be
designed for seismic forces. This is discussed in §13.1.4. Where equipment, which can be
either flexible or rigid, comes mounted on a supporting frame that is part of the manufactured
unit, the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of §13.
Note that §13.2.5 allows testing as an alternative to the analytical methods of §13. Testing
should comply with ICCES ACI56.
Section 13.1.3 requires a component importance factor greater than 1.0 (lp = 1.5) for the following.
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•
Life safety component required to function after an earthquake
Components of hazardous materials
Occupancy Category IV component s needed for continued operation of the facility
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 139
§ 13.3.1 Ex ampl e 37 " Flexible Equipment
§ 13.3. 1
This example illustrates determinati on of the design seismic force for the attachments
of flexible equipment, see commentary. Attachment as used in the code means those
components, including anchorage, bracing, and support mountings, that "attach" the
equipment to the structure.
The threestory building structure shown below has flexible airhandling equipment
supported by a ductile anchorage system. Anchor bolts in the floor slab meet the
embedment length requirements. Identical equipment is located at the base and at
the roof of the bui lding.
12'
12'
achmenls
Level
Roof
2
1
/ / / , / / / / /
SDS= 1. I
I
p
= 1.0
W; = 10 kips
Seismic Design Category D
Find the following.
[!J Design criteria
Design lateral seismic force at base
Design lateral seismic force at roof
'Calculations andDiscussion Code Reference
[!J Design criteria §13.3.1
The total design lateral seismic component force to be transferred to the structure is
determined from
CEq 13.31)
140 2006 IBC St r uct ural/Seis mi c Design Manual , Vol . I
Exampl e 37 • Flexible Equipment § 13.3. 1
Values of a
p
and R
p
are given in Tabl e 13.61. Since the equipment is flexible and
has limit ed defonnability elements and attachments
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a
p
= 2.5, R
p
= 2.5
~ Design lateral seismic force at base
z = 0
F = 0.4(2.5)(1.1)(10 kips) [I +2 ~ ] =4.4 ki s
p (2.5/1.0) 36 p
Section 13.3. 1 has a requirement that Fp be not less than 0.3 SvslpWp
Chec k r, ~ 0.3 SvslpWp= 0. 3( 1.1)( 1.0)( 10) = 3.3 kips
: . F
p
= 4.4 kips . .. Eq 13.3 1 governs .
~ Design lateral seismic force at roof
z = h = 36 ft
F = 0.4(2.5)(1.1)(1
0
kips) [I + 2 36] = 13.2 ki 5
p (2.5/1.0) 36 p
Sect ion 13.3.1 states that Fp need not exceed 1.6 Sos JpWp
Check F
p
:s 1.6 SvsWp = 1.6( 1.1)(10) = 17.6 kips
: . F
p
= 13.2 kips ... Eq 13.31 governs.
T 13.61
(Eq 13.33)
CEq 13.3 2)
20061BC Structural /Se ismic Design Manual , Vol. / 141
§13.3.1 Example 37 • Flexible Equipment
1
'commentary
A component importance factor greater than 1.0 (Ip = 1.5) is required for the following.
Also note that §13.2.1 requires that, "Architectural, mechanical, and electrical components
supports and attachments shall comply with the sections referenced in Table 13.21."
It should be noted that the component anchorage design force, F
p
(i.e., the force in the
connected part), is a function of l/R
p
, where anchorage of any kind is shallow (see §13.4.2).
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Life safety component required to function after an earthquake
Components of hazardous materials
Occupancy Category IV components needed for continued operation of the facility
•
•
•
The definition of flexible equipment is given in §11 .2. Flexible equipment (including its
attachments anchorages, bracing, and support mountings), has a period greater than 0.06
second.
Generally, only equipment anchorage or components need be designed for seismic forces.
Where the equipment, which can be either flexible or rigid, comes mounted on a supporting
frame that is part of the manufactured unit, then the supporting frame must also meet the
seismic design requirements of §13.3.
Those architectural, mechanical, and electrical systems and their components that are part of
a designated seismic system, as defined in §13.2.1, shall be qualified by either test or
calculation. A certificate of compliance shall be submitted to both the registered design
professional in responsible charge of the design of the designated seismic system and the
building official for review and approval. ICC ES has published Acceptance Criteria (AC
156) that addresses the qualification test to satisfy the referenced code requirements.
142 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Example 38 II Relative Motion of Eq uipment Attachments
Exa o11J Ie 38
e a i ve otion 0 S uipment ttachments
§13.3.2
13.3.2
Section 13.3.2 requires that the design of equipment attachments in buildings have the
effects of the relative displacement of attachment points considered in the lateral force
design. Thi s example illustrates appl ication ofthis requirement.
A unique control panel frame is attached to the floor framing at Levels 2 and 3
of the special steel moment frame building shown below.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
Occupancy Category II,
(}xAe = I.OR in
b
yAe
0.72 in
R = 8.0
Cd = 5.5
6
a
A = O.015hx
Panel frame: EI = lOx 10
4
kipin'
Determi ne the following:
Level
4
, ~ r"",
12'
3
12'
s.,
2
Level v
12'
1
. .
12'
Deflected
Y..
shape
Code Reference
~ Story drift to be considered
~ Induced moment and shear in frame
Calculations and Discussion
~ Story drift to be considered
Section 13.3.2 requires that equipment attachments be designed for effects induced by
D
p
(relative seismic displacement). This is determined as follows.
whe re
D
p
= b
xA
 b
yA
= 1.98 in
b
xA
= bx,.w Cd = 5.94 in
b
xAe
=1.08 in
C d = 5.50
Governs (Eq 13.35)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 143
§13.3.2 Example 38 • Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments
6.1'..1('= 0.72 in
Cd =5.50
Note that D
p
is not required to be taken as greater than
!1 6.48
= (x  y) E.t.L = (432  288)  = 2.26
h
n
432
where
x = 36 ft x 12= 432 in
y =24ftxI2=288in
!1
a
:l = 0.015 h« = 0.015 (432) = 6.48 in
h
sx
=36 ft x 12=432 in
Thus: D
p
=1.98 in
~ Induced moment and shear in frame
(Eq 13.36)
§13.3.2
A liberal estimate of the moment and shear can be made using the following equations.
2M
v=
H
M
v
_ 6EIDp _ 6(10x 10
4
)(1.98)  5792 ki .
 H2  (144)2  . Ipm
 2M _ 57,29  0795 ki
    . ipS
H 72
Dp
l<tf
M ~ ( ~ _
: H
I
I
I M
v ... ~
6EID
M=P
H
2
The attachment details, including the body and anchorage of connectors, should follow the
applicable requirements of §13.4. For example, if the anchorage is provided by shallow
anchor bolts, then R
p
= 1.5.
When anchorage is constructed of nonductile materials, R
p
= 1.0. One example of a
nonductile anchorage is the use of adhesive. Adhesive is a "glued" attachment (e.g.,
attachment of pedestal legs for a raised computer floor). It should be noted that attachment by
adhesive is not the same as anchor bolts set in a drilled hole with an epoxy type adhesive.
144 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 39 • Deformation Compatibility for Sei smic Design Cat egor i es D, E, and F § 12. 12. 4
J
.1:iiample 39 Deformation Compatibility for
:Seis..mic Design Categories 0 , E, andF
 ".
§12. 12.4
A twolevel concrete parking struct ure has the space frame shown below. The
designated lateralforceresist ing system consists of a twobay speci al rein forced
concrete moment frame (SRCMF) located on each side of the structure. The second
level gravity loadbeari ng system is a posttensioned flat plate slab supported on
ordinary reinforced concrete columns,
fffff
0  ~ ~ =
0
Plan at second level
[!J Moment in ordinary column
~ Detailing requirements for ordinary column
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The foll owing information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
li
xc
= 0.57 in
R = 8.0
Cd = 5.5
Column section = 12 in x 12 in
Column clear height = 12 ft
Concrete E; = 3 x 10J ksi
1 = 1.25
Find the following.
f f ?
' SRCMF ~
r:l l J"jV
Elevation L10e E
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 145
§12. 12.4 Example 39 • Deformation Compatibility for Sei smi c Design Cat egori es D, E. and F
1
[!J Moment in ordinary column §12.12.4
Section 2 1. JJ of ACI 31805 specifies requirements for frame members that are not
part of the designated lateral forc eresisting system. The ordinary columns located
in the perimeter frames, and the interior flat plate/column system, fall under these
requirements and must be checked for the moments induced by the maximum
inelastic response displacement. For this example, the columns on line E wi ll be
evaluated.
~
;.. t;alcula.t!ons andDiscussion CodeReference
I
I
= ei
l
" = 5.5(0.57) = 2.51 in
I 1.25
(Eq 12.815)
J
The moment induced in the ordinary column due to the maximum inelastic response
displacement Oxon line E must be determined.
For purposes of this example, a fixedfixed condition is used for simplicity. In actual
applications, column moment is usually determined from a frame analysis.
The cracked section moment of inertia Ie can be approximated as 50 percent of the
gross section 19 . Section 21.11 of ACI 31805 impl ies that the stiffness of elements that
are part of the lateralforeeresisting system shall be reduced  a common approach is to
use one half of the gross section properties. This requirement also applies to elements
that are not part of the lateralforeeresisting system,
1
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I
= bd
3
= 12 (12) 3 = 1728 in
4
12 12
=12 ft x 12 inches = 144 in
I . 4
=.s. =864 In
2
= 6(3 x 10
3
)(864 )(2.51) = 1883 kipin
(144)2
h
M eol
Detailing requirements for ordinary column.
Section 21.11.1 ofACI 31805 requires that frame members, such as the col umn, that are
assumed not to be part of the late ralforeeresisting system must be det ailed according to
ACI §2 1. 11.2 or §21.11.3, depending on the magnitude of the moments induced by ox.
200 6 IBC Structural/ Seismi c Design Manual , Vol. I 146
E ~ a m p l e 39 " Deformation Compatibility i or Seismic Design Categories D, E. and F
Gommentary
§12.12.4
1
1
In actual applications, the flat plate slab must be checked for flexure and punching shear due
to gravity loads and the frame analysis actions induced by ox.
Note that this example problem shows only one way to configure this structure  that is to
combine a ductile SRCMRF with an ordinary, or nonductile, interior column. ACI
requirements for this configuration stress that the nonduc tile interior column must resist the
structure lateral deformation by strength alone.
However, the code also permits an alternative way to configure this structure  by combining
the ductile SRCMRF with ductile interior columns. In this configuration, if interior concrete
columns are detailed according to the requirements of ACI 3I8 §21. 11.3, then design
moments resulting from lateral structure seismic displacements need not be calculated for
that column at all.
2006 (BC Structural/Seismi c Design Manual, Vo/./ 147
§ 12. 7.4 EXllmpl e 40 • Adj oi ning Rigid El ement s
1
Example 40
Adj oining !}ligid Elements §12.7.4
The concrete special reinforced concrete momentresisting frame (SRCMF) shown below is
restrained by the partial height infill wall that is not considered to be a part ofthe seismic
forceresisting system. The infill is solid masonry and has no provision for an expansion joint
at the col umn faces. The design story drift t; was computed accordi ng to the procedure given
in §12.8.6.
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[::LJ Deformation compatibility criteria
~ Approximate column shear
[::LJ Deformation compatibility criteria §12.7.4
The infi ll wall, which is not required by the design to be part of the lateralforceresisting
system, is an adjoining rigid element. Under §12.7.4, it must be shown that the adjoining
rigi d element, in this case the masonry infill wall, must not impair the vertical or lateral
loadresis ting abil ity of the SRCMF columns. Thus, the columns must be checked for
ability to withsta nd the t; displacement of 2.5 inches whi le being simultaneously restrained
by the 6foothigh infill walls.
Seismic Design Category D
t; =2.5 in
Column properties
f: =3000 psi
E, = 3 x 10
3
ksi
A
c
= 144 in
4
t, =854 in
4
Determine the following.
Calculations and Discussion
Inrlll wall
Typical elevation
Code Reference
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Example 40 • Adjoining Rigid Elements §1'.7.4
[f] Approximat e column shear
Column shear will be determined from the frame design story drift, 1:>. . For purposes
of the example, the expression for shear due to a fixedfixed condition will be used for
simpli city. Also note the restrained column height is 6 ft or 72 inches.
v = l2E,Ill. = 12(3 x 10
3)(854)(2
.5) = 205.9 ki s
col 11 3 (72)3 P
Column clear height = 72 in
Because the SRCMF is the primary lateralforeeresisting system, I:>. has been determined
by neglecting the stiffness of the rigid masonry.
The induced column shear stress is '1;,., = 1447 psi . This is approximately 26ff:
A
c
and would result in column shear failure. Therefore, a gap must be provided between the
column faces and the infill walls. Alternately, it would be necessary to either design the
column for the induced shears and moments caused by the infill wall, or demonstrate that
the wall will fail before the column is damaged. Generally, it is far easier (and more reliabl e)
to provide a gap sufficiently wide to accommodate 1:>. .
For this example, with the restraining wall height equal to one half the column height, the
gap should be greater than or equal to 1:>. /2 = 1.25 in. If this were provided, the col umn
clear height would be 144 inches, with resulting column shear
, 12(3 x 10
3)(854
)(2.5) 25 7 ki Thi . h h f h . d I
V I = 3 = . IpS. IS IS oneerg tot e restrame co umn
c" (144)
shear of205 kips, and corresponds to a column shear stress of approximately 3.3JJ:.
,Commentary
It is also possible that the restraint of the infill walls could cause an irregularity, such as a
building torsional irregularity. This should be evaluated if such restraints are present.
2006 IBC Struc tural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. t 149
§13.5.3 Exa mple 41 • Exter io r Elements: Wall Panel
This example illustrates the determinat ion of the design lateral seismic forc e F
p
on an ext erior element of a bui lding, in this case an ext erior wall panel.
A fivestory moment frame building is shown below. The cladding on the exterior
of the building consists of precast reinforced concret e wall panels.
§13.5.3
The following information is given.
Level
5
Seismic Design Category D
12'
4 Typical
I = 1.0
exlerior
SDS= 1.0
12'
panel
Panel size: I I ft 11 in by 19 ft 11 in 3
Panel thickness: 6in
12'
Panel weight: W
p
= 14.4 kips
2
12'
12'
Find the following.
[!J Design criteria
[I] Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story
@J Design lateral seismi c force on a panel at the first story
Cijlculations and Discussion
[!J Design criteria
Code Reference
§13.5.3
For design of ext erior elements, such as the wall panels on a building, that are
attached to the building at two levels, design lateral seismic forc es are determined
from Equation 13.34. The panels are attached at the two elevations ZL and z., '
The intent of the code is to provide a val ue of F
p
that represents the average of the
acceleration inputs from the two attachment locations. This can be taken as the average
of the two ~ } values at z equal to ZL and z".
150 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 41 • Exterior Elements: Wall Panel
O.4n S I [ , ]
= P OS J' 1+ 2':: ~ , > 0.3 SDslpW
R
p
11
= 1.0, R
p
= 2.5
§13. S.3
(Eq 13.31)
T 13.5 1
1
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~ Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story
Assuming connections are I foot above and below the nominal 12foot panel height
Z" =47 ft
ZL = 37 ft
11 = ft
= 0.4(1.0)(1.0)(1.0) [I +2(47)] 11' =0.4 11W
2.5 60 p P
F = 0.4(1.0)(1.0)(1.0) [I+2(37)] W = 0.357 W:
pL 2.5 60 p P
F p ~ = Fpu + FpL = (0.411 +0.357) w
2 2 p
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F p ~ = 0.384W
p
= (0.384)(14.4) = 5.53 kips
Check: Fp4 > 0.3 SDslpH' p =0.3( 1.0)(1.0)W
p
=0.3Wp . . . o.k.
Check: Fp4 ~ 1.6 SDslpWp =1.6(1.0)(1.0)W
p
= 1. 6Wp. . . o.k.
~ Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the first story
The following are known.
Z" =Ilft
ZL = 0
h =60 ft
(Eq 13.33)
(Eq 13.32)
2006 IBC Structu r al/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 151
§13.5.3 Example 41 • Exter ior Elemen ts: Wall Panel
F
pu
= 0.4( 1.0)(1.0)(1. 0) [I + 2 ( ~ ) ] W = 0.219if':
2.5 2.5 60 p p
Check that Fpu is greater than 0.3 SvsIpWp
Fpu = 0.3(1.0)(1.0)Wp= 0.30Wp . . . not o.k.
Also F
pL
< Fpu < 0.30TVp
: . use FpL= Fpu= O. 30TVp
Fpl = F
pu
+ F
pL
=0.30W
p
=(0.30)(14.4) = 4.32 kips
2
1
1
1
1
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(:ommentary
Note that the design of the panel may be controlled by nonseismic load conditions of the
fabrication process, transportation, and installation. Also note that the forces induced by
displacement D
p
from Equation 13.35 need to be checked per §13.3.2.1.
152 2006 IBC Structural/Seismi c Design Manual, Vol. I
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Ex ample 42 Q Ex terior Nonstructural Wall El ements: Precast Panel §13.5.3
xample42
Exterior ons ruc turei all Elements: reces Panel §13.5.3
This example illustrates the det ermination of the total design seismi c lateral force for the
design of the conne ctions of an exterior wall panel to a building.
An exterior nonbearing panel is located at the fourth story of a fivestory moment frame
building. The panel support system is shown below, where the pair of upper brackets must
prov ide resistance to outofplane wind and seismic forces and inplane vertical and
horizontal forces. The panel is supported vertically from these bracket s. The lower pair of
rod connections provides resistance to only the outofpl ane forces.
Seismic Design Category 0
SDS = 1.0
f
p
= 1.0
fi = 0.5
Height to roof, h = 60 ft
Panel weight = 14.4 kips
P = 1.0per §12.3.4.1(3).
Panel live load, L = 0
Find the following.
[!.J Strength design load combinations
Lateral seismic force at centerofmass C of panel
Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and connections
@J Design forces for the brackets
Design forces for the rods
12'

and Dis_cussifJn Code
[!.J Strength design load combinations §2.3.2
For desi gn of the panel connections to the building, the applicable strength design
load combinations are
2006 IBC Structural/Se ismi c Des ign Manual, Vol. I 153
§1J.5.J Example 42 • Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel
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a) 1.2D + 1.0E + )1" L = I.2D + 1.0E (Comb. 5)
where, with E = pQ£+ 0.2 SDSD (Eq 12AI)
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= 1.0Q£ + 0.2(1.0)D
= Q£ +0.2D
As SDS = 1.0g, the equation reduces to
lAD + Q£, for Q£ and D with same signs and type of load action.
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b) 0.9D + 1.0£ (Comb. 7)
with E = pQ£ + 0.2 SsoD (Eq 12AI )
= Q£ +0.2D
1
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154 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
In the seismic load combinations, Q£ is the load action on the connection due to
the lateral load F
p
applied either inplane or outofplane at the panel centerofmass
per §13.3.
This combination need not be considered because the rod connections resi st only the Q£
axial load, and the bracket connections have shear resistance capacity independent of the
direction of the Q£ shear load: for example, upward resistance is equal to downward
resistance. Therefore, this load combination is satisfied by lAD + Q£ for Q£ and D with
the same signs.
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(Comb. 7)
(Eq 12A2)
l.lD + Q£ , for Q£ and D with same signs.
0.70D + Q£, for Q£ and D with opposite signs.
This combination need not be considered since it is less than lAD+ Q£.
with E = pQ£  0.2 SsoD
c) 0.9D + 1.0Q£
As Sos = 1.0g, the equation reduces to
As SDS = LOg, the equati on reduces to
I
Example 42 • Exteri or Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precasl Panel §13. 5. 3
1
~ Lateral seismic force at centerof mass C of panel
Section 13.5.3, Item d., requires that the connection seismic load actions be determined by
the force F
p
given by §13.3.1 applied to the centerofmass of the wall panel. The values of
R
p
and op are given in Table 13.5 1 for the body and fasteners of the connection elements.
To represent the average seismic acceleration on the panel, F
p
will be determined as the
average of the F
p
values for the upper bracket elevat ion level, z,,, and for the lower rod
elevation elevati ons, ZL. For the higher story levels of the building, this average F
p
would be essentially equal to the F
p
value using Z = z, at the panel centerofmass elevation.
However, this use of elevations z = Zc may not be valid for the lower story levels because
of the limitation of
(Eq 13.33)
With the given values of Sos = 1.0, and I
p
=1.0
O.4opSDs
l
p
( z)
F = 1+ 2 IV
p n, 11 p
(Eq 13.31)
r, 2: 0.3 SosIpIVp = 0.3(1.0)( 1.0)IVp= 0.3W
p
(Eq 13.33)
Op = 1.0 and R
p
= 2.5, for body of connection T 13.51
= Zu = 47 ft
At lower rod connect ion level
IV
p
= weight panel = 14.4 kips
At upper bracket connection level
=ZL = 37 ft
= 0.4(1.0) [1 +2 (37)] If'
2.5 60 p
= 0.4 11 W
p
> 0.3 SosIpW
p
= 0.3W
p
.. . o.k.
z
F = 0.4(1.0) [I +2 (47)] IV
pU 2.5 60 p
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= 0.357 W
p
> 0.3 IV
p
• • • o.k.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismi c Design Manu al, Vol . I 155
Exampl e 42 • Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Panel §13.5.3
The required average, F
p
F
pu
+ F
pL
= (0.411 +0.357) w
2 2 I'
1
J
=0.384W
p
= 0.384(14.)
= 5.53 kips
This force is applied at the panel centroid C and acts horizontally in either the outof
plane or the inplane direction.
There are two seismic load conditions to be considered: outofplane and inplane .
These are shown below as concentrated forces , In this examp le, Combination 5 of §2.3.2,
1.2D + QE, is the controlling load combination,
~ Dea d load, seismic outofplane, and vertical seismic for ces
Panel connection reactions due to factored dead load, outofplane seismic forces,
and vertical seismic forces are calculated as follows:
2006 IBC Str uctural/S eismi c Design Manual, Vol . I
Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and connections
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§13.5.2
F
p
= 5.5 3 kips
.4 (14.4) =20.16 kips
g' ,
I.
g' ,
.._.. _.._.. f .•_ .. _ ••_ ••J

I ~
5'
0 ~
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5'

,
.._.._.._.. f •. _ .. _ .. _ ..... t
1.2W
p
+ O.2W
p
= 1.4W
p
= 1
where Pe is the bracket force and P
R
is the rod force.
Each bracket and rod connection takes the following axial load due to the
outofplane force F
p
at centerofmass
Ps + PR = F
p
= 5.53 = 1.38 kips
4 4
156
1
Examplo 42 IR Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Panel §13.5.3
Each bracket takes the following downward inplane shear force due to
vertical loads
I AW
p
20.16 .
VB =   = = 10.08 kips
2 2
Note that each rod, because it carries only axial forces, has no inplane,
dead, or seismic loading.
~ Dead load, seismic inplane, and vertical seismic forces
Panel connection reactions due to factored dead load, inplane seismic
forces , and vertical seismic forces are calculated as
9' 9'
5'
c ,/
5'
1.4W,= 20.16 kips
F, = 5.53 kips
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Each bracket takes the following inplane horizontal shear force due to lateral
seismic load
r, 5.53 ki
H
B
= =  =2.77 IpS
2 2
Each bracket takes the following upward or downward shear force due to
the reversible lateral seismic load
F
 5(Fp )  5(5.53)  I 54 ki
B      ± . IpS
18 18
Each bracket takes the following downward force due to vertical loads:
1.4W
p
20.16 .
RB = = = 10.08 kips
2 2
Under the inplane seismic loading, each rod carries no force.
20D6IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 157
§13.5.3 Example 42 • Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel
1
@J Design forces for the brackets
~ Body of connection
Under §13.5.3 and Table 13.5.1 the body of the connection must be designed for
Up = 1.0 and R
p
= 2.5. These are the up and R
p
values used for the determination of F
p
.
Therefore, there is no need to change the load actions due to this force.
The bracket must be designed to resist the following sets of load actions.
P
B
= ±1.38 axial load together with
VB = 10.08 kips downward shear
and
H
B
= ± 2.77 kips horizontal shear together with
F
B
+ RB= 1.54 + 10.08 =11.62 kips downward shear
~ Fasteners
Under §13.5.3, Item d., and Table 13.5.1, fasteners must be designed for
up = 1.25 and R
p
= 1.0. Thus, it is necessary to multiply the F
p
load actions by
( 1.25)(2.5) = 3. 125 because these values were based on a
p
= 1.0 and R
p
= 2.5.
Fasteners must be designed to resist
(3.125) P
B
= 3.125(1.38) = 4.31 kips axial load together with
VB = 10.08 kips downward shear
and
3.125HB= 3.125(2.77) = 8.66 kips horizontal shear together with
3. 125FB+ RB=3.125(1.54) + 10.08 = 14.89 kips downward shear
~ Design forces f or t he rods
~ Body of connection
The body of the connection must be designed to resist a force based on a
p
= 1.0
and R
p
= 2.5
P
R
= 1.39 kips axial load
158 20 06 I BC Structural/Seismic Desi gn Manua', Vol . I
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Exampl e 42 s Exter ior Nonst ructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel §13.5.3
[!J Fasteners
Fasteners in the connecting system must be des igned to resist a force based on
a
p
= 1.25 and R
p
= 1.0
(3. I25)PR= 3.125(1.38) = 4.31 kips axial load
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 159
§12.1.3 Example 43 • Beam Horizontal Tie Force
EXamp l e 43
'Beam Horizontal Tie Force §12. 1.3
This example illustrates use of the beam interconnection requirement of §12.1.3.
The requirement is to ensure that important parts of a structure are "tied together."
Find the minimum required tie capacity for the connection between the two simple
beams shown in the example below,
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
SDS = 1.0
Dead Load D = 6 kip/ft
Live Load L = 4 kip/ft
Pin support "p"
p ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ k"
C o d ~ Reference
[!J Determine tie force
~ Determine horizontal support force at "P"
Calculations and Discussion
[!J Determine tie force
Requirements for ties and continuity are specified in §12,1.3. For this particular
example, it is required to determine the "tie force" for design of the horizontal tie
interconnecting the two simply supported beams. This force is designated as F
p
,
given by the greater value of
F
p
= 0.133 SDSW
p
or
F
p
= 0.05H'
p
where w
p
is the weight of the smaller (shorter) beam
W
p
= 40 ft (D) = 40(6) = 240 kips
160 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
1 For SDS = 1.0, the controll ing tie force is
F
p
= 0.133( 1.0)(240) = 31.9 kips
Example 43 • Beam Hori zontal Tie Force §12.1.3
~ Determine horizontal support force at "P"
Section 12.1.4 requires a horizontal support force for each beam equal to 5 percent of the
dead plus live load reacti on. Given a sliding bearing at the left support of the 40foot beam,
the required design force at the pin support "P" is
I H=0.05(6 klf +4 kIf) ( ~ O ) =10 kips
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 161
§12.10.2 Example 44 • Collector Elements
§12.10.2
Collectors "collect" forces and carry them to vertical shearresisting elements. Collectors are
sometimes called drag struts. The purpose of this example is to show the determination of the
maximum seismic force for design of collector elements. In the example below, a tiltup
building, with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized wood roof, has a
partial interior shear wall on Line 2. A collector is necessary to "collect" the diaphragm loads
tributary to Line 2 and bring them to the shear wall.
3
Nole: Roof framing, except
collector, not shown.
100'
50'
2
Roofplan
50'
RP=;===ir:====r===u....... Tributary roof area
for cctector
l_uColleclor
k""Shear walls
lI=j::============!l
Occupancy Category I
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
R =5.5
no= 2.5
1 = 1.0
8
DS
= 1.20
Roof dead load = 15 psf
Wall height = 30 ft, no parapet
Wall weight = 113 psf
By inspection, for the onestory shear wall building, Equation 12.82 wi ll govern.
S
Base shear = V= DS W = 0.2 l 8W
R
W= structure weight above one half hi
(Eq 12.82)
Interior
shear wall
Collector
50'
Determine the following.
Elevation Section AA
[!J Collector unfactored force at tie to wall
~ . Special seismic load of §12.4.3.2 at tie to wall
162 2006 IBC Structural/SeIsmic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 44 • Collector Elements §12.10.2
Calculations andDiscussion
C!.J Collector unfactored force at tie to wall
CodeReference
§12.10.2
The seismic force in the collector is made up of two parts : I) the tribut ary outofplane
wall forces, and 2) the tributary roof diaphragm force. The paneli zed wood roof has been
determined to be flexible ; thus the tribut ary roof area is taken as the IOOfoot by 50foot
area shown on the roof plan above. Seismic forces for collector design are determined from
Equat ion 12.101 used for diaphragm design. This equat ion reduces to the following for a
single story structure.
F,
=w,
W P
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F
pl
max = 0.3 Sp,lW
px
= O.30W
px
F
pl
min =0.15 Sp,lW
p
.
T
=0. 15W
p T
= 1.2 Sp, W = V
R x
= design force at roof
= structure wei ght above one half hi = W
= weight tributary to the collector element
giving:
Wpl = tributary roof and outofplane wall weight
: . F
p1
=0.218(244.5) =53.3 kips.
V
F
p1
= Wpl = 0.218W
p l
W
Wpl = 15 psf(lOO)(50) + 113 psf (3
2
0) (100) = 75,000 + 169,500 = 244.5 kips
§12.10.2
Note: This force corresponds to the diaphragm design forces calculated using §12.10.1.
These forces are compared to the diaphragm shear strength; including the shear
strength of connection between the diaphragm and collector. The design of the
collector and its connections requires that the axial forces be amplified as shown
below.
Special seismic load of §12.4.3.2 at tie to wall
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol . I 163
Given the force Fpl specified by Equation 12.101, the collector elements, splices, and their
connections to resisting clements shall have the design strength to resist the earthquake loads
as defi ned in the Special Load Combinations of §12.4.3.2.
§12.10.2 Exampl e 44 • Coll ector El ements
The governing load combination is
1.2 D +0.5L +Em §2.3.2 (Comb. 5)
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where
Here, Q£ is the horizontal collector design force Fpl = 53.3 kips, and
n oQ£= 2.5(53.3) = 133.25 kips axial tension and compression load
(Eq 12.45)
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0.2 SDsD = 0.2( 1.0)D = 0.2D vertical load
The strength design of the collector and its connections must resist the following load
components.
n "Q£ = 2.5(53.3) = 133.25 kips axial tension and compression load
and vertical downward load equal to
1.2D +0.5L +0.2 D = 1.4 D +0.5 L
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with D = (50 ft + 50 ft)(50 ft)(l5 psf) = 2250 Ib
The resulting total factored vertical load is
1.4(2250) +0.5(750) = 3525 lb
L =(50 ft + 50 ft)(50 ft) (0.5)(10 psf) =750 Ib
which is applied as a uniform distributed load w =3525/50 ft = 70.5 plf on the 50foot
length of the collector element.
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Note that §12.4.3.1 specifies that the term noQ£ in Equati on 12.47 need not exceed the
maximum force that can be delivered by the lateralforceresisting system as determined by
rational analysis . For example, the overturning moment capacity of the shear wall can limit
the required strengt h of the collector and its connection to the shear wall.
:'l
Commentary
164 2006 IBC St ructural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. /
Example 45 OutatPlene Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to FlexIble Diaphragms §12. 11.2
§12. 11.2. 1
am le45
Outof..Plane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or
Masonry Walls to Flexible Diaphragms §12.. 11..2 and 12.11.2.1
For the tiltup wall panel shown below, the seismic force required for the design of
the wall anchorage to the flexible roof diaphragm is to be determined. This wi ll be
done for a representative Ifoot width of wall.
The following information is given.
Occupancy Importance Category I
Seismic Design Category D
J = 1.0
SDS = 1.0
Panel thickness = 8 in
Normal weight concrete CI50 pet)
Determine the following.
[!J Design criteria
~ Wall anchorage force
Calculations and Discussion
F. n: l • ++
. Assumed pin support ~ ~
Top of parapet
4'
Roof
20'
Ground
Code Reference
[!J Design criteria §12.11.2.1
Because of the frequent failure of wall/roof ties in past earthquakes, the code requires
that the force used to design wall anchorage to flexible diaphragms be greater than that
given in §12. I 1.2.1 for the design of the wall panel sections . The following equation is
to be used to determine anchor design forces, with minimum limit given in §12.11.2.
F
p
= 0.8 SDS!ElVl\'
2:: 400 8Ds/ lblft
2:: 280 lb/ ft of wall
where WI\ ' is the weight ofa Ifoot width of wall that is tributary to the anchor.
CEq 12.111)
2006 IBC St ructural/Seis mic DesIgn Manual, Vol. I 165
§12.11.2
§12. 11.2. 1
Ex ample 45 • OutotPten e Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to Fl exible Diaphragms
I
~ Wall anchorage force
The tributary wall weight is onehalf of the weight between the roof and base plus all
the weight above the roof.
IVw = 1 5 0 C ~ ) ( 4 ft + 10 ft)(I ft) = 1400 lb/ft
For the given values ofSos = 1.0 and 1= 1.0 , Equation 12. 11) gives
F
p
= 0.8( 1.0)( 1.0)w
p
= 1.2w
p
=0.8(1400)
= 1120 Ib/ft > 400(1.0)(1.0) = 400 Ib/ft . . . o.k.
> 280 Ib/ft .. . o.k.
:. F"",."= Fp = I 120 Ib/ft
Thi s is the QEload in the seismic load combinations.
166 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 46 • Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §12.11.2.1
ample 46
all nchorage to Flexible iap ragms §12.11.2.1
This example illustrates use of the allowable stress design procedure for the design of
steel and wood elements of the wall anchorage system in a building with a flexible roof
diaphragm.
The drawing below shows a tiltup wall panel that is connected near its top to a flexible
roof diaphragm. The anchorage force has been calculated per §12.11.2.1 as Fonch = 1680 lb/ft.
The wall anchorage connections to the roof are to be provided at 4 feet on center.
Wall panel
Wallroof tic detail
Determine the strength' design requirement s for the followi ng.
[IJ Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element
~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
[IJ Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element.
The task is to design the steel anchorage elements (i.e., holddowns) that connect the tiltup
wall panel to the wood subpurlins of the roof diaphragm. The anchorage consists of two
holddown elements, one on each side of the subpurlin.
The manufacturer's catalog provides allowable capacity values for eart hquake loading for a
given type and size of holddown element.
The steel holddown elements of the anchorage system resist only the axial anchorage
load and there are no dead or live load effects.
2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual, Vol . I 167
§12.1 1.2.1 Example 46 • Wall An chorage to Flexible Di aph ragms
J
For the 4foot spacing, the strength design axial load is
E = QE=P
E
=F
aae
" (4) =(1680)(4) =± 6720 Ib
This exampl e, uses the ASD load combinations of §2.4, where the applicable seismic load
combinations permi t 0.7£ to be resisted with an increase in allowable stress based on
duration (i.e., the Cd duration factor for wood) .
The allowabl e stress design axial load requirement for each pair of holddown elements is
0.7£ = 0.7P
E
0.7(6720) = ± 4800 lb
From the manufacturer's catalog, select a holddown element having a capacity of at least
4800 lb = 2400 Ib
2
The holddown detail must provide both tensile and compress ive resistance for this load.
Whenever holddowns are used in pairs, as shown in the wallroof tie detail above, the
throughbol ts in the subpurlin must be checked for double shear bearing. Also, the paired
anchorage embedment in the wall is likely to involve an overlapping pull out cone
condition in the concrete: refer to ACI 3I8 Appendix D for design requirements.
When singlesided holddowns are used, these must consider the effects of eccentricity.
Generally, double holddowns are preferred, but singlesided holddowns are often
used with all eccentricities fully considered.
~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element
The strength design axial load on the wood element of the wall anchorage system is
PE = (1680)(4) =± 6720 lb
Using the seismic load combinations of §2.4, select the wood element such that the
allowable capacity of the element, for the combined bending and axial stress including
dead and live load effects, can support a ± axial load of
0.7PE=0.7(6720) =4800 lb applied at the anchored end.
168 2006 I BC Str uctural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Commentary
Example 46 l:f Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §12.11.2.1
For comparison , the forces acting on wood, concrete, and steel elements are shown below. For wood,
the load is divided by the dura tion fac tor Cdof 1.0 to permit comparison. For steel, the load is
increased by 1.4 per §12.11.2.2.
Material
Wood
0.8S
DsIW
1.6
0.5 SoslW
ASD
(0.35 SoslW)
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Concrete
Steel
0.8 SoslW
1.4(0.8 SoslW) = 1.12 SoslW
N/A
(0.78 SoslW)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 169
§12. 10.1. 1 Example 4 7 Q Determi nation of Diaphragm Force F
p
::: Lowrise
~ mple 4 7
!# ermination of Diaphragm Force f px : Lowrise §12.'10. 1.1
This exampl e illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force F
px
of
Equation 12.101, for the design of the roof diaphragm of a singlestory building.
A singlestory tiltup bui lding with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized
wood roof is shown below. This type of roof construction can generally be shown to
behave per flexible diaphragm assumptions.
b
o
cp 200'
rNormal wall
Occupancy Importance Category I
The following information is
given.
Seismi c Design Category 0
Roof plan
Roof diaphragm
J = 1.0
SDS= 1.0
R =5.0
P = 1.0
Diaphragm weight = 15 psf
Wall weight = 80 psf
Elevation through building
Find the following.
[!J Diaphragm design force at the roof
170 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 47 • Det ermination of Diaphragm Force F
px
: Lowrise §12. 10.1. 1
Calculations andDiscussion Code Reference
[!J Diaphragm design force at the roof §12.10.1.1
§12. 10.1.1 requires that the design seismic force for diaphragms be determined by
1
n
2:
F
,
F = ~ = l t , '
p:r n px
2: lVj
i.t
with limits of
0.2 SDs/Wp.t :::: Fp.t:::: 0.4 SDs/W
p
.,
which for
S DS = 1.0 and 1 = 1.0
(Eq 12.10 1)
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are
For a short period single story building, Equation 12.101 becomes (see commentary
below for derivation)
with the given val ues of SDS = 1.0, R =5.0
and, for a lfootwide strip
Wpl = weight of diaphragm + weight of onehalf height of normal walls
= IOO( 15) + 2( I0)(80) = 3100 Ib/ft
(1.0)(1.0)
F
p l
= 5.0 11'p.t =0.2 Wpl =0.2(3 100) =620 lb/ft
Check limits: 0.2w
p
.t < 0.2wp ) < O.4w
p
.t •. . o.k.
Note that the redundancy factor of p is to be applied to the Q£ load actions due
to F
p l
(such as chord forces and diaphragm shear loads in the diaphragm).
2006 IBC Structura l/Seismic Design Manua l, Vol. I 17 1
§12.10.1. 1 Example 47 • Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
: Lowrise
1
Commentary
I. The weight W
p
., includes the weight of the diaphragm plus the tributary weight
of elements nonnal to the diaphragm that are onehalf story hei ght below and
above the diaphragm level. Wall s parall el to the direction of the seismic forces are
usually not considered in the.detennination of the tributary roof weight because
these walls do not obtain support, in the direction of the force, from the roof
diaphragm.
2. The singlestory building version of Equation 1665 is derived as follows .
m
2: F,
F = ~ w
ps •• px
2: Wi
(Eq 12.101)
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v •
F = C V = w,h,
X IX n
2: W/l:
i..1
(Eq 12.811)
i = I , x = 1, and 11 = I
For a singlestory building,
and Equation 12.8 11 gives
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(Eq 12.812) for short period of < 0.5 sec (k = J.0) .
 J•
}\'.r 1.(
I
2: 11'; = W
i I
F) = W/I, V= V
w,lz,
where C,_., =
172 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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where
Example 47 ~ Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
: Lowrise §12. 10. 1. 1
1
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V= C W= 5
0 S
! IV
5 R
Finally, for the single story building, Equation 12.101 is
F, V 5
0
s!
F
1
=  11' =  l V = 11'
P IV 1'1 IV 1'1 R 1'1
(Eq 12.81 and 12.82)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 173
§12.10.1 Example 48 D Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
: Highrise
ample 48
t
,Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
: Highrise §12. 0.1
This example illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force F
px
of Equation
12. 10 1 for a representative floor of a multistory building.
The ninestory moment frame bui lding shown below has the tabulated design seismic
forces P.r:. These were determined from Equations 12.811 and 12.812, the design
base shear.
The following information is given.
Level 1< 27' * 27':J Story
'1 1 Weight, kips
Seismic Design Category 0
W = 3,762 kips
C, = 0.06215
8
D
s =1.0
P = 1.3
I = 1.0
T = 1.06 sec
V = CW= 233.8 kips
k = 2 for Eq 12.812
12
12'
12'
12'
12'
20'
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
/ / ' // / //// // / / / ' /
214
405
405
405
584
422
422
440
465
k
C = WJ l"
F
I
Level x h (ft) h
2
I\' ki ps II'h
vr t
Fx =Cl·.r
V
L I\'.h. IV
, I
9 11 6 13456 214 2879584 0.153 35.8 0.167
8 104 10816 405 4380480 0.233 54.4 0.134
7 92 8464 405 3427920 0.183 42.8 0.106
6 80 6400 405 2592000 0. 138 32.3 0.079
5 68 4624 584 2700416 0.144 33.7 0.058
4 56 3136 422 1323392 0.071 16.6 0.039
3 44 1936 422 816992 0.044 10.3 0.024
2 32 1024 440 450560 0.024 5.6 0.013
I 20 400 465 186000 0.010 2.3 0.005
Totals: 3,762 18,757,344 233.8
174 2006 IBC St r uctural/Seismic Desig n Manual, Vol. I
Example 48 • Delerminallon of Diaphragm Force F
pK
: Highrise §1Z. 10. 1
1
and Code Reference
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[I] Diaphragm force at Level 7 §12.101
Seismic forces on the floor and roof diaphragm are specified in §12.101. The following
equation is used to determine the diaphragm force F
px
at Level x
(Eq 12.101)
Section 12.10.1.1 also has the following limits on F
px
For Level 7, x = 7
F = (42. 8 + 54.4 + 35.8)(405) =(0. 130)(405) =52.6 ki s
p7 (405 + 405 + 214) P
Check limits:
0.2 SDsIw
px
= 0.2w
px
= 0.2(405) = 81.1 kips > 52.6 kips ... not o.k.
0.4 SDsIwpx = O.4wpx
= 0.4(405) = 121.5 kips > 52.6 kips . . . o.k.
:. F
p7
= 81.1 kips... minimum value (0.2 SDsIwpx) governs.
Note that the redundancy factor, in this example p = 1.3, is to be applied to the load Q£ due
to F P.f (such as chord forces and floortoframe shear connections). Also note that Equation
12.101 will always govern for the design of the diaphragm versus Equation 12.812.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I 1 7 5
§12.12.3 Example 49 • Building Separations
49
SUilding Separations
..
