COD APPLICATUO EXAMPLES

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Table of Contents
CopyrightlPublisher/Editor/Disclaimer ii
Preface VlJ
Acknowledgments ix
Suggestions for Improvement / Errata Notifi cation xi
Introduction I
How to Use This Document 2
Notation 3
Definitions 18
EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION ASCEISEI 7-05 PAGE
Example i Classification/Importance Factors §11.5-1 25
Seismic Design Category §11.6 26
Example I Earthquake Load Combinations:
Strength Design §12.4.2.3 27
Example 2 Comb inat ions of Loads §2.4 32
Example 3 Design Spectral Response Accelerat ions §11.4 36
Introduction to Vertical Irregularities §12.3.2.2 41
Example 4 Vertical Irregul arity Type l a and Type Ib §12.3.2.2 42
Example 5 Verti cal Irregul arity Type 2 §12.3.2.2 46
Example 6 Vertical Irregularity Type 3 §12.3.2.2 48
Example 7 Vertical Irregularity Type 4 §12.3.2.2 50
Example 8 Vertical Irregular ity Type 5a §12.3.2.2 52
Example 9 Vertical Irregularity Type 5a §12.3.3.1 54
Introduction to Horizontal Irregularities §12.3.2.1 58
Example 10 Horizontal Irregularity Type Ia and Type Ib .. §12.3.2.1.. 59
Example I I Horizontal Irregul arity Type 2 §12.3.2.1 63
Example 12 Horizontal Irregularity Type 3 §12.3.2.1 65
Example 13 Horizontal Irregularity Type 4 §12.3.2. 1 67
Example 14 Horizontal Irregularity Type 5 §12.3.2. 1 68
Example 15 Redundancy Factor p §12.3.4 69
Example 16 P-delta Effects §12.8.7 74
Example 17 Seismic Base Shear §12.8. 1... 78
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I iii
EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION ASCE/SEI 7-05 PAGE
iv 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 18
Example 19
Example 20
Example 21
Example 22
Example 23
Example 24
Example 25
Example 26
Example 27
Example 28
Example 29
Example 30
Exampl e 31
Example 32
Example 33
Example 34
Example 35
Example 36
Example 37
Example 38
Example 39
Example 40
Example 41
Exampl e 42
Example 43
Example 44
Example 45
Example 46
Example 47
Example 48
Example 49
Approximate Fundamental Period §12.8.2. I 80
Simpli fied Alternative Structural Design Procedure §I 2. 14 83
Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical §I 2.2.3. I 86
Combination of Framing Systems:
in Different Directions §I2.2.2 90
Combin ation of Structural Systems:
Along the Same Axis §I 2.2.3.2 92
Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force §12.8.3 93
Horizontal Distribution of Shear §12.8.4 97
Amplification of Accident al Torsion §I2.8.4.3 102
Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §I 2.3.3.3 106
Elements Supporting Disconti nuous Walls or Frames §12.3.3.3 I 10
Soil Pressure at Foundati ons §2.4
§I2.I3.4 I I3
Drift §12.8.6 I 16
Story Drift Limitations §12.12 I 19
Vertical Seismic Load Effect. §12.4.2. 2 121
Design Response Spectrum §11.4.5 124
Dual Systems §12.2.5. I 126
Lateral Forces for One-Story Wall Panels §12.11 129
Out-of-Plane Seismic Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel §12.11. I
§I2.11.2 133
Rigid Equipment.. §I 3.3. 1 137
Flexibl e Equipment §13.3.1 140
Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments §I3.3.2 143
Deformation Compatibility for Seismic Design
Categories D, E, and F.· §I2. 12.4 145
Adjoining Rigid Elements §12.7.4 148
Exterior Elements: Wall Panel §I3.5.3 150
Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel. §13.5.3 153
Beam Horizontal Tie Force §12.1.3 160
Collector Elements §12. 10.2 162
Out-of-Plane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry §12.11.2
Walls to Flexible Diaphragms §12.11.2.1 165
Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §12.11.2.1 167
Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
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Lowrise §12.10.1.1 170
Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
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Highrise §12.10.1 174
Building Separations §12.12.3 176
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Table of Contents
EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION ASCE/SEI 7-05 PAGE
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Example 50
Example 51
Example 52
Example 53
Example 54
Example 55
Example 56
Example 57
Flexible Nonbuilding Structure §15.5 179
Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure §15.0 182
Rigid Nonbuilding Structure §15.4.2 186
Tank With Supported Bottom §15.7.6 188
Pile Interconnections IBC §1808.2.23. 1 190
Simplified Wind Loads on 2-Story Buildings §6.4 193
Simplified Wind Loads on Low-Rise Buildings §6.4 200
Wind Loads - Analytical Procedure §6.5 205
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Man ual, Vol. I V
vi 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Preface
This document is the initial volume in the three-volume 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design
Manual, It has been developed by the Structural Engineers Association of California
(SEAOC) with funding provided by SEAOC. Its purpose is to provide guidance on the
interpretation and use of the seismic requirements in the 2006 l llfem ational Building Code
(IBC), published by the International Code Council , Inc., and SEAOC's 2005 Recommended
Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (also called the Blue Book).
The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual was developed to fill a void that exists
between the commentary of the Blue Book, which explains the basis for the code provisions,
and everyday structural engineering design practice. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic
Design Manual illustrates how the provisions of the code are used. Volume 1: Code
Application Examples, provides step-by-step examples for using individual code provisions,
such as computing base shear or building period. Volumes 1I and lIl: Building Design
Examples, furnish examples of seismic design of common types of buildings. In Volumes"
and III, important aspects of whole buildings are designed to show, calculation-by-
calculation, how the various seismic requirements of the code are implemented in a realistic
design.
The examples in the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual do not necessarily illustrate
the only appropriate methods of design and analysis. Proper engineering judgment should
always be exercised when applying these examples to real projects. The 20061BC
Structural/Seismic Design Manual is not meant to establish a minimum standard of care but;
instead, presents reasonable approaches to solving problems typically encountered in
structural /seismic design.
The example problem numbers used in the prior Seismic Design Manual - 2000 IEC
Volume I code application problems have been retained herein to provide easy reference to
compare revised code requirements.
SEAOC, NCSEA and ICC intend to update the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual
with each edition of the building code.
Jon P. Kiland and Rafael Sabelli
Project Managers
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I vii
viii 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Acknowledgments
The 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual Volume J was written by a group of highly
qualified structural engineers. They were selected by a steering committee set up by the
SEAOC Board of Directors and were chosen for their knowledge and experience with
structural engineering practice and seismic design. The consultants for Volumes I, II, and III
are:
Jon P. Kiland, Co-Project Manager
Rafael Sabell i, Co-Project Manager
Douglas S. Thompson
Dan Werdowatz
Matt Eatherton
John W. Lawson
Joe Maffei
Kevin Moore
Stephen Kerr
A number of SEAOC members and other structural engineers helped check the examples in
this volume. During its development, drafts of the examples were sent to these individuals.
Their help was sought in review of code interpretations as well as 'detailed checking of the
numerical computations.
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Close collaboration with the SEAOC Seismology Committee was maintained during
the development of the document. The 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 committees reviewed
the document and provided many helpful comments and suggestions. Their assistance is
gratefully acknowledged.
ICC
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I ix
Sugges tion s for Improvement
Inkeeping with SEAOC's and NCSEA's Mission Statements: "to advance the structural
engineering profession" and "to provide structural engineers with the most current
information and tools to improve their practice," SEAOC and NCSEA plan to update this
document as structural/seismic requirements change and new research and better
understand ing of building performance in earthquakes becomes available.
Comments and suggestions for improvements are welcome and should be sent to
the following:
Structural Engi neers Association of Cal ifornia (SEAOC)
Attention: Executive Director
14 14 K Street, Suite 260
Sacramento, California 95814
Telephone: (916) 447-1198 ; Fax: (916) 932-2209
E-mail: leeiWseaoc.org; Web address: www.seaoc .org
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SEAOC and NCSEA have made a substantial effort to "ensure that the information inthis
document is accurate. Inthe event that corrections or clarifi cations are needed, these will be
posted on the SEAOC web site at h/lP://11 1111'.seaoc.org or on the ICC websit e at
http:// wll1l..iccsaf e.org. SEAOC. ati ts sole discretion, mayor may not issue written
errata
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic DesIgn Manual, Vol. I
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Introduction
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Volume I of the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual: Code Application Examples
deals with interpretation and use of the structural/seismic provisions of the 2006
l ntemational Building Code'" (!BC). The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is
intended to help the reader understand and correctly use the mc structural/seismic provisions
and to provide clear, concise, and graphic guidance on the application of specific provisions
of the code. It primarily addresses the major structural/seismic provisions of the !BC, with
interpretation of specific provisions and examples highl ighting their proper application.
The 2006 !BC has had structural provisions removed from its text and has referenced several
national standards documents for structural design provisions. The primary referenced
document is ASCE/SEI 7-05, which contains the "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
Other Structures." ASCE/SEI 7-05 is referenced for load and deformation design demands on
structural elements, National Material design standards (such as ACI, AISC, MSJC and
NOS) are then referenced to take the structural load demands from ASCE/SEI 7-05 and
perform specific material designs.
Volume I presents 58 examples that illustrate the application of specific struct ural/seismic
provisions of the !Be. Each example is a separate problem, or group of problems, and deals
primarily with a single code provision. Each example begins with a description of the
problem to be solved and a statement of given information. The problem is solved through
the normal sequence of steps, each of which is illustrated in full. Appropriate code references
for each step are identified in the right-hand margin of the page.
The complete 2006 lBCStructural/Selsmic Design Ma nual will have three volumes.
Volumes II and III will provide a series of structural/seismic design examples for buildings
illustrat ing the seismic design of key parts of common building types such as a large three-
story wood frame building, a tilt-up warehouse, a braced steel frame building, and a concrete
shear wall building.
While the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 !BC, there are
some provision ofSEAOC's 2005 Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary
(Blue Book) that are applicable. When differences between the !BC and Blue Book are
significant they are brought to the attention of the reader.
The 2006 lBC St ructural/Seismic Design Manual is intended for use by practicing structural
engineers and structural designers, building departments, other plan review agencies , and
structural engineering students.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual , Vol. I 1
How to Use This Do cum ent
• :JC . . '>;
The various code applicat ion examples of Volume I are organized by topic consistent with
previous editions. To find an example for a particular provision of the code, look at the
upper, outer comer of each page, or in the table of contents.
Generally, the ASCE/SEI 7-05 notat ion is used throughout. Some other notation is defined in
the followi ng pages, or in the examples.
Reference to ASCE/SEI 7-05 sections and formulas is abbreviated. For example, "ASCE/SEI
7-05 §6.4.2" is given as §6.4.2 with ASCE/SEI 7-05 being understood. "Equation (12.8-3)"
is designated (Eq 12.8-3) in the right-hand margins. Similarly, the phrase "T 12.3-1" is
understood to be ASCE/SEI 7-05 Table 12.3-1, and "F 22-15" is understood to be Figure 22-
15. Throughout the document, reference to specific code provisions and equations is given in
the right-hand margin under the category Code Reference.
Generally, the examples are presented in the following format. First, there is a statement
of the example to be solved, including given information, diagrams, and sketches. This is
followed by the "Calculations and Discussion" section, which provides the solution to the
example and appropriat e discussion to assist the reader. Finally, many of the examples have
a third section designated "Commentary." In this section, comments and discussion
on the example and related material are made. Commentary is intended to provide a better
understanding of the exampl e and/or to offer guidance to the reader on use of the information
generated in the example.
In general, the Volume I examples focus entirely on use of speci fic provisions of the code.
No building design is illustrated. Building design examples are given in Volumes II and III.
The 2006 lEe Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 IBC, and the
referenced Standard ASCE/SEI 7-05 unless otherwise indicated. Occasionally, reference is
made to other codes and standards (e.g., 2005 AISC Steel Construction Manual 13
th
Edition,
ACI 318-05, or 2005 NOS). When this is done, these documents are clearly ident ified.
2 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Notation
The following notations are used in this document. These are generall y consistent with those
used in ASCE/SEI 7-05 and other Standards such as ACI and AISC. Some new notations
have also been added. The reader is cautioned that the same notation may be used more than
once and may carry entire ly different meanings in different situations, For example, E can
mean the tabulated elastic modulus under the AISC definition (steel) or it can mean the
earthquake load under §12.4.2 of ASCE/SEI 7-05. When the same notation is used in two or
more definitions, each definition is prefaced with a brief descript ion in parentheses (e.g. ,
steel or loads) before the definition is given.
A
ABM =
area of floor or roof supported by a member
cross-sectional area of the base material
area of anchor, in square inches
the combined effective area, in square feet, of the shear walls
in the first story of the structure
AI
A
g =
A
g =
Ai =
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A ch
A
e
=
=
=
=
cross-sectional area of a struct ural member measured out-to-out of
transverse reinforcement
net area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of
section in the directio n of shear force considered
the minimum cross-sectional area in any horizontal plane in
the first story, in square feet of a shear wall
flange area
gross area of section
the gross area of that wall in which ADis identified
the floor area in square feet of the diaphragm level immediately above
the story under consideration
area of the load-carrying foundation
the effective area of the projection of an assumed concrete failure
surface upon the surface from which the anchor protrudes , in square
inches
area of non-prestressed tension reinforcement
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 3
Nota tion
Ash = total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including
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supplementary crossties) having a spacing s" and crossing a section
with a core dimension of he
Ask = area of skin reinforceme nt per unit height in one side face
A Slmin =
area having minimum amount of flexural reinforcement
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As, =
area of link stiffener
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AT = tributary area
A
v = area of shear reinforcement within a distance s, or area of shear
reinforcement perpendicular to flexural tension reinforcement within a
distance s for deep flexural members
A,'J = required area of leg reinforcement in each group of diagonal bars in a
diagonally reinforced coupling beam
Avr = area of shear-friction reinforcement
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All'
=
(web) link web area
Aw =
(weld) effective cross-sectional area of the weld
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A., =
the torsional amplification factor at Level x - §12.8.4.3
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a = (concrete) depth of equivalent rectangular stress block
a =
(concrete spandrel) shear span, distance between concentrated load
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and face of supports
a
e
= coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete strength to
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wall strength
ad =
incremental factor relating to the P-delt a' ef fects as determined in
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§12.8.7
a, = the acceleration at Level i obtained from a modal analysis (§13.3. 1)
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a
p
= amplification factor related.to the response of a system or component
as affected by the type of seismic attachment determined in §13.3.1
b = (concrete) width of compression face of member
br
= flange width
bu. =
web width
4 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Notation
bit member width-thickness ratio
Cd
= deflection amplification factor as given in Tables 12.2-1 or 15.4-1 or
15.4-2
C
e
= snow exposure factor
em
coefficient defined in §Hl of AISC/ASD, 9
th
Edition
C, = the seismic response coefficient determined in §12.8.1.1 and §19.3.1
Cr
= building period coefficient - §12.8.2.1
C, snow thermal factor
C1'X
= vertical distribution factor - §12.8.3
c distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis of a flexural
member
D dead load, the effect of dead load
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De
= the length, in feet, of a shear wall in the first story in the
direction parallel to the applied forces
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Dh gross weight of helicopter
D
p
= relative seismic displacement that a component must be designed to
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accommodate - §13.3.2
d effective depth of section (distance from extreme compression fiber to
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centroid of tension reinforcement)
db
= (anchor bolt) anchor shank diameter
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db
= (concrete) bar diameter
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d,
= column panel zone depth
E
= (steel) modulus of elasticity
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E combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced forces
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(§12.4)
seismic load effect including overstrength factors (§§12.4.3.2 and
Em
=
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12.14.2.2.2)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 5
Notation
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£1 = fl exural sti ffness of compression member
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s,
=
modules of elasticity of concrete , in psi
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E., = (concrete) modulus of elastic ity of reinforcement
e = EBF link length
F = load due to fluids
Fa = site coefficient defi ned in §11 .4.3
Fa =
axial compressive stress that would be permitted if axial force alone
existed
Fa =
flood load I
Fb = bending stress that would be permitted if bending moment alone
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FaM =
nominal strength of the base material to be welded
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Fexx
= classification number of wel d metal (minimum specified strength)
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Fi,Fu,P, = portion of seismic base shear, V, induced at Level i.n, or x as
determined in §12.8.3.
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F
p = seismic force, induced by the parts being connected, centered at the
component's center of gravity and distributed relative to the
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component' s mass distri bution, as determined in §12.8.3
F
p
, = the diaphragm design force
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F"
specified minimum tensile strength, ksi =
F"
= through-thickness weld stresses at the beam-column interface
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Fill = mini mum specified tensile strength of the anchor
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F,. long period site coefficient (at 1.0 second period) see §11.4.3 =
F, = the design lateral force applied at Level x
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r, = the lateral force induced at any Level i - §12.8.3
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F
w = (steel LRFD) nominal strength of the weld electrode material
FII' = (steel ASD) allowable weld stress
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6 2006 1BC Structura l/Seis mic Design Manual, Vo/./
notation
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he = assumed web depth for stability
h;, hn,h, = height in feet above the base to Level i , 11or x, respectively
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h, = height in feet of the roof above the base
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h
sx =
the story height below Level x
hll' =
height of entire wall or of the segment of wall considered
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I = the importance factor determined in accordance with §11.5.1
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I = moment of inertia of section resisting externally applied factored loads
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a =
moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete
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g
= (concrete, neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross
concrete section about centroidal axis
t; =
moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member
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cross section.
I , =
moment of inertia of structural steel shape, pipe or tubing about
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centroidal axis of composite member cross section.
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g =
(concrete, neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross
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concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement.
t, =
component importance factor that is either 1.00 or 1.5, as determined
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in §13.3. 1
K = (steel) effecti ve length factor for prismatic member
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k =
a distribution exponent - §12.8.3
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L live load, except rooflive load, including any permitted live load
=
reduction (i.e, reduced design live load). Live load related internal
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moments or forces. Concentrated impact loads
L
o
= unreduced design live load
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Lb = (steel) unbraced beam length for determining allowable bending stress
L
p
= limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength,
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uniform moment case
L,
=
roof live load including any permitted live load reduction
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8 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Notation
Ie (steel RBS) length of radius cut in beam flange for reduced beam
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section (RBS) design
t: length of a compression member in a frame, measured from center to
center of the joints in the frame
/;,
=
distance from column centerl ine to centerline of hinge for reduced
bending strength (RBS) connection design
I"
= clear span measured face-to-face of supports
I"
unsupported length of compression member
Ill'
= length of entire wall, or of segment of wall considered, in direction of
shear force
Level i
Leveln =
Level ,r =
level of the structure referred to by the subscript i.
" i = I" designates the first level above the base
that level that is uppermost in the main portion of the structure
that level that is under design consideration.
"x = I" designates the first level above the base
M
= (steel) maximum factored moment
factored moment to be used for design of compression member
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Mer =
"1;- =
moment at centerline of column
moment at which flexural cracking occurs in response to externally
applied loads
limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength,
uniform moment case
moment at face of column
(concrete ) modified moment
(steel) maximum moment that can be resisted by the member in the
absence of axial load
(steel) nominal moment strength at section
(concrete) required plastic moment strength of shearhead cross section
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. J 9
Notation
u, = (steel) nominal plastic flexural strength, FyZ
M
pa = nominal plastic flexural strength modified by axial load
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u; = nominal plastic flexural strength using expected yield strength of steel
Mpr = (concrete) probable moment strength determined using a tensile
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strength in the longitudinal bars of at least 1.25;;. and a strength
reduction factor cjJ of 1.0
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M
pr = (steel RBS) probable plastic moment at the reduced beam section
(RBS)
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M, = (concrete) moment due to loads causing appreciable sway
M, = torsional moment
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M,a = accidental torsional moment
M"
= (concrete) factored moment at section
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M"
=
(steel) required flexural strength on a member or joint
M,•. =
moment corresponding to onset of yielding at the extreme fiber from
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an elastic stress distribution
M
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=
smaller factored end moment on a compression member, positive if
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member is bent in single curvature, negative if bent in double
curvature
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M) larger factored end moment on compression member, always positive
=
N =
number of stories
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P =
ponding load
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P =
(steel) factored axial load
P =
(wind) design wind pressure
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PDL, i», r.; =
unfactored axial load in frame member
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Pb = nominal axial load strength at balanced strain conditions
Pbl
= connection force for design of column continuity plates
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r , = (concrete) critical load
10 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Notation
Pc
= (concrete anchorage) design tensile strength
P"
= nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity, or nominal
axial strength of a column
Po
= nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity
P si
=
FyA
p"
(concrete) factored axial load, or factored axial load at given
eccentricity
p"
= (steel) nominal axial strength ofa column, or required axial strength
on a column or a link
p"
(concrete anchorage) required tensile strength from loads
r,
nominal axial yield strength ofa member, which is equal to F),A
g
p., total unfactored vertical design load at and above Level x
PE
= axial load on member due to earthquake
Pu
= axial live load
QE
= the effect of horizontal seismic forces
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R
= rain load
R The response modification factor from Table 12.2-1
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R"
nominal strength
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R
p
= component response modification factor that varies from J.00 to 3.50
as set forth in Table J3.5- J or Table J3.6-1
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R"
required strength
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R)'
= ratio of expected yield strength F)'cto the minimum specified yield
strength Fy
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R, Rl R2
= live load reduction in percent - !Be §§1607.9.2/1607. J1.2
r rate of reduction equal to 0.08 percent for floors
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r (steel) radius of gyration of cross section of a compression member
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r
= radius of gyration about y axis
y
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 11
Notation
S = snow load
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So = design spectral response acceleration
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= 0.6 (SosIT
o)
T + 0.4 (Sos), for T less than or equal to To
= (SOl ) 1T, for T greater than T,
Sos = 5% damped, design, spectral response acceleration parameter at short
period (i.e., 0.2 seconds) =(2/3) S,«.. - §11.4.4
S, = Mapped, MCE, 5% damped, spectral acceleration parameter at short
periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) as determined by §11.4.1
SOl = 5% damped, design, spectral response acceleration parameter at I
l -second period =(2/3) Ssn
SI = Mapped, MCE, 5% damped, spectral acceleration parameter for a
l-s econd period as determined in §11.4.1
s'IIS = MCE, 5% damped, spectral response acceleration parameter for short
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periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) =FoS,. adj usted for site class effects
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S,I/I = MCE, 5% damped , spectral response accel eration parameter for
l -second peri od =F•.SJ, adjusted for site class effects
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SRBS = section modulus at the reduced beam section (RBS)
S = spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction parallel to
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longitudinal reinforcement, or spacing of transverse reinforcement
measured along the longitud inal axis
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T = self-straining force arising from contracti on or expansion resulting
from temperature change, shrinkage, moisture change, creep in
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component materials, movement due to differential settlement or
combinations thereof
T = elastic fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, of the structure in
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the direction under consideration, see §11.4. 5 for limitations
To = approximate fundamental period as determined in accordance with
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§12. 8.2.1
To = 0.2 (SOl 1Sos)
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T, = SOl 1Sos
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If
= thickness of flange
t
w = thickness of web
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Notation
I; ratio of expected yield strength F,.<to the minimum specified yield
strength F."
U = required strength to resist factored loads or related intemal moments
and forces
V the total design seismic lateral force or shear at the base of the building
or structure
V
c
= (concrete) nominal shear strength provided by concrete
I V
c
(concrete anchorage) design shear strength
VDL, Vu , V,ei, = unfactored shear in frame member
v,,,
=
shear correspond ing to the development of the "nominal flexural
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strength - calculated in accordance with Chapter 19"
v, (concrete) nominal shear strength at section
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V"
(steel) nomina l shear strength of a member
V
p
= (steel) shear strength of an act ive link
V
pa
= nominal shear strength of an active link modified by the axial load
magnitude
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V
px
the portion of the seismic shear force at the level of the diaphragm,
requi red to be transferred to the components of the vertical seismic-
lateral-force-resisting system because of the offsets or changes in
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stiffuess of the components above or below the diaphragm
V, = (concrete) nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement
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V, (steel) shear strength of member, 0.55 Fidt
V"
= (concrete anchorage) required shear strength from factored loads
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V"
(concrete) factored shear force at section =
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v, = (loads) factored horizontal shear in a story
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V"
(steel) required shear strength on a member
v.
= the seismic design story shear (force) in story x, (i.e.• between Level x
andx-I )
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Notation
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w = the total effective seismic dead load (weight) defined in §12.7.2
and §12. l4.8. l
W = (wind) load due to wind pressure
1
WI' = component operating weight
l1'c = weights of concrete, in pcf
11';, 11-'-r = that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x, respectively
w
p =
the weight of the smaller portion of the structure
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w
p = the weight of the diaphragm and other elements of the structure
tributary to the diaphragm
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lVp:c = the weight of the diaphragm and elements tributary thereto at
Level x, including applicable portions of other loads defined in
1
§12.7.2
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) VII' = weight of the wall tributary to the anchor
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11,= = column panel zone width
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X = height of upper support attachment at Level x as measured from the
base
y
=
height of lower support attachment at Level Yas measured from the
base
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Z (steel) plastic section modulus
=
z = height in structure at point of attachment of component , §13.3.1
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ZeDs = plastic section modulus at the reduced beam sect ion (RBS)
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(concrete) capacity-reduction or strength-reduction factor
<I>
=
<l>b
= (steel) resistance factor for flexure
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<l>c
=
(steel) resistance factor for compression
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<1>,.. = resistance factor for shear strength of panel -zone of beam-to-
column connections
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a = (concrete) angle between the diagonal reinforcement and the
longitudinal axis of a diagonally reinforced coupling beam
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Notation
1
a , ~
(steel) centroid locations of gusset connection for braced frame
diagonal
U
c
coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete strength
to wall strength
~ c
ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load or reaction
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area
= the ratio of shear demand to shear capacity for the story between
Level x and x- I
P
= a redundancy factor determined in accordance with §12.3.4
P
= (conc rete) ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement (As/b
d
)
Ph
reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions
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pn = ratio of area of distributed reinforcement parallel to the plane of
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A
c"
to gross concrete area perpendicular to the reinforcement
ps = ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total volume of core
(out-to-out of spirals) ofa spirally reinforced compression
member
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p"
ratio of area of distributed reinforcement perpendicular to the
plane of A«,to gross concrete area A
c
"
I = lightweight aggregate concrete factor; 1.0 for normal-weight
concrete, 0,75 for "all lightweight" concre te, and 0,85 for "sand-
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lightweight" concrete
A
p
= limiting slenderness parameter for compact element
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fo = length of radius cut in beam flange for reduced beam section
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(RBS) connection design
distance from column centerline to centerline of hinge for RBS
flo
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connection design
f n =
clear span measured face-to-face of supports
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f u = unsupported length of compression member
f ll'
length of entire wall or of segment of wall considered in direction
of shear force
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manua l, Vol. I 15
Notation
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1-
1
coefficient offriction
8 =
design story drift, shall be computed as the differences of the 1
deflections at the center of mass at the top and bottom or the story
under consideration. Note: Where ASD is used, 8 shall be
1
computed using earthquake forces without dividing by 1.4, see
§12.12
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8 =
design story drift
8
a
allowable story drift, as obtained from Table 12.12-1 for any story
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8
aA
= allowable story drift for structure A
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8
aB
allowable story drift for structure B =
no
=
system overstrength factor as given in Table 12.2-1
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Ox
= inelastic deflections of Level x - §12.8.6
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O,WE the average of the displacements at the extreme points of the structure
at Level x
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ONl4X
= the maximum displacement at Level x
OX4
=
deflection at structure Level x of structure A I
s, =
the deflections determined by an elastic analysis of the seismic-force-
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resisting system
OM
=
maximum of Ox
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OAlI,OM2
=
displacements of the adjacent building where 0M2 is at same level as
OAII
I
Ol:4 deflection at structure level y of structure A
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OrB
=
deflection at structure level y of structure B
8 stability coefficient - §12.8.7 I
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Definitions
Active Fault/Active Fault Trace. A fault for which there is an average historic slip rate of
I mm per year or more and geologic evidence of seismic activity within Holocene (past I 1,000
years) times. Active fault traces are designated by the appropriate regulatory agency and/or
registered design professional subject to identification by a geologic report.
Allowable Stress Design. A method of proportioning structural members, such that elastically
computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable
stresses (also called working stress design).
Attachments, Seismic. Means by which components and their supports are secured or
connected to the seismic-foree-resisting system of the structure. Such attachments include
anchor bolts, welded connections and mechanical fasteners.
Balcony, Exterior. An exterior floor projecting from and supported by a structure without
additional independent supports.
Base. The level at which the horizontal seismic ground motions are considered to be imparted
to the structure.
Base Shear. Total design lateral force or shear at the base.
Boundary Elements. Chords and collectors at diaphragm and shear wall edges, interior
openings, discontinuities, and re-entrant corners.
Boundary Members. Portions along wall and diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal
and transverse reinforcement and/or structural steel members.
Brittle. Systems, members, materials and connections that do not exhibit significant energy
dissipation capacity in the inelastic range.
Cantilevered Column System. A structural system relying on column elements that cantilever
from a fixed base and have minimal rotational resistance capacity at the top with lateral forces
applied essentially at the top and are used for lateral resistance.
Collector. A diaphragm or shear wall element parallel to the applied load that collects and
transfers shear forces to the vertical-foree-resisting elements or distributes forces within a
diaphragm or shear wall.
Component. A part or element of an architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural system.
Component, equipment. A mechanical or electrical component or element that is part
of a mechanical and/or electrical system within or without a building system.
Component, flexible. Component, including its attachments, having a fundamental
period greater than 0.06 second.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 17
Definitions
Component, rigid. Component, including its attachments, having a fundamental
period less than or equal to 0.06 second.
Confined Region. The portion of a reinforced concrete component in which the concrete is
confined by closely spaced special transverse reinforcement restraining the concrete in
directions perpendicular to the applied stress.
Coupling Beam. A beam that is used to connect adjacent concrete wall piers to make them act
together as a unit to resist lateral forces. .
Dead Loads. The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building, including
but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding,
and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed service equipment,
including the weight of cranes.
Deck. An exterior floor supported on at least two opposing sides by an adjacent structure, and/or
posts, piers, or other independent supports .
Deformability. The ratio of the ultimate deformation to the limit deformation,
High deformability element. An element whose deformability is not less than 3.5 when
subjected to four fully reversed cycles at the limit deformation,
Limited deformability element. An element that is neither a low deformability nor a
high deformability element.
Low deformability element. An element whose deformability is 1.5 or less.
Deformation.
Limit deformation. Two times the initial deformation that occurs at a load equal to 40
percent of the maximum strength.
Ultimate deformation. The deformation at which failure occurs and which shall be
deemed to occur if the sustainable load reduces to 80 percent or less of the maximum
strength.
Design Earthquake. The earthquake effects that are 2/3 of MCE earthquake effects.
Design Strength. The product of the nominal strength and a resistance factor (or strength
reduction factor).
Designated Seismic System. Those architectural, electrical, and mechanical systems and their
components that require design in accordance with Chapter 13 that have a component
importance factor, lp , greater than 1.0.
Diaphragm, Flexible. A diaphragm is flexible for the purpose of distribution of story shear and
torsional moment when the lateral deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the
average story drift of the associated story, determined by comparing the computed maximum in-
plane deflection of the diaphragm itself under lateral force with the story drift of adjoining
vertical lateral-force-resisting elements under equivalent tributary lateral force.
Diaphragm, Rigid. A diaphragm that does not conform to the definition of flexible diaphragm.
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Definitions
Displacement.
Design Displacement. The design earthquake lateral displacement, excluding
additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion, required for design of the
isolation system.
Total Design Displacement. The design earthquake lateral displacement, including
additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion. required for design of the
isolation system.
Total Maximum Displacement. The maximum considered earthquake lateral
displacement, including additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion,
required for verification of the stability of the isolation system or elements thereof,
design of building separations, and vertical load testing of isolator unit prototype.
Displacement Restraint System. A collect ion of structural elements that limits lateral
displacement of seismically isolated structures due to the maximum considered earthquake.
Duration of Load. The period of continuous application of a given load, or the aggregate of
periods of intermittent applications of the same load.
Effective Damping. The value of equivalent viscous damping corresponding to energy
dissipated during cyclic response of the isolation system.
Effective Stiffness. The value of the lateral force in the isolation system, or an element
thereof, divided by the corresponding lateral displacement.
Element
Ductile element. An element capable of sustaining large cyclic deformations beyond the
attainment of its strength.
Limited ductile element. An element that is capable of sustaining moderate cyclic
deformations beyond the attainment of nominal strength without significant loss of
strength.
Nonductile element. An element having a mode of failure that results in an abrupt loss
of resistance when the element is deformed beyond the deformation corresponding to the
development of its nominal strength. Nonductile elements cannot reliably sustain
significant deformation beyond that attained at their nominal strength.
Equipment Support. Those structural members or assemblies of members or manufactured
elements, including braces, frames, lugs, snubbers, hangers, or saddles that transmit gravity load
and operating load between the equipment and the structure.
Essential Facilities. Buildings and other structures that are intended to remain operational in the
event of extreme environmental loading from flood, wind, snow, or earthquakes.
Factored Load. The product of a nominal load and a load factor.
Flexible Equipment Connections. Those connections between equipment components that
permit rotational and/or translational movement without degradation of performance.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 19
Definitions
Frame.
Braced frame. An essentially vertical truss, or its equi valent , of the concentric or
eccentric type that is provided in a building frame system or dual frame system to resist
shear.
Concentrically braced frame (CBF). A braced frame in which the members are
subjected primarily to axial forces.
Eccentrically braced frame (EBF). A diagonally braced frame in which at least one
end of each brace frames into a beam a short distance from a beam-column or from
another diagonal brace.
Ordinary concentrically braced frame (OCBF). A steel concentrically braced frame
in which members and connections are designed for moderate duct ility.
Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF). A steel or composite steel and concrete
concentrically braced frame in which members and connections are designed for ductile
behavior.
Frame, Moment.
Intermediate moment frame (IMF). A moment frame in which members and joints are
capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members.
Ordinary moment frame (OMF). A moment frame in which members and joints are
capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis ofthe members.
Special moment frame (SMF). A moment frame in which members and joints are
capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members.
Frame System.
Building frame system. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame
system providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by shear
walls or braced frames.
Dual frame system. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame
system providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by a
moment-resisting frame and shear walls or braced frames.
Space frame system. A structural system composed of interconnected members, other
than bearing walls, that is capable of supporting vertical loads and that also may provide
resistance to seismic forces .
Gravity Load (W). The total dead load and applicable portions of other loads as defined in
§§12.7.2 and 12.14.8.1.
Hazardous Contents. A material that is highly toxic or potentially explosive and in sufficient
quantity to pose a significant life-safety threat to the general public if an uncontrolled release
were to occur.
Impact Load. The load resulting from moving machinery, elevators, craneways, vehicles, and
other similar forces and kinetic loads, pressure, and possible surcharge from fixed or moving
loads.
Importance Factor. A factor assigned to each structure according to its occupancy category
as prescribed in §11.5.1.
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Definitions
Inverted Pendulum-type Structures. Structures that have a large portion of their mass
concentrated near the top and, thus, have essentially one degree of freedom in horizontal
translation. The structures are usually T-shaped with a single column supporting the beams or
framing at the top.
Isolation Interface. The boundary between the upper portion of the structure, which is
isolated, and the lower portion of the structure, which moves rigidly with the ground.
Isolation System. The collection of structural elements that includes individual isolator units,
structural elements that transfer force between elements of the isolation system and
connections to other structural elements.
Isolator Unit. A horizontally flexible and vertically stiff structural element of the isolation
system that permits large lateral deformations under design seismic load. An isolator unit may
be used either as part of or in addition to the weight-supporting system of the building.
Joint. A portion ofa column bounded by the highest and lowest surfaces of the other members
framing into it.
Limit State. A condition beyond which' a structure or member becomes unfit for service and is
judged to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe
(strength limit state).
Live Loads. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure
and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load,
earthquake load, flood load,ordead load.
Live Loads (Roof), Those loads produced I) during maintenance by workers, equipment, and
materials; and 2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters and by
people.
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). A method of proportioning structural members
and their connections using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is
reached when the structure is subjected to appropriate load combinations. The term "LRFD" is
used in the design of steel and wood structures.
Load Factor. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nominal load, for
uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability
that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously,
Loads. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of building materials, occupants and
their possessions, environmental effect , differential movement, and restrained dimensional
changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small
magnitude. Other loads are variable loads (see also "Nominal loads").
Loads Effects. Forces and deformations produced in structural members by the applied loads.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 21
Definitions
Maximum Considered Earthquake. The most severe earthquake effects considered by this
code.
Nominal Loads. The magnitudes of the loads specified in this chapter (dead, live, soil, wind,
snow, rain, flood, and earthquake.)
Nonbuilding Structure. A structure, other than a building, constructed of a type included in
Chapter 15 and within the limits of §15. 1.1.
Other Structures. Structures, other than buildings, for which loads are specified in this
chapter.
P-delta Effect. The second order effect on shears, axial forces and moments of frame
members induced by axial loads on a laterally displaced building frame.
Panel (Part of a Structure). The section of a floor, wall, or roof located between the
supporting frame of two adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor or
roof construction.
Resistance Factor. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the
nominal strength and the manner and consequences of failure (also called strength reduction
factor).
Seismic Design Category. A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy
category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site, see §11.4.
Seismic-force-resisting system. The part of the structural system that has been considered in
the design to provide the required resistance to the seismic forces prescribed herein.
Seismic Forces. The assumed forces prescribed herein, related to the response of the structure
to earthquake motions, to be used in the design of the structure and its components.
Seismic Response Coefficient . Coefficient C" as determined from §12.8.
Shallow Anc hors. Shallow anchors are those with embedme ntlength-to-diameter ratios of
less than 8.
Shear Pa nel. A floor, roof, or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.
Shear Wall. A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall.
Shear Wall-frame Interactive System. A structural system that uses combinations of shear
walls and frames designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to their rigidities, considering
interaction between shear walls and frames on all levels.
Site Class . A classification assigned to a site based on the types of soils present and their
engineering properties as defined in §11.4.2.
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Dennltions
Site Coefficients. The values of Faand F
"
indicated in Tables 11.4- 1and 11.4-2, respect ively.
Special Transverse Reinforcement. Reinforcement composed of spirals, closed stirrups, or
hoops and supplementary cross-ties provided to restrain the concrete and qualify the portion of
the component, where used, as a confined region.
Story Drift Ratio. The story drift divided by the story height.
Strength, Nominal. The capacity of a structure or member to resist the effects of loads, as
determined by computations using specified material strengths and dimensions and formulas
derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of
scaled models, allowing for modeling effects and differences between laboratory and field
conditions.
Strength Design. A method of proportioning structural members such that the computed
forces produced in the members by factored loads do not exceed the member design strength
(also called load and resistance factor design.) The term "strength design" is used in the design
of concrete and masonry structural elements.
Strengt h Required. Strength of a member, cross section, or connection required to resist
factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated by
these provisions.
Torsiona l Force Distributio n. The distribution of horizontal seismic forces through a rigid
diaphragm when the center of mass of the structure at the level under consideration does not
coincide with the center of rigidity (sometimes referred to as a diaphragm rotation).
Toughness. The ability of a material to absorb energy without losing significant strength.
Wall, Load-bearing. Any wall meeting either of the following classifications:
I. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 pounds per linear foot
(1459 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 200 pounds per linear foot
(2919 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
Wall, Nonload-bearing. Any wall that is not a load-bearing wall.
Wind-rest raint Seismic System. The collection of structural elements that provides restraint
of the seismic-isolated-structure for wind loads. The wind-restraint system may be either an
integral part of isolator units or a separate device.
2006 IBC Structural/Sei smic Design Manual, Vol. I 23
Definitio ns
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Example i • Classlficationllmportance Fact ors/Seismic Des ign Cat egor y §11.5-1
§11.6
Determine the importance factors and the seismic design category for a faci lity given the
following information.
Type of occupancy - Elementary School with capacity greater than 250
SDS = 1.17
SOl = 0.70
SI = 0.75
Determine the following.
[!J Building category and importance factors for general occupancy and for
one building to be used for emergency shelter
[!J Seismic Design Category (SOC)
and Discussion
[!J Building category and importance factors.