§12.12.3
Building separations are necessary to prevent or reduce the possibility of two adjacent
structures impacting during an earthquake. Requirements for building separations are
given in §12.12.3. In this example, the static displacements oxe due to the prescribed
lateral forces of §12.8 and information about each structure are given below. Note that
the displacements given are at the plan view edges of the building.
Structure 2
2 0.75 in
I 0.35
o 0
R= 6
C,/=5
1.38 in.
1.00
0.47
o
Structure J
Levelr 0..
2
o
3
.
II
Structure 1 Structure 2
Find the required separations for the following situations.
[!J Separations within the same building
[!J Separation from an adjacent building on the same property
Separation from an adjacent building on another property
Calculatiqns and Discussion Code Reference
[!J Separation within the same building §12.12.3
Expansion joints are often used to break a large building or an irregular building into
two or more parts above the foundation level. This effectively creates separate structures
within the same building. The code requires that the structures be separated by the
amount OMf
where
OMI = maximum inelastic displacement of Structure 1
0,"12 = inelastic displacement of Structure 2
176 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 49 ., Building Separ<Jtlons
where
s _ « ) _ C
J
6,n.
U/d Ux max   /
The required separation is determined in the following two steps.
§12.12.J
(Eq 12.81)
I
~ Determine ine lastic di splacements of each structure §I2.8.6
To determine the min imum separation between parts of the same building
that are separated by an expansion joint, the maximum inelastic floor
displacements 6" must be determined for each structure. These are at
level, x= 2
For Structure I
~ Separation from an adjacent buildi ng on the same property
If Structures I and 2 above are adjacent, individual buildings on the same property, the
solution is the same as that shown above in Step I . The code makes no distinction between
an "internal" separation in the same building and the separation requi red between two
adjacent buildings on the same property.
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s,  C ~ 2 J _ 5.5(1.0)  5 5 .
U '\(I   /  1.0 . in
For Structure 2
6
M2
= CJ/6 22 = 5.0(0.75) = 3.75 in
1.0
~ Dete rmine t he required separation
The requi red separation is determined from the individual maximum
inelastic displacements of each structure as
6
MT
= 6,\11 +6
M2
= 5.5 + 3.75 = 9.25 in
6
UT
= 9.25 in
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
(Eq 12.815)
(Eq 12.8 15)
§I 2.I2.3
177
912.12.3 Example 49 • Building Separations
~ Separation from an adjacent building on another property §12.12.3
If Struc ture I is a building under design and Structure 2 is an existing building on an
adjoining propert y, we would genera lly not have information about the seismic
displ acements of Structu re 2. Often even basic information about the structura l system of
St ructure 2 may not be known. In this case, separation must be based only on information
about Struc ture I. The larges t elastic displ acement of Structure I is 0)<= 1.38 inches and
occurs at the roof (Level 3). The maximum inelastic displacement is calculated as
J
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Structure I must be set back 7.59 inches from the property line, unless a smaller
separation is j ust ified by a rati onal analysis based on maximum ground motions.
Such an analysis is difficul t to perform, and is generally not required except in very
special cases.
0,/ = CdOJ, = 5.5(1.38) = 7.59 in
r I 1.0
(Eq 12.815)
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Example 50
Flexible onbuildiJ1Jg' TUC UTe
Ex ample 50 • Fl exible Nonbuilding Structure § 15. 5
§15,,5
A tall steel bin tower is supported by a concrete found ation. The tower sits on
symmetrically braced legs
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
Weight of towe r and maximum
normal operating contents = 150 kips
Occupancy Category III
Site Class D
I = 1.25 per Table 11.51
S, = 1.70, S, = 0.65
SDS = 1.20, SD/ = 0.65
The stiffness of the supporti ng
tower is 8.30 kip/in
Code Reference
Determine the following.
[TI Period of vibration
~ Design base shear
~ Vertical distribution of seismic forces
~ Overturning moment at base
,calculations and Discussion
[TI Period of vibration.
For calculation purposes, the mass is assumed to be located at the top of the tower.
The period must be determined by §15.4.4.
/f
n 150 kips/(386 kip/in/sec") 1 36
T = 2n  =2n =. sec
k 8.30 kip/in
Because the peri od is greater than .06 second, the vessel does not qual ify as a rigi d
nonbuilding structure and thus is considered flexible. See §15.4.2.
2006 IBC St ructural/Sei smic Design Manual, Vol . I 1 7 9
§15.5 Example 50 • Flexible Nonbuildlng Str ucture
It should be noted that the value of the period, T, should not be calculated using any
of the approximate methods in §12.8.2.1, nor is it intended to be subj ect to the limitations
presented in §12.8.2. This is because the approximate method presented is intended for
buildings and is not applicable to structural systems that differ significantly from typical
building configurations and characteristics. Refer to Section CI 09.1.4 of the 1999 SEAOC
Blue Book for further discussion.
~ Design base shear
The des ign base shear for nonbuilding structures is calculated from the same expressions as
for buildings. These are given in §12.8. 1. In addit ion, nonbuilding structures, such as the
vessel, must also sat isfy the requirements of §15.5.
v =C, W= 0.217 (150 kips) = 32.55 kips
where
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, R/I
SDS= 1.2
R = 3.0
Q
o
= 2.0
CD = 2.5
I = 1.25
The value of C, computed in accordance wit h Eq. 12.82 need not exceed
S
C = DI =0.199
s CRt!)T
where
SOl =0.65
R = 3.0
I = 1.25
T = 1.36 sec
But C, shall not be taken less than
C, = 0.01
where
SDS= 1.20
I = 1.25
180 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
(Eq 12.82)
T 15.42
T 15.42
T 15.42
T 11.51
(Eq 12.82)
(Eq 12.85)
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Exampl e 50 • Fl exibl e Nonbuilding Structure
Note that for this tower, because the Isecond spectral response SI
is equal to 0.65, (S, ~ 0.60g), the value of the seismic response coefficient C,
shall not be taken as less than
§15. 5
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c,
= 0.5S, =0. 135
(Eq 12.86)
(RI l)
where
SI =0.65
R =3.0
[
= 1.25
Thus: C, =0.199 governs
Also note that if this tower (Occupancy Category 11) were located on a site with mapped
maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at I second peri od S"
equal to or great er than 0.75g, it would be assigned to SDC E (§11.6). Thus, the height
would be limited to 100 ft per Tabl e 15.42.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 181
§15.0 Example 51 • Lateral Force on Nonbui/ding Structure
I;xaniple 51
Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure
,,
§15.0
A nonbuilding structure with a special reinforced concrete moment frame (SRCMF)
supports some rigid aggregate storage bins. Weights and W
2
include the maximum
normal operating weights of the storage bins and contents as well as the tributary
frame weight. See §15.4.1. 1 and Table 11.5. 1
The following information is given.
Occupancy Importance Category 1"
1 =1.0
[!J Design base shear
Vertical distribution of seismic forces
Site Class D
SMS= 2.0, Sf = 2.0
SAil = 1.5, SI = 1.0
SDS = 1.33
SOl = 1.00
T =2.0 sec
TV = 300 kips
Determine the following.
. and Discussion
F, _.
Level
2
15'
30'
Code Reference
[!J Design base shear. §15.4
Because this is a flexible structure, (i.e., the period T > 0.06 sec, see §15.4.2, and the
structure is similar to a building, see §15.4. 1) the general expressions for design base shear
given in §12.4 and §15.4 must be used. Note that an intermediate reinforced concrete
moment frame (l RCMF) building structure is not permi tted for SDC D, E, or F per Table
15.4. 1. Also note that the value for R is 8 for normal design of an SRCMF.
The total base shear in a given direction is determined from
V= CsW
where
C, = S DS = (1.33) =0.166
(RI I) (8.0) 1(1 .0)
182 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
(Eq 12.8 1)
(Eq 12.82)
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Example 51 ., Lat eral Force on NOll buJldi ng Structure §15.0
where
5
DS
=1.33
R =8
I = 1.0
The value of C., computed in accordance with Equation 12.82 need not exceed
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(R II)T (8/ 1.0)2. 0
where
5D/ = 1.0
R = 8.0
I = 1.0
T =2.0
Check T'S T
L
= > TL= 12.0 sec
The value of C, shall not be taken less than
C = 0.5S, = (0.5)(1 .0) = 0.063
x (R I I) (..!)
1.0
where
(Eq 12.83)
(Region 1, F 2216)
(Eq 12.86)
V= C,rV=(0.063)(300) = 18.9 kips
r, = c, V= C . ~ ( 18.9 kips)
Vertical distribution of seismic forces
The design base shear must be distri buted over the height of the structure in the
same manner as that for a building structure.
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5, = 1.0
R =8
I = 1.0
T =2.0
Thus: C, = 0.063
Note 5, 2: 0.6g
Equat ions 12.83 and 12.86 govern.
(Eq 12.81)
§12.82
(Eq 1641)
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 183
k = 1.0for T ~ 0.50 sec
and k =2.0 for T 2: 2.50 sec
and k =interpolate between 1 and 2.5 sec
Example 51 • Lat eral Force on Nonbulldlng Structure
Thus:
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CEq 12.811)
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T 2.5 2.0 1.0 .5 o
o
1.01_ _ 
K
2.0
n
'" W il l
L "
j I
C"., =
k =1.0 + 1.0 ( 2.00.5) =1.75
2.50.5
where
where
Now for T =2.0 sec
§15.0
184 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 51 • Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure §15.0
Story Shears (k =1.75)
Story Story
Height Weight Force Shear
J
Iz:r
I
W,
I
C,·x
F, V,
Sa Level !t.t W.Jl.f
2 45 781.85 200 156369.45 0.803 15.17 15.17 0.076
1 30 384.56 100 38455.83 0.197 3.73 18.9 0.037
300 194825.28 1.00 18.9
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Note: k = 1.75
It, infeet
W, inkips
c, = W,h; / 194825.28
F, = C,., (18.9)
Sa = F,T / W, " rep Sa
= effective story acceleration
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 185
§15.4.2 Example 52. Rigid NonbuiJdi ng Structure
1
'''igid Nonbuilding_ Structure §15.4.2
)
The code has special requi rements for the determi nation of seismic forces for design
of rigid nonbuilding structures. In this example, rigid ore crushing equipment is supported
by a massive concrete pedestal and seismic design forces are to be determined.
The following information is given.
30'
20'
Grade
SOS = 1.33
I = 1.0
T = 0.02 sec
WEQUlPAfENT = 100 kips
WSUPPORT = 200 kips
Determine the following.
[!J Design base shear
[3J Vert ical distribution of seismic forces
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Design base shear
For rigid nonbuilding structures, Equation 15.45 is used to determine design
base shear.
V = O.3Sos I W= 0.3 (1.33) (1.0) W= 0.399W
= 0.399 (100 + 200) = 119.7 kips
Vertical distribution of seismic forces
The force shall be distributed wit h height in accordance with §12.8.3
Fx = C,,,V = C,'x (119.7 kips)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
§15.4.2
(Eq 15.45)
(Eq 12.81 1)
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Example 52 • Rigid Nonbuilding Structure §15. 4.2
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(Eq 12.812)
Story Story
Height Weight
Force Shear
Level Iz
x
k
W,
k
Sa h.
t
W.Jlx
e l l.>; F, v,
2 30 30 100 3000 0.429 51.25 51.35 0.516
1 20 20 200 4000 0.571 68.45 119.7 0.342
300 7000 1.00 119.7
Note: 11., infeet fx= c, (119.7 kips)
W
x
inkips Sa = Fx/ fV, .. nPSa
k ~ k
=effective storyacceleration c, = WxlzJ 1rr,lz
x
2006 IBC StructuraUSe;sm;c Design Manual. Vol. I 187
§15.7.6 Example 53 • Tank with Sup por t ed Bottom
.!In With Supported Bottom §15.7.6
A small liquid storage tank is supported on a concrete slab. The tank does not contain
toxic or explosive substances.
The following informati on is given.
SDS= 1.20
I = 1.0
W = Weight of tank and
maximum normal
operating contents
= 120 kips
= 0.50 inch
I3J Find the design base shear
Slab
Grade
20'
§15.7.6
and Discussion Code Reference
[!J The tank is a nonbuilding structure, and seismic requirements for tanks with
supported bottoms are given in §15.7.6. This secti on requires that seismic
forces be determined using the procedures of §15.4.2.
The period may be computed by other rational methods, similar to Example 51
where
L
D
LID
w
I
wd
t
= 20 ft
= 10ft
= 20/10 = 2.0
= W/L = 120,000 Ib/20 = 6000 plf
= 0.50 in
6000(10)
1,440,000
(0.50/12)
188 2006 IBC Struc tur al/Sei smi c Des i g n Manual, Vol . I
Thus, rigid nonbuilding structure, §15.4.2
1
1
Now: T
Example 53 • Tank With Supported Bottom
= 7.65 X 10
6
(2.0)2(1,440,000)
= 0.0367 sec < 0.06 . .. rigid
§15. 7. 6
The lateral force shall be obtai ned as follows
V =0.3SDsIW=0.36W
= 0.36 ( 120) = 43.2 kips
where
SDS= 1.20
I = 1.00
W = 120 kips
(Eq 15.45)
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The design lateral seismic force is to be applied at the centerofmass of the tank and its
contents. Note that the centerofmass of the contents and of the tank do not normally
coincide. The distribution of forces vertically shall be in accordance with §12.8.3.
Commentary
The procedures above are intended for tanks that have relati vely small diameters (less
than 20 feet) and where the forces generated by fluidsloshing modes are small. For large
diameter tanks, the effects of sloshing must be considered. Refer to American Water Works
Association Standard ANSI!AWWA D100 "Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage," or
American Petroleum Institute Standard 650, "Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage" for more
detail ed guidance.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 189
IBC §180B.2.23.1 Example 54 • Pil e Interconnections
ample 54
Pile Interconnections IBC'§1808.2.23.1
A twostory masonry bearing wall structure has a pile foundation, Piles are located
around the perimeter of the building. The foundation plan of the building is shown
below.
The following information is given.
Original grade
Seismic Design Category 0
J = 1.0
SDS = 1.0
Pile cap size: 3 feet square by 2 feet deep
Grade beam: I foot 6 inches by 2 feet
Allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf
per foot of depth below natural grade,
for the very dense granular soil at the site.
2'·0"
2'· 0"
Section AA: Typi cal pile cap
Pile Dead Reduced
Seismic QE
Cap Load Live Load N/S E/W
3 46 kips 16 kips 14 kips 0
10 58 16 14 0
o
11
o
10
9
o
f f f
r
4 11iI 2S' =100'
:=lA
0 0 0
2 3 4 5
A
~
t
A
a
<0
II
®
a
'"
@)
N
C
6
Foundation pl an
Determine the following.
[!J Interconnection requi rements
~ Interconnection force between pile caps 3 and 10
[!J Required "tie" restraint between pile caps 3 and 10
190 2006 IBC Structu r al /Seismic Design Manua l, Vol. I
..
Calculations and Discussion
[!J Interconnection requirements
Example 54 § Pilc Interconnections IBC §1BOB.2.23.1
Code Reference
IBC §1808.2
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The code requires that individual pile caps of every structure subject to seismic forces be
interconnected with ties. This is specified in §1808.2.23.1. The ties must be capable of
resisting in tension and compression a minimum horizontal tie force equal to 10 percent of
the larger column vertical load. The column vert ical load is to be considered the dead,
reduced live, and seismic loads on the pile cap. An exception to §1808.2.23.1 allows use of
"equivalent restraint" which, in this example, is provided by the confinement of very dense
granular soil at the site.
Interconnect ion force between pile caps 3 and 10
Maximum loads on each pile cap under E/W seismic forces are
Pile cap 3 =46 + 16 + 0 =62 kips
Pile cap 10 = 58 + 16 + 0 = 74 kips
Minimum horizontal tie force Sos II 0 = 0.10 times the largest column vertical load
P =0.10 (74) =7.40 kips
[!J Required "ti e" restraint bet ween pile caps 3 and 10
The choices are to add a grade beam (i.e., tie beam) connecting pile caps 3 and 10, or to try to
use passive pressure restraint on the pile cap in lieu of a grade beam. The latter is considered
an "equivalent restraint" (by soil confinement or bearing pressure) under the exception to
rae §1808.2.23.1.
For the allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf per foot of depth below natural grade, the passive
pressure resistance is
. [2(200) + 4(200)]
Passive pressure = (2 ft) = 1200 plf
2
. 7400lbs
Required length = =6.2 ft
1200 plf
This is greater than 3'0" pile cap width, but pile cap and a tributary length ofN/S grade
beam on either side of the pile cap may be designed to resist tie forces using the passive
pressure. This system is shown below and, if this is properly designed, no grade beam
between pile caps 3 and 10 (or similar caps) is required.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I 191
IBC §1808. 2. 23.1 Example 54 • Pile Interconnections
1,200 plf
~   4 800 psflf!
.
•.....
: : : : ~ : : : :
......
~ : : : : : : : : : : : ~
: : : : . ~ : : : : : : : : : ~
'<
2'·0"
6.2'
E,
Equivalent restraint system in plan
Section 88: Grade beam
Normally, buildings on pile foundations are required to have interconnecting ties between
pile caps. This is particularly true in the case of highrise buildings and buildings with heavy
vertical loads on individual pile caps. Ties are essential in tall buildings. Ties are also
necessary when the site soil conditions are so poor that lateral movements, or geotechnical
hazards, such as liquefaction, are possible.
In the design of relatively lightweight one and twostory buildings, the exception to the
interconnecting tie requirement of §1808.2.23.1 may permit a more economical foundation
design. However, when interconnecting ties are omitted, a geotechnical engineer should
confirm the appropriateness of this decision, and the project specifications should call for
the backfill and compaction methods necessary to provide required passive pressure
resistance.
192 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 55 D Simplified Wind Loads on 2
aStory
BUildings
The following is an example of the simplified wind load procedure of ASCE/SEI 705.
Calculate the wind loads on the following building.
Dimensions: 100 ft wide by 120 ft long by 25 ft high (2 stories  13 ft and 12 ft).
Wind Speed: Located in Minneapolis, Minnesota  90 mph zone.
Importance: The facility is an office building with no special functions  Therefore the
building category in Table II is Category II.
§6.4
F 61
Exposure:
Enclosure:
Suburban office park surrounded by trees and typical suburban construction
on all sides  Therefore the exposure category is B. §6.5.6
The building has no unusual openings in the envelope, nor is it in a hurricane
region, so no concerns for windborne debris  Classify as Enclosed. §62
Topography: Height of adjacent hills is less than 60 feet  Wind speedup effects not a concern.
(§6.5.7.1.5) x; = 1.0
Structure: The structure is an Xbraced steel frame with evenly distributed braces on all four
exterior walls. The second floor is concrete slab on metal form deck on steel floor
beams. The roof is metal roof deck on steel joists on steel joist girders.
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Design Method:
To utilize ASCE/SEI 705 Simplified Procedure (Method 1) all ofthe following
criteria must be met.
1) With no breaks in the roof or floor (structural separations) the diaphragms are
simple, as defined in §62
2) The building height is less than 60 feet and least horizontal dimensions
3) The building is enclosed and not prone to windborne debris
4) The building is regular shaped
5) The building is rigid with a period less than I second
6) The site is not subject to wind speedup effects
7) The building is symmetrical
8) For a building with well distributed MWFRS torsional load case in note 5 of
Figure 610 will not govern the design. Therefore design by Method 1 §6.4
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 193
§6.4 Example 55 • Simplified Wind Loads on 2·Story Buf/dings
25'
Determine the following.
[!J Main wind force
~ MWFRS end zone width
~ MWFRS design wind pressures
~ Components and cladding
~ Edge Strip
~ Design wind pressure on components
[1J Main WindForce Resisting SystemMWFRS (Lateral Load Structural Frame)
Using Method 1 §6.4, the simplified design wind pressure ps is the product of the base
simpl ified design pressure ps30 taken from Figure 62 and multiplied by the Height and
Exposure Adjustment Factor Afrom Figure 62, the Topographic Factor K=I from §6.5.7, and
by the Importance Factor J from Tabl e 6 1. The equation for ps is shown in §6.4.2. I Eq 61.
~ Calculate the MWFRS End Zone Width
End Zone =2a, so first calculate a, the Edge Strip Width.
194 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Exampl e 55 • Simp lifi ed Wi nd Loa ds on 2·Story Building s §6.4
1
Edge Strip =a =Lesser of:
But not less than:
Therefore:
• 10% of the least horizontal dimension = 0.10 x 100 ft
= 10ft
· 40% of the eave height = 0040 x 25 ft = l Oft
·4% of the least horizontal dimension = 0.04 x 100 ft =4
ft
• 3ft
a = 10ft, so the End Zone =2a = 2 x 10 ft = 20 ft
J
~ Calculate the MWFRS design wind pressure
Using Equation 61: p, = AKjp,3o
Look up the base pressures P,30 from Figure 62 then modify for height, exposure,
topography, and importance factor. No interpolation is required because the flat roof angle
falls in the row of "Oto 5." With the mean roof height of 25 feet and the exposure being "B",
the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor Afrom Figure 62 =1.0. Since the building site
is level from §6.5.7, K=r= 1.0. For a building Category II as defined in Table I I, the
Importance Factor I = 1.0. 
Tran svers e MWFRS  90 mph, Exposure B, Height 25.0 rt
P IJO
A
K:1
1 p,
Type Zone Surface Label
Roof Angle HI. & Exp. Topographic Import. Design
0'" to 5'"
Factor Factor Factor Pressure
End
W all A 12.8 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00  12.8 psf
Roof B No Roof Projection for Flat Roofs
Horiz
Wall C 8.5 A 1.00 I A 1.00 IA 1.00 I ~ 8.5 psf
Int
Roof D Nn Roof Proiection for Flat Roofs
End
Wind E 15.4 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00

 15.4 psf
Ven
Lee F 8.8 x 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00  8.8 psf
Wind G 10.7 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00 = 10.7 psf
Int
Lee H 6.8 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00 · 6. 8 psf 
Longitudinal MWFRS  90 mph , Exposure B, Height 25.0 rt
P 130
A
x; 1 p,
Type Zone Surface Label
Base HI. & Exp, Topographic Import. Design
Press. Factor Factor Factor Pressure
End
Wall A 12.8 A 1.00 x 1.00 A 1.00

12.8 psf
Horiz
Roof B No Roof Projection in Lonaitudi nal Direction
Wall C 8.5 A 1.00 I A 1.00 I )" 1.00
=
8.5 psf
Int
Roof D No Roof Pro'ecticn in Lonzitudinal Direction
End
Wind E ·15.4 A 1.00
).
1.00 A 1.00

15.4 psf
Vert
Lee F 8.8 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00

8.8 psf
Wind G 10.7 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00
=
10.7 psf
Int
Lee H 6.8 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00

6.8 psf
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 195
§6.4 Example 55 • Simplified Wind Loads on 2Story Buildings
Apply the pressures to the building as described in Figure 62. The designations of
"Transverse" and "Longitudinal" are keyed to the direction of the MWFRS being evaluated.
When the resisting system being designed is perpendicular to the ridge line of the gable or
hip roof, its directi on is classified as "Transverse." When it is parallel to the ridge , it is
classified as "Longitudinal." When the roof is flat (slope ~ 5 · ) , and thus has no ridge line, the
loading diagram becomes the same in each direction, as shown in the following diagram. The
loading diagrams shown should be mirrored about each axis of the building until each of the
four comers has been the "reference comer" as shown for each load case.
Design wind pressures p,
using Eq 6 ]
In addition, the minimum load case from §6.4.2.1 .1 must also be checked. Apply a load of 10
psf on the building proj ection on a vertica l plane normal to the wind. In other words , create a
load case with all horizontal zones equal to 10 psf, and all vertical zones equal to O. Check
this load case as an independent case, do not combine with the case from §6.4.2. 1. It should
be applied in each direction as well.
196 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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EYsmple 55 Q Si mplifi ed Wind Loads on 2Sr ory Buil dings §6. 4
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<:
~ f " ' e n c .
Corner
L
BeingEvacuated
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Minimum design wind loadi ng
~ Components and Cladding (Everything except the Lateral Load Structural
Frame)
Accordi ng to §6.1. 1, all "buildings.. ..and all components and cladding" must be designed for
wind loads. Therefore, all parts of the exterior building envelope and any load paths, that are
not part of the main windforceresisting system (lateral frame), should be designed as
Components and Cladding (C&C) . For buildings such as this that qualify under §6.4.2.1, the
C&C can be designed using §6.4.2.2, Eq 62.
~ Calculate the Edge Strip, a
Previously calculated in the MWFRS calculations, a = lOft
~ Calculate the design wind pressure on several components using
Equation 6·2
pnel =A. KztlP nel30
Look up the base pressures directly from Figure 63, then modify for Height, Exposure, Topography
and Importance Category. With the mean roof height of25 feet and the exposure being "B," the
Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor from Figure 63 = 1.00. Since the building is a level site
from §6.5.7, K, = 1.0, and for a Building Category II , the Importance Factor f lO' = 1.00.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 197
§6.4 Exampl e 55 • Simplifi ed Wi nd Loads oh 2· Story Build;ngs
]
C & C  90 mph, Exposure B, Heigh t =25.0 ft
Type Zone Item EfT Direction Interpolation
Pnl:tJO
x
K
u
I
P JJO
Wind Base HI. & Topo. Import. Design
Area Press Exp. Factor Factor Pressure
Factor
Deck Positive None Required +5.9 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.9·
Screw
< 10 sf
Ne gative None Required 14.6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 14.6
Positive
10 sf 20 sf 12 sf
+5.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5. &·
Roof
+5.9 +5.6 +5. &
Int
Deck
12 sf 10sf 20 sf 12 sf
14.5 x 1.00 x 1.00 1.00  14.5
Negative
x
( I)
 14.6  14.2  14.5
> 100
Positive No ne Required +4.7 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +4.7·
Joist
sf
Negative None Required 13.3
x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00
13.3
Deck
Positive None Required +5.9 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.9·
'",
Screw
< 10 sf
Negative None Required 24 .4 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 24.4'
s
Positive None Required +5.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.&·
•
0
Roof
10 sf I 20 sf 12 sf
"
Edge
Deck
12 sf
Negati ve 23.9
x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 23.9
0
24.4 I 2 1.& 23.9
0
~
(2)
Positive None Required +4.7 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +4.7·
Joist
> 100
sf
Negative None Required 15.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00  15.&
Deck Positive None Required +5.9 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.9·
Screw
< 10 sf
Negative None Required 36.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 36.8
Positive None Required +5.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.&·
Roof
10 sf 20 sf 12 sf
Comer
Deck
12 sf Negative
36.& I 30.5
35.5 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 35.5
35.5
(3)
> 100
Posi tive None Required +4.7 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +4. 7*
JOiSl
sf
Negati ve None Required 15.&
x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00
15.&
Posi tive None Required 14.6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 14.6
Sidi ng < 10 sf
Negat ive None Required 15. 8 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00  15.&
10 sf 20 sf 17.3 sf
+14. 1 x 1.00 x 1.00 1.00 +14. 1
Int
Positive
x
+ 14.6 +13.9 +14. 1
(4)
Stud 17.3 sf
10 sf 20 sf 17.3 sf
 15.3
x 1.00 x 1.00 1.00  15.3
Negative
x
;;
 15.&  15.1 15.3
::: Positive None Required + 14.6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 + 14.6
Siding < 10 sf
Neg ative None Required 19.5 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 19.5
Posi tive
10 sf 20 sf 17.3 sf
+14.1 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +14. 1
Int
Stud 17.3 sf
+14.6 +13.9 + 14.1
(4)
Negative
10 sf 20 sf 17.3 sf
 1&. 6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00  18.6
 19.5  1&.2 1&. 6
• Note. Aminimum pressure of 10 psf 15 required per§6.4.2.2. 1
198 2006 IBC StructurallSelsmlc Design Manual, Vol. I
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Examp/ a 55 • Si mplifi ed Wi nd Load s on 2· Story Buil dings
The component and cladding pressures should be applied as described in Figure 63
and as shown in the diagram below.
§ 6.4
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Interior Zones
Roofs Zone 1f\Nalis Zone 4
Q End Zones
'.,; Roofs Zone 21Walls  Zone 5
Comer Zones
Roofs Zone 3
2006 IBC StructuraUSeismic Design Manual, Vol. I 199
§6.4 Example 56 • Simplifi ed Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings
Per §6.4. 1.1 , for conforming lowrise bui ldings, wind loads can be determined using simplified
provisions.
The following information is given.
A B c
1 
2 
/
I
Typ
Main wind
forceres isting
system
b
(0
3story office building
located in urban/suburban
area ofNW Texas  situated
on fiat ground
3 
1<
100'
PLAN
Flexible
Diaphragm
Typ
W II II" ns
eel typ
/'
a mu 10
spaced 5 ~
)
1/
Longitudinal Elevation Transverse Eleva tion
Determine the following.
[}J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A
~ Wind loads on secondstory wall mullion
200 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Exampl e 56 g Si mplifi ed Wind Loa ds on Low Ri se Buildi ngs §6A
[!J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A
11a.1Check applicability of simplified provisions §6.4.1 .1
I . Simple diaphragm building
(See definition under "building, simple diaphragm")
Yes §6.2
2. Low rise building
(Mean roof height < 60 ft and building widt h)
Yes §6.2
3. Bui lding enclosed Yes §6.2
4. Regular shape Yes §6.2
5. Not flexible (II) > l hz) (T < I sec) Yes §6.2
T=O.I N=0.I(3)=0.3 sec
N = Number of Stories
6. No special wi nd characteristics Yes
7. Flat, gabled or hipped roof Yes
NW Texas basic wind speed = 90 mph
The design professional should contact the local bui lding department to
confirm design wind speed.
Topographic factor K, = 1.0
Height and exposure adjustment 'A.
See §6.5.6 for exposure category definitions
Example building in urban/suburban area is considered exposure B
Mean roof height (h) = 35 ft (see definition §6.2) (8 < 10")
Adjustment factor from Figure 62, 8 = 1.05
F 62
§6.5.7
F 6la
Note 5, F 6 10 Yes
Therefore, simplified provisions are applicable
8. Torsional irregularities not a concern
Determine basic parameters
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2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual, Vol . J 201
Check minimum requirement:
Horizontal load Eq 61 = (14.4 psf*12 ft + 9.6 psf*(2512))*35 ft = 10.42 kips
Min load §6.1.4. 1 = {I0 psf* 25 ft)*35 ft = 8.75 kips < 10.42
: . 6.1.4.1 does not govern
11d·1
Determine end zone dimensions Note 10, F 62
Edge Strip a = 0.10 (60) = 6 ft . . . Governs
or
= 0.40 (35) = 14 ft
but not less than
~ 0.04 (60) = 2.4 ft
or
~ 3 f t
End Zone 2a = 12 ft F 62
Horizontal Loads Vertical Loads
End Zone Int. Zone End Zone lnt. Zone
Load Roof A 8 C D E F G H
V Dir. Angle Wall Roof Wall Roof WW LW WW LW
Roof Roof Roof Roof
90 oto 12.8 6.7 8.5 4.0 15.4 8.8 10.7  6.8
mph Transverse 5"
17.8 4.7 11.9 2.6 15.4 10.7  10.7  8. 1
20"
Interpolating: For
example, roof angle
7.6"
13.7
6.4
9.1  3.8  15.4 9.1 10.7 7.0
= arctan 10 = 7.6"
(use 0) (use 0)
§6.4
202
Example 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings
Importance Factor J = 1.0
(Category II Building from Table 1 1)
11c.1Obtain tabulated loads
Simplified Design Wind Pressure P.dO (psf)
11e.1Determine load on MWFRS at Grid A
Forces determined using Eq 61 ps = AK; JP.,3D
Horizontal load at wall :
In end zone [A] = (1.05)(1.0)(1.0)(13.7 pst) = 14.4 psf
In interior zone [C] = (1.05)(1.0)(1.0)(9. 1 pst) = 9.6 psf
Per §6.1.4.1, check 10 psf minimum over projected area of vertical plane
2006 IBC Str uctural/ Seismi c Design Ma nual, Vol . I
T 61
F 62
§6.4. 2.1
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Example 56 8 Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Bu ildings §6.4
Hori zonta l point loads to frame:
Roof Load
(5 ft tributary ht) V
R
=(14.4 psf" 12 ft + 9.6 psfl'(25 ft  2 ft» 5 ft = 1488 Ib
3
cd
Floor Load
(10 ft tributary ht) V
3
=(14.4 psf" 12 ft + 9.6 psfl'( 25 ft  2 £1» 10 ft =2976 Ib
2
nd
Floor Load
(12 .5 ft tributary ht) V2= (14.4 psf" 12 ft + 9.6 psfl'(25 ft  2 ft) 12.5 ft = 3720 Ib
Note: Forces to Grid A are shown based on a tributary basis that is conservative for
the analysis of Grid A. Alternatively, the forces could be distributed to gr ids A and C
by applying the loads as a simple span beam.
Vertical load at roof:
Windward Roof  In end zone [E] = (1.05)( 1.0)( 1.0)(15.4 pst) = 16.2 psf
In interior zone [G] = (1.05)( 1.0)( 1.0)(10.7 psf) = 11.2 psf
Leeward RoofIn end zone [F] = (1. 05)( 1.0)( 1.0)(9. 1 psf) =9.56 psf
In interi or zone [H] = ( 1.05)( 1.0)( 1.0)(7.0 psf) = 7.35 psf
Vertical uniform loads to frame:
Windward: (16.2 psf)( 12 ft) + (9.56 psf)(25  12) = 340 plf= .34 kif uplift
Leeward: (11.2 psf)(12 ft) + (7.35 psf)(25  12) = 210 plf = .21 kif uplift
Note: Forces applied to Grid A are shown as a distri buted load along the frame
length . A more detai led analysis of for ces based on roof frami ng would include a
smaller distributed load and upli ft point loads at locations where beams frame into the
grid A moment frame at grids I, 2, and 3.
0.34 kif
V
R
= 1.49
k
>
Tri b. HI. 10 ft/2 = 5 It
V3 = z.se'
>
10 ft/2 + 10 ft/2 = 10 n
V2 = 3.72
k
)
10 ft/2 + 15 ft/2 = 12.5 ft
Elevation
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 203
§6.4 Example 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings
cr
C(
cr
0r
r
:J
l
Load Cases: D 9.6 psI x TribHIS
§6.4.2.1
14.4 psI x TribHI
10 psI x Trib HI
5
§6.4.2.1.1
Plan
[!J Wind loads on second story wall mullion
~ Determine zone of mullion F 63
Interior of wall area  Zone 4
Effective wind area = 5 ft (10 ft) = 50 sq ft
Wind Loads ps =AKztl Pnel30 §6.4.2.2 (Eq 62)
pne130 = 13.0 psfpositive
= 14.3 psfnegative (suction) F63
p, = (1.05)(1.0)(1.0)(13.0 pSfposilive)(5 ft tributary) = 68.5 plf
p s = (1.05)(1.0)(1.0)(14.3 pSfnegalive)(5 ft tributary) = 75 plf
2
nd
floor
3'· floor
r ~
(
=
,/
(
=
,/
..... lJ
75 plf or 68.5 plf
204 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Ex ample 58 . Floor Vibrations
A 9story building has a momentresisting frame for a lateral forceresisting system.
Find the lateral forces on the frame due to wind.
Office building 50 ft by 50 ft in
plan with MWFRS at exterior.
Located in an urban/suburban
area ofN.W. Texas
Determine:
[TI Wind loads on MWFRS
50'
1
4
12'
12'
12'
12'
12'
12'
3"
12'
12'
Elevation
Discussion
I
1
I
[TI Wind loads on MWFRS
11a.1 Determine basic wind speed
Ut ilize ASCE/ SEI 705 §6
Use meth od 2 analytical procedure
Chapter 6
§6.5
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 205
§6.5 Example 57 • Wind Loads  Analytical Procedure
Confirm building is regular shaped and not subject to across wind loading, vortex
1
shedding, instability due to galloping or flutter ; or does not have a site location for
which channeling effects or buffet ing in wake of upwind obstructions warrant special
I
conditions §6.5.1
Design procedure §6.5.3
I
Basic wind speed V= 90 mph §6.5.4,
F 61
I
lib·1
Determine velocity pressure
Wind directionality factor Kd= 0.85 §6.5.4.4,
(applies when using load combina tions T64
in ASCE/SEI 705 §2.3 and §2.4)
Importance factor I = 1.00 §6.5.5,
(Structural Category II, Table 11) T 61
Exposure Category B §6.5.6
I
Velocity pressure coeff K= (Case 2) §6.5.6.6,
T 63
I
Exposure8
"
Case 2
I
0· 15 fl 0.57
20 0.62
25 0.66
30 0.70
I
40 0.76
50 0.81
60 0.85
70 0.89
I
80 0.93
90 0.96
100 0.99
I
116 1.03 •
ByInterpolation
120 1.04
Topographic factor K
Z1
= I §6.5.7
I
(example building on flat land, no nearby hills)
Gust effect factor G §6.5.8
I
9story building
Natural period = 0.1(9) = 0.9 sec §9.5.5.3.2
1
(Eq 9.5.5.3.2la)
I
Natural frequency =  = 1.1 Hz >1.0
0.9
Therefore: Rigid structure §6.2
I
G= 0.85 §6.5.8.1
206 2006 IBC Struct ur al/S eismi c Design Manual, Vol. I
Enclosure Classification
Example building enclosed
Velocity Pressure
q==O.00256K2K2kKdV
2
/
= 0.00256K=KrK2
V2
/
=O.00256K=( 1.0)(0.85)(90)2( 1.0)
Example 58 a Floor Vibrat ions
§6.5.9
§6.5. 10
Eq 6 15
015 ft
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
116
10.0 psf
10.9
11.6
12.3
13.4
14.3
15.0
15.7
16.4
16.9
17.4
18.2
11 c.1 Determine pressure and force coefficients
Internal pressure coefficients  GC
pi
GC
pi
= ±0.18 Case 1: Internal Pressure Inward
Case 2: Internal Pressure Outward
External pressure coefficients  C
p
For example building, monoslope roof'B = 0
§6.5.11
§6.5.11.1,
F65
§6.5.11.2,
F66
L
Elevation
L
Plan
(Note: Internal pressures
must be added to or
subtracted from external
pressures typical
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 207
§6.5 Example 57 • Wind Loads  Analytical Procedure
I
Windward wall C; = 0.8 F 66
I
II ,GC = , (0.85)(0.8)
0· 15 n 6.80
I
20 7.41
25 7.89
30 8.36
40 9. 11
I
50 9.72
60 10.2
70 10.7
I
80 11.2
90 11.5
100 11.8
116 12.4
I
Leeward wall
I
L 50
F66  =  = 1 > C =  0.5
B
50 p
I
q"
= q " ' ll 6 fi = 18.2 psf
q"GC
p
= 18.2 (0.85)( 0.5) = 7.74 psf
I
Side walls
c, =0.7 F 66
I
q"GCp
= 18.2 (0.85)( 0.7) = 1 0.8 psf
Roof
I
h 11 6
 =  =2.3 > 1.0
L 50
I
c, =  1.3 x 0.8 (Area Reduction Factor) = 1.04 F 66
q"GCp
= 18.2 psf(0.85)(xI.04) = x 16. 1 psf
I
lid·1
Design wind loads §6.5.12
I
Main windforceresisting system §6.5.l 2.2
I
Rigid building §6.5. 12.2. 1
I
208 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
I
Example 58. Floor Vibra:ions
Windward wall
qh(GC
pi
) = (18.2)(0. 18) =3. 28 psf(±)
CEq 617)
Ii
015 ft
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
116
Leeward wall
p =q"GC
p
 qh (GCpi )
p = CJ=GC
p
 Q1J(GC
p
;) Case 1 shown
10. 1
10.7
11.2
11.6
12.4
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
14.8/ Sample Calculation
15 I P = 12.4  1B. 2(0.18) =15.7 Case 1
. 12.4  18.2(+0.18) =9.1 Case 2
15.7
p =  7.74 1 8.2(0.1 8) =  4.5 psf Case 1
p =  7.74 1 8.2(0.18) = I 1.0 psf Case 2
Side walls
= 10.8  18.2(0.18) =  14. I psf
Roof
= 1 6.1 18.2(0.18) =  19.4 psf
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 209
§6.5 Example 57 a Wind Loads  Analytical Procedure
11 e.1 Design wind loads  graphically
rrrr,. 19.4 psf
4.5 psf Case 1
11.0 psI Case 2
Cas e 1 15.7 psI
Case 2 9.1 psI
Wind
,)
11.0 psf
Plan
14.1 psf
Wind
Elevation
Case 1: Internal Pressure Inward
Case 2: Internal Pressure Outward
Verify projected load is greater than 10 psf
10.1 + 11.0 =21.1> 10 psf. . .o.k.
§6.1.4.1
To obtain frame loads, multiply pressures by tributary width = 50/2 = 25 ft or perform Rigid
Diaphragm Analysis
210 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
'] ']
1 1
']
'1 :I
,)
:)
I ,I
r
,1
I
.1 I
I I I I
J
Table of Con tents
CopyrightlPub lisher/Editor/Disclaimer Preface Acknowledgments Suggestions for Improvement / Errata Notifi cation Introduction How to Use This Document Notation Definitions EXAMPLE Example i DESCRIPTION
ii
VlJ
ix xi I 2 3 18 ASCEISEI 705 §11.51 §11.6 § 12.4.2.3 §2.4 § 11.4 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.3.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1.. §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.4 §12.8.7 §12.8. 1... PAGE 25 26 27 32 36 41 42 46 48 50 52 54 58 59 63 65 67 68 69 74 78
I I
I
I I
I
I I
I
Classification/Importance Factors Seismic Design Category Example I Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design Example 2 Comb inations of Loads Example 3 Design Spectral Respon se Accelerations Introduction to Vertical Irregularities Example 4 Vertical Irregul arity Type l a and Type Ib Example 5 Vertical Irregul arity Type 2 Example 6 Vertical Irregularity Type 3 Example 7 Vertical Irregularity Type 4 Example 8 Vertical Irregular ity Type 5a Example 9 Vertical Irregularity Type 5a Introduction to Horizontal Irregularities Example 10 Horizontal Irregularity Typ e Ia and Type Ib Example I I Horizontal Irregularity Type 2 Example 12 Horizontal Irregularity Typ e 3 Example 13 Horizontal Irregularity Type 4 Example 14 Horizontal Irregularity Type 5 Example 15 Redu ndancy Factor p Example 16 Pdelta Effects Example 17 Seismic Base Shear
..
2006 IBC Stru ctural/S eismic Design Manual, Vol. I
iii
EXAMPLE Example 18 Example 19 Example 20 Example 2 1 Example 22 Example 23 Example 24 Example 25 Example 26 Example 27 Example 28 Example 29 Example 30 Exampl e 31 Example 32 Example 33 Example 34 Example 35 Example 36 Example 37 Example 38 Example 39 Example 40 Example 4 1 Exampl e 42 Example 43 Example 44 Example 45 Example 46 Example 47 Example 48 Example 49
iv
DESCRIPTION Appro xima te Fundamental Period Simplified Alternative Structural Design Procedure Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical Comb ination of Framin g Systems: in Different Directions Combin ation of Structural Systems : Along the Same Axis Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force Horizontal Distribution of Shear Amplification of Accident al Torsion Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems Elements Supporting Disconti nuous Walls or Frames Soil Pressure at Foundati ons Drift Story Drift Lim itations Vertical Seismic Load Effect. Design Response Spectrum Dual Systems Lateral Forces for OneStory Wall Panels OutofPlane Seismic Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel Rigid Equipment.. Flexible Equipment Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments Deformation Compatibility for Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F .· Adjoining Rigid Elements Exterior Elements: Wall Panel Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel. Beam Horizontal Tie Force Collector Elements OutofPlane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to Flexible Diaphragms Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx : Lowrise Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx : Highrise Building Separations
ASCE/SEI 705 §12.8.2.I §I 2.14 §I 2.2.3.I §I2.2.2 §I 2.2.3.2 §12.8.3 §12.8.4 §I2.8.4.3 §I 2.3.3.3 §12.3.3.3 §2.4 §I2.I3.4 §12.8.6 § 12.12 §12.4.2.2 §11.4.5 §12.2.5. I §12.11 §12.11. I §I2.11.2 §I 3.3.1 §13.3.1 §I3.3.2 § I2.12.4 §12.7.4 §I3.5 .3 §13.5.3 §12.1.3 §12.10.2 §12.11.2 §12.11.2.1 § 12.11.2.1 §12.10 .1.1 §12.10.1 §12.12.3
PAGE 80 83 86 90 92 93 97 102 106 I 10 I I3 I 16 I 19 121 124 126 129 133 137 140 143 145 148 150 153 160 162 165 167 170 174 176
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
0 § 15.5 §15.23.7.5 PAGE 179 182 186 188 190 193 200 205 I I I I I I I I I 2006 IB C Structural/Seismic D esign Man ual.4 §6.2 §15.4.Ana lytica l Procedure ASCE /SEI 705 §15.2.4 §6.6 IBC § 1808. 1 §6. Vol.Table of Conten ts 1 EXAM PLE Example 50 Example 5 1 Example 52 Example 53 Example 54 Example 55 Example 56 Example 57 DESCRIPTION Flexible Nonbuilding Structure Lateral Force on Nonb uilding Structure Rigid No nbuilding Structure Tank With Supported Bottom Pile Interconnections Simplified Wind Loads on 2Story Buildings Simplified Wind Loads on LowRise Buildings Wind Loads . I V I .
Vol.I I I I I I I I I I I I vi 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I .
I vii . important aspects of whole buildings are designed to show. provides stepbystep examples for using individual code provisions. Proper engineering judgment should always be exercised when applying these examples to real projects. instead. The example problem numbers used in the prior Seismic Design Manual . Volumes 1I and lIl: Building Design Examples. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual illustrates how the provisions of the code are used. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual was developed to fill a void that exists between the commentary of the Blue Book. and SEAOC's 2005 Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (also called the Blue Book). such as computing base shear or building period . SEAOC. The 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is not meant to establish a minimum standard of care but. Volume 1: Code Application Examples.Preface I This document is the initial volume in the threevolume 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. published by the International Code Council ..2000 IEC Volume I code application problems have been retained herein to provide easy reference to compare revised code requirements. and everyday structural engineering design practice . calculationbycalculation. Vol. Inc. I I 1 The examples in the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual do not necessarily illustrate the only appropriate methods of design and analysis. It has been developed by the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) with funding provided by SEAOC. NCSEA and ICC intend to update the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual with each edition of the building code. Jon P. Kiland and Rafael Sabelli Project Managers I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. In Volumes" and III. how the various seismic requirements of the code are implemented in a realistic design. which explains the basis for the code provisions. presents reasonable approaches to solving problems typically encountered in structural /seismic design . Its purpose is to provide guidance on the interpretation and use of the seismic requirements in the 2006 l llfem ational Building Code (IBC). furnish examples of seismic design of common types of buildings.
Vol. I .1 J J I I I I I viii 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.
Lawson Joe Maffei Kevin Moore Stephen Kerr A number of SEAOC members and other structural engineers helped check the examples in this volume. drafts of the examples were sent to these individuals. Close collaboration with the SEAOC Seismology Committee was maintained during the development of the document. Vol. They were selected by a steering committee set up by the SEAOC Board of Directors and were chosen for their knowledge and experience with structural engineering practice and seismic design.Acknowledgments The 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual Volume J was written by a group of highly qualified structural engineers. During its development..  I •• L . I ix . Thompson Dan Werdowatz Matt Eatherton John W.. Their assistance is gratefully acknowledged. CoProject Manager Douglas S. Kiland. I' _. and III are: Jon P. The consultants for Volumes I. II. ICC 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. CoProject Manager Rafael Sabell i. 'l. . Their help was sought in review of code interpretations as well as 'detailed checking of the numerical computations.. The 20042005 and 20052006 committees reviewed the document and provided many helpful comments and suggestions.
Suite 260 Sacramento. Vol.org or on the ICC website at http:// wll1l. SEAOC. ati ts sole discretion.iccsaf e. these will be posted on the SEAOC web site at h/lP://11 1111 '. mayor may not issue written errata I I I I I J I I x 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic DesIgn Manual.org. Web address: www ..org I I I I SEAOC and NCSEA have made a substantial effort to " ensure that the information in this document is accurate." SEAOC and NCSEA plan to upd ate this document as structural/seismic requirements change and new research and better understand ing of building performa nce in earthqu akes becomes ava ilable.org. Fax : (916) 9322209 Ema il: leeiWseaoc. California 95814 Telephone: (9 16) 4471198 .seaoc .Sugges tion s for Impro vem ent I In keep ing with SEAOC's and NCSEA's Mission Statemen ts: "to adva nce the structural engineering profession" and "to provide structural engineers with the most current informa tion and tools to improve their practice. I I .seaoc. In the event that corrections or clarifi cations are needed. Comm ents and suggestions for improvements are welcome and shou ld be sent to the following: Structural Engi neers Association of Cal ifornia (SEAOC) A ttention : Executive Director 14 14 K Street.
AISC. Volumes II and III will provide a series of structural/seismic design examples for buildings illustrat ing the seismic design of key parts of common building types such as a large threestory wood frame building. and structural engineering students. other plan review agencies .1 Introduction Volume I of the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual: Code App lication Examples deals with interpretation and use of the structural/seismic provisions of the 2006 lntem ational Building Code'" (!BC). National Material design standards (such as ACI. Each example is a separate problem . Each example begins with a description of the problem to be solved and a statement of given information. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is intended to help the reader understand and correctly use the mc structural/seismic provisions and to provide clear. each of which is illustrated in full. a braced steel frame building. The problem is solved through the normal sequence of steps. MSJC and NOS) are then referenced to take the structural load demands from ASCE/SEI 705 and perform specific materia l designs." ASCE/SEI 705 is referenced for load and deformation design demands on structural elements. and graphic guidance on the application of specific provisions of the code. and deals primarily with a single code provision. and a concrete shear wall building. While the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 !BC. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seism ic Design Manual is intended for use by practicing structural engineers and structural designers. with interpretation of specific provisions and examples highl ighting their proper application. When differences between the !BC and Blue Book are significant they are brought to the attention of the reader. which contains the "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. I 1 . Volume I presents 58 examples that illustrate the application of specific structural/seismic provisions of the !Be. there are some provision ofSEAOC 's 2005 Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary (Blue Book) that are app licable. It primarily addresses the major structural/seismic provisions of the !BC. concise. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual . or group of problems. Vol. The 2006 !BC has had structural provisions removed from its text and has referenced several national standards documents for structural design provisions. The primary referenced document is ASCE/SEI 705. a tiltup warehouse. Appropriate code references for each step are identified in the righthand margin of the page. I 1 I I I I I I I I a The complete 2006 lBC Structural/Selsmic Design M nual will have three volumes. building departments.
the ASCE/SEI 705 notation is used throughout. there is a statement of the example to be solved. these documents are clearly ident ified. No building design is illustrated . Finally.83) in the righthand margins. 2005 AISC Steel Construction Manual 13th Edition. many of the examples have a third section designated "Commentary.2 with ASCE/SEI 705 being understood. comm ents and discussion on the example and related material are made. and sketches. Similarly. which provides the solution to the example and appropriate discussion to assist the reader. diagram s. the phrase "T 12. Reference to ASCE/SEI 705 sections and formulas is abbreviated. and "F 2215 " is understood to be Figure 2215.g.4.." In this section. look at the upper. I . and the referenced Standard ASCE/SEI 705 unless otherwise indicated. the examples are presented in the following format. Generally. the Volume I examples focus entirely on use of speci fic provisions of the code. To find an example for a particular provision of the code.Ho w to Use This Do cum ent ] • :JC . In general. or 2005 NOS). .83)" is designated (Eq 12. or in the table of contents.4. Building design examples are given in Volumes II and III.31" is understood to be ASCE/SEI 705 Table 12. Commentary is intended to provide a better understanding of the exampl e and/or to offer guidance to the reader on use of the information generated in the example.'>. Generally. or in the examples. " Equation (12 . Occasionally. ACI 31805.31. Throughout the document.2" is given as §6. reference is made to othe r codes and standards (e. 1 I I I I I I I I I I I ) I I 2 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. First. Som e other notation is defined in the followi ng pages. For example. This is followed by the "Calculations and Discussion" section. outer come r of each page. The 2006 lEe Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 IBC. reference to specific code provisions and equations is given in the righthand margin under the category Code Reference. When this is done. The various code application examp les of Volume I are organized by topic consistent with previous editions. "ASCE/SE I 705 §6. including given information.
Notation The following notations are used in this document. I . E can mean the tabulated elastic modulus under the AISC definition (steel) or it can mean the earthquake load under § 12. in square inches area of nonprestressed tension rein forcement 3 I I I = 2006 lac Stru ctural/S eism ic Design Manual.2 of ASCE /SEI 705 .. in square inches the combined effective area. For example.g. Some new notations have also been added . each definition is prefaced with a brief descript ion in parentheses (e.4. Vol. The reader is cautio ned that the same notation may be used more than once and may carry entire ly different mean ings in different situations. These are generally consistent with those used in ASCE/SEI 705 and other Standards such as ACI and AISC. in square feet of a shea r wall flange area Ag Ag Ai = = = = = gross area of section the gross area of that wall in which ADis identified the floor area in square feet of the diaphragm level immediately abo ve the story under consideration area of the loadcarrying foun dation the effective area of the projection of an assumed concrete failure surface upon the surface from wh ich the anchor protrudes . of the shear walls in the first story of the structure I I I I I I A ch = crosssectional area of a struct ural member measured outtoout of transverse reinforcement net area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of section in the directio n of shear force considered Ae AI the minimum crosssectional area in any horizontal plane in the first story. When the same notation is used in two or more definitions. in square feet. A ABM area of floor or roof supported by a member = crosssectional area of the base material area of anc hor. steel or loads) before the definition is given.
distance between concentrated load and face of supports coefficient defin ing the relative contribution of concrete strength to wall strength incrementa l factor relating to the Pdelt a' effects as determined in §12.3.'J Av r All' = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Aw A.8. ap I I I I I I I b br bu.3 (concrete) depth of equivalent rectangu lar stress block (concrete spandrel) shear span. Vol.8.3. 4 2006 IBC Structural/S eism ic Design Manual.to the response of a system or component as affected by the type of seismic attachment determined in §13. 1) amplification factor related.4.Nota tion Ash = total crosssectional area of transverse reinforcement (including supplementary crossties) having a spacing s" and crossing a section with a core dimension of he area of skin reinforceme nt per unit height in one side face area having minimum amount of flexural reinforcement area of link stiffener tributary area area of shear reinforcement within a distance s.7 the acceleration at Level i obtained from a modal analysis (§ 13.§ 12. a a ae ad a.1 (concrete) width of compression face of member flange width web width ] Ask A Slmin = = = = = As.. I . AT Av I I A. or area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to flexura l tension reinforcement within a distance s for deep flexural members required area of leg reinforcement in each group of diagonal bars in a diagonally reinforced coupling beam area of shearfriction reinforcement (web) link web area (weld) effective crosssectional area of the weld the torsional amp lification factor at Level x .
4) d.1 building period coefficient . the effect of dead load c D I I I I I I I I I De = the length.21 or 15. C1'X = vertical distribution factor .2.8. Vol. E E Em = seismic load effect including overstrength factors (§§ 12.2. in feet.1 and §19.8. = = the seismic response coefficient determined in § 12.§ 12. of a shear wall in the first story in the direction parallel to the applied forces gross weight of helicopter Dh Dp = relative seismic displacement that a component must be designed to accommodate .3.2.2) 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.§12.1.3 distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis of a flexural member dead load.2 effective depth of section (distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement) d db db = = = = (anchor bolt) anchor shank diameter (concrete) bar diameter column panel zone depth (steel) modulus of elasticity combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquakeinduced forces (§12.8.3.2 and 12.1 snow thermal factor Cr C.41 or 15. 9th Edition Ce = em C.3. I 5 .14.I bit Notation member widththickness ratio = Cd deflection amplification factor as given in Tables 12.4.42 snow exposure factor coefficient defined in §Hl of AISC/ASD.§13.
N otation I £1 = = = = = = flexural stiffness of compression member modules of elasticity of concrete .n. = Fp = Fp . Vo/. I e F Fa Fa Fa Fb FaM Fexx = = = = = Fi. in psi (concrete) modu lus of elastic ity of reinforcement EBF link length load due to fluids site coefficient defined in §11 . .P.§ 12. F. seism ic force. centered at the component's center of gravity and distributed relative to the compon ent' s mass distribution. or x as determined in §12. ksi through thickness weld stresses at the beamco lumn interface minimum specified tensile strength of the anchor long period site coefficient (at 1.8. induced by the parts being connected. E.4.3 (stee l LRFD) nomina l strength of the weld electrode material (steel ASD) allowable weld stress 1 s.3 the design lateral force applied at Level x the lateral force induced at any Level i . induced at Level i.8.3.0 second period) see § 11.3 axial comp ressive stress that would be permitted if axial force alone existed flood load bending stress that would be permitted if bending moment alone existed nominal strength of the base material to be welded classification number of weld metal (minimum specified streng th) portion of seismic base shear. V..8. as determined in §12.4. r.3 the diap hragm desig n force specified minimum tensile strength./ . Fw F II' 6 I I I I I I I I I I I I 2006 1BC S tructura l/Seis mic Design Manual.Fu. F" F" Fill = = = = = = = = = F.
.
h. (concrete.5. Vol. 11 or x. moment of inertia of structural steel shape.00 or 1. Concentrated impact loads unreduced design live load (steel) unbraced beam length for determining allowable bending stress limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength. pipe or tubing about centroidal axis of composite member cross section . uniform moment case roof live load including any permitted live load reduction hsx hll' I I Ia Ig I I ] I t. K k L Lo Lb Lp L.5.. except rooflive load. as determined in §13. neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis.§12. hn. I.8. respectively height in feet of the roof above the base the story height below Level x height of entire wall or of the segment of wall considered the importan ce factor determined in accord ance with §11. = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = assumed web depth for stability height in feet above the base to Level i. 8 = = = = I I I I I I I I I I 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. including any permitted live load reduction (i.3. Ig t. Live load related internal moments or forces. h. neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section .1 (steel) effecti ve length factor for prismatic member a distribution exponent .3 live load.1 moment of inertia of section resisting externally applied factored loads moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete (concrete. neglecting reinforcement. I .e. component importance factor that is either 1.notation I he h. reduced design live load).
"x = I" designates the first level above the base (steel) maximum factored moment factored moment to be used for design of compression member Level. " i = I" designates the first level above the base Leveln = = that level that is upperm ost in the main portion of the structure that level that is under design consideration. = moment at face of column (concrete ) modified moment (steel) maximum moment that can be resisted by the member in the absence of axial load (steel) nominal moment strength at section (concrete) required plastic moment strength of shearhead cross section 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Se ismic Des ign Manual.Notation Ie 1 (steel RBS) length of radius cut in beam flange for red uced beam section (RBS) design length of a compression member in a frame. in direction of shear force level of the structure referred to by the subscript i. measured from center to center of the joints in the frame = t: /. distance from column centerl ine to centerline of hinge for reduced bending strength (RBS) connection design clear span measured facetoface of supports unsupported length of compression member I" I" = Ill' Level i = length of entire wall. uniform moment case I I I "1.. or of segment of wall considered. J 9 .r M = I I I moment at centerline of colum n Mer = moment at which flexural cracking occurs in response to externally applied loads limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength. Vol.
Notation
u,
Mpa
= = = =
(steel) nominal plastic flexural strength, FyZ nominal plastic flexural strength modified by axial load nominal plastic flexural strength using expected yield strength of steel (concrete) probable moment strength determined using a tensile strength in the longitudinal bars of at least 1.25;;. and a strength reduction factor cjJ of 1.0 (steel RBS) probable plastic moment at the reduced beam section (RBS) (concrete) moment due to loads causing appreciable sway torsional moment accidental torsional moment (concrete) factored moment at section (steel) required flexural strength on a member or joint moment corresponding to onset of yielding at the extreme fiber from an elastic stress distribution smaller factored end moment on a compression member, positive if member is bent in single curvature, negative if bent in double curvature larger factored end moment on compression member, always positive number of stories ponding load (steel) factored axial load (wind) design wind pressure unfactored axial load in frame member nominal axial load strength at balanced strain conditions connection force for design of column continuity plates (concrete) critical load
u;
Mpr
1
Mpr M,
M,
= = = = = = = =
I I I I I I I I I I I I I
M,a M" M"
M,•.
MI
M)
N
P P P PDL,
= = = = =
i» , r.; =
Pb Pb l
= = =
r,
10
2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Notation
Pc P" Po
P si
= =
(concrete anchorage) design tensile strength nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity, or nominal axial strength of a column nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity
= =
FyA
(concrete) factored axial load, or factored axial load at given eccentricity
p" p" p"
=
(steel) nominal axial strength ofa column, or required axial strength on a column or a link (concrete anchorage) required tensile strength from loads nominal axial yield strength ofa member, which is equal to F),A g total unfactored vertical design load at and above Level x
r,
p.,
PE Pu QE
= = = =
axial load on member due to earthquake axial live load the effect of horizontal seismic forces rain load The response modification factor from Table 12.21 nominal strength
I I
1
R R R" Rp
=
component response modification factor that varies from J.00 to 3.50 as set forth in Table J 3.5 J or Table J 3.61 required strength
I I I I
I
R" R)'
=
ratio of expected yield strength F)'c to the minimum specified yield strength Fy live load reduction in percent 
R, Rl R2
r
r ry
=
!Be §§ 1607.9.2/1607. J 1.2
rate of reduction equal to 0.08 percent for floors (steel) radius of gyration of cross section of a compression member
=
radius of gyration about y axis
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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No tation
S
= = = = = = = = = = = =
snow load design spectral response acceleration 0.6 (SosITo) T + 0.4 (Sos), for T less than or equal to To (SOl ) 1 T, for T greater than T, 5% damped, design, spectral response acceleration parameter at short period (i.e., 0.2 seconds) = (2/3) S,«..  § 11.4.4 Mapped, MCE, 5% damp ed, spectral acceleration parameter at short periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) as determin ed by § 11.4.1 5% damped , design, spectral response acceleration parameter at l second perio d = (2/3) S sn Mapped, MCE, 5% damped, spectral acceleration parameter for a ls econd period as determined in § 11.4.1 MCE, 5% damped, spectral response acce leration parameter for short periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) = FoS,. adj usted for site class effects MCE, 5% damped , spectral response acceleration parameter for lsecond peri od = F•. SJ, adjusted for site class effects sectio n modu lus at the reduced beam section (RBS) spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction parallel to longitudinal reinforcemen t, or spacing of transverse reinforcement measured along the longitud inal axis selfstraining force arising from contracti on or expansion resultin g from temperature change, shrinkage, moisture change, creep in comp onent materials, movement due to differential settlement or combinations thereof elastic fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, of the structure in the direction under consideration, see § 11.4.5 for limitations approximate fundamental period as determined in accordance with § 12.8.2.1 0.2 (SOl 1Sos) SOl 1Sos thickness of flange thickness of web
So
I I
Sos
S,
SOl
I
SI
s'II S
S,I/I
SRBS
S
T
=
T
= = = = = =
To
To T,
If
I I I I I I I I I I
tw
12
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual, Vol. I
1
I;
Notation
ratio of expected yield strength F ,.<to the minimum specified yield strength F."
U
=
requ ired strength to resist factored loads or related intemal momen ts and forces the tota l design seismic lateral force or shear at the base of the building or structure
V
Vc
=
(conc rete) nominal shear strength provided by concrete (concrete anchorage) design shear strength
I
I
I
Vc VDL, Vu , V,ei,
= =
unfactored shear in frame member shear correspond ing to the development of the "nominal flexural strength  calculated in accordance with Chapter 19" (concrete) nom inal shear stren gth at section (steel) nomina l shear strength of a member
v,,,
v,
V" Vp Vpa
= =
(steel) shear strength of an active link nominal shear streng th of an active link modified by the axial load magnitude the portion of the seismic shear force at the level of the diaphragm, required to be transferred to the components of the vertical seismiclateralforceresisting system because of the offsets or changes in stiffue ss of the compon ents above or below the diaphragm
I I I
I I I
Vpx
V,
=
(concrete) nominal shear streng th provided by shear reinforcement (steel) shear strength of member, 0.55 Fidt
V, V" V"
= = =
(concrete anchorage) required shear strength from factored loads (concre te) factored shear force at section (loads) factore d horizontal shear in a story (steel) required shear strength on a member
v,
V"
v.
=
the seismic design story shear (forc e) in story x, (i.e.• between Level x andxI )
2006 IBC Structural/S eismic D esign Manual, Vol. I
13
. I . in pcf that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x.3.. respectively the weigh t of the smaller portion of the structure the weight of the diaphragm and other elemen ts of the structure tributary to the diap hragm the weigh t of the diaphragm and elements tributary thereto at Level x. includ ing ap plicable portions of other loads defined in §12. l (wind) load due to wind pressure component operating weig ht weights of concrete.Notation I w W WI' l1'c = = = = = = = = the total effective seismic dead load (weight) defined in § 12.8.2 weight of the wall tributary to the anchor column panel zone width height of upper support attachment at Level x as measured from the base heigh t of lower support attachm ent at Level Yas measured from the base (steel) plastic section modulus height in structure at point of attachment of component. Vol.7. l4. §13. 11'r wp wp I I 1 I lVp:c ) VII' = = = = = = = = = = = = 11.7.= X I I y Z z ZeD s <I> <l>b <l>c <1>.1 plastic section modu lus at the reduced beam section (RBS) (concrete) capacityreduction or strengthreduction factor (steel) resistance factor for flexure (steel) resistance factor for compression resistance factor for shear strength of panelzone of beamtocolumn connections (concrete) angle between the diagonal reinforcement and the longitudinal axis of a diagona lly reinforced coup ling beam 1 11'.2 and §12. I I I I I I a 14 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Seismic Design Manu al..
1. I f ll' 15 . 0.4 (conc rete) ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement (As/bd ) reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions = = pn ps = = J ratio of area of distributed reinforcement parallel to the plane of A c" to gross concrete area perpendicular to the reinforcement ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total volume of core (outtoout of spirals) ofa spirally reinforced compression member ratio of area of distributed reinforcement perp endicular to the plane of A«.0 for norma lweight concrete.3.85 for " sandlightweight" concrete limiting slen derness parameter for compact element length of radius cut in beam flange for reduced beam section (RBS) connection design distance from co lumn centerline to centerline of hinge for RBS connection design A p fo = = flo fn f u = = clear span measu red facetoface of supports unsupported length of comp ression member length of entire wall or of segment of wall considered in direction of shea r force 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic D esign Manua l.Notation 1 a.I a redundancy factor determined in accordance with § 12.to gross concrete area A c" I I I I I I I p" = lightweight aggregate concrete factor. and 0. Vol.75 for "all lightweight" concre te.~ (steel) centroid locations of gusset connection for braced frame diagonal coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete strength to wall strength ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load or reaction area Uc I ~c = P P Ph I the ratio of shear demand to shear capacity for the story between Level x and x.
8.6 the average of the displacements at the extreme points of the structure at Level x I I I no Ox O. Vol.OM2 = = Ol:4 deflection at structure level y of structure A = OrB 8 deflection at structure level y of structure B stability coefficient .Notation 11 coefficient offriction = I I 1 1 8 design story drift.7 I I I I I I I I I I 16 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Note: Where ASD is used. I . shall be computed as the differences of the deflections at the center of mass at the top and bottom or the story under consideration. as obtained from Table 12.4.§ 12.8.121 for any story 8 8a 8 aA 8 aB = = = = = allowable story drift for structure A allowable story drift for structure B system overstrength factor as given in Table 12.§ 12.21 inelastic deflections of Level x .WE ONl4X OX4 = = = the maximum displacement at Level x deflection at structure Level x of structure A the deflections determined by an elastic analysis of the seismicforceresisting system maximum of Ox displacements of the adjacent building where 0M2 is at same level as OAII s. 8 shall be computed using earthquake forces without dividing by 1.12 design story drift allowable story drift. OM OAlI. see § 12.
17 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. electrical. The level at which the horizontal seismic ground motions are considered to be imparted to the structure. discontinuities. and reentrant corners. Chords and collectors at diaphragm and shear wall edges. members. An exterior floor projecting from and supported by a structure without additional independent supports. such that elastically computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also called working stress design). Total design lateral force or shear at the base. Exterior. mechanical. interior openings. I . including its attachments. or structural system. A mechanical or electrical component or element that is part of a mechanical and/or electrical system within or without a building system. Boundary Members.06 second . A part or element of an architectural. Component. Seismic. Such attachments include anchor bolts. Collector. Vol. Balcony. Boundary Elements. Base Shear. having a fundamental period greater than 0.Definitions Active Fault/Active Fault Trace. Allowable Stress Design. Component. flexible. Means by which components and their supports are secured or connected to the seismicforeeresisting system of the structure. A diaphragm or shear wall element parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers shear forces to the verticalforeeresisting elements or distributes forces within a diaphragm or shear wall. A structural system relying on column elements that cantilever from a fixed base and have minimal rotational resistance capacity at the top with lateral forces applied essentially at the top and are used for lateral resistance. Component. I I I I I I Brittle. Portions along wall and diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement and/or structural steel members. materials and connections that do not exhibit significan t energy dissipation capacity in the inelastic range. Attachments. A fault for which there is an average historic slip rate of I mm per year or more and geologic evidence of seismic activity within Holocene (past I 1. Systems. welded connections and mechan ical fasteners. Active fault traces are designated by the appropriate regulatory agency and/or registered design professional subject to identification by a geologic report. Component. I Base.000 years) times. Cantilevered Column System. equipment. A method of proportioning structural members.
having a fundamental period less than or equal to 0. Limit deformation. floors. Those architectural. Confined Region. including the weight of cranes. A beam that is used to connect adjacent concrete wall piers to make them act together as a unit to resist lateral forces. Designated Seismic System. The product of the nominal strength and a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor). Component.0. and mechanical systems and their components that require design in accordance with Chapter 13 that have a component importance factor. Design Strength. or other independent supports . An element that is neither a low deformability nor a high deformability element. and fixed service equipment. roofs.Definitions Component. finishes. 18 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. piers. Limited deformability element. High deform ability element. including its attachments.5 or less. Diaphragm.06 second . rigid. including but not limited to walls. Deformability. and/or posts. greater than 1. stairways. . Vol. builtin partitions. determined by comparing the computed maximum inplane deflection of the diaphragm itself under lateral force with the story drift of adjoining vertical lateralforceresisting elements under equivalent tributary lateral force. electrical. Diaphragm. The deformation at which failure occurs and which shall be deemed to occur if the sustainable load reduces to 80 percent or less of the maximum strength. Two times the initial deformation that occurs at a load equal to 40 percent of the maximum strength. Rigid. Dead Loads. The earthquake effects that are 2/3 of MCE earthquake effects. An exterior floor supported on at least two opposing sides by an adjacent structure. The ratio of the ultimate deformation to the limit deformation. Coupling Beam. Ultimate deformation. Deck. and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items. lp . The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building. A diaphragm that does not conform to the definition of flexible diaphragm. An element whose deformability is 1. 1 1 I 1 I I I J I I I I I I I I I I I . ceilings. The portion of a reinforced concrete component in which the concrete is confined by closely spaced special transverse reinforcement restraining the concrete in directions perpendicular to the applied stress. Flexible. Deformation. An element whose deformability is not less than 3. Low deform ability element. A diaphragm is flexible for the purpose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the lateral deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the average story drift of the associated story. cladding.5 when subjected to four fully reversed cycles at the limit deformation. Design Earthquake.
Essential Facilities. An element capable of sustaining large cyclic deformations beyond the attainment of its strength. The product of a nominal load and a load factor. and vertical load testing of isolator unit prototype. or the aggregate of periods of intermittent applications of the same load. Limited ductile element. The value of the lateral force in the isolation system. Equipment Support. including additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion. I . The value of equivalent viscous damping corresponding to energy dissipated during cyclic response of the isolation system. A collect ion of structural elements that limits lateral displacement of seismically isolated structu res due to the maximum considered earthquake. exclud ing additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion . divided by the corresponding lateral displacement. Displacement Restraint System. Total Maximum Displacement. 19 I I I I I I 2006 Vol. lugs. or an element thereof. Total Design Displacement. Effective Damping. The design earthquake lateral displacement. Design Displacement. Nonductile element. Those connections between equipment components that permit rotational and/or translational movement without degradation of perform ance. or earthquakes. Factored Load. An element that is capable of sustaining moderate cyclic deformations beyond the attainment of nominal strength without significant loss of strength. Buildings and other structures that are intended to remain operational in the event of extreme environmental loading from flood. required for verification of the stability of the isolation system or elements thereof. design of building separations. wind. Those structural members or assemblies of members or manufactured elements. An element having a mode of failure that results in an abrupt loss of resistance when the element is deformed beyond the deformation corresponding to the development of its nominal strength . including braces. or saddles that transmit gravity load and operating load between the equipment and the structure. The period of continuous application of a given load. The maximum considered earthquake lateral displacement. Element Ductile element. Effective Stiffness.Definitions 1 Displacement. snow. The design earthquake lateral displacement. Nonductile elements cannot reliably sustain significant deformation beyond that attained at their nominal strength. Duration of Load. required for design of the isolation system. including additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion. Flexible Equipment Connections. hangers. frames. snubbers. required for design of the isolation system. lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.
A moment frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members. Seismic force resistance is provided by a momentresisting frame and shear walls or braced frames. Impact Load. A structural system composed of interconnected members. A steel concentrically braced frame in which members and connections are designed for moderate ductility. The total dead load and applicable portions of other loads as defined in §§ 12. Intermediate moment frame (IMF). Special moment frame (SMF). A diagonally braced frame in which at least one end of each brace frames into a beam a short distance from a beamcolumn or from another diagonal brace. other than bearing walls . craneways. An essentially vertical truss.1. The load resulting from moving machinery.1. A material that is highly toxic or potentially explosive and in sufficient quantity to pose a significant lifesafety threat to the general public if an uncontrolled release were to occur. A moment frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis ofthe members.5.14. A steel or composite steel and concrete concentrically braced frame in which members and connections are designed for ductile behavior. Dual frame system. Seismic force resistance is provided by shear walls or braced frames. Importance Factor. Frame. A factor assigned to each structure according to its occupancy category as prescribed in §11. I 1 ) 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 20 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Moment.7. Concentrically braced frame (CB F). I . Braced frame. Space frame system. Ordinary moment frame (OMF). of the concentric or eccentric type that is provided in a building frame system or dual frame system to resist shear. elevators.Definitions ) Frame. vehicles. Hazardous Contents. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame system providing support for vertical loads. Ordinary concentrically braced frame (OCBF).2 and 12.8. and possible surcharge from fixed or moving loads. A braced frame in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces. Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF). that is capable of supporting vertical loads and that also may provide resistance to seismic forces . and other similar forces and kinetic loads. Vol. Gravity Load (W). pressure. or its equi valent . A structural system with an essentially complete space frame system providing support for vertical loads. Building frame system. A moment frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members. Frame System. Eccentrically braced frame (EBF).
earthquake load. rain load. Live Loads.Definitions Inverted Pendulumtype Structures. Limit State. and restrained dimensional changes. snow load. Forces and deformations produced in structural members by the applied loads. equipment. Isolator Unit. Loads Effects. and the lower portion of the structure. Isolation Interface. Load Factor. Those loads produced I) during maintenance by workers. and materials. I 21 . Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structu re and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load. thus. flood load. Other loads are variable loads (see also "Nominal loads"). The boundary between the upper portion of the structure. have essentially one degree of freedom in horizontal translation. I Isolation System. A condition beyond which' a structure or member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state). The term "LRFD" is used in the design of steel and wood structures. A portion ofa column bounded by the highest and lowest surfaces of the other members framing into it. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nomin al load. which moves rigidly with the ground.ordead load. An isolator unit may be used either as part of or in addition to the weightsupporting system of the building. Vol. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of building materials. Structures that have a large portion of their mass concentrated near the top and. Loads. and 2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters and by people . A horizontally flexible and vertically stiff structural element of the isolation system that permits large lateral deformations under design seismic load. which is isolated . for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect. The structures are usually Tshaped with a single column supporting the beams or framing at the top. and for the probability that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously. A method of proportioning structural members and their connections using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to appropriate load combinations. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). occupants and their possessions. I I I I I I I Live Loads (Roof). Joint. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. differential movement. structural elements that transfer force between elements of the isolation system and connections to other structural elements. The collection of structural elements that includes individual isolator units. environmental effect.
soil. The part of the structural system that has been considered in the design to provide the required resistance to the seismic forces prescribed herein. other than buildings.4. Panel (Part of a Structure). Seism ic Response Coefficient . other than a building. 22 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 200 6 IBC Structural/Seis mic D esign Manua l. considering interaction between shear walls and frames on all levels. Nominal Loads.) Nonbuilding Structure. Shear Pa nel.4. The most severe earthquake effects considered by this code. Seismicfo rceresisting system. Coefficient C" as determined from §12. The second order effect on shears. constructed of a type included in Chapter 15 and within the limits of § 15. wall. Resistance Factor. A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site. or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.2. A floor. Shallow anchors are those with embedme ntlengthtodiameter ratios of less than 8. A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall. Shear Wa llframe Interactive System.Definitions Maximum Considered Earthquake. Shallow Anc hors. snow. related to the response of the structure to earthqua ke motions. wind. to be used in the design of the structure and its components. rain. Site Class . and earthquake. see § 11. Other Structures. 1 . Vol. The magnitudes of the loads specified in this chapter (dead. roof. The assumed forces prescribed herein. live. flood. Structures.1. for which loads are specified in this chapter. axial forces and moments of frame members induced by axial loads on a laterally displaced building frame. A structural system that uses combination s of shear walls and frames designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to their rigidities. Pdelta Effect. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the nominal strength and the manner and consequences of failure (also called strength reduction factor).8. Seism ic Forces. Seismic Design Category. The section of a floor. or roof located between the supporting frame of two adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor or roof construction. 1. A classification assigned to a site based on the types of soils present and their engineering properties as defined in § 11. A structure. Shea r Wa ll.
Strength of a member. as a confined region. or connection required to resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated by these provisions. The values of Fa and F indicated in Tables 11. Non loadbearing. as determined by computations using specified material strengths and dimensions and formulas derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of scaled models. Torsiona l Force Distrib utio n. The distribu tion of horizontal seismic forces through a rigid diaphragm when the center of mass of the structure at the level under consideration does not coincide with the center of rigidity (sometimes referred to as a diaphragm rotation). W indres traint Seismic System.42. closed stirrups. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertica l load in addition to its own weight. Strength. allowing for modeling effects and differenc es between laboratory and field conditions. cross section. The collection of structural elements that provides restraint of the seismicisolatedstructure for wind loads. 2.41 and 11. The ability of a material to absorb energy without losing significant strength . Nom ina l. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight. A method of proportion ing structural members such that the computed forces produced in the members by factored loads do not exceed the member design strength (also called load and resistance factor design. where used. Any wall that is not a loadbearing wall. The windrestraint system may be either an integral part of isolator units or a separate device. Wall.1 1 Dennltions Site Coefficients. I 23 . 2006 IBC Structural/Sei smic D esign Manual.) The term "strength design" is used in the design of concrete and masonry structural elements. Vol. respect ively. or hoops and supplementary crossties provided to restrain the concrete and qualify the portion of the componen t. Strength Design. Strength Required. Any wall meeting either of the follow ing classifications: I. To ughness. Wall. " Special Transverse Reinforcement. Reinforcement composed of spirals. Story Drift Ratio. Loadbearing. The story drift divided by the story height. The capacity of a structure or member to resist the effects of loads.
Definitio ns ] I I I I I I 24 2006 IBC StructurallSe lsmlc Design Manual. I . Vol.
51 §11. Importance factors for wind loads are from Table 61.20 Wind Factor f 1. I 25 . " Importance Factors .Elementary School with capacity greater than 250 S DS = 1.0 \. The importance fac tors for seismic loads are from Table 11 .70 0.75 Determine the following.5.5 Snow Factor 1 \.0 1.15 Category II IV 2006 IBC Str uctural/Se ismi c Des ig n Manu al.51.~ [!J Building category and importance factors . the general category is II. [!J [!J Building category and importance factors for general occupancy and for one build ing to be used for emergency shelter Seismic Design Category (SOC) IC~/c~d/~Jions and Discussion Cd~e Referenc. The one building to be used for an emergency shelter is Category IV." for the given occupancy category.6. Seismic Factor f \.Example i • Classlficationllmportance Fact ors/Seismic Des ign Ca t eg or y §11. Vol. Type of occupancy .1.17 = = SOl SI 0." § 11 . The occupancy category is used to determine the "Se ismic Design Category. Importance factors for snow loads are from Table 74.0 1.6 Determine the importan ce factors and the seismic design category for a faci lity given the following information.1. From Table 1\.
Table 2. ~ 0. 6 J ~ Seismic Design Category ] ] J All structures are assigned to a Seismic Design Category (SDC) based on their Occup ancy Category and the spectral response acceleration coefficients So< and SOl. the building shall be assigned to SDC E. II.70 D* 0* SDC USE* E F II Emergency IV Shelter Recall: SI = 0.62 SDC SOl 0.62 as follows.61 SDC SDS 1.75 ). 1 I . Each building and structure shall be assigned to the most severe SDC in accordance with Table 11.70 0. I I I I I I I I I I 1 26 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.§ 11. irrespec tive of the fundamental period of vibration of the structure T. and III having S.75. Also for Occupancy Category IV having S. Vol.6.I7 1. equal to or greater than 0.75% for this table I I *Note that for Occupancy Categories I.1 Occupancy Category vs Seismic Design Category Nature of Occupancy Sc hool Occupancy Category Table I 1. the building shall be assigned to SDC F.S· 1 Example i • Cla ssification/Impo rtance Fa ctors Seismic Des ign Cat egory § 1 1.17 D* 0* Table 11.I or I 1.75 (recall Sj = 0.
5 A Snow load S = 0 B c . Note that for the pa rticular location of Column CD. Vol .0 = 1.10 = 1.Ex am p le 1 • Earth q u ake Lo ad Co m b i n ations: St rength Des ign §12. Find the following.3 II = 0. the seism ic Axial Load and Moment at C are both positive fo r the lefttoright ( ~) load ing and are both negative for the rightto Ieft () loading. I 27 . 8 Ds I P = 1. / // / r r • / rrr> D Beam AB and Column CD are elements of the special momentresisting fram e.3 . Structural ana lysis has provi ded the follow ing beam moments at A. office building live load. This will be done for the momentresisting frame structure shown below.3 This example demonstrates the application of the strength design load combinations that involve the seismi c load E given in § 12. ILJ [!J [!J Strength design seismic load combinations (Comb . and the column axial loads and moments at C due to dead load.toright ( ~) and righttoleft () directio ns oflateral seismic loading. This is not necessarily true for the other elements of the structure.100 kip ft +90 kips +40 kipft Live Load L 50 kipft +40 kips +20 kipft LefttoRight Seism ic Load (+QI.2 .ft +110 kips +160 kipft 120 kipft .. and left. 4.) +120 kip.4. Positi ve axial load induces compression .) RighttoLeft Seismic Load (.) Strength design moments at beam end A for seismic load combinations Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the design of column section at C for seismic load combinations 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.QI..110 kips ) 60 kipIt Sign Convention: Positive moment induces flexural tension on the bottom side of a beam and at the right side of a column.2. Dead Load D Beam Mome nt at A Column CD Axial Load Column Moment at C .
3QE (Comb.5L when the signs of QEand D are the same. 5) (Comb.2D + 1.42D + 1.. 7) 1..2)(1.(0.2.41) (Eq 12.+E. = PQE E.4..3QE + (0.I)D + 0.§12.2SDSD when the algebraic sign. these yield E =PQE+ 0. ±.44) 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I Combined.5L (Comb.1)D = 1. =0. 5) 0.3..2D + I. (Note 0. the load combinations are = 1.2S =0) 0. E. and E =PQE  0.9D + 1.43) when the algebraic sign.2D + 1. I I I .1)D + 0.. of QE is taken as the same as that for D. of QE is taken as opposite to that for D.10. =0. For the given values of: p = 1.2)( I.9D + 1. 5) 1.2)(1.98D + 1.3QE . SDS= 1.5L .3QE+ (0.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design I [LJ Governing strength design seismic load combinations 1 (Comb .0E where for a given type of load action such as moment M or axial load P E=E.3QE+ 0. 7) when the signs of QE and D are the same. Vol.2SDSD (Eq 12.5L when the signs of QEand D are opposite .I2D + 1.5L (Comb.2S D SD (Eq 12.OE + 0. ±.43) (Eq 12. and 1. and 28 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.3QE+ 0.