From Table 1\.5- 1, "Importance Factors ," for the given occupancy category, the general
category is II. The occupancy category is used to determine the "Se ismic Design Category,"
§11 .6- 1. The one building to be used for an emergency shelter is Category IV.
The importance factors for seismic loads are from Table 11 .5-1. Importance factors for snow
loads are from Table 7-4. Importance factors for wind loads are from Table 6-1.
Category
II
IV
Seismic
Factor f
\.0
1.5
Snow
Factor 1
\.0
1.20
Wind
Factor f
1.0
\.15
2006 IBC Str uctural/Sei smi c Des ign Manu al, Vol . I 25
§11. S· 1 Example i • Cla ssification/Importance Factors Sei smic Des ign Cat egory
§11. 6
~ Seismic Design Category
All structures are assigned to a Seismic Design Category (SDC) based on their Occupancy
Category and the spectral response acceleration coefficients So< and SOl, irrespective of the
fundamental period of vibration of the structure T. Each building and structure shall be
assigned to the most severe SDC in accordance with Table 11.6- I or I 1.6-2 as follows.
Table 2.1 Occupancy Category vs Seismic Design Category
Nature of Occupancy Table I 1.6-1 Table 11.6-2 SDC
Occupancy Category
SDS
SDC
SOl SDC USE*
School II 1.I7 D* 0.70 D* E
Emergency IV 1.17 0 * 0.70 0 * F
Shelter
Recall: SI = 0.75% for this table
*Note that for Occupancy Categories I, II, and III having S, equal to or greater than 0.75 (recall Sj =
0.75), the building shall be assigned to SDC E. Also for Occupancy Category IV having S, ~ 0.75,
the building shall be assigned to SDC F.
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Ex amp le 1 • Earth quake Load Combi nations: St rength Design §12. 4.2.3
This example demonstrates the application of the strength design load combinations that
involve the seismi c load E given in §12.4;2.3 . This will be done for the moment-resisting
frame structure shown below.
8
D
s = 1. 10
I = 1.0
P = 1.3
I I =0.5
Snow load S = 0
A B
, / // / r r • / r r r >
c
D
Beam A-B and Column C-D are elements of the special moment-resisting frame.
Structural analysis has provi ded the following beam moments at A, and the
column axial loads and moments at C due to dead load, office building live load,
and left- to-right ( ~ ) and right-to-left (-) directions oflateral seismic loading.
Dead Load Live Load Left-to-Right Right-to-Left
D L Seismic Load Seismic Load
(--+QI;; ) (-- QI;;)
Beam Mome nt at A - 100 kip-ft -50 kip-ft +120 kip- ft -120 kip-ft
Column C-D Axial Load
+90 kips
+40 kips +110 kips - 110 kips
Column Moment at C
+40 kip-ft
+20 kip-ft +160 kip-ft -) 60 kip-It
Sign Convention: Positive moment induces flexural tension on the bottom side of a beam and
at the right side of a column. Positi ve axial load induces compression. Note that for the
particular location of Column C-D, the seismic Axial Load and Moment at C are both
positive for the left-to-right ( ~ ) loading and are both negative for the right-to-Ieft (-)
loading. This is not necessarily true for the other elements of the structure.
Find the following.
ILJ Strength design seismic load combinations (Comb.)
[!J Strength design moments at beam end A for seismic load combinations
[!J Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the
design of column section at C for seismic load combinations
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I 27
§12.4.2.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design
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Governing strength design seismic load combinations
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1.2D+ I.OE +0.5L ... (Note 0.2S =0) (Comb. 5)
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0.9D + 1.0E (Comb. 7)
where for a given type of load action such as moment M or axial load P
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E=E,,+E,.
(Eq 12.4-1)
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E; =PQE
(Eq 12.4-3)
E,. =0.2S
DSD
(Eq 12.4-4)
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Combined, these yield
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DSD
(Eq 12.4-3)
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when the algebraic sign, ±, of QE is taken as the same as that for D, and
E =PQE - 0.2SDSD
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when the algebraic sign, ±, of QE is taken as opposite to that for D.
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For the given values of: p =1.3, SDS= 1.10, the load combinations are
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1.2D + 1.3QE+ (0.2)( I.I)D + 0.5L =1.42D+ 1.3QE+ 0.5L (Comb. 5)
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when the signs of QEand D are the same, and
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1.2D +1.3QE- (0.2)(1.1)D +0.5L =0.98D + 1.3QE+0.5L (Comb. 5)
when the signs of QEand D are opposite .
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0.9D + 1.3QE + (0.2)(1.1)D =1.I2D + 1.3QE (Comb. 7)
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when the signs of QE and D are the same, and
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Exampl e 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design §1 2. 4.2.3
0.9 D + 1.3QE- (0.2)( 1.l)D =0. 68D + 1.3Q£ (Comb. 7)
when the signs of Q£ and D are opposite.
By inspection, the governing seismic load combinations are
when the signs of Q£ and D are the same,
0.68D + 1.3QE
when the signs of QE and D are opposite.
Strength design moments at beam end A for seismic load combinations
~ For the governin g load combination when the signs of Q£ and D are the same
1.42D + 1.3QE+0.5L
M
A
=1.42 (- 100) + 1.3(-120) + 0.5(-50) =- 323 kip-ft
~ For the governing load combination when the signs of Q£ and D are opposite
0.68D + 1.3QE
with D = M
D
= - 100 and QE= 120
M
A
= 0.68(-100) + 1.3(120) = 88 kip-ft
: . Beam section at A must be designed for
M
A
= - 323 kip-ft and + 88 kip-ft
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 29
§12.4.2.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design
[!J Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the
design of column section at C for seismic load combinations
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The seismic load combinations using the definitions of E given by Equations 12.4-1
through 12.4-4 can be used for the design requirement of a single action such as the
moment at beam end A, but they cannot be used for interactive pairs of actions such
as the axial load and moment at the column section C. These pairs must occur
simultaneously because of a common load combination. For example, both the axial
load and the moment must be due to a common direction of the lateral seismic
loading and a common sense of the vertical seismic acceleration effect represented by
0.2 SDsD. There can be cases where the axial load algebraic signs are the same for QE
and D, while the moment algebraic signs are different. This condition would prohibit
the use of the same load combination for both axial load and moment.
To include the algebraic signs of the individual actions, the directional property of the
lateral seismic load effect QE, and the independent reversible property of the vertical
seismic load effect 0.2 SDsD, it is proposed to use
E = p(-->QE) ± 0.2 SDSD, and p(-Qd ± 0.2 SDsD.
The resulting set of combinations is
1.2D + p(-->QE) - 0.2 SDsD +L
0.9D + p(-->Qd - 0.2 SDsD
0.9D + p(-Qd + 0.2 SDsD
0.9D + p(-Qd - 0.2 SDsD
(Note: a factor of 0.5 applies to L if L :0: 100 psf [except at garages and public
assembIy areas])
For the specific values of p = 1.3 and SDS = l.l 0, the load combinations provide the
following values for M
A
, and the interaction pair Pc and Me. Note that the interaction
pair Pc and Me must occur simultaneously at a specific load combination of gravity
load, and lateral and vertical seismic load effects. The interaction design of the
column section must satisfy all of the eight pairs of P
e
and Me from the seismic load
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Example 1 a Earthquake Load Combi nations: Strength Desi g n §1 2.4.2 .3
combinat ions along with the pairs from the gravity load combinations and wind load
combinati ons.
Combination M
A
kip-ft Pc kips and Me kip-ft
1.420 + 1.3 (Qi;) + O.5L -35 +268.8 and +242. 8
O.98D+ 1.3 (QE) + O.5L -9 +26.8 and +225.2
1.42D - 1.3 (Qd + 0.5L -299 +229.2 and - 109.2
0.98D- 1.3 (Qd + 0.5L -255 - 12,8 and · -126. 8
1.12D + 1.3(Qd +20 +22 1.8 and +220 .8
0.68D+ 1.3 (QE) +64 + 182.2 and +203 .2
1. 12D - 1.3 (Qd -244 -20.2 and -131.2
0.68D- 1.3 (QE) -200 -59.8 and - 148.8
The governing values are underlined for M
A
[same as det ermined in Part (2) ] and for the
interaction pairs of Pc and Merequired for the design of the col umn section at C.
...
The eight seismic load combinations resulting from the proposed definition of E provide an
automatic method of considering the individual algebraic signs of the load actions, the
direction of the lateral seismic load, and the independent ± action of 0.2 SDCD. There is no
need to use the "same sign" and "opposite sign" limitations of Equations 12.4-2 and 12.4-3
si nce all possible combinations are represented. Thi s is important for interactive pa irs of
actions that must be evaluated for a common load combination.
When the Modal Response Spectrum Analysis' procedure of §12.9 is used, the algebraic signs
of seismic load actions are lost because of the process of combining the individual modal
responses. The signs to be used for an interaction pai r of actions due to a given direction of
lateral loading can be obtained from the pr imary mode response where the primary mode is
the mode having the largest participati on factor for the given direction of lateral seismic
loading. Or, alternatively, the signs can be obtained from the equivalent lateral force
procedure of §12.8.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 31
§2.4 Example 2 • Combinations of Loads
-:
The code permits the use of allowable stress design for the design of wood members and
their fastenings (ASCE/SEI 7-05 §2.4 and §12.4.2.3). Section 2.4 defines the basic load
combinations for allowable stress design.
This example illustrates the application ofthis method for the plywood shear wall shown
below. The wall is a bearing and shear wall in a light wood framed building.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category B
J = 1.0
P =1.0
5
DS
=0.3
E =Ell = bQ£ = 4 kips (seismic
force due to the base shear
determined from§12.4.2)
Gravity loads
Dead lVD = 0.3 kif (tr ibutary dead
load, including weight of
wall
Live lIIL = (roof load supported by
other elements)
Gravity loads
ITnTTTTm
Plywood
shear wall
Shear Wall Elevati on
Moment arm from center of post to center of hold-down bolt
L = 10 ft - (3.5 + 2.0 +3.5/2) = 10 ft -7.25 in = 9.4 ft
Determine the required design loads for shear capacity q and hold-down capacity T
for the following load combinations.
[!J Basic allowable stress design
32 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 2 • Combinations of Loads
. . , . , . ~
..
§2.4
[IJ Basic allowable stress design §12.4.2.3
The governing load combinations for basic allowable stress design are Basic ASD
Combi nations 5, 6, and 8, as modified in §12.4.2.3. These are used without the usual one-
third stress increase.
§12.4.2 defines the seismic load effect E for use in load combi nations as
= D(J.O- 0.968) + 0.75 L,. - 0.525 QE for D and QEwith the opposite sense
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= QE+ 0.06D when D and QEare in the same sense
and E = PQE - 0.2SosD
=QE- 0.06D when D and QEhave oppos ite sense
For ASD Basic Combi nation 5 the load combination is:
D +0.7E
= D(I .O) +0.7 (0.6D + QE)
= ( 1.042)D+0.7QE for D and QE with the same sense
and D(1.0)+0.7(-0.6D-Qd
= 0.958D - O.7QE for D and QEwith opposite sense
For ASD Basic Combination 6 the load combination is:
D +0.75(0.7E) +0.75 (L + Lr)
= D(1.0 + (0.75)(0.7)(0.06)) + (0.75)(0.70)(1.0)QE+0.75 L,.
= J.032D+0.75L,. +0.525 QE for D and QEwith the same sense
For ASD Basic Combination 8 the load combination is:
0.6D + 0.7E
(Eq 12.4-1)
(Eq 12.4-3)
(Eq 12.4-4)
(Comb. 5)
(Comb. 6)
(Comb. 8)
2006 IBC Struct ural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 33
§2.4 Example 2 • Combinations of Loads
=D(0.06) + 0.7(1.0) QE+0.7(0.06)D
= (0.6 + 0.042)D + 0.7QE
=0.642D + O. TQE for D and QE in the same sense
= (0.6 - 0.042)D - 0.7QE
=0.558D - O.TQE for D and QE in the opposite sense
For the determination of design shear capacity, dead load and live load are not
involved, and all load combinations reduce to
For the design hold-down tension capacity the governing load combination is
0.558D - 0.7QE
For the wall boundary element compression capacity, the governing load combination
would be
1.042D + 0.7QE
~ Required unit shear capacity q
Base shear and the resulting element seismic forces QE determined under §12.8.1
are on a strength design basis. For allowable stress design, QE must be factored by 0.7
as indicated.
For design shear capacity the seismic load effect is
QE = 4000 Ib
For the governing load combination ofO.7QE, the design unit shear is
= 0.7QE = 0.7(4000) = 280 If
q L 10ft P
This unit shear is used to determine the plywood thickness and nailing requirements
from lBe Table 2306.4.1, which gives allowable shear values for short-time duration
loads due to wind or earthquake. For example, select 15/32 structural I sheeting
(plywood) with 10d common nails having a minimum penetration of 1-1/2 inches
1
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Example 2 • Comb/nations of Loads §2.4
into 2x members with 6-inch spacing of fasteners at panel edges; allowable shear of
340 plf.
Required hold-down tensile capacity T
Taking moments about point 0 at center of post at right side of wall with
E" =oQ£=4000 Ib, the value of the hold-down tension force T due to horizontal
seismic forces is computed
0.558(300 pit) I0 ft(5 ft - ~ ) - o. 7(4000 Ib)(9 ft) + T(9.4 ft) = 0
2(12)
Thus:
8125.88 Ib ft - 25,200 Ib ft + 9.4 ft(T) = 0
T = 1816.39 Ib tension
Similarly the boundary element compression capacity is computed
1.042(300 pit) lOft (5 ft - ~ ) + 0.7 (4000 Ib)(9 ft) - C(9.4 ft) = 0
2(12)
Thus:
15,1741b ft + 25,200 Ib ft-9.4 ft C=O
c =4295 Ib compression
The tension value is used for the selection of the pre-manufactured hold-down
elements. Manufacturer's catalogs commonly list hold-down sizes with their "1.33 x
allowable" capacity values. Here the 1.33 value represents the allowed Load Duration
factor for resisting seismic loads. This is not considered a stress increase (although it
has the same effect). Therefore, the catalog "1.33 x allowable" capacity values may
be used to select the appropriate hold-down element.
Equations 12.4-1 and 12.4-2 for E create algebraic sign problems in the
load combinations. It would be preferable to use
E = pQ£+ 0.2 SDsD
and use ± E in the load combinations.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 35
§11.4 Des ign Spectral Response Accel eraOons
For a given building site, the maximum considered earthquake spectral response
accelerations S, at short periods, and S) at I-second period are given by the accelerat ion
contour maps in §22. This example illustrates the general procedure for determining the
design spectral response parameters Sosand SDl from the mapped values of Ss and 8). The
parameters Sos and So, are used to calculate the design base shear in §12.8 and the Design
Response Spectrum in §11.4.5. -
Note that by far the most accurate, easiest, and most efficient way to obtain the spectral
design values is to use the USGS website iwww.eqhazmaps.usgs.govr. Given the longitude
and latitude of the site, the website provides values of Ss and S). The site longitude and
latitude can be obtained from an internet site such as by simply in-
putting the address.
From u\I'lI'\I'. geocode.com " it is determined that a buil ding site near Sacramento, California
is located at Latitude 38. 123° North and Longitude - 121.123D (or 121.123D west). The soi l
profile is Site Class D.
Determine the following.
[!.J Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations s,
and Sl
!TI Site coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral
response acceleration parameters SMS and SMl
[!J Design spectral response acceleration parameters Sos and SOl
Plot the general procedure response spectrum
Calculation of seismic response coefficient c,
Given: soil site class D, R =6, T=0.60 sec, and I = 1.0
36 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Design Spectral Response Accelerations §11.4
. ""
,.
.
Code.8eference· "
[!J Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations §11.4.1
For the given position (Near Sonora - NW of Sacramento, California) of 38° North
(Latit ude = 38.123°) and 121.123° West (Longitu de =- 121.123'), USGS provides the
values of
5s = 46.2%g = 0.462g
5, = 20.3%g = O.203g
~ Site coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral
response accelerations §1 1.4.3
From the USGS for the given site class D, and Ss = 0.462g, 5\ = O.203g, the site coeffi cients
are as follows
The adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations (based 011
§11.4.3) are also given on the CD ROM as follows
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Fa= 1.58
F,. =1.99
SMS=FaS, =1.58(0.462g) =O.730g
S'/I =F,S, =1.99(O.203g) =0.404g
TII.4-1
T 11.4-2
(EqI1.4-1)
(Eq 11.4-2)
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 37
§ 11. 4 Design Spectral Response Accel erations
~ Design spectral response acceleration parameters
2 2
S DS =- SMS =- (0.73g) =0.49g
3 3
'J ?
SOl =~ S.I{I =~ (0.404g) =0.27g
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§1l.4.4 I
(Eq 11.4-3)
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(Eq 11.4-4)
For periods greater than or equal to Toand less than or equal to T" the design spectral
response acceleration So shall be taken equal to Sos
For periods greater than T:" and less than T
L
, the design spectral response acceleration Sa
shall be given by
For periods less than or equal to To, the design spectral response shall be given by
38
General procedure response spectrum
SDS
So = 0.6- T +0.4 Sos
r:
Sa = (SOI) / T
Where: To = 0.20 (SOl / Sos)
= 0.2 (0.27 /0.49)
= O. I I sec
T, = SOl / 50s
= 0.27 / 0.49
= 0.55 sec
Tt. = 8 sec
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
§1l .4.5
(Eq 11 .4-5)
(Eq 11.4-6)
(F 22- 15)
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Thus:
T =Period
0.00
0.11
0.55
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
2.00
ScJg
0.18
0.49
0.49
0.34
0.27
0.23
0.19
0.17
0.135
Des ign Spectral Response Accelera ti ons §11 A
Computation for Sa
0.4 (0.49)
0.49
0.27 /0.55
0.27 / 0.8
0.27 / 1.000.27 / 1.2
0.27 / 1.4
0.27 / 1.6
0.27 /2.0
...
.....
S. in g's
0.5
S DS = 0.49g
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.18
0. 1
...
...
... -
... -
... -
o
o
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
To=0.11 sec T, =0.55 sec
General Procedure Response Spectrum
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 39
Calculation of seismic response coefficient C
s
(Recall Soil Site Class D,
f = 1.0 and T= 0.60) §12.8.1
§11.4
40
Design Spectral Response Accelerations
The seismic response coefficient shall be determined by
C, = SDS I (RIl)
= 0.49 I (6.0/1.0)
= 0.082 ... Governs
The value of C, need not exceed
C,. = SDI I (RIlE) T
=0.27 I (6.0/1.0) (0.6)
=0.D75
But shall not be taken less than
C, = 0.01
where SI 2: 0.6g C, shall not be less than
C, =0.5S
1
I (RIl)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
(Eq 12.8-2)
(Eq 12.8-3)
(Eq 12.8-5)
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-,':
Introduction to Vertical Irregul arities
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§12.3.2.2
§12.3.2.2
1
Table 12.3-2 defines vertical structural irregularities and assigns analysis and design
procedures to each type and seismic design category. These irregularit ies can be divided into
two categories. The first, dynamic force-distribution irregularities, which are Types Ia, Ib, 2,
and 3. The second, irregularities in load path or force transfer, which are Types 4 and 5. The
vertical irregularities are
Ia. Stiffness Soft Story Irregularity
Ib. Stiffness Extreme Soft Story Irregularity
2. Weight (mass) irregularity
3. Vertical geometric irregularity
4. In-plane discontinuity in vertical lateral-force-resisting element
Sa. Discontinuity in Lateral Stength - Weak Story Irregularity
5b. Discontinui ty in Lateral Strengt h - Extreme Weak Story Irregularity
Structures in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F possessing dynamic force distribut ion
irregularities shall be analyzed using the dynamic analysis procedure (or modal analysis
procedure) prescribed in §12.7. (Refer to Table 12.6.1) Structure Description 3. The vert ical
force distribution provided by §12.8.3 may be assumed to be adequate for structures lacking
vertical irregulari ty Types Ia, Ib, 2, and 3. However, stiffness and mass discontinuities may
significantly affect the vertical distribution of forces and, for this reason the modal analysis
procedure, which can account for these discontinuities, is necessary.
Although designers may opt to use the dynamic analysis procedure and bypass checks for
irregularity Types Ia, Ib, 2, and 3, the reference sections listed in Table 12.3-2 should still be
checked for limitations and design requirements. Note that §12.3.3.1 prohibits structures with
vertical irregularity Types Ib, Sa, or 5b for Seismic Design Categories E and F.
Regular structures are assumed to have a reasonably uniform distribution of inelastic
behavior in elements throughout the lateral- force-resisting system. When vertical irregularity
Types 4 and 5 exist. there is the possibility of having localized concentrat ions of excessive
inelastic deformations due to the irregular load path or weak story. In this case, the code
prescribes addi tional strengthening to correct the deficiencies for structures in cert ain seismic
design categories (SDCs) . In the case of vertical irregularity Type 5b, limits are placed on the
building height for all SDCs except S DC A.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 41
§12.3.2.2 Example 4 • Vertical1rregularlty Type 1
1
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&ample4
.Vertical Irr egularity Type 1a and Type 1b § 12.3.2.2
A Seismic Design Category D five-story concrete special moment-resisting frame is shown
below. The code-prescri bed lateral forces F, from Equation 12.8- 11 have been applied and
the corresponding floor level displacements O.re at the floors' centers-of-mass have been
determined as shown below.
Ft + Fs
10'
10'
10'
' 0'
' 2'
[';'==::;-1;:: ' =::::::;1
1
- - - - - --;,. 0" . 2.02
i:
F, -.. / :
DD
.• 0' , _1.75
Triangular .'"
shape ; I
F, -.. "' : !
DD
/ · 0;\... 1.45
F .' /
, -.. ! !
DD
./ , 02",.0B
F i "
'-.. /.' 0
.I,' It_ 0.71
!",
Actual shape
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[!J Determine if a Type 1a vertical irregularity from Table 12.3-2 (Stiffness-
Soft Story Irregularity) exists in the first story
Calculations and Discussion CodeReference
[L] To determine if this is a Type 1a vertical irregularity (Stiffness-Soft Story
Irregularity) there are two tests
I. The lateral story stiffness is less than 70 percent of that ofthe story above.
2. The lateral story stiffness is less than 80 percent of the average stiffness of the three
stories above.
42 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 4 • Venicallrregularity Type 1 §12. 3.2.2
1
If the stiffness of the story meets at least one of the two criteria above, the structure is
deemed to have a soft story, and a modal analysis (§12.9) is generally required by Table
12.6- I.
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The definit ion of soft story in the code compares values of the lateral stiffness of individual
stories. Generally, it is not practical to use stiffness properties unless these can be easily
determined. There are many structural configurations where the evaluat ion of story stiffness
is complex and is often not an available output from computer programs. Recogni zing that
the basic intent of this irregularity check is to determine if the lateral-force distribution will
differ significantly from the pattern prescribed by §12.8.3, which assumes a prescribed shape
for the first dynamic mode of response, this type of irregularity can also be determined by
comparing values of drift ratios due to the prescr ibed lateral forces. This deformat ion
comparison may even be more effective than the stiffness comparison because the shape of
the first mode shape is often closely approximated by the structure displacements due to the
specified §12.8.3 force pattern. Floor level displacements and corresponding story-drift ratios
are directly available from computer programs. To compare displacements rather than
stiffness, it is necessary to use the reciprocal of the limiting percentage ratios of 70 and 80
percent as they apply to story stiffness, or reverse their applicability to the story or stories
above. The following example shows this equivalent use of the displacement propert ies.
I
From the given displacements , story drifts and the story-drift rat io' s values are determi ned.
The story-drift ratio is the story drift divided by the story height. These story-drift ratios will
be used for the required comparisons because they better represent the changes in the slope
of the mode shape when there are significant differences in interstory heights. (Note: story
displacements can be used if the story heights are nearly equal.)
I
In terms of the calculated story-drift ratios, the soft story occurs when one of the following
conditions exists.
or
t. ,
0,. - 0"
=
(1.08 - 0.71) = 0.00308
- '=
h, h, 120
~ =
Ii,. - 0,.
=
(1.45 - 1.08) = 0.00308
h, h, 120
s s - Ii
When 70 percent of ---"- exceeds ,. ,.
h, h,
Ii, I [(0, -Ii,.) (0, - Ii, ) (0, -Ii ,)]
When 80 percent of - ' exceeds - .• , + • _. + • .•
h, 3 h, h, h,
= 0.00493
(0.71- 0)
=
144
~ = o ..
h, h,
the story-drift ratios arc determi ned as
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 4 3
§12. 3.2.2 Example 4 • Vertical Irregularity Type 1
1
_t:J._, = Ii" - Ii" =
Iz, s,
(1.75-1.45) = 0.00250
120
44
~ ( 0 . 0 0 3 0 8 + 0.00308 + 0.00250) = 0.00289
3
Checking the 70-percent requirement:
O.70(1i,,) =0.70(0.00493) =0.00345 > 0.00308 ... NG
hi
: . Soft story exists. . .
Note that 70 percent of first story drift is larger than second story drift. Alternately:
0.00493 > (0.00308 x 1.30= 0.0040) . . . thus soft story.
Also note that structural irregularities of Types Ia, Ib, or 2 in Table 12.3-2 do not
apply where no story-drift ratio under design lateral force is greater than 130 percent
of the story-drift ratio of the next story above, §12.3.2.2, Except ion 1.
Checking the 80-percent requirement:
0 . 8 0 ( ~ ) = 0.80(0.00493) =0.00394 > 0.00289 ... NG
h,
.', Soft story exists. . . condition Ia
Alternately: 0.00493 > (0.00289 x 1.20 = 0.00347) . .. thus soft story.
Check for extreme soft story, (Vertical Structural Irregularity, Type l b)
Checking the 60-percent requirement:
0.60(0.00493) = 0.002958 < 0.00308 . . . o. k.
Alternately: 0.00493 > (0.00308 x 1.4 = 0.004312) .. . o.k.
Checking the 70-percent requirement:
0.70 (0.00493) = 0.003451 > 0.00289 . .. NG
Al ternately: 0.00493 > (0.00289 x 1.3 = 0.00375) . .. NG
Thus: Stiffness-Extreme Soft Story exists - condition lb.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 4 tI Vertical Irr egularity Type 1 §12.3.2.2
Recall from Table 12.3-2 for Ib, extreme soft story, reference §12.3.3. 1. This building is
SOC 0 , and is permitted, Structures having SDC E or F and also having vertical irregularity
Type Ib shall not be permitted.
Commentary
Section 12.8.6 requires that story drifts be computed using the maximum inelastic response
displacements b.r , which include the deflection amplification factor Cd
s = Cdb.rr
x I
(Eq 12.8-15)
However, for the purpose of the story drift, or story-drift ratio, comparisons needed for soft-
story determination, the displacement b
xe
due to the design seismic forces can be used as in
this example. In the exampl e above, only the first story was checked for possible soft-story
vertical irregularity. In practice, all stories must be checked, unless a modal analysis is
performed. It is often convenient to create tables to facilitate this exercise, see Tables 4.1
and 4.2.
Tabl e 4. I Soft-Story Status ln
Sto ry Story Story-drift 0.8x (Story- 0.7x (Story- Avg . of Story- drift Ratio
Leve l Displacement Drift Rat io drift Ratio) drift Ratio) of Next 3 Stories
5 2.02 in 0.27 in 0.00225 0.00180 0.00 158
4 1.75 0.30 0.00250 0.00200 0.00175
3 1.45 0.37 0.00308 0.00246 0.00216
2 1.08 0. 37 0.00308 0.0024 6 0.00 216 0.00261
0.71 0.71 0.00493 0.00394 0.00345 0.00289
Tabl e 4.2 Soft-Story Status Ib
Story Story Story-drift 0.7x (Story- 0.6x (Story- Avg, of Story-drift Rat io
Level Displacement Drift ratio drift Ratio) dr ift Ratio) of Next 3 St ories
5 2.02 in 0.27 in 0.00225 0.001 58 0.00 135
4 1.75 0.30 0.00250 0.00175 0.00150
3 1.45 0.37 0.00308 0.002 16 0.001 85
2 1.08 0.37 0.00308 0.002 16 0.00185 0.0026 1
0.71 0.71 0.00493 0.00345 0.00296 0. 00289
Soft Story
Status la
No
No
No
No
Yes
Soft Story
Status lb
No
No
No
No
Yes
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 45
§12.3.2.2 Example 5 • Vertical Irregularity Type 2
...' a!nple 5
; Type 2
The five-story special moment frame office building has a heavy utility equipment
installation at Level 2. This results in the floor weight distribution shown below.
Ws =90 k
W,= 110k
W, = 110 k
W,= 100k
[!J Determine if there is a Type 2 vertical weight (mass) irregularity
. , .
:Calci!li!tions and Discussion Code Reference
A weight, or mass, vertical irregularity is considered to exist when the effective mass of any
story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story. However, this
requirement does not apply to the roof if the roof is lighter than the floor below. Note that it
does apply if the roof is heavier than the floor below.
Checking the effective mass of Level 2 against the effective mass of Levels 1 and 3
At Levell
1.5 X WI = 1.5(100 kips) =150 kips
At Level 3
1.5 X W
3
= 1.5(110 kips) = 165 kips
Wz = 170 kips > 150 kips
.. Weight irregularity exists.
46 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 5 • Verti cal Irregul arity Type 2 §12.3.2.2
I , • ..,
.Commentary
As in the case of vertical irregul arity Type l a or Ib, this Type 2 irregularity also results in a
primary mode shape that can be substantially different from the triangular shape and lateral
load distribution given by §12.8.3. Consequently, the appropriate load distribution must be
determined by the modal analysis procedure of §12.9, unless the irregular structure is not
more than two stories and is Occupancy Category l or II (see Table 12.6-1).
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 47
§12.3.2.2 Ex ample 6 • Vertical Irregularity Type 3

ample 6
Vertical Irregularity Type 3 § 12.3.2.2
The lateral-foree-resi sting system of the five-story special moment frame building shown
below has a 25-foot setback at the third, fourth, and fifth stories.
4@2S' -100'
I.....
-
....
..... ...-
5
DDD
DDD
3
DDD
2
D.DDD
'/ "/ //"/ // / / / , / //, /
Level
4
[!J Determine if a Type 3 vertical irregularity (vertical geometric irregularity)
exists
and Discussion Code Reference
A vertical geometric irregulari ty is considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the
lateral-foree-resisting system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in the adjacent
story. One-story penthouses are not subject to this requirement.
In this example, the setback of Level 3 must be checked. The ratios of the two levels are
Width of Level 2 = (lOa ft) =1.33
Width of Level 3 (75 ft)
133 percent > 130 percent
.'. Vertical geometric irregulari ty exists.
48 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual, Vol . I
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Example 6 • Vertical Irregularity Type 3 §12.3.2.2
, .
Commentary
The more than l30-percent change in width of the lateral-force-resisting system between
adjacent stories could result in a primary mode shape that is substantially different from the
shape assumed for proper applications of Equation 12.8- 11. If the change is a decrease in
width of the upper adjacent story (the usual situation), the mode shape difference can be
mitigated by designing for an increased stiffness in the story with a reduced width.
Similarl y, if the width decrease is in the lower adjacent story (the unusual situation), the
Type la soft-story irregularity can be avoi ded by a proportional increase in the stiffness of
the lower story. However, when the width decrease is in the lower story, there could be an
overturning moment-load-transfer discontinuity that would require a dynamic analysis per
Table 12.6-1.
Note that if the frame elements in the bay between lines 4 and 5 were not included as part of
the designated lateral-force-resisting system, the vertical geometric irregularity would not
exist.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol.J 49
§12. 3.2.2 Ex ample 7 11 Vertical Irre gul ar i ty Type 4
,Ex, mple 7
Vertical Irregularity Type 4 § 12.3.2.2
A concrete building has the building frame system shown below. The shear wall
between lines A and B has an in-plane offset from the shear wall between lines C
and D.
3@25'=75'
r r r T
Level IE- < - - - - ~
12'
12'
12'
12'
12'
5
'DO'
-
L--
4
0
---
e:
3
00
25'
2
50'
1
// '/ / , ' / / / '/ / / " /
Shear wall
Shear wall
[!J Determine if there is a Type 4 vertical irregularity (in-plane discontinuity)
in the verticallateral-force-resisting element
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
A Type 4 vertical irregularity exists when there is an in-plane offset of the lateral-force-
resisting elements greater than the length of those elements . In this example, the left
side of the upper shear wall (between lines A and B) is offset 50 feet from the left
side of the lower shear wall (between lines C and D). This 50-foot offset is greater
than the 25-foot length of the offset wall clements .
: . In-plane discontinuity exists.
50 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Examp le 7 • Vertical Irregularity Type 4 §12.3.2.2
s: '"
C;ommentary
The intent of this irregularity check is to provide correction offorce transfer or load-
path deficiencies. It should be noted that any in-plane offset, even those less than or equal
to the length or bay width of the resisting element, can result in an overturning moment-
load-transfer discontinuity that requires the application of §12.3.3.3. When the offset
exceeds the length of the resisting element, there is also a shear transfer discontinuity
that requires application of §12.3.3.4 for the strength of collector elements along the
offset. In this example, the columns under wall A-B are subject to the provisions of
§12.3.3.3, and the collector element between lines Band C at Level 2 is subject to the
provisions of §12.3.3.4.
2006 IBC Structlirall Suismic Design Manual. Vol . I 51
§12.3.2.2 Exa mple 8 • VertIc al Irregul ar ity Type 5a
IE. ampleB
Verfi cal l r r egularity Type 5a §12.3.2,,2
A concrete bearing-wall bui lding has the typical transverse shear-wall configuration
shown below. All walls in this direction are identical, and the individual piers have
the shear contribution given below. Then, V, is the nominal shear strength calculated in
accordance with Chapter 19, and V
m
is defined herein as the shear corresponding to the
development of the "nominal flexure strength also calculated in accordance with Chapter
19." Note that VII/ is not defined in ACI or Chapter 19.
Level J
PIER \I V",
n
1 20 kips 30 kips
2 30 40
3 15 10
4 80 120
5 15 10
[!J Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity (discontinuity in capacity- weak-
story) condition exists
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
A Type Sa weak-story disconti nuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less
than 80 percent of that in the story above. The story strength is the total strength of all
seismic-force-resisting elements shari ng the story shear for the direction under consideration.
Using the smaller values of VII and VII/ given for each pier, the story strengths are
First story strength = 20 + 30 + 10 = 60 kips
Second story strength =80 + 10 = 90 kips
Check if first-story strength is less than 80 percent of that of the second story.
60 kips < 0.8(90) = 72 kips
:. Weak story condition exists.
52 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 8 • VerlicallrregularJty Type Sa §12.3.2.2
Check if first-story strength is less than 65 percent of that of the second story (Irregularity
Type 5b).
60 kips < 0.65(90 kips) = 58.5 kips
:. 60 kips > 58.5 kips
. . Therefore the lower story is not an extreme soft story, Irregularity Type 5b.
Commentary
This irregularity check is to detect any concentration of inelastic behavior in one
supporting story that can lead to the loss of vertical load capacity. Element s
subject to this check are the shear-wall piers (where the shear contribution is
the lower of either the shear at development of the flexural strength, or the
shear strength), bracing members and their connections, and frame columns.
Frame columns with weak column-strong beam condit ions have a shear
contribution equal to that developed when the top and bottom of the column
are at flexural capacity. Where there is a strong column-weak beam condition,
the column shear resistance contribution should be the shear corresponding to
the development of the adjoining beam yield hinges and the column base
connection capacity. In any case, the column shear contribution shall not
exceed the column shear capacity.
An extreme weak story is prohibited (under §12.3.3.1) for structures more than two
stories or 30 feet in height if the "weak story" has a calculated strength ofless
than 80 percent of the story above. A weak-story condition is absolutely prohibited in
SDC E and F.
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2006 IBC Slructural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 53
§12.3.3.1 Example 9 II Vertical Irregularity Type 5a
Example 9
Verticallrregulaljty Type Sa § 12.3.3. 1
A five-story building has a steel special moment-resisting frame (SMRF). The frame
consists ofW24 beams and W14 columns with the following member strength
properties.
5
4
.
-.
3
~ ..
-'
.. .
2
1
.. ......
// "/ / / / //
. /
///
Beams at Levels I and 2:
Mllb =ZF."=250 kip-ft
Columns on lines Band C at
both levels:
M" c=250 kip-ft at
axial loading of 1.2PD + 0.5P
L
Column base connections at grade
(based on grade-beam strength):
Jvf"GB=100 kip-ft
In addition, assume for the purposes
of illustration only, that the columns
have been designed such that a
strong beam-weak column condi tion
is permitted.
12'
12'
12"
12'
14'
Level
A o
Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity (discontinuity in capac ity-weak story)
cond ition exists in the first story.
[!J Determine first-story strength
[!J Determine second-story strength
~ Determi ne if weak-story exists at first story
Calculations andDiscussion Code Reference
A Type 5 weak-story discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80
percent of that of the story above (where it is less than 65 percent, an extreme weak story
exists) . The story strength is consi dered to be the total strength of all seismic-foree-resisting
elements that share the story shear for the directi on under consideration.
To determine if a weak story exists in the first story, the sums of the column shears
in the first and second stories-when the member moment capacities are developed
by lateral loading-must be determined and compared.
In this example, it is assumed that the beam moments at a beam-column joint are
54 2006 IBC Stru ctur al/Se ismic Desig n Manual, Vol. I
Example 9 • Vertical Irregularity Type Sa §12.3.3.1
distributed equally to the sections of the columns directly above and below the joint.
Given below are the calculations for first and second stories.
[!J Determine first story strength
Columns A and D must be checked for strong column-weak beam considerations
200
2M
c
=400 > M; =250
: . Strong column-weak beam condition exists.
....
~ ) 250
--... FOR MOMENT
200
v
Next, the shear in each column must be determined.
Note moment capacity of beam (25012) governs over
moment capacity of column (200) to determine shear
a M. /2 =125 kip-ft
1 2 5 ~
L) 250
125 I
'-'
Clear height = 14 ft - 2 ft = 12 ft
125+100 187-k'
- --- = .) "iPS
12 v

o Mf=100kip·ft
FOR SHEAR
Checking columns Band C for strong column-weak beam
considerations
2M
c
= 400 < 2Jvfb =500
200.........
250(+)250
200"-
:. Strong beam-weak column condition exists.
Next, the shear in each column must be determined.
Note moment capacity of column governs over v
moment capacity of beam to determine shear.
Clear height = 14 ft - 2 ft =12 ft
FOR MOMENT
200..........
a 200(+) 200
Me = 200 kip-ft
200'-'
200 r'
VB= Vc=
200 + 100 = 25.0 kips
12
V
4
M =100 klp-ft
G
100 .....J
FOR SHEAR
First story strength = VA + VB + VD =2(18.75) + 2(25.0) =87.5 kips
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 55
§12.3.3.1 Example 9 • Ver tical Irregularity Type 5a
~ Determine second story strength
Columns A and D must be checked for st rong column-weak beam at Level 2
:. strong column-weak beam condition exists.
FOR MOMENT
'-'
125
Mb I 2= 125 kip-ft
v
"""" 200
Clear height = 12 ft - 2 ft = 10ft 125
r--
V
- tr - 125 + 125 -?5 0 k'
" - " D - - _. IpS
. 10
-J
125
FOR SHEAR
v

Mb I 2= 125 kip-ft
125" J
Checking columns B and C for strong column-weak beam considerations
2M
c
=400 < 2Mb=500
: . Strong beam-weak column condition exists .
v
FOR MOMENT
Me = 200 kip-ft
Clear height = 12 ft - 2 ft = IOft
10'
200........
200( + )200
200........
VB = Vc = 200 + 200 = 40.0 kips
10
200 J1"""'
FOR SHEAR
v

Me =200 klp-ft
200 '-"
Second story strength
= V-I + VB + Vc+ V
D
+ 2(25.0) +2(40.0) = 130.0 kips
56 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Exampl e 9 ~ Vertical Ir regul ari ty Type Sa §12.3. 3. 1
~ Determine if weak story exist s at first story
First story strength = 87.5 kips
Second story strength = 130.0 kips
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87.5 < 0.80(130) = 104
:. Weak story condition in first story exists.
(T 12.3-2, Item 5a)
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 57
§ 12. 3.2.1 Intr oducti on 10 Hor/zonla/lrregularitles
Horizontal structural irregularities are identified in Table 12.3-1. There are five types of
horizontal irregularities:
l a. Tor sional Irregularity - to be considered when diaphragms are not flexible as
determined in §12.3.1.2
lb. Extreme Torsional Irregularity - to be considered when diaphragms are not
flexible as determined in §12.3.1.2
2. Re-entrant Comer Irregularity.
3. Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity.
4. Out-of-plane Offsets Irregularity.
5. Nonparallel Systems - Irregularity.
Introduction to
Horizontal Irregularities §12.3.2.1
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These irregularities can be categorized as being either special response conditions
or cases of irregular load path. Types Ia, Ib, 2, 3, and 5 are special response condit ions:
Type 1a and 1b. When the ratio of maximum story drift to average story drift exceeds the
given limit, there is the potential for an unbalance in the inelastic deformation demands at the
two extreme sides ofa story. As a consequence, the equivalent stiffness of the side
having maximum deformation will be reduced, and the eccentr icity between the
centers of mass and rigidity will be increased along with the corresponding torsions.
An amplification factor Ax is to be applied to the accidental torsion M'ato represent the
effects of this unbalanced stiffness, §I2.8.4. I to 12.8.4.3.
Type 2. The opening and closing deformation response or flapping action of the
projecting legs of the building plan adjacent to re-entrant comers can result in
concentrated forces at the comer point. Element s must be provided to transfer
these forces into the diaphragms.
Type 3. Excessive openings in a diaphragm can result in a flexible diaphragm
response along with force concentrations and load path deficienci es at the
boundari es of the openings. Elements must be provided to transfer the forces
into the diaphragm and the structural system.
Type 4. The out-of-plane offset irregul arity represents the irregular load path category. In this
case, shears and overturning moments must be transferred from the level above the offset to
the level below the offset, and there is a horizontal offset in the load path for the shears.
Type 5. The response deformations and load patterns on a system with nonparallel
lateral-force-resisting elements can have significant differences from those of a regular
system. Further analysis of deformation and load behavior may be necessary.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 10 a Horizontal Irregularity Type 1a and Type 1b §12.3.2.1
ri3fnple 1
oui on a/Irregulari ty Type 1a and ype'lb § 12.3,,2.
A three-story special moment-resisting frame building has rigid floor diaphragms.
Under code-prescribed seismic forces, including the effects of accidental torsion, it has
the following elastic displacements OXl! at Levels I and 2.
OL.: ! = 1.20 in OR,:!. = 1.90 in
A Type 1a torsional irregularity is considered to exist when the maxi mum story
drift, including accidental torsion effects, at one end of the structure transverse to
an axis is more than 1.2 times the average of the story drifts of the two ends of the
structure, see §12.8.6 for story drift determination
[}J Determine if a Type 1a or Type 1b torsional irregularity exists at the
second story
If it does:
~ Compute the torsional amplification factor Ax for Level 2
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Level
3
2
C€l'cu'ations and Discussion
OR,2
----------------->
OR,1
- ------7
Code Reference
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 59
§12.J.2.1 Exampl e 10 . Horizon'al Irregula rit y Type 1a and Type 1b
ITI Determine if a Type 1a torsional irregularity exists at the second story
Referri ng to the above figure showing the displacements b
Je
due to the
prescribed lateral forces, this irregularity check is defined in terms of story
drift D.
x
=(b
x
- bx-d at ends R (right) and L (left) of the structu re. Torsional
irregularity exists at Level x when
where
Determining story drifts at Level 2
D.L,2 = 1.20 - 1.00 = 0.20 in
D.R.2 = 1.90 - 1.20 = 0.70 in
A = 0.20 +0.70 = 0 45 .
U al'g . I n
2
Checking 1.2 criteria
D. """ = 0.7 = 1.55 > 1.2
D.
a
,-, 0.45
:. Tors ional irregularity exis ts - Type Ia.
Check for extreme torsional irregulari ty
D. 0_70 I 55 h . - I - . T Ib
---"!!!!. = - - = . . . .t us, extreme torsion lrregu an ty exists - ype .
D. .", 0.45
60 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
T 12.3-1
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Example 10 . Horizontal Irr egularity Type 1a and Type 1b
~ Compute amplifi cati on factor Ax for Level 2
§12.3.2.1
§12.8.4.3
1
When torsional irregularity exists at a Level x, the accidental torsional moment M'nmust be
increased by an amplification factor Ax. This must be done for each level, and each level may
have a different Ax value. In this example, A., is computed for Level 2.
Note that Ax is a function of the displacements as opposed to/versus the drift.
( )
2
4 = (jmtI.'
' .' 1.26
0
' 8
b
ma
., = 1.90 in... (b
R
.
2
)
b = bL,] + bR., = 1.30 + 1.90 = 1.60 in
avg 2 2
A, = ( 1.90 )2= 0.98 < 1.0 . . . Note Ax shall not be less than 1.0
- 1.2(1.60)
:. use Ax = 1.0.
Commentary
(!BC Eq 16-44)
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In §12.8.4.3, there is the provision that the more severe loading shall be considered. The
interpretation of this for the case of the story drift and displacements to be used for the
average values I'l.b",.gand b
m·g
is as follows . The most severe condition is when both bR,X and
bL,Xare computed for the same accidental center-o f-mass displacement that causes the
maximum displacement b
max
. For the condition shown in this example where b
RX
= bma.n the
centers-of-mass at all levels should be displaced by the accidental eccentricity to the right
side R, and both bR,Xand bL..rshould be evaluated for this load condition.
Tabl e 12.3-1 triggers a number of special design requirements for torsionally irregular
structures. In fact, if irregularity Type Ib (Extreme Torsional Irregularity) is present,
§12.3.3. 1 is triggered, which prohibits such structures for SOC E or F. It is important to
recognize that torsionai irregularity is defined in terms of story drift I'l.." while the evaluation
of A.r by Equati on 12.8-14 is, in terms of displacements b
xc
• There can be instances where the
story-drift values indicate torsional irregul arity and where the related displacement values
produce an Ax value less than 1.0. This result is not the intent of the provision, and the value
of Ax used to determine acci dental torsion should not be less than 1.0.
The displacement and story-drift values should be obtained by the equivalent lateral-force
method with the code-prescribed lateral forces. Theoret ically, if the dynamic analysis
procedure were to be used, the values of I'l. ma.' and I'l.m.g would have to be found for each
dynamic mode, then combined by the appropriate SRSS or CQC procedures, and then scaled
to the code-prescribed base shear. However, in view of the complexity of this determinat ion
and the judgmental nature of the 1.2 factor, it is reasoned that the equivalent static force
method is sufficiently accurate to detect torsional irregularity and evaluate the Ax factor.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 61
§12.3.2.1 Example 10 . Horizontal Irregularity Typ e 1a and Type 1b
J
If the dynamic analys is procedure is either elected or required, then §12.7.3 requires the use
of a three-dimensional model if there are any irregularities.
For cases oflarge eccentricity and low torsional rigidity, the static force procedure can resul t
in a negative displacement on one side and a positive on the other. For example, this occurs if
Du =- DADin. and DR.3 = 1.80 in. The value of Dm'g in Equation 12.8- 14 should be calculated
as the algebraic average.
= (- 40) + 1.80 = l AO =0.70 in
2 2
When dynamic analysis is used, the algebraic average value Dm'g should be found for each
mode, and the individual modal results must be properly combined to determine the total
response value for D
m
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g

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Example 11 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 2 §12. 3.2. 1
Example 11
orizontallrregularity T}'J e 2 §12.3.2.. 1
The plan configuration of a ten-story special moment frame building is as shown below.
0-
0 - ~
o
N
@)
c<)
0-
8-
G
I
1<
0) ®
I I
4 @l2S= 100'
[!J Determine if there is a Type 2 re-entrant corner irregularity
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
A Type 2 re-entrant comer irregularity exists when the plan configuration of a structure and
its lateral -foree-resisti ng system contain re-entrant corners, where both proj ections of the
structure beyond a re-entrant comer are greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension of the
structure in the direction considered.
The plan configuration of this building, and its lateral-force-resisting system, has re-entrant
comer dimensions as shown. For the sides on line I , the proj ection beyond the re-entrant
comer is
100 ft - 75ft = 25 ft
This is 25 or 25 percent of the 100-ft plan dimension . . . More than 15 percent.
100
For the sides on line E, the projection is
60 ft - 40 ft = 20 ft
2006 IBC Structura l/Seis mic p esign Manual, Vol . I 63
§1 2.3.2.1 Example 11 • Horiz ontal Irregularity Type 2
This is 20 or 33.3 percent of the 60-ft plan dimension . . . More than 15 percent.
~ .
Since both projections exceed 15 percent , there is a re-entrant comer irregularity.
Re-entrant comer irregularity exists.
Commentary
Whenever the Type 2 re-entrant comer irregularity exists, see the diaphragm design
requirements of §12.3.3.4 for SDC D, E, and F.
64 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. J
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Exampl e 12 IZ Horizontal Irregular i ty Type 3 §12.3. 2.1
• a;8V»ple 12
Horizonfal lrregularity ype 3 §12.3.2.1
A five-story concrete building has a bearing wall system located around the perimeter
of the buil ding. Lateral forces are resisted by the bearing walls acting as shear wa lls.
The floor plan of the second floor of the building is shown below. The symmetrically
placed open area in the diaphragm is for an atrium, and has dimensions of 40 feet by 75 feet.
All diaphragms above the second floor are wi thout significant openings.
? ~ ~ ?
r
125'
1 IE
75'
~
®-
®--
b
CD
®- "
®-
Second floor pl an
[!J Determine if a Type 3 diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists at the second
floor level
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
A Type 3 diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exi sts when diaphragms have abrupt
discontinuities or variations in stiffness, including cutout or open areas comprising more than
50 percent of the gross enclosed area of the diaphragm, or changes in effect ive diaphragm
stiffness of more than 50 percent from one story to the next.
The first check is for gross area
Gro ss enclosed area of the diaphragm is 80 ft x 125 ft =10,000 sq ft
Area of opening is 40 ft x 75ft = 3000 sq ft
50 percent of gross area = 0.5(10,000) = 5000 sq ft
3000 < 5000 sq ft
" No diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists.
2006 IBC Structural/SeismIc Design Manual, Vol . I 65
§ 12. 3. 2. 1 Exampl e 12 • Horizonrallrregu/ arit y Type 3
The second check is for stiffness.
The sti ffuess of the second floor diaphragm with its opening must be compared with
the stiffness of the solid diaphragm at the third floor. If the change in stiffness exceeds
50 percent, a diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists for the structure.
This comparison can be performed as follows.
Find the simple beam mid-span deflections L12 and L1J for the diaphragms at Levels
2 and 3, respectively, due to a common distri buted load IV such as I kif.
w= 1kif
-.
t : . ~ " ' " ....
, --- ---- - - ~ - - . >
- ----- - - - - - - --.. ..... ~ Deflected shape
w =1 kif
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t : . ~ ------ - - - - - - - ~
If L12> 1.5L1J, there is diaphragm discontinuity.
66 200 6 IBC St ructural/Se;smic Design Manual, Vol. I
Denected shape
Example 13 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 4 §12.3.2.1
.... an Ie -13
rizontallrregularity TjIj e 4 §12.3.2.1
A four-story building has a concrete shear wall lateral-force-resisting system in a
bui lding frame system configuration. The plan configuration of the shear walls is.
shown below.
10'
10'
10'
10'
Elevation Line E
o
III
0)-
"
2 in
'"
@
'"
o
I.
®
I
Typical floor plan
0) @ 0
I I<E 25' ~
4 @25' o l 00' < 1
Ground (first) floor plan
[!J Determine it there is a Type 4 out-at-plane offset irregularity between the first
and second stories
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
An out-of-plane offset plan irregularity exists when there are discontinuities in a lateral-
force path. For example: out-of-plane offsets of vertical lateral- force-resisting elements such
as shear walls . The first story shear wall on line 0 has a 25-foot out-of-plane offset to the
shear wall on line E at the second story and above. This constitutes an out-of-plane offset
irregularity, and the referenced sections in Table 12.3.2.1 apply to the design.
: . Offset irregularity exists.
2006 IBC Structura l/Seis mic Desig n Manual, Vol. I 67
§12.3.2.1 Exa mple 14 • Hori zontal Irregularity Type 5
Example 14
Horizont al Irregularity Type 5 §12.3.2.1
A ten-story building has the floor plan shown below at all levels. Special moment-
resisting frames are located on the perimeter of the building on lines 1,4, A, and F.
0-
0 - ~
in
N
~ @ ;
~ M
Typical floor plan
[!J Determine if a Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity exists
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
A Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity is considered to exist when the vertical
lateral-force-resisting elements are not parallel to or symmetric about the major
orthogonal axes ofthe building's lateral-foree-resisting system.
The vertical lateral-foree-resisting frame elements located on line F are not
parallel to the major orthogonal axes of the building (i.e., lines 4 and A).
Therefore a nonparallel system irregularity exists, and the referenced section
in Table 12.3-1 applies to the design, see §12.5.3, §12.7-3, and Table 12.6-1.
:. A nonparallel system irregularity exists.
A 3-dimens ional dynamic analysis is recommended.
68 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 15 • Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p §12.3.4
·Ei.rample 15
Redundancy Factor p §12.3.4
The calculation of the redundancy factor p has changed considerably between earlier
codes (1997 UBC; 2000 and 2003 1BC; ASCE/SEI 7-02) and the ASCE/SEI 7-05. The
calculation is in some ways simpler, although it nevertheless requir es some effort for
conditions that do not compl y with prescriptive requirements (unless the full penalty is
taken, as described below) .
ASCE/SEI 7-05 permits the redundancy factor to be taken as 1.0 in the following
circumstances (§12.3.4. 1):
I. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B or C. (Note that the load
combinations that include the redundancy factor are not used for Seismic Design
Category A.)
2. Drift calculation and P-delta effects.
3. Design of nonstructural components.
4. Design of nonbuilding structures that are not similar to buildings.
5. Design of collector elements, splices and their connections for which the load
combinations with overstrength factor of §12.4.3.2 are used.
6. Design of members or connections where the load combi nat ions with overstrength
of §12.4.3.2 are required for des ign.
7. Diaphragm loads determined using Eq. 12.10-1 (note that this does not apply to
forces transferred through a diaphragm, such as due to an out-of-plane offset in
the seismic load resisting system, and the higher p factor may apply as otherwise
required).
8. Structures wit h damping systems designed in accordance wi th 18.
Additionally, §12.3.4.2 ident ifies two other conditions in which p may be taken as 1.0.
Note that the criteria for these condi tions need only be met at floor levels in which more
than 35-percent of the base shea r is being resisted; for the top level or levels of taller
structures, the conditions need not be met. The factor may be taken as 1.0 when either of
the conditions listed below is met. In all other conditions, p is taken as 1.0. There is no
longer a calcu lated p factor between the minimum and maximum values.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual , Vol. I 69
§12.3.4 Example 15 II Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p
Condition I
12.3.4.2(a) Configurations in which the removal of one element (as described below
in the summary of Table 12.3-3) will not result in an increase of more than 33-percent
reduction in story shear strength or in an extreme torsional irregularity (as defined in
Table 12.3-1).
Summary of Table 12.3-3
Removal of one element is defined as:
1. The removal of a brace (braced frames).
2. Loss of moment resistance at the beam-to-column connections at both ends of a
single beam (moment frames).
3. Removal of a shear wall or wall pier with a height-to-length ratio greater than 1.0
(shear wall systems).
4. Loss of moment resistance at the base connections of any single cantilever
column (cantilever column systems).
5. For other systems, such as seismically isolated structures, no prescriptive
requirements are given, allowing p to be taken as 1.0.
Condition II
12.3.4.2(b) Configurations with no plan irregularities at any level and with sufficient
perimeter braced frames, moment frames, or shearwalls. Sufficient perimeter bracing is
defined as at least two bays of seismic force-resisting perimeter framing on each side of
the structure in each orthogonal direction. For shear wall systems the number of bays is
calculated as the length of shear wall divided by the story height (two times the length of
shear wall divided by the story height for light-framed construction).
EXAMPLE
To illustrate the application of the method for establishing the redundancy factor, the
structure shown in Figure 15.1 will be analyzed.
Wall E Wall F
Stiffness K. Stiffness Kf
WaliA Walle
Stiffness K
o
Stiffness x,
WailS
Stiffness K
n
Wall G Wall H
Stiffness Kg Stiffness x,
WaliD
Stiffness K!
Figure 15-1
70 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Example 15 " Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p
Given information:
SDCD
One story, concrete shearwall building
All walls have the same nominal shear strength, R"
The story height is 18 feet.
The length of each shear wall is 15 feet.
§12.3.4
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For purposes of the required strengthof the walls, the redundancy factor must be
determined and used in Equation 12.4-3 to determine the horizontal seismic load effect.
None of the conditions listed in §12.3.4. 1 apply, and thus §12.3.4.2 must be used to
determine whether is 1.0 or 1.3.
Because there are two bays of shear wall on each of the perimeter lines of resistance and
the building is completely regular, §12.3.4.2(b) might allow a factor of 1.0. However, the
length of each shear-wall bay is less than the story height, the number of bays as defined
by §12.3.4.2(b) is less than two, and thus the configuration does not automatically qualify
for a redundancy factor of 1.0. The configuration will therefore be analyzed using the
method outlined in §12.3.4.2(a), namely, by removing a wall and assessing the effect on
story shear strength and on building torsion. In this example Wall C will be removed.
Because of the symmetry of the system, the removal of one wall covers the cases of the
removal of each of the other walls. In a more typical system, a separate check would need
to be performed for several (or even all) of the walls.
The effect on story shear strength can be considered in at least two ways. The most
conventional way to calculate the modified story shear strength is based on the modified
elastic distribution of forces and the capacity of the most heavily stressed wall. Such an
analysis of the structure with all four bays present shows that the seismic forces in each
line of resistance (including the effects of accidental torsion) are 52.5-percent of the base
shear, with each bay on each line resisting 26.25-percent; this distribution is shown in
Figure 15.2(a). If the stiffness of one line of resistance is reduced by half, the design
seismic forces change to 42-percent resisted on the weaker line and on the stronger line;
this distribution is shown in Figure 15.2(b). Thus the increase in the force on the most
heavily loaded bay is 42%/26.25% = 1.6, and the reduced force level causing yielding of
that wall is 1/1.6 = 62.5%. Using this method, then, the effect on story drift is assessed to
be a decrease in capacity of 100% - 62.5% = 37.5%, and thus the configuration would
not qualify for a p factor of 1.0.
2006 IBC Strucrural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 7 1
§12.3.4 Example 15 • Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p
2.5% 2.5% 6.5% 6.5%
23.75% 1
~
26.25% 31%
1
-$-
-$-
23.75% 1
t
~ 26.25%
31%
t
t
~ 42 %
2.5%
(a)
2.5%
Figure 15-2
6.5%
(b)
6.5%
While this is an acceptable method of demonstrating compliance with the conditions
justifying a factor p of 1.0, this method is not required. A more direct method of
establishing story shear capacity is to utilize a plastic mechanism analysis. This is the
method envisioned by the committee that authored the redundancy provision, and it is
more consistent with the principles of seismic design (i.e., considering strength and limit
states, rather than elastic design). In this method of analysis, the story shear capacity
before removal of a wall is the sum of the capacities of the 4 walls resisting the seismic
force in the direction under consideration (provided that the orthogonal walls have
sufficient strength to resist the torsion, which in this case is only the accidental torsion).
This is shown in Figure 15.3(a), where R
n
denotes the capacity of the wall. If one wall is
removed, the story shear capacity is the sum of the capacities of the 3 remaining walls
resisting the seismic force in the direction under consideration; again, the orthogonal
walls must be checked for the forces resulting from building torsion, which in this case is
substantial. This is shown in Figure l5.3(b). Thus the reduction in capacity is only 25-
percent. The resulting building torsional forces must be resisted by the frames in the
orthogonal direction. This interpretation of the story shear capacity has been endorsed by
the SEAOC Seismology Committee.
e. = 50/ aRtf n;> 5% R. Ru = 32.5% R. Ru = 32.5% R.
R. ~ ~ n, R. ~
-$-
-$-
R. ~ j
t
~ R. R. ~
t
~ R.
n, =5% R. Ru =5% R.
(a)
Ru = 32.5% R. e, = 32.5% R.
(b)
Figure 15-3
72 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Examp le 15 • Reliability/Re dundancy Coeffici ent p §12.3.4
I
1
)
To qualify for a factor of 1.0, the system with one wall removed must also be checked
for an extreme torsional irregularity as defined in Table 12.3-1. For the example, using
the plastic mechanism analysis, the deflection in the direction ofloading is R,,1K
n
• The
additional deflection at each perimeter line due to rotation is 0.325RnlK
n
• This is less than
the 40-percent maximum that is allowed by Table 12.3- 1 before an extreme torsional
irregularity is deemed to exist. Thus, the configuration qualifies for a p factor of 1.0.
2006 IBC Strucr ural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 73
§12.8.7 Example 16 • P-delta Effec ts
. xample 16
P.-d Ita ERects §12.8.7
In high-rise building design, 'important secondary moments and addi tional story drifts
can be developed in the lateral-force-resisting system by P-delta effects. P-delta
effects are the result of the axial load P in a column being moved laterally by
horizontal displacements, thereby causing additional secondary column and girder
moments. The purpose of this example is to illustrate the procedure that must be used
to check the overall stabili ty of the frame system for such effects.
A IS-story building has a steel special moment frame (SMF).
T
/ /
" " " " "
R = 8
Cc/ = 5.5
1 =1.0
At the first story, hi = 20'
l:.D = W= 8643 kips
l:.L = 3850 kips
VI = V=0.042W=363.0 kips, ~ = 0.80
h, = 20 ft
Deflection at level x = I due to seismic base shear V (without P-delta effects)
Ol e = 0.00311
1
= 0.72 in
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
Seismic Use Group I
Determine the following.
[!J Initial design story drift l:!. in first story
~ P-delta criteria for the building
~ Check the first story for P-delta requirements
~ Final design story drift and story shear in first story
~ Check for story drift compliance in first story
74 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 16 • P- del ta Effects §12 .B.7
,
,Calculations and Discussion
OJ Initial design story drift !:J. in first story
At story x = I, the preliminary design story drift is
where
b) = Cdb'r = 5.5(0.72) =3.96 in
I 1.0
Now: !:J. = 3.96
Code Reference
§12.8.6
(Eq 12.8- 15)
§12.8.7
J
This value is termed initial because it may need to be increased by the incremental factor
Gd = 1.0/(1-6) as determined in Part []] of this example.
~ P-delta criteria for the building
P-delta effects must be considered whenever the ratio of secondary moments
to primary moments exceeds 10 percent. This ratio is defined as stability
coefficient 6
6= (Eq 12.8- I6)
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where
6 = stability coefficient for story x
P-, = total design vertical load on all columns in story x
(Note: no factor above 1.0 is required)
!:J. = initial design story drift in story x occurring simultaneously with CdT!,
v, = seismic shear force in story x
lis.< = height of story x
C: = deflection ampl ification factor in Table 12.2-1 (given = 5.5)
P-delta effects must be considered when 6> o.I0
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 75
Section 12.8.7 requires that the total vertical load P l at the first story be considered the
total dead J:.D plus floor live J:.L and snow load S above the first story. These loads are
unfactored for determination of P-deltaeffects.
When 8 > 0.10, the initial design story drift and design story shear must be augmented
by the incremental factor ad related to P-deita effects
§12.8. 7
76
Example 16 • P·delta Effects
Check P-delta requi rements for the fi rst story
Using S = 0 for the building site,
PI = 8643 + 3850 = 12,493 kips
For story x = I,
8, = ?,I'J. = (8643+ 3850)(3.96) =0. 103 > 0. 100
V,h"Cd (363.0)(20 ft)(l2)(5 .5)
: . P-delta effects must be considered.
Check for 8 :'0 8
max
using the given ~ = 0.80
8 = 0.5 = 0.5 =0. 1136
lII ax ~ C d (0.80)(5.5)
0.103 < 0.1136 ... o.k.
Final design story drift and story shear in first story
ad= ~ = \.0 = 1.\15
1-8 1-0.103
The final design story drift in the first story is
I'J.
1
=adI'J. =(1.\15)(3.96) =4.415 in
The final design story shear is
VI =adVI =(1.\15)(363.0) =404.7 kips
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
§12.8.7
(Eq 12.8-17)
§12.8.7
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Example 16 • P-delta Effects
Check for st ory- dri ft compliance i n the first story
Allowable story drift /:; ,,110'" = 0.020 hi
/:;0110'" =0.020(20 ft)( 12) =4.80 in
/:;; = 4.415 < 4.80 in .. . o.k.
§12.B.7
§12. 8.7
T 12.12-1
,
Commentary
In §12.8.7 the P-deltaeffects on the design story drift and the design story shear are
evaluated by the following procedure:
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2.
Given the initial design story drift /:;" = 0.,- 0".1 at story x: compute for each story x
the stability coefficient 8
x
given by Equation 12.8- 16. For each story where 8., is
equal to, or greater than 0.10, compute the corresponding incremental factor relating
to P-delta effects ad = 1/( I - 8.,). This factor accounts for the multiplier effect due to
the initial story drift /:;., leading to another increment of story drift, leading to another
story drift, which would lead to yet another increment, etc. Thus both the drift and the
shear in the story would be increased by a factor equal to the series of I + 8 + 8
2
+ 8
3
+ ---, which converges to 1(1 - 8) = ad. As a result the initial story drift /:;" and story
shear V, need to be multiplied by the factor ad to represent the total final P-delta
effect.
The final resulting story drift IJ. ~ = ad IJ.., needs to comply with the drift limitations of
§12.12.
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3. In each story requiring consideration ofP-delta effects the initial story shears are
increased to ,':=ad V" . The structural elements must be designed to resist the
resulting final story shears, overturning moments and element actions.
Some computer programs for frame analysis state that P-deltaeffects are incl uded directly in
the analysis. The engineer should verify that the total gravity load employed and the method
used in these programs will provide results that are essentially equivalent to the augmented
story shear method described above.
The provisions in §§12.8.6 and 12.8.7 for the evaluation of the final story drifts state that the
final story drift shall be ad times the initial drift IJ..
However, in a multi-story building having 8 > 0.1 in more than one story, the initial story
shears in these stories are increased by the ad factor. This is equivalent to an added latera l
load equal to (ad-I) V, applied to each story level having 8 > 0.1. Therefore the new story
drifts in the stories below would be increased not only by their own ad but by the added
lateral load effect from the stories above; thus, the fina l drifts should be found by a new
analysis with the added lateral loads equal to (ad - I) V" along with the initi al lateral loads on
the frame.
2006 la c Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 77
17
S,eismic Base Shear
§12.8.1 Exampl e 17 • Seis mi c Bas e Shear
§12.8.1
1
]
]
Find the design base shear for a 5-story steel special moment-resisting frame building
shown below.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
SDS = 0.45g
SOl = 0.28g
J = 1.0
R = 8
W = 1626 kips
11" = 60 feet
To solve this example, follow these steps.
60'
- - - '-- - '-- - '-- - '--
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[I] Determine the structure period §12.8.2.1
The appropriate fundamental period To is to be used. C
r
for steel moment-resisting
frames is 0.035.
[L] Determine the structure period
Determine the seismic response coefficient c,
Determine seismic base shear
Calculations and Discussion
T; = CrUd :; = =0.D75 sec
Determine the seismic response coefficient C
s
The design value of C, is the smaller value of
C = Sos = (0.45) = 0 0561
s (R) (8) . -
J 1.0
78 200 6 I BC Structural/ Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Code Reference
(Eq 12.8-7)
§12.8.1
(Eq 12.8-2)
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Example 18 D Approximate Fundamental Period §12.8.2.1
~ Concrete special moment frame (SMF) structure
Height of the tallest part of the building is 33 feet, and
this is used to determine per iod. Roof penthouses are
generally not considered in determining hi!> but height s
of setbacks are included. However, if the setback
represents more than a 130-percent change in the
lateral force system dimension, there is a vertical 33'
geomet ric irregular ity (Table 12.3-2). Taller
structures, more than five stories or 65 feet in height,
require dynamic analysis for this type of irregularity.
h« = 33 feet
Setback
k--J
-'- - '- - '- -
L- _ L.- _ L.-
C
T
=0.016; x =0.9
To = CT(hnY=0.016(33)°·9= 0.37 sec
[!J Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF)
EBF structures use the C, for the "all other
buildings" category
C
T
= 0.030; x =0.75
T = CT(hn}T: = 0.030(44)°·75= 0.51 sec
~ Masonry shear wall building
44'
29'
IE
~ T Y P '
60'
Front wall elevation
29'
I~ ~ f "
45'
<
Back wall elevation
For this structure, CTmay be taken as 0.020 and x may be taken as 0.75, the values for "all
other buil dings"
To= CT(h,Y=0.020(29)°·75=0.25 sec
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 81
§12. 8.2.1 Exa mple 18 • Approximate Fundamental Period
~ Tilt-up building
Consider a tilt-up building 150 feet by 200 feet in plan that has a panelized wood roof and
the typical wall elevation shown below.
2 0 ' I ~ I
• 4 - 15'typ
~ '- . . .
4t- H
I " " , ~ ' " zo' '" I
E )
Typical wall elevation
CT = 0.020; X = 0.75
T =CT(h
n
)' =0.020(20)°·75=0.19 sec
This type of structural system has relatively rigid walls and a flexible roof diaphragm.
The code formula for period does not take into consideration the fact that the real
period of the building is highly dependent on the roof diaphragm construction. Thus ,
the period computed above is not a good estimate of the real fundamental period of
this type of building. It is acceptable, however, for use in determining design base
shear.
comm'fmtaf)'.
The fundamental period Tof the building may also be established by analytical
procedures with the limitation given in §12.8.2.
82 2006 la c Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 19 II Simplified Alternative Structural Design Procedure §12.14
Exam Ie 19
Simplified I ernettve Structural Design Procedure § 12.14
Determine the seismic base shear and the seismic lateral forces for a three-story wood
structural panel wall building using the simplified alternative structural design procedure.
The following information is given.
Occupancy Category I
SDS = 1.0
R = 6X
W = 750 kips
T f ~
Effective
Seismic
I(
20'
+
20'
1
Weight, w,
Level
150 kips
12'
300 kips
12'
300 kips
12'
To solve this example, follow these steps.
[}J Check applicability of simplified alternative method
~ Determine seismic base shear
~ Determine seismic lateral forces at each level
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
[}J Check applicability of simplified alternative method §12.14.1.1
Light-framed construction not more than three stories, or other buildings with bearing walls
or building frame systems not more than three stories, can use the simplified alternat ive
method when general conditions are satisfied.
2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual, Vol . I 83
The following is a comparison of simplified base shear with standard design base
shear. The standard method of determining the seismic base shear is
§12.14 Exampl e 19 • Simplified Alternative Structural Design Procedure
~ Determine seismic base shear
1.2(1.0)(750 kips)
6X
= 138.5 kips
@J Determine seismic lateral forces at each level
W
F =-" V
x W
FI = 300 (138.5) = 55.4 kips
750
F2 = ~ ~ ~ (138.5) = 55.4 kips
F
3
= ISO (138.5) = 27.7 kips
750
Commentary
v=csw
wher e
84 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
§12.14.7.1
(Eq 12. 14-9)
§12.14.7.2
(Eq 12.14-10)
§12.8
(Eq 12.8-1)
(Eq 12.8-2)
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Example 19 • Simplified Alrernative Structural Design Procedure
The distribution of seismic forces over the height of the structure is
§12.14
1
where
F
x
= C . ~ V
n
2: w,h;
i.. 1
(Eq 12.8-11)
(IBe Eq 16-42)
1
Note: distribution exponent k =1.0 for structures having a peri od of 0.5 second or
less.
Level .r h, U', w,h.
"'xlix
F, Fju '.
}: wi"i
3 36 fl 150 kips 5,400 kip-It 0.333 38.4 kips 0.278
2 24 300 7.200 0.444 51.2 0. 185
I
I 12 300 3.600 0.222 25.6 0.093
L II',", 16.200 L ~ 115.4
The seismic base shear Vand lateral forces F" at each level except the roof are all less
than the simplified method, see table below. The principal advantage of the simplified
method is that period T need not be calculated and design story drift (). may be taken
as I percent of the story height, §12.14.7.5.
Comparison of Simplified VS Standard
Lateral Force F.
% Difference
Level x
Simplified Standard
3 27.7 kips 38.4 kips 72
2 55.4 51.2 108
55.4 25.6 216
Total 138.5 115.2 120
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 85
§12.2.3.1 Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical

'Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical
'12.2.3.1
In structural engineering practice, it is sometimes necessary to design buildings that
have a vertical combination of different lateral-force-resisting systems. For example,
the bottom part of the structure may be a rigid frame and the top part may be a braced frame
or shear wall. This example illustrates use of the requirements of §12.2.3.1 to determine the
applicable response modification coefficient R system overstrength factor no and deflection
amplification factor Cd values for combined vertical systems.
For the three systems shown below, determine the required R coefficient, no factor, Cd
factor, and related design base shear requirements.
.Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
[!J Steel Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF) over steel special
moment frame (SMF)
Seismic Design Category C
Ordinary steel concentrically
braced frame
R =6.0
n
u
= 2.0
Cd = 5.0
P = 1.0
Special steel moment frame
R =8.0
no= 3.0
C« = 5.5
P = 1.0
This combined system falls under vertical combinations of §12.2.3.1. Because the rigid
framing system is above the flexible framing system, the exception for a two-stage analysis
in §12.2.3.1 cannot be used. Therefore, the structure in this direction must use the lowest
R =6.0 and the largest no =3.0. Recall that lithe floor and roof diaphragms could be
considered to be flexible, n
u
would be 2.5, per footnote g, Table 12.2-1.
86 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 20 If CombInation of Structural Systems: Vertical §12.2.3.1
~ Ordinary reinforced concrete shear wall (ORCSW) over special reinforced
concrete moment frame (SRCMF)
Seismic Design Category C
Ordinary reinforced concrete
shear wall (non- bearing)
R =5
.00 =2.5
Cd =4.5
P = 1.0
Special reinforced concrete
moment frame
R = 8.0
.00 = 3.0
Cd = 5.5
P =1.0
This combined system falls under vertical combinations of §12.2.3. 1. Because the
rigid portion is above the flexible portion, a two-stage analysis cannot be used.
Therefore, the structure in this direction must use the lowest, R = 5.0, and the largest,
.00= 3.0. Also note that ordinary reinforced concrete shear wall systems are not permitted
above 35 feet in SOC 0 , E, or F (Tabl e 12.2-1).
[!J Concrete SRCMF over a concrete building frame system
~ Applicable criteria.
This is a vertical combination of a flexibl e system over a more rigid system.
Under §12.2.3.1, a two-stage static analysi s may be used, provi ded the structures
conform to the following four requirements.
Sei smic Design Category B
Concrete special reinforced concret e
mome nt-frame
R =8.0
.00 =3.0
C« =5.5
P = 1.3
Stiffness upper portion = 175 kip-in
T upper = 0.55 sec
T eoll/billed =0.56 sec
Shear walls
2006 IBC Structur al/Se is mic Design Manual. Vol. I 87
10,000 kip-in > 10(175) = 1750 kip-in ... o.k.
Check requirements of §12.2.3.1 for a two-stage analysis
Also note R is different for bearing wall systems versus building frame systems for special
reinforced concrete shear walls, see Table 12.2-1.
b. Period of entire structure is not greater than l.l times the period of upper structure
considered a separate structure fixed at the base.
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Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical
a. The stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the stiffness of the upper
portion. For multi-story upper or lower portions, the stiffness should be the
stiffness of the first mode.
Special reinforced concrete shear wall
R =6.0
no=2.5
Cd =5
P = 1.0
Stiffness = 10,000 kip-in
rlo"er = 0.03 sec
§12.2.3.1
0.56 sec < 1.1 (.55) = 0.61 sec . . . o.k.
88
c. Flexible upper portion supported on the rigid lower portion shall be designed as a
separate structure using appropriate values of Rand p.
d. Rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using appropriate
values of Rand p. Reactions from the upper structure shall be determined from
analysis of the upper structure amplified by the ratio of Rip of the upper structure
over Rip of the lower structure. This ratio shall not be less than 1.0.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. J
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Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical §12.2.3.1
~ Design procedures for upper and lower structures
Design upper SRCMF using
R =8.0
n =3.0
p = 1.3
Design lower portion of the building frame
system for the combined effects of amplified
reactions from the upper portion and lateral
forces due to the base shear for the lower
portion of the structure (using R= 6.0,
Q =2.5, and p =1.0 for the lower
portion).
--....... r VIrum.
8.0 /1.3
Amplified Vllil m• =- - Vllilme =1.03 Vllilme
6.0/1.0
The reactions from the upper portion shall be determined from the analysis of the upper portion
amplified by the ratio of (Rip) for the upper portion over (Rip) of the lower portion.
Note that for the basic seismic load combinations the factor p must still be applied to forces
corresponding to Vl ower.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 89
90 2006 IBC Structural/Seismi c Design Manual, Vol. I
!TI Determine the R value for each direction
Exampl e 21
") : ' .
gombination of F!"aming Systems in D i f f e r ~ n t Directions §12.2.2
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_-- Shear wall
---G
Exampl e 21 • Combination of Framing Systems in Different Dir ections
Typical floor Plan
Lines I, 2, and 3 are special reinforced concret e moment frames
R =8.0, QQ= 3.0, C
d
= 5.5 Table 12.2-1 (C5)
Lines A and D are special reinforced concrete shear walls (bearing wall system)
R = 5, Q" = 2.5, Cd=5, Table 12.2-1 (AI)
Determine the R, Cd, and Q" values for each direction.
Thi s example illustrates the determination of response modification coefficient R, system
over strength factor QQ, and deflection amplification factor Cdvalues for a building that has
different seismic framing systems along different axes (i.e., directions) ofthc building.
In this example, a three-story building has concrete shear walls in one direction and
concrete moment frames in the other. Floors are concrete slab, and the building is SDC D
and Occupancy Category I.
§12.2.2
Example 21 • Combination of Framing Systems in Different Directions §12.2.2
.Calculations and Discussion
., Y ,.
Code Reference
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The provisions of §12.2.2 require that where different seismic-foree-resisting syst ems are
used along the two orthogonal axes of the structure, the appropriate response modification
coefficient R, system overstrength factor Q o' and deflection ampl ification factor Cdfor each
system shall be used.
Use R =5.0, Q
o
=2.5, and Cs=5 for the north-south direction.
and R = 8.0, Q
o
= 3.0, and Cd= 5.5 for the east-west direction.
~ ' .
Commentary
Note that since this is SDC D, ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls are not permitted.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 91
§12.2.3.2 Example 22 " Combination of Structural Systems: Along the Same Axis
.. ~ .. -
E X ~ m p l e 2 2
COmbination of Structural Systems:
, , long the Same Axis §12.2.3.2
Occasionally, it is necessary or convenient to have different structural systems in the same
direction. This example shows how the response modification coefficient Rvalue is
determined in such a situation.
A one-story steel frame structure has the roof plan shown below. The structure is assigned to
Seismic Use Group 1.
-,
'-
-
- -
'-
-'
Roof Plan
Lines 1 and 4 are ordinary steel moment frames: R= 3.5
Lines 2 and 3 are special steel concentrically braced frames: R = 6.0
[!J Determine the R value for the N/S direction
Calculations and Discussion CodeReference
When a combination of structural systems is used in the same direction, §12.2.3.2 requires
that (except for dual systems and shear wall-frame interactive systems) the value of R used
shall not be greater than the least value of any system utilized in that direction.
: . Use R = 3.5 for entire structure.
Commentgl'Y
An exception is given for light frame, flexible diaphragm buildings of Occupancy Category I
or Il two stories or less in height. However, to qualify as a flexible diaphragm, the lateral
deformation of the diaphragm must be more than two times the average story drift of the
associated story; see definition in §12.3.1.3.
92 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
1

Example 17 • Seismic Base Shear
and
C
- SOl _ (0.28) _
,--i)-() -0.0467 for T S. T
L
R ~ (0.75)
/ 1.0
but shall not be less than
C, = 0.01
§12. B.l
(Eq 12.8-3)
(Eq 12.8-4)
(Eq 12.8-5)
In addition, for structures located where S, is equal to or greater than 0.6g, C, shall not be
less than
ComtnimtcJry
The So, value of 0.28g given in this example is based on an S, value of 0.2I g. If the S,
value were to have been equal or greater than 0.6g, then the lower bound on C, is
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C = 0.5S,
s ( ~ )
: . Design value of C, =0.0467
~ Determine seismic base shear
The seismic base shear is given by
v =C,W
= 0.0467(1626 kips)
= 75.9 kips
C
0.5/S,
> - -
s z-: R
(Eq 12.8-6)
§12.8.1
(Eq 12.8-1)
(Eq 12.8-6)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 79
§12.8.2.1 Exampl e 18 • Approximate Fundamental Period
'. ample 18
Fundamental Period § 12.8.2. 1
Determine the period for each of the structures shown below usi ng the appropriate
fundament al period formula
(Eq 12.8-7)
The coeffici ent C
T
and the exponent x are dependent on the type of structural system used.
[!J Steel special moment frame (SMF) structure
[!J Concrete special moment frame (SMF) structure
@J Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF)
Masonry shear wall building
Tilt-up building
Calculatipns and Discussion
[!J Steel special moment frame (SMF) structure
Code Reference
§12.8.2.1
Basemenl
Superslructu re
-,-
96'
e
,
22'
_L
Grad
To= C
r
(I1"r = 0.028(96)°·8= 1.08 sec
C
r
= 0.028; x =0. 8
Height of the structure above its base is 96 feet.
The additional 22-foot depth of the basement
is not considered in determining 11" for period
calculation.
Note: In the SEAOC Blue Book, base is defmed as the level at which earthquake
motions are considered to be imparted, or the level at which the structure, as a
dynamic vibrator, is supported. For this structure the sol ution is the same.
80 2006 IBC Structuraf/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Example 23 • Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forc e §12. B.3
1 Exampl e 23 ·
Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force § 12.8.3
A nine-story building has a moment-resisting steel frame for a lateral-force-resisting
system. Find the vertical dist ribution oflateral forces F
x

' 2'
' 2'
'2'
' 2'
' 2'
' 2'
12'
20'
12'
22k
22k
54k
40k
65k
2
4
4
4
5
4
4
4
4
// " 1' / / 1' / ~ / / / I ' / '/
8 OSk
? f T
3
2
5
7 QSk
6 O ~
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27' I 27' I Story
level ( 0) EO ): weight
9 14k
IV = 3762 kips
C, = 0.062
R = 8.0
Q" =3.0
1 = 1.0
T = 1.06 sec
The following information
IS given.
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Total 3762 kips
This is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of the structure. It is determined
as follows
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To solve this example, follow these steps.
[!J Determine V
~ Find F
x
at each level
~ Find the distribution exponent k
~ Determine vertical force distribution
:Ca/culations and Discussion
[!J Determine V
v= C, IV=0.062 (376zk) =233.8 kips
CodeR... -ference
§12.8-1
(Eq 12.8-1)
2006 IBC Structural/ Se;smlc Design Manual, Vol. I 93
§12. 8.3 Example 23 • Ver tic al Dis tr ibu tion of Seismic Force
~ Find r, at each level
The vertica l distribution of seismic forces is determined as
(Eq 12.8- 11 )
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where
c = lV
xh
l
I'X n
2: IV; hi
i- I
(Eq 12.8-12)
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Since there are nine levels above the ground, 11 = 9
Thus:
Find the distribution exponent k §12.8.3
The distribution exponent k is equal to 1.0 for buildings having a period of T s 0.5 seconds,
and is equal to 2.0 for buildings having a period oi T>: 2.5. For intermediate value of the
building period, k is determined by linear interpo lation.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Exponent, k
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2.5 2.0 1.0 1.5
1.06
0.5 o
o
2.5
2.0
...
1.5
." 1.28
e
' C
~
1.0 0-
0.5
F = 233.8w,l1;
x •
~ ,
LJ lV/Ii
i- I
Thus:
94
Example 23 • Verti cal Distributi on of Seismic Force
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Now:
for T =1.06 sec
k =1.0 + (1.06 _ 0.5) ( I )
2.5 -0.5
=1.28
Use: k =1.28
§12 .B.3
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@J Equation 12.8-12 is solved in the table below given V= 233.8 kips and k = 1.28


W . / I . ~
".f
U'.• wxh
x
C ~ , = --I
F. = C••V
Level X ii, ( ft) (kips)
kip-It
LW/l
i
(ki ps) F/ w. = Su
9 116 ft 439 214 93.946 0. 116 27.3 0. 127
8 104 382 405 154.710 0. 192 44.8 0.1 II
7 92 326 405 132.030 0.169 38.3 0.094
6 80 273 405 110.565 0. 137 32. 1 0.079
5 68 222 584 129.648 0. 161 37.6 0.064
4 56 173 422 73.006 0.091 21.2 0.050
3 44 127 422 53.594 0.067 15.5 0.037
2 32 84 440 36.960 0.046 10.8 0.024
20 46 465 21,390 0.027 6.2 0.013
~ =3762 ~ = 806.289
1.004 233.2
Commelltary
Note that certain types of vertical irregularity can result in a dynamic response having a load
distribution significantly different from that given in this section. Table 12.6- I lists the
minimum allowable analysis procedures for seismic design. Redundancy requirements must
also be evaluated once the type oflateral-force-resisting system to be used is specified,
because this may require modification of the building framing system and vertical
distribution of horizontal forces as a result of changes in building period T.
Often, the horizont al forces at each floor level are increased when p is greater than 1.0. This
is done to simplify the analysis of the framing members. The horizontal forces need not be
increased at each floor level when p is greater than 1.0, provided that, when stress checking
the individual members of the lateral-foree-resisting system, the seismic forces are factored
by p. When checking building drift, p = 1.0 (§12.3.4.1) shall be used.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 95
§ 12. 8. 3 Exampl e 23 • Vertical Di stribution of Se ismic Force
Structures that have a vertical irregularity ofType Ia, Ib, 2, or 3 in Table 12.6-1, or plan
irregular ities of Type l a or Ib in Table 12.6-1, and having a height exceeding five stories or
65 feet may have significantly different force distributions. Structures exceeding 240 feet in
height shall require dynamic analysis. The configuration and final design of this structure
must be checked for these irregularities. Most structural analysis programs used today
perform this calculation, and it is rarely necessary to manually perform the calculations
shown above. However, it is recommended that these calculations be performed to confirm
the computer analysis and to gain insight to structural behavior. Note that ( So )max is
approximately twice C , and S" = r <pSa from a modal analysis.
96 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 24 • HOlizontal Distribution of Shear §12.BA
1
EKamp!e 24
:Horizontal Distribution of Shear §12.8.4
A single-story buil ding has a rigid roof diaphragm. See appendix to this example for a
procedure for the distribution of lateral forces in structures with rigid diaphragms and
cross walls and/or frames of any orientation. Lateral forces in both directions are resisted
by shear walls. The mass of the roof can be considered to be uniformly distributed, and in
this example, the weight of the walls is neglected. In actual pract ice, part icularly with
concrete shear walls, the weight of the walls should be included in the determination of
the center-of-mass (CM).
The following information is given.
Design base shear: V = 100 kips in north-south direction
Wall rigidi ties: R
A
= 300 kip/in
RB = 100 kip/in
Rc =RD =200 kip/in
Center-of-mass: X
m
=40 ft, Ym =20 ft
Analyze for seismic forces in north-south direction.
r y
0
-,
Shear wall below


.' XR
A
~
40'
"
,
,
Roof diaphragm
YR
X
)
c
IE
BO'
)1
Roof plan
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 97
§12.B.4 Example 24 • Hor/zontal Dist ribution of Shear
Determine the following.
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OJ Eccentricity and rigidity properties
[3J Direct shear in walls A and B
[I] Plan irregularity requirements
~ Torsional shear in walls A and B
~ Total shear in walls A and B
Calculations andDiscussion
OJ Eccentricity and rigidity properties
The rigidity of the structure in the direction of applied force is the sum of
the rigidities of walls parallel to this force .
~ o d e Reference
§12.8.4.1
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R =R
A
+ RB = 300 + 100 =400 kip/in
The centers ofrigidity (CR) along the x and y axes are
eccentricity e =X
m
- XR =40 - 20 =20 ft
Torsional rigidity about the center of rigidity is determine d as
J =R
A
(20) 2+R
B
(60/ +Rc (20)2 +RD(20)2
=300 (20i + 100 (60)2 +200 (20)2 +200 (20i = 64 x 10
4
(kip/in) fe
The seismic force V applied at the CM is equivalent to having Vapplied at the CR
together with a counter-clockwise torsion T. With the requirements for accidental
eccentricity es«, the total shear on walls A and B can be found by the addition of the
direct and torsional load cases .
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. 1
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Example 24 • Horizontal Distribution of Shear §1 2. 8A
/ r rr: / /
20'
CR

...;
;-
20'
20' 60'
/ / /
V
C
A
VO.A
D
Direct shear contribution
VO,S
VT,A D
VT,O VT, a
4

/
fa

T= V(e:: eecc)

VT,C
C
Torsional shear contribution
Direct shear in walls A and B
R 300 .
V = A X (V) = x 100 = 75.0 kips
0.11 R
A
+ R
B
300 + 100
V = R
D
X (V) = 100 x 100 = 25.0 kips
D.n R + R 300 + 100
A n
@J Plan irregularity requirements
The det ermination of torsional irregularity, Items la and lb in Table 12.3-1, requires
the evaluation of the story drifts in walls A and B. This evaluation must include accidental
torsion caused by an eccentricity of 5 percent of the building dimension.
e
acc
+ 0.05 (80 ft) = 4.0 ft
For the determination of torsional irregularity, the initial most severe torsional shears,
V' and corresponding story drifts (so as to produce the lowest value of the average
story drift) will result from the largest eccentrici ty e + e
acc
• These are
v' = V (e+e"cJ(xR)(RA ) = 100(20 + 4) (20)(300) = 22.5 ki s
T.A j 64 x P
= V(e+eacJ(80 -x
R)(
R
B
) = 100(20+4)(60)(100) = 22.5 ki s
T.B j 64 x P
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I 99
§12.8.4 Example 24 • Hor izontal Di stribution of Shear
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The initial total shears are
V ~ = VD.A - V;.A = 75.0 - 22.5 =52.5 kips
V; = VD.B + \ ~ . B =25.0 + 22.5 =47.5 kips
(NOTE: This is not the design force for Wall A, as accidental eccentricity here is used to
reduce the force).
The resul ting displacements b', which for this single-story building are also the story
drift values, are
b' = V ~ = 52.5 = 0. 18 in
R
A
300
)
)
= b ~ = 0.48 in
Section 12.8.4.3 requires the evaluat ion and application of the torsional amplification
factor
= 0.18 +0.48 = 0.33 in
2
= V ~ = 47.5 = 0.48 in
R
B
100
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(IBC Eq 16-44)
b"4' = 0.49 = 1.45 > 1.4
b. ,., 0.33
:. Extreme Torsional Irregularity Type Ib exists. (See Exampl e 26) Assuming
SDC D, structural modeling must include 3 dimensions per §12.7.3, and
diaphragm shear transfer forces to collectors must be increased 25 percent per
§12.3.3.4.
A, = ( b"4' )' = ( 0.48 ) ' = 1.47 < 3.0
. 1.2. " 1.2(0.33)
Note: the factor Ax is not calculated iteratively (i.e., it is not recalculated with amplified
torsion).
~ Torsional shears in walls A and B
To account for the effects of torsional irregularity, §12.8.4.2 requires that the accidental
torsional moment, Ve. cc, be multiplied by the torsional amplification factor Ax.
100 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. 1
Example 24 • Horizontal Distribution of Shear
The most severe total shears result from the use of V [e - .{,e
d CC
] for VT,A and
V [e + A,e
acc
] for V
T