(0 . I 29 .3QE.68D + 1.2.5(50) =. 7) when the signs of Q£ and D are oppos ite.323 kipft and + 88 kipft 2006 IBC Structural/Se ism ic Design Manual. 68D + 1. Streng th design moments at beam end A for seismic load combinations ~ For the governin g load combin ation when the signs of Q£ and D are the same 1. Vol.3 (120) + 0.323 kipft ~ For the governing load combination when the signs of Q£ and D are opposite 0.3QE+ 0.68 D + 1. Beam section at A must be designed for M A = . By inspection.3 0. 0.100) + 1.I 1 ] Example 1 • Earthqua ke Lo ad Combinations: Stren g th Design §1 2.2)( 1.68(100) + 1.3Q£ (Comb .9 D + 1.3QE when the signs of QE and D are opposite. 4.3QE with D = M D = . the governing seismic load combinations are when the signs of Q£ and D are the same.42 (.l)D =0.5L I I I I I I I I MA = 1.3(120) = 88 kipft : .100 and QE = 120 MA = 0.42D + 1.
but they cannot be used for interactive pairs of actions such as the axial load and moment at the column section C.9D + p(Qd .0.9D + p( Qd + 0.2.2 SD 0.4.2 SDsD. it is proposed to use E = p(>QE) ± 0.0.2D + p( >QE) . To include the algebraic signs of the individual actions.3 and SDS = l.§12. and D. the load combinations provide the following values for MA . I I I .5 applies to L if L :0: 100 psf [except at garages and public assembIy areas]) For the specific values of p = 1.2 SDsD + L sD 0. The interaction design of the column section must satisfy all of the eight pairs of P e and Me from the seismic load 30 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. both the axial load and the moment must be due to a common direction of the lateral seismic loading and a common sense of the vertical seismic acceleration effect represented by 0. Vol. This condition would prohibit the use of the same load combination for both axial load and moment.2 SDsD 0. The resulting set of combinations is 1. Note that the interaction pair Pc and Me must occur simultaneously at a specific load combination of gravity load.2 SD There can be cases where the axial load algebraic signs are the same for QE sD.0. and the independent reversible property of the vertical seismic load effect 0.2 SDsD (Note : a factor of 0. For example .44 can be used for the design requirement of a single action such as the moment at beam end A.2 SDsD.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design [!J Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the design of column section at C for seismic load combinations I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The seismic load combinations using the definitions of E given by Equations 12.9D + p( >Qd .41 through 12.l 0.2 SDSD. and p( Qd ± 0. and lateral and vertical seismic load effects. while the moment algebraic signs are different. These pairs must occur simultaneously because of a common load combination. and the interaction pair Pc and Me. the directional property of the lateral seismic load effect QE.
3 (Qd + 0.1.8 and and and and and · and and and and Me kipft +242.2 59 .109. Combination 1. 8 +220 .8 +229.3 (Qd + 0.2 126. Vol. . 12D .8 The govern ing va lues are und erlined fo r MA [sam e as det erm ined in Part (2) ] and for the interaction pairs of Pc and Me required for the design of the column section at C.3 (Qd 0.3 (Q E) 1.5L 1. Thi s is imp ortant for interactive pa irs of actions that must be evaluated for a common load combination.2 .68D + 1.148.98D .) + O.2 2 0. The signs to be used for an interaction pair of actions due to a given direction of lateral loading can be obtained from the primary mode response where the prim ary mode is the mode having the largest participation fac tor for the given direction of lateral seism ic loading.8.1.Example 1 a Earthq uake L oad Co m b i n ations : Strength Des i g n §1 2.43 since all possible com binations are represented .98D + 1.12.42 and 12.5L O.12D + 1.2 . 8 +225.3 (QE) MA kipft 35 9 299 255 + 20 +64 244 200 Pc kips +268.5L 0.4 . I 31 .2 131. the direction of the lateral seismic load..420 + 1.8 +26. The eight seismic load combinations resulting from the proposed definition of E pro vid e an automatic method of considering the individual algebraic signs of the load actions. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual.42D . the signs can be obtained from the equivalent lateral force procedure of § 12.9 is used..3 (Q i.1.8 +203 . alternatively. When the Modal Respo nse Spectrum Analysis' procedure of § 12.2 .3 (Qd 0.5L 1.2 .3 combinations along with the pairs from the gravity load combinations and wind load combinati ons.1.8 +22 1. and the independent ± action of 0. Or.3 (Q E) + O. the algebraic signs of seismic load actions are lost because of the process of combining the individual modal responses.8 + 182. There is no nee d to use the "same sign" and "opposite sign" limitations of Equations 12 .2 SDCD.68D .
2) Grav ity loads Dead lVD = 0. I .4 Example 2 • Combinations o f Loads : The code permits the use of allowable stress design for the design of wood members and their fastenings (ASCE/SEI 705 §2.3 E = Ell = bQ£ = 4 kips (seismic force due to the base shear determined from § 12.25 in = 9.4.5 + 2. Shear Wall Elevati on [!J Basic allowable stress design 32 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. The wall is a bearing and shear wall in a light wood framed build ing.4 ft Determine the required design loads for shear capacity q and holddown capacity T for the following load combinations.4 and § 12.0 P = 1.4 defines the basic load combinations for allowable stress design. Seismic Design Catego ry B J = 1.§2.0 +3.5/2) = 10 ft 7.2.0 ITnTTTTm Plywood shear wall 5 DS = 0.(3. including weight of wall Live lIIL = (roof load supported by other elements) Moment arm from center of post to center of holddown bo lt L = 10 ft . Gravity loads The following information is given. Vol. Section 2.3). This example illustrates the application ofthis method for the plywood shear wall shown below.4.3 kif (tributary dead load.
4.7E (Comb.0.042)D + 0.525 QE for D and QE with the opposite sense I I For ASD Basic Combination 8 the load combination is: 0. 6.70)(1.75)(0.0.7)(0.06D when D and QE are in the same sense 1 (Eq 12.~ Basic allowable stress design §12. 8) 2006 IBC Struct ural/S eismic Design Manual.7QE for D and QE with the same sense and D(1.6DQd = 0..968) + 0. 5) ( 1.3 The governing load combinations for basic allowable stress design are Basic ASD Combinations 5.0.0 + (0.0..2 defines the seismic load effect E for use in load combinations as (Eq 12. as modified in § 12.7QE for D and QE with opposite sense For ASD Basic Combination 6 the load combination is: D + 0..032D + 0.6D + 0..0)+0 .525 QE for D and QEwith the same sense = D(J. + 0. and 8. Vo l.1 I [IJ Example 2 • Combinations o f Loads §2.6D + QE) = (Comb . ..75 L.44) and E = PQE . .O.O) + 0. .0)QE+ 0.7 (0.75 (L + Lr) = (Comb.4.41) I (Eq 12. I 33 .958D . These are used without the usual onethird stress increase.75L.75(0.7E) + 0.4 r .06D when D and QE have oppos ite sense For ASD Basic Combination 5 the load comb ination is: I I I I \ D +0.7E = D(I .4.7(0.3. 6) I I D(1...06)) + (0.43) = QE+ 0.2.2SosD =QE.75 L. .O.75)(0 . § 12. = J..2..
4 Example 2 • Combinations of Loads 1 =D(0.7QE.7QE For the wall boundary element compression capacity.O. Vol.0) QE+ 0. select 15/32 structural I sheeting (plywood) with 10d common nails having a minimum penetration of 11/2 inches 34 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des.7QE = 0.7(4000) = 280 If 10ft P This unit shear is used to determine the plywood thickness and nailing requirements from lBe Table 2306.042)D .7 as indicated.642D + O.06)D = (0. For example.gn ·Manual. TQE for D and QE in the same sense = (0.7(0.558D .§2.0. I .6 . and all load combinations reduce to For the design holddown tension capacity the governing load combination is 0.7(1. QE must be factored by 0.7QE ~ Required unit shear capacity q Base shear and the resulting element seismic forces QE determined under §12.0.0. the governing load combination would be 1. For allowable stress design.558D .8.1 are on a strength design basis. TQE for D and QE in the opposite sense For the determination of design shear capacity.4.7QE L = 0.042)D + 0.1. which gives allowable shear values for shorttime duration loads due to wind or earthquake. the design unit shear is q = 0.06) + 0.6 + 0.042D + 0. For design shear capacity the seismic load effect is QE = 4000 Ib For the governing load combination ofO. dead load and live load are not involved.7QE = 0.
2 SD sD and use ± E in the load combinations. Vol.41 and 12. the value of the holddown tension force T due to horizontal seismic forces is computed 0.25.558(300 pit) I0 ft(5 ft Thus : 8125. I I I I I I I Equations 12.4 ft(T) = 0 T = 1816. This is not considered a stress increase (although it has the same effect).4 into 2x members with 6inch spacing of fasteners at panel edges. I 35 .4 ft) = 0 I 1 15. allowable shear of 340 plf.33 x allowable" capacity values may be used to select the appropriate holddown element. 7(4000 Ib)(9 ft) + T(9.7 (4000 Ib)(9 ft) 2(12) C(9.88 Ib ft .o.1741b ft + 25. Here the 1.042(300 pit) lOft (5 ft Thu s: ~ ) + 0.33 value represents the allowed Load Duration factor for resisting seismic loads.I I Example 2 • Comb/nations of Loads § 2.42 for E create algebraic sign problems in the load combinations. Manufacturer's catalogs commonly list holddown sizes with their "1.4 ft C=O c = 4295 Ib compression The tension value is used for the selection of the premanufactured holddown elements.200 Ib ft + 9. the catalog "1.200 Ib ft9.39 Ib tension E" ~ ) .33 x allowable" capacity values. It would be preferable to use E = pQ£ + 0. Required holddown tensile capacity T Taking moments about point 0 at center of post at right side of wall with = oQ£ = 4000 Ib. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.4 ft) = 2(12) 0 Similarly the boundary element comp ression capacity is computed 1. Therefore.
[!. Note that by far the most accurate.0 I I I 36 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual.usgs. the website provides va lues of Ss and S). The parameters Sos and So. geocode.4 Des ign Spectral Response Acc el eraOons For a given building site.eqhazmaps.123 west). Given the longitude and latitude of the site. T = 0.121.4. geocode. R = 6.govr. From u\I'lI'\I'.J Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations and Sl s. Vol. I . and I = 1. !TI [!J Site coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration parameters SMS and SMl Design spectral response acceleration parameters Sos and SOl I I ~ Plot the general procedure response spectrum ~ Calculation of seismic response coefficient c. at short periods. easiest. California is located at Latitud e 38.com " it is determ ined that a building site near Sacramento.60 sec. The site longitude and latitude can be obtained from an internet site such as u\I~"H'. The soil profile is Site Class D.123 (or 121. Given: so il site class D.5. This example illustrates the general procedure for determin ing the design spectral response parameters Sos and SDl from the mapped values of Ss and 8).com " by simply inputting the address. D D I I I I I I I I Determin e the following. are used to calculate the design base shear in §12.8 and the Design Response Spectrum in § 11. and S) at Isecond period are given by the acceleration contour maps in §22.§11. the maximum conside red earthquake spectral response accelerations S. 123° North and Longitude . and most effic ient way to obtain the spectral design values is to use the USGS website iwww.
= 1.8eference· " §11.3) are also given on the CD ROM as follows SMS =FaS.404g 2006 lac Stru ctural/S eismic De sign Manu al. I 37 .41 T 11.203g ~ Site coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations §1 1..462g) =O.42 011 I I I I I I I F.58(0. USGS provides the values of 5s = 46.462g.S.NW of Sacramento.123°) and 121.4.41) (Eq 11. the site coefficients are as follows Fa = 1.203g) =0. = 1. Vol.58 TII.123° West (Longitu de =. Code.3 From the USGS for the given site class D. 5\ = O .121. California) of 38° North (Latit ude = 38. and Ss = 0.4 .99 The adjusted maximum conside red earthqu ake spectral response accelerations (based §11.203g. "" ..Design Spec tral Res p onse Accelerations §1 1.462g 5.4.99(O.42) S'/I =F.. = 1.3%g = O.1 [!J Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations For the given position (Near Sonora .730g (EqI1.2%g = 0.123').4. = 20.
(0.43) 2 = 3 SMS 2 =.27 /0.4 Sos (Eq 11 .27 / 0.55 sec 8 sec (F 22.49) O.49g 3 I I I 1 SOl = ~ S.4 (Eq 11.4.15) T. I I sec SOl / 50s 0.27g 'J ? (Eq 11. 4 D es ign Sp ectral Respon se Acc el erations ~ Design spectral response acceleration parameters S DS §1l. = = = Tt.5 I 1 For periods less than or equal to To.49 0. Vol. = 38 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manu al.46) I I I I I I I I I I I 0. the design spectra l response shall be given by So = 0.404g) =0.§ 1 1. I . the design spectral response acceleration Sa shall be given by Sa = (SOI) / T Where : To = 0.45) For periods greater than or equal to To and less than or equal to T" the design spectral response acceleration So shall be taken equal to Sos For periods greater than T:" and less than TL .4.44) General procedure response spectrum §1l .20 (SOl / Sos) = = (Eq 11.73g) =0.6 SDS r: T + 0.I{I = ~ (0.2 (0.
11 sec General Procedure Response Spectrum 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. . 1.135 Computation for Sa 0.49) 0.. I 39 .00 1.0 To =0.2 0.18 0.4 0.23 0..2 0.. . in g 's 0.80 1.8 o o 0.55 0.49 0..00 ScJg 0. .Des ign Spectral R esponse A cc ele ra ti ons §11 A Thus: T =Period 0.00 0.27 / 1.8 1.8 0.49 0.0 1.40 1.18 .11 0. 1 ..20 1...27 / 1.4 9g 0.5 S DS = 0.55 0.4 0.55 sec 0.27 / 1.4 (0.000. 0..27 /0..6 2.34 0.6 0..0 S.27 0. =0.27 / 0..19 0.6 T..60 2.27 /2.....27 / 1.2 0.4 1..3 0.49 0. .17 0. Vol.4 0. .2 1.
60) §12.0 and T= 0.6g C.5S 1 I (RIl) 40 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.0/1.01 (Eq 12. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .0) 0.4 Design Spectral Response Accelerations 1 I Calculation of seismic response coefficient Cs (Recall Soil Site Class D. = SDI I (RIlE) T (Eq 12.D75 But shall not be taken less than C..§11..0/1.82) 0. = = = SDS I (RIl) (Eq 12.83) = 0. = 0..1 The seismic response coefficient shall be determined by C. Vol.8.0) (0 . f = 1. need not exceed C.49 I (6. shall not be less than C.85) where SI 2: 0. Governs 1 I I The value of C.6) = 0. = 0.08 2 .27 I (6.
3. Sa. irregularities in load path or force tran sfer. which can account for these discontinuities. However.Weak Story Irregularity 5b. Note that § 12.7.2.32 defines vertical structural irregularities and assigns analysis and design procedures to each type and seismic design category. or 5b for Seismic Design Categories E and F. the code prescribes addi tiona l strengthening to correct the deficienc ies for structures in cert ain seismic design categories (SDCs) .Intro duction to Vertica l Irregul arities §12. Stiffness Soft Story Irregu larity Ib.': '. Discontinui ty in Lateral Strength . 2.forceresisting system. which are Types 4 and 5. Although designers may opt to use the dynamic analysis procedure and bypass checks for irregularity Types Ia. The first. and 3. I 41 . (Refer to Tab le 12. The vertical irregularities are Ia.2. for this reason the modal analysis procedure.8. dyn amic forcedistribution irreg ularities. Stiffness Extreme Soft Story Irregularity 2. §12. and 3. 2. Discontinu ity in Lateral Stength .3.6. and F possessing dynamic force distribut ion irregularities shall be analyzed using the dynamic analysis procedure (or moda l analysis procedure) prescribed in §12. 2. there is the possibility of having localized concentrat ions of excessive inelastic deformations due to the irregular load path or weak story. is necessary. The second.1) Structure Description 3. When vertical irregu larity Types 4 and 5 exist. The vert ical force distribution provided by § 12.Extreme Weak Story Irregularity Structures in Seismic Design Categories D.3 may be assumed to be adequate for structures lacking vertical irregulari ty Types Ia. In this case.1 prohibits structures with vertical irregularity Types Ib. 2006 lac Structural/S eismic D esign Manu al. limits are placed on the building height for all SDCs except S DC A.32 should still be checked for limitations and design requirements. These irregularities can be divided into two categories. stiffness and mass discontinuities may significantly affect the vertical distribution of forces and. In the case of vertical irregularity Type 5b. Weight (mass) irregularity 3.3. and 3. the reference sections listed in Tab le 12.2 . Inplane discontinuity in vertical latera lforceresisting element Sa. E. Ib. Vol. which are Types Ia.3. Regular structures are assumed to have a reasonably uniform distribution of inelastic behavior in elemen ts throughout the lateral. Ib. Ib. Vertical geometric irregu larity 4.2 1 Tab le 12.
... . _1. The lateral story stiffness is less than 70 percent of that ofthe story above.8.. 1. .3.11 have been applied and the corresponding floor level displacem ents Oe at the floors' centersofmass have been .• DD /· DD . A Seismic Design Category D fivestory concrete special momentresisting frame is shown below.'.2.. The codeprescribed lateral forces F. 2.\. 10' F .75 ..Vertical Irr egularity Type 1a a nd Type 1b .2 Ex ample 4 • Vertic al1rregula rlty Typ e 1 1 § 12.2 ~ &le4 . ' 0' F ' 2' '.::=::::::.3..' ! / 02" . .2 . . i: 0 " ./ .0B ~rrr7Y. 42 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.' / : I .*" : !" . .111 F...I. Ft + Fs 10' J ~ ['. . I .§12. Vol.. . "' : ! 0.r determined as shown below.45 I I ! .71 i " Actual shape [!J Determine if a Type 1a vertical irregularity from Table 12."'77'.'==::.'" 0'. /..' 0It_ 0. The lateral story stiffness is less than 80 percent of the average stiffness of the three stories above..02 Triangular shape . 2. from Equation 12.. DD .32 (StiffnessSoft Story Irregularity) exists in the first story Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [L] To determine if this is a Type 1a vertical irregularity (StiffnessSoft Story Irregularity) there are two tests I. 10' F.
00308 120 ~ = Ii.3. These storydrift ra tios will be used for the required comparisons because they better represent the changes in the slope of the mode shape when there are significant differences in interstory heights. = (1. h.7 1.0) 144 = 0. h...45 ..6. h.0.'= = h.. Generally . Recogni zing that the basic intent of this irregularity check is to determ ine if the lateralforce distribution will differ significantly from the pattern prescribed by §12. There are many structural configurations where the evaluat ion of story stiffness is complex and is often not an available output from computer programs.8.08) = 0.. Vol. or reverse their applicability to the story or stories above.Ii. Floor level displacements and corresponding storydrift ratios are directly available from computer programs. I 43 .Example 4 • Venicallrregularity Type 1 §12. • Ii.. 3.) In terms of the calculated storydrift ratios. The definition of soft story in the code compares values of the lateral stiffness of individual stories. .00308 h. . _ . = (1.• .• h. this type of irregularity can also be determined by comparing values of drift ratios due to the prescr ibed lateral forces. story drifts and the storydrift rat io's values are determi ned. the soft story occurs when one of the following cond itions exists.• . h.. h.I.1. Ii. To compare displacements rather than stiffness. Ii. . ) + (0. 0.00493 t.2.. . it is not practical to use stiffness properties unless these can be easily determ ined. (0.) + (0.. (Note: story displacements can be used if the story heights are nearly equal.2 1 If the stiffness of the story meets at least one of the two criteria above.)] . This deformat ion comparison may even be more effective than the stiffness comparison because the shape of the first mode shape is often closely approximated by the structure displacements due to the specified §12.08 .8. The following example shows this equivalent use of the displacement propert ies. 120 I 2006 IBC Struc tural/Seismic Design Manual.' exceeds I [(0. or I I I I I I I I I I s s. and a modal analysis (§12. which assumes a prescribed shape for the first dynamic mode of response. the storydrift ratios arc determi ned as ~= o . From the given displacements .3 force pattern .0" h. the structure is deemed to have a soft story. When 70 percent of ".0.9) is generally required by Table 12.71) = 0. When 80 percent of . it is necessary to use the reciprocal of the limitin g percentage ratios of 70 and 80 percent as they apply to story stiffness. The storydrift ratio is the story drift divided by the story height. 3 h. h.exceeds h.Ii.
Also note that structural irregularities of Types Ia. . .00394 > 0.condition lb.45) = 0.00250 120 0..2. NG Thus: StiffnessExtreme Soft Story exists . (Vertical Structural Irregularity.00493 > (0. Vol..00375) . or 2 in Table 12. Check for extreme soft story.00493) = 0.Ii" Iz. §12. 44 2006 IBC S tructural/Seism ic Design Manual. . thus soft story.00493) = 0.00308 . Note that 70 percent of first story drift is larger than second story drift. Type l b) Checking the 60percent requirement: 0..004312) . .. Ii" .00493) = 0. Checking the 70percent requirement: 0.0040) .003451 > 0.00308 + 0.00308 x 1.30 = 0.20 = 0. NG h. NG Al ternately: 0.00250) = 3 Checking the 70percent requirement: O.00308 + 0.00289 .60(0. k. .'. thus soft story.§12.00493 > (0.00345 > 0.00289 x 1..751. .) hi = 0.32 do not apply where no storydrift ratio under design lateral force is greater than 130 percent of the storydrift ratio of the next story above.00493 > (0.3.. Checking the 80percent requirement: 0.k.00347) ..002958 < 0..4 = 0. . Alternately: 0. condition Ia Alternately: 0.00289 . s.2 Ex ample 4 • Vertical Irreg ularity Type 1 1 __ = t:J. .00308 ..70 (0.80(0. o.70(1i. NG : . .00493 > (0. .3 = 0. I I I I I I I I I I .80(~) = 0. o. . Exception 1.70(0 . Ib.2. = (1.2. 3. . Alternately: 0. .00493) = 0. .00289 x 1.00289 ~(0.00308 x 1. Soft story exists. Soft story exists.
37 0.71 S tory Drift 0.00308 0.7x (S torydrift Ratio) 0.1 and 4.00 246 0.00185 0.00345 0 . unless a modal analysis is performed.02 in 1.00200 0. 1. I SoftStory Status ln Sto ry Displacement 2.45 1.02 in 1.0026 1 0. 37 0.37 0 .2 SoftStory Status Ib S tory Disp lacement 2.6x (Storydr ift Ratio) 0 .71 Storydrift ratio 0 .71 Storydrift Rat io 0.0030 8 0.2.00 158 0. Structures having SDC E or F and also having vertical irregularity Type Ib shall not be permitted.002 16 0.00225 0.08 0.00216 0.08 0.0024 6 0. In practice.00345 0.32 for Ib . of Storydrift Ratio of Next 3 Stories Soft Story Status lb No No No No Ye s Level 5 4 3 2 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.00 135 0. or storydrift ratio.2. extreme soft story. It is often convenient to create tables to facilitate this exerc ise. reference §12. In the exampl e above.30 0 .3. and is permitted.2 Recall from Table 12.00 225 0 . Table 4.00175 0.00250 0 .3.45 1.drift Ratio of Next 3 Stories Soft Story Status la No No No No Yes Leve l 5 4 3 2 T able 4.6 requires that story drifts be computed using the maximum inelastic response displac ements b.8. x rr I (Eq 12.r .00 394 0 .00250 0 .00493 0 . of S tory. Vol.30 0.00180 0. I 45 . which include the deflection amplification factor Cd s = Cdb.27 in 0 .27 in 0 . Commentary Section 12.00175 0. for the purpose of the story drift.8x (S torydrift Ratio ) 0.0026 1 0 .00289 Avg.002 16 0.001 85 0.Examp le 4 tI Vertical Irr egularity Type 1 §12.7x (S tory drift Ratio) 0.37 0.3. only the first story was checked for possible softstory vertical irregularity .00150 0.00 21 6 0.71 Story Drift 0. see Tables 4.75 1.00289 Avg . all stories must be checked.001 58 0.00296 0 . comparisons needed for softstory determination.815) However.75 1. This building is SOC 0 .00308 0 . the displacement bxe due to the design seismic forces can be used as in this example.00 30 8 0.00493 0 .
Note that it does apply if the roof is heavier than the floor below.§12. Vol.5 X = 1. This results in the floor weight distribution shown below.2 The fivestory special moment frame office building has a heavy utility equipment installation at Level 2.3~2.3.5(110 kips) = 165 kips Wz = 170 kips > 150 kips .. Weight irregularity exists. Ws = 90 k W. Checking the effective mass of Level 2 against the effective mass of Levels 1 and 3 At Levell 1. vertical irregularity is considered to exist when the effective mass of any story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story.2 Example 5 • Vertical Irregularity Type 2 .= 100k [!J .5(100 kips) = 150 kips W3 = 1. or mass. However.. I . = 110 k W. 46 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2. Determine if there is a Type 2 vertical weight (mass) irregularity . this requirement does not apply to the roof if the roof is lighter than the floor below.V~rtical lrregularity Type 2 §12..= 110k W.' a!nple 5 . Code Reference :Calci!li!tions and Discussion A weight. .5 X WI At Level 3 1.
• .1 1 I .8.2 . ommentary C As in the case of vertical irregularity Type la or Ib. this Type 2 irregularity also results in a primary mode shape that can be substantially different from the triangular shape and lateral load distribution given by § 12. Example 5 • Vertical Irreg ularity Type 2 § 12. Vol. Consequently.9. unless the irregular structure is not more than two stories and is Occupancy Category l or II (see Table 12.. the appropriate load distribution must be determined by the modal analysis procedure of § 12.3 . 1 1 I I I I I I I I I 2006 lac Structura l/Seismic De sign Manual.2 .3.61). I 47 ..
. In this example. 4@2S' 100' .. . Vertical geom etric irregulari ty exists.. / [!J Determine if a Type 3 vertical irregularity (vertical geometric irregularity) exists CalcuJ~tiC?ns and Discussion Code Reference A vertical geometric irregularity is considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the lateralforeeresisting system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in the adjacent story.33 48 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual..DDD "/ //"/ // / '/ / / . I. Level 5 4 3 2 DDD DDD DDD D..2 Ex ample 6 • Vertical Irregularity Type 3 ~ ample 6 Vertic al Irregularity Typ e 3 § 12.2 . = 1. and fifth stories..... The ratios of the two levels are Width of Level 2 = (lOa ft) Width of Le vel 3 (75 ft) 133 percent > 130 percent .'.3.§12.. Vol . Onestory penthou ses are not subject to this requirement. fourth.2 The lateralforeeresisting system of the fivestory specia l moment frame building shown below has a 25foot setback at the third. I .3...2. . / //.. the setback of Level 3 must be checked.
11. when the width decrease is in the lower story.J 49 . there could be an overturning momentloadtransfer discontinuity that would require a dynamic analysis per Table 12.. Vol. ) I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.61. the Type la softstory irregularity can be avoided by a proportional increase in the stiffness of the lower story.I I Example 6 • Vertical Irregularity Typ e 3 §12. Similarl y. if the width decrease is in the lower adjacent story (the unusu al situation).3.8. However.2 . Note that if the frame elements in the bay between lines 4 and 5 were not included as part of the designated lateralforceresisting system. Commentary The more than l3 0percent change in width of the lateralforceresisting system between adjacent stories could result in a primary mode shape that is substantially different from the shape assumed for proper applications of Equation 12. If the change is a decrease in width of the upper adjacent story (the usual situation). the vertical geometric irregularity would not exist. the mode shape difference can be mitigated by designing for an increased stiffness in the story with a reduced width.2 .
I .§12.3. rrrT 3@25'=75' Level IE~ < 5 12' 4 12' 'DO' e: 25' 50' 3 12' 2 12' . Inplane discontinuity exists .0 00 ' L Shear wa ll Shear wall 1 12' // '/ / .2. the left side of the upper shear wall (between lines A and B) is offset 50 feet from the left side of the lower shea r wall (between lines C and D). : . This 50foot offset is greater than the 25foot length of the offset wall clements . 50 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. mple 7 Vertical Irregularity Typ e 4 § 12. Vol . The shear wall between lines A and B has an inplane offset from the shear wall between lines C and D.2 A concrete building has the building frame system shown below. / // '/ / / "/ [!J Determine if there is a Type 4 vertical irregularity (inplane discontinuity) in the verticallateralforceresisting element Code Reference Calculations and Discussion A Type 4 vertical irregularity exists when there is an inplane offset of the lateralforceresisting elements greater than the length of those elements . 3.2. In this examp le.2 Ex amp le 7 11 Vertic al Irre g u lar i ty Type 4 .Ex.
3.3.3. I 51 . s: '" I I 1 I I I I I 2006 IBC Stru ctlirallSuismic D esign Manual.3. It should be noted that any inplane offset. there is also a shear transfer discontinuity that requires application of § 12. In this example. can result in an overturning momentloadtransfer discontinuity that requires the application of §12.3.3.3.3.3.2 C.ommentary The intent of this irregularity check is to provide correction offorce transfer or loadpath deficiencies. even those less than or equal to the length or bay width of the resisting element.3.3. and the collector element between lines Band C at Level 2 is subject to the provisions of § 12. When the offset exceeds the length of the resisting element.Examp le 7 • Vertical Irregularity Type 4 §12. Vol.2. the columns under wall AB are subject to the prov isions of § 12.4.4 for the strength of collector elements along the offset.
8(90) = 72 kips :. V. The story strength is the total strength of all seismicforceresisting elements shari ng the story shear for the direction under consideration.3. Then .§12.. I . Weak story condition exists.2 A concrete bearin gwall building has the typical transve rse shearwall configuration sho wn be low. 2 3 4 5 20 kips 30 15 80 15 30 kips 40 10 120 10 [!J Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity (discontinuity in capacity.2.2. Using the smaller values of VII and VII/ given for each pier. the story strengths are First story strength = 20 + 30 + 10 = 60 kips Second story strength = 80 + 10 = 90 kips Check if firststory strength is less than 80 percent of that of the second story. Vol." Note that VII/ is not defined in ACI or Chapter 19.2 Exa mple 8 • Ve rtIc al Irregu l ar ity Type 5a IE. ampleB Verfic a l l r r eg ularity Type 5a §12. and Vm is defined herein as the shear corresponding to the development of the "nominal flexure strength also calculated in accordance with Chapter 19. All walls in this direction are identical. 52 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. and the individu al piers have the shear contribution given below. is the nominal shear strength calcu lated in accordance with Chapter 19.3.weakstory) condition exists Code Reference Calculations and Discussion A Type Sa weakstory discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80 percent of that in the story above. 60 kips < 0. Level J PIER 1 \In V".
60 kips > 58.3. the column shear resistance contribution should be the shear corresponding to the development of the adjoining beam yield hinges and the column base connection capacity.5 kips :. Elements subject to this check are the shearwall piers (where the shear contribution is the lower of either the shear at development of the flexural strength . I 53 . Therefore the lower story is not an extreme soft story.3.3 . Vol. Frame columns with weak columnstrong beam condit ions have a shear contribution equal to that developed when the top and bottom of the column are at flexural capacity. . or the shear strength). A weakstory condition is absolutely prohibited in SDC E and F. the column shear contribution shall not exceed the column shear capacity. Irregularity Type 5b. bracing members and their connections. In any case.Example 8 • VerlicallrregularJty Type Sa §12.1) for structures more than two stories or 30 feet in height if the "weak story" has a calculated strength ofless than 80 percent of the story above . An extreme weak story is prohibited (under §12. Commentary This irregularity check is to detect any concentration of inelastic behavior in one supporting story that can lead to the loss of vertical load capacity.2.5 kips . I I I I I I 2006 IBC Slructural/Seismic Design Manual.65(90 kips) = 58. and frame columns.2 Check if firststory strength is less than 65 percent of that of the second story (Irregularity Type 5b). Where there is a strong columnweak beam condition. 60 kips < 0.
.3.1 Example 9 II Vertical Irregularity Type 5a Example 9 Verticallrregulaljty Type Sa § 12. ~ 12' 3 . .1 A fivestory building has a steel special momentresisting frame (SMRF).2PD + 0. [!J [!J Determine firststory strength Determine second story strength ~ Determine if weakstory exists at first story Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 5 weakstory discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80 percent of that of the story above (where it is less than 65 percent.3. // "/ / / / // . To determine if a weak story exists in the first story. 12" 2 12' 1 14' . assume for the purposes of illustration only. The story strength is consi dered to be the total strength of all seismicforeeresisting elements that share the story shea r for the directi on under consideration. In this example. A o Beams at Levels I and 2: Mllb = ZF. Level 5 12' 4 ..3. ' .3.5PL Column base connections at grade (based on gradebeam strength): Jvf"GB = 100 kipft In addition." = 250 kipft Columns on lines Band C at both levels: M" c = 250 kipft at axial loading of 1. that the columns have been designed such that a strong beamweak column condi tion is permitted. Vol.§12.... . an extreme weak story exists) . I ./ /// Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity (discontinuity in capac ityweak story) cond ition exists in the first story.. The frame consists ofW24 beams and W14 columns with the following member strength properties. the sums of the column shears in the first and second storieswhen the member moment capacities are developed by lateral loadingmust be determined and compared. it is assumed that the beam moments at a beamcolumn joint are 54 2006 IBC Stru ctur al/Se ismic Des ig n Manual...
250(+)250 200" 2Mc = 400 < 2Jvfb = 500 :. I .. Next. /2 =125 kipft 125 '' L) I 250 Clear height = 14 ft ..3.5 kips 55 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol.. 200 FOR MOMENT 125~ a M...= 187k' . Given below are the calculations for first and second stories.. Strong columnweak beam condition exists. ... = 250 .3..1 distributed equally to the sections of the columns directly above and below the joint. FOR MOMENT a 200... Me = 200 kipft 200(+) 200 200'' 200 r ' Clear height = 14 ft .. the shear in each column must be determined.) "iPS 12 • o FOR SHEAR Mf=100kip·ft Checking columns Band C for strong columnweak beam considerations 200 .2 ft = 12 ft v 125+100 . the shear in each column must be determined... .... ~) 250 : .0 kips 12 M 4 First story strength = VA + VB + VD = 2(18. Next.Example 9 • Vertical Irregularity Type Sa §12.J V VB= Vc= 200 + 100 = 25.0) G =100 klpft FOR SHEAR = 87. [!J Determine first story strength Columns A and D must be checked for strong columnweak beam considerations 200 2Mc = 400 > M. . Note moment capacity of column governs over v moment capacity of beam to determine shear. .2 ft = 12 ft 100 . Strong beamweak column condition exists..75) + 2(25. Note moment capacity of beam (25012) governs over moment capacity of column (200) to determine shear v ...
._ IpS 10 J 125 Mb I 2= 125 kipft v • 125" J Check ing columns B and C for strong columnweak beam con siderations 2Mc = 400 < 2Mb = 500 : ..0) + 2(40. Vol . """" 200 v Mb I 2= 125 kipft '' 125 Clear height = 12 ft . Clear height = 12 ft . Strong beamweak column con dition exists ..1 Example 9 • Ver tical Irregu larity Type 5a ~ Determine second story strength Columns A and D mu st be checked for st rong columnw eak beam at Level 2 FOR MOMEN T :. FOR MOMENT v Me = 200 kipft 200 . )200 VB = Vc = 200 + 200 = 40.0 kips 56 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.. 0 k' .0 kips 10 v Me =200 klpft 200 J1"""' FOR SHEAR • 200 '" Second story strength = VI + VB + Vc+ VD + 2(25...2 ft = IO ft 10' 200( + 200 .3. strong columnweak beam condition exis ts.0) = 130."  " D tr  125 + 125 ?5.......§12. I ..3..2 ft = 10ft 125 rFOR SHEAR V.
80(130) = 104 (T 12. 3. I .5 kips Second story strength = 130.32.0 kips I I 87. I I \ I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Item 5a) :. I 57 .3 .5 < 0.Ex ampl e 9 ~ Vertical Ir regulari ty Type Sa §12 . Vol. Weak story condition in first story exists. 1 ~ Determine if weak story exist s at first story First story strength = 87.
Vol. Types Ia.2 Reentrant Comer Irregularity. Excessive openings in a diaphragm can result in a flexible diaphragm response along with force concentrations and load path deficienci es at the boundari es of the openings. 58 2006 IBC Stru ctural/S eism ic Des ign Manu al. 3. Elements must be provided to transfer these forces into the diaphragms. Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity.Irregularity. Outofplane Offsets Irregularity. 4.3.2. and the eccentr icity between the centers of mass and rigidity will be increased along with the corresponding torsions. 5. I I I I I I I I I . 3.§ 12.1 In tr oduction 10 Ho r/zonla /lrregularitles Introduction to Horizontal Irregularities 1 §12. The opening and closing deformation response or flapping action of the projecting legs of the building plan adjace nt to reentrant comers can result in concentrated forces at the comer point. Ib.1 Horizontal structura l irregularities are identified in Table 12.8. As a consequence.to be considered when diaphragms are not flexib le as determined in §12. Type 5. The outofplane offset irregularity represents the irregular load path category. 1 ] I These irregularities can be categorized as being either special response condition s or cases of irregular load path.1. Tor sional Irregularity .3. Further analysis of deformation and load behavior may be necessary.3. and 5 are special response conditions: Type 1a and 1b.2.1. the equivalent stiffness of the side having maximum deformation will be reduced.8.3. § I2.4. In this case. I I Type 2. Elements must be provided to transfer the forces into the diaphragm and the structural system. 3.2 Extreme Torsional Irregularity . lb . there is the potential for an unbalance in the inelastic deformation demands at the two extreme sides ofa story.to be considered when diaphragms are not flexible as determined in §12. Nonparallel Systems .4. An amplification factor Ax is to be applied to the accidental torsion M'a to represent the effects of this unbalanced stiffness. Type 3.31. I to 12. When the ratio of maximum story drift to average story drift exceeds the given limit. shears and overturning moments must be transferred from the level above the offset to the level below the offset. There are five types of horizontal irregularities: la. 2. 2. The response deform ations and load patterns on a system with nonparallel lateralforceresisting elements can have significant differences from those of a regular system. Type 4. and there is a horizontal offset in the load path for the shears.
it has X the follow ing elastic displacements O l! at Levels I and 2..1 OR.6 for story drift determination 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Man ual. I 59 . l = 1.2 .:!. includ ing accidental tors ion effects. Vol.2 3 2 [}J Determine if a Type 1a or Type 1b torsional irregularity exists at the second story If it does: I I I ~ Compute the torsional amplification factor Ax for Level 2 C€l'cu'ations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 1a torsional irregu larity is con sidered to exist whe n the maxi mum story drift. A threestory special momentresisting frame building has rigid floor diaphragms .2.: ! = 1.20 in OR.2 OR.00 in L.Example 10 a Horizontal Irregularity Type 1a and Type 1b §12.3. at one end of the structure transverse to an axis is more than 1. OL.20 in Level > . including the effects of acc idental torsion.1 ri3fnple 1 oui on a/Irregulari ty Type 1a a nd ype'lb § 12.2 times the average of the story drifts of the two ends of the structure.90 in O = 1. see § 12. = 1.7 OR .8.3. Unde r codeprescribed seismic forces.
00 = 0. In 2 Checking 1.R = 1.45 :.L. 0. thus.§12.".1. Horizon'al Irreg ula rit y Type 1a an d Typ e 1b ITI Determine if a Type 1a torsional irregularity exists at the second story Referri ng to the above figure showing the displacements bJe due to the prescribed lateral forces. = . 0. .7 = 1.55 . lrregu Ianty exists .J. "!!!!.90 . 0_ . Vol.55 > 1. this irregularity check is defined in terms of story drift D.20 + 0.. I . .bxd at ends R (right) and L (left) of the structu re.31 I I I where I Determining story drifts at Level 2 I D.1. Tors ional irregularity exis ts .70 = I . .20 .20 = 0.70 in . """ = 0.2 criteria D.45 I I I I I I I I 60 2006 IBC S tructural/Seismic D esign Manual.Type Ia.2 D. Check for extreme torsional irregulari ty D.T ype Ib.2 U al'g A = 0. Torsional irregularity exists at Leve l x when T 12.2.x = (bx .2 = 1.1 Example 10 .70 = 0 45 . . a.. extreme torsion D.20 in D.
2 ) a b avg = bL.. it is reasoned that the equivalent static force method is sufficiently accurate to detect torsional irregu larity and evaluate the Ax factor. the values of I'l.90 in.. It is important to recognize that torsionai irregularity is defined in terms of story drift I'l.90 )2= 0. ' = ( (jm tI.r by Equation 12. if the dynam ic analysis pro cedure were to be used.r should be evaluated for this load condition.260 ' 8 ) (!BC Eq 1644) bm .814 is. The interpretation of this for the case of the story drift and displacements to be used for the average values I'l.1 ~ Compute amplification factor Ax for Leve l 2 §12 .Xare computed for the same accidental centero fmass displacement that causes the maximum displacement bmax. Table 12. Note Ax shall not be less than 1.Example 10 . Horizontal Irr egularity Type 1a and Type 1b §12.m and I'l.60) :.2(1.4.8. 2 4 ' .60 in 2 A .0.2 factor. is computed for Level 2. in terms of displacements bxc • There can be instances where the storydrift values indicate torsional irregul arity and where the related displacement values produce an Ax value less than 1... 2006 I I I I I I lac Stru ctural/Se ismic D esign Manu al. in view of the complexity of this determination and the judgmental nature of the 1. A. However.' 1.98 < 1. Note that Ax is a function of the displacements as opposed to/versus the drift. the accidental torsional moment M'n must be increased by an amplification factor Ax ." while the evaluatio n of A.b". which prohibits such structures for SOC E or F. The most severe condition is when both bR. I 61 ..g would have to be found for each a. use Ax = 1. = ( 1.31 triggers a number of special design requirem ents for torsionally irregular struc tures.. and then scaled to the codeprescribed base shear. Vol.0. there is the pro vision that the more severe loading shall be considered. if irregularity Type Ib (Extreme Tors ional Irregularity) is present.0 1.8.3. For the condition shown in this example where b RX = bma..3. The displacement and storydrift values should be obtained by the equivalent lateralforce method with the codeprescribed lateral forces. § 12.n the centersofmass at all levels should be displaced by the accidental eccentricity to the right side R. This must be done for each level. In this example. (b R. and each level may have a different Ax value.X and bL.3 1 When torsional irregularity exists at a Level x.. Theoret ically.g and bm·g is as follows . Commentary In §12. This result is not the intent of the provision.2.90 = 1.' dynamic mode. then combined by the appropriate SRSS or CQC procedures. 2 = 1. and both bR.4.. In fact.0. and the value of Ax used to determine acci dental torsion should not be less than 1.3.X and bL. = 1.1 is triggered.30 + 1.m.0 ..3.] + b R.
and DR. Horizontal Irregularity Typ e 1a and Typ e 1b J If the dynamic analys is procedure is either elected or required.g • m I I I I I I I I I I I 62 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. and the individual modal results must be properly combined to determ ine the total response value for D . For example. the static force procedure can resul t in a negative displacement on one side and a positive on the other. For cases oflarge eccentricity and low torsional rigidity. the algebraic average value Dmg should be found for each ' mode. The value of D 'g in Equation 12.3 requires the use of a threedimensional model if there are any irregularities.40) + 1.3 .80 in.§12.8.7.2.80 = l AO = 0.70 in 2 2 When dy namic analysis is used. 1 = (.14 should be calculated u m as the algebraic average . I .DAD in. Vol.1 Example 10 . then § 12.3 = 1. this occurs if D = .
2. More than 15 percent. For the sides on line I .2. has reentrant comer dime nsions as shown. I 63 . G I 0) 4 @l2S= 100' I ® I 00~ o N 1 < @) 08 c<) [!J Determine if there is a Type 2 reentrant corner irregularity Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 2 reentrant comer irregularity exists when the plan configuration of a structure and its lateral foreeresisti ng system contain reentrant corners. . 1 Example 11 orizontallrregularity T}'J e 2 §12.Exam ple 11 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 2 §12. the proj ection beyond the reentrant comer is 100 ft .3. Vol .. . the projection is 60 ft . The plan configuration of this building. 100 For the sides on line E.40 ft = 20 ft 2006 IB C Structura l/Se is mic p esign Manual.3. where both projections of the structure beyond a reentran t comer are greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension of the structure in the direction considered. and its lateralforceresisting system.75ft = 25 ft This is 25 or 25 percent of the 100ft plan dimension . 1 The plan configuration of a tenstory special moment frame building is as shown below.
Reentrant comer irregularity exists. I I I I 64 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manu al.§1 2.2.3 percent of the 60ft plan dimension . E. . More than 15 percent. .3. Vol.3.3. and F. there is a reentrant comer irregularity. Since both projections exceed 15 percent .4 for SDC D.1 Exam p le 11 • Ho riz ontal Irregularity Typ e 2 This is 20 or 33. Commentary Whenever the Type 2 reentrant comer irregularity exists. ~ . see the diaphragm design requirements of §12. J .
or changes in effect ive diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 percen t from one story to the next. The floor plan of the second floor of the building is shown below. ?~ ®®b CD 125' 75' ~ ~ r " IE 1 ? ®® Second floor plan [!J Determine if a Type 3 diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists at the second floor level Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 3 diaphragm discontinu ity irregularity exists when diaphragms have abrupt discontinuities or va riations in stiffness.5(1 0.1 A fivestory con crete building has a bearin g wall system located around the perimeter of the buil ding. The first check is for gross area Gro ss enclosed area of the diaphragm is 80 ft x 125 ft Area of op ening is 40 ft x 75ft = 3000 sq ft 50 percent of gro ss area = 0. The symmetrically placed op en area in the diaphragm is for an atrium .2 . and has dimensions of 40 feet by 75 feet. All diaphragms above the second floor are wi thout significant openings.2. Lateral forces are resisted by the bearing walls acting as shear wa lls.000) = 5000 sq ft 3000 < 5000 sq ft " No diaphragm discontinuity irre gularity exists. including cutout or open are as comprising more than 50 percent of the gross enclosed area of the diaphragm.Ex ampl e 12 IZ Horizon tal Irregular i ty Typ e 3 §12.8V»ple 12 Horizonfal lrregularity ype 3 §12. I = 10. Vol. 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismIc Design Manual.3.000 sq ft 65 .1 • a.3.
. I I w = 1 kif ... ~" '" .... ~ Den ected shape If L12 > 1.  .smic D esign Manu al. 3. due to a common distri buted load IV such as I kif.. 66 200 6 IBC St ructural/S e. 2. 1 Exampl e 12 • Horizonrallrreg u/arit y Type 3 The second check is for stiffness.. } ~ . Find the simple beam mid span deflec tions L12 and L1J for the diaphragm s at Levels 2 and 3..... I I t:. The sti ffuess of the second floor diaphragm with its opening mu st be compared with the stiffness of the solid diaphragm at the third floor.5L1J. Vol. respectively. This comparison can be performed as follows .... a diaphragm discontinu ity irregularity exists for the structure.§ 12.. If the change in stiffness exceeds 50 percent.. I ..~ .. > ~ . there is diaphragm discontinuity.. Deflected sha pe I w =1 kif t:. ...
shown below.1 .'" in III o @ '" Ground (first) floor plan [!J Determine it there is a Type 4 outatplane offset irregularity between the first and second stories Calculations and Discussion Code Reference An outofplane offset plan irregularity exists when there are discontinuities in a lateralforce path. 2006 IBC Structura l/S eis mic Desig n Manual.. Eleva tion Line E ® I 0) I 4 @25' o l 00' @ I<E < 25' 1 ~ 0 " 2 0).Example 13 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 4 §12.3. I 67 . 10' 10' Typical floor plan 10' 10' o I . This constitutes an outofplane offset irregularity.1 A fourstory building has a concrete shear wall lateralforceresisting system in a bui lding frame system configuration.1 apply to the design. an Ie 13 rizontallrregularity TjIj e4 §12. For example: outofplane offsets of vertical lateral. Vo l..2. The plan configuration of the shear walls is.. and the referenced sections in Tab le 12.3.2. The first story shear wall on line 0 has a 25foot outofplane offset to the shear wall on line E at the second story and above . : .2. Offset irregu larity exists.3.forceresisting elements such as shear walls .
§12.. 68 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.5.4. ~ M Ty pical floor plan [!J Determine if a Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity exists Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity is considered to exist when the vertic al lateralforceresisting elements are not parallel to or symmetric about the major orthogonal axes ofthe build ing's lateralforeeresisting system. A 3dimens ional dynamic analysis is recommended . I . A.3.2. :. The vertical lateralforeeresisting frame elements located on line F are not parallel to the major orthogonal axes of the building (i. 00.31 applies to the design.e. see §12.3.in ~ N ~ @. and F. Vol.3.1 Exa mple 14 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 5 Examp le 14 H oriz on ta l Irregularity Type 5 §12.1 A tenstory building has the floor plan shown below at all levels.61. and Table 12.2. A nonparallel system irregularity exists.73. Special momentresisting frames are located on the perimeter of the building on lines 1. lines 4 and A). Therefore a nonparallel system irregularity exists. and the referenced section in Table 12.§12.
0.3.0 when either of the conditions listed below is met. Desig n of members or connections where the load combi nat ions with overstrength of §12.101 (note that this does not apply to forces transferred through a diaphragm. 12. (Note that the load combinations that include the redundancy factor are not used for Seismic Design Catego ry A. the cond itions need not be met. Diaphragm loads determined using Eq. 2000 and 2003 1BC. 8.3. I I I I \ I I 2006 IBC Stru ctural/S eismic D esign Man ual . In all other conditions. The factor may be taken as 1. as described below) .4 1 The calculation of the redundancy factor p has changed considerably between earlier codes (1997 UBC. 6.) 2. ASCE/SEI 702) and the ASC E/SEI 705 .4. Th e calculation is in some ways simpler. ASCE/SEI 705 permits the redundancy factor to be taken as 1.rample 15 Redunda ncy Factor p §12. Design of nonbuilding structures that are not similar to buildings.Example 15 • Reliability/Redun dancy Coefficient p § 12. Design of nonstructural components. §12.3.4. p is taken as 1.3. for the top level or levels of taller structures.3. Structures with damping systems designed in accordance wi th 18.0 in the following circ umstances (§12. There is no longer a calcu lated p factor between the minimum and maximum value s.2 ident ifies two other conditions in which p may be taken as 1. splices and their connections for which the load combinations with overstrength factor of §12.2 are used. 3. Struc tures assig ned to Seismic Design Category B or C. although it nevertheless requir es some effort for conditions that do not compl y with prescriptive requirements (unless the full penalty is taken. Vol. and the higher p factor may apply as otherwise required).2 are required for des ign. 4.0.4 ·Ei. I 69 . Drift calculation and Pdelta effects. 7. 5. Desig n of collector elements.3.4. Note that the criteria for these condi tions need only be met at floor levels in which more than 35percent of the base shea r is being resisted. 1): I. such as due to an outofplane offs et in the seismic load resisting system.4. Additionally.
For other systems. Wall E Stiffness K.0.§12. such as seismically isolated structures. 3.33) will not result in an increase of more than 33percent reduction in story shear strength or in an extreme torsional irregularity (as defined in Table 12. Loss of moment resistance at the beamtocolumn connections at both ends of a single beam (moment frames). Figure 151 70 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Summary of Table 12.2(a) Configurations in which the removal of one element (as described below in the summary of Table 12. I . Wall F Stiffness Kf WaliA Stiffness Ko Walle Stiffness x.4. 2. Loss of moment resistance at the base connections of any single cantilever column (cantilever column systems). Condition II 12. the structure shown in Figure 15.1 will be analyzed. WailS Stiffness Kn WaliD Stiffness K! Wall G Stiffness Kg Wall H Stiffness x. 5.3. For shear wall systems the number of bays is calculated as the length of shear wall divided by the story height (two times the length of shear wall divided by the story height for lightframed construction). Removal of a shear wall or wall pier with a heighttolength ratio greater than 1. The removal of a brace (braced frames).2(b) Configurations with no plan irregularities at any level and with sufficient perimeter braced frames.33 Removal of one element is defined as: 1.3.0 (shear wall systems). allowing p to be taken as 1.4.4 Example 15 II Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p Condition I 12. moment frames.3. EXAMPLE To illustrate the application of the method for establishing the redundancy factor. Sufficient perimeter bracing is defined as at least two bays of seismic forceresisting perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal direction. no prescriptive requirements are given. 4. Vol .31). or shearwalls.
2(b) is less than two. a separate check would need to be performed for several (or even all) of the walls. Vol. I 71 . §12. The effect on story shear strength can be considered in at least two ways.5percent of the base shear. I ) I I I I I 2006 IBC Strucrural/S eismic Design Manual. Using this method.0. Such an analysis of the structure with all four bays present shows that the seismic forces in each line of resistance (including the effects of accidental torsion) are 52.3. and the reduced force level causing yielding of that wall is 1/1. the removal of one wall covers the cases of the remova l of each of the other walls.4 Given information: SDCD One story.3.0 or 1.0.6. the number of bays as defined by §12.4. this distribution is shown in Figure 15. For purposes of the required strength of the walls. the design seismic forces change to 42percent resisted on the weaker line and on the stronger line. and thus the configuration would not qualify for a p factor of 1. If the stiffness of one line of resistance is reduced by half. The configuration will therefore be analyzed using the method outlined in §12. R" The story height is 18 feet.4.4.4.4.5%. Because there are two bays of shear wall on each of the perimeter lines of resistance and the building is completely regular. Thus the increase in the force on the most heavily loaded bay is 42%/26.43 to determine the horizontal seismic load effect. with each bay on each line resisting 26.25% = 1.5%. The most conventional way to calculate the modified story shear strength is based on the modified elastic distribution of forces and the capacity of the most heavily stressed wall. None of the conditions listed in §12.3.5% = 37. this distribution is shown in Figure 15.25percent.2(a). name ly.2 must be used to determine whether is 1. the effect on story drift is assessed to be a decrease in capacity of 100% . However. the redundancy factor must be determined and used in Equation 12. Because of the symmetry of the system.3.Example 15 " Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p §12 . In a more typical system.1 apply. the length of each shearwall bay is less than the story height. and thus §12.2(b) might allow a factor of 1.2(b).2(a).3. In this example Wall C will be removed.3. The length of each shear wall is 15 feet. concrete shearwall building All walls have the same nominal shear strength . then. and thus the configuration does not automatically qualify for a redundancy factor of 1. by removing a wall and assessing the effect on story shear strength and on building torsion .62.0.3.6 = 62.
5% 6.75% t 2. R. This is the method envisioned by the committee that authored the redundancy provision. ~ R. R.5% R. (b) 72 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. = 50/ Rtf a n.3(a). R.§12.25% 31% t 6. Vol.75% 1 1 2. If one wall is removed. the orthogonal walls must be checked for the forces resulting from building torsion. R. A more direct method of establishing story shear capacity is to utilize a plastic mechanism analysis. ~j n. Ru = 32.5% 6. where R n denotes the capacity of the wall..5% ~ 42 % (a) Figure 152 (b) While this is an acceptable method of demonstrating compliance with the conditions justifying a factor p of 1.5% R. and it is more consistent with the principles of seismic design (i.0. = 32. considering strength and limit states. which in this case is substantial.5% t R. ~ Ru = 32. the story shear capacity before removal of a wall is the sum of the capacities of the 4 walls resisting the seismic force in the direction under consideration (provided that the orthogonal walls have sufficient strength to resist the torsion. ~ $ ~ n.5% R.5% t 6. Ru = 32.3. Thus the reduction in capacity is only 25percent. e. again. This interpretation of the story shear capacity has been endorsed by the SEAOC Seismology Committee. this method is not required. I . the story shear capacity is the sum of the capacities of the 3 remaining walls resisting the seismic force in the direction under consideration. t R u = 5% ~ R. This is shown in Figure l5.5% 2. In this method of analysis. ~ $ R.4 Example 15 • Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p 2.e.5% 23.> 5% R. The resulting building torsional forces must be resisted by the frames in the orthogonal direction. which in this case is only the accidental torsion).3(b). rather than elastic design). This is shown in Figure 15. (a) Figure 153 e. = 5% R.5% ~ $ 26.25% 31% 1 $ 23.5% ~ 26.
4 I 1 To qualify for a factor of 1. Thus. I 73 .3.1Kn• The additional deflection at each perimeter line due to rotation is 0.31. ) 2006 IBC Strucr ural/S eismic D esign Ma nual.3. the configuration qualifies for a p factor of 1.325RnlKn• This is less than the 40percent maximum that is allowed by Table 12. For the example..Examp le 15 • Reliab ility/Re dundancy Coefficient p §12. using the plastic mechanism analysis. the deflection in the direction ofloa ding is R.0. Vol. the system with one wall removed must also be checked for an extreme torsional irregularity as defined in Table 12.0.1 before an extreme torsional irregularity is deemed to exist.
l:. = 20 ft Deflection at level x = I due to seismic base shear V (without Pdelta effects) Ol e = 0.5 1 = 1. I . xample 16 P. [!J Initial design story drift l:!. Seismic Use Group I Seismic Design Category D R =8 Cc/ = 5. 'important secondary moments and addi tional story drifts can be developed in the lateralforceresisting system by Pdelta effec ts.d Ita ERects §12.§12. thereby causing additional secondary column and girder moments.7 Ex ample 16 • Pdelta Effec ts .8.8. in first story ~ Pdelta criteria for the building ~ Check the first story for Pdelta requirements ~ Final design story drift and story shear in first story ~ Check for story drift compliance in first story 74 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual.0 kips.D l:.7 In highrise building design. The following informa tion is given.L VI = = = W = 8643 kips 3850 kips / / " " " " T hi = 20' " V = 0.00311 1 = 0. Vol. ~= 0.0 At the first story .80 h. A ISstory building has a steel specia l moment frame (SMF). Pdelta effects are the result of the axial load P in a column being mov ed laterally by horizontal displacements. The purpose of this example is to illustrate the procedure that must be used to check the overall stabili ty of the frame system for such effects.72 in Determ ine the following.042W = 363.
~ Pdelta criteria for the building §12 .8.72) = 3.7 J Pdelta effects must be considered whenever the ratio of secondary momen ts to primary moments exceeds 10 percent. This ratio is defined as stability coefficient 6 6= where (Eq 12. !:J.I0 200 6 IBC Structural/S eismic D esign Manual. = 3.B.< = = height of story x deflection ampl ification factor in Table 12.5(0. I 75 . v.Calculations and Discussion Code Reference OJ Initial desig n story drift !:J. = seismic shear force in story x lis.15) Th is value is termed initial because it may need to be increased by the incremental factor Gd = 1.5) C: Pdelta effects must be considered when 6> o.96 (Eq 12.del ta Effects §12 . Vol.8.8. the preliminary desig n story drift is §12 . = initial design story drift in story x occurring simultaneously with CdT!.0 is required) P.6 where b) = Cdb'r = 5.8.0/(16) as determined in Part []] of this example. in first story At story x = I.7 .21 (given = 5.0 Now: !:J.96 in I 1.I6) I I I I I I 6 = = stability coefficient for story x total design vertica l load on all colum ns in story x (Note: no factor above 1.Example 16 • P. .
817) I I I = 0.\15)(363.7 Check Pde lta requi rements for the first story 1 Section 12. = ?. Final design story drift and story shear in first story §12.96) = 0.k.0) = 404.0)(20 ft)(l2)(5 .103 The final design story drift in the first story is I'J. Check for 8 :'0 8max using the given 8 lII ax ~= 0.415 in The final design story shear is VI = adVI = (1. Pdelta effects must be considered. 1136 0. 103 > 0.8.L and snow load S above the first story.5) : .1136 .I'J.7 When 8 > 0.8. These loads are unfactored for determination of Pdelta effects.103 < 0.5 = ~Cd 0.7 requires that the total vertical load P l at the first story be considered the total dead J:.D plus floor live J:. 8 .5) = 0.. I . = (1.\15)(3. 7 Ex ample 16 • P·delta Effects I §12. Vol. = (8643 + 3850)(3. PI = 8643 + 3850 = 12. o.\15 10. 1 =adI'J.h"C d (363.10.493 kips For story x = I.7 kips I I I I I I I I I 76 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic Design Manual.§ 12 .80 (Eq 12.80)(5 .. I I J Using S = 0 for the building site.5 (0.96) = 4.8. the initial design story drift and design story shear must be augmented by the incremental factor ad related to Pdeita effects ad= ~= 18 \.8.100 V.0 = 1.
3. This is equivalent to an added latera l load equal to (a dI) V applied to each story level having 8 > 0. 8. etc.7 the Pdelta effects on the design story drift and the design story shear are evaluated by the follow ing procedure: I. thus . overturning moments and element actions. I I 2. compute the corresponding incremental factor relating to P delta effects ad = 1/( I . in a multistory building having 8 > 0.8) = ad.k. .Example 16 • Pdelta Effects §12. which would lead to yet another increment. The provisions in §§ 12.7 for the evaluation of the final story drifts state that the final story drift shall be ad times the initial drift IJ.0110'" = 0.1.8.80 in /:.. the initial story shears in these stories are increased by the ad factor. ~ = ad IJ.7 T 12. . drifts in the stories below would be inc reased not only by their own ad but by the added lateral load effect from the stories above. o.1 in more than one story. In each story requiring consideration of Pdelta effects the initial story shears are increased to ad V" .1 at story x: compute for each story x the stability coefficient 8x given by Equation 12. Thus both the drift and the shear in the story would be increased by a factor equal to the series of I + 8 + 8 2 + 8 3 + .':= I I I Some computer programs for frame analysis state that Pdelta effects are incl uded directly in the analysis.. However. The engineer should verify that the total gravity load employed and the method used in these programs will provide results that are essentially equivalent to the augmented story shear method described above.020(20 ft)( 12) = 4.12. = 4. the fina l drifts should be found by a new analysis with the added lateral loads equal to (ad .I) V" along with the initi al lateral loads on the frame. I 77 . 2006 la c Structural/S eism ic Design Manual.8. .6 and 12.020 hi /:.. is equal to. or greater than 0. Vol..8. leading to another story drift.. Commentary In § 12. which converges to 1(1 ..110'" = 0.7 Check for story. leading to another increment of story drift.121 1 Allowable story drift /:." = 0.16..80 in .8..drift compliance in the first story §12.0"... Given the initial design story drift /:.10.415 < 4.). need to be multiplied by the factor ad to represent the total final Pdelta effect. need s to comply with the drift limitations of §12 . As a resu lt the initial story drift /:.. For each story where 8. The structural elements must be designed to resist the resulting final story shears. The fina l resulting story drift IJ. Therefore the new story . This factor accounts for the multiplier effect due to the initial story drift /:.8.B.. ." and story shear V.
D75 sec rUd (Eq 12.8.0 (Eq 12. Code Reference [I] Determine the structure period §12.1 Example 17 • Seis mic Bas e Shear 1 ] §12.8.2.035. I I I I I I I I I .'.8. [L] Determine the structure period ~ Determine the seismic response coefficient ~ Determine seismic base shear Calculations and Discussion c.1 ii~ample 1 7 S. is the smaller value of §12. Cr for steel momentresisting frames is 0. 1.87) ~ Determine the seismic response coefficient Cs The design value of C.1 C = S os = (0.§12.0 60' R =8 W = 1626 kips 11" = 60 feet .e ismic Base Shear Find the design base shear for a 5story steel special momentresisting frame building shown below . = C :.1 The appropriate fundamental period To is to be used.'.82) 78 200 6 IBC Structural/ Se ismic Design Manual.. Vol.8.035(60)~ = 0. follow these steps. The following information is given..45g SOl = 0..'.. Seismic Design Category D S DS = ] 0.28g J = 1.45) = 0 0561 s (R) J (8) . = 0. T..' I I I To solve this example.
37 sec [!J Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF) EBF structures use the C.2. the values for "all other buil dings" To = CT(h.. However. Roof pentho uses are generally not considered in determining hi!> but heights of setbacks are included.32).016 .75.1 ~ Concrete special moment frame (SMF) structure Height of the tallest part of the building is 33 feet.0 16(33)°·9 = 0.8.5 1 sec 44' ~ Masonry shear wall building 29' 29' ~ TYP' 60' I~~f" < 45' IE Front wall elevation Back wall elevation For this structure. _ L.'  L _ L. if the setback represents more than a 130percent change in the lateral force system dimension. x = 0. h« = 33 feet Setback kJ 33' ' . I 81 . more than five stories or 65 fee t in height.030(44)°·75 = 0. Vol.020(29)°·75 = 0.'.Example 18 D Approximate Fundamental Period §12. CT = 0. and this is used to determine per iod.030 . CT may be taken as 0.020 and x may be taken as 0.75 T = CT(hn}T: = 0. x = 0. Taller structu res.25 sec 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.Y = 0. there is a vertical geometric irregularity (Table 12.9 To = CT(hnY = 0. for the "all other buildings" category C T = 0. require dynamic analysis for this type of irregularity.
8. 1 '.2. I I I I I ) 82 2006 la c Structural/Seismic Design Man ual. The code formula for period does not take into consideration the fact that the real period of the building is highly dependent on the roof diaphragm construction.1 Exa mple 18 • Approximate Fu nd am en tal P eriod ~ Tiltup building Consider a tiltup building 150 feet by 200 feet in plan that has a panelized wood roof and the typical wall elevation shown below. comm'fmtaf)'. 20'I ~I • 4  .~'" Typical wall elevation H ) zo' ' " ) I CT = 0. Thus .75 I I T = CT(hn )' = 0. I I I .020(20)°·75 = 0. 15'typ ~ . the period computed above is not a good estimate of the rea l fundamental period of this type of building. Vol.2. however..19 sec This type of structural system has relatively rigid walls and a flexible roof diaphragm. 8. I E 4t"" .§12. It is acceptable. X = 0. . for use in determining design base shear. The fundamental period T of the building may also be established by analytical procedures with the limitation given in §12.020.
1 Lightframed cons truction not more than three stories. I 83 .14 Determine the seismic base shear and the seismic lateral forces for a threestory wood structural panel wall buildin g using the simplified alternative structural design procedure. follow these steps. or other buildings with bearing walls or building frame systems not more than three stories.1. The following information is given. can use the simplified alternat ive method when general conditions are satisfied.14 Exam Ie 19 Simplified I ernettve Structura l Design Procedure § 12.0 R 6X Level T f I( 20' W = 750 kips + 20' ~ 1 12' 12' Effective Seismic Weight. Vol.Example 19 II Simplified Alternative Structural Des ign Procedure §12. w.14. 150 kips 300 kips 300 kips 12' To solve this examp le. 2006 lBC Structural/Se ismic Des ign Manual. [}J Check applicability of simplified alternative method ~ Determine seismic base shear ~ Determine seismic lateral forces at each level Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [}J Check applicability of simplified alternative method §12. Occupancy Category I S DS = = 1.
8 The follo wing is a comparison of simplified base shear with standard design base shear.1410) I I FI = 300 (138.1 (Eq 12.V " x W W (Eq 12.14.81) (Eq 12.7.2 F =. I .4 kips 750 I I F2 = ~~~ 750 (138. 149) 1.82) I I I I I I I I I 84 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.5) = 55.§12.2(1.5 kips @J Determine seismic lateral forces at each level §12.14. The standard method of determining the seismic base shear is v=csw wher e (Eq 12. Vol.7 kips Commen tary §12.5) = 55.14 Ex ampl e 19 • Simplified Alterna tive Structu ra l Des ign Pro c edu r e ~ Determine seis mic base shear §12.7.0)(750 kips) ] 6X = 138.4 kips F 3 = ISO (138.5) = 27.
The principal advantage of the simplified method is that period T need not be calculated and design story drift ().Example 19 • Simplified Alrernative Structural Design Procedu re §12. "'xlix }: wi"i 0.14. I 85 . Fju '.5 38. U'.r 3 2 I h.6 115.7. see table below .400 kipIt 7 . Vol.4 kips 51.5.200 38.4 kips 5 1.h.h.2 25.600 L II'. §12.4 138.4 55.~V (Eq 12.185 0.2 25.14 1 The distribution of seismic forces over the height of the structure is 1 Fx = C. w..444 0.6 115. I 36 fl 24 12 150 kips 300 300 5 .2 % Difference 72 108 216 120 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.7 kips 55.5 second or less.278 0.200 3. Standard Simplified 27.0 for structures having a period of 0. 16.4 0.093 The seismic base shear Vand lateral forces F" at each level except the roof are all less than the simplified method . may be taken as I percent of the story height.333 0.222 L ~ F. i.". Comparison of Simplified VS Standard Level x 3 2 Total Lateral Force F. 1 n 1 Note: distribution exponent k = 1.811) where (IBe Eq 1642) 2: w . Level .
Recall that lithe floor and roof diaphragms could be considered to be flexible. per footnote g.1 to determine the applicable response modification coefficient R system overstrength factor no and deflection amplification factor Cd values for combined vertical systems.3.0 Cd = 5.0 This combined system falls under vertical combinations of § 12. This example illustrates use of the requirements of §12.0 no= 3.21.5.1 In structural engineering practice.0 P = 1. For the three systems shown below.1 cannot be used.0 Special steel moment frame R = 8.3. it is sometimes necessary to design buildings that have a vertical combination of different lateralforceresisting systems. determine the required R coefficient. Cd .1.3. I .1 Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical !~ample 20 'Combina tion of Structural Systems: Vertical '12. factor. Table 12. Therefore. the structure in this direction must use the lowest R = 6.3.5 P = 1.3.2. Vol.0 C« = 5. no factor.2. the exception for a twostage analysis in § 12. For example.2.2.0 and the largest no = 3.0 nu = 2.Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Steel Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF) over steel special moment frame (SMF) Seismic Design Category C Ordinary steel concentrically braced frame R =6. the bottom part of the structure may be a rigid frame and the top part may be a braced frame or shear wall.2. 86 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.0. Because the rigid framing system is above the flexible framing system. n u would be 2. and related design base shear requirements.§12.
bearing) R =5 .0 Cd = 5. I 87 .0 C« = 5.3 Stiffness upper portion = 175 kipin T upper = 0. E. T his is a vertical combination of a flexibl e system over a more rigid system.0.0 Special reinforced concrete moment frame R = 8.5 P = 1. and the largest.2. a twostage static analysi s may be used.3.3. a twostage analysis cannot be used. Because the rigid portio n is above the flexible portion.56 sec Shear walls 2006 IBC Structu r al/Se is mic Design Manual.55 sec T eoll/billed = 0.0 Th is combined system falls under vertical combinations of § 12.2.1 ~ Ordinary reinforced concrete shear wall (ORCSW) over special reinforce d concrete moment frame (SRC MF) Seismic Design Category C Ord inary reinforced concrete shear wall (non.00 = 2. or F (Table 12. .5 P = 1.0 . the structure in this direction must use the lowest. Also note that ordinary rein forced concre te shear wall systems are not permitted above 35 feet in SOC 0 . Therefore. 1. Under § 12. Vol.21 ).00 = 3.Example 20 If CombInation of Structural Systems: Vertical §12. Seism ic Design Catego ry B Concrete specia l reinforced conc rete mome ntframe R =8. provi ded the structures conform to the following four requirements. R = 5. [!J Concrete SRCMF over a concrete building frame system ~ Applicable criteria.0.5 P = 1.5 Cd = 4.3.0 .2.00 = 3.1.00 = 3.
see Table 12.21. Rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using appropriate values of Rand p. For multistory upper or lower portions .k. the stiffness should be the stiffness of the first mode. 1 I Check requirements of § 12. Flexible upper portion supported on the rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using appropriate values of Rand p. b.000 kipin rlo"er = 0. I I I I I I I I I I I I 88 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.l times the period of upper structure considered a separate structure fixed at the base. .1 Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical J Special reinforced concrete shear wall R =6. Period of entire structure is not greater than l.56 sec < 1.1 (. Vol.1 for a twostage analysis a.0 no=2.. 0.§12.5 Cd =5 P = 1.0.. o. J . This ratio shall not be less than 1.0 Stiffness = 10.2.3. . Reactions from the upper structure shall be determined from analysis of the upper structure amplified by the ratio of Rip of the upper structure over Rip of the lower structure. 10.3. The stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the stiffness of the upper portion.55) = 0.03 sec 1 J Also note R is different for bearing wall systems versus building frame systems for special reinforced concrete shear walls.2.000 kipin > 10(175) = 1750 kipin . d. o.61 sec .k. c.
3 Vllilme =1..0 =3. r Design lower portion of the building frame system for the combined effects of amplified reactions from the upper portion and lateral forces due to the base shear for the lower portion of the structure (using R = 6.0 /1. Note that for the basic seismic load combinations the factor p must still be applied to forces corresponding to V lower.1 ~ Design procedures for upper and lower structures Design upper SRCMF using R n p =8. 8.0.5..0 = 1.2.Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical §12. Vol.0 for the lower portion). VIrum.0/1..0 The reactions from the upper portion shall be determined from the analysis of the upper portion amplified by the ratio of (Rip) for the upper portion over (Rip) of the lower portion..3 . Amplified Vllil m • =.3. I 89 . Q = 2.. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. and p = 1...03 Vllilme 6.
and the building is SDC D and Occupancy Category I. Q" = 2. I I _ . system over strength factor QQ. QQ= 3.§12. Vol.2. Floors are concrete slab.5 Table 12. a threestory building has concrete shear walls in one direction and concrete moment frames in the other.21 (C5) !TI Determine the R value for each direction 90 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Manual...Shear wall G Typ ical floor Plan Lines A and D are special reinforced concrete shear walls (bearing wall system) R = 5.2. I I I I I I I I I I I I .0. Cd= 5. Cd. In this example. and Q " values for each direction. and 3 are special reinforced concret e moment frames R =8.e. Table 12. Cd = 5.2 J Exam p l e 21 gombina tion of F !"aming Systems in Differ~nt Directions ") : ' .21 (AI) Lines I.0.2 Example 21 • Co mbination of Fram ing Systems in Different Dir ections I J §12. 2. directions) ofthc building.5. Thi s example illustrates the determination of response modification coefficient R. I 1 Determine the R. and deflection amplification factor Cd values for a building that has different seismic framing systems along different axes (i.
2. and Cd = 5..5 for the eastwest direction. Commentary Note that since this is SDC D. Y Code Reference The provisions of § 12.0. the appropriate response modification coefficient R.0. Q o = 3.5. 2006 IBC Str uctural/Seismic D esign Ma nual.. and Cs = 5 for the northsouth direction. I 91 .2 . Vol. I ~'.Example 21 • Combination of Framing Systems in Different Directions §12 . . Use R = 5.Calculations and Discussion .2. system overstrength factor Q o' and deflection ampl ification factor Cd for each system shall be used. ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls are not permitted.0.2 require that where different seismicforeeresisting systems are used along the two orthogonal axes of the structure. Q o = 2. and R = 8.
~ COmbination of Structural Systems: . This example shows how the response modification coefficient R value is determined in such a situation.§12.1.3.3. 92 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. see definition in § 12..3. it is necessary or convenient to have different structural systems in the same direction.. long the Same Axis §12. Vol .2. §12.3. However. to qualify as a flex ible diaphragm..2.2 Occasionally.5 Lines 2 and 3 are special steel concentrically braced frames: R = 6. the lateral deformation of the diaphragm must be more than two times the average story drift of the associated story.2.3.5 for entire structure. A onestory steel frame structure has the roof plan shown below.2 Example 22 " Combination of Structural Systems: Along the Same Axis . Commentgl'Y An exception is given for light frame . I .0 [!J Determine the R value for the N/S direction Calculations and Discussion Code Reference When a combination of structural systems is used in the same direction. Use R = 3. : . The structure is assigned to Seismic Use Group 1. ' Roof Plan Lines 1 and 4 are ordinary steel moment frames: R = 3. '' . EX~mple22 .2 requires that (except for dual systems and shear wallframe interactive systems) the value of R used shall not be greater than the least value of any system utilized in that direction. flexible diaphragm buildings of Occupancy Category I or Il two stories or less in height.
is 0.R z: (Eq 12.83) (Eq 12. for structu res located where S.1 v =C. value of 0.9 kips I I I I ComtnimtcJry The So. Design value of C. s (~) (Eq 12.2I g.28g given in this example is based on an S. = 0. shall not be less than C = 0.84) • but shall not be less than C.8.6g. If the S.6g.0467 for T S. TL (Eq 12.5/S. = 0.W = = (Eq 12.01 (Eq 12. C.86) I : .0467(1626 kips) 75.86) 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic D esign Manual. Vol. then the lower bound on C.0467 ~ Determine seismic base shear The seismic base shear is given by §12.28) _ R ~ (0.81) 0.5S.0 0.B. value were to have been equal or greater than 0.75) 1.1 and C Example 17 • Seismic Base Shear § 12.85) In addition. I 79 . Cs > .l . is equal to or greater than 0. value of 0.i)() SOl / _ (0.
028.2. For this structure the solution is the same.2. 96' Supe rslructu re C r = 0.1 Determine the period for each of the structures shown below usi ng the appropriate fundament al period formula (Eq 12. 80 2006 IBC Structuraf/Seismic Design Manual. Vol . The additional 22foot depth of the basement is not considered in determining 11" for period calculation.2. x = 0.8.028(96)°·8 = 1.08 sec . [!J Steel special moment frame (SMF) structure Concrete special moment frame (SMF) structure Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF) [!J @J ~ ~ Masonry shear wall building Tiltup building Calculatipns and Discussion Code Reference [!J Steel special moment frame (SMF) structure Height of the structure above its base is 96 feet.87) The coefficient CT and the exponent x are dependent on the type of structural system used. or the level at which the structure.1 Example 18 • Approximate Fundame ntal Period '. is supported.8. §12. as a dynamic vibrator. ample 18 Appro~imate Fundamental Period § 12. base is defmed as the level at which earthq uake motions are considered to be imparted. I . 22' _L Basemenl Note : In the SEAOC Blue Book.8.§12.1 . 8 Grad e To = Cr (I1"r = 0.
IV = 0.ference §12. Find the vertical distribution oflatera l forces F x • The following information IS given. It is determined as follows v = C.8. [!J ~ Determine V Find Fx at each level ~ Find the distribution exponent k ~ Determine vertical force distribution :Ca/culations and Discussion Code R. IV = 3762 kips C.smlc Design Man ual.0 = 1..062 R = 8.062 (376zk) = 233. Vol. I 93 .Example 23 • Vertica l Distributio n of Seismic Forc e §12.81) 2006 IBC Structura l/Se.8 kips (Eq 12. = 0.0 T = 1. 5 5 54k 12' 4 22k '2' I 3 4 22k ' 2' 2 440k ' 2' 4 65k 20' // " 1' / / 1' / ~ / / /I' / '/ Total 3762 kips I I I I I To solve this example. follow these steps.0 Q" level 9 I ?f T I I I ( 27' 0) EO 27' ): Story weight 2 14k 4 OSk 12' 8 7 1 = 3.81 [!J Determine V I This is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of the structure.B.06 sec ' 2' 4 QSk 4 O~ ' 2' ' 2' 6 .3 1 Exampl e 23 · Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force § 12 .3 A ninestory building has a momentresisting steel frame for a lateralforceresisting system..
8w. Vol.5 o o 0.l1..5 I I I I I I I I J Exponent.0 for buildings having a period oi T>: 2.28 'C 1." e 0~ 1.8.0 . at each level (Eq 12. 11 = 9 Thus: F = 233. x • ~ LJ lV /Ii i.11 ) I I ] The vertica l distribution of seismic forces is determined as where c = I'X 2: IV.5 1.0 1.0 2.I ..§12.3 Find the distribution exponent k The distribution exponent k is equal to 1. 8.5 2. hi i. .5 2.0 for buildings having a period of T s 0.I n lVxhl (Eq 12.5 seconds.5. Thus: 2. I §12.5 1. and is equal to 2.3 Ex ample 23 • Ver tic al Dis tr ibu tion of Seis mic Force ~ Find r.0 0.812) I ] Since there are nine levels above the ground.8. k 94 2006 IBC Struc tural/S eism ic Design Manu al. k is determined by linear interpo lation. I I . For intermediate value of the building period.06 1.
28 "• .004 27. Vol. Table 12.Examp le 23 • Verti cal Distribution of Seismic Force §12 .067 0.5 0. ( ft) U'.06 sec = 1.027 1.030 110.I lists the minimum allowable analysis procedures for seismic design .169 0.3 44. = Su 0.~ (kips) kipIt 93.0. Redundancy requ irements must also be evaluated once the type oflateralforceresisting system to be used is specified. = C••V (kips) F/ w.8 kips and k = 1.06 _ 0. Often.289 LW/l i F.2 Commelltary Note that certain types of vertical irregularity can result in a dynamic response hav ing a load distribution significantly different from that given in this section .0.1 II 0. the seismic forces are factored by p.812 is solved in the table below given V= 233.013 I I I I I I I I I 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 116 ft 104 92 80 68 56 44 439 382 326 273 222 173 127 84 46 214 405 405 405 584 422 32 20 422 440 465 ~ =3762 0. because this may require modification of the building framing system and vertical distribution of horizontal forces as a result of changes in building period T.28 = 1.28 I ) 2. 161 0.4. = . 116 0.0 + (1.0 (§12. When checking building drift. 192 0.5 Use: k @J Equation 12.f Level X ii.050 0. The horizontal forces need not be increase d at each floor level whe n p is greater than 1.079 0.960 21.5) ( = 1.• wxhx • C~ .565 129.006 53. when stre ss check ing the individual mem bers of the lateralforeeresisting system.8 6.I W.3.3 32.024 0. 137 0.064 0. 2006 la c Stru ctur al/Seismic Design Manual. 1 37. Th is is done to simplify the analysis of the framing members.390 ~ = 806.04 6 0.5 10.594 36.037 0.2 15.648 73.2 233.6. p = 1. the horizontal forces at each floor level are increased when p is greater than 1.8 38.09 1 0./I. I 95 .3 I Now: for T k = 1.B. provided that.6 21.1) shall be used.094 0.710 132.946 154.127 0.
and having a height exceeding five stories or 65 feet may have significantly different force distributions. and S" = r <pSa from a modal analysis. or plan irregular ities of Type l a or Ib in Tab le 12. The configuration and final design of this structure must be checked for these irregularities. However. Vol.§ 12. I I I I I I I I r I I I I I I 96 2006 IBC Structural/S eism ic Des ign Man ual.61. Ib. I I I . and it is rarely necessary to manually perform the calculations shown above . or 3 in Table 12. 2. 3 Exampl e 23 • Vertica l Distr ibution of Se ism ic Forc e Structu res that have a vertical irregularity of Type Ia. Structures exceeding 240 feet in height shall require dynamic analysis.61. Most structural analysis programs used today perform this calculation. 8. Note that ( So )max is approximately twice C . it is recommended that these calculations be performe d to confirm the computer analysis and to gain insight to structural behavio r.
A 40' y 0 Shear wall below . Ym = 20 ft Ana lyze for seismic forces in north south direc tion. The mass of the roof can be consid ered to be uniformly distributed. r .8. Lateral forces in both directions are resisted by shear walls. the weight of the walls should be included in the determ ination of the centerofmass (CM). Design base shear: V = 100 kips in northsouth direction Wall rigidi ties: RA = 300 kip/in RB = 100 kip/in Rc = RD = 200 kip/in Centerofmass: X m= 40 ft. particularly with concrete shear walls.' XR ~. " • • Roof diaphragm YR X ) c BO' IE Roof plan )1 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.4 A singlestory building has a rigid roof diaphragm. See appendix to this example for a proc edure for the distribution of lateral forces in structures with rigid diaphragms and cross walls and/or frames of any orientation . In actu al pract ice. and in this example.Example 24 • HOlizontal Distribution of Shear §12. I 97 . The following information is given..BA 1 EKa mp!e 2 4 :Horizontal Distribution of Shear §12. the weight of the walls is neglected. Vol.
20 = 20 ft Torsional rigidity abo ut the center of rigidity is de termine d as J = RA (20) 2 + RB (60/ + Rc (20)2 + RD(20)2 = 300 (20i + 100 (60)2 + 200 (20)2 + 200 (20i = 64 x 104 (kip /in) fe I I I I I I I I I I I The seismic force V app lied at the CM is equivalent to having Vapplied at the CR together with a counterclockwise torsion T. 98 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.4 Example 24 • H or/z ontal Dist ribution of Shear I Determine the following. OJ [3J [I] ~ ~ Eccentricity and rigidity properties Direct shear in walls A and B Plan irregularity requirements Torsional shear in walls A and B Total shear in walls A and B Calculations and Discussion ~ode Reference I I I OJ Eccentricity and rigidity properties The rigidity of the structure in the direction of applied force is the sum of the rig idities of walls parallel to this force .XR = 40 .B.4.8. With the requirements for accidental eccentricity es«. 1 . the total shear on walls A and B can be found by the addition of the direct and torsional load cases .§1 2. R §12 .1 = RA + RB = 300 + 100 = 400 kip/in Th e centers ofrigidity (CR) along the x and y axes are eccentricity e = X m . Vol.
x 100 = 75.31.C T= V(e:: eecc) fa / / / ~ C C Direct shear contribution Torsional shear contribution ~ Direct shear in walls A and B R A RA + RB RD V 0.0 ft For the determination of torsional irregularity. I 99 .A 4 D / VT. the initial most severe tors ional shears. eacc + 0..S VT.. 8A VO.11 = X (V) = 300 . Items la and lb in Table 12. a A CR 20' 20' • V .A D / r rr: / / VO.0 kips 300 + 100 100 x 100 = 25.n = RA + Rn X (V) = @J Plan irregularity requirements Th e determination of torsional irreg ularity..20' 60' A l ~ CR~ VT.5 ki s j 64 x 1O~ P 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.5 ki s 64 x 10~ P ~' T.B = V(e+e acJ(8 0 x R)( R B ) = 100(20+4)(60)(100) = 22.A = V (e+e"cJ(xR)(R A ) j = 100(20 + 4) (20)(300 ) = 22. .0 kips 300 + 100 V D. This evaluation must include accidental torsion caused by an eccentricity of 5 percent of the building dimension.Ex amp le 24 • Horizontal Distribu tion of Sh ear §1 2. Vol .05 (80 ft) = 4. requires the evaluation of the story drifts in walls A and B. V' and corresponding story drifts (so as to produce the lowest value of the average story drift) will result from the large st ecce ntrici ty e + eacc • Thes e are v' T.O VT.