B
§12.B.4
VT.A =
VT,B =
100 kips[(20 - 1.47 x 4 ] 2 0 ( ~ 0 0 kip/in) = 13.24 kips
. 64 x 10
4
(kip/injft '
100 kips[(20 + 1.47 x 4]60(100 kip/in) = 24 3 k'
" . IpS
64 x 10 (kip/injft '
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~ Total shear in walls A and B
Total shear in each wall is the algebraic sum ofthc direct and torsiona l shear
components
v:, = V
D
_, - VT.A = 75.0 - 13.2 = 61.8 kips
VB = V
D
.
B
+ VT,B = 25.0 + 24.3 = 49.3 kips
r
COmmentary
Section 12.8.4.2 requires that the most severe load combination for each element shall be
considered for design. This load combination involves the direct and torsional shears,
and the "most severe" condition is as follows.
I. Where the torsional shear has the same sense, and is therefore added to the direct shear,
the torsional shear shall be calculated using actual eccentricity plus the accidental
eccentricity to give the largest additive torsional shear.
2. Where the torsional shear has the opposite sense to that of the direct shear and is to be
subtracted, the torsional shear must be based on the actual eccentricity minus the
acci dental eccentricity to give the smallest subtractive shear.
The §12.8.4.3 requirement to multiply only the accidental torsional moment by Ax differs
significantly from the 2000 !Be. It restores the requirements of the 1997 UBC and 1999 Blue
Book.
2006 IBC Str uct ural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 101
§12.8.4.3 Example 25 • Amplification of Accidental Torsi on
§ 12.8.4.3
This example illustrates how to include the effects of accidental eccentricity in the lateral
force analysis of a multi-story building. The structure is a five-story reinforced concrete
building frame system. A three-dimensional rigid diaphragm model has been formulated
for the evaluation of element actions and deformations due to prescribed loading conditions.
Shear walls resist lateral forces in both directions.
f f f
4 @J20'=80'
A
®-g
II
b
N
@
@-M
IN
0
Floor plan at Level x
The lateral seismic forces Fein the north-south direction, structure dimensions, and
accidental eccentricity e
acc
for each Level x are given below.
Level.\" F. L. X es «: =0.05L.r
5 110.0 kips 80.0 ft 24.2 ft ± 4.0 ft
4 82.8 80.0 25. 1 ±4.0
3 65. 1 80.0 27.8 ±4.0
2 42. 1 80.0 30.3 ±4.0
I 23.0 80.0 31.5 ±4.0
In addition, for the given lateral seismic forces F, a computer analysis provides the
following results for the second story. Separate values are given for the application
of the forces F, at the centers of mass and the ±O.05L
x
displacements as required by
§12.8.4.2. In this example, it is assumed for simplicity that the location of the center-
of-mass CAtf.e is congruent with the center of rigidity at the level in question , resulting
in zero inherent at torsion.
102 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 25 II Amplification of Accidental Torsion §12.8.4.3
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Wall shear V.
Story drift II,
Story drift II,
Level 2 displacement 0"
Level 2 displacement 58
x
185.0 kips
115.0 kips
0.35 in
0.62
0.80
1.31
Force Position
X rl - e...
r
196.0 kips
104.0 kips
0.37 in
0.56
0.85
1.1 8
X + 00 e...-.:
174.0 kips
126.0 kips
0.33 in
0.68
0.75
1.44
For the second story, find the following.
[L] Maximum force in shear walls A and 8
Check if torsional irregularity exists
@J Determine the ampli fication factor Ax
New accidental torsion eccentricity
VB = 126.0 kips
VA = 196.0 kips
Check if torsional irregularity exists
The bui lding may have a torsional irregularity Type I (Table 12.3-1). The following is a
check of the story drifts.
CodeReference
= 0.68 +0.33 = 0.51 in
2
= 0.68 in

Calculationsand Discussion
[!J Maximum force in shear walls A and 8
The maximum force in each shear wall is a result of direct shear, inherent torsion (center
of mass not being congruent with center of rigidity) and the contribution due to accidental
torsion. As mentioned above, in this example it is assumed that accidental eccentricity is
the only source of torsional moment at this floor level. From the above table, it is
determined that
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2006 IBC St ructur al/Sei smic Desi gn Manual, Vol. I 103
§12. 8.4.3 Example 2S • Ampli fication of Accidental Torsion
li"",. = 0.68 = 1.33 > 1.2
«; 0.51
. . Torsional irregularity Type la exists - Note: if li
ma.
,1li
ao
'g is larger than 1.4,
then torsional irregularity Type 1b exists.
~ Determine the amplification factor Ax
Because a torsiona l irregularity exists, §12.8.4.3 requires that the second story
torsional moment be ampli fied by the following factor. In this example, because the only
source of torsion is the accidental eccentricity, the amplification factor will be used to
calculate a new and increased accidental eccentricity, as shown below.
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x
(Eq 12.8-14)
Where:
the average story displacement is computed as
= 1.44+0.75 = 1.10 in
2
( )
'
= 1.44 = 1.19 in
(1 .2)(1.10)
~ New accidental torsion eccentricity
Since Az (i.e., Ax for the second story) is greater than unity, a second analysis for
torsion must be performed using the new accidental eccentricity.
e"cc =(1.19)(4.0 ft) =4.76 ft
104 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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,9 gmmentary
Example 25 • Amplification ct Accidental Torsion §12.8.4.3
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Example calculati ons were given for the second story. In practice, each story requi res
an evaluation of the most severe element actions and a check for the torsional irregularity
condition.
If torsional irregularity exists and Ax is greater than 1.0 at any level (or levels) ,
a second torsional analysis must be performed using the new accidental eccentricities.
However, it is 110/ required to find the resulting new Axvalues and repeat the process a
second or third time (until the Ax converges to a constant or reaches the limit of 3.0). The
results of the first analysis with the use ofA., are sufficient for design purposes.
While this example involves wall shear evaluation, the same procedure applies to the
determination of the most severe element actions for any other lateral-foree-resisting
system having rigid diaphragms.
When the dynamic analysis method of §12.9 is used, all the requirements of horizontal shear
distribution, given in §12.8.4, including torsion calculations that may be accounted for by
displacing the calculated centers of mass of each level (§12.8.4.1 and §12.8.4.2) also apply.
However, §12.9.5 states that amplification of accidental torsion, need not be amplified by Ax
where accidental torsional effects are included in the dynamic analysis model. Only the
accidental torsion is required to be amplified if torsional irregularity exists . Also note that Ax
is not required to exceed 3.0.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 105
§12.3.3.3 Example 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems

lements Supporting Discontinuous Systems
A reinforced concrete building has the lateral-foree-resisting system shown below.
Shear walls at the first-floor level are discontinuous between lines A and Band
lines C and D.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category C
SDS= 1.10
Ordinary reinforced> concrete shear wall (ORCSW) building
frame system: R =5 and Q
o
=2.5
Note: ORCSW not permitted in SDC D, E, or F.
Office building live load: use factor of 0.5 on L
T 12.2-1
§12.4.2.3
Axial loads on column C
D = 40 kips
L = 20 kips
QE = 100 kips
12'
12'
12'
12'

4 ,---------.,....----,
Shear wall
Column C
24" x 24"
f c =4000 psi
Determine the following for column C.
[!J Required strength
Detailing requirements
106 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Examplo 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §12.J.J.J

Calculations andDiscussion Code Reference
I
This examp le demonstrates the loading criteria and detail ing required for elements
supporting discontinued or offset elements of a seismic-force-resisting system.
Required strength
Because of the discontinuous configuration of the shear wall at the first story, the first
story columns on lines A and D must support the wall elements above this level. Column
C on line D is treat ed in this example. Because of symmetry, the column on line A would
have identica l requirements.
Section 12.3.3.3 requires that the column shall have a design strength to resi st special
seismic load combination of §12.4.3.2
where
Pu = 1.2D+ 0.5L+ 1.0Em
P" = 0.9D+ 1.0Em
§12.4.2.3 (Comb. 5)
§12.4.2.3 (Comb. 7)
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E.. =Q" QE+ 0.2 SDS D =2.5( 100) + 0.2( 1.10)(40) =259 kips §12.4.3.2 (Comb. 5)
or E.. = Q" QE - 0.2 SDS D = 2.5( 100) - 0.2( 1.10)(40) = 24 1 kips §12.4.3.2 (Comb. 7)
Substituting the values of dead, live, and seismic loads
P" = 1.2 (40) +0.5 (20) + 259 = 317 kips compression
and
P" = 0.9 (40) - 0.5 (241) = -205 kips tension ·
2006 IBC Structural/Seis mic Design Manual. Vol . I 107
§12.3.3.3 Exampl e 26 ff Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems
Cotpmentary
To transfer the shears from walls A-B and C-D to the first-story wall B-C, collector
beams A-B and C-D are required at Levell . These would have to be designed
according to the requirements of §12.10.2.
The load requirements of §12.3.3.3 and relat ed sections of the relevant materials chapters
apply to the following vertical irregularities and vertical elements.
1. Discontinuous shear wall. The
wall at left has a Type 4 vertical
structural irregularity. Note that
only the column needs to resist
the special load combi nations
since it supports the shear wall.
2. Discontinuous column. This frame
has a Type 4 vertical structural
irregularity.
108 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
1,14"__-rt--Column
DDD
DDD
Transfer
girder
Example 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems
3. Out-of-plane offset. The wall on
Line A at the first story is
discontinuous. This structure has
a Type 4 plan structural
irregularity, and §12.3.3.3
applies to the supporting
columns. The portion of the
diaphragm transferring shear
(i.e., transfer diaphragm) to the
offset wall must be designed per
the requirements of §12.3.3.4.
Note that the transfer diaphragm
and the offset shear wall are
subject to the p factor, but not to
the special load combinations.
It should be noted that for any of the supporting columns shown above, the load
demand Em of §12.4.3.2 Equations 5 and 7 need not exceed the maximum force that
can be transferred to the element by the lateral-foree-resisting system.
§12.3.3.3
Oisconllnued
wall
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 109
7. (0.9 - 0.2S
DS)D
+ QoE
Appl icable load combinations for allowable strength design are:
1
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Ughl framed wall
with plywood
sheathing
Timber column
§12.3.3.3
Code Reference
Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls or Frames
Dead D = 6.0 kips
Live L = 3.0 kips
Seismic Q£= ±7.0 kips
The following information is given.
Determine the following.
Axial loads on the timber column under the
discontinuous portion of the shear wall are
Seismic Design Category C
S DS = l.IO
R =6.5
no = 3.0
Cd =4
/I = 0.5
[!J Applicable load combinations
~ Required column design strength
This example illustrates the application of the requirements of §12.3.3.3 for the allowable
stress design of elements that support a discont inuous lateral-foree-resisting system.
§12.3.3.3
In this example, a light-framed bearing-wall building with plywood shear panels has a
Type 4 vertical structural irregularity in one of its shear walls, as shown below.
CalclJlations and Discussion
[1J Applicable load combinations
For vertical irregularity Type 4, §12.3.3.3 requires that the timber column have the
design strength to resist the special seismic load combinations of §12.4.3.2. This is
required for both allowable stress design and strength design. For strength design the
applicable load combinations for allowable strength design are
fI" '-:-rt: - r
·& ample 2 7
r'!'! .".
~ ~ / e m e n t s Supporting Discontinuous Walls orFrames
110 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Waifs or Frames §12.3.3.3
5. (1.0 + 0. 105 80S) D + 0.525 + QoQE + 0.75L
6. (0.8 - 0.14 80s) D + 0.7 QuQE
Required column design strength (strength design)
In this shear wall, the timber column carries only axial loads. The appropriate dead,
live, and seismic loads are determined as
D = 6.0 kips
L = 3.0 kips
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or
Em = n, QE + 0.2 80SD = 3.0(7.0)+ 0.2 (1.10) (6.0) = 22.3 kips
Em = Q
o
QE- 0.2 80S D = 3.0(7.0) - 0.2 (!.IO) (6.0) = 19.7 kips
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For the required strength design-strength check, both load combinations must be checked.
P = 1.2D+L + Em
P = 1.2 (6.0) + 0.5 (3.0) + 22.3 = 31.0 kips . . . (compression)
P = 0.9D- 1.0E
m
P = 0.9 (6.0) - 1.0 (19.7) =-14.3 kips .. . (tension)
The load factor on L in combination 5 is permi tted to equal 0.5 for all occupancies in
which L; is less than or equal to 100 psf, with the exception of garages or areas occupied
as places of public assembly.
Commentary
For strength design, the timber column must be checked for a compression load of31.0 kips
and a tension load of 14.3 kips.
In making an allowable stress design check, §12.4.3.3 permits use of an allowable stress
increase of 1.2. The 1.2 stress increase may be combined with the duration ofload increase
described in the NOS. The resulting design strengt h = (1.2)(1.0)( 1.33) (allowable stress
design). This also applies to the mechanical hold-down element required to resist the tension
load.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 111
§12.3.3.3 Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls or Frames
The purpose of the design-strength check is to confirm the ability of the column to carry
higher and more realistic loads required by the discontinuity in the shear wall at the first
floor. This is done by increasing the normal seismic load in the column QE by the factor
Q
o
= 3.0 to calculate the maximum seismic load effect Em (§12.4.3).
112 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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E::ample 28 • Soil Pr essur e At Foundation §§2A; 12.13.4
III le2
oil Pressure At Foundations §§2.4; 12.13.
Geotechnical investiga tion reports usua lly provide soil-bearing pressures on an allowable
stress design basis while seismic forces in ASCE/SEI 7-05 and most concrete design
(ACI/318-05, §15.2.2 and R 15.2), are on a strength design basis. The purpose of this
example is to illustrate footing design in this situation.
A spread footing supports a reinforced concrete column. The soil classification
at the site is sand (SW).
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category C
SDS =1.0, / =1.0
P = 1.0 for structural system
P
D
=50 kips
PD includes the footing and imposed
soil weight)
P
L
= 30 kips
P
E
= ± 40 kips, V
E
= 25 kips,
(these are the QE loads due to base shear V)
Snow load S = 0
Wind load W< QE/1.4
The seismic loads are from an equivalent lateral analysis.
r
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4'
Grade
The loads given above follow the sign convention shown in the figure.
Perform the followi ng tasks.
I}J Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure
~ Determine footing size
~ Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of the footing
section
2006 IBC Structural/Sei smic Design Manual, Vol. I 11 3
§§2.4; 12.13.4 Example 28 • Soil Pressure At Foundation
:Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
[L] Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure §2.4
The seismic-force reactions on the footing are based on strength design. However, allowable
stress design may be used for sizing the foundat ion using the load combinations given in
§2.4.1.
D + 0.7£
D + 0.75 (0.7£ + L)
0.6D +0.7£
(Comb. 5)
(Comb. 6)
(Comb. 7)
Section 12.13.4 permits reduction of overturning effects at the foundation-soil interface by
25 percent (if an equivalent lateral for ce analysis is used) or 10 percent (if modal analysis is
used). Therefore , for the soil pres sure the seismic effect is reduced
D + 0.75(0.7E)
D + 0.75[0.7(0.75)£ + L]
0.6D + 0.7(0.75)£
Because foundation investigation reports for buildings typically specify bearing
pressures on an allowable stress design basis, crit eria for determining footing size
are also on this basis.
The earthquake loads to be resisted are specified in §12.4.2 by
(Comb. 5)
(Comb. 6)
(Comb . 7)
£=£,, +£,.
Per §12.4.2.2, £1' = 0 for determining soil pressure. Equation 12.4- I reduces to
(Eq 12.4- I)
(Eq 12.4-3)
For the sand class of material and footing depth of 4 feet, the allowable gross
foundati on pressure pa from a site-specific geotechnical investigation recommendation is
pa=2.40 ksf for sustained loads and
pa= 3.20 ksf for trans ient loads, such as seismic.
114 2006 I BC Str uc tur al /Se ismi c Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 28 • Soli Pres sure At Foundation
[3J Determine foot ing size
P = D + 0.75(0.7E) = 50 + 0.75(0.7)(40) = 56 kips
P = D + 0.75[0.7(0.75)£ +L]
= 50 + 0.75[0.7(0.75)40 + 30) = 88 kips
P = 0.6D + 0.7(0.75)£
= 0.6(50) + 0.7(0.75)(-40) = 9 kips
Equation 6 governs. The required footing size is 88 kips/3.20 ksf = 27.5 sf
Use 5 ft, 3-in-square footing. A = 27.6 sf
~ Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of footing
For the design of the concrete elements, strengt h design is used. The reduction in
overturning does not apply, and the vertical seismic load effect is included
§§2.4; 12.13.4
(Comb. 5)
(Comb. 6)
(Comb. 7)
A uniform pressure of 115k/27.6 sf = 4. 17 ksf should be used to determine the internal
forces of the footing. (Note that if the footing also resisted moments, the pressure would
not be uniform.)
Note that this indicates upl ift will occur. ASCE/SEI 7-05 does not require that foundation
stability be maintained using strengt h-level seismic forces. This combination is only
used here to determine internal forces of concrete elements of the foundat ion. As it
results in no internal forces, it may be neglected.
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P =I.3D + 0.5L + E
= 1.2(50) + 0.5(30) + 40 + 0.2( 1.0)(50) = 11 5k
The other seismic load combination is
P =0.9D+£
= 0.9(50) - 40 + 0.2(1.0)50 = -5k
§2.3.2 (Comb. 5)
§2.3.2 (Comb. 7)
2006 IBC StructuraVSeismic Design Manual, Vol. I 115
§12.8.6 Example 29 • Drift
Example 29
Drift §12"B.6
A four-story special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) building has the typical floor
plan as shown below. The typical elevation of Lines A through D is also shown, and
the structure does not have horizontal irregularity Types 1a or lb.
The following information is given.
Occupancy Importance Category I
Seismic Design Category 0
1 = 1.0
Cd = 5.5
T = 0.60 sec
Seismic force
Typical fluor plan
Level
4
DDD
12'
3
DDD
12'
2
DDD
12'
12'
Typical Elevati on
The following are the deflections (computed from static analysis - effects of P-delta have
been checked) b
xe
at the center-of-mass of each floor level. These values include both
translational and torsional (with accidental eccentricity) effects. As required by §12.8.6.2,
b . ~ c has been determined in accordance with design forces based on the computed
fundamental period without the upper limit (CI/T
a
) of §12.8.2.
11 6 2006 IBC Structura l /Se IsmIc Design Manua l, Vol . I
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Example 29 • Drift §12.B.6
Level
0"
4 1.51 in
1
3 1.03
2 .63
.30
For each floor-level center-of-mass, determine the following.
[L] Maximum inelastic response deflection 05.
~ Design story drift ~ in story 3
~ Check story 3 for story-drift limit
Calculations andDiscussion
[!J Maximum inelastic response deflection Ox
These are determined using the Osevalues and the Cd factor
o= CA, = 5.56" =5.50
.r I 1.0 se
Therefore:
Code Reference
§12.B
CEq 12.8-15)
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Level
0.(1'
6,
4 1.51 in 8.31 in
3 1.03 5.67
2 0.63 3.47
1 0.30 1.65
~ Design story drift ~ in story 3 due to Ox
Story 3 is located between Levels 2 and 3.
Thus: ~ J = 5.67 - 3.47 = 2.20 in
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 117
§12.8.6 Example 29 • Drift
@J Check story 3 for story-drift limit §12.12.1
For this four-story building with Occupancy Importance Category I, §12. 12.1, Table 12.12-1
requires that the design story drift /1 shall not exceed 0.025 times the story height.
For story 3
/1J = 2.20 in
Story-drift limit = 0.025 (144) = 3.60 in > 2.20 in
:. Story drift is within the limit.
118 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. 1
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Example 30 • Stor.! Drift Limitations §12.1 2
lEJralnple 30
Story Drift Limitations *12.12
For the design of new buildings, the code places limits on the design story drifts, /)..
The limits are based on the design earthquake displacement or deflection Oxand not
the elastic response deflections ext! corresponding to the design lateral forces of §12.8.
In the example given below, a four-story steel special mo ment-res isting frame (SMF)
structure has the design force deflections oxt! as shown. These have been determined
according to §12.8, using a static, elastic analysis.
Level ~
f ~
D
Occupancy Category I
Deflected
6.e
shape'
Seismic Design Category D
4
2.44 In
12'
3 1.91
1 = 1.0 12'
2 1.36
Cd =5.5
12'
0.79
= 1.3
16'
P
0
Determine the foll owing.
[}J Design earthquake deflections Ox
~ Compare design story drifts with the limit value
Calculations and Discussion
[}J Design earthquake deflections ax
The design earthquake deflections Ox are determined from the following
Code Reference
§12.8.6
= Cd° ,rr
1
(Eq 12. 8- 15)
= 5.5c5.
tr
= 5.50
1.0 oft!
2006 IBC St ructural/SeIsmi c Des ign Manual, Vol . I 119
§12.12 Example 30 a Story Drift Limitations
@J Compare story drifts with the limit value §12.12
For this four-story building in Occupancy Category I, §12.12, Table 12.2-1 requi res
that the calculated design story drift shall not exceed 0.025 times the story height.
For SMF in SDC D, E, and F, this limit is reduced by p per §12.12.1.1:
!1alp = 0.0251111.3 = 0.019211
Determine drift limit at each level
Levels 4, 3, and 2
!1S; 0.019211 = 0.0192 (12 ft x 12 in/ft) =2.76 in
Levell
!1S; 0.019211 = 0.0192 (16 ft x 12 in/ft) = 3.68 in
For b. =Cl.. - Cl.._I, check actual design story drifts against limits
Level x
C."
Ox D. Limit Status
4 2.08 in 11.43 in 2.51 in 2.76 o.k.
3 1.62 8.92 2.68 2.76 o.k.
2 1.13 6.24 2.65 2.76 o.k.
1 0.65 3.59 3.59 3.68 o.k.
Therefore: The story drift limits of §12.12 are satisfied.
Note that use of the drift limit of 0.02511 requires interior and exterior wall systems
to be detail to accommodate this drift per Table 12.12-1
. ,
Whenever the dynamic analysis procedure of §12.9 is used, story drift should be determined
as the modal combination of the story-drift value for each mode.
Determination of story drift from the difference of the combined mode deflections may
produce erroneous results because differences in the combined modal displacements can be
less than the corresponding combined modal story drift.
120 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Example 31 • Vertical Sei smi c Load Effect §12.4.2.2
Exal te 31
Vertical Seismic Load Effect §12.4.2.2
Find the vertical seismic load effect, E.-, on the non-prestressed canti lever beam shown
below.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
Beam unit weight = 200 plf
SDS= 1.0
Find the following for strength design.
[!J Upward seismic forces on beam
~ Beam end reactions
Calculations and Discussion
[!J Upward seismic forces on beam
For SOC 0 , the design of hori zontal cantilever beams must consider
1. The governing load combination including E as defined in §12.4.2
E =E" +E\O
E" = 0.2SDsD
QE= 0 for verti cal load, giving
E =0 - 0.2(1.0) D =- 0.2D
where the negative sign is for an upward action.
Code Reference
§12.4.2.2
(Eq 12.4-1)
(Eq 12.4-2)
(Eq 12.4-3)
(Eq 12.4-4)
2006 IBC Structural/Se ismi c Desig n Manual, Vol . I 121
§12..1.2.2 Example 31 • Vertical Seismic Load Effect
The governing load combination including the upward seismic effect from
§2.3.2, (7) is
qe = 0.9D + 1.0E = 0.9D + (- 0.2D)
=0.7D
= 0.7(200 plf)
= 140 plf downward
:. no net upward load.
The governing load combination including the downward seismic effect from
§2.3.2, (5) is
qe = 1.2D + 1.0E +L + 0.28
= 1.2D + 1.0(0.2)(1.0)D + 0 + 0
=l.4D
= 1.4 (200 pit)
=280 plf downward
:. this is the maximum downward load on the beam.
2. A minimum net upward seismic force. The terminology of "net upward
seismic force" is intended to specify that gravity load effects cannot be
considered to reduce the effects of the vertical seismi c forces and that the
beam must have the strength to resist the actions caused by this net upward
force without consideration of any dead loads. This force is computed as
0.2 times the dead load
qs = - 0.2WD = - 0.2(200) = - 40 plf §12.4.2.2
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EKample J1 " Vertical Seismic Load Effect
Beam end reactions for upward force of 40 plf
v,J = qEl! = 40 plf(lO ft) = 400 lb
M.4= qe ; = 4 0 ~ 0 ) 2 = 2000 lb/ft
The beam must have strengths .pll;, and .pM. to resist these actions, and the
actions due to the applicable gravity load combinations.
§12.4.2.2
20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol.J 123
§11.4.5 Example 32 • Design Response Spectrum
I
Exampl e 32
. ",
'!.esign Response Spectrum §11.4.5
I
Determine the general design response spectrum for a site where the followi ng
spectra l response acceleration parameters have been evaluated according to the general
procedure of §11 .4.
SDS= 0.45g
SOl = 0.28g
T
L
= 8 sec
[!J Determine design response spectrum
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Section I J.4.5 provides the equations for the 5-percent damped acceleration response
spectrum Safor the period T intervals of
'Calculations andDiscussion
os T::: To, and T> T,
Toand T, arc calculated as
---""- = 0.2(0.28) = O. I2 sec
0.45
T, = S DI = 0.28 = 0.62 sec
S DS 0.45
124 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Code Reference
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Exampl e 32 " Design Response Spectrum
The spectral accelerations are calculated as
1. For the interval 0:::: T:::: To
Sa =0.6 SDST+ OASDS
T"
= 0.6 (0.45
g
) T + 0.4(OA5g)
0.12
= [2.25T +0.18]g
2. For To < T:::: r.
Sa = SDS = 0.45g
3. For r. < T:::: TL
§11.4.5
(Eq 11 .4-5)
S
- SOl _ 0.28
a - - ---g
T T
4. For T ~ T
L
s - S TL _ 2.24g
a - DI
T2
- ~
nsc Eq 16-21)
From this information the elastic design response spectrum for the site can be drawn as
shown in Figure 33.1 below, per Figure 11.4-1, in ASCE/SEI 7-05
So
0.45g
0.28g
0.18g
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: I T _ _ __ ~ L _
To=0.12 sec Ts =0.62 s ec 1.0
'--_--'- .1...-_-4- .1..----. T(sec)
TL= 8 sec
Figure 33. 1 Elastic response spectrum
2006 IBC Structur al/Seis mi c Design Manual, Vol . , 125
This example illustrates the determination of design lateral forces for the two basic
elements of a dual system. §12.2.5.1 prescribes the following features for a dual system.
§12.2.5.1 . example 33 II Dual Systems
§ 12.2.5. 1
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In present practice, the frame element design loads for a dual system are usually a
result of a computer analysis of the combined frame-shear wall system.
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Moment frame
Point A
~ V=400kips
I. Resistance to lateral load is provided by the combination of the moment frames and by
shear walls or braced frames. Recall that the moment-resisting frames provided must be
able to resist at least 25 percent of the design forces.
2. The two systems are designed to resist the total design base shear in proportion to
their relative rigidities.
Design Base Shear
V = 400 kips
QE = MQE = 53.0 kip-ft
In this example, the Equivalent Lateral-Foree-Procedure of §12.8 has been used to determine
the seismic demand QE at point A in the dual system of the building shown below.
This is the beam moment MQE . Shear wall
The following information is given.
Determine the following for the moment frame system.
Seismic Design Category D
p = 1.0
J = 1.0
From the results of the computer analysis
LV shear walls = 355 kips
L Vcolumns = 45
Total design base shear = 400 kips
[!J Design criteria
[!J Seismic design moment at A = M'QE
126 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
OJ Design criteria
According to the two listed requirements, the moment frame must be designed for the
greater value of either the Q
E
value due to the design base shear V loading on the
combined frame - shear wall system, or the value resulting from at least 25 percent
of the design forces. This 25-percent requirement may be interpreted in two ways.
CodeReference
1
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:Calculations andDiscussion
Example 33 • Dual Systems §12.2.5. 1
J
may be found by an equivalent lateral-force analysis of the independent
moment frame using 25 percent of the design base shear V.
may be found by factoring the combined frame-shear wall system
value such that corresponds to the action that would occur if the portion
of the base shear resisted by the moment frame VFwere to be at least equal to 25
percent of the design base shear V.
Seismic Design Moment at A = M'QE
It is elected to use the factored QE (opti on b) listed above, because this procedure includes
the interaction effects between the frame and the shear wall
From the combined frame-shear wall analysis with forces due to the design base shear
V=400 kips, the portion VFofthe base shear resisted by the moment-frame is equal
to the sum of the first story frame column shears in the direction ofl oading. For this
example, assume that
The required values QEcorresponding to a frame base shear resistance equal to 25
percent of V is given by
and the seismic design moment at A is
= (53.0) = 117.8 kip-ft
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 127
§12.2 .5. 1
;
.Comrriel1Jary
Example 33 • Du al Syst ems
I
Use of a dual system has the advantage of providing the structure with an independent
vertical load-carrying system capable of resisting 25 percent of the design base shear, while
at the same time the primary system, either shear wall or braced frame, carries its
proportio nal share of the design base shear. For this configuration, the code permi ts use of a
larger R value for the primary system than would be permitted without the 25-percent frame
system.
Design Criterion la involving the design of the moment frame independent from the shear
wall or bracing system for 25 percent of the design base shear should be considered for high-
rise buildings. The slender configuration of the shear walls or bracing systems can actually
load the moment frame at the upper levels of the combined model, and excessively large
moment frame design actions would result from the use of Design Criterion Ib, where these
. ld b I . I' db O.25V
large aclions wou e mu lip ie y - -
V
F
128 2006 1BC Strucrural/Selsmic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One- Story Wall Panels §12.11
xa Ie 34
eteret orees for'Olle-Star all Panels 12.11
This example illustrates the determi nation of the total design lateral seismic force
on a tilt-up wall panel supported at its base and at the roof diaphragm level. Note that the
panel is a bearing wall and shear wall.
For the tilt-up wall panel shown bel ow, determine the out-of-plane sei smi c forces
required for the design of the wall section. This is usually done for a representative
1-foot width of the wall length, assuming a uniformly distributed out-of-plane
loading.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
I = 1.0
SDS= l.Og
Panel thickness = 8 inches
Normal weight concrete ( 150 pet)
Determine the followi ng.
Till-Up panel
Top of parapet
4'
Roof
20'
Ground
[!J Out-of-plane force for wall panel design
~ Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design
~ Loading, shear and moment diagrams for parapet design
:Calculafions andDiscussion
[!J Out-of-pl ane force for wall panel design
Under §12. I 1.1, the design lat eral loading is determined using
F
p
= 0.40 SDsIw
p
~ 0.1 w
p
where w
p
is the weight of the wal l.
Code Reference
§12.11
Per §12.1 1.2, the force must be taken as no less than 400 lb/ft SDsI, nor less than 280 Iblft
2006 IBC Str uctural/Seis mic Design Manual, Vol. I 129
§12.11 Ex ample 34 :I Lat eral Forces for One-Story Wall Panels
Note that if the diaphragm is flexible, §12.l1.2. 1 requires the anchorage force (but not the
wall force) to be increased.
The force F
p
is considered to be applied at the mid-height (centroid) of the panel, but
this must be uniformly distributed between the base and the.top of parapet.
For the given SDS = 1.0 and J = 1.0, the wall panel seismi c force is
F
p
= OAO(1. 0)(1.0)w = OAOw
The weight of the panel between the base and the top of the parapet is
w\\' = L ~ ) (150) (24) = 2400 lb per foot of width
F
p
= 0040 (2400) = 950 Ib/ft
F
p
> 400 lb/ft SDsI = 400( 1)(1) = 400 lb/ft
F
p
> 280 lb/ft
The force F
p
is the total force on the panel. It acts at the centroid. For design of the
panel for out-of-plane forces, F
p
must be expressed as a distributed load,(p
r = 960 Ib/ft =40.0 lflft
JP 24 ft P
~ Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design
Using the uniformly distributed load,(p, the loading, shear, and moment diagrams are
determined for a unit width of panel. The 40.0 plf/ft uniform loading is also applied to
the parapet. See step 3, below, for the parapet design load.
40.0 plllft
4'
RR
20'
Rs
Loading
384
Shear (Ib/ft)
·3 20
Moment Ib-ftIft
1843
130 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One· Stoi"y Wall Panels §12.11
When the uniform load is also applied to the parapet, the total force on the panel is
40.0 plf/ft (24 ft) = 960 lb
ft
The reaction at the roof and base are calculated as
RR= 960(12) = 576 Ib/ft
20
RR =960 - 576 =385 lb/ft
The shears and moments are the QEload actions for strength design. Note that the reaction
at the roof RR is not necessarily the face used for wall-to-roof anchorage design, see
rsc §1620.2.1.
~ Loading, shear and moment diagrams for parapet design §13.3.1
This section requires that the desi gn force for parapets (note that parapets are classified as
architectural components) be determined by Equation 13.3-1 with the Table 13.5-1 values of
a
p
= 2.5 and R
p
= 2.5
for the unbraced cant ilever parapet portion of the wall panel.
The parapet is considered an element with an attachment elevation at the rooflevel
z=h
T 13.5-1
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The weight of the parapet is
Wp = ( 1 ~ ) ( 1 5 0 ) ( 4 ) =400 lb per foot of width
The concentrated force applied at the mid-height (centroid) of the parapet is
F = 0.4(2.5)(1.0)(1.0) (1 +2 20)w
p 2.5 20 p
F
p
= 1.2W
p
= 1.2 (400) = 480 lb/ft < 1.6 SDsIpW
p
= 640 lb/f] . . . o.k.
and > 0.3 SDslpWp. . . o.k.
(Eq 13.3-1)
(Eq 13.3-2)
(Eq 13.3-3)
2006 la c Struct ural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 131
§12.11 Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One-Story Wall Panels
The equivalent uniform seismic force is
h = 480 = 120 plf/ft for parapet design
4
120 plrJft
4'
Loading
480
Shear (Ib/ft)
-960
Moment (lb-fUft)
••f I ..... .
.,.
'I
Note that for a large portion ofthe lower south-east region of the USA (Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana,
Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida) the minimum wind forces may govern over the seismic
forces.
132 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Exampl e 35 • Out-of-Plan e Seismic Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel §12. 11. 1
§12.11.2
Example 35 Out-of-Plane Seismic
!Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel §12_11.1 and 12.11.2
This example illustrates determination of out-of-plane seismic forces for the design
of the two-story tilt-up wall panel shown below. A typical solid panel (no door or window
openings) is assumed. Walls span from floor to floor to roof. The typica l wall panel in this
building has no pilasters and the tilt-up wall s are bearing walls. The roof consists of 1-1/2-
inch, 20-gage metal decking on open web steel joists and has been determined to be a
flexible diaphragm. The second floor consists of I-inch, I S-gage composite decking with a 2-
II2-inch lightweight conc rete topping. This is considered a rigid diaphr agm.
The followi ng information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
SDS = 1.0
J = 1.0
Wall weight = WI/' = 113 psf
38'
Wall
panel
2'
20'
Wan section
16'
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Determine the following.
[L] Out-of-plane forces for wall panel design
[3J Out-of-plane forces for wall anchorage design
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
[L] Out-of-plane forces for wall panel design §12.11.1
Requirements for out-of-plane seismic forces are speci fied in §1620.1.7
r, = 0040 Soslw; 2: 0.111'",
= OAO( 1.0)( 1.0)11'", = OAOw", = OAO( 113)
= 45.2 psf
2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual, Vol. I 133
§12. 11.1
§12. 11.2
Examp l e 35 " Out-of-Plane Seismic Forces for Two-St ory Wall Panel
For a representative 1-foot-wide strip of wall length, F
p
is appl ied as a uniform load
/p=Fp( I ft) =45.2 plf
~
2'
...
~
r
~
~
~
~
20'
~
~
~
~
~
~
16'
....
~
....
....
~
For the purpose of wall design, the required shears and moments may be evaluated
by using reaction values based on the tri butary area for the l-ft strip
(
16 ft ) 1"
R1 - 2-YP=8(45.2) = 362 1b
R, [C:) +(2;)}';' ~ 18(45.2) ~ 814 Ib
Note that the 2-foot-high parapet must be des igned for the seismic force F
p
specified
in §13.3.1, with hei ght z at parapet centroid 37 ft, G
p
= 2.5 and R
p
=2.5
~ Out-at-plane torces tor wall anchorage design
[!;] Anchorage force for the flexible roof diaphragm
r, = 0.8 8
D
s/wl\'
where Ww is the weight of the wall tributary to the anchor
w , , ~ [( 2 ~ ft) +2ft](1 13 psf) ~ 1356 pl f
F
p
= 0. 8( 1.0)( 1.0)(1356) = 1085 pl f
§12.11.2.1
(Eq 12.11-1)
The design force per anchor is F
p
times the anchor spacing. For example
if the spacing is at 4 feet, the anchor mus t be designed for (1085) (4 ft) = 4340 lb.
134 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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35 " Out·of·Plane Solsmic Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel
Anchorage force for the rigid second floor diaphragm .
For the case of rigid diaphragms the anchorage force is given by the greater
of the following:
a. The force set forth in §12.11.1.
b. A force of 400 SDsI (pit).
c. 280 (pit) of wall.
§12.11.1
§12. 11. 2
§12.11.2
)
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z = 16 ft = the height of the anchorage of the rigid diaphragm attachment,
and W
p
is the weight of the wall tributary to the anchor
Wp = ft) +C
6
2
fl
)](113 pst) = 2034 plf
F = 0.4(1.0)(1.0)(1.0) [I + 2 (.!i)] IV
p 2.5 36 p
= 0.302W
p
= 0.302(2034) = 615 plf
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 135
§12.11.1
§12.11.2
Commentary
Example 35 • Out-at-Plane Seismic Forces for Two·Story Wall Panel
1
For flexible or rigid diaphr agms for all seismic design categories (SDCs), the seismic out-of-
plane forces for the design of the wall are not dependent on the height of the wall in
relati onship to the total height of the building, §12.11.
For flexible diaphragms of SDCs A and B, the seismic anchorage forces are given in
§12.11.2 and for SDCs C, D, E, and F, the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.11.2.1.
For rigid diaphragms of SDCs A and B, the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.11.2.
For rigid diaphragms of SDCs C, D, E, and F, the seismic anchorage forces are given in
§12.11.2.
136 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 36 • RIgid Equipment §13. 3. 1
Example 36
Rigid Equipmen §13.3.1
Thi s example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments
of rigid equipment (see commentary). Att achment, as used in the code, means those
components, including anchorage, bracing, and support mountings, that "attach" the
equipment to the structure.
The three-story building structure shown below has rigid electrical equipment supported
on nonductile porcelain insulators that provide anchorage to the structure. Identical
equi pment is located at the base and at the roof of the building.
2
12'
W
p
allachmenls-
shallow expansion anchors
Roof .....
Level
5 DS = 1.1
I
p
= 1.0
W
p
= 10 kips
Seismic Design Category D
12'
12'
Find the following.
[!J Design criteria
Design lateral seismic force at base
Design lateral seismic force at roof
and Discussion Code Reference
[!J Design criteria §13.3-1
The total design lateral seismic component force to be transferred to the structure
is determined from
(Eq 13.3-1)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manua l, Vol. I 137
§13.3.1 Exampl e 36 • Rigid Equipment
Values of Q
p
and R
p
are given in Table 13.6-1. Also note that for shallow
expansion anchors R
p
= 1.5, see §13.4.2.
~ Design lateral seismic force at base
Zx =0
F = 0.4(1.0)(1.1)(1
0
kips) [1+2 ( ~ ) ] =2.93 ki s
p (1.5/1.0) 36 P
Also §13.3. 1 has a requi rementthat F
p
be not less than 0.3 SDS Jp W
p
Check r, s 0.3 SDs l p W
p
= 0.3 (1. 1) (1. 0) 10 = 3.3 kips
: . F
p
= 3.3 kips . . . Equation 13.3-3 governs
~ Design lateral seismic force at roof
Zx = h; = 36 ft
F = 0.4(1 .0)(1.1)(1
0
kips) [1+ 2 (36)] =8.8 ki s
p (1.5/1.0) 36 P
Section 13.3.1 states that F
p
need not exceed 1.6 SDS J
p
W
p
Check F
p
S 1.6 SDS I
p
W
p
= 1.6 (1.1) (1.0) 10 = 17.6 kips
:. F
p
= 8.8 kips ... Equation 16-67 governs.
pommentary
T 13.6-1
§13.3-1
(Eq 13.3-3)
(Eq 13.3-2)
The definition of a rigid component (e.g. , item of equipment) is given in §11.2. Rigid
equipment (including its attachments; anchorages, bracing, and support mountings)
that has a period less than or equal to 0.06 seconds.
138 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 36 • Rigid Equipment §13.3 .1
The fundamental period T
p
for mechanical and electrical equipment shall be determined by
the formula given in §13.6.2
(Eq 13.6-1)
I
Where:
g = acceleration of gravity in inches/sec/
K
p
= stiffness of resilient support system
T
p
= component fundamental period
IV
p
= component operating weight
The component anchorage design force F
p
(i.e., the force in the connected part)
is a function of l/R
p
, where R
p
= 1.5 for shallow anchors, (see §13.4.2).
Generally, only equipment such as anchorage or attachments or components need be
designed for seismic forces. This is discussed in §13.1.4. Where equipment, which can be
either flexible or rigid, comes mounted on a supporting frame that is part of the manufactured
unit, the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of §13.
Note that §13.2.5 allows testing as an alternative to the analytical methods of §13. Testing
should comply with ICC-ES ACI56.
Section 13.1.3 requires a component importance factor greater than 1.0 (lp = 1.5) for the following.
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Life safety component required to function after an earthquake
Components of hazardous materials
Occupancy Category IV component s needed for continued operation of the facility
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 139
§ 13.3.1 Ex ampl e 37 " Flexible Equipment
§ 13.3. 1
This example illustrates determinati on of the design seismic force for the attachments
of flexible equipment, see commentary. Attachment as used in the code means those
components, including anchorage, bracing, and support mountings, that "attach" the
equipment to the structure.
The three-story building structure shown below has flexible air-handling equipment
supported by a ductile anchorage system. Anchor bolts in the floor slab meet the
embedment length requirements. Identical equipment is located at the base and at
the roof of the bui lding.
12'
12'
achmenls
Level

Roof
2
1

/ / / , / / / / /
SDS= 1. I
I
p
= 1.0
W; = 10 kips
Seismic Design Category D
Find the following.
[!J Design criteria
Design lateral seismic force at base
Design lateral seismic force at roof
'Calculations andDiscussion Code Reference
[!J Design criteria §13.3.1
The total design lateral seismic component force to be transferred to the structure is
determined from
CEq 13.3-1)
140 2006 IBC St r uct ural/Seis mi c Design Manual , Vol . I
Exampl e 37 • Flexible Equipment § 13.3. 1
Values of a
p
and R
p
are given in Tabl e 13.6-1. Since the equipment is flexible and
has limit ed defonnability elements and attachments
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a
p
= 2.5, R
p
= 2.5
~ Design lateral seismic force at base
z = 0
F = 0.4(2.5)(1.1)(10 kips) [I +2 ~ ] =4.4 ki s
p (2.5/1.0) 36 p
Section 13.3. 1 has a requirement that Fp be not less than 0.3 SvslpWp
Chec k r, ~ 0.3 SvslpWp= 0. 3( 1.1)( 1.0)( 10) = 3.3 kips
: . F
p
= 4.4 kips . .. Eq 13.3- 1 governs .
~ Design lateral seismic force at roof
z = h = 36 ft
F = 0.4(2.5)(1.1)(1
0
kips) [I + 2 36] = 13.2 ki 5
p (2.5/1.0) 36 p
Sect ion 13.3.1 states that Fp need not exceed 1.6 Sos JpWp
Check F
p
:s 1.6 SvsWp = 1.6( 1.1)(10) = 17.6 kips
: . F
p
= 13.2 kips ... Eq 13.3-1 governs.
T 13.6-1
(Eq 13.3-3)
CEq 13.3- 2)
20061BC Structural /Se ismic Design Manual , Vol. / 141
§13.3.1 Example 37 • Flexible Equipment
1
'commentary
A component importance factor greater than 1.0 (Ip = 1.5) is required for the following.
Also note that §13.2.1 requires that, "Architectural, mechanical, and electrical components
supports and attachments shall comply with the sections referenced in Table 13.2-1."
It should be noted that the component anchorage design force, F
p
(i.e., the force in the
connected part), is a function of l/R
p
, where anchorage of any kind is shallow (see §13.4.2).
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Life safety component required to function after an earthquake
Components of hazardous materials
Occupancy Category IV components needed for continued operation of the facility