.2 requires that the accidental torsional moment.4 0.3.22. 18 in V~ RB = 47.33 in 2 = b~ = 0. structural modeling must include 3 dimensions per §12.0 + 22. = ( b"4' )' = ( 0. as accidental eccentricity here is used to reduce the force). which for this singlestory building are also the story drift values.. ~ Torsional shears in walls A and B To account for the effects of torsional irregularity.4.8. §12. it is not recalculated with amplified torsion). are b' = ) ) RA = V~ = 52.§12. = 0.B V.5 kips = VD.8.V.48 in 100 = 0. Extreme Torsional Irregularity Type Ib exists. The resulting displacem ents b'. Section 12.4.1 8 + 0.B + \~.cc.7.2.47 < 3.48 in b"4' b.3.5 = 0. be multiplied by the torsional amplification factor Ax.8.48 ) ' = 1.3.33 I I I I :.49 = 1. and diaphragm shear transfer forces to collectors must be increased 25 percent per §12. Vol.e.5 = 47. = 25. (See Example 26) Assum ing SDC D.5 300 = 0.3 requires the evaluation and application of the torsional amplification factor A.33) (IBC Eq 1644) I I I I Note: the factor Ax is not calculated iteratively (i.45 > 1.A .5 = 52.0 ..A = 75. 100 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual..4 Example 24 • Hor izo ntal Distribution of Sh ear I The initial total shears are V~ = VD.5 kips (NOTE: Th is is not the design force for Wall A. 1. 1 .48 = 0.4. Ve.0 ." 1.2(0..
2 = 61. the torsion al shear must be based on the actua l eccentricity minus the accidental eccentricity to give the smallest subtractive shear.{.ed CC ] for VT. I 101 .8 kips 25.VT.3 kips VB = V D .A = 75. I.13.3 requirement to multiply only the accidental torsion al moment by Ax differs significantly from the 2000 !Be. This load combination involves the direct and torsional shears.B.0 .B = r I I COmmentary Section 12. IpS ~ Total sh ear in walls A and B Total shear in each wall is the algebraic sum ofthc direct and torsiona l shear components v:.0 + 24.A . 2..4 The most severe total shears result from the use of V [e .A and V [e + A.B + V T. Where the torsional shear has the same sense.1. It restores the requirements of the 1997 UBC and 1999 Blue Book. 64 ' 100 kips[(20 + 1.47 x 4]60(100 kip/in) " 64 x 10 (kip/injft ' = 13.8. and is therefore added to the direct shear. Where the torsional shear has the opposite sense to that of the direct shear and is to be subtracted.Example 24 • Horizontal Distrib ution of She ar §12.4. Vol. . 2006 IBC Str uct ural/Seismic D esign Manual.8. I I I I I I The §12.4. = V D_.47 x 4]20( = 100 kips[(20 x 104 (kip/in jft~00 kip/in) .2 requires that the most severe load combination for each element shall be considered for design .3 = 49.eacc ] for VT•B V T.B = = 24 3 k' .24 kips V T. and the "most severe" condition is as follows. the torsional shear shall be calculated using actual eccentricity plus the accidental eccentricity to give the largest additive torsional shear.
0 80. Separate values are given for the application of the forces F. 80.0 ±4. 1 27.8.3 3 1.4. Vol.0 80.0 ±4 . The structure is a fivestory reinforced concrete building frame system.0 80.0 kips 82.\" F.4. f f f 4 @J20'=80' A ®.e is congruent with the center of rigidity at the level in question .g II b N @M 0 @ IN Floor plan at Level x The lateral seismic forces Fein the northsouth direction. 5 4 3 2 I 110.3 Example 25 • Amplification of Accidental Tors i on § 12 . A threedimensional rigid diaphragm model has been formu lated for the evaluation of element actions and deformations due to prescrib ed loading conditions.5 65.8. L. I .8 30. and accidental eccentricity eacc for each Level x are given below. Level.4. for the given lateral seismic forces F. Shear walls resist lateral forces in both directions. resulting in zero inherent at torsion.r ± 4. 102 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.05L.3 This example illustrates how to include the effects of accidental eccentricity in the lateral force analysis of a multistory building.8.0 X es «: =0.1 42. it is assumed for simplicity that the location of the centerofmass CAtf.05Lx displacements as required by §12.0 ft 80.2.8 24. 1 23. In this example.0 I .§12.0 In addition.0 ft ±4.2 ft 25. structure dimensions. a computer analysis provides the following results for the second story.0 ±4. at the centers of mass and the ±O.
1 8 174.. find the following..33 in 0. it is determined that I I I I I I I VA VB = = 196.44 For the second story. Story drift II.: Level 2 displacement 0" Level 2 displacement 5 8 185..37 in 0.35 in 0.56 0. ~lJla:c = = 0.3 Force F~ Position I x .0 kips 126. r X r~ + 00 e. As mentioned above.0 kips Check if torsional irregularity exists The building may have a torsional irregularity Type I (Table 12.51 in 2006 IB C St ructur al/S eismic Design Ma nual.80 1.0 kips 0.0 kips 104. I 103 .0 kips 126.0 kips 115.68 + 0.75 1.0 kips 0.Example 25 II Amplification of A ccidental Torsion §12.e.62 0 . in this example it is assumed that accidenta l eccentricity is the only source of torsional mome nt at this floor level. inherent torsion (center of mass not being congruent with center of rigidity) and the contribution due to accidental torsion.31). The following is a check of the story drifts..33 2 = 0.8.68 0. Story drift II.31 196.0 kips 0.4. Vol..68 in 0. X rl .~ Wall shear 1'" Wall shear V.85 1. [L] ~ Maximum force in shear walls A and 8 Check if torsiona l irregularity exists Determine the amplification factor Ax New accidental torsion eccentricity @J ~ Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Maximum force in shear walls A and 8 The maximum force in each shear wall is a result of direct shear. From the above table.
Torsional irregularity Type la exists .1liao'g is larger than 1.0 ft) = 4.3 Example 2S • Amp lification of Accidenta l Torsion J li"".75 = 1.8. I .Note: if li ma.3 requires that the second story torsional moment be ampli fied by the following factor.8. Vol.2 0.5 1 1 I I . Ax for the second story) is greater than unity..10 in 2 1.§ 12. .33 > 1.. «. beca use the only source of torsion is the accidental eccentricity.44 ((1 . = 0.2)(1.19 in I I I = ' ~ New accidental torsion eccentricity Since Az (i.10) )= 1. e"cc = (1.68 = 1.19)(4. §12. a second analysis for torsion must be performed using the new accidental eccentricity.e.814) Where: the average story displacement is computed as = 1. In this example. ~ Determine the amplification factor A x Because a torsiona l irregularity exists. the amplification factor will be used to calculate a new and increased accidental eccentricity . Ax (Eq 12.4. then torsional irregu larity Type 1b exists.44+0.4.4.76 ft 10 4 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic De sign Manual. as shown below..
0.8. a second torsional analysis must be performed using the new accidental eccentricities. However.2) also apply . Only the accidental torsion is required to be amplified if torsional irregularity exists ..3 Example calculati ons were given for the second story. If torsional irregularity exists and Ax is greater than 1. In practice.0). When the dynamic analysis method of §12.4. I 105 . are sufficient for design purposes.4.4.8.0 at any level (or levels) .8. each story requi res an evaluation of the most severe element actions and a check for the torsional irregularity condition.1 .5 states that amplification of accidental torsion. given in §12. I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. all the requirements of horizontal shear distribution. The results of the first analysis with the use ofA.9 gmmentary Example 25 • Amplification ct Accidental Torsion §12. it is 110/ required to find the resulting new Ax values and repeat the process a second or third time (until the Ax converges to a constant or reaches the limit of 3. Vol.1 and §12. §12.4. However. Also note that Ax is not required to exceed 3.8.9 is used.9. the same procedure applies to the determination of the most severe element actions for any other lateralforeeresisting system having rigid diaphragms. including torsion calculations that may be accounted for by displacing the calculated centers of mass of each level (§12. While this example involves wall shear evaluation. need not be amplified by Ax where accidental torsional effects are included in the dynamic analysis model.
[!J Required strength ~ Detailing requirements 106 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.3. Vol....2.. I .... Seismic Design Category C S DS= 1.3 L~... Office building live load: use factor of 0.5 T 12.5 on L Axial loads on column C D = 40 kips L = 20 kips QE = 100 kips 12' § 12. ~ Shear wall 12' Column C 24" x 24" f c =4000 12' psi Determine the following for column C.. The following information is given..f 12' 4 ..3. or F. Shear walls at the firstfloor level are discontinuous between lines A and Band lines C and D.10 Ordinary reinforced> concrete shear wall (ORCSW) building frame system : R = 5 and Q o = 2.4.21 Note: ORCSW not permitted in SDC D.3 Example 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems ain~/e26 lements Supporting Discontinuous Systems A reinforced concrete building has the lateralforeeresisting system shown below.§12. . E..
2 (Comb.4. the column on line A would have identica l requirements. 7) E.3.2 SDS D = 2. Because of symmetry.2 (Comb.4.3 (Comb.4.2 .2 Pu = 1. 7) E.4.5 (20) + 259 = 317 kips co mpression I I I I I I and P" = 0.5 (241) = 205 kips tension · 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Seis mic Design Manual.10)(40) = 259 kips or § 12.5L + 1.2 S DS D = 2.9 (40) .2( 1.Exam plo 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §12.3 (Comb.0Em where § 12. = Q" QE+ 0.J.J • Calculations and Discussion Code Reference This examp le demonstrates the loading criteria and detail ing required for elements supporting discontinued or offset elements of a seismicforceresisting system .3 requires that the column shall have a design strength to resi st special seismic load combination of § 12.5( 100) + 0. and seismic loads I P" = 1. Column C on line D is treat ed in this example. = Q" QE .2( 1.4. Vol.0Em P" = 0.3. live... Required strength Because of the discontinuous configuration of the shear wall at the first story.0.0. 5) § 12.2D + 0.2. the first story columns on lines A and D must support the wall elements above this level. I Section 12. 5) § 12.3.3 .0.5( 100) .3.2 (40) + 0. I 107 .10)(40) = 24 1 kips 1 Substituting the values of dead.J.9D + 1.
14"_ _.3 Examp l e 2 6 ff Elements Supporting Discon tinuous Systems Cotpmentary To transfer the shears from walls AB and CD to the firststory wall BC.10.2. I .3. Vol.3 and relat ed sections of the relevant materials chapters apply to the following vertical irregularities and vertical elements. collector beams AB and CD are required at Levell .r t Column 2. 1. The load requirements of § 12.3. Discontinuous shear wall. 1. Th is frame has a Type 4 vertica l structural irregularity.3. Discontinuous column. Note that only the column needs to resist the special load combi nations since it supports the shear wa ll.3. The wall at left has a Type 4 vertical structural irregularity.§12. DDD Transfer girder DDD 108 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. These would have to be designed according to the requirements of § 12.
and §12.2 Equations 5 and 7 need not exceed the maximum force that can be transferred to the element by the lateralforeeresisting system.3.3 applies to the supporting columns.3 3.3. the load demand Em of § 12. Note that the transfer diaphragm and the offset shear wall are subject to the p factor.3. This structure has a Type 4 plan structural irregularity. I 109 . The wall on Line A at the first story is discontinuous.3.3. Outofplane offset.3. transfer diaphragm) to the offset wall must be designed per the requirements of §12. Vol.4. Oisconllnued wall It should be noted that for any of the supporting columns shown above. The portion of the diaphragm transferring shear (i.3.e. but not to the special load combinations..4.Example 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §12. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.
§12.3.3.3
Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls or Frames
1
fI" ':rt:

r
·& r'!'! .". le 2 7 amp ~~/emen ts Supporting Discontinuous Walls
1
orFrames
§12.3.3.3
1
This example illustrates the application of the requirements of § 12.3.3.3 for the allowable stress design of elements that support a discont inuous lateralforeeresisting system. In this example, a lightframed bearingwall building with plywood shear panels has a Type 4 vertical structural irregularity in one of its shear walls, as shown below. The following information is given. Seismic Design Category C S DS = l.IO R =6.5 no = 3.0 Cd =4 /I = 0.5 Axial loads on the timber column under the discontinuous portion of the shear wall are Dead D = 6.0 kips Live L = 3.0 kips Seismic Q£ = ±7.0 kips Determine the following.
I I
I
Ughl framed wall
with plywood
sheathing
J
I
Timber column
[!J
Applicable load combinations
~ Required column design strength
CalclJlations and Discussion Code Reference
[1J
Applicable load combinations
For vertical irregularity Type 4, § 12.3.3.3 requires that the timber column have the design strength to resist the special seismic load combinations of § 12.4.3.2 . This is required for both allowable stress design and strength design. For strength design the applicable load combinations for allowable strength design are
7. (0.9  0.2S DS)D + QoE
Appl icable load combinations for allowable strength design are:
I I I I I I I I I I
110
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 27 • Ele ments Supp or ting Discontinu ous Waifs or Fram es
§ 12.3 .3 .3
5. (1.0 + 0.105 80S) D + 0.525 + QoQE + 0.75L 6. (0.8  0.14 80s) D + 0.7 QuQE
1
Required column desig n streng th (strength design) In this shear wall, the timber column carries only axial loads. The appropriate dead, live, and seismic loads are determined as
D = 6.0 kips L
= 3.0 kips
Em = n, QE + 0.2 80S D = 3.0(7.0)+ 0.2 (1.10) (6.0) = 22.3 kips
J
or
Em = Q o QE 0.2 80S D = 3.0(7.0)  0.2 (!.IO) (6.0) = 19.7 kips
For the required strength design strength check, both load combinations must be checked.
P
=
1.2D + L + Em
I I I I I I I I
I
P = 1.2 (6.0) + 0.5 (3.0) + 22.3 = 31.0 kips . . . (compression) P
=
0.9D  1.0Em
P = 0.9 (6.0)  1.0 (19.7) =14.3 kips .. . (tension)
The load factor on L in combination 5 is permi tted to equal 0.5 for all occupancies in whic h L; is less than or equal to 100 psf, with the exception of garages or areas occupied as places of public assembly.
Commentary
For strength design, the tim ber column must be checked for a compression load of31.0 kips and a tension load of 14.3 kips. In making an allowable stress design check, § 12.4.3.3 permits use of an allowable stress increase of 1.2. The 1.2 stress increase may be combined with the duration ofload increase described in the NO S. The resulting design strength = (1.2)(1.0)( 1.33) (allowable stress desig n). This also applies to the mechanical holddown element required to resist the tension load.
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Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls
or Frames
The purpose of the designstrength check is to confirm the ability of the column to carry higher and more realistic loads required by the discontinuity in the shear wall at the first floor. This is done by increasing the normal seismic load in the column QE by the factor Q o = 3.0 to calculate the maximum seismic load effect Em (§ 12.4.3).
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E::ample 28 • Soil Pr es s ur e At Foundation
§§2A; 12.13 .4
le2 oil Pressure At Foundations
III
§§2.4; 12.13.
Geotechnical investiga tion reports usua lly prov ide soilbearing pressures on an allowable stress design basis while seismic forces in ASCE /SEI 705 and most concrete design (ACI/31805, § 15.2.2 and R 15.2), are on a strength design basis. The purpose of this exam ple is to illustrate footing design in this situation. A spread footing supports a reinforced concrete column. The soil classification at the site is sand (SW). The following information is given . Seismic Design Category C SDS = 1.0, / = 1.0 P = 1.0 for structural system PD = 50 kips PD includes the footing and imposed soil weight) PL = 30 kips P E = ± 40 kips, VE = 25 kips, (these are the QE loads due to base shear V) Snow load S = 0 Wind load W < QE /1.4 The seismic loads are from an equivalent lateral analysis. The loads given above follow the sign convention shown in the figure. Perform the followi ng tasks.
r
)J
Grade
4'
I}J
Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure
~ Determine footing size ~ Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of the footing
section
2006 IBC Structural/S eism ic Design Manual, Vol. I
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7£ + L ) (Comb. 5) (Comb.20 ksf for trans ient loads..75 (0.7(0.2. 12. such as seismic. Vol.7£ D + 0.I reduces to (Eq 12.4. the allowable gross foun dati on pressure pa from a sitespecific geotechnical investigation recommendation is p a = 2.75)£ Because foundation investigation reports for bu ild ings typically specify bearing pre ssures on an allowable stress design basis. 7) 0. for the soil pres sure the seism ic effe ct is reduced D + 0.6D + 0. 114 2006 IB C S tr u c tu r al /Se ism i c Des ig n Manual. I .75)£ + L] (Comb.4. 6) (Comb.4 [L] Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure The seismicforce reactions on the footing are based on strength design.4.§§2.4 . 5) (Comb. crit eria for determining footing size are also on this basis.7(0. (Eq 12.1.75(0. However.4.13.4 permits reduction of overturning effects at the foundationsoil interface by 25 percent (if an equivalent lateral for ce analysis is used) or 10 percent (if modal analysis is used ).I) Per § 12.43) For the san d class of material and footing depth of 4 feet. £ 1' = 0 for determ ining soil p ressure. Equation 12.4 .7£ Section 12. allowable stress design may be used for sizing the foundation using the load combinations given in §2. The earthquake loads to be resisted are specified in §12.. Therefore .2. +£.40 ksf for sustained loa ds and pa = 3.7E) D + 0. D + 0.13 . 7) 0.2 by £=£.6D + 0.75[0. 6) (Comb .4 Example 28 • Soil Pressure At Foundation :Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §2.
Example 28 • Soli Pres sure At Foundation
§§ 2.4; 12.13.4
[3J
Determine foot ing size
1
1
P
=
D + 0.75(0.7E) = 50 + 0.75(0.7)(40) = 56 kips
(Comb. 5) (Comb. 6)
P = D + 0.75[0.7(0.75)£ + L]
= 50 + 0.75[0.7(0.75)40 + 30) = 88 kips
P = 0.6D + 0.7(0.75)£
= 0.6(50) + 0.7(0.75)(40) = 9 kips
(Comb. 7)
Equation 6 governs. The requ ired footing size is 88 kips/3.20 ksf = 27.5 sf Use 5 ft, 3insquare footing. A = 27.6 sf
~ Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of footing
For the design of the concrete elements, strength design is used. The reduction in overturning does not apply, and the vertical seismic load effec t is included
P
= I.3D + 0.5L + E
=
§2.3.2 (Comb. 5)
1.2(50) + 0.5(30) + 40 + 0.2( 1.0)(50) = 11 5k
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I
A uniform pressure of 115k/27.6 sf = 4.17 ksf should be used to determine the internal forces of the footing. (Note that if the footing also resisted moments, the pressure would not be uniform.) The other seismic load combination is
P =0.9D +£
= 0.9(50)  40 + 0.2(1.0)50 = 5k
§2.3.2 (Comb. 7)
Note that this indicates uplift will occur. ASCE/SEI 705 does not require that foundation stability be maintained using strengthlevel seismic forces. This combination is only used here to determine internal forces of concrete elements of the foundat ion. As it results in no internal forces, it may be neglected.
2006 IBC StructuraVSeismic D esign Manu al, Vol. I
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§12.8.6
Example 29 • Drift
Example 29 Drift
§12"B.6
A fourstory special momentresisting frame (SMRF) building has the typical floor plan as shown below. The typical elevation of Lines A through D is also shown, and the structure does not have horizontal irregularity Types 1a or lb. The following information is given .
Occupancy Importance Category I Seismic Design Category 0 1 = 1.0 Cd = 5.5 T = 0.60 sec
Seism ic force
Typical fluor plan
Level
4
3
2
DDD DDD DDD
Ty pical Elevati on
12'
12'
12'
12'
The following are the deflections (computed from static analysis  effects of Pdelta have been checked) bxe at the centerofmass of each floor level. These values include both translational and torsional (with accidental eccentricity) effects. As required by § 12.8.6.2, b.~c has been determined in accordance with design forces based on the computed fundamental perio d without the upper limit (CI/Ta ) of § 12.8.2.
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Level
Example 29 • Drift
§ 12.B.6
0"
1.51 in 1.03
1
[L]
4
3 2
.63 .30
For each floorlevel centerofmass, determine the following. Maximum inelastic response deflection 05.
~ Design story drift ~ in story 3 ~ Check story 3 for storydrift limit
Calculations and Discussion
Code Reference
[!J
Maximum inelastic response deflection Ox These are determined using the O values and the Cd factor se
§12.B
o = CA, I
.r
= 5.56" = 5.50
1.0
se
C 12.815) Eq
The refore:
Level
0.(1'
1.51 in 1.03 0.63 0.30
6,
8.31 in 5.67 3.47 1.65
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1
4 3
2
1
~ Design story drift ~ in story 3 due to Ox
Story 3 is located between Levels 2 and 3. Thu s:
~J =
5.67  3.47 = 2.20 in
I
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§12.8.6
Example 29 • Drift
I
§12.12.1
@J
Check story 3 for storydrift limit
1
1
J
For this fou rstory building with Occupancy Importance Category I, § 12.12.1, Table 12.121 requires that the design story drift /1 shall not exceed 0.025 times the story height.
For story 3
/1J
=
2.20 in
]
Storydrift limit = 0.025 (144) = 3.60 in > 2.20 in :. Story drift is within the limit.
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8.rr 1 (E q 12. using a static. a fourstory steel special mo mentres isting frame (SMF) structure has the design force deflections o t! as shown. These have been determined x according to § 12.1 2 lEJralnple 30 Story Drift Limitations *12. the code places limits on the design story drifts. [}J Design earthquake deflections Ox ~ Compare design story drifts with the limit value Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [}J Design earthquake deflections ax §12 .0 tr = 5. 1.Example 3 0 • Stor.! Drift Limitations §12 .79 P = 1.6 The design earthquake deflections O are determined from the following x = Cd° .91 1 = 1.12 For the design of new buildings. I 1 19 .8.50 of ! t 2006 IB C St ructural/SeIsmi c Des ign Manual.5c5.8.0 = 5.36 12' Cd 0. e 2. elastic analysis. Vol . t! In the example give n below.8..5 12' 2 1.15) = 5. Occupancy Category I Seismic Design Category D 12' Level 4 ~ f ~ D Deflected shape ' 6.44 In 3 1. The limits are based on the design earthquake displacement or deflection O and not x the elastic response deflections ex corresponding to the design lateral forces of § 12. /).3 16' 0 Determine the foll ow ing.
025 time s the story height.k.21 requires that the calculated design story drift shall not exceed 0.12 p per §12.019211 = 0. this limit is reduced by §12.§12.12 are satisfied.24 3. o. I .76 2.k.12. 0. E. 2. .65 3._I. o. 3.. 0.62 1.9 is used.k.51 in 2.68 2. 120 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.59 Limit 2.Cl.019211 Levell = 0.0192 (16 ft x 12 in/ft) = 3.0251111. § 12.08 in 1." 2. story drift should be determined as the modal combination of the storydrift value for each mode.121 .59 D.68 Status o. Vol .43 in 8.019211 Determine drift limit at each level Levels 4 .. Table 12. and 2 !1 S.k. For SMF in SDC D. Therefore: The story drift limits of § 12.13 0. .65 O x 11.92 6.02511 requires interior and exterior wall systems to be detail to accommodate this drift per Table 12. o. Note that use of the drift limit of 0. and F.0192 (12 ft x 12 in/ft) = 2. check actual design story drifts against limits Level x 4 3 2 1 C .76 2.76 in !1 S.76 3.12.1: !1alp = 0. = Cl. Whenever the dynamic analysis procedure of § 12. Determination of story drift from the difference of the combined mode deflections may produce erroneous results because differences in the combined modal displacements can be less than the corresponding combined modal story drift.68 in For b.1.12 Example 30 a Story Drift Limitations @J Compare story drifts with the limit value For this fourstory building in Occupancy Category I.3 = 0.
Vol .2 Find the vertical seismic load effect.4. [!J Upward seismic forces on beam ~ Beam end reactions Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Upward seismic forces on beam For SOC 0 .2 E = E" + E\O (Eq 12.2SDsD QE = 0 for verti cal load.0.2D where the negative sign is for an upward action.42) (Eq 12. Seismic Design Category D Beam unit we ight = 200 plf SDS= 1.2. The governing load combination including E as defined in §12.Example 31 • Vertical Sei smi c Load Effect §12. on the nonprestressed canti lever beam shown below.2. I 121 . The follow ing information is given.4. 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismi c D esig n Manual.4. giving E (Eq 12.2 Exal te 31 Vertical Seismic Load Effect §12.2 §12.0) D =.43) E" = 0. the design of hori zonta l cantilever beams must consider 1.0 Find the following for strength design.2(1.2.44) =0  0.4..41) (Eq 12. E.
7D 1 = 0.2(200) = . The terminology of "net upward seismic force" is intended to specify that gravity load effects cannot be considered to reduce the effects of the vertical seismi c forces and that the beam must have the strength to resist the actions caused by this net upward force without consideration of any dead loads. (5) is qe = 1.9D + (.2 I I 122 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.§12.2..1.28 = 1. This force is computed as 0.2.2)(1.2.0E = 0. I I I I I I I J 2.4D = 1.2D + 1.4.0.9D + 1. The governing load combination including the downward seismic effect from §2.0.0E + L + 0.0.4 (200 pit) = 280 plf downward :. (7) is qe = 0.3.3.2D) =0.2.7(200 plf) = 140 plf downward :. this is the maximum downward load on the beam.2 times the dead load qs = . I . Vol.0)D + 0 + 0 =l.2WD = .0(0.2 Example 31 • Vertical Seismic Load Effect I 1 The governing load combination including the upward seismic effect from §2. A minimum net upward seismic force. no net upward load.2D + 1.40 plf J §12.
. = 40~0)2 = J 2000 lb/ft The beam must have strengths .J 123 . to resist these actions. and .2 Beam end reactions for upward force of 40 plf v.2.1 J J EKample J 1 " Vertical Seismic Load Effect §12.J = qEl! = 40 plf(lO ft) = 400 lb M. Vol.4= qe .pM.4. I I I I I I I 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.pll. and the actions due to the applicable gravity load combinations.
5 Examp le 32 • Desig n Response Spe ctrum I §11. = S DI S DS = 0.5 Exam p l e 32 .45 124 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic Design Man ual. I I I I I I I I I .28g TL = 8 sec I J [!J Determine design response spectrum 'Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Section I J . To and T. and T > T. Vol.esign Response Spectrum I I Determine the general design response spectrum for a site where the followi ng spectra l response acceleration parameters have been evaluated accordin g to the general procedure of §11 . arc calculated as I I I "". S DS= 0.= 0.I2 sec T. ".4. '!.45 = O.28) 0.28 = 0.2(0.4.§11.5 provides the equations for the 5percent damped accele ration response spectrum Sa for the period T intervals of os T::: To.45g SOl = 0.62 sec 0.4.4.
12 sec Ts =0.41..~ From this information the elastic design response spectrum for the site can be drawn as shown in Figure 33.4(OA5g) 0. 125 .18g '_' .18]g 2.28g _ _ __ : ~ I L I ~0.SDI  TL _ 2. For the interval 0:::: T:::: To Sa = 0. Figure 33.12 [2.45 ) T + 0.6 = SD T+ OASDS S T" (Eq 11 . per Figure 11.g Sa ..4  To =0..28 . < T:::: TL T .24 g T2 .28g _ T 0.45g 3._ . 1 Elastic response spectrum 2006 IBC Structur al/S eis mi c Des ign Manual. For r. .5 The spectral accelerations are calculated as 1.SOl _ 0.1.1 below. Vol .25T + 0.4.6 = 0. For T~ TL sa .45g I I ! 0. Sa = SDS = 0.Examp le 32 " Des ign Response Spectrum §11.62 s ec 1.45) g (0.1. T nsc Eq 162 1) 4. in ASCE/SEI 705 So 0. For To < T :::: r.0 T(sec) TL = 8 sec ..
0 J = 1.2.5. the frame element design loads for a dual system are usually a result of a computer analysis of the combined frameshear wall system.0 kipft ~ Moment frame Point A V=400kips From the results of the computer analysis LV shear walls = 355 kips L V columns = 45 = 400 kips Total design base shear Determine the following for the moment frame system.0 Design Base Shear V = 400 kips QE = MQE = 53.1 This example illustrates the determination of design lateral forces for the two basic elements of a dual system.1 . 2. the Equivalent LateralForeeProcedure of § 12. §12. Vol. In present practice. The following information is given. The two systems are designed to resist the total design base shear in proportion to their relative rigidities. Resistance to lateral load is provided by the combination of the moment frames and by shear walls or braced frames.§12. Seismic Design Category D p = 1. In this example. I . Shear wall This is the beam moment MQE . I 1 J I.8 has been used to determine the seismic demand QE at point A in the dual system of the building shown below. [!J [!J Design criteria Seismic design moment at A = M'QE I I I I I I I I I I I I 126 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.5.1 prescribes the following features for a dual system .2. Recall that the momentresisting frames provided must be able to resist at least 25 percent of the design forces.2.5. example 33 II Dual Systems I 1 § 12.
assume that The required values QEcorresponding to a frame base shear resistance equal to 25 percent of V is given by and the seismic design moment at A is M~E = O.2. because this procedure includes the interaction effects between the frame and the shear wall From the combined frameshear wall analysis with forces due to the design base shear V = 400 kips.0) = 117. ~ Seismic Design Moment at A = M'QE It is elected to use the factored QE (option b) listed above.1 .8 kipft 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual.2~~400) (53. ~ Q~ ~ Q~ may be found by an equivalent lateralforce analysis of the independent moment frame using 25 percent of the design base shear V. For this example. the portion VFofthe base shear resisted by the momentframe is equal to the sum of the first story frame column shears in the direction ofl oading.5. Th is 25percent requirement may be interpreted in two ways. I 127 .1 1 J Example 33 • Du al Sys tems § 12. :Calculations and Discussion  CodeReference OJ Design criteria According to the two listed requirements. Vol. or the Q~ value resulting from at least 25 percent of the design forces. J may be found by factoring the combined frameshear wall system Q~ value such that Q~ corresponds to the action that would occur if the portion of the base shear resisted by the moment frame VF were to be at least equal to 25 percent of the design base shear V.shear wall system. the moment frame must be designed for the greater value of either the Q E value due to the design base shear V loading on the combined frame .
5. the code permits use of a larger R value for the primary system than would be permitted without the 25percent frame system .VF I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 128 2006 1BC Strucrural/Selsmic Design Manual. Vol. while at the same time the primary system. where these O. .25V . and excessively large moment frame design actions would result from the use of Design Criterion Ib. 1 Example 33 • Du al Sy st em s I . The slender configuration of the shear walls or bracing systems can actua lly load the moment frame at the upper levels of the combined model.§ 12 .2 . either shear wall or braced frame. For this configuration. carries its proportio nal share of the design base shear. ie large aclions wou ld be muIlip I' db y . omrriel1Jary C Use of a dual system has the advantage of providing the structure with an independent vertical loadcarrying system capable of resisting 25 percent of the design base shear. . I ) . Design Criterion la involving the design of the moment frame independent from the shear wall or bracing system for 25 percent of the design base shear should be considered for highrise buildings .
Ground [!J Outofplane force for wall panel design ~ Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design ~ Loading.Story Wall Pan els §12. nor less than 280 Iblft 2006 IB C Str uctu ral/S eis mic D esig n Manual. Seismic Design Category D Top of parapet 4' Roof I = 1.0 SDS= l.2. the force must be taken as no less than 400 lb/ft SDsI. Vol.1 1 Ie 34 eteret orees for'OlleStar xa all Panels 12.11 Fp = 0.40 SDsI wp ~ 0.Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One.1 wp where wp is the we ight of the wal l.1. T he fo llow ing information is given. Per § 12.1 1. This is usually done for a representative 1foot width of the wall length. shear and moment diagrams for para pet design :Calculafions and Discussion Code Reference [!J Outo fpl ane fo rce for wall panel design Under § 12. determine the outofplane sei smi c forces required for the design of the wall section. I 129 .11 This example illustrates the determi nation of the total design lateral seismic force on a tiltup wall panel supported at its base and at the roof diaphragm level.Og Panel thickness = 8 inches Normal weight con crete ( 150 pe t) TillUp panel 20' Determ ine the followi ng. Note that the panel is a bearing wall and shear wall. I 1. assuming a uniformly distributed outofplane loading. For the tiltup wall panel shown bel ow. the design lateral loading is determ ined using §12 .
1 requ ires the anchorage force (but not the wall force) to be incre ased.0)w = O AOw The weight of the panel between the base and the top of the parapet is w\\' = L~) (150) (24) = 2400 lb per foot of width Fp = 0040 (2400) = 950 Ib/ft F p > 400 lb/ft SD = 400( 1)(1) = 400 lb/ft sI Fp > 280 lb/ft The force F p is the total force on the panel. It acts at the centroid. Vol. for the parapet design load.(p. I .(p r JP = 960 Ib/ft 24 ft = 40. the wall panel seismi c force is F p = OAO(1. shear. §12. below. 40. The 40. the loading. but this must be uniformly distributed between the base and the. The force Fp is considered to be applied at the midheight (centroid) of the panel.11 Ex ample 34 :I Lat eral Forc es for OneStory Wall Panels Note that if the diaphragm is flexible .0 P lflft ~ Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design Using the uniformly distributed load. See step 3.0 plf/ft uniform loading is also applied to the parapet.0.§12.0 and J = 1.0)(1.top of parapet. For design of the panel for outofplane forces. F p must be expressed as a distributed load.0 plllft 4' RR ·3 20 20' 184 3 Rs 384 Loading Shear (Ib/ft) Moment IbftIft 130 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. For the given SDS = 1.l1. and moment diagrams are determ ined for a unit width of panel.2.
31) F= p 0.576 = 385 lb/ft The shears and moments are the QE load actions for strength design.3 SD slpWp .0 plf/ft (24 ft) = 960 lb ft The reaction at the roof and base are calculated as RR= 960(12) 20 = 576 Ib/ft RR = 960 .Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One· Stoi"y Wall Pane ls §12. .0)(1. o.5)(1.1.k.51 values of ap = 2.5 (1 + 2 20)w 20 p F p = 1.5 and Rp = 2. shear and moment diagrams for parapet design §13.5 for the unbraced cantilever parapet portion of the wall panel. . Vol.0) 2. o.2 (400) = 480 lb/ft < 1.11 When the uniform load is also applied to the parapet. The parapet is considered an elem ent with an attachment elevation at the rooflevel T 13. see rsc §1620. the total force on the panel is 40 . . ~ Loading. .3.32) (Eq 13.33) and > 0.6 SD sIpW = 640 lb/f] .4 (2. I 131 . 2006 la c Struct ural/Seismic Design Manual.2Wp = 1. p (Eq 13.31 with the Table 13.k.1 I This section requ ires that the design force for parapets (note that parapets are classified as architectural components) be determined by Equation 13.51 z=h The weight of the parapet is I I I I I Wp = (1~)(150)(4) = 400 lb per foot of width The concentrated force applied at the midheight (centroid) of the parapet is (Eq 13. Note that the reaction at the roof RR is not necessarily the face used for walltoroof anchorage design.2.
. Arkansas. Alabama. and Florida) the minimum wind forces may govern over the seismic forces. Mississippi. 132 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.11 Example 34 • Lateral Forces for OneStory Wall Panels The equivalent uniform seismic force is h = 480 4 = 120 plf/ft for parapet design 120 plrJft 4' 480 960 Shear (Ib/ft) Loading Moment (lbfUft) ••f I . I . 'I Note that for a large portion ofthe lower southeast region of the USA (Texas. . ..§12. Georgia.... Louisiana. Vol..
= OAOw". [L] Outofplane forces for wall panel design Outofplane forces for wall anchorage design [3J [L] Calculations and Discussion Outofplane forces for wall panel design Requirements for outofp lane seismic forces are speci fied in § 1620. Wa lls span from floor to floor to roof. 2: 0.1. Th e followi ng information is given. The typica l wall panel in this building has no pilasters and the tiltup wall s are bearing walls.11. Vol.0 = panel 20' Wall weight WI/' = 113 psf 38' 16' Wan section I I I I I Determ ine the fo llowing .11.2 This example illustrates determination of outofplane seis mic forces for the design of the twostory tiltup wall pane l shown below.2 psf 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual. 11.0)( 1.0)11'".1 r.111'".1 1.1 §12. Seismic Design Category D S DS 2' Wall J = = 1. OA O 1. I Sgage compo site decking with a 2II2inch ligh tweight conc rete topp ing. = = 0040 Soslw.Exampl e 35 • OutofPlan e Seismic Forces for TwoStory Wall Pan el §12.2 Example 35 OutofPlane Seismic !Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel §12_11. The seco nd floor consists of Iinch. A typical solid panel (no door or window openings) is assume d. 20gage metal deck ing on open web steel joists and has been determ ined to be a flexible diaph ragm.0 1. = OAO( 113) ( = I 45 .7 Code Reference §12.1 and 12. Th e ro of consists of 11/2inch. I 133 . T his is considered a rig id diaphr agm .
] Anchorage force for the flexible roof diaphragm r. Vol.5 and Rp = 2.1 [!.2 plf ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 20' ~ ~ ~ ~ .1 §1 2.)}'. 134 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.0)(1356) = 1085 plf Th e design forc e per anchor is Fp times the anchor spacing. 11... with height z at parapet centroid 37 ft. Gp = 2.3.2.8( 1. the anchor mus t be designed for (10 85) (4 ft) = 4340 lb. /p = Fp( I ft) = 45. For the purpose of wall design. the required shears and moments may be evaluated by using reaction va lues base d on the tributary area for the lft strip 16 ft ) 1" R 1( .0)( 1.11.§12.2) = 362 1 b R... Fp is appl ied as a uniform load ~ 2' ~ r ..~ [( 2~ ft) + 2ft](1 13 psf) ~ 1356 pl f Fp = 0.111) where Ww is the we ight of the wall tributary to the anchor w. I . ~ ~ 16' ~ .. = 0..8 8 s/wl\' D (Eq 12.5 ~ Outatplane torces tor wall anchorage design §12.' ~ + 18(45..2YP= 8(45.2 Examp l e 35 " OutofPlan e Seismic Forces for Tw oStory Wall Panel For a repre sentative 1footwide strip of wall length. [C:) (2. . 11.2) ~ 814 Ib Note that the 2foothigh parapet must be des igned for the seismic force F p specified in § 13.1. For example if the spacing is at 4 feet.....
z = 16 = the height of the anchorage of the rigid diaphragm attachment. sI c.2 1 b.0) [I + 2 p ) = 2.5 (.1 §12. The force set forth in §12. A force of 400 SD (pit). I 135 .302Wp = 0.4(1. 280 (pit) of wall. Vol. §12.E1Camp/~ 35 " Out·of·Plane Solsmic Forces for TwoStory Wall Panel §12.11.1.0)(1.11. and Wp is the weight of the wall tributary to the anchor 6 2 [(2~ ft) + C fl )](113 pst) = 2034 plf ft Wp = F = 0. For the case of rigid diaphragms the anchorage force is given by the greater of the following: a.!i)] 36 = IV p 0.0)(1.11.302(2034) 615 plf I I 1 I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.11. 2 ~ Anchorage force for the rigid second floor diaphragm .
and F. I I I .11 . the seismic outofplane forces for the design of the wall are not dependent on the height of the wall in relati onship to the total height of the building. I I I I I I I I I I I I 136 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1.2 Example 35 • OutatPlane Seismic Forces for Two·Story Wall Panel 1 Commentary For flexible or rigid diaphr agms for all seismic design categories (SDCs). §12. and F. the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.§12. For flexible diaphragms of SDCs A and B. the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.2 and for SDCs C. D.2. E.11.11. D. Vol. the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12. For rigid diaphragms of SDCs A and B.11.11.1 §12.11. the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.2. E. For rigid diaphragms of SDCs C.2.11.
.0 r. including anchorage.1 = 1. ~ NOndUCljle allachmenls Seismic Design Category D 5 DS Wp Level Roof ~ shallow expansion anchors = 1. Att achment.~ . Vol. as used in the code. and support mountings.31 [!J Design criteria Th e total des ign lateral seismic component force to be transferred to the structure is determined from (Eq 13.3.31) 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manua l.Example 36 • RIgid Equipment § 13. 3.1 Thi s example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments of rigid equipment (see commentary). that "attach" the equipment to the structure. means those components. 12' 12' Ip Wp = 10 kips 2 12' Find the follow ing. 1 Example 36 Rigid Equipmen §13. The threestory building structure shown below has rigid electrical equipment supported on nond uctile porcelain insulators that provide anchorage to the structure. bracing. I 137 . Identical equipment is located at the base and at the roof of the building. [!J Design criteria ~ Design lateral seismic force at base ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof Ca/cu/~t(ons and Discussion Code Reference §13..
1)(1 0 kips ) [1 + 2 (~)] = 2.6 kips (Eq 13.3 .6 (1.2.1) (1. pommentary The definition of a rigid component (e.3 SDs l p W p = 0. see §13. anchorages. = 36 ft s P Wp F p = 0. Fp = 8.3 (1.1 states that Fp need not exceed 1.8 ki (1.5.2.0) 10 = 3.3 Check S DS Jp W p r.3.. Equation 13.4(1 .0) 10 = 17. Vol.6 SDS Jp Check Fp S 1.§13. Also note that for shallow expansion anchors Rp = 1. .33 governs ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof Zx = h. 1 has a requi rementthat Fp be not less than 0.5/1.0)(1.93 ki (1. 1) (1.1 Ex amp l e 36 • Rig id Equipment Values of Q p and Rp are given in Table 13. I .6 S DS Ip Wp = 1.0) 36 Section 13. Fp = 3.06 seconds.32) :.3 kips .3.3 kips (Eq 13. s 0. Equation 1667 governs.0) 36 s P Also § 13.31 =0 F p = 0.1)(1 0 kips) [1+ 2 (36)] = 8. T 13. .0)(1. 138 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.5/1.33) : .g.4.61. and support mountings) that has a period less than or equal to 0.4(1. bracing. item of equipment) is given in § 11..8 kips .61 ~ Design lateral seismic force at base Zx §13. . Rigid equipment (including its attachments.
comes mounted on a supporting frame that is part of the manufactured unit.1 The fundamental period Tp for mechanical and electrical equipment shall be determined by the formula given in § 13. the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of § 13.4. I 139 . Where equipment. Generally . This is discussed in § 13.3 requires a component importance factor greate r than 1.1. Testing should comply with ICCES AC I56.0 (lp = 1. I • I I I I I I • • Life safety component required to function after an earthquake Components of hazardous materials Occupancy Category IV component s needed for continued operation of the facility 2006 IBC Structural/Seis mic Design Manual. which can be either flexible or rigid.6.1. Section 13.5 allows testing as an alternative to the analytical methods of § 13.5 for shallow anchors. only equipment such as anchorage or attachmen ts or components need be designed for seismic forces..2).Exa mple 36 • Rigid Equipm ent §13.4. where Rp = 1.2 (Eq 13. the force in the connected part) is a function of l/Rp .2. Vol.61) Where: g = acceleration of gravity in inches/sec/ Kp = stiffness of resilient support system Tp = component fundamental period IV = component operating weight p The component anchorage design force Fp (i.3 .5) for the following . Note that § 13. (see § 13.e.