The definition of flexible equipment is given in §11 .2. Flexible equipment (including its
attachments anchorages, bracing, and support mountings), has a period greater than 0.06
second.
Generally, only equipment anchorage or components need be designed for seismic forces.
Where the equipment, which can be either flexible or rigid, comes mounted on a supporting
frame that is part of the manufactured unit, then the supporting frame must also meet the
seismic design requirements of §13.3.
Those architectural, mechanical, and electrical systems and their components that are part of
a designated seismic system, as defined in §13.2.1, shall be qualified by either test or
calculation. A certificate of compliance shall be submitted to both the registered design
professional in responsible charge of the design of the designated seismic system and the
building official for review and approval. ICC ES has published Acceptance Criteria (AC
156) that addresses the qualification test to satisfy the referenced code requirements.
142 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Example 38 II Relative Motion of Eq uipment Attachments
Exa o11J Ie 38
e a i ve otion 0 S uipment ttachments
§13.3.2
13.3.2
Section 13.3.2 requires that the design of equipment attachments in buildings have the
effects of the relative displacement of attachment points considered in the lateral force
design. Thi s example illustrates appl ication ofthis requirement.
A unique control panel frame is attached to the floor framing at Levels 2 and 3
of the special steel moment frame building shown below.
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
Occupancy Category II,
(}xAe = I.OR in
b
yAe
0.72 in
R = 8.0
Cd = 5.5
6
a
A = O.015hx
Panel frame: EI = lOx 10
4
kip-in'
Determi ne the following:
Level
4
, ~ r"",
12'
3
12'
s.,
2
Level v
12'
1
. .
12'
Deflected
-Y..
shape
Code Reference
~ Story drift to be considered
~ Induced moment and shear in frame
Calculations and Discussion
~ Story drift to be considered
Section 13.3.2 requires that equipment attachments be designed for effects induced by
D
p
(relative seismic displacement). This is determined as follows.
whe re
D
p
= b
xA
- b
yA
= 1.98 in
b
xA
= bx,.w Cd = 5.94 in
b
xAe
=1.08 in
C d = 5.50
Governs (Eq 13.3-5)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 143
§13.3.2 Example 38 • Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments
6.1'..1('= 0.72 in
Cd =5.50
Note that D
p
is not required to be taken as greater than
!1 6.48
= (x - y) ---E.t.L = (432 - 288) - = 2.26
h
n
432
where
x = 36 ft x 12= 432 in
y =24ftxI2=288in
!1
a
:l = 0.015 h« = 0.015 (432) = 6.48 in
h
sx
=36 ft x 12=432 in
Thus: D
p
=1.98 in
~ Induced moment and shear in frame
(Eq 13.3-6)
§13.3.2
A liberal estimate of the moment and shear can be made using the following equations.
2M
v=-
H
M
v
_ 6EIDp _ 6(10x 10
4
)(1.98) - 5792 ki .
- H2 - (144)2 - . Ip-m
- 2M _ 57,29 - 0795 ki
- - - --- . ipS
H 72
Dp
l<--tf
M ~ ( ~ _
: H
I
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I M
v ... ~
6EID
M=--P
H
2
The attachment details, including the body and anchorage of connectors, should follow the
applicable requirements of §13.4. For example, if the anchorage is provided by shallow
anchor bolts, then R
p
= 1.5.
When anchorage is constructed of nonductile materials, R
p
= 1.0. One example of a
nonductile anchorage is the use of adhesive. Adhesive is a "glued" attachment (e.g.,
attachment of pedestal legs for a raised computer floor). It should be noted that attachment by
adhesive is not the same as anchor bolts set in a drilled hole with an epoxy type adhesive.
144 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 39 • Deformation Compatibility for Sei smic Design Cat egor i es D, E, and F § 12. 12. 4
J
.1:iiample 39 Deformation Compatibility for
:Seis..mic Design Categories 0 , E, andF
- ".
§12. 12.4
A two-level concrete parking struct ure has the space frame shown below. The
designated lateral-force-resist ing system consists of a two-bay speci al rein forced
concrete moment- frame (SRCMF) located on each side of the structure. The second-
level gravity load-beari ng system is a post-tensioned flat plate slab supported on
ordinary reinforced concrete columns,
fffff
0 - ~ ~ =
0-
Plan at second level
[!J Moment in ordinary column
~ Detailing requirements for ordinary column
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The foll owing information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
li
xc
= 0.57 in
R = 8.0
Cd = 5.5
Column section = 12 in x 12 in
Column clear height = 12 ft
Concrete E; = 3 x 10J ksi
1 = 1.25
Find the following.
f f ?
'- SRCMF ~
r:l l J"jV
Elevation L10e E
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 145
§12. 12.4 Example 39 • Deformation Compatibility for Sei smi c Design Cat egori es D, E. and F
1
[!J Moment in ordinary column §12.12.4
Section 2 1. JJ of ACI 318-05 specifies requirements for frame members that are not
part of the designated lateral forc e-resisting system. The ordinary columns located
in the perimeter frames, and the interior flat plate/column system, fall under these
requirements and must be checked for the moments induced by the maximum
inelastic response displacement. For this example, the columns on line E wi ll be
evaluated.
~
;.. t;alcula.t!ons andDiscussion CodeReference
I
I
= ei
l
" = 5.5(0.57) = 2.51 in
I 1.25
(Eq 12.8-15)
J
The moment induced in the ordinary column due to the maximum inelastic response
displacement Oxon line E must be determined.
For purposes of this example, a fixed-fixed condition is used for simplicity. In actual
applications, column moment is usually determined from a frame analysis.
The cracked section moment of inertia Ie can be approximated as 50 percent of the
gross section 19 . Section 21.11 of ACI 318-05 impl ies that the stiffness of elements that
are part of the lateral-foree-resisting system shall be reduced - a common approach is to
use one half of the gross section properties. This requirement also applies to elements
that are not part of the lateral-foree-resisting system,
1
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= bd
3
= 12 (12) 3 = 1728 in
4
12 12
=12 ft x 12 inches = 144 in
I . 4
=.s. =864 In
2
= 6(3 x 10
3
)(864 )(2.51) = 1883 kip-in
(144)2
h
M eol
Detailing requirements for ordinary column.
Section 21.11.1 ofACI 318-05 requires that frame members, such as the col umn, that are
assumed not to be part of the late ral-foree-resisting system must be det ailed according to
ACI §2 1. 11.2 or §21.11.3, depending on the magnitude of the moments induced by ox.
200 6 IBC Structural/ Seismi c Design Manual , Vol. I 146
E ~ a m p l e 39 " Deformation Compatibility i or Seismic Design Categories D, E. and F
Gommentary
§12.12.4
1
1
In actual applications, the flat plate slab must be checked for flexure and punching shear due
to gravity loads and the frame analysis actions induced by ox.
Note that this example problem shows only one way to configure this structure - that is to
combine a ductile SRCMRF with an ordinary, or non-ductile, interior column. ACI
requirements for this configuration stress that the non-duc tile interior column must resist the
structure lateral deformation by strength alone.
However, the code also permits an alternative way to configure this structure - by combining
the ductile SRCMRF with ductile interior columns. In this configuration, if interior concrete
columns are detailed according to the requirements of ACI 3I8 §21. 11.3, then design
moments resulting from lateral structure seismic displacements need not be calculated for
that column at all.
2006 (BC Structural/Seismi c Design Manual, Vo/./ 147
§ 12. 7.4 EXllmpl e 40 • Adj oi ning Rigid El ement s
1
Example 40
Adj oining !}ligid Elements §12.7.4
The concrete special reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame (SRCMF) shown below is
restrained by the partial height infill wall that is not considered to be a part ofthe seismic
force-resisting system. The infill is solid masonry and has no provision for an expansion joint
at the col umn faces. The design story drift t; was computed accordi ng to the procedure given
in §12.8.6.
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[::LJ Deformation compatibility criteria
~ Approximate column shear
[::LJ Deformation compatibility criteria §12.7.4
The infi ll wall, which is not required by the design to be part of the lateral-force-resisting
system, is an adjoining rigid element. Under §12.7.4, it must be shown that the adjoining
rigi d element, in this case the masonry infill wall, must not impair the vertical- or lateral-
load-resis ting abil ity of the SRCMF columns. Thus, the columns must be checked for
ability to withsta nd the t; displacement of 2.5 inches whi le being simultaneously restrained
by the 6-foot-high infill walls.
Seismic Design Category D
t; =2.5 in
Column properties
f: =3000 psi
E, = 3 x 10
3
ksi
A
c
= 144 in
4
t, =854 in
4
Determine the following.
Calculations and Discussion
Inrlll wall
Typical elevation
Code Reference
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148 2006 IBC St r uctural/ Se ismic Desi gn Manual, Vol . I
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Example 40 • Adjoining Rigid Elements §1'.7.4
[f] Approximat e column shear
Column shear will be determined from the frame design story drift, 1:>. . For purposes
of the example, the expression for shear due to a fixed-fixed condition will be used for
simpli city. Also note the restrained column height is 6 ft or 72 inches.
v = l2E,Ill. = 12(3 x 10
3)(854)(2
.5) = 205.9 ki s
col 11 3 (72)3 P
Column clear height = 72 in
Because the SRCMF is the primary lateral-foree-resisting system, I:>. has been determined
by neglecting the stiffness of the rigid masonry.
The induced column shear stress is '1;,., = 1447 psi . This is approximately 26ff:
A
c
and would result in column shear failure. Therefore, a gap must be provided between the
column faces and the infill walls. Alternately, it would be necessary to either design the
column for the induced shears and moments caused by the infill wall, or demonstrate that
the wall will fail before the column is damaged. Generally, it is far easier (and more reliabl e)
to provide a gap sufficiently wide to accommodate 1:>. .
For this example, with the restraining wall height equal to one half the column height, the
gap should be greater than or equal to 1:>. /2 = 1.25 in. If this were provided, the col umn
clear height would be 144 inches, with resulting column shear
, 12(3 x 10
3)(854
)(2.5) 25 7 ki Thi . h h f h . d I
V I = 3 = . IpS. IS IS one-erg tot e restrame co umn
c" (144)
shear of205 kips, and corresponds to a column shear stress of approximately 3.3-JJ:.
,Commentary
It is also possible that the restraint of the infill walls could cause an irregularity, such as a
building torsional irregularity. This should be evaluated if such restraints are present.
2006 IBC Struc tural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. t 149
§13.5.3 Exa mple 41 • Exter io r Elements: Wall Panel
This example illustrates the determinat ion of the design lateral seismic forc e F
p
on an ext erior element of a bui lding, in this case an ext erior wall panel.
A five-story moment frame building is shown below. The cladding on the exterior
of the building consists of precast reinforced concret e wall panels.
§13.5.3
The following information is given.
Level
5
Seismic Design Category D
12'
4 Typical
I = 1.0
exlerior
SDS= 1.0
12'
panel
Panel size: I I ft 11 in by 19 ft 11 in 3
Panel thickness: 6in
12'
Panel weight: W
p
= 14.4 kips
2
12'
12'
Find the following.
[!J Design criteria
[I] Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story
@J Design lateral seismi c force on a panel at the first story
Cijlculations and Discussion
[!J Design criteria
Code Reference
§13.5.3
For design of ext erior elements, such as the wall panels on a building, that are
attached to the building at two levels, design lateral seismic forc es are determined
from Equation 13.3-4. The panels are attached at the two elevations ZL and z., '
The intent of the code is to provide a val ue of F
p
that represents the average of the
acceleration inputs from the two attachment locations. This can be taken as the average
of the two ~ } values at z equal to ZL and z".
150 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
1
Example 41 • Exterior Elements: Wall Panel
O.4n S I [ , ]
= P OS J' 1+ 2'::- ~ , > 0.3 SDslpW
R
p
11
= 1.0, R
p
= 2.5
§13. S.3
(Eq 13.3-1)
T 13.5- 1
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~ Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story
Assuming connections are I foot above and below the nominal 12-foot panel height
Z" =47 ft
ZL = 37 ft
11 = ft
= 0.4(1.0)(1.0)(1.0) [I +2(47)] 11' =0.4 11W
2.5 60 p P
F = 0.4(1.0)(1.0)(1.0) [I+2(37)] W = 0.357 W:
pL 2.5 60 p P
F p ~ = Fpu + FpL = (0.411 +0.357) w
2 2 p
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F p ~ = 0.384W
p
= (0.384)(14.4) = 5.53 kips
Check: Fp4 > 0.3 SDslpH' p =0.3( 1.0)(1.0)W
p
=0.3Wp . . . o.k.
Check: Fp4 ~ 1.6 SDslpWp =1.6(1.0)(1.0)W
p
= 1. 6Wp. . . o.k.
~ Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the first story
The following are known.
Z" =Ilft
ZL = 0
h =60 ft
(Eq 13.3-3)
(Eq 13.3-2)
2006 IBC Structu r al/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 151
§13.5.3 Example 41 • Exter ior Elemen ts: Wall Panel
F
pu
= 0.4( 1.0)(1.0)(1. 0) [I + 2 ( ~ ) ] W = 0.219if':
2.5 2.5 60 p p
Check that Fpu is greater than 0.3 SvsIpWp
Fpu = 0.3(1.0)(1.0)Wp= 0.30Wp . . . not o.k.
Also F
pL
< Fpu < 0.30TVp
: . use FpL= Fpu= O. 30TVp
Fpl = F
pu
+ F
pL
=0.30W
p
=(0.30)(14.4) = 4.32 kips
2
1
1
1
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(:ommentary
Note that the design of the panel may be controlled by non-seismic load conditions of the
fabrication process, transportation, and installation. Also note that the forces induced by
displacement D
p
from Equation 13.3-5 need to be checked per §13.3.2.1.
152 2006 IBC Structural/Seismi c Design Manual, Vol. I
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Ex ample 42 Q Ex terior Nonstructural Wall El ements: Precast Panel §13.5.3
xample42
Exterior ons ruc turei all Elements: reces Panel §13.5.3
This example illustrates the det ermination of the total design seismi c lateral force for the
design of the conne ctions of an exterior wall panel to a building.
An exterior nonbearing panel is located at the fourth story of a five-story moment frame
building. The panel support system is shown below, where the pair of upper brackets must
prov ide resistance to out-of-plane wind and seismic forces and in-plane vertical and
horizontal forces. The panel is supported vertically from these bracket s. The lower pair of
rod connections provides resistance to only the out-of-pl ane forces.
Seismic Design Category 0
SDS = 1.0
f
p
= 1.0
fi = 0.5
Height to roof, h = 60 ft
Panel weight = 14.4 kips
P = 1.0per §12.3.4.1(3).
Panel live load, L = 0
Find the following.
[!.J Strength design load combinations
Lateral seismic force at center-of-mass C of panel
Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and connections
@J Design forces for the brackets
Design forces for the rods
12'
-
and Dis_cussifJn Code
[!.J Strength design load combinations §2.3.2
For desi gn of the panel connections to the building, the applicable strength design
load combinations are
2006 IBC Structural/Se ismi c Des ign Manual, Vol. I 153
§1J.5.J Example 42 • Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel
J
a) 1.2D + 1.0E + )1" L = I.2D + 1.0E (Comb. 5)
where, with E = pQ£+ 0.2 SDSD (Eq 12A-I)
I
= 1.0Q£ + 0.2(1.0)D
= Q£ +0.2D
As SDS = 1.0g, the equation reduces to
lAD + Q£, for Q£ and D with same signs and type of load action.
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b) 0.9D + 1.0£ (Comb. 7)
with E = pQ£ + 0.2 SsoD (Eq 12A-I )
= Q£ +0.2D
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154 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
In the seismic load combinations, Q£ is the load action on the connection due to
the lateral load F
p
applied either in-plane or out-of-plane at the panel center-of-mass
per §13.3.
This combination need not be considered because the rod connections resi st only the Q£
axial load, and the bracket connections have shear resistance capacity independent of the
direction of the Q£ shear load: for example, upward resistance is equal to downward
resistance. Therefore, this load combination is satisfied by lAD + Q£ for Q£ and D with
the same signs.
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(Comb. 7)
(Eq 12A-2)
l.lD + Q£ , for Q£ and D with same signs.
0.70D + Q£, for Q£ and D with opposite signs.
This combination need not be considered since it is less than lAD+ Q£.
with E = pQ£ - 0.2 SsoD
c) 0.9D + 1.0Q£
As Sos = 1.0g, the equation reduces to
As SDS = LOg, the equati on reduces to
I
Example 42 • Exteri or Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precasl Panel §13. 5. 3
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~ Lateral seismic force at center-of -mass C of panel
Section 13.5.3, Item d., requires that the connection seismic load actions be determined by
the force F
p
given by §13.3.1 applied to the center-of-mass of the wall panel. The values of
R
p
and op are given in Table 13.5- 1 for the body and fasteners of the connection elements.
To represent the average seismic acceleration on the panel, F
p
will be determined as the
average of the F
p
values for the upper bracket elevat ion level, z,,, and for the lower rod
elevation elevati ons, ZL. For the higher story levels of the building, this average F
p
would be essentially equal to the F
p
value using Z = z, at the panel center-of-mass elevation.
However, this use of elevations z = Zc may not be valid for the lower story levels because
of the limitation of
(Eq 13.3-3)
With the given values of Sos = 1.0, and I
p
=1.0
O.4opSDs
l
p
( z)
F = 1+ 2- IV
p n, 11 p
(Eq 13.3-1)
r, 2: 0.3 SosIpIVp = 0.3(1.0)( 1.0)IVp= 0.3W
p
(Eq 13.3-3)
Op = 1.0 and R
p
= 2.5, for body of connection T 13.5-1
= Zu = 47 ft
At lower rod connect ion level
IV
p
= weight panel = 14.4 kips
At upper bracket connection level
=ZL = 37 ft
= 0.4(1.0) [1 +2 (37)] If'
2.5 60 p
= 0.4 11 W
p
> 0.3 SosIpW
p
= 0.3W
p
.. . o.k.
z
F = 0.4(1.0) [I +2 (47)] IV
pU 2.5 60 p
1
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I
= 0.357 W
p
> 0.3 IV
p
• • • o.k.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismi c Design Manu al, Vol . I 155
Exampl e 42 • Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Panel §13.5.3
The required average, F
p
F
pu
+ F
pL
= (0.411 +0.357) w
2 2 I'
1
J
=0.384W
p
= 0.384(14.)
= 5.53 kips
This force is applied at the panel centroid C and acts horizontally in either the out-of-
plane or the in-plane direction.
There are two seismic load conditions to be considered: out-of-plane and in-plane .
These are shown below as concentrated forces , In this examp le, Combination 5 of §2.3.2,
1.2D + QE, is the controlling load combination,
~ Dea d load, seismic out-of-plane, and vertical seismic for ces
Panel connection reactions due to factored dead load, out-of-plane seismic forces,
and vertical seismic forces are calculated as follows:
2006 IBC Str uctural/S eismi c Design Manual, Vol . I
Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and connections
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§13.5.2
F
p
= 5.5 3 kips
.4 (14.4) =20.16 kips
g' ,
I.-
g' ,
.._.. _.._..- f- .•_ .. _ ••_ ••-J
-
I ~
5'
0 ~
,It
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5'
-
,
.._.._.._..- f- •. _ .. _ .. _ ..... t-
1.2W
p
+ O.2W
p
= 1.4W
p
= 1
where Pe is the bracket force and P
R
is the rod force.
Each bracket and rod connection takes the following axial load due to the
out-of-plane force F
p
at center-of-mass
Ps + PR = F
p
= 5.53 = 1.38 kips
4 4
156
1
Examplo 42 IR Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Panel §13.5.3
Each bracket takes the following downward in-plane shear force due to
vertical loads
I AW
p
20.16 .
VB = - - = --= 10.08 kips
2 2
Note that each rod, because it carries only axial forces, has no in-plane,
dead, or seismic loading.
~ Dead load, seismic in-plane, and vertical seismic forces
Panel connection reactions due to factored dead load, in-plane seismic
forces , and vertical seismic forces are calculated as
9' 9'
5'
c ,/
5'
1.4W,= 20.16 kips
F, = 5.53 kips
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Each bracket takes the following in-plane horizontal shear force due to lateral
seismic load
r, 5.53 ki
H
B
=- = - =2.77 IpS
2 2
Each bracket takes the following upward or downward shear force due to
the reversible lateral seismic load
F
- 5(Fp ) - 5(5.53) - I 54 ki
B - - - - - ± . IpS
18 18
Each bracket takes the following downward force due to vertical loads:
1.4W
p
20.16 .
RB = = --= 10.08 kips
2 2
Under the in-plane seismic loading, each rod carries no force.
20D6IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 157
§13.5.3 Example 42 • Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel
1
@J Design forces for the brackets
~ Body of connection
Under §13.5.3 and Table 13.5.1 the body of the connection must be designed for
Up = 1.0 and R
p
= 2.5. These are the up and R
p
values used for the determination of F
p
.
Therefore, there is no need to change the load actions due to this force.
The bracket must be designed to resist the following sets of load actions.
P
B
= ±1.38 axial load together with
VB = 10.08 kips downward shear
and
H
B
= ± 2.77 kips horizontal shear together with
F
B
+ RB= 1.54 + 10.08 =11.62 kips downward shear
~ Fasteners
Under §13.5.3, Item d., and Table 13.5.1, fasteners must be designed for
up = 1.25 and R
p
= 1.0. Thus, it is necessary to multiply the F
p
load actions by
( 1.25)(2.5) = 3. 125 because these values were based on a
p
= 1.0 and R
p
= 2.5.
Fasteners must be designed to resist
(3.125) P
B
= 3.125(1.38) = 4.31 kips axial load together with
VB = 10.08 kips downward shear
and
3.125HB= 3.125(2.77) = 8.66 kips horizontal shear together with
3. 125FB+ RB=3.125(1.54) + 10.08 = 14.89 kips downward shear
~ Design forces f or t he rods
~ Body of connection
The body of the connection must be designed to resist a force based on a
p
= 1.0
and R
p
= 2.5
P
R
= 1.39 kips axial load
158 20 06 I BC Structural/Seismic Desi gn Manua', Vol . I
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Exampl e 42 s Exter ior Nonst ructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel §13.5.3
[!J Fasteners
Fasteners in the connecting system must be des igned to resist a force based on
a
p
= 1.25 and R
p
= 1.0
(3. I25)PR= 3.125(1.38) = 4.31 kips axial load
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 159
§12.1.3 Example 43 • Beam Horizontal Tie Force
EXamp l e 43
'Beam Horizontal Tie Force §12. 1.3
This example illustrates use of the beam inter-connection requirement of §12.1.3.
The requirement is to ensure that important parts of a structure are "tied together."
Find the minimum required tie capacity for the connection between the two simple
beams shown in the example below,
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
SDS = 1.0
Dead Load D = 6 kip/ft
Live Load L = 4 kip/ft
Pin support "p"
p ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ k"
C o d ~ Reference
[!J Determine tie force
~ Determine horizontal support force at "P"
Calculations and Discussion
[!J Determine tie force
Requirements for ties and continuity are specified in §12,1.3. For this particular
example, it is required to determine the "tie force" for design of the horizontal tie
interconnecting the two simply supported beams. This force is designated as F
p
,
given by the greater value of
F
p
= 0.133 SDSW
p
or
F
p
= 0.05H'
p
where w
p
is the weight of the smaller (shorter) beam
W
p
= 40 ft (D) = 40(6) = 240 kips
160 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
1 For SDS = 1.0, the controll ing tie force is
F
p
= 0.133( 1.0)(240) = 31.9 kips
Example 43 • Beam Hori zontal Tie Force §12.1.3
~ Determine horizontal support force at "P"
Section 12.1.4 requires a horizontal support force for each beam equal to 5 percent of the
dead plus live load reacti on. Given a sliding bearing at the left support of the 40-foot beam,
the required design force at the pin support "P" is
I H=0.05(6 klf +4 kIf) ( ~ O ) =10 kips
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 161
§12.10.2 Example 44 • Collector Elements
§12.10.2
Collectors "collect" forces and carry them to vertical shear-resisting elements. Collectors are
sometimes called drag struts. The purpose of this example is to show the determination of the
maximum seismic force for design of collector elements. In the example below, a tilt-up
building, with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized wood roof, has a
partial interior shear wall on Line 2. A collector is necessary to "collect" the diaphragm loads
tributary to Line 2 and bring them to the shear wall.
3
Nole: Roof framing, except
collector, not shown.
100'
50'
2
Roofplan
50'
RP=;===ir:====r===u....... Tributary roof area
for cctector
--l-_-u--Colleclor
k""Shear walls
lI=j::============!l
Occupancy Category I
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
R =5.5
no= 2.5
1 = 1.0
8
DS
= 1.20
Roof dead load = 15 psf
Wall height = 30 ft, no parapet
Wall weight = 113 psf
By inspection, for the one-story shear wall building, Equation 12.8-2 wi ll govern.
S
Base shear = V= DS W = 0.2 l 8W
R
W= structure weight above one half hi
(Eq 12.8-2)
Interior
shear wall
Collector
50'
Determine the following.
Elevation Section A-A
[!J Collector unfactored force at tie to wall
~ . Special seismic load of §12.4.3.2 at tie to wall
162 2006 IBC Structural/SeIsmic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 44 • Collector Elements §12.10.2
Calculations andDiscussion
C!.J Collector unfactored force at tie to wall
CodeReference
§12.10.2
The seismic force in the collector is made up of two parts : I) the tribut ary out-of-plane
wall forces, and 2) the tributary roof diaphragm force. The paneli zed wood roof has been
determined to be flexible ; thus the tribut ary roof area is taken as the IOO-foot by 50-foot
area shown on the roof plan above. Seismic forces for collector design are determined from
Equat ion 12.10-1 used for diaphragm design. This equat ion reduces to the following for a
single story structure.
F,
=-w,
W P
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F
pl
max = 0.3 Sp,lW
px
= O.30W
px
F
pl
min =0.15 Sp,lW
p
.
T
=0. 15W
p T
= 1.2 Sp, W = V
R x
= design force at roof
= structure wei ght above one half hi = W
= weight tributary to the collector element
giving:
Wpl = tributary roof and out-of-plane wall weight
: . F
p1
=0.218(244.5) =53.3 kips.
V
F
p1
= -Wpl = 0.218W
p l
W
Wpl = 15 psf(lOO)(50) + 113 psf (3
2
0) (100) = 75,000 + 169,500 = 244.5 kips
§12.10.2
Note: This force corresponds to the diaphragm design forces calculated using §12.10.1.
These forces are compared to the diaphragm shear strength; including the shear
strength of connection between the diaphragm and collector. The design of the
collector and its connections requires that the axial forces be amplified as shown
below.
Special seismic load of §12.4.3.2 at tie to wall
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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol . I 163
Given the force Fpl specified by Equation 12.10-1, the collector elements, splices, and their
connections to resisting clements shall have the design strength to resist the earthquake loads
as defi ned in the Special Load Combinations of §12.4.3.2.
§12.10.2 Exampl e 44 • Coll ector El ements
The governing load combination is
1.2 D +0.5L +Em §2.3.2 (Comb. 5)
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where
Here, Q£ is the horizontal collector design force Fpl = 53.3 kips, and
n oQ£= 2.5(53.3) = 133.25 kips axial tension and compression load
(Eq 12.4-5)
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0.2 SDsD = 0.2( 1.0)D = 0.2D vertical load
The strength design of the collector and its connections must resist the following load
components.
n "Q£ = 2.5(53.3) = 133.25 kips axial tension and compression load
and vertical downward load equal to
1.2D +0.5L +0.2 D = 1.4 D +0.5 L
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with D = (50 ft + 50 ft)(50 ft)(l5 psf) = 2250 Ib
The resulting total factored vertical load is
1.4(2250) +0.5(750) = 3525 lb
L =(50 ft + 50 ft)(50 ft) (0.5)(10 psf) =750 Ib
which is applied as a uniform distributed load w =3525/50 ft = 70.5 plf on the 50-foot
length of the collector element.
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Note that §12.4.3.1 specifies that the term noQ£ in Equati on 12.4-7 need not exceed the
maximum force that can be delivered by the lateral-force-resisting system as determined by
rational analysis . For example, the overturning moment capacity of the shear wall can limit
the required strengt h of the collector and its connection to the shear wall.
:'l
Commentary
164 2006 IBC St ructural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. /
Example 45 Out-at-Plene Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to FlexIble Diaphragms §12. 11.2
§12. 11.2. 1
am le45
Out-of..Plane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or
Masonry Walls to Flexible Diaphragms §12.. 11..2 and 12.11.2.1
For the tilt-up wall panel shown below, the seismic force required for the design of
the wall anchorage to the flexible roof diaphragm is to be determined. This wi ll be
done for a representative I-foot width of wall.
The following information is given.
Occupancy Importance Category I
Seismic Design Category D
J = 1.0
SDS = 1.0
Panel thickness = 8 in
Normal weight concrete CI50 pet)
Determine the following.
[!J Design criteria
~ Wall anchorage force
Calculations and Discussion
F. n: l • +---+
. Assumed pin support ~ ~
Top of parapet
4'
Roof
20'
Ground
Code Reference
[!J Design criteria §12.11.2.1
Because of the frequent failure of wall/roof ties in past earthquakes, the code requires
that the force used to design wall anchorage to flexible diaphragms be greater than that
given in §12. I 1.2.1 for the design of the wall panel sections . The following equation is
to be used to determine anchor design forces, with minimum limit given in §12.11.2.
F
p
= 0.8 SDS!ElVl\'
2:: 400 8Ds/ lblft
2:: 280 lb/ ft of wall
where WI\ ' is the weight ofa I-foot width of wall that is tributary to the anchor.
CEq 12.11-1)
2006 IBC St ructural/Seis mic DesIgn Manual, Vol. I 165
§12.11.2
§12. 11.2. 1
Ex ample 45 • Out-ot-Pten e Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to Fl exible Diaphragms
I
~ Wall anchorage force
The tributary wall weight is one-half of the weight between the roof and base plus all
the weight above the roof.
IVw = 1 5 0 C ~ ) ( 4 ft + 10 ft)(I ft) = 1400 lb/ft
For the given values ofSos = 1.0 and 1= 1.0 , Equation 12. 11-) gives
F
p
= 0.8( 1.0)( 1.0)w
p
= 1.2w
p
=0.8(1400)
= 1120 Ib/ft > 400(1.0)(1.0) = 400 Ib/ft . . . o.k.
> 280 Ib/ft .. . o.k.
:. F"",."= Fp = I 120 Ib/ft
Thi s is the QEload in the seismic load combinations.
166 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 46 • Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §12.11.2.1
ample 46
all nchorage to Flexible iap ragms §12.11.2.1
This example illustrates use of the allowable stress design procedure for the design of
steel and wood elements of the wall anchorage system in a building with a flexible roof
diaphragm.
The drawing below shows a tilt-up wall panel that is connected near its top to a flexible
roof diaphragm. The anchorage force has been calculated per §12.11.2.1 as Fonch = 1680 lb/ft.
The wall anchorage connections to the roof are to be provided at 4 feet on center.
Wall panel
Wall-roof tic detail
Determine the strength' design requirement s for the followi ng.
[IJ Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element
~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element
Calculations and Discussion Code Reference
[IJ Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element.
The task is to design the steel anchorage elements (i.e., hold-downs) that connect the tilt-up
wall panel to the wood subpurlins of the roof diaphragm. The anchorage consists of two
hold-down elements, one on each side of the subpurlin.
The manufacturer's catalog provides allowable capacity values for eart hquake loading for a
given type and size of hold-down element.
The steel hold-down elements of the anchorage system resist only the axial anchorage
load and there are no dead or live load effects.
2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual, Vol . I 167
§12.1 1.2.1 Example 46 • Wall An chorage to Flexible Di aph ragms
J
For the 4-foot spacing, the strength design axial load is
E = QE=P
E
=F
aae
" (4) =(1680)(4) =± 6720 Ib
This exampl e, uses the ASD load combinations of §2.4, where the applicable seismic load
combinations permi t 0.7£ to be resisted with an increase in allowable stress based on
duration (i.e., the Cd duration factor for wood) .
The allowabl e stress design axial load requirement for each pair of hold-down elements is
0.7£ = 0.7P
E
0.7(6720) = ± 4800 lb
From the manufacturer's catalog, select a hold-down element having a capacity of at least
4800 lb = 2400 Ib
2
The hold-down detail must provide both tensile and compress ive resistance for this load.
Whenever hold-downs are used in pairs, as shown in the wall-roof tie detail above, the
through-bol ts in the subpurlin must be checked for double shear bearing. Also, the paired
anchorage embedment in the wall is likely to involve an overlapping pull -out cone
condition in the concrete: refer to ACI 3I8 Appendix D for design requirements.
When single-sided hold-downs are used, these must consider the effects of eccentricity.
Generally, double hold-downs are preferred, but single-sided hold-downs are often
used with all eccentricities fully considered.
~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element
The strength design axial load on the wood element of the wall anchorage system is
PE = (1680)(4) =± 6720 lb
Using the seismic load combinations of §2.4, select the wood element such that the
allowable capacity of the element, for the combined bending and axial stress including
dead and live load effects, can support a ± axial load of
0.7PE=0.7(6720) =4800 lb applied at the anchored end.
168 2006 I BC Str uctural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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1-
Commentary
Example 46 l:f Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §12.11.2.1
For comparison , the forces acting on wood, concrete, and steel elements are shown below. For wood,
the load is divided by the dura tion fac tor Cdof 1.0 to permit comparison. For steel, the load is
increased by 1.4 per §12.11.2.2.
Material
Wood
0.8S
DsIW
1.6
0.5 SoslW
ASD
(0.35 SoslW)
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Concrete
Steel
0.8 SoslW
1.4(0.8 SoslW) = 1.12 SoslW
N/A
(0.78 SoslW)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 169
§12. 10.1. 1 Example 4 7 Q Determi nation of Diaphragm Force F
p
::: Lowrise
~ mple 4 7
!# ermination of Diaphragm Force f px : Lowrise §12.'10. 1.1
This exampl e illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force F
px
of
Equation 12.10-1, for the design of the roof diaphragm of a single-story building.
A single-story tilt-up bui lding with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized
wood roof is shown below. This type of roof construction can generally be shown to
behave per flexible diaphragm assumptions.
b
o
cp 200'
rNormal wall
Occupancy Importance Category I
The following information is
given.
Seismi c Design Category 0
Roof plan
Roof diaphragm
J = 1.0
SDS= 1.0
R =5.0
P = 1.0
Diaphragm weight = 15 psf
Wall weight = 80 psf
Elevation through building
Find the following.
[!J Diaphragm design force at the roof
170 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Example 47 • Det ermination of Diaphragm Force F
px
: Lowrise §12. 10.1. 1
Calculations andDiscussion Code Reference
[!J Diaphragm design force at the roof §12.10.1.1
§12. 10.1.1 requires that the design seismic force for diaphragms be determined by
1
n
2:
F
,
F = ~ = l t , '
p:r n px
2: lVj
i-.t
with limits of
0.2 SDs/Wp.t :::: Fp.t:::: 0.4 SDs/W
p
.,
which for
S DS = 1.0 and 1 = 1.0
(Eq 12.10- 1)
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are
For a short period single story building, Equation 12.10-1 becomes (see commentary
below for derivation)
with the given val ues of SDS = 1.0, R =5.0
and, for a l-foot-wide strip
Wpl = weight of diaphragm + weight of one-half height of normal walls
= IOO( 15) + 2( I0)(80) = 3100 Ib/ft
(1.0)(1.0)
F
p l
= 5.0 11'p.t =0.2 Wpl =0.2(3 100) =620 lb/ft
Check limits: 0.2w
p
.t < 0.2wp ) < O.4w
p
.t •. . o.k.
Note that the redundancy factor of p is to be applied to the Q£ load actions due
to F
p l
(such as chord forces and diaphragm shear loads in the diaphragm).
2006 IBC Structura l/Seismic Design Manua l, Vol. I 17 1
§12.10.1. 1 Example 47 • Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
: Lowrise
1
Commentary
I. The weight W
p
., includes the weight of the diaphragm plus the tributary weight
of elements nonnal to the diaphragm that are one-half story hei ght below and
above the diaphragm level. Wall s parall el to the direction of the seismic forces are
usually not considered in the.detennination of the tributary roof weight because
these walls do not obtain support, in the direction of the force, from the roof
diaphragm.
2. The single-story building version of Equation 16-65 is derived as follows .
m
2: F,
F = ~ w
ps •• px
2: Wi
(Eq 12.10-1)
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v •
F = C V = w,h,
X IX n
2: W/l:
i..1
(Eq 12.8-11)
i = I , x = 1, and 11 = I
For a single-story building,
and Equation 12.8- 11 gives
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(Eq 12.8-12) for short period of < 0.5 sec (k = J.0) .
- J•
}\'.r 1.(
I
2: 11'; = W
i- I
F) = W/I, V= V
w,lz,
where C,_., =
172 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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where
Example 47 ~ Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
: Lowrise §12. 10. 1. 1
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V= C W= 5
0 S
! IV
5 R
Finally, for the single story building, Equation 12.10-1 is
F, V 5
0
s!
F
1
= - 11' = - l V = --11'
P IV 1'1 IV 1'1 R 1'1
(Eq 12.8-1 and 12.8-2)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 173
§12.10.1 Example 48 D Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
: Highrise
ample 48
t-
,Determination of Diaphragm Force F
px
: Highrise §12. 0.1
This example illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force F
px
of Equation
12. 10- 1 for a representative floor of a multi-story building.
The nine-story moment frame bui lding shown below has the tabulated design seismic
forces P.r:. These were determined from Equations 12.8-11 and 12.8-12, the design
base shear.
The following information is given.
Level 1< 27' * 27':J Story
'1 1 Weight, kips
Seismic Design Category 0
W = 3,762 kips
C, = 0.06215
8
D
s =1.0
P = 1.3
I = 1.0
T = 1.06 sec
V = CW= 233.8 kips
k = 2 for Eq 12.8-12
12
12'
12'
12'
12'
20'
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
/ / ' // / //// // / / / ' /
214
405
405
405
584
422
422
440
465
k
C = WJ l"
F
I
Level x h (ft) h
2
I\' ki ps II'h
vr t
Fx =Cl·.r
V
L I\'.h. IV
, I
9 11 6 13456 214 2879584 0.153 35.8 0.167
8 104 10816 405 4380480 0.233 54.4 0.134
7 92 8464 405 3427920 0.183 42.8 0.106
6 80 6400 405 2592000 0. 138 32.3 0.079
5 68 4624 584 2700416 0.144 33.7 0.058
4 56 3136 422 1323392 0.071 16.6 0.039
3 44 1936 422 816992 0.044 10.3 0.024
2 32 1024 440 450560 0.024 5.6 0.013
I 20 400 465 186000 0.010 2.3 0.005
Totals: 3,762 18,757,344 233.8
174 2006 IBC St r uctural/Seismic Desig n Manual, Vol. I
Example 48 • Delerminallon of Diaphragm Force F
pK
: Highrise §1Z. 10. 1
1
and Code Reference
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[I] Diaphragm force at Level 7 §12.10-1
Seismic forces on the floor and roof diaphragm are specified in §12.10-1. The following
equation is used to determine the diaphragm force F
px
at Level x
(Eq 12.10-1)
Section 12.10.1.1 also has the following limits on F
px
For Level 7, x = 7
F = (42. 8 + 54.4 + 35.8)(405) =(0. 130)(405) =52.6 ki s
p7 (405 + 405 + 214) P
Check limits:
0.2 SDsIw
px
= 0.2w
px
= 0.2(405) = 81.1 kips > 52.6 kips ... not o.k.
0.4 SDsIwpx = O.4wpx
= 0.4(405) = 121.5 kips > 52.6 kips . . . o.k.
:. F
p7
= 81.1 kips... minimum value (0.2 SDsIwpx) governs.
Note that the redundancy factor, in this example p = 1.3, is to be applied to the load Q£ due
to F P.f (such as chord forces and floor-to-frame shear connections). Also note that Equation
12.10-1 will always govern for the design of the diaphragm versus Equation 12.8-12.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I 1 7 5
§12.12.3 Example 49 • Building Separations
49
SUilding Separations
..
§12.12.3
Building separations are necessary to prevent or reduce the possibility of two adjacent
structures impacting during an earthquake. Requirements for building separations are
given in §12.12.3. In this example, the static displacements oxe due to the prescribed
lateral forces of §12.8 and information about each structure are given below. Note that
the displacements given are at the plan view edges of the building.
Structure 2
2 0.75 in
I 0.35
o 0
R= 6
C,/=5
1.38 in.
1.00
0.47
o
Structure J
Levelr 0..
2
o
3
.
II
Structure 1 Structure 2
Find the required separations for the following situations.
[!J Separations within the same building
[!J Separation from an adjacent building on the same property
Separation from an adjacent building on another property
Calculatiqns and Discussion Code Reference
[!J Separation within the same building §12.12.3
Expansion joints are often used to break a large building or an irregular building into
two or more parts above the foundation level. This effectively creates separate structures
within the same building. The code requires that the structures be separated by the
amount OMf
where
OMI = maximum inelastic displacement of Structure 1
0,"12 = inelastic displacement of Structure 2
176 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 49 ., Building Separ<Jtlons
where
s _ « ) _ C
J
6,n.
U/d- Ux max - - /-
The required separation is determined in the following two steps.
§12.12.J
(Eq 12.8-1)
I
~ Determine ine lastic di splacements of each structure §I2.8.6
To determine the min imum separation between parts of the same building
that are separated by an expansion joint, the maximum inelastic floor
displacements 6" must be determined for each structure. These are at
level, x= 2
For Structure I
~ Separation from an adjacent buildi ng on the same property
If Structures I and 2 above are adjacent, individual buildings on the same property, the
solution is the same as that shown above in Step I . The code makes no distinction between
an "internal" separation in the same building and the separation requi red between two
adjacent buildings on the same property.
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s, - C ~ 2 J _ 5.5(1.0) - 5 5 .
U '\(I - - /- - 1.0 -. in
For Structure 2
6
M2
= CJ/6 22 = 5.0(0.75) = 3.75 in
1.0
~ Dete rmine t he required separation
The requi red separation is determined from the individual maximum
inelastic displacements of each structure as
6
MT
= 6,\11 +6
M2
= 5.5 + 3.75 = 9.25 in
6
UT
= 9.25 in
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
(Eq 12.8-15)
(Eq 12.8- 15)
§I 2.I2.3
177
912.12.3 Example 49 • Building Separations
~ Separation from an adjacent building on another property §12.12.3
If Struc ture I is a building under design and Structure 2 is an existing building on an
adjoining propert y, we would genera lly not have information about the seismic
displ acements of Structu re 2. Often even basic information about the structura l system of
St ructure 2 may not be known. In this case, separation must be based only on information
about Struc ture I. The larges t elastic displ acement of Structure I is 0)<= 1.38 inches and
occurs at the roof (Level 3). The maximum inelastic displacement is calculated as
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Structure I must be set back 7.59 inches from the property line, unless a smaller
separation is j ust ified by a rati onal analysis based on maximum ground motions.
Such an analysis is difficul t to perform, and is generally not required except in very
special cases.
0,/ = CdOJ, = 5.5(1.38) = 7.59 in
r I 1.0
(Eq 12.8-15)
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178 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Example 50
Flexible onbuildiJ1Jg' TUC UTe
Ex ample 50 • Fl exible Nonbuilding Structure § 15. 5
§15,,5
A tall steel bin tower is supported by a concrete found ation. The tower sits on
symmetrically braced legs
The following information is given.
Seismic Design Category D
Weight of towe r and maximum
normal operating contents = 150 kips
Occupancy Category III
Site Class D
I = 1.25 per Table 11.5-1
S, = 1.70, S, = 0.65
SDS = 1.20, SD/ = 0.65
The stiffness of the supporti ng
tower is 8.30 kip/in
Code Reference
Determine the following.
[TI Period of vibration
~ Design base shear
~ Vertical distribution of seismic forces
~ Overturning moment at base
,calculations and Discussion
[TI Period of vibration.
For calculation purposes, the mass is assumed to be located at the top of the tower.
The period must be determined by §15.4.4.
/f
n 150 kips/(386 kip/in/sec") 1 36
T = 2n - =2n =. sec
k 8.30 kip/in
Because the peri od is greater than .06 second, the vessel does not qual ify as a rigi d
nonbuilding structure and thus is considered flexible. See §15.4.2.
2006 IBC St ructural/Sei smic Design Manual, Vol . I 1 7 9
§15.5 Example 50 • Flexible Nonbuildlng Str ucture
It should be noted that the value of the period, T, should not be calculated using any
of the approximate methods in §12.8.2.1, nor is it intended to be subj ect to the limitations
presented in §12.8.2. This is because the approximate method presented is intended for
buildings and is not applicable to structural systems that differ significantly from typical
building configurations and characteristics. Refer to Section CI 09.1.4 of the 1999 SEAOC
Blue Book for further discussion.
~ Design base shear
The des ign base shear for nonbuilding structures is calculated from the same expressions as
for buildings. These are given in §12.8. 1. In addit ion, nonbuilding structures, such as the
vessel, must also sat isfy the requirements of §15.5.
v =C, W= 0.217 (150 kips) = 32.55 kips
where
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, R/I
SDS= 1.2
R = 3.0
Q
o
= 2.0
CD = 2.5
I = 1.25
The value of C, computed in accordance wit h Eq. 12.8-2 need not exceed
S
C = DI =0.199
s CRt!)T
where
SOl =0.65
R = 3.0
I = 1.25
T = 1.36 sec
But C, shall not be taken less than
C, = 0.01
where
SDS= 1.20
I = 1.25
180 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
(Eq 12.8-2)
T 15.4-2
T 15.4-2
T 15.4-2
T 11.5-1
(Eq 12.8-2)
(Eq 12.8-5)
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Exampl e 50 • Fl exibl e Nonbuilding Structure
Note that for this tower, because the I-second spectral response SI
is equal to 0.65, (S, ~ 0.60g), the value of the seismic response coefficient C,
shall not be taken as less than
§15. 5
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c,
= 0.5S, =0. 135
(Eq 12.8-6)
(RI l)
where
SI =0.65
R =3.0
[
= 1.25
Thus: C, =0.199 governs
Also note that if this tower (Occupancy Category 11) were located on a site with mapped
maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at I- second peri od S"
equal to or great er than 0.75g, it would be assigned to SDC E (§11.6). Thus, the height
would be limited to 100 ft per Tabl e 15.4-2.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 181
§15.0 Example 51 • Lateral Force on Nonbui/ding Structure
I;xaniple 51
Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure
,,--
§15.0
A nonbuilding structure with a special reinforced concrete moment frame (SRCMF)
supports some rigid aggregate storage bins. Weights and W
2
include the maximum
normal operating weights of the storage bins and contents as well as the tributary
frame weight. See §15.4.1. 1 and Table 11.5. 1
The following information is given.
Occupancy Importance Category 1"
1 =1.0
[!J Design base shear
Vertical distribution of seismic forces
Site Class D
SMS= 2.0, Sf = 2.0
SAil = 1.5, SI = 1.0
SDS = 1.33
SOl = 1.00
T =2.0 sec
TV = 300 kips
Determine the following.
. and Discussion
F, _--.
Level
2
15'
30'
Code Reference
[!J Design base shear. §15.4
Because this is a flexible structure, (i.e., the period T > 0.06 sec, see §15.4.2, and the
structure is similar to a building, see §15.4. 1) the general expressions for design base shear
given in §12.4 and §15.4 must be used. Note that an intermediate reinforced concrete
moment frame (l RCMF) building structure is not permi tted for SDC D, E, or F per Table
15.4. 1. Also note that the value for R is 8 for normal design of an SRCMF.
The total base shear in a given direction is determined from
V= CsW
where
C, = S DS = (1.33) =0.166
(RI I) (8.0) 1(1 .0)
182 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
(Eq 12.8- 1)
(Eq 12.8-2)
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Example 51 ., Lat eral Force on NOll buJldi ng Structure §15.0
where
5
DS
=1.33
R =8
I = 1.0
The value of C., computed in accordance with Equation 12.8-2 need not exceed
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(R II)T (8/ 1.0)2. 0
where
5D/ = 1.0
R = 8.0
I = 1.0
T =2.0
Check T'S T
L
= > TL= 12.0 sec
The value of C, shall not be taken less than
C = 0.5S, = (0.5)(1 .0) = 0.063
x (R I I) (..!-)
1.0
where
(Eq 12.8-3)
(Region 1, F 22-16)
(Eq 12.8-6)
V= C,rV=(0.063)(300) = 18.9 kips
r, = c, V= C . ~ ( 18.9 kips)
Vertical distribution of seismic forces
The design base shear must be distri buted over the height of the structure in the
same manner as that for a building structure.
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5, = 1.0
R =8
I = 1.0
T =2.0
Thus: C, = 0.063
Note 5, 2: 0.6g
Equat ions 12.8-3 and 12.8-6 govern.
(Eq 12.8-1)
§12.8-2
(Eq 16-41)
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 183
k = 1.0for T ~ 0.50 sec
and k =2.0 for T 2: 2.50 sec
and k =interpolate between 1 and 2.5 sec
Example 51 • Lat eral Force on Nonbulldlng Structure
Thus:
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CEq 12.8-11)
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]
J
J
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T 2.5 2.0 1.0 .5 o
o
1.01--_ _ -
K
2.0
n
'" W il l
L "
j- I
C"., =
k =1.0 + 1.0 ( 2.0-0.5) =1.75
2.5-0.5
where
where
Now for T =2.0 sec
§15.0
184 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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1
Example 51 • Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure §15.0
Story Shears (k =1.75)
Story Story
Height Weight Force Shear
J
Iz:r
I
W,
I
C,·x
F, V,
Sa Level !t.t W.Jl.f
2 45 781.85 200 156369.45 0.803 15.17 15.17 0.076
1 30 384.56 100 38455.83 0.197 3.73 18.9 0.037
300 194825.28 1.00 18.9
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Note: k = 1.75
It, infeet
W, inkips
c, = W,h; / 194825.28
F, = C,., (18.9)
Sa = F,T / W, " rep Sa
= effective story acceleration
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 185
§15.4.2 Example 52. Rigid NonbuiJdi ng Structure
1

'''igid Nonbuilding_ Structure §15.4.2
)
The code has special requi rements for the determi nation of seismic forces for design
of rigid nonbuilding structures. In this example, rigid ore crushing equipment is supported
by a massive concrete pedestal and seismic design forces are to be determined.
The following information is given.
30'
20'
Grade
SOS = 1.33
I = 1.0
T = 0.02 sec
WEQUlPAfENT = 100 kips
WSUPPORT = 200 kips
Determine the following.
[!J Design base shear
[3J Vert ical distribution of seismic forces
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Design base shear
For rigid nonbuilding structures, Equation 15.4-5 is used to determine design
base shear.
V = O.3Sos I W= 0.3 (1.33) (1.0) W= 0.399W
= 0.399 (100 + 200) = 119.7 kips
Vertical distribution of seismic forces
The force shall be distributed wit h height in accordance with §12.8.3
Fx = C,,,V = C,'x (119.7 kips)
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
§15.4.2
(Eq 15.4-5)
(Eq 12.8-1 1)
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Example 52 • Rigid Nonbuilding Structure §15. 4.2
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(Eq 12.8-12)
Story Story
Height Weight
Force Shear
Level Iz
x
k
W,
k
Sa h.
t
W.Jlx
e l l.>; F, v,
2 30 30 100 3000 0.429 51.25 51.35 0.516
1 20 20 200 4000 0.571 68.45 119.7 0.342
300 7000 1.00 119.7
Note: 11., infeet fx= c, (119.7 kips)
W
x
inkips Sa = Fx/ fV, .. nPSa
k ~ k
=effective storyacceleration c, = WxlzJ 1-rr,lz
x
2006 IBC StructuraUSe;sm;c Design Manual. Vol. I 187
§15.7.6 Example 53 • Tank with Sup por t ed Bottom

.!In With Supported Bottom §15.7.6
A small liquid storage tank is supported on a concrete slab. The tank does not contain
toxic or explosive substances.
The following informati on is given.
SDS= 1.20
I = 1.0
W = Weight of tank and
maximum normal
operating contents
= 120 kips
= 0.50 inch
I3J Find the design base shear
Slab
Grade
20'
§15.7.6
and Discussion Code Reference
[!J The tank is a nonbuilding structure, and seismic requirements for tanks with
supported bottoms are given in §15.7.6. This secti on requires that seismic
forces be determined using the procedures of §15.4.2.
The period may be computed by other rational methods, similar to Example 51
where
L
D
LID
w
I
wd
t
= 20 ft
= 10ft
= 20/10 = 2.0
= W/L = 120,000 Ib/20 = 6000 plf
= 0.50 in
6000(10)
1,440,000
(0.50/12)
188 2006 IBC Struc tur al/Sei smi c Des i g n Manual, Vol . I
Thus, rigid nonbuilding structure, §15.4.2
1
1
Now: T
Example 53 • Tank With Supported Bottom
= 7.65 X 10-
6
(2.0)2(1,440,000)
= 0.0367 sec < 0.06 . .. rigid
§15. 7. 6
The lateral force shall be obtai ned as follows
V =0.3SDsIW=0.36W
= 0.36 ( 120) = 43.2 kips
where
SDS= 1.20
I = 1.00
W = 120 kips
(Eq 15.4-5)
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The design lateral seismic force is to be applied at the center-of-mass of the tank and its
contents. Note that the center-of-mass of the contents and of the tank do not normally
coincide. The distribution of forces vertically shall be in accordance with §12.8.3.
Commentary
The procedures above are intended for tanks that have relati vely small diameters (less
than 20 feet) and where the forces generated by fluid-sloshing modes are small. For large
diameter tanks, the effects of sloshing must be considered. Refer to American Water Works
Association Standard ANSI!AWWA D100 "Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage," or
American Petroleum Institute Standard 650, "Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage" for more
detail ed guidance.
2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I 189
IBC §180B.2.23.1 Example 54 • Pil e Interconnections
ample 54
Pile Interconnections IBC'§1808.2.23.1
A two-story masonry bearing wall structure has a pile foundation, Piles are located
around the perimeter of the building. The foundation plan of the building is shown
below.
The following information is given.
Original grade
Seismic Design Category 0
J = 1.0
SDS = 1.0
Pile cap size: 3 feet square by 2 feet deep
Grade beam: I foot 6 inches by 2 feet
Allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf
per foot of depth below natural grade,
for the very dense granular soil at the site.
2'·0"
2'· 0"
Section A-A: Typi cal pile cap
Pile Dead Reduced
Seismic QE
Cap Load Live Load N/S E/W
3 46 kips 16 kips 14 kips 0
10 58 16 14 0
o
11
o
10
9
o
f f f
r
4 11iI 2S' =100'
:=lA
0 0 0
2 3 4 5
A
~
t
A
a
<0
II
®-
a
'"
@)
N
C
6
Foundation pl an
Determine the following.
[!J Interconnection requi rements
~ Interconnection force between pile caps 3 and 10
[!J Required "tie" restraint between pile caps 3 and 10
190 2006 IBC Structu r al /Seismic Design Manua l, Vol. I
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Calculations and Discussion
[!J Interconnection requirements
Example 54 § Pilc Interconnections IBC §1BOB.2.23.1
Code Reference
IBC §1808.2
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The code requires that individual pile caps of every structure subject to seismic forces be
interconnected with ties. This is specified in §1808.2.23.1. The ties must be capable of
resisting in tension and compression a minimum horizontal tie force equal to 10 percent of
the larger column vertical load. The column vert ical load is to be considered the dead,
reduced live, and seismic loads on the pile cap. An exception to §1808.2.23.1 allows use of
"equivalent restraint" which, in this example, is provided by the confinement of very dense
granular soil at the site.
Interconnect ion force between pile caps 3 and 10
Maximum loads on each pile cap under E/W seismic forces are
Pile cap 3 =46 + 16 + 0 =62 kips
Pile cap 10 = 58 + 16 + 0 = 74 kips
Minimum horizontal tie force Sos II 0 = 0.10 times the largest column vertical load
P =0.10 (74) =7.40 kips
[!J Required "ti e" restraint bet ween pile caps 3 and 10
The choices are to add a grade beam (i.e., tie beam) connecting pile caps 3 and 10, or to try to
use passive pressure restraint on the pile cap in lieu of a grade beam. The latter is considered
an "equivalent restraint" (by soil confinement or bearing pressure) under the exception to
rae §1808.2.23.1.
For the allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf per foot of depth below natural grade, the passive
pressure resistance is
. [2(200) + 4(200)]
Passive pressure = (2 ft) = 1200 plf
2
. 7400lbs
Required length = =6.2 ft
1200 plf
This is greater than 3'-0" pile cap width, but pile cap and a tributary length ofN/S grade
beam on either side of the pile cap may be designed to resist tie forces using the passive
pressure. This system is shown below and, if this is properly designed, no grade beam
between pile caps 3 and 10 (or similar caps) is required.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I 191
IBC §1808. 2. 23.1 Example 54 • Pile Interconnections
1,200 plf
~ - - 4 800 psflf!
-.-
•.....
: : : : ~ : : : :
......
~ : : : : : : : : : : : ~
: : : : . ~ : : : : : : : : : ~
--'<-
2'·0"
6.2'
E--------,
Equivalent restraint system in plan
Section 8-8: Grade beam
Normally, buildings on pile foundations are required to have interconnecting ties between
pile caps. This is particularly true in the case of high-rise buildings and buildings with heavy
vertical loads on individual pile caps. Ties are essential in tall buildings. Ties are also
necessary when the site soil conditions are so poor that lateral movements, or geotechnical
hazards, such as liquefaction, are possible.
In the design of relatively lightweight one- and two-story buildings, the exception to the
interconnecting tie requirement of §1808.2.23.1 may permit a more economical foundation
design. However, when interconnecting ties are omitted, a geotechnical engineer should
confirm the appropriateness of this decision, and the project specifications should call for
the back-fill and compaction methods necessary to provide required passive pressure
resistance.
192 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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Example 55 D Simplified Wind Loads on 2
aStory
BUildings
The following is an example of the simplified wind load procedure of ASCE/SEI 7-05.
Calculate the wind loads on the following building.
Dimensions: 100 ft wide by 120 ft long by 25 ft high (2 stories - 13 ft and 12 ft).
Wind Speed: Located in Minneapolis, Minnesota - 90 mph zone.
Importance: The facility is an office building with no special functions - Therefore the
building category in Table I-I is Category II.
§6.4
F 6-1
Exposure:
Enclosure:
Suburban office park surrounded by trees and typical suburban construction
on all sides - Therefore the exposure category is B. §6.5.6
The building has no unusual openings in the envelope, nor is it in a hurricane
region, so no concerns for wind-borne debris - Classify as Enclosed. §6-2
Topography: Height of adjacent hills is less than 60 feet - Wind speed-up effects not a concern.
(§6.5.7.1.5) x; = 1.0
Structure: The structure is an X-braced steel frame with evenly distributed braces on all four
exterior walls. The second floor is concrete slab on metal form deck on steel floor
beams. The roof is metal roof deck on steel joists on steel joist girders.
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Design Method:
To utilize ASCE/SEI 7-05 Simplified Procedure (Method 1) all ofthe following
criteria must be met.
1) With no breaks in the roof or floor (structural separations) the diaphragms are
simple, as defined in §6-2
2) The building height is less than 60 feet and least horizontal dimensions
3) The building is enclosed and not prone to wind-borne debris
4) The building is regular shaped
5) The building is rigid with a period less than I second
6) The site is not subject to wind speed-up effects
7) The building is symmetrical
8) For a building with well distributed MWFRS torsional load case in note 5 of
Figure 6-10 will not govern the design. Therefore design by Method 1 §6.4
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 193
§6.4 Example 55 • Simplified Wind Loads on 2·Story Buf/dings
25'
Determine the following.
[!J Main wind force
~ MWFRS end zone width
~ MWFRS design wind pressures
~ Components and cladding
~ Edge Strip
~ Design wind pressure on components
[1J Main Wind-Force Resisting System-MWFRS (Lateral Load Structural Frame)
Using Method 1 §6.4, the simplified design wind pressure ps is the product of the base
simpl ified design pressure ps30 taken from Figure 6-2 and multiplied by the Height and
Exposure Adjustment Factor Afrom Figure 6-2, the Topographic Factor K=I from §6.5.7, and
by the Importance Factor J from Tabl e 6- 1. The equation for ps is shown in §6.4.2. I Eq 6-1.
~ Calculate the MWFRS End Zone Width
End Zone =2a, so first calculate a, the Edge Strip Width.
194 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
Exampl e 55 • Simp lifi ed Wi nd Loa ds on 2·Story Building s §6.4
1
Edge Strip =a =Lesser of:
But not less than:
Therefore:
• 10% of the least horizontal dimension = 0.10 x 100 ft
= 10ft
· 40% of the eave height = 0040 x 25 ft = l Oft
·4% of the least horizontal dimension = 0.04 x 100 ft =4
ft
• 3ft
a = 10ft, so the End Zone =2a = 2 x 10 ft = 20 ft
J
~ Calculate the MWFRS design wind pressure
Using Equation 6-1: p, = AKjp,3o
Look up the base pressures P,30 from Figure 6-2 then modify for height, exposure,
topography, and importance factor. No interpolation is required because the flat roof angle
falls in the row of "Oto 5." With the mean roof height of 25 feet and the exposure being "B",
the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor Afrom Figure 6-2 =1.0. Since the building site
is level from §6.5.7, K=r= 1.0. For a building Category II as defined in Table I- I, the
Importance Factor I = 1.0. -
Tran svers e MWFRS - 90 mph, Exposure B, Height 25.0 rt
P IJO
A
K:1
1 p,
Type Zone Surface Label
Roof Angle HI. & Exp. Topographic Import. Design
0'" to 5'"
Factor Factor Factor Pressure
End
W all A 12.8 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00 - 12.8 psf
Roof B No Roof Projection for Flat Roofs
Horiz
Wall C 8.5 A 1.00 I A 1.00 IA 1.00 I ~ 8.5 psf
Int
Roof D Nn Roof Proiection for Flat Roofs
End
Wind E -15.4 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00
-
- 15.4 psf
Ven
Lee F -8.8 x 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00 - -8.8 psf
Wind G -10.7 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00 = -10.7 psf
Int
Lee H -6.8 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00 · 6. 8 psf -
Longitudinal MWFRS - 90 mph , Exposure B, Height 25.0 rt
P 130
A
x; 1 p,
Type Zone Surface Label
Base HI. & Exp, Topographic Import. Design
Press. Factor Factor Factor Pressure
End
Wall A 12.8 A 1.00 x 1.00 A 1.00
-
12.8 psf
Horiz
Roof B No Roof Projection in Lonaitudi nal Direction
Wall C 8.5 A 1.00 I A 1.00 I )" 1.00
=
8.5 psf
Int
Roof D No Roof Pro'ecticn in Lonzitudinal Direction
End
Wind E ·15.4 A 1.00
).
1.00 A 1.00
-
-15.4 psf
Vert
Lee F -8.8 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00
-
-8.8 psf
Wind G -10.7 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00
=
-10.7 psf
Int
Lee H -6.8 A 1.00 A 1.00 A 1.00
-
-6.8 psf
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 195
§6.4 Example 55 • Simplified Wind Loads on 2-Story Buildings
Apply the pressures to the building as described in Figure 6-2. The designations of
"Transverse" and "Longitudinal" are keyed to the direction of the MWFRS being evaluated.
When the resisting system being designed is perpendicular to the ridge line of the gable or
hip roof, its directi on is classified as "Transverse." When it is parallel to the ridge , it is
classified as "Longitudinal." When the roof is flat (slope ~ 5 · ) , and thus has no ridge line, the
loading diagram becomes the same in each direction, as shown in the following diagram. The
loading diagrams shown should be mirrored about each axis of the building until each of the
four comers has been the "reference comer" as shown for each load case.
Design wind pressures p,
using Eq 6- ]
In addition, the minimum load case from §6.4.2.1 .1 must also be checked. Apply a load of 10
psf on the building proj ection on a vertica l plane normal to the wind. In other words , create a
load case with all horizontal zones equal to 10 psf, and all vertical zones equal to O. Check
this load case as an independent case, do not combine with the case from §6.4.2. 1. It should
be applied in each direction as well.
196 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
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EYsmple 55 Q Si mplifi ed Wind Loads on 2-Sr ory Buil dings §6. 4
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~ f " ' e n c .
Corner
L
BeingEvacuated
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Minimum design wind loadi ng
~ Components and Cladding (Everything except the Lateral Load Structural
Frame)
Accordi ng to §6.1. 1, all "buildings.. ..and all components and cladding" must be designed for
wind loads. Therefore, all parts of the exterior building envelope and any load paths, that are
not part of the main wind-force-resisting system (lateral frame), should be designed as
Components and Cladding (C&C) . For buildings such as this that qualify under §6.4.2.1, the
C&C can be designed using §6.4.2.2, Eq 6-2.
~ Calculate the Edge Strip, a
Previously calculated in the MWFRS calculations, a = lOft
~ Calculate the design wind pressure on several components using
Equation 6·2
pnel =A. KztlP nel30
Look up the base pressures directly from Figure 6-3, then modify for Height, Exposure, Topography
and Importance Category. With the mean roof height of25 feet and the exposure being "B," the
Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor from Figure 6-3 = 1.00. Since the building is a level site
from §6.5.7, K, = 1.0, and for a Building Category II , the Importance Factor f lO' = 1.00.
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 197
§6.4 Exampl e 55 • Simplifi ed Wi nd Loads oh 2· Story Build;ngs
]
C & C - 90 mph, Exposure B, Heigh t =25.0 ft
Type Zone Item EfT Direction Interpolation
Pnl:tJO
x
K
u
I
P JJO
Wind Base HI. & Topo. Import. Design
Area Press Exp. Factor Factor Pressure
Factor
Deck Positive None Required +5.9 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.9·
Screw
< 10 sf
Ne gative None Required -14.6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 -14.6
Positive
10 sf 20 sf 12 sf
+5.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5. &·
Roof
+5.9 +5.6 +5. &
Int
Deck
12 sf 10sf 20 sf 12 sf
-14.5 x 1.00 x 1.00 1.00 - 14.5
Negative
x
( I)
- 14.6 - 14.2 - 14.5
> 100
Positive No ne Required +4.7 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +4.7·
Joist
sf
Negative None Required -13.3
x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00
-13.3
Deck
Positive None Required +5.9 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.9·
'",
Screw
< 10 sf
Negative None Required -24 .4 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 -24.4'
s
Positive None Required +5.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.&·

0
Roof
10 sf I 20 sf 12 sf
"-
Edge
Deck
12 sf
Negati ve -23.9
x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 -23.9
0
-24.4 I -2 1.& -23.9
0
~
(2)
Positive None Required +4.7 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +4.7·
Joist
> 100
sf
Negative None Required -15.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 - 15.&
Deck Positive None Required +5.9 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.9·
Screw
< 10 sf
Negative None Required -36.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 -36.8
Positive None Required +5.& x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5.&·
Roof
10 sf 20 sf 12 sf
Comer
Deck
12 sf Negative
-36.& I -30.5
-35.5 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 -35.5
-35.5
(3)
> 100
Posi tive None Required +4.7 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +4. 7*
JOiSl
sf
Negati ve None Required -15.&
x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00
-15.&
Posi tive None Required 14.6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 14.6
Sidi ng < 10 sf
Negat ive None Required -15. 8 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 - 15.&
10 sf 20 sf 17.3 sf
+14. 1 x 1.00 x 1.00 1.00 +14. 1
Int
Positive
x
+ 14.6 +13.9 +14. 1
(4)
Stud 17.3 sf
10 sf 20 sf 17.3 sf
- 15.3
x 1.00 x 1.00 1.00 - 15.3
Negative
x
-;;
- 15.& - 15.1 -15.3
::: Positive None Required + 14.6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 + 14.6
Siding < 10 sf
Neg ative None Required -19.5 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 -19.5
Posi tive
10 sf 20 sf 17.3 sf
+14.1 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +14. 1
Int
Stud 17.3 sf
+14.6 +13.9 + 14.1
(4)
Negative
10 sf 20 sf 17.3 sf
- 1&. 6 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 - 18.6
- 19.5 - 1&.2 -1&. 6
• Note. Aminimum pressure of 10 psf 15 required per§6.4.2.2. 1
198 2006 IBC StructurallSelsmlc Design Manual, Vol. I
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Examp/ a 55 • Si mplifi ed Wi nd Load s on 2· Story Buil dings
The component and cladding pressures should be applied as described in Figure 6-3
and as shown in the diagram below.
§ 6.4
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O
Interior Zones
Roofs- Zone 1f\Nalis- Zone 4
Q End Zones
'.,; Roofs- Zone 21Walls - Zone 5
Comer Zones
Roofs- Zone 3
2006 IBC StructuraUSeismic Design Manual, Vol. I 199
§6.4 Example 56 • Simplifi ed Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings
Per §6.4. 1.1 , for conforming low-rise bui ldings, wind loads can be determined using simplified
provisions.
The following information is given.
A B c
1 -
2 -
/
I
Typ
Main wind-
force-res isting
system
b
(0
3-story office building
located in urban/suburban
area ofNW Texas - situated
on fiat ground
3 -
1<
100'
PLAN
Flexible
Diaphragm
Typ
W II II" ns
eel typ
/'
a mu 10
spaced 5 ~
)
1/
Longitudinal Elevation Transverse Eleva tion
Determine the following.
[}J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A
~ Wind loads on second-story wall mullion
200 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
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Exampl e 56 g Si mplifi ed Wind Loa ds on Low Ri se Buildi ngs §6A
[!J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A
11a.1Check applicability of simplified provisions §6.4.1 .1
I . Simple diaphragm building
(See definition under "building, simple diaphragm")
Yes §6.2
2. Low rise building
(Mean roof height < 60 ft and building widt h)
Yes §6.2
3. Bui lding enclosed Yes §6.2
4. Regular shape Yes §6.2
5. Not flexible (II) > l hz) (T < I sec) Yes §6.2
T=O.I N=0.I(3)=0.3 sec
N = Number of Stories
6. No special wi nd characteristics Yes
7. Flat, gabled or hipped roof Yes
NW Texas basic wind speed = 90 mph
The design professional should contact the local bui lding department to
confirm design wind speed.
Topographic factor K, = 1.0
Height and exposure adjustment 'A.
See §6.5.6 for exposure category definitions
Example building in urban/suburban area is considered exposure B
Mean roof height (h) = 35 ft (see definition §6.2) (8 < 10")
Adjustment factor from Figure 6-2, 8 = 1.05
F 6-2
§6.5.7
F 6-la
Note 5, F 6- 10 Yes
Therefore, simplified provisions are applicable
8. Torsional irregularities not a concern
Determine basic parameters
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2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual, Vol . J 201
Check minimum requirement:
Horizontal load Eq 6-1 = (14.4 psf*12 ft + 9.6 psf*(25-12))*35 ft = 10.42 kips
Min load §6.1.4. 1 = {I0 psf* 25 ft)*35 ft = 8.75 kips < 10.42
: . 6.1.4.1 does not govern
11d·1
Determine end zone dimensions Note 10, F 6-2
Edge Strip a = 0.10 (60) = 6 ft . . . Governs
or
= 0.40 (35) = 14 ft
but not less than
~ 0.04 (60) = 2.4 ft
or
~ 3 f t
End Zone 2a = 12 ft F 6-2
Horizontal Loads Vertical Loads
End Zone Int. Zone End Zone lnt. Zone
Load Roof A 8 C D E F G H
V Dir. Angle Wall Roof Wall Roof WW LW WW LW
Roof Roof Roof Roof
90 oto 12.8 -6.7 8.5 -4.0 -15.4 -8.8 -10.7 - 6.8
mph Transverse 5"
17.8 -4.7 11.9 -2.6 -15.4 -10.7 - 10.7 - 8. 1
20"
Interpolating: For
example, roof angle
7.6"
13.7
-6.4
9.1 - 3.8 - 15.4 -9.1 -10.7 -7.0
= arctan 10 = 7.6"
(use 0) (use 0)
§6.4
202
Example 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings
Importance Factor J = 1.0
(Category II Building from Table 1- 1)
11c.1Obtain tabulated loads
Simplified Design Wind Pressure P.dO (psf)
11e.1Determine load on MWFRS at Grid A
Forces determined using Eq 6-1 ps = AK; JP.,3D
Horizontal load at wall :
In end zone [A] = (1.05)(1.0)(1.0)(13.7 pst) = 14.4 psf
In interior zone [C] = (1.05)(1.0)(1.0)(9. 1 pst) = 9.6 psf
Per §6.1.4.1, check 10 psf minimum over projected area of vertical plane
2006 IBC Str uctural/ Seismi c Design Ma nual, Vol . I
T 6-1
F 6-2
§6.4. 2.1
]
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Example 56 8 Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Bu ildings §6.4
Hori zonta l point loads to frame:
Roof Load
(5 ft tributary ht) V
R
=(14.4 psf" 12 ft + 9.6 psfl'(25 ft - 2 ft» 5 ft = 1488 Ib
3
cd
Floor Load
(10 ft tributary ht) V
3
=(14.4 psf" 12 ft + 9.6 psfl'( 25 ft - 2 £1» 10 ft =2976 Ib
2
nd
Floor Load
(12 .5 ft tributary ht) V2= (14.4 psf" 12 ft + 9.6 psfl'(25 ft - 2 ft) 12.5 ft = 3720 Ib
Note: Forces to Grid A are shown based on a tributary basis that is conservative for
the analysis of Grid A. Alternatively, the forces could be distributed to gr ids A and C
by applying the loads as a simple span beam.
Vertical load at roof:
Windward Roof - In end zone [E] = (1.05)( 1.0)( 1.0)(-15.4 pst) = -16.2 psf
In interior zone [G] = (1.05)( 1.0)( 1.0)(-10.7 psf) = -11.2 psf
Leeward Roof-In end zone [F] = (1. 05)( 1.0)( 1.0)(-9. 1 psf) =-9.56 psf
In interi or zone [H] = ( 1.05)( 1.0)( 1.0)(-7.0 psf) = -7.35 psf
Vertical uniform loads to frame:
Windward: (16.2 psf)( 12 ft) + (9.56 psf)(25 - 12) = 340 plf= .34 kif uplift
Leeward: (11.2 psf)(12 ft) + (7.35 psf)(25 - 12) = 210 plf = .21 kif uplift
Note: Forces applied to Grid A are shown as a distri buted load along the frame
length . A more detai led analysis of for ces based on roof frami ng would include a
smaller distributed load and upli ft point loads at locations where beams frame into the
grid A moment frame at grids I, 2, and 3.
0.34 kif
V
R
= 1.49
k
>
Tri b. HI. 10 ft/2 = 5 It
V3 = z.se'
>
10 ft/2 + 10 ft/2 = 10 n
V2 = 3.72
k
)
10 ft/2 + 15 ft/2 = 12.5 ft
Elevation
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 203
§6.4 Example 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings
cr
C(
cr
0-r
r
:J
l
Load Cases: D 9.6 psI x TribHIS
§6.4.2.1
14.4 psI x TribHI
10 psI x Trib HI
5
§6.4.2.1.1
Plan
[!J Wind loads on second story wall mullion
~ Determine zone of mullion F 6-3
Interior of wall area - Zone 4
Effective wind area = 5 ft (10 ft) = 50 sq ft
Wind Loads ps =AKztl Pnel30 §6.4.2.2 (Eq 6-2)
pne130 = 13.0 psfpositive
= -14.3 psfnegative (suction) F6-3
p, = (1.05)(1.0)(1.0)(13.0 pSfposilive)(5 ft tributary) = 68.5 plf
p s = (1.05)(1.0)(1.0)(-14.3 pSfnegalive)(5 ft tributary) = 75 plf
2
nd
floor
3'· floor
r ~
(
=
,/
(
=
,/
..... lJ
75 plf or 68.5 plf
204 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I
Ex ample 58 . Floor Vibrations
A 9-story building has a moment-resisting frame for a lateral force-resisting system.
Find the lateral forces on the frame due to wind.
Office building 50 ft by 50 ft in
plan with MWFRS at exterior.
Located in an urban/suburban
area ofN.W. Texas
Determine:
[TI Wind loads on MWFRS
50'

1
4
12'
12'
12'
12'
12'
12'
3"
12'
12'
Elevation
Discussion
I
1
I
[TI Wind loads on MWFRS
11a.1 Determine basic wind speed
Ut ilize ASCE/ SEI 7-05 §6
Use meth od 2 analytical procedure
Chapter 6
§6.5
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 205
§6.5 Example 57 • Wind Loads - Analytical Procedure
Confirm building is regular shaped and not subject to across wind loading, vortex
1
shedding, instability due to galloping or flutter ; or does not have a site location for
which channeling effects or buffet ing in wake of upwind obstructions warrant special
I
conditions §6.5.1
Design procedure §6.5.3
I
Basic wind speed V= 90 mph §6.5.4,
F 6-1
I
lib·1
Determine velocity pressure
Wind directionality factor Kd= 0.85 §6.5.4.4,
(applies when using load combina tions T6-4
in ASCE/SEI 7-05 §2.3 and §2.4)
Importance factor I = 1.00 §6.5.5,
(Structural Category II, Table 1-1) T 6-1
Exposure Category B §6.5.6
I
Velocity pressure coeff K= (Case 2) §6.5.6.6,
T 6-3
I
Exposure8
"
Case 2
I
0· 15 fl 0.57
20 0.62
25 0.66
30 0.70
I
40 0.76
50 0.81
60 0.85
70 0.89
I
80 0.93
90 0.96
100 0.99
I
116 1.03 •
ByInterpolation
120 1.04
Topographic factor K
Z1
= I §6.5.7
I
(example building on flat land, no nearby hills)
Gust effect factor G §6.5.8
I
9-story building
Natural period = 0.1(9) = 0.9 sec §9.5.5.3.2
1
(Eq 9.5.5.3.2-la)
I
Natural frequency = - = 1.1 Hz >1.0
0.9
Therefore: Rigid structure §6.2
I
G= 0.85 §6.5.8.1
206 2006 IBC Struct ur al/S eismi c Design Manual, Vol. I
Enclosure Classification
Example building enclosed
Velocity Pressure
q==O.00256K2K2kKdV
2
/
= 0.00256K=KrK2
V2
/
=O.00256K=( 1.0)(0.85)(90)2( 1.0)
Example 58 a Floor Vibrat ions
§6.5.9
§6.5. 10
Eq 6- 15
0-15 ft
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
116
10.0 psf
10.9
11.6
12.3
13.4
14.3
15.0
15.7
16.4
16.9
17.4
18.2
11 c.1 Determine pressure and force coefficients
Internal pressure coefficients - GC
pi
GC
pi
= ±0.18 Case 1: Internal Pressure Inward
Case 2: Internal Pressure Outward
External pressure coefficients - C
p
For example building, monoslope roof'B = 0
§6.5.11
§6.5.11.1,
F6-5
§6.5.11.2,
F6-6
L
Elevation
L
Plan
(Note: Internal pressures
must be added to or
subtracted from external
pressures typical
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 207
§6.5 Example 57 • Wind Loads - Analytical Procedure
I
Windward wall C; = 0.8 F 6-6
I
II ,GC = , (0.85)(0.8)
0· 15 n 6.80
I
20 7.41
25 7.89
30 8.36
40 9. 11
I
50 9.72
60 10.2
70 10.7
I
80 11.2
90 11.5
100 11.8
116 12.4
I
Leeward wall
I
L 50
F6-6 - = - = 1 ---> C = - 0.5
B
50 p
I
q"
= q " ' ll 6 fi = 18.2 psf
q"GC
p
= 18.2 (0.85)(- 0.5) = -7.74 psf
I
Side walls
c, =-0.7 F 6-6
I
q"GCp
= 18.2 (0.85)(- 0.7) = -1 0.8 psf
Roof
I
h 11 6
- = - =2.3 > 1.0
L 50
I
c, = - 1.3 x 0.8 (Area Reduction Factor) = 1.04 F 6-6
q"GCp
= 18.2 psf(0.85)(xI.04) = x 16. 1 psf
I
lid·1
Design wind loads §6.5.12
I
Main wind-force-resisting system §6.5.l 2.2
I
Rigid building §6.5. 12.2. 1
I
208 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I
I
Example 58. Floor Vibra:ions
Windward wall
qh(GC
pi
) = (18.2)(0. 18) =3. 28 psf(±)
CEq 6-17)
Ii
0-15 ft
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
116
Leeward wall
p =q"GC
p
- qh (GCpi )
p = CJ=GC
p
- Q1J(GC
p
;) Case 1 shown
10. 1
10.7
11.2
11.6
12.4
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
14.8/ Sample Calculation
15 I P = 12.4 - 1B. 2(-0.18) =15.7 Case 1
. 12.4 - 18.2(+0.18) =9.1 Case 2
15.7
p = - 7.74 -1 8.2(-0.1 8) = - 4.5 psf Case 1
p = - 7.74 -1 8.2(0.18) = -I 1.0 psf Case 2
Side walls
= -10.8 - 18.2(0.18) = - 14. I psf
Roof
= -1 6.1 -18.2(0.18) = - 19.4 psf
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I 209
§6.5 Example 57 a Wind Loads - Analytical Procedure
11 e.1 Design wind loads - graphically
r--r--r---r---,. 19.4 psf
4.5 psf Case 1
11.0 psI Case 2
Cas e 1 15.7 psI
Case 2 9.1 psI
Wind
-----,)
11.0 psf
Plan
14.1 psf
Wind

Elevation
Case 1: Internal Pressure Inward
Case 2: Internal Pressure Outward
Verify projected load is greater than 10 psf
10.1 + 11.0 =21.1> 10 psf. . .o.k.
§6.1.4.1
To obtain frame loads, multiply pressures by tributary width = 50/2 = 25 ft or perform Rigid
Diaphragm Analysis
210 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I

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Table of Con tents

CopyrightlPub lisher/Editor/Disclaimer Preface Acknowledgments Suggestions for Improvement / Errata Notifi cation Introduction How to Use This Document Notation Definitions EXAMPLE Example i DESCRIPTION

ii
VlJ

ix xi I 2 3 18 ASCEISEI 7-05 §11.5-1 §11.6 § 12.4.2.3 §2.4 § 11.4 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.2.2 §12.3.3.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1.. §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.2.1 §12.3.4 §12.8.7 §12.8. 1... PAGE 25 26 27 32 36 41 42 46 48 50 52 54 58 59 63 65 67 68 69 74 78

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Classification/Importance Factors Seismic Design Category Example I Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design Example 2 Comb inations of Loads Example 3 Design Spectral Respon se Accelerations Introduction to Vertical Irregularities Example 4 Vertical Irregul arity Type l a and Type Ib Example 5 Vertical Irregul arity Type 2 Example 6 Vertical Irregularity Type 3 Example 7 Vertical Irregularity Type 4 Example 8 Vertical Irregular ity Type 5a Example 9 Vertical Irregularity Type 5a Introduction to Horizontal Irregularities Example 10 Horizontal Irregularity Typ e Ia and Type Ib Example I I Horizontal Irregularity Type 2 Example 12 Horizontal Irregularity Typ e 3 Example 13 Horizontal Irregularity Type 4 Example 14 Horizontal Irregularity Type 5 Example 15 Redu ndancy Factor p Example 16 P-delta Effects Example 17 Seismic Base Shear

..

2006 IBC Stru ctural/S eismic Design Manual, Vol. I

iii

EXAMPLE Example 18 Example 19 Example 20 Example 2 1 Example 22 Example 23 Example 24 Example 25 Example 26 Example 27 Example 28 Example 29 Example 30 Exampl e 31 Example 32 Example 33 Example 34 Example 35 Example 36 Example 37 Example 38 Example 39 Example 40 Example 4 1 Exampl e 42 Example 43 Example 44 Example 45 Example 46 Example 47 Example 48 Example 49
iv

DESCRIPTION Appro xima te Fundamental Period Simplified Alternative Structural Design Procedure Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical Comb ination of Framin g Systems: in Different Directions Combin ation of Structural Systems : Along the Same Axis Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force Horizontal Distribution of Shear Amplification of Accident al Torsion Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems Elements Supporting Disconti nuous Walls or Frames Soil Pressure at Foundati ons Drift Story Drift Lim itations Vertical Seismic Load Effect. Design Response Spectrum Dual Systems Lateral Forces for One-Story Wall Panels Out-of-Plane Seismic Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel Rigid Equipment.. Flexible Equipment Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments Deformation Compatibility for Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F .· Adjoining Rigid Elements Exterior Elements: Wall Panel Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel. Beam Horizontal Tie Force Collector Elements Out-of-Plane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to Flexible Diaphragms Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx : Lowrise Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx : Highrise Building Separations

ASCE/SEI 7-05 §12.8.2.I §I 2.14 §I 2.2.3.I §I2.2.2 §I 2.2.3.2 §12.8.3 §12.8.4 §I2.8.4.3 §I 2.3.3.3 §12.3.3.3 §2.4 §I2.I3.4 §12.8.6 § 12.12 §12.4.2.2 §11.4.5 §12.2.5. I §12.11 §12.11. I §I2.11.2 §I 3.3.1 §13.3.1 §I3.3.2 § I2.12.4 §12.7.4 §I3.5 .3 §13.5.3 §12.1.3 §12.10.2 §12.11.2 §12.11.2.1 § 12.11.2.1 §12.10 .1.1 §12.10.1 §12.12.3

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2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I

1 §6.7. Vol.4 §6.2 §15.0 § 15.23.4.Table of Conten ts 1 EXAM PLE Example 50 Example 5 1 Example 52 Example 53 Example 54 Example 55 Example 56 Example 57 DESCRIPTION Flexible Nonbuilding Structure Lateral Force on Nonb uilding Structure Rigid No nbuilding Structure Tank With Supported Bottom Pile Interconnections Simplified Wind Loads on 2-Story Buildings Simplified Wind Loads on Low-Rise Buildings Wind Loads .4 §6.2.5 §15.5 PAGE 179 182 186 188 190 193 200 205 I I I I I I I I I 2006 IB C Structural/Seismic D esign Man ual.6 IBC § 1808.Ana lytica l Procedure ASCE /SEI 7-05 §15. I V I .

Vol. I .I I I I I I I I I I I I vi 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.

Vol. It has been developed by the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) with funding provided by SEAOC. Its purpose is to provide guidance on the interpretation and use of the seismic requirements in the 2006 l llfem ational Building Code (IBC). The 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is not meant to establish a minimum standard of care but. NCSEA and ICC intend to update the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual with each edition of the building code. I vii . how the various seismic requirements of the code are implemented in a realistic design. and everyday structural engineering design practice . instead. furnish examples of seismic design of common types of buildings. which explains the basis for the code provisions.. I I 1 The examples in the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual do not necessarily illustrate the only appropriate methods of design and analysis.2000 IEC Volume I code application problems have been retained herein to provide easy reference to compare revised code requirements. Proper engineering judgment should always be exercised when applying these examples to real projects. Jon P. Volumes 1I and lIl: Building Design Examples. calculation-bycalculation. published by the International Code Council . presents reasonable approaches to solving problems typically encountered in structural /seismic design . The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual illustrates how the provisions of the code are used. Inc. such as computing base shear or building period . SEAOC. Volume 1: Code Application Examples. In Volumes" and III. The example problem numbers used in the prior Seismic Design Manual . The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual was developed to fill a void that exists between the commentary of the Blue Book. and SEAOC's 2005 Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (also called the Blue Book). important aspects of whole buildings are designed to show.Preface I This document is the initial volume in the three-volume 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. provides step-by-step examples for using individual code provisions. Kiland and Rafael Sabelli Project Managers I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.