I = 1. Anchor bolts in the floor slab meet the embedment length requirements. that "attach" the equipment to the structure. Vo l . [!J Design criteria ~ Design lateral seismic force at base ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof 'Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §13 .1 [!J Design criteria The tota l design lateral seismic component force to be transferred to the structure is determined from CEq 13. Identical equipment is located at the base and at the roof of the building.3. Attachment as used in the code means those components.§ 13.3.3. Level Roof ~ '/DUClileall achmenls Seismic Design Category D 12' SDS= Ip W. / / / / / Find the following. and support mountings. 1.1 This example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments of flexible equipment. bracing.1 Ex am p l e 37 " Flexible Equipment § 13. including anchorage.0 = 10 kips 2 12' 1 '~ wp / / / . The threestory building structure shown below has flexible airhandling equipment supp orted by a ductile anchorage system. see commentary.31) 140 2006 IBC Str u c t ura l/Seis m i c Des ig n Manua l. I .
3.5)(1.61 1 ~ Design lateral seismic force at base z =0 F p = 0.1)( 1.5. Eq 13. .1 states that Fp nee d not exceed 1.3.2) Fp :s 1..4(2.0) 36 s p Section 13. 1 Values of ap and Rp are given in Tabl e 13.33) r. Eq 13.5/1.6( 1.3 SvslpWp Chec k (Eq 13.5 T 13.0)( 10) = 3.1 governs .4 ki (2.3 SvslpWp = 0.3( 1. Rp = 2.3. Fp = 4 .0) [I + 2 36] = 13..2 ki 36 5 p Sect ion 13. 20061BC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual..4(2.1)(10) = 17.61.3.1)(10 kips) [I + 2~] = 4. ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof z = h = 36 ft I I I I I I I F p = 0.3.1 has a requirement that Fp be not less than 0. F p = 13.6 Sos JpWp Ch eck CEq 13.5/1.31 governs.5)(1. / 14 1 .1)(1 0 kip s) (2.Exampl e 37 • Flexib le Equip ment § 13.4 kips . Vol. ~ 0.2 kips .6 SvsWp = 1.6 kips : .3 kips : . Sin ce the equ ipment is flexible and has limited defonnability elements and attachm ents ap = 2.
"Architectural. I .1.1 requires that. mechanical. A certificate of compliance shall be submitted to both the registered design professional in responsible charge of the design of the designated seismic system and the building official for review and approval.2. bracing.3. as defined in §13. I I I I I I I I I I A component importance factor greater than 1.2.. has a period greater than 0. is a function of l/Rp .4.0 (Ip = 1. then the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of §13.5) is required for the following. and support mountings). shall be qualified by either test or calculation. Vol . mechanical. Also note that §13.06 second .e. and electrical components supports and attachments shall comply with the sections referenced in Table 13. ICC ES has published Acceptance Criteria (AC 156) that addresses the qualification test to satisfy the referenced code requirements.2. comes mounted on a supporting frame that is part of the manufactured unit.3. Fp (i. • • • Life safety component required to function after an earthquake Components of hazardous materials Occupancy Category IV components needed for continued operation of the facility 142 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. only equipment anchorage or components need be designed for seismic forces." Those architectural. Where the equipment. the force in the connected part). and electrical systems and their components that are part of a designated seismic system.1 Example 37 • Flexible Equipment 1 I I I I I I 'commentary The definition of flexible equipment is given in § 11 .21. where anchorage of any kind is shallow (see § 13.§13. It should be noted that the component anchorage design force. Generally.2). which can be either flexible or rigid. Flexible equipment (including its attachments anchorages.
72 in 12' 4 by Ae R = = Cd 6 aA 8. A unique control panel fram e is attached to the floor framing at Levels 2 and 3 of the special steel moment frame building show n below. This example illustrates appl ication ofthis requ irement.5 3 12' 2 12' = O.2 requires that equipment attachments be designed for effects induc ed by Dp (re lative seismic disp lacement).94 in Governs (Eq 13.35) whe re b xA = b x. Level v Panel frame: EI = lOx 104 kipin' 12' 1 .. Vol. (}xAe = Level I..0 5. shape ~ Story drift to be considered ~ Induced moment and shear in frame Calculations and Discussion Code Reference ~ Story drift to be considered Sec tion 13. I 143 .2 Exa o11J Ie 38 e a i ve otion 0 S uipment ttachments 13. This is determined as follows.~ r"".OR in 0. The follo wing information is given . s. Deflected Determi ne the following : Y. Dp = bxA .by A = 1.3. C d = w bxAe= 1.3.3.Example 38 II Relative Mo tion of Eq uipment Attachments §13.015hx . Seismic Design Category D Occupancy Category II..2 requires that the design of equipment attachments in buildings have the effects of the relative displacement of attachment points considered in the lateral force design .08 in C d = 5.50 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual..3.98 in 5.2 Section 13.
.0.g._ 57..2 Example 38 • Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments 6. 144 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.y ) E.t. D p l<tf M _ 6EIDp _ 6(10 x 10 )(1. Rp = 1.5. then Rp = 1. One example of a nonductile anchorage is the use of adhesive . if the anchorage is provided by shallow anchor bolts. Adhesive is a "glued" attachment (e.0 15 h« = 0.015 (432) = 6.3. For example.288) = 2.4.26 432 (Eq 13. ~ M=P 2 H I 6EID v= 2M H The attachment details.3. ipS H M H 72 v ..5792 ki ..98 in §13.2M ..72 in Cd = 5.48 in = 36 ft x 12 = 432 in Thus : D p = 1.1('= 0.2 ~ Induced moment and shear in frame A liberal estimate of the moment and shear can be made using the following equations.50 Note that Dp is not required to be taken as greater than = (x .29 . Vol . 4 M~(~_ : I I v 0795 ki . should follow the applicable requirements of § 13.98) . I .. including the body and anchorage of connectors.L !1 hn 6.§13.H2 (144)2 . It should be noted that attachment by adhesive is not the same as anchor bolts set in a drilled hole with an epoxy type adhesive.48 = (432 . attachment of pedestal legs for a raised computer floor).1'. When anchorage is constructed of nonductile materials..36) where x y !1 a :l = hsx 36 ft x 12 = 432 in =24ftxI2=288in = 0. Ipm .
57 in R = 8.".m ic Design Categories 0 .4 A twolevel concrete parking struct ure has the space frame shown be low . The secondlevel gravity loadbeari ng sy stem is a pos tten sione d flat plate slab supported on ordinary rein forced concrete columns. The designated lateralforceresisting system con sists of a tw obay speci al rein forced concrete mom ent. §12. [!J ~ Moment in ordinary column Detailing requirements for ordinary column 145 . Vol. E.~~= fffff Plan at second level 0 I I I \ The foll owing information is given . 0.1 J Example 39 • D eformation Compatibility for Seismic D esign Cat eg or i es D.fram e (SRCMF) located on each side of the stru cture. 12. I ~ I I Find the follo wing.25 ff ? 'SRCMF 5 r:l l J"jV Elevation L10e E 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual. = 3 x 10J ksi 1 = 1. and F § 12. 4 . Seismic Design Ca tegory D lixc = 0.1:iia mple 39 Deformation Compatibility for : Seis. and F .5 Column section = 12 in x 12 in Column clear heig ht = 12 ft Concre te E.. E. 12.0 Cd = 5.
§ 12.25 = 2. I . such as the column. = 864 In4 2 M eol = 6(3 x 10 )(864 )(2. . an d F 1 §12.2 or §2 1.815) The moment induced in the ordinary column due to the maximum inelastic response x displacement O on line E mu st be determined. This requirement also applies to elements that are not part of the lateralforeeresisting system.. 12.11.a common approach is to use one half of the gross section properties.11. a fixedfixed condition is used for simplicity.alcula. 146 200 6 IBC Stru c tura l/ Se is mi c Des ig n Man ual . column moment is usually determined from a frame analysis. Vol.1 1 of ACI 31 805 impl ies that the stiffness of elements that are part of the lateralforeeresisting system shall be reduced ..4 ~ . For this example. 1 I I h = 12 ft x = bd 3 12 inches = 144 in 12 (12) 3 = 1728 in 4 12 I = 12 The cracked sec tion moment of inertia Ie can be appro ximated as 50 percent of the gross section 19 .3. depending on the magnitude of the moments induced by ox. JJ of ACI 31805 specifies requirements for frame members that are not part of the designated lateral forc eresisting system. Section 21. For purposes of this example.51 in (Eq 12. I I I I I I I I I I . 11.t ons and Discussion t ! Code Reference [!J Moment in ordinary column Section 2 1. and the interior flat plate/column system. I I J = ei l " = 5.57 ) I 1. In actual applications. the columns on line E wi ll be evaluated. E.12. that are assumed not to be part of the late ralforeeresisting sys tem must be det ailed according to ACI §2 1.1 of ACI 31 805 requires that frame members.51) (144)2 3 = 1883 kipin Detailing requirements for ordinary column. fall under these requirements and must be checked for the moments induced by the maximum inelastic response displacement.s. = .4 Exam ple 39 • D efor mation Comp a tib ility for Seismic De sign Cat eg or i es D.5(0. The ordinary columns located in the perimeter frames. Section 2 1.
by combining the ductile SRCMRF with ductile interio r columns.3. However.E~ample 39 " Deformation Com p atibility i or Seismic Design Categories D. In this configuration./ 147 . or nonductile. then design moments resulting from lateral structure seismic displacements need not be calculated for that column at all. the code also permits an altern ative way to configure this structure . ACI requirements for this configuration stress that the nonduc tile interior column must resist the structure lateral deformation by strength alone. interior column.12. Note that this example problem shows only one way to configure this structure . E.11. the flat plate slab must be checked for flexure and punchin g shear due to gravity loads and the frame analysis actions induced by o x. 1 2006 (BC Structural/Seismic D esign Man ual. Vo/.that is to combine a ductile SRCMRF with an ordinary.4 Gommentary 1 In actual applications. an d F §12. if interior concrete columns are detailed according to the requirements of ACI 3 I8 §21.
Under § 12. Thus. it must be shown that the adjo ining rigid element. displacement of 2.§ 12. the columns must be checked for ability to withsta nd the t. I . is an adjo ining rigid element.4 Example 40 A dj oining !}ligid Elements The concrete special reinforced concrete momentresisting frame (SRCMF) shown below is restrained by the partial height infill wall that is not considered to be a part ofthe seismic forceres isting system. The infill is solid mas onry and has no prov ision for an expansion jo int at the column faces. Ac = 3 x 10 = 144 3 Inrlll wall ksi Typ ical elevation in 4 t. Vol . was computed according to the procedure given in §12. which is not required by the desig n to be part of the latera lforceresisting system. [::LJ I I Code Reference Deformation compatibility criteria ~ Approximate column shear Calculations and Discussion [::LJ Deformation compatibility criteria §12.8.4.7.6. I I I I I I 148 20 06 IBC St r uc tur al/ Se is mic D esign Ma n ual.7. Seismic Design Category D t. in this case the masonry infill wall. must not impair the vertical.5 inches whi le being simultaneously restrained by the 6foothigh infill walls. 7. The des ign story drift t. I f = 2. = 854 in4 Determin e the following .5 in Column properties f: = 3000 psi E.4 The infi ll wall.or lateralloadresis ting ability of the SRCMF columns.7.4 EXllmp le 40 • Adj oining Rig id El em ent s 1 §12.
with resulting column shear I .25 in. = 12(3 x 10 11 3 3)(854)(2 (72)3 . Alternately. 1:>. t 149 .5) (144) = 25 . V../2 = 1. . such as a building torsional irregularity .4 [f] Approximate co lumn sh ear Column shear will be determined from the frame design story drift. 2006 IBC Struc tural/S eismic Design Manual. IpS. v col = l2E. This is approximately 26ff: Ac and would result in column shear failure. Generally.. it would be necessary to either design the column for the induced shears and moments caused by the infill wall. The induced column shear stress is '1. Also note the restrained column height is 6 ft or 72 inches.7.9 ki s P 1 Column clear height = 72 in Because the SRCMF is the primary lateralforeeresisting system.Example 40 • Adjoining Rigid Elements §1'. has been determined by neglecting the stiffness of the rigid masonry.I c" = 12(3 x 10 3)(854 3 )(2. For purposes of the example. a gap must be provided betwee n the column faces and the infill walls. If this were provided. the gap should be greater than or equal to 1:>. h .. I I I I I I shear of205 kips. or demonstrate that the wall will fail before the column is damaged. Vol. and correspon ds to a column shear stress of approximately 3.. the column clear height would be 144 inches.Ill.. For this example.Commentary It is also possib le that the restraint of the infill walls could cause an irregularity. the expression for shear due to a fixedfixed condition will be used for simplicity.3JJ:. I:>. = 1447 psi. with the restraining wall height equal to one half the column height. 7 ki ThiIS IS oneerg ht ofthe restrame d coIumn . Therefore. This should be evaluated if such restraints are present.5) = 205. it is far easier (and more reliable) to provide a gap sufficie ntly wide to accommodate 1:>.
5.34. I . The following informa tion is given.3 Th is example illustrates the determinat ion of the design lateral se ism ic forc e Fp on an ext erior element of a building . Seismic Design Category D 12' Level 5 4 I = 1. ' Th e intent of the code is to pro vide a val ue of F p that represents the average of the acc eleration inputs from the tw o attachment locations. Vol. A fivestory moment frame building is shown below.5. that are attached to the building at two levels.3 Exa mp le 4 1 • Exter io r Elements : Wa ll Panel §13.5. The cladding on the exterior of the bu ilding consists of precast reinforced concrete wall panels.3 For design of ext erior elements. in this case an exterior wall panel. [!J Design criteria Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story Design latera l seismi c force on a panel at the first story [I] @J Cijlculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Design criteria §13. This can be taken as the average of the two ~} values at z equal to ZL and z" .0 Panel size: I I ft 11 in by 19 ft 11 in Panel thickness: 6in Panel weight: W = 14.. such as the wall panels on a building.§13. 150 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. design lateral seismic forc es are determined from Equation 13.4 kips p S DS= 12' Ty pical exlerior panel 3 12' 2 12' 12' Find the following.0 1. Th e panels are attached at the two elevations ZL and z.
3 SD . slpW Rp 11 1.31) = T 13.6Wp .32) 1.4(1.0. o.4) = 5.0)(1.3Wp .0)(1.k.5 (Eq 13.3( 1. > 0. .0)(1.6 SD slpWp ~ Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the first story The following are known.3 O.5 60 11' p = 0.4 11W P = 0.1 ~ Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story Assuming connections are I foot above and below the nominal 12foot panel height Z" =47 ft = ZL 37 ft 11 = ft 1 F pL = 0. .0) + (37)] W = 0.0) [I + 2(47)] 2. o. = 1. Z" =Ilft =0 ZL h = 60 ft 2006 IBC Structu r al/S eism ic Design Manual. Vol.0)(1.k.3 SDslpH' p Check: Fp4 ~ = 0.5 p P [I 2 60 I Fp~ = Fpu + FpL 2 = (0.33) (Eq 13. (Eq 13. .384Wp = (0.53 kips Check: Fp4 > 0.0)(1.357) w 2 p I I I I I Fp~ = 0.4 (1. I 151 .0)Wp = 1. Rp = 2.4nPSOS IJ' [1 + 2'::] ~. .S.6(1.1 = Example 41 • Exterior Elements: Wall Panel § 13.384)(14.0)Wp = 0.357 W: 2.411 + 0.0)(1.5.
0)(1.0) [I + 2 (~)]W 2. Vol.21 9 if': p p 1 1 1 Check that Fpu is greater than 0.0)(1.3(1. and installation . I I I I 152 2006 IBC Structural/Seism i c Design Manual. transportation.2. 30 TVp 1 J Fpl = Fp u + FpL = 0.0)Wp = 0.4( 1. use FpL = Fpu= O. Also FpL < Fpu < 0. Also note that the forces induced by disp lacement Dp from Equation 13.5 .30Wp = (0.3 Example 41 • Exter ior Elemen ts: Wall Pan el F = 0. I .3 SvsIpWp Fpu = 0.30 TVp : .0)(1.§13.32 kips 2 I I ~ " .5 2.k.3. not o.35 need to be checked per § 13. 'f 'h " (:ommentary Note that the design of the panel may be controlled by nonseismic load conditions of the fabrication process.1.30)(14.4) = 4.30Wp . .5 60 pu = 0. .
where the pair of upper brackets must prov ide resistance to outofplane wind and seismic forces and inplane vertical and horizontal forces.5. Seismic Design Category 0 S DS = 1. I 153 .0 0.0 = fi fp 1.J Strength design load combinations ~ Lateral seismic force at centerofmass C of panel ~ Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and connections @J Design forces for the brackets ~ Design forces for the rods ' C~!~ulations and Dis _cussifJn Code Re(~relJce [!. The panel support system is shown below.3 Th is example illustrates the det ermination of the total design seismic lateral force for the design of the conne ctions of an exterior wa ll pan el to a building. Panel live load.4. An exterior nonb earing panel is located at the fourth story of a fivestory moment fram e bu ilding. Th e panel is supported vertically from these bracket s.2 2006 IB C Structural/Se ismic Des ign Manual.4 kips P = 1.5. the app licable strength design load combinations are §2. h = 60 ft Panel weight = 14.0 per §12.3. [!.3.3 xample42 Exterior ons ruc turei all Elements: reces Panel §13.1(3). Vol.Ex ample 42 Q Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel § 13.5 Height to roof. L = 0 = 12' Find the following.J Strength design load combinations For desi gn of the panel connections to the building. The lower pair of rod connections pro vides res istance to only the outo fpl ane forces.
7) with E = pQ£ .§1J.J Example 42 • Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elem ents : Precast Panel J (Comb. the equation reduces to l.2D + 1.lD + Q£ .0Q£ = I J + 0. for Q£ and D with opposite signs. I (Comb. for Q£ and D with same signs and type of load action.2 SsoD = Q£ +0. the equation reduces to lAD + Q£ . the equati on reduc es to 0.2 SsoD (Eq 12A2) As SDS = LOg.2 SDSD = 1.3. I I I I I I I I I I I I . Q£ is the load action on the connection due to the lateral load Fp applied either inplane or outo fplane at the panel centerofmass per § 13.0g.0)D Q£ +0 . upward resistan ce is equal to downward resistance. This combination need not be considered because the rod connections resist only the Q£ axial load.0g. This combination need not be considered since it is less than lAD + Q£.0£ with E = pQ£ + 0. for Q£ and D with same signs. 154 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2D + 1. In the seismic load combinations.2D As S DS = 1.70D + Q£.2(1.2D 1 J As Sos = 1. 5) (Eq 12AI) a) 1. with E = pQ£+ 0.0E + )1" L = I.9D + 1.9D + 1. Therefore. 7) (Eq 12AI ) b) 0.0. c) 0. and the bracket connections have shear resistance capacity independent of the direction of the Q£ shear load: for example. this load combination is satisfied by lAD + Q£ for Q£ and D with the same signs.0E where.5.0Q£ (Comb. Vol .
2: 0..1 for the body and fastene rs of the connection elements. I .4(1.k.. at the panel centerofmass elevation.3 SosIpWp = 0.3 IV p • • • o. 11 p r. The values of Rp and o p are given in Table 13. z.3 1 ~ Lateral seismic force at cen te ro fmass C of panel Section 13.51 1 IV = weigh t panel = 14.. 5.3 SosIpIVp = 0.357 Wp > 0. this average Fp would be essentially equal to the Fp value using Z = z.4o pSDs l p ( 1+ 2.5.. For the higher story levels of the building.3.33) With the given values of Sos = 1.31) z) F = O.0 and Rp = 2.IV p n.5.4 kips p I I I I I I At upper bracket connection level = Zu = 47 ft F pU = 0. ZL.4(1. However. and Ip = 1. .1 applied to the centerofmass of the wall panel. this use of elevations z = Zc may not be valid for the lower story levels because of the limitation of (Eq 13. Fp will be determined as the avera ge of the Fp values for the upper bracket elevation level.k.33) = 1.0) [I + 2 (47)] IV 2. requires that the connection seismic load actions be determined by the force Fp given by §13.4 11 Wp > 0. for body of connection T 13.0)IVp = 0. Vol .3(1. To represen t the average seismic acceleration on the panel. = At lower rod connect ion level z =ZL = 37 ft = 0.3Wp Op (Eq 13.I Example 42 • Exteri or Nonstructural Wa ll Elements: Precasl Panel §13 .3 Wp . o.0)( 1.5 60 p = 0.0.0) [1 + 2 (37)] If' 2.3. 155 2006 IB C Structural/Seis mic Design Manu al. Item d.5.5 60 p 0.0 (Eq 13. and for the lower rod elevation elevati ons.
. I~ . In this examp le.38 kips 4 4 where Pe is the bracket force and P R is the rod force. _ . _ . . Vol. I. ._.357) 2 2 w I' = 0. g' . 0~ Fp = 5. _ _ f. outofplane seismic forces.•_ .4Wp = 1.3.53 = 1. . .4) =20 .•.§13.. Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and co nnections §13. I . These are shown below as concentrated forces .. t  1. and vertical seismic forces are calculated as follows: g' .411 + 0. is the controlling load combina tion..2Wp = 1.It I 5' .16 kips Each bracket and rod connection takes the following axial load due to the outofplane force Fp at centerofmass Ps + PR = Fp = 5..5 3 kips f.. _ .3 Ex ampl e 42 • Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Pane l 1 J The required average... ~ Dea d load.2 I There are two seismic load conditions to be considered: outofplane and inplane . and vertical seismic for ces Panel connec tion reactions due to factored dead load.) = 5..2.384(14.5.53 kips This force is applied at the panel centroid C and acts horizontally in either the outofplane or the inplane direction. seismic outofplane...5.2D + QE. 1. _ ••_ •• J 5' . .. I I I I I I I I I I I I I 156 2006 IBC S tr uctur al/S eismi c D esig n Ma n ual.4 (14.2Wp + O. Fp Fp u + Fp L = (0... Combination 5 of §2. _ _ _..384Wp = 0..
54 ki IpS 18 Each bracket takes the following downward force due to vertical loads: RB = 1. Vol.53 ki = =2.= 10.= 20. seismic inplane.16 kips Each bracket takes the following inplane horizontal shear force due to lateral seismic load H B = r. 2 5. = .3 1 Each bracket takes the following downward inplane shear force due to vertical loads VB = .5. = .. because it carries only axial forces.Examplo 42 IR Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Panel §13. inplane seismic forces .4Wp 2 20. = 5. each rod carries no force. or seismic loading. has no inplane.= 10.5(Fp )  18  5(5.16 . I 157 ..53 kips 1.± I .77 IpS 2 I I I I I Each bracket takes the following upward or downward shear force due to the reversible lateral seism ic load FB . and vertical seismic forces are calculated as 9' 9' 5' 5' c . dead.53) ./ F.08 kips 2 Under the inplane seismic loading . 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I AWp 2 20. ~ Dead load.08 kips 2 Note that each rod. and vertical seismic forces Panel connection reactions due to factored dead load.4W.16 .
1.0. Thus.125 because these values were based on ap = 1.77 kips horizontal shear together with FB+ RB= 1. Fasteners must be designed to resist I J (3..0 and Rp = 2.39 kips axia l load 1 58 20 06 IBC S tru ctural/Seismic Design Manua'.66 kips horizontal shear together with 3.25 and Rp = 1.77) = 8.08 kips downward shear 3.3.89 kips downward shear ~ Design forces f or t he rods ~ Body of connection The body of the connection must be designed to resist a force based on ap = 1. I I I I I I I I .54) + 10. I I PB = ± 1.1 the body of the connection must be designed for = 1.08 = 11.25)(2.5 P R = 1.5.3 and Tab le 13.0 and R p = 2.54 + 10.5.125FB+ RB = 3.3 Example 42 • Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elem ents : Precast Pan el 1 @J Design forces for the brackets ~ Body of connection Up I Under §13. and Table 13.38) = 4.125) P B= 3.38 axial load together with VB = 10. Vol .§13.62 kips downward shear ~ Fasteners Under § 13.125(1.5) = 3.5.5. These are the up and Rp values used for the determination of Fp .5.125HB= 3.5. fasteners must be designed for u p = 1.125(1. it is necessary to multiply the Fp load actions by ( 1.31 kips axial load together with VB and = 10.08 kips downward shear and H B = ± 2. Item d. The bracket must be designed to resist the following sets of load actions.125(2.08 = 14.0 and Rp = 2.5. there is no need to change the load actions due to this force. Therefore.
125(1.1 1 Exampl e 42 s Exter ior Nonst ructura l Wall Elements: Precast P anel §13. I 159 .25 and Rp = 1.3 1 [!J F asteners Fasteners in the connecting system must be des igned to resist a force based on ap = 1.31 kips axial load r I J I I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic D esign Manual.0 (3.38) = 4.5. Vol. I 25)PR = 3.
3.1. For this particular example.1.§12. The requirement is to ensure that important parts of a structure are "tied together. The following information is given. given by the greater value of Fp = 0.1.3 Example 43 • Beam Horizontal Tie Force EXa m p le 43 'Bea m H orizonta l Tie Force §12.0 p~~~~~~~ k" Pin support "p" Dead Load D = 6 kip/ft Live Load L = 4 kip/ft [!J Determine tie force ~ Determine horizontal support force at "P" Calculations and Discussion Cod~ Reference [!J Determine tie force Requirements for ties and continuity are specified in §12. 1. Seismic Design Category D SDS = 1.3 . This force is designated as Fp . I .3 Th is example illustrates use of the beam interconnection requirement of §12.133 SDSW p or F p = 0." Find the minimum required tie capacity for the connection between the two simple beams shown in the example below. it is required to determine the "tie force" for design of the horizontal tie interconnecting the two simply supported beams.05H'p where wp is the weight of the smaller (shorter) beam Wp = 40 ft (D) = 40(6) = 240 kips 160 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol.
4 requires a horizontal support force for each beam equal to 5 percent of the dead plus live load reaction.9 kips Determine horizontal support force at "P" Section 12.05(6 klf +4 kIf) (~O) = 10 kips I I I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. Given a sliding bearing at the left support of the 40foot beam. I 161 . the controll ing tie force is Fp = 0.0)(240) = 31. the required design force at the pin support "P" is I I H=0. Vol.133( 1.Example 43 • Beam Hori zontal Tie Force §12 .3 1 ~ For S DS = 1.1.1.0.
.4. Elevation Section AA [!J Collector unfactored force at tie to wall ~. The purpose of this example is to show the determination of the maximum seismic force for design of collector elements. for the onestory shear wall build ing.5 no = 2.2 l 8W R structure weight above one half hi S (Eq 12. with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized wood roof. By inspection. no parapet Wall weight = 113 psf lI=j::============!l Roofplan k""Shear walls Nole: Roof framing.3.20 Roof dead load = 15 psf Wall height = 30 ft. In the example below.10. not shown . I .§12 .10. A collector is necessary to "collect" the diaphragm loads tributary to Line 2 and bring them to the shear wall.82) W= Interior shear wall 50' Collector Determine the following.82 will govern. Collectors are sometimes called drag struts.5 1 = 1..2 at tie to wall 162 2006 IBC Structural/SeIsmic Design Manual.===ir:====r===u.2 Collectors "collect" forces and carry them to vertical shearresisting elements... Base shear = V= DS W = 0. Occupancy Category I 50' 50' for cctec tor 2 100' 3 Seismic Design Category D RP=...2 Example 44 • Collector Elemen ts §12. except collector. Special seismic load of §12. Vol. Equation 12.0 8 DS = 1. a tiltup building. The following information is given . has a partial interior shear wall on Line 2. Tributary roof area l_uColleclor R =5.
and 2) the tributary roof diaphragm force.218(244. I 163 .2 at tie to wall §12.5 kips 2 Wp l = : .10.2 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Man ual. including the shea r strength of connection between the diaphragm and collector.15 Sp.10.500 = 244. The design of the collector and its connections requires that the axial forces be amplified as shown below.3 . Note: This force corresponds to the diaphragm design forces calcu lated using §12. F. = 0.15Wp T p = 1.J Collector unfactored force at tie to wall The seismic forc e in the collector is made up of two parts : I) the tribut ary outofplane wall forces.000 + 169.10.4. Fp1 = 0.218Wp l Wpl = tributary roof and outofplane wall weight 15 psf(lOO)(50) + 113 psf (3 0) (100) = 75.2 C!. I I Spec ial seismic load of §12.101 used for diaphragm design. WI P Fp l max = 0. Seism ic forces for collector design are determined from Equat ion 12. The paneli zed wood roof has been determined to be flexible .30Wpx Fp l min = 0.3 Sp. This equat ion reduces to the following for a sing le story structure.2 Code Reference §12. thus the tribut ary roof area is taken as the IOOfoot by 50foot area shown on the roof plan above.1. =w.3 kips. Vol .1 Calculations and Discussion Example 44 • Collector Elements §12.10. These forces are compared to the diaphragm shear strength .lW . R W x = V = = design force at roof weight tributary to the collector element = structure wei ght above one half hi = W giving: Fp 1 = Wpl = V I I I I I W 0.lWpx = T O.2 S p.5) = 53.
4(2250) + 0.4 D + 0.101.3) = 133.47 need not exceed the maximum force that can be delivered by the lateralforceresisting system as determined by rational analysis .3. 5) where (Eq 12. I I I I I 1 64 200 6 IBC St ru ctural/Seismic Desig n Manu al.25 kips axial tension and compression load and vertica l downward load equal to 1.2D vertical load The strength design of the collector and its connections must resist the following load components.2 Ex amp le 44 • Coll ec tor El em ents 1 J Given the force Fpl specified by Equation 12.2 SDsD = 0.3) = 133.2. and I J n oQ£ = 2. splices .0)D = 0.2( 1.45) Here. Vol.5L + Em I 1 §2.3. n "Q£ = 2.. Q£ is the horizontal collector desig n force Fpl = 53. the collector elements.2 D = 1. / .3 kips.2 (Comb . The governing load combination is 1.25 kips axial tension and compressio n load 0. . and their connections to resisting clements shall have the design strength to resist the earthquake loads as defi ned in the Specia l Load Combinations of §12.5 plf on the 50foot length of the collector element.5L + 0.1 0.2 D + 0. :'l Commentary Note that §12.5 L I I with D = (50 ft + 50 ft)(50 ft)(l5 psf) = 2250 Ib L = (50 ft + 50 ft)(50 ft) (0.1 specifies that the term noQ£ in Equation 12. For example.3.2D + 0.4.5(750) = 3525 lb which is applied as a uniform distributed load w = 3525/50 ft = 70.5(53.5(53. the overturning moment capacity of the shear wall can limit the required strength of the collector and its connection to the shear wall.5)(10 psf) = 750 Ib The resultin g total factored vertical load is 1.4.§12.
2.1 For the tiltup wall panel shown below. This will be done for a representative Ifoot width of wa ll. I 1. [!J Design criteria ~ Wall anchorage force Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Design criteria §12.2 and 12.8 SDS!ElVl\' CEq 12. 1 am le45 Outof..11.Example 45 OutatPlene Wall Anch orage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to FlexIble Dia phragms §12.2. The following equation is to be used to determine anchor design forces.0 Panel thickness = 8 in Normal weight concrete CI50 pet) ..11.1 Because of the frequent failure of wall/roof ties in past earthquakes.2.0 SDS = 1. 11.2 § 12. Fp = 0..1 for the desig n of the wall panel sections . The following information is given. the seismic force required for the design of the wall anchorage to the flexible roo f diaphragm is to be determined.Plane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to Flexible Diaphragms §12.2.11. Assumed pin support 20' ~ ~ Ground Determine the following. 11. Vol.2. 4' Top of parapet Occu pancy Importance Category I Seismic Design Category D F. I 1 65 . n: l• ++ Roof J = 1. 11. with minimum limit given in § 12. the code requires that the force used to desig n wall anchorage to flexible diaphragms be greater than that given in §12.111) 2:: 400 8Ds/ lblft 2:: 280 lb/ ft of wall where WI\' is the weight ofa Ifoot width of wa ll that is tributary to the anch or. 2006 IBC St ruc tural/S eis mic DesIgn Manual.
IV w = 150C~)(4 ft + 10 ft)(I ft) = 1400 lb/ft I ) For the given values of Sos = 1.8(1400 ) = 1120 Ib/ft > 400 (1..0 . 11 .2. . o. F"". Vol.0 and 1= 1.0)wp = 1.2 §12. o.0) = 400 Ib/ft .8( 1. ) I I I I I I I I I 166 2006 IBC Struc tural/Seismic Design Manua l.11. :. .k.0)(1.k." = Fp = I 120 Ib/ft This is the QE load in the seismic load combinations.0)( 1. 11) gives Fp = 0.§12. > 280 Ib/ft . I .. 1 Ex am ple 4 5 • OutotPten e Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Ma so nry Walls to Fl exible Diaphragm s I ) ~ Wall anchorage force The tributary wall weight is onehalf of the weight between the roof and base p lus all the weight above the roof. Equation 12.2wp = 0. .
2. The manufacturer's catalog provides allowable capacity values for earthquake loading for a given type and size of holddown element. Vol .e. I 167 . one on each side of the subpurlin .11. Wall panel Wallroof tic detail Determine the strength' design requirement s for the followi ng.11.11. The task is to desig n the steel anchorage elements (i.Example 46 • Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §12 .1 as Fonch = 1680 lb/ft.1 Th is example illustrates use of the allowable stress design proced ure for the design of stee l and wood elements of the wall anchorage system in a building with a flexible roof diaphragm. Th e drawing below shows a tiltup wall panel that is connected near its top to a flexible roof diaphragm. The anchorage force has been calculated per § 12. holddowns) that connect the tiltup wall pan el to the wood subpurlins of the roof diaphragm. 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual.2.2. The ancho rage consists of two holddown elements .1 ample 4 6 all nchorage to Flexible iap ragms §12. [IJ Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element ~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [IJ Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element.. The wall anchorage connections to the roof are to be provided at 4 feet on center. The steel holddown elements of the anchorage system resist only the axial anchorage load and there are no dead or live load effects.
I I I I I I I .7(6720) = ± 4800 lb From the manufacturer's catalog . Generally. When singlesided holddowns are used. double holddowns are preferred. The allowabl e stress design axial load requirement for each pair of holddown elements is 0. uses the ASD load combinations of §2.e.7£ = 0. Also.7£ to be resisted with an increase in allowable stress based on duration (i.. where the applicable seismic load combinations permi t 0. but singlesided holddowns are often used with all eccentricities fully considered. I I ~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element The strength design axial load on the wood element of the wall anchorage system is I I PE = (1680)(4) = ± 6720 lb Using the seismic load combinations of §2. the throug hbol ts in the subpurlin must be checked for double shear bearing.4.1 1. the strength design axial load is E = QE = PE = Faae" (4) = (1680)(4) = ± 6720 Ib This example. as shown in the wallroof tie detail above.7PE = 0. the paired anchorage embedment in the wall is likely to involve an overlapping pullout cone condition in the concrete : refer to ACI 3 I8 Append ix D for design requirements.4. Whenever holddowns are used in pairs. Vol .§12.1 Example 46 • Wall An ch orage to Flexib le D i aph ragms J J For the 4foot spacing. the Cd duration factor for wood) . these must consider the effects of eccentricity. for the combined bend ing and axial stress including dead and live load effects. can support a ± axial load of 0. select the wood element such that the allowable capacity of the element. 16 8 2006 IB C S tr uctural/Seismic Design Man ual.2. select a holddown element having a capacity of at least ] J 4800 lb = 2400 Ib 2 The holddown detail must provide both tensile and compress ive resistance for this load.7PE 0.7(6720) = 4800 lb applied at the anchored end.
For wood.11.5 SoslW (0. Vol.8 SoslW N/A Steel 1. I 169 . the load is increased by 1. For stee l. the forces acting on wood.78 SoslW) I I I I I I I 2006 IB C Structu ra l/S eismic Design Manual.6 Wood 0. the load is divided by the dura tion fac tor Cd of 1.2. and steel elements are shown below.1 1 1 Commentary For comparison .4 per §12.8SDsIW 1.4(0. Material ASD 0.12 SoslW (0 .Example 46 l:f Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diap hragms §12. co ncrete.0 to permit comparison.8 SoslW) = 1.2.35 SoslW) I I Concrete 0.11.2.
0 S DS = 1.0 R =5. cp b o r 200 ' Normal wall The following information is given . 1.1 This exampl e illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force Fpx of Equation 12. for the design of the roof diaphragm of a singlestory building. Occupancy Importance Category I Seismi c Design Category 0 Roof plan J 1. I . 10.1.§12.101. Vol. This type of roof construction can generally be shown to behave per flexible diaphragm assumptions. A singlestory tiltup bui lding with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized wood roof is shown below. [!J 170 Diaphragm design force at the roof 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1 Ex ample 4 7 Q De term i nation of Diaphragm Force Fp ::: Lowrise ~ mple 4 7 !# ermination of Diaphragm Force f px : Lowrise §12.0 P = 1.'10.0 Diaphragm weight = 15 psf Wall weig ht = 80 psf = Roof diaphragm Elevation through building Find the following.
Note that the redundancy factor of p is to be applied to the Q£ load actions due to Fp l (such as chord forces and diaphragm shear loads in the diaphrag m).10. Equation 12..0.2wp ) < O.1 requires that the design seismic force for diaphragms be determined by 1 Fp:r = ~= l t.10.10. I 17 1 .0) 5.t = 0.t :::: Fp. Vol.0 11'p.0 and 1 = 1. 2006 IBC Structura l/Seismic Design Manua l. R = 5.1.2 Wpl F pl = = 0.k.0)(1. o.0 I I I I I I I I I are For a short period single story building. .4wp.0 and. 2: i.1.1.101 becomes (see commentary below for derivation) with the given val ues of SDS = 1.10.t < 0.t n (Eq 12. which for S DS = 1.'px n lV j 2: F.2(3 100) = 620 lb/ft Check limits: 0. 1 Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Diaphragm design force at the roof §12.2wp.2 SDs/Wp.Examp le 47 • Det ermin ation of Diaphragm Forc e F px: Lowrise §12.t •.t:::: 0. for a lfootw ide strip Wpl = weight of diaphragm = + weight of onehalf height of normal walls IOO( 15) + 2( I0)(80) = 3100 Ib/ft (1.1 §12.4 SDs/Wp.1) with limits of 0.
. 2.811 ) where C. 1 Example 47 • Determ ination of Diaphragm Force Fpx: Lo wrise 1 ] Commentary I.lz. (Eq 12.h..(• n w._ = . The sing lestory building version of Equation 1665 is derived as follows . i = I I .r for short period of < 0. Vol. and W 11 = I I I I 2: i. }\'. from the roof diaphragm.101) 2: Wi I I I F X = CIX V = v • 2: W/l: i.812) For a singlestory building. w.detennination of the tributary roof weight because these walls do not obta in support.5 sec (k = J . I I I I .I 11'. = and Equation 12. m 2: F. Walls parallel to the direction of the seismic forces are usually not considered in the.8. in the direction of the force. The we ight W p. x = 1. includ es the weight of the diaphragm plu s the tributary weight of elem ents nonnal to the diaphragm that are onehalf story height belo w and above the diaphragm level.1.10.J. 1 1 ..§12.0) . (Eq 12.11 gives F) = W /I. V= V I I 1 172 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. Fps = ~wpx •• (Eq 12.
101 is F P1 =  1 I I I F.1 where Examp le 47 ~ Determ ination of Diaphragm Forc e Fpx: Lowrise §12. 10.11' s! R 1'1 \ I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual. IV 11' 1'1 =  V IV lV 1'1 50 = . Vol.81 and 12. 1. for the single story building..82) Finally. Equation 12. 1 1 I V= C W = 50 S ! IV 5 R (Eq 12. I 17 3 .
3 33.De termina tion of Diaphragm Force Fp x : Highrise t §12.144 0.8 54. the design base shear. 0.06215 8Ds = 1. These were determined from Equations 12.134 0.811 and 12.757.3 233.153 0.233 0.6 2.06 sec V = CW= 233.183 0.3 5.812 .8 IV 32 20 13456 10816 8464 6400 4624 3136 1936 1024 400 214 405 405 405 584 422 422 440 465 3.h.106 0. I 0.024 0.138 0.1 Example 48 D Determ ination of Diaphragm Force F px : H ighrise ample 48 .4 42.039 0.079 0. = 0.071 0.rV 35.r:.7 16.1 This example illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force Fpx of Equation 12.0 P = 1.§12.3 I = 1. 10.013 0.344 vr WJ l" t L I\'. kips 214 Story 12 12' 12' 12' 12' 9 8 7 6 405 405 405 584 422 5 4 3 2 1 422 440 465 20 ' / / ' // / //// // / / / ' / k C = Level x 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I Totals: h (ft) 11 6 104 92 80 68 56 44 h 2 I\' kips II'h 2879584 4380480 3427920 2592000 2700416 1323392 816992 450560 186000 18. The ninestory moment frame bui lding shown below has the tabulated design seismic forces P.6 10. Vol. Seismic Design Category 0 W = 3.812 Level 1 < 27' * '1 27':J 1 Weight. The following information is given.005 174 2006 IB C St r uctural/S eismic Des ig n Man ua l.762 kips C.762 0.0 T = 1.167 0.024 0. .1 for a representative floor of a multistory building. I .10.8 kips k = 2 for Eq 12.058 0.044 0.8 32.010 FI Fx =Cl·.
Example 48 • Delerminallon of Diaphragm Forc e FpK: Highrise
§ 1Z. 10. 1
1
1 1
~Calqulations and iiiscus~ion
Code Reference
[I]
Diaphragm force at Level 7
§12.101
Seismic forces on the floor and roof diaphragm are specified in § 12.101. The following equation is used to determine the diaphragm force Fpx at Level x
(Eq 12.101)
Section 12.10.1.1 also has the following limits on F px
For Level 7, x = 7
F
J
p7
= (42.8 + 54.4 + 35.8)(405) = (0.130)(405) = 52.6 ki
(405 + 405 + 214)
s
P
Check limits:
0.2 SD px sIw
=
0.2wpx
0.2(405) = 81.1 kips > 52.6 kips ... not o.k.