1 J J I I I I I viii 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol. I .

. During its development. Co-Project Manager Rafael Sabell i. The consultants for Volumes I. The 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 committees reviewed the document and provided many helpful comments and suggestions. Vol. They were selected by a steering committee set up by the SEAOC Board of Directors and were chosen for their knowledge and experience with structural engineering practice and seismic design. Lawson Joe Maffei Kevin Moore Stephen Kerr A number of SEAOC members and other structural engineers helped check the examples in this volume. I ix . - I •• L . drafts of the examples were sent to these individuals.. I' _. Thompson Dan Werdowatz Matt Eatherton John W.Acknowledgments The 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual Volume J was written by a group of highly qualified structural engineers. ICC 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Their assistance is gratefully acknowledged. and III are: Jon P... Their help was sought in review of code interpretations as well as 'detailed checking of the numerical computations. Close collaboration with the SEAOC Seismology Committee was maintained during the development of the document. II. Kiland. Co-Project Manager Douglas S. 'l.

these will be posted on the SEAOC web site at h/lP://11 1111 '.org.. mayor may not issue written errata I I I I I J I I x 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic DesIgn Manual.seaoc .org. Vol.iccsaf e. In the event that corrections or clarifi cations are needed. Comm ents and suggestions for improvements are welcome and shou ld be sent to the following: Structural Engi neers Association of Cal ifornia (SEAOC) A ttention : Executive Director 14 14 K Street.Sugges tion s for Impro vem ent I In keep ing with SEAOC's and NCSEA's Mission Statemen ts: "to adva nce the structural engineering profession" and "to provide structural engineers with the most current informa tion and tools to improve their practice. SEAOC. I I . Fax : (916) 932-2209 E-ma il: leeiWseaoc.org or on the ICC website at http:// wll1l. ati ts sole discretion. Suite 260 Sacramento.org I I I I SEAOC and NCSEA have made a substantial effort to " ensure that the information in this document is accurate." SEAOC and NCSEA plan to upd ate this document as structural/seismic requirements change and new research and better understand ing of building performa nce in earthqu akes becomes ava ilable. Web address: www .seaoc. California 95814 Telephone: (9 16) 447-1198 .

a tilt-up warehouse. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual . or group of problems. When differences between the !BC and Blue Book are significant they are brought to the attention of the reader. The primary referenced document is ASCE/SEI 7-05. and deals primarily with a single code provision. a braced steel frame building. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is intended to help the reader understand and correctly use the mc structural/seismic provisions and to provide clear. Volumes II and III will provide a series of structural/seismic design examples for buildings illustrat ing the seismic design of key parts of common building types such as a large threestory wood frame building. The 2006 lBC Structural/Seism ic Design Manual is intended for use by practicing structural engineers and structural designers. MSJC and NOS) are then referenced to take the structural load demands from ASCE/SEI 7-05 and perform specific materia l designs. and a concrete shear wall building. building departments. Each example begins with a description of the problem to be solved and a statement of given information.1 Introduction Volume I of the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual: Code App lication Examples deals with interpretation and use of the structural/seismic provisions of the 2006 lntem ational Building Code'" (!BC). AISC. The 2006 !BC has had structural provisions removed from its text and has referenced several national standards documents for structural design provisions. and structural engineering students. there are some provision ofSEAOC 's 2005 Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary (Blue Book) that are app licable. Vol. National Material design standards (such as ACI. The problem is solved through the normal sequence of steps." ASCE/SEI 7-05 is referenced for load and deformation design demands on structural elements. Appropriate code references for each step are identified in the right-hand margin of the page. While the 2006 lBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 !BC. concise. which contains the "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Each example is a separate problem . with interpretation of specific provisions and examples highl ighting their proper application. and graphic guidance on the application of specific provisions of the code. each of which is illustrated in full. I 1 . It primarily addresses the major structural/seismic provisions of the !BC. I 1 I I I I I I I I a The complete 2006 lBC Structural/Selsmic Design M nual will have three volumes. Volume I presents 58 examples that illustrate the application of specific structural/seismic provisions of the !Be. other plan review agencies .

which provides the solution to the example and appropriate discussion to assist the reader.. 2005 AISC Steel Construction Manual 13th Edition. Vol.4. reference to specific code provisions and equations is given in the right-hand margin under the category Code Reference. outer come r of each page. I . Reference to ASCE/SEI 7-05 sections and formulas is abbreviated. Generally. or in the examples. the ASCE/SEI 7-05 notation is used throughout. the Volume I examples focus entirely on use of speci fic provisions of the code. these documents are clearly ident ified. and "F 22-15 " is understood to be Figure 2215.2 with ASCE/SEI 7-05 being understood. The various code application examp les of Volume I are organized by topic consistent with previous editions. Building design examples are given in Volumes II and III.3-1" is understood to be ASCE/SEI 7-05 Table 12. there is a statement of the example to be solved.2" is given as §6.4." In this section. Generally. "ASCE/SE I 7-05 §6. The 2006 lEe Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2006 IBC. No building design is illustrated . look at the upper. In general. Throughout the document. Som e other notation is defined in the followi ng pages. To find an example for a particular provision of the code. Commentary is intended to provide a better understanding of the exampl e and/or to offer guidance to the reader on use of the information generated in the example. Finally. First. For example.'>. or 2005 NOS).Ho w to Use This Do cum ent ] • :JC . diagram s. and sketches. and the referenced Standard ASCE/SEI 7-05 unless otherwise indicated. 1 I I I I I I I I I I I ) I I 2 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. reference is made to othe r codes and standards (e. Similarly.3-1.g. . " Equation (12 . When this is done. This is followed by the "Calculations and Discussion" section. the phrase "T 12. Occasionally. many of the examples have a third section designated "Commentary. ACI 318-05.8-3) in the right-hand margins.8-3)" is designated (Eq 12. the examples are presented in the following format. including given information. comm ents and discussion on the example and related material are made. or in the table of contents.

4. E can mean the tabulated elastic modulus under the AISC definition (steel) or it can mean the earthquake load under § 12. each definition is prefaced with a brief descript ion in parentheses (e. in square feet. The reader is cautio ned that the same notation may be used more than once and may carry entire ly different mean ings in different situations. When the same notation is used in two or more definitions. I . in square feet of a shea r wall flange area Ag Ag Ai = = = = = gross area of section the gross area of that wall in which ADis identified the floor area in square feet of the diaphragm level immediately abo ve the story under consideration area of the load-carrying foun dation the effective area of the projection of an assumed concrete failure surface upon the surface from wh ich the anchor protrudes .. These are generally consistent with those used in ASCE/SEI 7-05 and other Standards such as ACI and AISC.2 of ASCE /SEI 7-05 .g. steel or loads) before the definition is given. Some new notations have also been added . For example. A ABM area of floor or roof supported by a member = cross-sectional area of the base material area of anc hor. in square inches the combined effective area.Notation The following notations are used in this document. Vol. of the shear walls in the first story of the structure I I I I I I A ch = cross-sectional area of a struct ural member measured out-to-out of transverse reinforcement net area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of section in the directio n of shear force considered Ae AI the minimum cross-sectional area in any horizontal plane in the first story. in square inches area of non-prestressed tension rein forcement 3 I I I = 2006 lac Stru ctural/S eism ic Design Manual.

ap I I I I I I I b br bu.1 (concrete) width of compression face of member flange width web width ] Ask A Slmin = = = = = As. 4 2006 IBC Structural/S eism ic Design Manual. or area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to flexura l tension reinforcement within a distance s for deep flexural members required area of leg reinforcement in each group of diagonal bars in a diagonally reinforced coupling beam area of shear-friction reinforcement (web) link web area (weld) effective cross-sectional area of the weld the torsional amp lification factor at Level x . 1) amplification factor related.8.to the response of a system or component as affected by the type of seismic attachment determined in §13.4.Nota tion Ash = total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including supplementary crossties) having a spacing s" and crossing a section with a core dimension of he area of skin reinforceme nt per unit height in one side face area having minimum amount of flexural reinforcement area of link stiffener tributary area area of shear reinforcement within a distance s.'J Av r All' = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Aw A. distance between concentrated load and face of supports coefficient defin ing the relative contribution of concrete strength to wall strength incrementa l factor relating to the P-delt a' effects as determined in §12.3. I .3 (concrete) depth of equivalent rectangu lar stress block (concrete spandrel) shear span.7 the acceleration at Level i obtained from a modal analysis (§ 13. AT Av I I A. a a ae ad a..3.8. Vol.§ 12.

§13.3.2.2 and 12.2-1 or 15.4-1 or 15.3. of a shear wall in the first story in the direction parallel to the applied forces gross weight of helicopter Dh Dp = relative seismic displacement that a component must be designed to accommodate .2) 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1 building period coefficient .§ 12.1 snow thermal factor Cr C.1 and §19. E E Em = seismic load effect including overstrength factors (§§ 12.2.1. I 5 .8.4) d.14.8.I bit Notation member width-thickness ratio = Cd deflection amplification factor as given in Tables 12.4.2 effective depth of section (distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement) d db db = = = = (anchor bolt) anchor shank diameter (concrete) bar diameter column panel zone depth (steel) modulus of elasticity combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced forces (§12. C1'X = vertical distribution factor . 9th Edition Ce = em C. Vol. = = the seismic response coefficient determined in § 12.4-2 snow exposure factor coefficient defined in §Hl of AISC/ASD.§12.3 distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis of a flexural member dead load.2. in feet.8. the effect of dead load c D I I I I I I I I I De = the length.3.

/ . induced at Level i.8.4. = Fp = Fp . .8.3 (stee l LRFD) nomina l strength of the weld electrode material (steel ASD) allowable weld stress 1 s.N otation I £1 = = = = = = flexural stiffness of compression member modules of elasticity of concrete . as determined in §12.4. I e F Fa Fa Fa Fb FaM Fexx = = = = = Fi.n.3 axial comp ressive stress that would be permitted if axial force alone existed flood load bending stress that would be permitted if bending moment alone existed nominal strength of the base material to be welded classification number of weld metal (minimum specified streng th) portion of seismic base shear.§ 12.8.3 the diap hragm desig n force specified minimum tensile strength. F.. centered at the component's center of gravity and distributed relative to the compon ent' s mass distribution. V. E.Fu. in psi (concrete) modu lus of elastic ity of reinforcement EBF link length load due to fluids site coefficient defined in §11 . Vo/. F" F" Fill = = = = = = = = = F.3 the design lateral force applied at Level x the lateral force induced at any Level i .P. Fw F II' 6 I I I I I I I I I I I I 2006 1BC S tructura l/Seis mic Design Manual.3. ksi through -thickness weld stresses at the beam-co lumn interface minimum specified tensile strength of the anchor long period site coefficient (at 1.0 second period) see § 11. induced by the parts being connected. or x as determined in §12. seism ic force. r.

.

including any permitted live load reduction (i.§12. neglecting reinforcement.notation I he h. Concentrated impact loads unreduced design live load (steel) unbraced beam length for determining allowable bending stress limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength. neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section . I .1 (steel) effecti ve length factor for prismatic member a distribution exponent . except rooflive load.h. Live load related internal moments or forces. I.1 moment of inertia of section resisting externally applied factored loads moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete (concrete.5. 11 or x.3. hn. moment of inertia of structural steel shape. K k L Lo Lb Lp L. Vol. (concrete. = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = assumed web depth for stability height in feet above the base to Level i. neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis.3 live load. component importance factor that is either 1. pipe or tubing about centroidal axis of composite member cross section . h. reduced design live load).e. as determined in §13.8. 8 = = = = I I I I I I I I I I 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. respectively height in feet of the roof above the base the story height below Level x height of entire wall or of the segment of wall considered the importan ce factor determined in accord ance with §11.00 or 1.. uniform moment case roof live load including any permitted live load reduction hsx hll' I I Ia Ig I I ] I t. Ig t.5.

r M = I I I moment at centerline of colum n Mer = moment at which flexural cracking occurs in response to externally applied loads limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength. distance from column centerl ine to centerline of hinge for reduced bending strength (RBS) connection design clear span measured face-to-face of supports unsupported length of compression member I" I" = Ill' Level i = length of entire wall. Vol. in direction of shear force level of the structure referred to by the subscript i. " i = I" designates the first level above the base Leveln = = that level that is upperm ost in the main portion of the structure that level that is under design consideration. uniform moment case I I I "1.. "x = I" designates the first level above the base (steel) maximum factored moment factored moment to be used for design of compression member Level. or of segment of wall considered. measured from center to center of the joints in the frame = t: /.- = moment at face of column (concrete ) modified moment (steel) maximum moment that can be resisted by the member in the absence of axial load (steel) nominal moment strength at section (concrete) required plastic moment strength of shearhead cross section 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Se ismic Des ign Manual. J 9 .Notation Ie 1 (steel RBS) length of radius cut in beam flange for red uced beam section (RBS) design length of a compression member in a frame.

Notation

u,
Mpa

= = = =

(steel) nominal plastic flexural strength, FyZ nominal plastic flexural strength modified by axial load nominal plastic flexural strength using expected yield strength of steel (concrete) probable moment strength determined using a tensile strength in the longitudinal bars of at least 1.25;;. and a strength reduction factor cjJ of 1.0 (steel RBS) probable plastic moment at the reduced beam section (RBS) (concrete) moment due to loads causing appreciable sway torsional moment accidental torsional moment (concrete) factored moment at section (steel) required flexural strength on a member or joint moment corresponding to onset of yielding at the extreme fiber from an elastic stress distribution smaller factored end moment on a compression member, positive if member is bent in single curvature, negative if bent in double curvature larger factored end moment on compression member, always positive number of stories ponding load (steel) factored axial load (wind) design wind pressure unfactored axial load in frame member nominal axial load strength at balanced strain conditions connection force for design of column continuity plates (concrete) critical load

u;
Mpr

1

Mpr M,
M,

= = = = = = = =

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

M,a M" M"

M,•.
MI

M)
N
P P P PDL,

= = = = =

i» , r.; =
Pb Pb l

= = =

r,
10

2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Manual, Vol. I

Notation

Pc P" Po
P si

= =

(concrete anchorage) design tensile strength nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity, or nominal axial strength of a column nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity

= =

FyA
(concrete) factored axial load, or factored axial load at given eccentricity

p" p" p"
=

(steel) nominal axial strength ofa column, or required axial strength on a column or a link (concrete anchorage) required tensile strength from loads nominal axial yield strength ofa member, which is equal to F),A g total unfactored vertical design load at and above Level x

r,
p.,
PE Pu QE
= = = =

axial load on member due to earthquake axial live load the effect of horizontal seismic forces rain load The response modification factor from Table 12.2-1 nominal strength

I I
1

R R R" Rp

=

component response modification factor that varies from J.00 to 3.50 as set forth in Table J 3.5- J or Table J 3.6-1 required strength

I I I I
I

R" R)'
=

ratio of expected yield strength F)'c to the minimum specified yield strength Fy live load reduction in percent -

R, Rl R2
r
r ry

=

!Be §§ 1607.9.2/1607. J 1.2

rate of reduction equal to 0.08 percent for floors (steel) radius of gyration of cross section of a compression member
=

radius of gyration about y axis
2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I

11

No tation

S

= = = = = = = = = = = =

snow load design spectral response acceleration 0.6 (SosITo) T + 0.4 (Sos), for T less than or equal to To (SOl ) 1 T, for T greater than T, 5% damped, design, spectral response acceleration parameter at short period (i.e., 0.2 seconds) = (2/3) S,«.. - § 11.4.4 Mapped, MCE, 5% damp ed, spectral acceleration parameter at short periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) as determin ed by § 11.4.1 5% damped , design, spectral response acceleration parameter at l -second perio d = (2/3) S sn Mapped, MCE, 5% damped, spectral acceleration parameter for a l-s econd period as determined in § 11.4.1 MCE, 5% damped, spectral response acce leration parameter for short periods (i.e., 0.2 seconds) = FoS,. adj usted for site class effects MCE, 5% damped , spectral response acceleration parameter for l-second peri od = F•. SJ, adjusted for site class effects sectio n modu lus at the reduced beam section (RBS) spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction parallel to longitudinal reinforcemen t, or spacing of transverse reinforcement measured along the longitud inal axis self-straining force arising from contracti on or expansion resultin g from temperature change, shrinkage, moisture change, creep in comp onent materials, movement due to differential settlement or combinations thereof elastic fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, of the structure in the direction under consideration, see § 11.4.5 for limitations approximate fundamental period as determined in accordance with § 12.8.2.1 0.2 (SOl 1Sos) SOl 1Sos thickness of flange thickness of web

So

I I

Sos

S,

SOl

I

SI

s'II S

S,I/I

SRBS
S

T

=

T

= = = = = =

To

To T,
If

I I I I I I I I I I

tw
12

2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual, Vol. I

1
I;

Notation

ratio of expected yield strength F ,.<to the minimum specified yield strength F."

U

=

requ ired strength to resist factored loads or related intemal momen ts and forces the tota l design seismic lateral force or shear at the base of the building or structure

V

Vc

=

(conc rete) nominal shear strength provided by concrete (concrete anchorage) design shear strength

I
I
I

Vc VDL, Vu , V,ei,

= =

unfactored shear in frame member shear correspond ing to the development of the "nominal flexural strength - calculated in accordance with Chapter 19" (concrete) nom inal shear stren gth at section (steel) nomina l shear strength of a member

v,,,

v,
V" Vp Vpa

= =

(steel) shear strength of an active link nominal shear streng th of an active link modified by the axial load magnitude the portion of the seismic shear force at the level of the diaphragm, required to be transferred to the components of the vertical seismiclateral-force-resisting system because of the offsets or changes in stiffue ss of the compon ents above or below the diaphragm

I I I
I I I

Vpx

V,

=

(concrete) nominal shear streng th provided by shear reinforcement (steel) shear strength of member, 0.55 Fidt

V, V" V"

= = =

(concrete anchorage) required shear strength from factored loads (concre te) factored shear force at section (loads) factore d horizontal shear in a story (steel) required shear strength on a member

v,
V"

v.

=

the seismic design story shear (forc e) in story x, (i.e.• between Level x andx-I )

2006 IBC Structural/S eismic D esign Manual, Vol. I

13

.2 weight of the wall tributary to the anchor column panel zone width height of upper support attachment at Level x as measured from the base heigh t of lower support attachm ent at Level Yas measured from the base (steel) plastic section modulus height in structure at point of attachment of component. respectively the weigh t of the smaller portion of the structure the weight of the diaphragm and other elemen ts of the structure tributary to the diap hragm the weigh t of the diaphragm and elements tributary thereto at Level x.7.. I I I I I I a 14 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Seismic Design Manu al.2 and §12.= X I I y Z z ZeD s <I> <l>b <l>c <1>.7.3. 11-'-r wp wp I I 1 I lVp:c ) VII' = = = = = = = = = = = = 11. §13.1 plastic section modu lus at the reduced beam section (RBS) (concrete) capacity-reduction or strength-reduction factor (steel) resistance factor for flexure (steel) resistance factor for compression resistance factor for shear strength of panel-zone of beam-tocolumn connections (concrete) angle between the diagonal reinforcement and the longitudinal axis of a diagona lly reinforced coup ling beam 1 11'.Notation I w W WI' l1'c = = = = = = = = the total effective seismic dead load (weight) defined in § 12. includ ing ap plicable portions of other loads defined in §12.. l (wind) load due to wind pressure component operating weig ht weights of concrete. Vol. l4.8. I . in pcf that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x.

I f ll' 15 .~ (steel) centroid locations of gusset connection for braced frame diagonal coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete strength to wall strength ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load or reaction area Uc I ~c = P P Ph I the ratio of shear demand to shear capacity for the story between Level x and x.85 for " sandlightweight" concrete limiting slen derness parameter for compact element length of radius cut in beam flange for reduced beam section (RBS) connection design distance from co lumn centerline to centerline of hinge for RBS connection design A p fo = = flo fn f u = = clear span measu red face-to-face of supports unsupported length of comp ression member length of entire wall or of segment of wall considered in direction of shea r force 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic D esign Manua l.3. and 0.0 for norma l-weight concrete.I a redundancy factor determined in accordance with § 12.to gross concrete area A c" I I I I I I I p" = lightweight aggregate concrete factor.4 (conc rete) ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement (As/bd ) reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions = = pn ps = = J ratio of area of distributed reinforcement parallel to the plane of A c" to gross concrete area perpendicular to the reinforcement ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total volume of core (out-to-out of spirals) ofa spirally reinforced compression member ratio of area of distributed reinforcement perp endicular to the plane of A«.Notation 1 a. 1.75 for "all lightweight" concre te. 0. Vol.

see § 12.2-1 inelastic deflections of Level x .OM2 = = Ol:4 deflection at structure level y of structure A = OrB 8 deflection at structure level y of structure B stability coefficient .§ 12.12 design story drift allowable story drift. 8 shall be computed using earthquake forces without dividing by 1.§ 12.4.Notation 1-1 coefficient offriction = I I 1 1 8 design story drift. OM OAlI. as obtained from Table 12. Vol.WE ONl4X OX4 = = = the maximum displacement at Level x deflection at structure Level x of structure A the deflections determined by an elastic analysis of the seismic-forceresisting system maximum of Ox displacements of the adjacent building where 0M2 is at same level as OAII s.8. shall be computed as the differences of the deflections at the center of mass at the top and bottom or the story under consideration.6 the average of the displacements at the extreme points of the structure at Level x I I I no Ox O. I . Note: Where ASD is used.7 I I I I I I I I I I 16 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.12-1 for any story 8 8a 8 aA 8 aB = = = = = allowable story drift for structure A allowable story drift for structure B system overstrength factor as given in Table 12.8.

Component. equipment. or structural system. interior openings. The level at which the horizontal seismic ground motions are considered to be imparted to the structure. members. Seismic. Base Shear.06 second . flexible. 17 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Attachments. Active fault traces are designated by the appropriate regulatory agency and/or registered design professional subject to identification by a geologic report. Component. such that elastically computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also called working stress design). Cantilevered Column System.000 years) times. A diaphragm or shear wall element parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers shear forces to the vertical-foree-resisting elements or distributes forces within a diaphragm or shear wall. Collector. A structural system relying on column elements that cantilever from a fixed base and have minimal rotational resistance capacity at the top with lateral forces applied essentially at the top and are used for lateral resistance. A fault for which there is an average historic slip rate of I mm per year or more and geologic evidence of seismic activity within Holocene (past I 1. An exterior floor projecting from and supported by a structure without additional independent supports. A part or element of an architectural. Chords and collectors at diaphragm and shear wall edges. discontinuities. I I I I I I Brittle. Total design lateral force or shear at the base. Such attachments include anchor bolts. I Base. and re-entrant corners. A method of proportioning structural members. Component. I . Exterior. including its attachments. Means by which components and their supports are secured or connected to the seismic-foree-resisting system of the structure. Vol. Systems. Boundary Members. mechanical. welded connections and mechan ical fasteners. having a fundamental period greater than 0. A mechanical or electrical component or element that is part of a mechanical and/or electrical system within or without a building system. Boundary Elements. Balcony.Definitions Active Fault/Active Fault Trace. Component. Allowable Stress Design. Portions along wall and diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement and/or structural steel members. electrical. materials and connections that do not exhibit significan t energy dissipation capacity in the inelastic range.

Definitions Component. The earthquake effects that are 2/3 of MCE earthquake effects. Deformability. including its attachments. 18 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items. piers. The deformation at which failure occurs and which shall be deemed to occur if the sustainable load reduces to 80 percent or less of the maximum strength. greater than 1. and fixed service equipment. An element that is neither a low deformability nor a high deformability element. Ultimate deformation.0. The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building. finishes. floors. and/or posts. A diaphragm that does not conform to the definition of flexible diaphragm. stairways. Two times the initial deformation that occurs at a load equal to 40 percent of the maximum strength. or other independent supports . Diaphragm. Deck. Coupling Beam. Component. Limited deformability element. . built-in partitions. Designated Seismic System. The portion of a reinforced concrete component in which the concrete is confined by closely spaced special transverse reinforcement restraining the concrete in directions perpendicular to the applied stress. cladding. having a fundamental period less than or equal to 0. High deform ability element. including but not limited to walls.06 second . Flexible. Those architectural. including the weight of cranes. Diaphragm. determined by comparing the computed maximum inplane deflection of the diaphragm itself under lateral force with the story drift of adjoining vertical lateral-force-resisting elements under equivalent tributary lateral force. 1 1 I 1 I I I J I I I I I I I I I I I . roofs. rigid. An element whose deformability is 1. Low deform ability element. Limit deformation. A diaphragm is flexible for the purpose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the lateral deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the average story drift of the associated story. ceilings. and mechanical systems and their components that require design in accordance with Chapter 13 that have a component importance factor. Confined Region. Design Earthquake. Deformation. Design Strength. An exterior floor supported on at least two opposing sides by an adjacent structure. An element whose deformability is not less than 3.5 or less.5 when subjected to four fully reversed cycles at the limit deformation. lp . The ratio of the ultimate deformation to the limit deformation. electrical. Vol. Dead Loads. Rigid. A beam that is used to connect adjacent concrete wall piers to make them act together as a unit to resist lateral forces. The product of the nominal strength and a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor).

Factored Load. The value of the lateral force in the isolation system. required for design of the isolation system. Element Ductile element. Effective Damping. exclud ing additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion . Effective Stiffness. design of building separations. or earthquakes. required for design of the isolation system. A collect ion of structural elements that limits lateral displacement of seismically isolated structu res due to the maximum considered earthquake.Definitions 1 Displacement. The maximum considered earthquake lateral displacement. Flexible Equipment Connections. Total Maximum Displacement. wind. Those connections between equipment components that permit rotational and/or translational movement without degradation of perform ance. Duration of Load. Those structural members or assemblies of members or manufactured elements. Design Displacement. lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. lugs. Nonductile elements cannot reliably sustain significant deformation beyond that attained at their nominal strength. or saddles that transmit gravity load and operating load between the equipment and the structure. Buildings and other structures that are intended to remain operational in the event of extreme environmental loading from flood. The product of a nominal load and a load factor. or the aggregate of periods of intermittent applications of the same load. I . hangers. Limited ductile element. including braces. Total Design Displacement. required for verification of the stability of the isolation system or elements thereof. divided by the corresponding lateral displacement. including additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion. frames. including additional displacement due to actual and accidental torsion. The value of equivalent viscous damping corresponding to energy dissipated during cyclic response of the isolation system. snubbers. and vertical load testing of isolator unit prototype. 19 I I I I I I 2006 Vol. An element having a mode of failure that results in an abrupt loss of resistance when the element is deformed beyond the deformation corresponding to the development of its nominal strength . The design earthquake lateral displacement. or an element thereof. Equipment Support. Displacement Restraint System. snow. Essential Facilities. Nonductile element. An element that is capable of sustaining moderate cyclic deformations beyond the attainment of nominal strength without significant loss of strength. The period of continuous application of a given load. The design earthquake lateral displacement. An element capable of sustaining large cyclic deformations beyond the attainment of its strength.

that is capable of supporting vertical loads and that also may provide resistance to seismic forces . A factor assigned to each structure according to its occupancy category as prescribed in §11. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame system providing support for vertical loads. Frame. Hazardous Contents. pressure. Intermediate moment frame (IMF). Vol. Seismic force resistance is provided by shear walls or braced frames. of the concentric or eccentric type that is provided in a building frame system or dual frame system to resist shear. other than bearing walls . A structural system with an essentially complete space frame system providing support for vertical loads. and possible surcharge from fixed or moving loads. Concentrically braced frame (CB F). Building frame system. The total dead load and applicable portions of other loads as defined in §§ 12. I 1 ) 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 20 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Eccentrically braced frame (EBF).7. A steel concentrically braced frame in which members and connections are designed for moderate ductility. The load resulting from moving machinery. Frame System. Ordinary concentrically braced frame (OCBF).5.2 and 12.14. Dual frame system.1. Special moment frame (SMF). and other similar forces and kinetic loads. Space frame system. A material that is highly toxic or potentially explosive and in sufficient quantity to pose a significant life-safety threat to the general public if an uncontrolled release were to occur.8. elevators. Braced frame. craneways. A diagonally braced frame in which at least one end of each brace frames into a beam a short distance from a beam-column or from another diagonal brace. or its equi valent . I . A braced frame in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces. Ordinary moment frame (OMF). Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF). A steel or composite steel and concrete concentrically braced frame in which members and connections are designed for ductile behavior. A moment frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis ofthe members. A structural system composed of interconnected members. An essentially vertical truss. Seismic force resistance is provided by a moment-resisting frame and shear walls or braced frames. Gravity Load (W). Impact Load. A moment frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members. Moment.Definitions ) Frame. vehicles.1. Importance Factor. A moment frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting forces by flexure as well as along the axis of the members.

I Isolation System. thus. Isolation Interface. Other loads are variable loads (see also "Nominal loads"). flood load. for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect. which is isolated . Those loads produced I) during maintenance by workers. A condition beyond which' a structure or member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state). 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. A method of proportioning structural members and their connections using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to appropriate load combinations. The structures are usually T-shaped with a single column supporting the beams or framing at the top. and materials. and 2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters and by people . Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). The collection of structural elements that includes individual isolator units. Forces and deformations produced in structural members by the applied loads. A portion ofa column bounded by the highest and lowest surfaces of the other members framing into it. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nomin al load. equipment. and restrained dimensional changes. and the lower portion of the structure. I I I I I I I Live Loads (Roof). Loads. A horizontally flexible and vertically stiff structural element of the isolation system that permits large lateral deformations under design seismic load. Loads Effects.Definitions Inverted Pendulum-type Structures. and for the probability that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously.ordead load. The boundary between the upper portion of the structure. Structures that have a large portion of their mass concentrated near the top and. Joint. Live Loads. I 21 . Forces or other actions that result from the weight of building materials. rain load. Load Factor. Limit State. environmental effect. have essentially one degree of freedom in horizontal translation. differential movement. which moves rigidly with the ground. earthquake load. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structu re and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load. The term "LRFD" is used in the design of steel and wood structures. An isolator unit may be used either as part of or in addition to the weight-supporting system of the building. Vol. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude. occupants and their possessions. snow load. Isolator Unit. structural elements that transfer force between elements of the isolation system and connections to other structural elements.

other than a building. snow. constructed of a type included in Chapter 15 and within the limits of § 15. Seism ic Forces. rain. Seism ic Response Coefficient . 1. see § 11. and earthquake. Panel (Part of a Structure). soil.8. wind. other than buildings. Seismic-fo rce-resisting system. A structure. Shallow Anc hors. Structures. The magnitudes of the loads specified in this chapter (dead. or roof located between the supporting frame of two adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor or roof construction. Other Structures. P-delta Effect. wall. related to the response of the structure to earthqua ke motions. A floor. 1 . axial forces and moments of frame members induced by axial loads on a laterally displaced building frame. Site Class . Coefficient C" as determined from §12. considering interaction between shear walls and frames on all levels. The section of a floor.2. or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm. live. Nominal Loads. to be used in the design of the structure and its components. Shear Pa nel.4. Shear Wa ll-frame Interactive System. A structural system that uses combination s of shear walls and frames designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to their rigidities. A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site. Vol. flood. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the nominal strength and the manner and consequences of failure (also called strength reduction factor). Shallow anchors are those with embedme ntlength-to-diameter ratios of less than 8. Resistance Factor.Definitions Maximum Considered Earthquake.1. A classification assigned to a site based on the types of soils present and their engineering properties as defined in § 11. A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall. Shea r Wa ll. The part of the structural system that has been considered in the design to provide the required resistance to the seismic forces prescribed herein.) Nonbuilding Structure. The assumed forces prescribed herein.4. The second order effect on shears. Seismic Design Category. for which loads are specified in this chapter. roof. 22 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 200 6 IBC Structural/Seis mic D esign Manua l. The most severe earthquake effects considered by this code.

Nom ina l.) The term "strength design" is used in the design of concrete and masonry structural elements. Torsiona l Force Distrib utio n. 2006 IBC Structural/Sei smic D esign Manual. Strength. Strength Required.4-1 and 11. The story drift divided by the story height. Any wall meeting either of the follow ing classifications: I. respect ively. The distribu tion of horizontal seismic forces through a rigid diaphragm when the center of mass of the structure at the level under consideration does not coincide with the center of rigidity (sometimes referred to as a diaphragm rotation).4-2. The ability of a material to absorb energy without losing significant strength . Story Drift Ratio. To ughness. or hoops and supplementary cross-ties provided to restrain the concrete and qualify the portion of the componen t. The values of Fa and F indicated in Tables 11. Strength Design. The capacity of a structure or member to resist the effects of loads. cross section. or connection required to resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated by these provisions. as determined by computations using specified material strengths and dimensions and formulas derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of scaled models. Reinforcement composed of spirals. Load-bearing. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.1 1 Dennltions Site Coefficients. as a confined region. Non load-bearing. The wind-restraint system may be either an integral part of isolator units or a separate device. " Special Transverse Reinforcement. 2. Wall. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertica l load in addition to its own weight. The collection of structural elements that provides restraint of the seismic-isolated-structure for wind loads. A method of proportion ing structural members such that the computed forces produced in the members by factored loads do not exceed the member design strength (also called load and resistance factor design. allowing for modeling effects and differenc es between laboratory and field conditions. Vol. Strength of a member. closed stirrups. Wall. Any wall that is not a load-bearing wall. W ind-res traint Seismic System. where used. I 23 .

Vol. I .Definitio ns ] I I I I I I 24 2006 IBC StructurallSe lsmlc Design Manual.

6 Determine the importan ce factors and the seismic design category for a faci lity given the following information." for the given occupancy category.0 1. [!J [!J Building category and importance factors for general occupancy and for one build ing to be used for emergency shelter Seismic Design Category (SOC) IC~/c~d/~Jions and Discussion Cd~e Referenc.~ [!J Building category and importance factors .0 1.20 Wind Factor f 1.6. Type of occupancy .Example i • Classlficationllmportance Fact ors/Seismic Des ign Ca t eg or y §11. The one building to be used for an emergency shelter is Category IV.5-1 §11.5-1. " Importance Factors .17 = = SOl SI 0. Seismic Factor f \. The occupancy category is used to determine the "Se ismic Design Category.Elementary School with capacity greater than 250 S DS = 1. Importance factors for snow loads are from Table 7-4. The importance fac tors for seismic loads are from Table 11 . From Table 1\. I 25 .15 Category II IV 2006 IBC Str uctural/Se ismi c Des ig n Manu al." § 11 . Vol.0 \. Importance factors for wind loads are from Table 6-1.1.75 Determine the following.70 0.5 Snow Factor 1 \.1. the general category is II.5.

75. ~ 0. 6 J ~ Seismic Design Category ] ] J All structures are assigned to a Seismic Design Category (SDC) based on their Occup ancy Category and the spectral response acceleration coefficients So< and SOl. irrespec tive of the fundamental period of vibration of the structure T.17 D* 0* Table 11. the building shall be assigned to SDC F.S· 1 Example i • Cla ssification/Impo rtance Fa ctors Seismic Des ign Cat egory § 1 1.6-2 SDC SOl 0. equal to or greater than 0. 1 I .75 ). I I I I I I I I I I 1 26 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. II.70 D* 0* SDC USE* E F II Emergency IV Shelter Recall: SI = 0.6.I or I 1.70 0.1 Occupancy Category vs Seismic Design Category Nature of Occupancy Sc hool Occupancy Category Table I 1.75 (recall Sj = 0.I7 1. Also for Occupancy Category IV having S. Table 2.6-1 SDC SDS 1.6-2 as follows. and III having S.75% for this table I I *Note that for Occupancy Categories I. the building shall be assigned to SDC E. Vol.§ 11. Each building and structure shall be assigned to the most severe SDC in accordance with Table 11.

office building live load.2 . / // / r r • / rrr> D Beam A-B and Column C-D are elements of the special moment-resisting fram e.10 = 1. This will be done for the moment-resisting frame structure shown below. ILJ [!J [!J Strength design seismic load combinations (Comb . I 27 . Dead Load D Beam Mome nt at A Column C-D Axial Load Column Moment at C . This is not necessarily true for the other elements of the structure.110 kips -) 60 kip-It Sign Convention: Positive moment induces flexural tension on the bottom side of a beam and at the right side of a column.2.3 .) Strength design moments at beam end A for seismic load combinations Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the design of column section at C for seismic load combinations 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.3 This example demonstrates the application of the strength design load combinations that involve the seismi c load E given in § 12.5 A Snow load S = 0 B c .) Right-to-Left Seismic Load (-. and left.3 II = 0. Vol .) +120 kip. Positi ve axial load induces compression ..4. Find the following.100 kip -ft +90 kips +40 kip-ft Live Load L -50 kip-ft +40 kips +20 kip-ft Left-to-Right Seism ic Load (--+QI.to-right ( ~) and right-to-left (-) directio ns oflateral seismic loading. and the column axial loads and moments at C due to dead load. 8 Ds I P = 1.ft +110 kips +160 kip-ft -120 kip-ft ..0 = 1. the seism ic Axial Load and Moment at C are both positive fo r the left-to-right ( ~) load ing and are both negative for the right-to -Ieft (-) loading.QI.Ex am p le 1 • Earth q u ake Lo ad Co m b i n ations: St rength Des ign §12. Note that for the pa rticular location of Column C-D. Structural ana lysis has provi ded the follow ing beam moments at A. 4.

the load combinations are = 1.5L (Comb.4-3) when the algebraic sign.2.4-3) (Eq 12.3. 7) 1. 5) (Comb.5L (Comb.5L when the signs of QEand D are the same.5L . 5) 1. I I I .2D + I..2S D SD (Eq 12. =0.OE + 0. and 1.3QE+ (0.§12.. and 28 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2SDSD (Eq 12.2S =0) 0.I2D + 1..3QE (Comb..(0. ±.2D + 1. 7) when the signs of QE and D are the same. = PQE E. E.3QE+ 0.3QE .I)D + 0.2D + 1.+E.4-4) 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I Combined.3QE+ 0. these yield E =PQE+ 0.10.4-1) (Eq 12.42D + 1.2SDSD when the algebraic sign.3QE + (0.98D + 1.9D + 1.4. and E =PQE - 0.0E where for a given type of load action such as moment M or axial load P E=E. of QE is taken as opposite to that for D.2)( I.2)(1. SDS= 1. of QE is taken as the same as that for D. =0. ±.5L when the signs of QEand D are opposite .1)D + 0.2)(1.9D + 1. (Note 0..1)D = 1. 5) 0. Vol. For the given values of: p = 1.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design I [LJ Governing strength design seismic load combinations 1 (Comb .

9 D + 1.3Q£ (Comb .(0 .323 kip-ft and + 88 kip-ft 2006 IBC Structural/Se ism ic Design Manual. Vol.3QE with D = M D = . 68D + 1. 7) when the signs of Q£ and D are oppos ite. the governing seismic load combinations are when the signs of Q£ and D are the same.2. 0. Streng th design moments at beam end A for seismic load combinations ~ For the governin g load combin ation when the signs of Q£ and D are the same 1.68 D + 1.l)D =0.3QE+ 0.3 0.3QE when the signs of QE and D are opposite.42 (. 4.3 (-120) + 0.3(120) = 88 kip-ft : .323 kip-ft ~ For the governing load combination when the signs of Q£ and D are opposite 0. By inspection.5L I I I I I I I I MA = 1.100) + 1.68(-100) + 1.2)( 1.100 and QE = 120 MA = 0.42D + 1.3QE.5(-50) =. I 29 . Beam section at A must be designed for M A = .68D + 1.I 1 ] Example 1 • Earthqua ke Lo ad Combinations: Stren g th Design §1 2.

Vol. and D.2.9D + p( -->Qd . The interaction design of the column section must satisfy all of the eight pairs of P e and Me from the seismic load 30 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2 SDSD. both the axial load and the moment must be due to a common direction of the lateral seismic loading and a common sense of the vertical seismic acceleration effect represented by 0.5 applies to L if L :0: 100 psf [except at garages and public assembIy areas]) For the specific values of p = 1.2 SDsD.2D + p( -->QE) . and lateral and vertical seismic load effects.l 0.0. This condition would prohibit the use of the same load combination for both axial load and moment.9D + p( -Qd + 0. while the moment algebraic signs are different. For example .0.2 SDsD.9D + p(-Qd .4-4 can be used for the design requirement of a single action such as the moment at beam end A. the directional property of the lateral seismic load effect QE. The resulting set of combinations is 1.2 SDsD 0.3 Example 1 • Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design [!J Strength design interaction pairs of axial load and moment for the design of column section at C for seismic load combinations I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The seismic load combinations using the definitions of E given by Equations 12. and the independent reversible property of the vertical seismic load effect 0. Note that the interaction pair Pc and Me must occur simultaneously at a specific load combination of gravity load. These pairs must occur simultaneously because of a common load combination.0. I I I .2 SDsD + L sD 0. and the interaction pair Pc and Me.2 SD There can be cases where the axial load algebraic signs are the same for QE sD.§12.4-1 through 12.3 and SDS = l. but they cannot be used for interactive pairs of actions such as the axial load and moment at the column section C. it is proposed to use E = p(-->QE) ± 0.2 SD 0. and p( -Qd ± 0. To include the algebraic signs of the individual actions. the load combinations provide the following values for MA .2 SDsD (Note : a factor of 0.4.

2 -59 .1.1.109.2 .42D .5L O. the algebraic signs of seismic load actions are lost because of the process of combining the individual modal responses.1. and the independent ± action of 0.5L 1.8 The govern ing va lues are und erlined fo r MA [sam e as det erm ined in Part (2) ] and for the interaction pairs of Pc and Me required for the design of the column section at C.5L 0.2 SDCD.3 (Q i. alternatively.3 (Q E) + O.3 (Qd + 0.2 -131.8 +229.2 . Combination 1.Example 1 a Earthq uake L oad Co m b i n ations : Strength Des i g n §1 2.8 +26. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual.1.9 is used. 12D .8 + 182. When the Modal Respo nse Spectrum Analysis' procedure of § 12.3 (QE) MA kip-ft -35 -9 -299 -255 + 20 +64 -244 -200 Pc kips +268.3 (Qd 0. 8 +220 . I 31 . the signs can be obtained from the equivalent lateral force procedure of § 12.2 -2 0.5L 1.68D .2 . The eight seismic load combinations resulting from the proposed definition of E pro vid e an automatic method of considering the individual algebraic signs of the load actions.12D + 1.12. There is no nee d to use the "same sign" and "opposite sign" limitations of Equations 12 .2 -126.4-3 since all possible com binations are represented .420 + 1. .4 .98D + 1.3 (Qd 0. Or.8.8 +203 .148.2 .68D + 1. Vol.3 (Qd + 0.98D .3 combinations along with the pairs from the gravity load combinations and wind load combinati ons.8 +22 1.) + O.. the direction of the lateral seismic load. 8 +225. Thi s is imp ortant for interactive pa irs of actions that must be evaluated for a common load combination..4-2 and 12.3 (Q E) 1.8 and and and and and · and and and and Me kip-ft +242. The signs to be used for an interaction pair of actions due to a given direction of lateral loading can be obtained from the primary mode response where the prim ary mode is the mode having the largest participation fac tor for the given direction of lateral seism ic loading.

5 + 2.4 defines the basic load combinations for allowable stress design.3 E = Ell = bQ£ = 4 kips (seismic force due to the base shear determined from § 12. including weight of wall Live lIIL = (roof load supported by other elements) Moment arm from center of post to center of hold-down bo lt L = 10 ft . Shear Wall Elevati on [!J Basic allowable stress design 32 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2) Grav ity loads Dead lVD = 0.3 kif (tributary dead load. Seismic Design Catego ry B J = 1.(3.4 ft Determine the required design loads for shear capacity q and hold-down capacity T for the following load combinations.0 ITnTTTTm Plywood shear wall 5 DS = 0.5/2) = 10 ft -7. I .4 and § 12.25 in = 9. Section 2.0 +3.4 Example 2 • Combinations o f Loads -: The code permits the use of allowable stress design for the design of wood members and their fastenings (ASCE/SEI 7-05 §2.3).2. Gravity loads The following information is given.4.4. This example illustrates the application ofthis method for the plywood shear wall shown below. Vol.0 P = 1. The wall is a bearing and shear wall in a light wood framed build ing.§2.

= J.4. These are used without the usual onethird stress increase.525 QE for D and QEwith the same sense = D(J.75 (L + Lr) = (Comb.6D + 0. § 12.6D + QE) = (Comb .3 The governing load combinations for basic allowable stress design are Basic ASD Combinations 5.0 + (0.75)(0.0.0)+0 ..06D when D and QE are in the same sense 1 (Eq 12.75 L.0. and 8.O.0.. 6.06D when D and QE have oppos ite sense For ASD Basic Combination 5 the load comb ination is: I I I I \ D +0. 6) I I D(1.4 r- .7QE for D and QE with opposite sense For ASD Basic Combination 6 the load combination is: D + 0. 8) 2006 IBC Struct ural/S eismic Design Manual...4.6D-Qd = 0.4-3) = QE+ 0.70)(1.2SosD =QE.75(0. as modified in § 12. Vo l. 5) ( 1.7 (0.0.958D .O) + 0.7E) + 0.~ Basic allowable stress design §12.06)) + (0.042)D + 0.75)(0 .0)QE+ 0.2.7E (Comb. ..4-1) I (Eq 12..7)(0. .O.7(-0.2.75 L.525 QE for D and QE with the opposite sense I I For ASD Basic Combination 8 the load combination is: 0. + 0. .3.4.75L.032D + 0.968) + 0.7E = D(I ...4-4) and E = PQE . .1 I [IJ Example 2 • Combinations o f Loads §2. I 33 .2 defines the seismic load effect E for use in load combinations as (Eq 12..7QE for D and QE with the same sense and D(1.