=
I ,
0.4 SD sIwpx
= =
O.4wpx
0.4(405) = 121.5 kips > 52.6 kips . . . o.k.
I I I I I
:. Fp7 = 81.1 kips...minimum value (0.2 SDsIwpx) governs.
Note that the redundancy factor, in this example p = 1.3, is to be applied to the load Q£ due to F P.f (such as chord forces and floortoframe shear connections). Also note that Equation 12.101 will always govern for the design of the diaphragm versus Equation 12.812.
2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic Design Manual, Vol. I
175
§12.12.3
Example 49 • Building Separations
i#.a.~ple 49
SUilding Separations
..
§12.12.3
Building separations are necessary to prevent or reduce the possibility of two adjacent structures impacting during an earthquake. Requirements for building separations are due to the prescribed given in §12.12.3. In this example, the static displacements lateral forces of § 12.8 and information about each structure are given below. Note that the displacements given are at the plan view edges of the building.
oxe
.r1~ ~aralion ""'~
.
3
II
Structure J
Structure 2
Levelr
0..
1.38 in. 1.00
2
2
I
0.47
o
o
Structure 1
o
R= 6 C,/ =5
0.75 in 0.35 0
Structure 2
Find the required separations for the following situations.
[!J
[!J
Separations within the same building Separation from an adjacent building on the same property
~ Separation from an adjacent building on another property
Calculatiqns and Discussion
Code Reference
§12.12.3
[!J
Separation within the same building
Expansion joints are often used to break a large building or an irregular building into two or more parts above the foundation level. This effectively creates separate structures within the same building. The code requires that the structures be separated by the amount OMf where
OMI =
maximum inelastic displacement of Structure 1
~aximum
0,"12 =
inelastic displacement of Structure 2
176
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
J
where
Example 49 ., Bu ild ing Separ<Jtlo ns
§ 12.12.J
U/d
s _« )
Ux
max  
_
CJ 6,n.
/
(Eq 12.81)
The required separation is determined in the following two steps.
~
I
Determine ine lastic displacements of each structure To determine the min imum separation between parts of the same building that are separated by an expansion joint, the maximum inelastic floor disp lacements 6" must be determined for each structure. These are at level, x= 2 For Structure I
s, 
§I2.8.6
C~2J _ 5.5(1.0)  5 5 .
/ 
U '\(I 
1.0
 . in
(Eq 12.815)
For Structure 2
6M2 = CJ/6 22 = 5.0(0.75) = 3.75 in
1.0
(Eq 12.8 15)
~
Dete rmine t he required sep aration The requi red separation is determin ed from the individual maximum inelastic disp lacements of each structure as
§I 2.I2.3
I
I
I
~
6MT
= 6,\11 + 6M2 = 5.5 + 3.75 = 9.25 in
Separation from an adjacent building on the same property
If Structures I and 2 above are adjacent, individual buildings on the same property, the solution is the same as that shown above in Step I . The code makes no distinction betw een an "internal" separation in the sam e building and the separation required betw een two adjacent buildings on the same property.
I
I I
6U T
=
9.25 in
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
177
912.12.3
Example 4 9 • Building Separations
J
§12.12.3
~ Separation from an adjacent building on another property
If Struc ture I is a building under design and Structure 2 is an existing bu ilding on an adjoining property, we would ge nera lly not have information about the seismic displacem ents of Structu re 2. Often even basic information about the struc tura l sys tem of Struc ture 2 may no t be known. In this case, separa tion must be based on ly on info rmation about Struc ture I. The larges t elastic displ acement of Struc ture I is 0)<= 1.38 inch es and occurs at the roof (Level 3). Th e maximum inelastic displacement is calculated as 0 ,/ = CdO J , = 5.5(1.38) = 7.59 in r I 1.0 (Eq 12.815)
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Structure I must be set back 7.59 inches from the property line, unless a sma ller separation is justifie d by a rati onal analys is ba sed on maximum ground motion s. Such an analys is is difficul t to perform, and is ge nerally not requ ired except in very special cases.
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual, Vol. I
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2. = 1. T = 2n . See § 15..30 kip/in Determ ine the following. 2006 IBC St ructura l/Se ism ic D esig n Man ual. S. 5 Example 50 Flexible onbuildiJ1Jg' TUC UTe §15. [TI Period of vibration ~ Design base shear ~ Vertical distribution of seismic forces ~ Overturning moment at base .70. SD/ = 0. I 17 9 .20.25 per Table 11. The tower sits on symmetrically braced legs The following information is given.calculations and Discussion Code Reference [TI Period of vibration. the vessel does not qual ify as a rigi d nonbuilding structu re and thus is considered flexible. the mass is assum ed to be located at the top of the tower.Ex ample 50 • Fl exible Nonbuilding Structure § 1 5. 1 36 sec Because the period is greater than .30 kip/in =. Seismic Design Category D Weight of towe r and maximum normal operating co ntents = 150 kips Occupancy Category III Site Class D I = 1. The period must be determined by § 15.4. Vol. For calculation purposes.5 A tall steel bin tower is supporte d by a con crete found ation.51 S.4.4.= 2n k /f n 150 kips/(386 kip/in/sec") 8.65 SDS = 1.06 second.65 The stiffness of the supporti ng tower is 8. = 0.
82 need not exceed C s = S DI =0. shall not be taken less than C. = R /I SDS = 0.2. These are given in §12. In addit ion.42 11.8.4 of the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book for further discussion.5. This is because the approximate method presented is intend ed for buildings and is not applicable to structural systems that differ significantly from typical building configurations and characteristics. T.2.5 Example 50 • Flexible Nonbuildlng Str ucture It should be noted that the value of the period.25 T = 1.85) I I I I I I I where SDS= I = 1. nonbuilding structures.2 R = 3. 12. I . Refe r to Section CI 09.0 CD = 2.36 sec I I I I But C.5 I = 1. computed in accordance with Eq. should not be calculated using any of the approximate methods in §12. Vol.42 15.42 15.50 (Eq 12.1. nor is it intended to be subject to the limitations presented in §12.217 (150 kips) = 32.199 C t!)T R (Eq 12. must also sat isfy the requirements of §15.55 kip s where C .65 R = 3.82) where SOl = 0. I I ] ~ Design base shear The des ign base shear for nonbuilding structures is calculated from the same expressions as for buildings.§15. W= 0.8. such as the vessel.82) T T T T 1.0 I = 1. = 0. 1.20 1.8.1.25 180 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.01 (Eq 12. I v = C.51 The value of C.0 Q o = 2.25 SDS = 15.
it would be assigned to SDC E (§11. ~ 0.75g.65. Vol. 5 No te that for this tower. (RI l) = 0.0 [ = 1. the height would be limited to 100 ft per Tabl e 15. I I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic D esign Manual.86) SI =0. = where 0. Thu s. = 0.second period S" equal to or great er than 0. the value of the seismic response coefficient C.135 (Eq 12. because the Isecond spectral response SI is equal to 0.1 Example 50 • Fl ex ible Nonbu ilding Stru cture § 15. I 181 . (S.25 Thus: C.199 governs Also note that if this tower (Occupancy Category 11) were located on a site with mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response accele ration at I.42.60g ).65 R = 3.5S. shall not be taken as less than c.6).
see § 15.§15.C~/culations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Design base shear. 30' [!J Design base shear ~ Vertical distribution of seismic forces . E. The total base shear in a given direction is determined from V= CsW (Eq 12.4.0) 1(1 .00 T = 2. = S DS = (R I I) (1.1) where C.06 sec.4.5.4. See § 15.e.xaniple 51 Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure .33) = 0... Also note that the value for R is 8 for normal design of an SRCMF. §15. and the structu re is similar to a building. Note that an interm ediate reinforced concrete moment frame (lRCMF) building structure is not permitted for SDC D. Vol.0) (Eq 12.33 SOl = 1.4 must be used. Determine the following. I .166 (8.0.4 and § 15. _ . 1.82) 182 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. §15.2. Sf = 2. Occupancy Importance Category 1" 1 = 1.0 Site Class D 2.1. Weights U~ and W2 include the maximum normal op erating weights of the storage bins and contents as well as the tributary frame weight.5. 1) the general expressio ns for design base shear given in § 12.0 A nonbuilding structure with a special reinforced concrete mom ent frame (SRCMF) supports some rigid aggregate storage bins. SI = 1. or F per Tab le 15.1 and Table 11. the period T > 0.8.. see § 15.4.0 S DS = 1.0 sec TV = 300 kips S MS= 15' Level 2 F.0 S Ail = 1. 1 The follow ing information is given.4 Because this is a flexible structure.0 Example 51 • Lateral Force on Nonbui/ding Structure I.. (i.
Exa mple 51 . Vol. F 2216) I where C = 0.rV= (0. = 1. I 183 .0 The value of C.82 need not exceed J where C.33 R =8 I = 1.063 (R II)T (8/ 1. computed in accordance with Equation 12.86) 5.0)2.82 I I I r.9 kips Vertical distribution of seismic forces The design base shear must be distributed over the height of the structu re in the same manner as that for a building struc ture.0 T =2.81) V = C.~ ( 18.83 and 12. = 0.0 R =8 I = 1.063 Equat ions 12. = c. 2: 0.5S..9 kips) (Eq 1641) 2006 lac Structural/Se ismic Design Manual.0 R = 8.063 x (R I I) (. shall not be taken less than (Region 1. (Eq 12. §12 .0) for T :::J L = 0.6g I \ Thus: C.063)(300) = 18.0 Note 5.0 Check T'S TL = > TL = 12.!) 1.86 govern.5)(1 . Lat er al F or ce on NOll buJldi ng Structure §15.0 sec The value of C.0) = 0.83) 5D/ = 1.0 I = 1.0 T =2 .0 (Eq 12.0 J where 5DS = 1... V= C. = SOl = (1. = (0.0 (Eq 12.
0 for T 2: 2.0 sec k = 1.0 Example 51 • Lat eral Force on Nonbulldlng Structure I ] J where C".811) LI " j ' " W il l J where k = 1.5 sec ] J J and and Thu s: K 2.50.0 ( 2.0 + 1.§15.50 sec k = interpolate between 1 and 2.5) = 1.01_ _  I I 1.0 0.75 2. Vol.5 T Now for T = 2.5 o o .0 1..0 2.0 2.0 for T ~ 0. = n CEq 12.5 I I I I I I 184 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I .50 sec k = 2.
= Sa = F.75) Story Force Story Shear Height Weight J Level 2 1 Iz:r 45 30 !t .197 1. 200 100 300 W. I 185 .73 V.9 Sa 0 .45 38455. (18. Vol.17 18. = C.t 781.T / W.83 194825.28 J Note: k = 1.1 Example 51 • Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure §15.h.076 0.9) .·x 0. 15.0 1 Sto ry Shears (k = 1.f I C. " rep Sa effective story acceleration I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual. = W / .75 It. 15.56 I W.803 0.9 18..28 F. in kips 194825. c.Jl.85 384 .17 3. in feet W.037 156369.00 F.
SOS = 1.33) (1. [!J Des ign base shear Vert ical distribution of seismic forces [3J I J Design base shear For rigid nonbuilding structures.3 (1.7 kips) 186 2006 IBC Str uctural/S eismic Design Manual. The following information is given.02 sec 100 kips W SUPPORT = 200 kips W EQUlPAfENT = 30' 20' Grade Determine the following .3 I I I I I (Eq 12. §15.4 . Equation 15.7 kips Vertical distribution of seismic forces The force shall be distributed with height in accordance with § 12.'x (119.2 V = O. In this example.4. Rigid NonbuiJding Structure 1 '~ample 52 '''igid Nonbuilding_ Structure §15. rigid ore crushing equipment is supported by a massive concrete pedestal and seismic design forces are to be determined.0 0.81 1) Fx = C.§ 15. I I I I I .4.0) W= 0.45 is used to determine design base shear.399W os (Eq 15.2 Example 52.33 I = = T 1.V = C.399 (100 + 200) = 119..8.2 ) The code has special requi rements for the determination of seismic forces for design of rigid nonbuilding structures..45) = 0. Vol.3S I W= 0.
571 1.812) Height Level Iz x Weight Story Force Story Shear h. 1 x rr. Vol.00 51. F.2 (Eq 12. nPSa = effective story acceleration 2006 IBC StructuraUSe..35 119.t k W.c De sign Manual. 51. 4.sm.Jlx 3000 4000 7000 k e ll. (1 19.7 kips) ~ c. I 187 .>.7 Sa 0. .. v. in feet Wx in kips k = WxlzJ fx= c.25 68.516 0.342 2 1 30 20 30 20 0. 100 200 300 W .7 119.lz k Sa = Fx / fV.429 0.1 Example 52 • Rigid Nonbuildin g Structure §15.45 I I I Note: 11.
50 inch = Slab Grade I3J 'C~/c.§15.0 w = W/L = 120. The tank does not contain toxic or explosive substances. SDS= 1.yla tions Find the design base shear §15.2. The following informati on is given.7. ~ample 53 .6 and Discussion Code Reference [!J The tank is a nonbu ilding structure.6 A small liquid storage tank is supported on a concrete slab.7.000 (0. This secti on requires that seismic forces be determined using the procedures of §15. Vol .4.50 in I 6000(10) wd 1.0 Weight of tank and max imum normal operating contents = 120 kips = 0. similar to Example 51 where = 20 ft L D = 10ft LID = 20/10 = 2. The period may be computed by other rational methods.!In With Supported Bottom §15.50/12) t 188 2006 IBC Struc tu r al/S ei smi c D es ig n Manua l.7.000 Ib/20 = 6000 plf = 0.6 Example 53 • Tank with S up p or t ed Bottom .7. I .20 20' I W = 1. and seismic requirements for tanks with supported bottoms are given in §15.440.6.
Vol.3SD sIW=0. I I I I I I 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.8. 7.4. For large diameter tanks . Note that the centerofmass of the contents and of the tank do not normally coincide. "Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage" for more detailed guidance.0)2 (1.2 kips where SD 1. . rigid nonbuilding structure.06 . The distribution of forces vertically shall be in accordance with § 12.36W = (Eq 15. Refer to American Wate r Works Association Standard ANSI! AWWA D100 "Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage.1 Now: T = Example 53 • Tank With Supported Bottom §15.20 S= I = 1.45) 0. rigid 1 Thu s.2 The lateral force shall be obtai ned as follows V =0." or American Petroleum Institute Standard 650. 6 7.65 X 106 (2.0367 sec < 0.000) = 0. I 189 .3. the effects of sloshing must be considered.00 W = 120 kips The design lateral seismic force is to be applied at the centerofmass of the tank and its contents. Commentary The procedures above are intend ed for tanks that have relati vely small diameters (less than 20 feet) and where the forces generated by fluidsloshing modes are small. § 15..36 ( 120) = 43.440 .
2'·0" 2'· 0" Section AA: Typi cal pile cap Pile Cap Dead Load 46 kips 58 Reduced Live Load 16 kips 16 Seismic QE N/S E/W 14 kips 14 0 0 3 10 ~ A t a <0 II N f f f 4 11iI 2S' = 100 ' :=lA 0 2 0 0 r 5 3 A 4 ®. The foundation plan of the building is shown below.1 A twostory masonry bearing wall structure has a pile foundation.23.2. Piles are located around the perimeter of the building. [!J Interconnection requirements ~ Interconnection force between pile caps 3 and 10 [!J 190 Required "tie" restraint between pile caps 3 and 10 2006 IBC Stru c tu r al/Seism ic D esign Ma n ua l. The following information is given.0 Pile cap size: 3 feet square by 2 feet deep Grade beam: I foot 6 inches by 2 feet Allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf per foot of depth below natural grade. I .23. Vol. Original grade Seismic Design Category 0 J = 1.1 Example 54 • Pile Interconn ections ample 54 Pile Interconnections IBC'§1808.IBC §180B.a '" @) C o 6 9 o 10 o 11 Foundation plan Determ ine the following.0 SDS = 1. for the very dense granular soil at the site.2.
1.e.23. but pile cap and a tributary length ofN/S grade beam on either side of the pile cap may be designed to resist tie forces using the passive pressure. 7400lbs Required length = = 6. is provided by the confinement of very dense granular soil at the site. and seismic loads on the pile cap. if this is properly designed .2 ft 1200 plf This is greater than 3'0" pile cap wid th. Code Reference [!J Intercon nection requirements IBC §1808. This system is shown below and . An exception to §1808. Vol. 2006 IB C Stru ctural/S eismic Design Manual. [2(200) + 4(200)] Passive press ure = (2 ft) = 1200 plf 2 .. For the allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf per foot of depth below natural grade. tie beam ) connecting pile caps 3 and 10. This is specified in § 1808..2.1.2. The latter is considered an "equivalent restraint" (by soil confinement or bearing pressure) under the exception to rae §1808. I 1 91 .23. The column vertical load is to be considered the dead.40 kips I I I I I I I [!J Req uired "tie" restraint between pile caps 3 and 10 The choices are to add a grade beam (i. reduced live.23.1 Calculations and Discussion . in this example.2. The ties must be capable of resisting in tension and compression a minimum horizontal tie force equal to 10 percent of the larger column vertical load. no grade beam between pile caps 3 and 10 (or similar caps) is required.Example 54 § Pilc Interconnections IBC §1BOB.10 times the largest column vertical load P = 0.23. the passive pressure resistance is . Interconnect ion force between pile caps 3 and 10 Maximum loads on each pile cap under E/W seismic forces are Pile cap 3 = 46 + 16 + 0 = 62 kips Pile cap 10 = 58 + 16 + 0 = 74 kips Minimum horizontal tie force Sos II 0 = 0.1 allows use of "equivalent restraint" which .2.10 (74) = 7. or to try to use passive pressure restraint on the pile cap in lieu of a grade beam.2 I The code requires that individual pile caps of every structure subject to seismic forces be interconnected with ties.
and the project specifications should call for the backfill and compaction methods necessary to provide required passive pressure resistance.2. or geotechnical hazards. a geotechnical engineer should confirm the appropriateness of this decision... •...IBC §1808... I .~::::: ::::~ '<~4 E. the exception to the interconnecting tie requirement of § 1808. are possible. This is particularly true in the case of highrise buildings and buildings with heavy vertical loads on individual pile caps. 23 ... Ties are essential in tall buildings.200 plf .. 192 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol.and twostory buildings. when interconnecting ties are omitted. ::::~:::: 2'·0" ~:::::::::::~ ::::. buildings on pile foundations are required to have interconnecting ties between pile caps. such as liquefaction.2' 800 psflf! Equivalent restraint system in plan Section 88: Grade beam Normally. In the design of relatively lightweight one.23. 2. .1 may permit a more economical foundation design. However. Ties are also necessary when the site soil conditions are so poor that lateral movements.1 Example 54 • Pile Interconnections 1. 6.
Wind speedup effects not a concern.1.7.6 Enclosure: §62 Topography: Height of adjacent hills is less than 60 feet . nor is it in a hurricane region. F 61 I Wind Speed: Located in Minneapolis. Therefore design by Method 1 §6.5. I 193 . = 1. so no concerns for windborne debris .Therefore the building category in Table II is Category II. The roof is metal roof deck on steel joists on steel joist girders.Therefore the exposure category is B.Classify as Enclosed. Vol.5. I I I I I I Design Method: To utilize ASCE/SEI 705 Simplified Procedure (Method 1) all ofthe following criteria must be met. Dimensions : 100 ft wide by 120 ft long by 25 ft high (2 stories .5) x. The second floor is concrete slab on metal form deck on steel floor beams.1 ~l Example 55 D Simplified Wind Loads on 2 aStory BUildings §6. as defined in §62 2) The building height is less than 60 feet and least horizontal dimensions 3) The building is enclosed and not prone to windborne debris 4) The building is regular shaped 5) The building is rigid with a period less than I second 6) The site is not subject to wind speedup effects 7) The building is symmetrical 8) For a building with well distributed MWFRS torsional load case in note 5 of Figure 610 will not govern the design. (§6.0 Structure: The structure is an Xbraced steel frame with evenly distributed braces on all four exterior walls.13 ft and 12 ft). Importance: The facility is an office building with no special functions .90 mph zone . 1) With no breaks in the roof or floor (structural separations) the diaphragms are simple. Suburban office park surrounded by trees and typical suburban construction on all sides . Exposure: §6. Calculate the wind loads on the following building. The building has no unusual openings in the envelope. Minnesota .4 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.4 The following is an example of the simplified wind load procedure of ASCE/SEI 705.
so first calcu late a. [!J ~ ~ Main wind force MWFRS end zone width MWFRS design wind pressures ~ Components and cladding ~ Edge Strip ~ Design wind pressure on components [1J Main WindForce Resisting SystemMWFRS (Lateral Load Structural Frame) Using Method 1 §6.5.§6.7. I Eq 61.4. ~ Calculate the MWFRS End Zone Width End Zone = 2a.1. the Top ographic Factor K=I from §6. and by the Importance Factor J from Tabl e 6.4 Example 55 • Simplified Wind Loads on 2·Story Buf/dings 25' Determine the following. The equation for ps is shown in §6. I .2. the Edge Strip Width.4. Vol . the simplified design wind pressure ps is the product of the base simpl ified design pressure ps30 taken from Figure 62 and multiplied by the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor A from Figure 62. 194 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.
00 A 1.00 A 1.90 mph. Factor Factor F G H Lee A 1.7 6.4 psf A 1. the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor A from Figure 62 = 1.00 I ~ 8.3o Look up the base pressures P.10 x 100 ft = 10ft · 40% of the eave height = 0040 x 25 ft = lOft ·4% of the least horizontal dimension = 0. the Importance Factor I = 1.04 x 100 ft = 4 ft • 3ft Therefore : a = 10ft.4 8.30 from Figure 62 then modify for height.8 psf A 1. A 1.00 A 1.8 8.00 A A A 1.5 psf Nn Roof Proiection for Flat Roofs A 1. & Exp. so the End Zone = 2a = 2 x 10 ft = 20 ft ~ Calculate the MWFRS design wind pressure Using Equation 61: p. Exposure B. & Exp. E xposure B. End 12.00 1.00 A 1. K= = 1. Factor K:1 Topographic 1 Import.8 10 . = A Kjp.00 IA 1. and importance factor.4 psf x 1.5 15. Design Pressure Type Zone Surface Wall Roof Wall Roof Wind Lee Wind Lee Label A B P 130 Base A HI. Design Pressure Type Zone Surface Label P IJ O End Horiz Int End Ven Int W all Roof Wall Roof Wind Lee Wind A B C D E Roof Angle 0'" to 5'" 12.5.00 ·6. Vol.00 .8. Since the building site r is level from §6.8 psf Lon gitudinal M W FRS . Height 25.00 8.00 A 1. exposure.00 .00 I )" 1.00 1.0 rt p.8 8.15.00 A 1. Press.00 8.90 mph .00 6.8 psf 1.00 A 1.0.8 psf No Roof Projection for Flat Roofs A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.12.I.8 10.8 A HI.0.00 A 1.7 psf A 1. x.00 = 10.8 Horiz Int End Vert Int C D E F G H Factor Factor Factor A 1.." With the mean roof height of 25 feet and the exposure being "B". I 195 .7 6.4 Edge Strip = a = Lesser of: 1 But not less than: • 10% of the least horizontal dimension = 0. Topographic 1 Import.5 psf No Roof Pro 'ecticn in Lonzitudinal Direction ).15.  J Tran svers e MWFRS .0. For a building Category II as defined in Table I.00 I A 1.Ex ampl e 55 • Simp lifi ed Wind Loa ds on 2·Story Building s §6 .00 .00 .00 A 1.12.0 rt p. No interpolation is required because the flat roof angle falls in the row of "O to 5.00 A 1.8 psf x = =  2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.00 10.00 .00 A 1.4 8.7.00 I A 1.00 A 1.5 ·15.00 A 1.8 psf No Roof Projection in Lonaitudi nal Direction A 1. topography. Height 25.00 1.7 psf A 1.
196 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. Check this load case as an independent case.] In addition. The loading diagrams shown should be mirrored about each axis of the building until each of the four comers has been the "reference comer" as shown for each load case.§6. the loading diagram becomes the same in each direction. its direction is classified as "Transverse.4 Example 55 • Simp lified Wind Loads on 2Story Buildings App ly the pressure s to the building as described in Figure 62. and thus has no ridge line.2. App ly a load of 10 psf on the buildin g projection on a vertica l plane normal to the wind." When it is parallel to the ridge . create a load case with all horizontal zones equal to 10 psf. When the resisting system being designed is perpendicular to the ridge line of the gable or hip roof. usin g Eq 6. Design wind pressures p.4. I . as shown in the following diagram. It should be applied in each direction as well.4." When the roof is flat (slope ~5 · ) . it is classifie d as "Longitudinal.1.1 . do not combine with the case from §6. the minimum load case from §6.2. In other words . Th e designations of "Transverse" and "Longitudinal" are keyed to the direction of the MWFRS being evaluated. and all vertical zones equal to O.1 must also be checked.
7. should be designed as Components and Cladding (C&C) . Therefo re. the Importance Factor f lO' = 1.4.4. I 197 . 2006 IBC Struc tural/S eismic D esign Manual.00. that are not part of the main windforceresisting system (lateral frame).1.. Corner L Being Evacuated I I I I I I I I ~ Components and Cladding (Everything except the Lateral Load Structural Frame) Accordi ng to §6. Since the building is a leve l site from §6. Topography and Importance Category." the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor from Figure 63 = 1. Exposu re.5.2. With the mean roof height of25 feet and the exposure being "B. K. For buildings such as this that qualify under §6.0. = 1. a Previously ca lculated in the MWFRS calcu lations.00.1.2. ~ Calculate the Edge Strip. all "bu ildings . the C&C can be designed using §6.. all parts of the exterior building envelope and any load paths.and all components and cladding" must be designed for wind loads. . and for a Building Category II . a = lOft ~ Calculate the design wind pressure on several components using Equation 6·2 pnel =A. 4 <: i I 1 Minimu m design wind loadi ng ~f"'enc. Eq 62.1. Vol.2. KztlP nel30 Look up the base pressures directly from Figure 63.1 1 EYsmple 55 Q Simp lified Wind Loads on 2Sr ory Buil din gs §6. then modify for Height.
00 x 1.9· 36. & Exp.00 x 1.6 + 13.19.6 None Required None Required None Required 20 sf 10 sf 17.15.00 x 1.00 x 1. 1 . 6 x 1.9 + 14.15.5 +14.7· 13.& · 23.3 sf 10 s f 20 sf Negative .7 1 3.00 Factor x 1.00 x 1.6 + 13. Ku Topo.3 + 14.2 .00 x 1.00 x 1. 1 10 s f 20 sf 17.00 x 1. I .00 x 1.8 + 14.00 x 1.00 x 1.6 .0 0 x 1.00 x 1.7· .3 sf + 14.00 x 1.00 x 1.8 +5.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1. 1 .1 . Negative Positive Neg ative None Required None Required 10 s f 20 sf 17.& .9 14. & 10sf 20 sf 12 sf .00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.4 +5.00 x 1.5 .5 12 sf 35.00 Factor Positive < 10 sf Ne gative Screw Roof Dec k None Required Non e Required 20 sf 12 sf 10 sf +5.00 x 1.4.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1. & · .00 x 1.9 No ne Required •0 s 0 0 Screw Roof Deck Joist Deck "~ Edge (2) 12 sf > 100 sf None Required None Requ ired Screw Roof Deck JOiSl Siding Int (4) < 10 sf Positive Comer (3) 12 s f Negative Posi tive Negati ve Posi tive Negat ive Positive None Required None Required 10 sf 36. Heigh t Type Zo ne Item EfT Wind = 25.00 x 1. > 100 sf < 10 sf Positive Neg ative Positive Negative Positive Negati ve Positive Nega tive Pos itiv e Negative I ) None Required None Required None Required None Required 10 s f I 20 sf 12 sf 24.00 x 1.00 x 1.& 14.00 x 1. Base I Imp ort.00 x 1.3 +5.5 ) > 100 sf None Required +4.1&.& + 14.00 x 1.15.00 x 1.00 x 1.9 +5.5 +4 .00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.9 24 .14.00 x 1.00 x 1.15.3 + 14.00 x 1.3 sf < 10 sf ::: .9 36 .& 23.00 x 1.& +5 .00 x 1.00 x 1.7 15.6 +5.00 x 1.2 1 &. Ex posu re B. A minimum pressur of 10 psf 15 required per§6.1 Stud 17.2.7 15.14.9 +4 .§6.5 +4 .1& .6 +5.& 23.9· 14.1 e 198 2006 IBC StructurallSelsmlc Design Manual.3 sf Posi tive Int + 14.00 x 1.& I 20 sf 30.6 15.9 +4.5 +14.3 < 10 sf Stud Siding 17.7* 15.00 x 1.00 x 1.4 Example 55 • Simplifi ed Win d Loads oh 2· Story Bu ild.& 35.3 sf (4) 17.9· 24.4' +5 .5 +4 . 6 • Note.0 0 x 1.3 sf .00 x 1.00 x 1.90 mph.00 x 1.0 ft Direction Interpolation Pnl:tJO x HI.5 No ne Req uired +5.9 + 14. Vol.6 1 9.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.18. 1 .& 14.00 x 1.4 I 2 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.15.6 1 9.6 ..& · 35 .00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.15.00 x 1.2.00 x 1.ngs ] C & C .6 +5.14.1 15.& +5.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.5 1 Positive Int ( I) 12 sf Negative Joist Deck '".00 x 1.14.00 x 1.00 +5 .& +5.00 x 1.3 +5. P JJO 1 Design Pressure Area Deck Press Factor x 1.& 14.00 x 1.00 x 1.
O Q Interior Zones Roofs.. Vol.Zone 21Walls .4 The component and cladding pressures should be applied as described in Figure 63 and as shown in the diagram below..Zone 3 I 1 1 I 2006 IBC StructuraUSeismic Design Manual.Zone 5 Comer Zones Roofs.Zone 1f\Nalis.1 Examp / a 55 • Si mplified Win d Load s o n 2· S tory B uil din gs § 6. Roofs.Zone 4 End Zones '. I 199 .
wind loads can be determined using simplified provisions. 1. Vol. I .4.4 Example 56 • Simplifi ed Wind Loads on Low R ise Buildings Per §6. for conform ing lowrise bui ldings. [}J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A ~ Wind loads on secondstory wall mullion 200 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.situated on fiat ground b (0 3  PLAN Flexible Diaphragm Typ /' 10 WaII mu II" ns spaced 5 ~eel typ ) 1/ Longitudinal Elevation T ra nsve rse Eleva tion Determin e the following.§6. The following information is given .1 . A B c 1  / Main windforceres isting system 2 Typ I 1< 100' 3story office build ing located in urban/subu rban area ofNW Texas .
Torsiona l irregularities not a concern Note 5. Vol. Heig ht and exposure adjustment 'A. See §6. Flat.0 §6. F 6. simp le diaphragm") 2. 8 = 1.1 .2 Yes §6.I(3)=0.7 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Se ismic Design Ma nual.I Ex amp l e 56 g Simp lified Win d L oa ds on Low Ri s e Buildings §6A 1 [!J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A 1 a. Low rise building (Mean roof height < 60 ft and building widt h) 3.1 §6.5. No special wind characteristics 7. gabled or hipped roof Yes Yes Yes Yes §6.3 sec N = Number of Stories 6.1Check applicability of simplified provisions 1 I . Building enclosed 4. Not flexible (II) > l hz) (T < I sec) T=O. simp lified provisions are app lica ble Determine basic parameters NW Texas basic wind speed = 90 mph The desig n professional should contact the local building department to confirm design wind speed .2 I I I I I I I I 8.10 Therefore.2 §6.5 . J 201 . Regular shape 5.2) (8 < 10") Adjustment factor from Fig ure 62. Simple diaphragm building (See definition under "building.6 for exposure category definitions Examp le bu ilding in urban/suburban area is considered exposure B Mean roof height (h) = 35 ft (see defin ition §6.I N=0.05 Topographic factor F 6la F 62 K.2 Yes Yes Yes §6.4.2 §6. = 1.
7 4.4.10.4 10.6.1.1 .4 8. roof angle = arctan 10 7.8 6.8.1. Roof Angle Horizontal Loads End Zone Int.3.04 (60) = 2.4.6 o to Transverse 5" 20" Vertical Loads End Zone lnt. Zone E F G H WW LW WW LW Roof Roof Roof Roof 15.42 : .0)(13.7 7.4. F 62 I I I I I I I I End Zone 2a = 12 ft F 62 1 e.0 11d·1 Determine end zone dimensions Edge Strip a = 0.1) I 1 1 c.4 psf In interior zone [C] = (1.4 psf*12 ft + 9.6" 6.0)(1.6 psf*(2512))*35 ft = 10. 2.3D Horizontal load at wall : In end zone [A] = (1.40 (35) = 14 ft but not less than ~ 0.42 kips Min load §6.8 15.4 Exam ple 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings ] T 61 Importance Factor J = 1. .4 ft or ~3ft Note 10.§6.4 9.15.1Obtain tabulated load s Simplified Design Wind Pressure P.5 11.75 kips < 10. .1.4.1. 6.8 17.8 10.7 8.7 pst) = 14.4 (use 0) 9.1 does not govern 202 2006 IB C S tr uc tural/ Seismic D esign Ma nual.6 psf Per §6.7 . Governs or = 0.0)(9. I I I .1 I I I I I I Check minimum requirement: Horizontal load Eq 61 = (14.1 10. 1 = {I0 psf* 25 ft)*35 ft = 8.05)(1.6" 13. J P. Zone A 8 C D Wall Roof Wall Roof 12.9 4. 1 pst) = 9.7 .0 (Category II Build ing from Table 1.0)(1.7 = 7.8 (use 0) .0 2.7 .dO (p sf) F 62 V 90 mph Load Dir.10 (60) = 6 ft .1Determine load on MWFRS at Grid A Forces determined using Eq 61 ps = A K. Vol. check 10 psf minimum over projected area of vertical plane §6. 1 Interpolating: For examp le..05)(1.
0)(15.35 psf Vertical uniform loads to frame : Win dward: (16 .0)( 1.I n end zone [F] = (1. A more detai led analysis of for ces based on roof frami ng would include a sm aller distributed load and upli ft point loa ds at locations where beams frame into the grid A moment frame at grids I. HI. 10 ft/2 = 5 It 10 ft/2 + 10 ft/2 = 10 n V2 = 3.56 psf In interi or zon e [H] = ( 1.05)( 1.2 psf In interior zone [G] = (1.35 psf)(25 .6 psfl'(25 ft .0)( 1.4 pst) = 16.0)(9.0)( 1.5 ft Elevation 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.34 kif uplift Leeward: (11.2 psf Leew ard Roof. 05)( 1.2 ft) 12.6 psfl'(25 ft . I 203 .4 ps f" 12 ft + 9.0 psf) = 7.12) = 340 plf= .In end zone [E] = (1. and 3.0)(7 .2 ft» 5 ft = 1488 Ib cd 3 Floor Load (10 ft tributary ht) V3 = (14.2 psf)( 12 ft) + (9.2 £1» 10 ft = 2976 Ib 2 nd Floor Load (12 . 0.se' k > > ) Trib.34 kif VR = 1. Alternatively.6 psfl'( 25 ft .4 psf" 12 ft + 9. 1 psf) = 9 . 2.12) = 210 plf = .5 ft = 3720 Ib Note: Forces to Grid A are shown based on a tributary basis that is conservative for the analysis of Grid A .05)( 1.4 Hori zonta l point loads to frame : Roof Load (5 ft tributary ht) VR=(14.49 k V3 = z.Ex ample 56 8 Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Bu ildings §6.2 psf)(12 ft) + (7. the forces could be distribu ted to gr ids A and C by ap plying the loads as a simple span beam.0)(10. Vertical load at roof: Win dward Roof .05)( 1.56 psf)(25 .7 psf) = 11.4 ps f" 12 ft + 9. Vol.5 ft tributary ht) V2= (14.21 kif uplift Note : Forces applied to Grid A are sho wn as a distri buted loa d along the frame length .0)( 1.72 10 ft/2 + 15 ft/2 = 12.
1 .5 plf = (1.Zone 4 Effective wind area = 5 ft (10 ft) = 50 sq ft Wind Loads pne130 ps F 63 = AK ztl Pnel30 §6.1 10 psI x Trib HI §6.2 ..4.6 psI x Trib HIS 14./ = 75 plf or 68.0)(14.0)(1.3 pSfnegalive)(5 ft tributary) = 75 plf F 63 p. lJ 204 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manua l.4 Example 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings 0r Load Cases: cr C( cr :JD r l 5 9.5 plf ( 2nd floor . I ./ .3 psfnegative (suction) = (1.0 pSfposilive)(5 ft tributary) = 68.1 Plan [!J Wind loads on second story wall mullion ~ Determine zone of mullion Interior of wall area . ps r~ ( = 3'· floor .2 .05)(1.0)(13..4..2 (Eq 62) = 13.2.§6.05)(1. Vol.0)(1.0 psfpositive = 14..4.4 psI x Trib HI §6.
Located in an urban/suburban area ofN.5 I 2006 IB C Structural/S eismic Design Manual. Floor Vibrations A 9sto ry building has a momentresisting frame for a lateral forceresisting system.1 Determine basic wind speed Ut ilize ASC E/ SEI 705 §6 Use meth od 2 analytical procedure §6. Texas 3" 12' 12' Elevation Determ ine: [TI Wind loads on MWFRS Icai~ulationsJ!n(f Discussion [TI Wind loads on MWFRS Chapter 6 I 1 1 1 a. I 205 . Vol. 50' 4 1 ~I 12' 12' 12' 12' 12' 12' Office build ing 50 ft by 50 ft in plan with MWFRS at exterior.W.Ex ample 58 . Find the latera l forces on the frame due to wind.
or does not have a site locatio n for which channeling effects or buffet ing in wake of upwind obstructions warrant special conditions §6.3 and §2.96 0. instability due to galloping or flutter .1 Design procedure Basic wind speed V = 90 mph §6.4) Importance factor I = 1.70 0.5.7 §6.= 1.8.1(9) = 0.5.5.8 §9.57 0.2 §6.81 0.4.5.03 • 1.89 0.5.2 (Eq 9.4.6 §6.4.6.85 0.04 By Interpolation Topographic factor K Z1 = I (example building on flat land.3 §6. T 63 I I 0· 15 fl 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 11 6 120 " Exposure 8 Case 2 0. T64 §6.76 0.5.5.1 I I I I I I I I . T 61 §6.5.5. vortex shedding.99 1.00 (Structural Category II.66 0.Analytical Proce dure Confirm building is regular shaped and not subject to across wind loading.62 0.5.5.§6.5.3.5.1 Hz > 1.5. Table 11) Exposure Category B Velocity pressure coeff K= (Case 2) §6. F 61 1 l b1 i · I I I Determine velocity pressure Wind directionality factor Kd = 0.2la) §6.5.5 Example 57 • Wind Loads .3.93 0. I §6.9 sec 1 Natural frequency = . no nearby hills) Gust effect factor G 9story building Natural period = 0.85 (applies when using load combina tions in ASCE/SEI 705 §2.6.9 Therefore: Rigid structure G= 0.85 206 2006 IBC S tr uct ur al/S eism i c Design Ma nual. Vol.0 0.
9 §6.GCpi GCpi = ±0.00256K=( 1.6 12.0 psf 10.7 16.4 14.Cp For example building.15 0.4 16.1 Determine pressure and force coefficients Internal pressure coefficients .5.2 11 c. F 65 §6.11.11 §6.9 11. F 66 L Plan (Note: Internal pressures must be added to or subtracted from external pressures typical L Elevation 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. monoslope roof'B = 0 §6.5.00256K2 K2kKdV / = 2 §6.0)(0.5.85)(90)2( 1.5. 10 Eq 6. Vol.2.1.18 Case 1: Internal Pressure Inward Case 2: Internal Pressure Ou tward External pressure coefficients .00256K=KrK2 V 2/ = O.3 15.4 18.5.0 15. I 207 .11.0) 015 ft 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 116 10.Examp le 58 a Floor Vibra tions Enclosure Classification Example building enclosed Velo city Pressure q== O.3 13.9 17.
41 7.36 9. 1 psf lid·1Design wind loads Main windforceresisting system Rigid building §6. Vol .8 12.0.85)(xI.04) = x 16.80 7.1 208 2006 IBC Structura l/Seismic Design Man ual.4 I I Leeward wall 50 = . = 0.85)(.5) = 7.0 L 50 h c.8 (Area Reduction Factor) = 1. (0 .8) 6.85)(.§6.74 psf Side walls I I I I I I I I I I I I I I c.72 10.2 (0.2 psf q"GCp = 18.2.5 11.2 §6. I .3 x 0.Analytical Procedure I F 66 Windward wall C.5 Example 5 7 • Wind Lo ads .2 psf(0.2 11.5.89 8.= 1 > C = .2 (0.8 psf 11 6 = =2.12 §6.7) = 1 0.5.85)(0 .5.5 50 p B L ll 6 fi F66 q" = q " ' = 18. = .l 2.8 II 0· 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 116 .1.7 11.0.2 10.0.3 > 1. 12.GC = n . Roof  =0.04 F 66 q"GCp = 18.7 F 66 q"GCp = 18.11 9.
Example 58.2(0.7.28 psf(±) Ii p = CJ=GCp .6 12.7.1 18.) 10.7 11.0 14.5 psf p = .4 .18) = 15.74 1 8.2(0.4 13.2 11.5 Case 1 shown 015 ft 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 116 14.5 14.18) =9.18) = . Vol.7 Case 1 15.8 / Sample Calculation 15 I P = 12.0 13.4.18) = .2(0.19.8 .7 . 18) =3.2(+0.14.4 psf 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.4 .1 8) = .2(0. 1 10.0 psf Case 1 Case 2 Side walls = 10.18.18) = I 1.74 1 8.qh (GCp i ) p = .1B.2)(0.1 Case 2 Leeward wall p = q"GCp . I 209 . 12.18.Q1J(GCp . I psf Roof = 1 6. Floor Vibra:ions C 617) Eq Windward wall qh(GCp i ) = (18.2(0.
§6. 19.0 psI Case 2 14... ..1 + 11. multiply pressures by tributary width = 50/2 = 25 ft or perform Rigid Diaphragm Analysis 210 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.7 psI Case 2 9. .0 = 21.4 ps f Cas e 1 15..graphically rrrr.0 psf 4.5 Example 57 a Wind Loads .k.5 psf Case 1 11.l~ Wind ~I~ 11.1 To obtain frame loads.4.1 Design wind loads .) Elevation Case 1: Internal Pressure Inwa rd Case 2: Internal Pressu re Outward Verify projected load is greater than 10 psf 10.1.o. Vol.1 psI .:Jf'LL.1> 10 psf.Analytical Procedure 11 e. I .. §6.1 psf Plan Wind .