7(1. TQE for D and QE in the opposite sense For the determination of design shear capacity.gn ·Manual.06) + 0.0.§2.7QE. select 15/32 structural I sheeting (plywood) with 10d common nails having a minimum penetration of 1-1/2 inches 34 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des. dead load and live load are not involved.7 as indicated.642D + O. QE must be factored by 0.6 + 0. I .4 Example 2 • Combinations of Loads 1 =D(0.0) QE+ 0.042)D + 0. which gives allowable shear values for short-time duration loads due to wind or earthquake. the governing load combination would be 1. For design shear capacity the seismic load effect is QE = 4000 Ib For the governing load combination ofO.06)D = (0.7QE ~ Required unit shear capacity q Base shear and the resulting element seismic forces QE determined under §12.558D .042)D .7(4000) = 280 If 10ft P This unit shear is used to determine the plywood thickness and nailing requirements from lBe Table 2306.1. For example.7QE = 0.0.7QE For the wall boundary element compression capacity.8.1 are on a strength design basis.4.7QE L = 0.0. the design unit shear is q = 0.7(0.042D + 0.558D .6 . and all load combinations reduce to For the design hold-down tension capacity the governing load combination is 0.7QE = 0. For allowable stress design.O. Vol. TQE for D and QE in the same sense = (0.

the value of the hold-down tension force T due to horizontal seismic forces is computed 0.4 ft(T) = 0 T = 1816.4-2 for E create algebraic sign problems in the load combinations.4-1 and 12.042(300 pit) lOft (5 ft Thu s: ~ ) + 0.200 Ib ft-9. Required hold-down tensile capacity T Taking moments about point 0 at center of post at right side of wall with = oQ£ = 4000 Ib. It would be preferable to use E = pQ£ + 0.39 Ib tension E" ~ ) .4 ft) = 2(12) 0 Similarly the boundary element comp ression capacity is computed 1. I 35 .4 ft C=O c = 4295 Ib compression The tension value is used for the selection of the pre-manufactured hold-down elements. Therefore.7 (4000 Ib)(9 ft) 2(12) C(9.o. Manufacturer's catalogs commonly list hold-down sizes with their "1.33 x allowable" capacity values may be used to select the appropriate hold-down element. allowable shear of 340 plf.200 Ib ft + 9.4 into 2x members with 6-inch spacing of fasteners at panel edges. 7(4000 Ib)(9 ft) + T(9. Here the 1.I I Example 2 • Comb/nations of Loads § 2.33 value represents the allowed Load Duration factor for resisting seismic loads. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.25.88 Ib ft . the catalog "1.33 x allowable" capacity values. Vol. This is not considered a stress increase (although it has the same effect).4 ft) = 0 I 1 15.1741b ft + 25. I I I I I I I Equations 12.2 SD sD and use ± E in the load combinations.558(300 pit) I0 ft(5 ft Thus : 8125.

60 sec. 123° North and Longitude . geocode.com " by simply inputting the address. and I = 1. and most effic ient way to obtain the spectral design values is to use the USGS website iwww. The soil profile is Site Class D.123 (or 121. geocode.5. are used to calculate the design base shear in §12. Given: so il site class D.com " it is determ ined that a building site near Sacramento. California is located at Latitud e 38. Vol. and S) at I-second period are given by the acceleration contour maps in §22. The parameters Sos and So.govr. the website provides va lues of Ss and S).usgs. T = 0. at short periods. This example illustrates the general procedure for determin ing the design spectral response parameters Sos and SDl from the mapped values of Ss and 8). R = 6. I . From u\I'lI'\I'.4.0 I I I 36 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual.eqhazmaps.8 and the Design Response Spectrum in § 11. easiest.§11. D D I I I I I I I I Determin e the following.121. The site longitude and latitude can be obtained from an internet site such as u\I~"H'.J Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations and Sl s. Note that by far the most accurate. Given the longitude and latitude of the site.123 west). !TI [!J Site coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration parameters SMS and SMl Design spectral response acceleration parameters Sos and SOl I I ~ Plot the general procedure response spectrum ~ Calculation of seismic response coefficient c. the maximum conside red earthquake spectral response accelerations S.4 Des ign Spectral Response Acc el eraOons For a given building site. [!.

58(0.58 TII.404g 2006 lac Stru ctural/S eismic De sign Manu al..203g ~ Site coefficients and adjusted maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations §1 1.462g) =O.4.4-2 011 I I I I I I I F.123° West (Longitu de =. Vol. Code.4-1) (Eq 11.4-2) S'/I =F. = 1.Design Spec tral Res p onse Accelerations §1 1.4.4-1 T 11.S.NW of Sacramento.121..4.462g. USGS provides the values of 5s = 46.123°) and 121.203g.203g) =0.3%g = O. = 1.4 .3 From the USGS for the given site class D. California) of 38° North (Latit ude = 38.1 [!J Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations For the given position (Near Sonora .99 The adjusted maximum conside red earthqu ake spectral response accelerations (based §11. I 37 .. the site coefficients are as follows Fa = 1. "" . and Ss = 0.730g (EqI1.2%g = 0.8eference· " §11. = 20.3) are also given on the CD ROM as follows SMS =FaS. = 1. 5\ = O .462g 5.123').99(O.

4-3) 2 =- 3 SMS 2 =. Vol.4. = 38 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manu al.2 (0.20 (SOl / Sos) = = (Eq 11.5 I 1 For periods less than or equal to To.27 /0.55 sec 8 sec (F 22. the design spectra l response shall be given by So = 0.§ 1 1.4-4) General procedure response spectrum §1l .27g 'J ? (Eq 11.4 Sos (Eq 11 .27 / 0. I .15) T.4-6) I I I I I I I I I I I 0.404g) =0.49) O.4-5) For periods greater than or equal to To and less than or equal to T" the design spectral response acceleration So shall be taken equal to Sos For periods greater than T:" and less than TL .49g 3 I I I 1 SOl = ~ S.I{I = ~ (0.6- SDS r: T + 0. = = = Tt.73g) =0. I I sec SOl / 50s 0.49 0. the design spectral response acceleration Sa shall be given by Sa = (SOI) / T Where : To = 0. 4 D es ign Sp ectral Respon se Acc el erations ~ Design spectral response acceleration parameters S DS §1l.4.(0.4 (Eq 11.

5 S DS = 0.27 / 0.8 o o 0.49 0..49 0.27 / 1..0 1... 1.18 ..00 ScJg 0.00 0.17 0.4 9g 0.18 0. 1 -.2 0.4 0.. . =0.6 0.6 2. .3 0.60 2.000.2 1.55 0.4 0.2 0.0 S..8 0. .27 / 1.27 0.11 sec General Procedure Response Spectrum 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. 0.00 1.27 /2.4 1.6 T.0 To =0.. I 39 ...23 0.8 1.27 / 1.49) 0... .4 0.20 1.135 Computation for Sa 0.34 0.19 0.Des ign Spectral R esponse A cc ele ra ti ons §11 A Thus: T =Period 0.27 / 1. Vol.2 0.27 /0..49 0.40 1. .55 sec 0.. in g 's 0..55 0.4 (0.11 0..80 1..

6g C.60) §12.. = 0. = SDI I (RIlE) T (Eq 12. Governs 1 I I The value of C.8-3) = 0.0) (0 ..49 I (6.27 I (6.5S 1 I (RIl) 40 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1 The seismic response coefficient shall be determined by C.8-2) 0. = 0.0 and T= 0.0/1. need not exceed C.0/1. Vol.6) = 0. shall not be less than C. = = = SDS I (RIl) (Eq 12.01 (Eq 12.4 Design Spectral Response Accelerations 1 I Calculation of seismic response coefficient Cs (Recall Soil Site Class D.D75 But shall not be taken less than C. f = 1.08 2 .8.8-5) where SI 2: 0.0) 0. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .§11..

Ib. (Refer to Tab le 12.2 1 Tab le 12.3 may be assumed to be adequate for structures lacking vertical irregulari ty Types Ia. The vertical irregularities are Ia. These irregularities can be divided into two categories.7. Ib. Stiffness Soft Story Irregu larity Ib.3-2 should still be checked for limitations and design requirements. and 3.3.1) Structure Description 3.3.6. E.Weak Story Irregularity 5b. The vert ical force distribution provided by § 12. there is the possibility of having localized concentrat ions of excessive inelastic deformations due to the irregular load path or weak story.1 prohibits structures with vertical irregularity Types Ib. §12. or 5b for Seismic Design Categories E and F.3. Although designers may opt to use the dynamic analysis procedure and bypass checks for irregularity Types Ia. and F possessing dynamic force distribut ion irregularities shall be analyzed using the dynamic analysis procedure (or moda l analysis procedure) prescribed in §12. irregularities in load path or force tran sfer.2. In this case. In the case of vertical irregularity Type 5b.3-2 defines vertical structural irregularities and assigns analysis and design procedures to each type and seismic design category.Extreme Weak Story Irregularity Structures in Seismic Design Categories D. Ib. dyn amic force-distribution irreg ularities. and 3. which are Types Ia. Regular structures are assumed to have a reasonably uniform distribution of inelastic behavior in elemen ts throughout the lateral. for this reason the modal analysis procedure.Intro duction to Vertica l Irregul arities §12.2. is necessary. Weight (mass) irregularity 3.8. Discontinui ty in Lateral Strength . limits are placed on the building height for all SDCs except S DC A. Note that § 12. 2006 lac Structural/S eismic D esign Manu al. Sa. The second. which can account for these discontinuities. the code prescribes addi tiona l strengthening to correct the deficienc ies for structures in cert ain seismic design categories (SDCs) . Stiffness Extreme Soft Story Irregularity 2. the reference sections listed in Tab le 12. 2. The first. stiffness and mass discontinuities may significantly affect the vertical distribution of forces and. 2. which are Types 4 and 5. and 3.3.force-resisting system. Vol. Discontinu ity in Lateral Stength .2 -. I 41 . When vertical irregu larity Types 4 and 5 exist. 2. In-plane discontinuity in vertical latera l-force-resisting element Sa. However. Vertical geometric irregu larity 4.': '.

.§12..11 have been applied and the corresponding floor level displacem ents Oe at the floors' centers-of-mass have been .111 F.' 0It_ 0.\. /. Ft + Fs 10' J ~ ['.' / : I .' ! / 02" .2 .45 I I ! . from Equation 12.2. "' : ! 0. DD . 2.. The code-prescribed lateral forces F.-'.3-2 (StiffnessSoft Story Irregularity) exists in the first story Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [L] To determine if this is a Type 1a vertical irregularity (Stiffness-Soft Story Irregularity) there are two tests I. The lateral story stiffness is less than 70 percent of that ofthe story above.::=::::::.--.'==::.'" 0'. 10' F.2 ~ &ample4 .0B ~r-r---r7Y-.. 42 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.75 . . 2.*" : !" ..r determined as shown below.71 i " Actual shape [!J Determine if a Type 1a vertical irregularity from Table 12. 10' F . I .8. A Seismic Design Category D five-story concrete special moment-resisting frame is shown below. . ' 0' F ' 2' '-. 1.3. . Vol..3. _1.. .Vertical Irr egularity Type 1a a nd Type 1b .02 Triangular shape .. .2 Ex ample 4 • Vertic al1rregula rlty Typ e 1 1 § 12.I.-"'77'../ . The lateral story stiffness is less than 80 percent of the average stiffness of the three stories above.. . -..• DD /· DD . i: 0 " ..

The definition of soft story in the code compares values of the lateral stiffness of individual stories. Ii. When 70 percent of ---". it is necessary to use the reciprocal of the limitin g percentage ratios of 70 and 80 percent as they apply to story stiffness..) In terms of the calculated story-drift ratios. This deformat ion comparison may even be more effective than the stiffness comparison because the shape of the first mode shape is often closely approximated by the structure displacements due to the specified §12. the structure is deemed to have a soft story. h.Example 4 • Venicallrregularity Type 1 §12. h.2 1 If the stiffness of the story meets at least one of the two criteria above. or reverse their applicability to the story or stories above.7 1.) + (0.71) = 0. h. The story-drift ratio is the story drift divided by the story height. = (1. . When 80 percent of . . I 43 .0) 144 = 0. 3 h.• . which assumes a prescribed shape for the first dynamic mode of response.00493 t.00308 120 ~ = Ii.exceeds h. 120 I 2006 IBC Struc tural/Seismic Design Manual.• . The following example shows this equivalent use of the displacement propert ies. = (1.Ii.1. Floor level displacements and corresponding story-drift ratios are directly available from computer programs.. h. _ .. or I I I I I I I I I I s s.'= = h.0.8.45 .' exceeds -I [(0. These story-drift ra tios will be used for the required comparisons because they better represent the changes in the slope of the mode shape when there are significant differences in interstory heights.. From the given displacements .00308 h. There are many structural configurations where the evaluat ion of story stiffness is complex and is often not an available output from computer programs. -Ii. this type of irregularity can also be determined by comparing values of drift ratios due to the prescr ibed lateral forces. Vol. To compare displacements rather than stiffness. . Generally . it is not practical to use stiffness properties unless these can be easily determ ined.I. (0.0. ) + (0. story drifts and the story-drift rat io's values are determi ned.8.. 0.08 .2. (Note: story displacements can be used if the story heights are nearly equal.3 force pattern .)] . 3. h.. • -Ii.Ii. . h.9) is generally required by Table 12.6. Recogni zing that the basic intent of this irregularity check is to determ ine if the lateral-force distribution will differ significantly from the pattern prescribed by §12.0" h. and a modal analysis (§12. the soft story occurs when one of the following cond itions exists.• h..3. the story-drift ratios arc determi ned as ~= o ..08) = 0..

. Exception 1. .00308 x 1.00493) = 0.00308 . . . Alternately: 0. . .Ii" Iz.004312) . Type l b) Checking the 60-percent requirement: 0. NG : . or 2 in Table 12. . §12. thus soft story.70(0 .00493) = 0.2 Ex ample 4 • Vertical Irreg ularity Type 1 1 __ = t:J.70(1i.00308 + 0. NG Thus: Stiffness-Extreme Soft Story exists . .00375) . .. k.00347) . Check for extreme soft story. . .2.00308 + 0.00308 x 1. Also note that structural irregularities of Types Ia. o. 3.k.002958 < 0. NG h. Ii" .00289 .00394 > 0.003451 > 0. Ib.2. Soft story exists.3.00289 . I I I I I I I I I I .00289 x 1.. Checking the 70-percent requirement: 0.00493 > (0. Checking the 80-percent requirement: 0.00250 120 0. = (1. Soft story exists.00493) = 0.0040) . Vol.00493 > (0. .00493 > (0. o. ..20 = 0.45) = 0..30 = 0.00493 > (0.) hi = 0. Note that 70 percent of first story drift is larger than second story drift.00289 ~(0.3 = 0.75-1. .70 (0..00493) = 0. (Vertical Structural Irregularity..§12.80(~) = 0.00308 .3-2 do not apply where no story-drift ratio under design lateral force is greater than 130 percent of the story-drift ratio of the next story above. . 44 2006 IBC S tructural/Seism ic Design Manual. s..80(0.. thus soft story. condition Ia Alternately: 0.00345 > 0.00289 x 1.'.60(0. Alternately: 0.4 = 0.2.00250) = 3 Checking the 70-percent requirement: O.condition lb. NG Al ternately: 0.

00250 0 . or story-drift ratio.02 in 1.71 S tory Drift 0.00289 Avg .45 1.00 246 0.75 1.00296 0 .6x (Storydr ift Ratio) 0 .00225 0.Examp le 4 tI Vertical Irr egularity Type 1 §12.00493 0 .00175 0. extreme soft story. unless a modal analysis is performed.0026 1 0.0024 6 0. reference §12.2. Structures having SDC E or F and also having vertical irregularity Type Ib shall not be permitted.71 Story-drift Rat io 0.00 135 0.08 0.02 in 1.3.00 158 0.00 394 0 .002 16 0.3. of Story-drift Ratio of Next 3 Stories Soft Story Status lb No No No No Ye s Level 5 4 3 2 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.27 in 0 .8-15) However.r .00 30 8 0.00216 0.00200 0.08 0.00345 0 .37 0. all stories must be checked.001 58 0.75 1.00180 0.2 Soft-Story Status Ib S tory Disp lacement 2.27 in 0 .00308 0 .71 Story-drift ratio 0 . In the exampl e above. In practice.30 0 .00150 0.2 Recall from Table 12.45 1. Vol.2.1 and 4.00289 Avg. I Soft-Story Status ln Sto ry Displacement 2.37 0. the displacement bxe due to the design seismic forces can be used as in this example.00185 0.6 requires that story drifts be computed using the maximum inelastic response displac ements b.drift Ratio of Next 3 Stories Soft Story Status la No No No No Yes Leve l 5 4 3 2 T able 4. This building is SOC 0 . 1.00308 0.3-2 for Ib . x rr I (Eq 12.0026 1 0 . Table 4. I 45 .3.30 0.00 225 0 .001 85 0.71 Story Drift 0.00493 0 .8x (S torydrift Ratio ) 0.7x (S torydrift Ratio) 0.0030 8 0. and is permitted.002 16 0. which include the deflection amplification factor Cd s = Cdb. for the purpose of the story drift.7x (S tory drift Ratio) 0. only the first story was checked for possible soft-story vertical irregularity .8. of S tory.00250 0 .37 0 . It is often convenient to create tables to facilitate this exerc ise.00175 0. see Tables 4. comparisons needed for softstory determination.00 21 6 0. Commentary Section 12.00345 0. 37 0.

.= 110k W..5 X = 1.= 100k [!J . this requirement does not apply to the roof if the roof is lighter than the floor below.V~rtical lrregularity Type 2 §12. vertical irregularity is considered to exist when the effective mass of any story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story. Ws = 90 k W. . Vol. Checking the effective mass of Level 2 against the effective mass of Levels 1 and 3 At Levell 1. or mass. Weight irregularity exists.§12.2. 46 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I .2 Example 5 • Vertical Irregularity Type 2 . However. Note that it does apply if the roof is heavier than the floor below.' a!nple 5 .3.2 The five-story special moment frame office building has a heavy utility equipment installation at Level 2. = 110 k W. Determine if there is a Type 2 vertical weight (mass) irregularity .3~2. This results in the floor weight distribution shown below.. Code Reference :Calci!li!tions and Discussion A weight.5(100 kips) = 150 kips W3 = 1.5 X WI At Level 3 1.5(110 kips) = 165 kips Wz = 170 kips > 150 kips .

2 .8. Vol.6-1). this Type 2 irregularity also results in a primary mode shape that can be substantially different from the triangular shape and lateral load distribution given by § 12. 1 1 I I I I I I I I I 2006 lac Structura l/Seismic De sign Manual. Example 5 • Vertical Irreg ularity Type 2 § 12. Consequently.. • . ommentary C As in the case of vertical irregularity Type la or Ib. the appropriate load distribution must be determined by the modal analysis procedure of § 12.1 1 I .2 .3.. unless the irregular structure is not more than two stories and is Occupancy Category l or II (see Table 12.3 . I 47 .9.

'. One-story penthou ses are not subject to this requirement. . = 1.2.. The ratios of the two levels are Width of Level 2 = (lOa ft) Width of Le vel 3 (75 ft) 133 percent > 130 percent ...3.. / //. I ..3..§12..DDD "/ //"/ // / '/ / / .2 The lateral-foree-resisting system of the five-story specia l moment frame building shown below has a 25-foot setback at the third. In this example. Vol .2 Ex ample 6 • Vertical Irregularity Type 3 ~ ample 6 Vertic al Irregularity Typ e 3 § 12. the setback of Level 3 must be checked.... and fifth stories. 4@2S' -100' . / [!J Determine if a Type 3 vertical irregularity (vertical geometric irregularity) exists CalcuJ~tiC?ns and Discussion Code Reference A vertical geometric irregularity is considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the lateral-foree-resisting system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in the adjacent story. I... Vertical geom etric irregulari ty exists.33 48 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. fourth.2 . .- Level 5 4 3 2 DDD DDD DDD D..

) I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.I I Example 6 • Vertical Irregularity Typ e 3 §12. Vol.8.3. the mode shape difference can be mitigated by designing for an increased stiffness in the story with a reduced width. the vertical geometric irregularity would not exist. However. Similarl y. if the width decrease is in the lower adjacent story (the unusu al situation). If the change is a decrease in width of the upper adjacent story (the usual situation).2 .11.6-1.J 49 . when the width decrease is in the lower story. there could be an overturning moment-load-transfer discontinuity that would require a dynamic analysis per Table 12..2 . the Type la soft-story irregularity can be avoided by a proportional increase in the stiffness of the lower story. Commentary The more than l3 0-percent change in width of the lateral-force-resisting system between adjacent stories could result in a primary mode shape that is substantially different from the shape assumed for proper applications of Equation 12. Note that if the frame elements in the bay between lines 4 and 5 were not included as part of the designated lateral-force-resisting system.

/ // '/ / / "/ [!J Determine if there is a Type 4 vertical irregularity (in-plane discontinuity) in the verticallateral-force-resisting element Code Reference Calculations and Discussion A Type 4 vertical irregularity exists when there is an in-plane offset of the lateral-forceresisting elements greater than the length of those elements .2. mple 7 Vertical Irregularity Typ e 4 § 12.Ex. 3. I .§12.2 Ex amp le 7 11 Vertic al Irre g u lar i ty Type 4 . : . the left side of the upper shear wall (between lines A and B) is offset 50 feet from the left side of the lower shea r wall (between lines C and D). This 50-foot offset is greater than the 25-foot length of the offset wall clements . The shear wall between lines A and B has an in-plane offset from the shear wall between lines C and D. In-plane discontinuity exists . rrrT 3@25'=75' Level IE-----~ < 5 12' 4 12' 'DO' e: 25' 50' 3 12' 2 12' --.0 00 ' L-- Shear wa ll Shear wall 1 12' // '/ / .2 A concrete building has the building frame system shown below. In this examp le. Vol .2.3. 50 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.

3.2 C.Examp le 7 • Vertical Irregularity Type 4 §12.3.4.3.4 for the strength of collector elements along the offset. In this example.3.3. even those less than or equal to the length or bay width of the resisting element. I 51 . there is also a shear transfer discontinuity that requires application of § 12.3.3. s: '" I I 1 I I I I I 2006 IBC Stru ctlirallSuismic D esign Manual.2.3. When the offset exceeds the length of the resisting element. Vol. can result in an overturning momentload-transfer discontinuity that requires the application of §12.3. and the collector element between lines Band C at Level 2 is subject to the provisions of § 12. the columns under wall A-B are subject to the prov isions of § 12.3.ommentary The intent of this irregularity check is to provide correction offorce transfer or loadpath deficiencies.3. It should be noted that any in-plane offset.

the story strengths are First story strength = 20 + 30 + 10 = 60 kips Second story strength = 80 + 10 = 90 kips Check if first-story strength is less than 80 percent of that of the second story. 52 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2.2. and the individu al piers have the shear contribution given below. is the nominal shear strength calcu lated in accordance with Chapter 19.§12.. Vol.3. ampleB Verfic a l l r r eg ularity Type 5a §12.2 A concrete bearin g-wall building has the typical transve rse shear-wall configuration sho wn be low. and Vm is defined herein as the shear corresponding to the development of the "nominal flexure strength also calculated in accordance with Chapter 19.8(90) = 72 kips :. All walls in this direction are identical. Weak story condition exists. The story strength is the total strength of all seismic-force-resisting elements shari ng the story shear for the direction under consideration. 60 kips < 0. Using the smaller values of VII and VII/ given for each pier. 2 3 4 5 20 kips 30 15 80 15 30 kips 40 10 120 10 [!J Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity (discontinuity in capacity. Then . V.3.2 Exa mple 8 • Ve rtIc al Irregu l ar ity Type 5a IE. I ." Note that VII/ is not defined in ACI or Chapter 19.weakstory) condition exists Code Reference Calculations and Discussion A Type Sa weak-story discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80 percent of that in the story above. Level J PIER 1 \In V".

Therefore the lower story is not an extreme soft story. Commentary This irregularity check is to detect any concentration of inelastic behavior in one supporting story that can lead to the loss of vertical load capacity. 60 kips < 0. Vol. the column shear resistance contribution should be the shear corresponding to the development of the adjoining beam yield hinges and the column base connection capacity. Frame columns with weak column-strong beam condit ions have a shear contribution equal to that developed when the top and bottom of the column are at flexural capacity.3.3 . I 53 . .5 kips :.5 kips . bracing members and their connections. and frame columns. In any case.Example 8 • VerlicallrregularJty Type Sa §12.3. 60 kips > 58. Elements subject to this check are the shear-wall piers (where the shear contribution is the lower of either the shear at development of the flexural strength . or the shear strength). I I I I I I 2006 IBC Slructural/Seismic Design Manual.2 Check if first-story strength is less than 65 percent of that of the second story (Irregularity Type 5b). the column shear contribution shall not exceed the column shear capacity. Where there is a strong column-weak beam condition. A weak-story condition is absolutely prohibited in SDC E and F.65(90 kips) = 58. Irregularity Type 5b.1) for structures more than two stories or 30 feet in height if the "weak story" has a calculated strength ofless than 80 percent of the story above . An extreme weak story is prohibited (under §12.2.

" = 250 kip-ft Columns on lines Band C at both levels: M" c = 250 kip-ft at axial loading of 1..2PD + 0.. -' . // "/ / / / // . .. A o Beams at Levels I and 2: Mllb = ZF....3.1 Example 9 II Vertical Irregularity Type 5a Example 9 Verticallrregulaljty Type Sa § 12. In this example. Level 5 12' 4 . 12" 2 12' 1 14' . assume for the purposes of illustration only.3..5PL Column base connections at grade (based on grade-beam strength): Jvf"GB = 100 kip-ft In addition. ~ 12' 3 .3. -. The story strength is consi dered to be the total strength of all seismic-foree-resisting elements that share the story shea r for the directi on under consideration.1 A five-story building has a steel special moment-resisting frame (SMRF). . Vol.§12. it is assumed that the beam moments at a beam-column joint are 54 2006 IBC Stru ctur al/Se ismic Des ig n Manual. To determine if a weak story exists in the first story./ /// Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity (discontinuity in capac ity-weak story) cond ition exists in the first story. The frame consists ofW24 beams and W14 columns with the following member strength properties.3. [!J [!J Determine first-story strength Determine second -story strength ~ Determine if weak-story exists at first story Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 5 weak-story discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80 percent of that of the story above (where it is less than 65 percent. an extreme weak story exists) . the sums of the column shears in the first and second stories-when the member moment capacities are developed by lateral loading-must be determined and compared. that the columns have been designed such that a strong beam-weak column condi tion is permitted. I .

Next.. Note moment capacity of beam (25012) governs over moment capacity of column (200) to determine shear v --.0 kips 12 M 4 First story strength = VA + VB + VD = 2(18.. 250(+)250 200"- 2Mc = 400 < 2Jvfb = 500 :.. .75) + 2(25.0) G =100 klp-ft FOR SHEAR = 87...= 187-k' . Vol. . . the shear in each column must be determined....) "iPS 12 • o FOR SHEAR Mf=100kip·ft Checking columns Band C for strong column-weak beam considerations 200 . Strong beam-weak column condition exists. Next. ~) 250 : . /2 =125 kip-ft 125 '-' L) I 250 Clear height = 14 ft .. Strong column-weak beam condition exists. the shear in each column must be determined..5 kips 55 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.Example 9 • Vertical Irregularity Type Sa §12...J V VB= Vc= 200 + 100 = 25.. Me = 200 kip-ft 200(+) 200 200'-' 200 r ' Clear height = 14 ft . 200 FOR MOMENT 125~ a M.. .. Note moment capacity of column governs over v moment capacity of beam to determine shear..3. I . [!J Determine first story strength Columns A and D must be checked for strong column-weak beam considerations 200 2Mc = 400 > M...3. FOR MOMENT a 200. = 250 .1 distributed equally to the sections of the columns directly above and below the joint..2 ft = 12 ft 100 .-.2 ft = 12 ft v 125+100 . Given below are the calculations for first and second stories.

.. Vol . Strong beam-weak column con dition exists .2 ft = IO ft 10' 200( + 200 .0) = 130.0 kips 56 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual....3.0 kips 10 v Me =200 klp-ft 200 J1"""' FOR SHEAR • 200 '-" Second story strength = V-I + VB + Vc+ VD + 2(25. FOR MOMENT v Me = 200 kip-ft 200 . 0 k' .0) + 2(40.. """" 200 v Mb I 2= 125 kip-ft '-' 125 Clear height = 12 ft ..3.. strong column-weak beam condition exis ts... Clear height = 12 ft .2 ft = 10ft 125 r-FOR SHEAR V..." - " D- tr - 125 + 125 -?5.1 Example 9 • Ver tical Irregu larity Type 5a ~ Determine second story strength Columns A and D mu st be checked for st rong column-w eak beam at Level 2 FOR MOMEN T :.._ IpS 10 -J 125 Mb I 2= 125 kip-ft v • 125" J Check ing columns B and C for strong column-weak beam con siderations 2Mc = 400 < 2Mb = 500 : . )200 VB = Vc = 200 + 200 = 40.§12. I ..

3 . I 57 .80(130) = 104 (T 12. 1 ~ Determine if weak story exist s at first story First story strength = 87.5 kips Second story strength = 130.Ex ampl e 9 ~ Vertical Ir regulari ty Type Sa §12 .5 < 0.0 kips I I 87. I I \ I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol.3-2. Item 5a) :. I . Weak story condition in first story exists. 3.

2. Elements must be provided to transfer these forces into the diaphragms. 2.8.Irregularity. Type 3.to be considered when diaphragms are not flexib le as determined in §12. 58 2006 IBC Stru ctural/S eism ic Des ign Manu al.3. An amplification factor Ax is to be applied to the accidental torsion M'a to represent the effects of this unbalanced stiffness. Further analysis of deformation and load behavior may be necessary. Out-of-plane Offsets Irregularity. I I I I I I I I I . The response deform ations and load patterns on a system with nonparallel lateral-force-resisting elements can have significant differences from those of a regular system.2. Elements must be provided to transfer the forces into the diaphragm and the structural system. 3.1 In tr oduction 10 Ho r/zonla /lrregularitles Introduction to Horizontal Irregularities 1 §12.3-1. As a consequence. Vol.2 Extreme Torsional Irregularity .2 Re-entrant Comer Irregularity. lb . shears and overturning moments must be transferred from the level above the offset to the level below the offset. There are five types of horizontal irregularities: la. Excessive openings in a diaphragm can result in a flexible diaphragm response along with force concentrations and load path deficienci es at the boundari es of the openings.3. § I2.§ 12. The out-of-plane offset irregularity represents the irregular load path category. Type 5.1. and the eccentr icity between the centers of mass and rigidity will be increased along with the corresponding torsions. Ib. and 5 are special response conditions: Type 1a and 1b. Nonparallel Systems . 3. 2. Types Ia.1. When the ratio of maximum story drift to average story drift exceeds the given limit. 4. 3. The opening and closing deformation response or flapping action of the projecting legs of the building plan adjace nt to re-entrant comers can result in concentrated forces at the comer point. and there is a horizontal offset in the load path for the shears. there is the potential for an unbalance in the inelastic deformation demands at the two extreme sides ofa story. 1 ] I These irregularities can be categorized as being either special response condition s or cases of irregular load path. the equivalent stiffness of the side having maximum deformation will be reduced.4.1 Horizontal structura l irregularities are identified in Table 12. I I Type 2.8. 5. Tor sional Irregularity . Type 4.to be considered when diaphragms are not flexible as determined in §12. In this case.3.4. I to 12.3. Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity.

6 for story drift determination 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Man ual. it has X the follow ing elastic displacements O l! at Levels I and 2.2 3 2 [}J Determine if a Type 1a or Type 1b torsional irregularity exists at the second story If it does: I I I ~ Compute the torsional amplification factor Ax for Level 2 C€l'cu'ations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 1a torsional irregu larity is con sidered to exist whe n the maxi mum story drift. including the effects of acc idental torsion. includ ing accidental tors ion effects.3.:!.1 OR.3.20 in OR.90 in O = 1. l = 1..: ! = 1. A three-story special moment-resisting frame building has rigid floor diaphragms .20 in Level -----------------> .1 ri3fnple 1 oui on a/Irregulari ty Type 1a a nd ype'lb § 12. OL. I 59 .------7 OR .2 times the average of the story drifts of the two ends of the structure.00 in L. Vol.2 OR. at one end of the structure transverse to an axis is more than 1. = 1. Unde r code-prescribed seismic forces.2. see § 12.2 .8.Example 10 a Horizontal Irregularity Type 1a and Type 1b §12.

2 criteria D.70 = I . Horizon'al Irreg ula rit y Type 1a an d Typ e 1b ITI Determine if a Type 1a torsional irregularity exists at the second story Referri ng to the above figure showing the displacements bJe due to the prescribed lateral forces.20 + 0.R = 1.T ype Ib. . this irregularity check is defined in terms of story drift D. . Torsional irregularity exists at Leve l x when T 12.90 . 0. I .3-1 I I I where I Determining story drifts at Level 2 I D.-. Vol.20 = 0.2 = 1.bx-d at ends R (right) and L (left) of the structu re. """ = 0.45 :.".20 in D.70 in .§12.1 Example 10 .1. ---"!!!!. thus.20 .2 U al'g A = 0.70 = 0 45 . lrregu Ian-ty exists .55 > 1.L. In 2 Checking 1.x = (bx .2 D.Type Ia.45 I I I I I I I I 60 2006 IBC S tructural/Seismic D esign Manual.00 = 0.2. extreme torsion D. a.J.. Tors ional irregularity exis ts .7 = 1.1. 0. Check for extreme torsional irregulari ty D. . .55 . 0_ . = .

if irregularity Type Ib (Extreme Tors ional Irregularity) is present.Xare computed for the same accidental center-o f-mass displacement that causes the maximum displacement bmax.3 1 When torsional irregularity exists at a Level x. in terms of displacements bxc • There can be instances where the story-drift values indicate torsional irregul arity and where the related displacement values produce an Ax value less than 1.' 1. the accidental torsional moment M'n must be increased by an amplification factor Ax ..r should be evaluated for this load condition.] + b R. and both bR..b". Horizontal Irr egularity Type 1a and Type 1b §12. The interpretation of this for the case of the story drift and displacements to be used for the average values I'l.0 1.n the centers-of-mass at all levels should be displaced by the accidental eccentricity to the right side R.3-1 triggers a number of special design requirem ents for torsionally irregular struc tures. Note that Ax is a function of the displacements as opposed to/versus the drift. there is the pro vision that the more severe loading shall be considered.8.4. The most severe condition is when both bR. A. Commentary In §12. The displacement and story-drift values should be obtained by the equivalent lateral-force method with the code-prescribed lateral forces.1 is triggered.60 in 2 A .. and the value of Ax used to determine acci dental torsion should not be less than 1.X and bL..8.2(1.3. the values of I'l. This result is not the intent of the provision. which prohibits such structures for SOC E or F. ' = ( (jm tI.0. = 1.' dynamic mode. Note Ax shall not be less than 1.g and bm·g is as follows .2 ) a b avg = bL. 2 = 1. if the dynam ic analysis pro cedure were to be used..1 ~ Compute amplification factor Ax for Leve l 2 §12 .0. It is important to recognize that torsionai irregularity is defined in terms of story drift I'l. is computed for Level 2..2 factor.0.8-14 is. in view of the complexity of this determination and the judgmental nature of the 1. 2 4 ' . it is reasoned that the equivalent static force method is sufficiently accurate to detect torsional irregu larity and evaluate the Ax factor.60) :.2.m. and each level may have a different Ax value. In this example.4.Example 10 . Theoret ically..m and I'l. For the condition shown in this example where b RX = bma.0 .90 = 1. In fact.3.X and bL.. § 12.98 < 1.30 + 1.g would have to be found for each a.. 2006 I I I I I I lac Stru ctural/Se ismic D esign Manu al.3. I 61 ..260 ' 8 ) (!BC Eq 16-44) bm .r by Equation 12. This must be done for each level.3. Table 12.90 in. (b R.90 )2= 0. use Ax = 1. Vol. then combined by the appropriate SRSS or CQC procedures. = ( 1." while the evaluatio n of A. and then scaled to the code-prescribed base shear. However.

7.80 = l AO = 0.70 in 2 2 When dy namic analysis is used.DAD in.3 . Vol.3 requires the use of a three-dimensional model if there are any irregularities.g • m I I I I I I I I I I I 62 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. the static force procedure can resul t in a negative displacement on one side and a positive on the other.14 should be calculated u m as the algebraic average .1 Example 10 . this occurs if D = . For cases oflarge eccentricity and low torsional rigidity. and DR. then § 12. I . and the individual modal results must be properly combined to determ ine the total response value for D .2.§12. Horizontal Irregularity Typ e 1a and Typ e 1b J If the dynamic analys is procedure is either elected or required. The value of D 'g in Equation 12. the algebraic average value Dmg should be found for each ' mode.80 in.8.3 = 1. For example.40) + 1. 1 = (.

and its lateral-force-resisting system. the projection is 60 ft .75ft = 25 ft This is 25 or 25 percent of the 100-ft plan dimension . G I 0) 4 @l2S= 100' I ® I 00-~ o N 1 < @) 08- c<) [!J Determine if there is a Type 2 re-entrant corner irregularity Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 2 re-entrant comer irregularity exists when the plan configuration of a structure and its lateral -foree-resisti ng system contain re-entrant corners.2. 100 For the sides on line E. 1 The plan configuration of a ten-story special moment frame building is as shown below.. I 63 . has re-entrant comer dime nsions as shown. The plan configuration of this building.3. 1 Example 11 orizontallrregularity T}'J e 2 §12.40 ft = 20 ft 2006 IB C Structura l/Se is mic p esign Manual. . the proj ection beyond the re-entrant comer is 100 ft .Exam ple 11 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 2 §12.2. For the sides on line I . . More than 15 percent.3. where both projections of the structure beyond a re-entran t comer are greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension of the structure in the direction considered. Vol .

. Vol. and F. Commentary Whenever the Type 2 re-entrant comer irregularity exists.3. More than 15 percent. E. there is a re-entrant comer irregularity.1 Exam p le 11 • Ho riz ontal Irregularity Typ e 2 This is 20 or 33. ~ . .§1 2.4 for SDC D.3 percent of the 60-ft plan dimension .3. Since both projections exceed 15 percent .3. I I I I 64 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manu al. see the diaphragm design requirements of §12.2. J . Re-entrant comer irregularity exists.

The floor plan of the second floor of the building is shown below.000 sq ft 65 . or changes in effect ive diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 percen t from one story to the next. The symmetrically placed op en area in the diaphragm is for an atrium .2 .3. ?~ ®®-b CD 125' 75' ~ ~ r " IE 1 ? ®®- Second floor plan [!J Determine if a Type 3 diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists at the second floor level Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 3 diaphragm discontinu ity irregularity exists when diaphragms have abrupt discontinuities or va riations in stiffness.1 • a. including cutout or open are as comprising more than 50 percent of the gross enclosed area of the diaphragm. Vol.Ex ampl e 12 IZ Horizon tal Irregular i ty Typ e 3 §12.8V»ple 12 Horizonfal lrregularity ype 3 §12. The first check is for gross area Gro ss enclosed area of the diaphragm is 80 ft x 125 ft Area of op ening is 40 ft x 75ft = 3000 sq ft 50 percent of gro ss area = 0. Lateral forces are resisted by the bearing walls acting as shear wa lls.5(1 0. All diaphragms above the second floor are wi thout significant openings. 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismIc Design Manual. I = 10.000) = 5000 sq ft 3000 < 5000 sq ft " No diaphragm discontinuity irre gularity exists.2.1 A five-story con crete building has a bearin g wall system located around the perimeter of the buil ding.3. and has dimensions of 40 feet by 75 feet.

I I t:. - ..§ 12. due to a common distri buted load IV such as I kif.. } ~ ..-. . Deflected sha pe I w =1 kif t:.smic D esign Manu al..... ~" '" . I .-. This comparison can be performed as follows . Vol.. I I w = 1 kif -. If the change in stiffness exceeds 50 percent... 66 200 6 IBC St ructural/S e. > ~ ..----. Find the simple beam mid -span deflec tions L12 and L1J for the diaphragm s at Levels 2 and 3.~ -... 2.---- -------~ Den ected shape If L12 > 1.. The sti ffuess of the second floor diaphragm with its opening mu st be compared with the stiffness of the solid diaphragm at the third floor. respectively.5L1J.-... there is diaphragm discontinuity. 1 Exampl e 12 • Horizonrallrreg u/arit y Type 3 The second check is for stiffness.. 3.. a diaphragm discontinu ity irregularity exists for the structure.

1 A four-story building has a concrete shear wall lateral-force-resisting system in a bui lding frame system configuration.. and the referenced sections in Tab le 12. Offset irregu larity exists. Eleva tion Line E ® I 0) I 4 @25' o l 00' @ I<E < 25' 1 ~ 0 " 2 0).1 apply to the design.3..2. I 67 . 2006 IBC Structura l/S eis mic Desig n Manual. an Ie -13 rizontallrregularity TjIj e4 §12. Vo l.2. The plan configuration of the shear walls is.force-resisting elements such as shear walls .3.1 . shown below. 10' 10' Typical floor plan 10' 10' o I .'" in III o @ '" Ground (first) floor plan [!J Determine it there is a Type 4 out-at-plane offset irregularity between the first and second stories Calculations and Discussion Code Reference An out-of-plane offset plan irregularity exists when there are discontinuities in a lateralforce path.Example 13 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 4 §12. This constitutes an out-of-plane offset irregularity. For example: out-of-plane offsets of vertical lateral.. : .3. The first story shear wall on line 0 has a 25-foot out-of-plane offset to the shear wall on line E at the second story and above .2.

68 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.6-1. The vertical lateral-foree-resisting frame elements located on line F are not parallel to the major orthogonal axes of the building (i.7-3. and Table 12.e. A.4. I .§12. A nonparallel system irregularity exists.. 00. lines 4 and A).3-1 applies to the design. Special momentresisting frames are located on the perimeter of the building on lines 1.1 Exa mple 14 • Horizontal Irregularity Type 5 Examp le 14 H oriz on ta l Irregularity Type 5 §12. Therefore a nonparallel system irregularity exists.2.5. see §12.3. :.1 A ten-story building has the floor plan shown below at all levels. §12. and the referenced section in Table 12. ~ M Ty pical floor plan [!J Determine if a Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity exists Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity is considered to exist when the vertic al lateral-force-resisting elements are not parallel to or symmetric about the major orthogonal axes ofthe build ing's lateral-foree-resisting system.2. A 3-dimens ional dynamic analysis is recommended .3.3. Vol. and F.in ~ N ~ @.

4. Desig n of collector elements. Structures with damping systems designed in accordance wi th 18.4.3.2 ident ifies two other conditions in which p may be taken as 1. (Note that the load combinations that include the redundancy factor are not used for Seismic Design Catego ry A. 3. Drift calculation and P-delta effects. 8. In all other conditions. 1): I. as described below) . ASCE/SEI 7-05 permits the redundancy factor to be taken as 1. for the top level or levels of taller structures.0.4 1 The calculation of the redundancy factor p has changed considerably between earlier codes (1997 UBC. §12. Diaphragm loads determined using Eq. Design of nonbuilding structures that are not similar to buildings. ASCE/SEI 7-02) and the ASC E/SEI 7-05 .) 2. Note that the criteria for these condi tions need only be met at floor levels in which more than 35-percent of the base shea r is being resisted.0 in the following circ umstances (§12. although it nevertheless requir es some effort for conditions that do not compl y with prescriptive requirements (unless the full penalty is taken. The factor may be taken as 1. the cond itions need not be met. Design of nonstructural components. 5.3.0. 7.2 are required for des ign.4. I I I I \ I I 2006 IBC Stru ctural/S eismic D esign Man ual . 12. Desig n of members or connections where the load combi nat ions with overstrength of §12.4 ·Ei. Vol. I 69 . Struc tures assig ned to Seismic Design Category B or C.3. Additionally.Example 15 • Reliability/Redun dancy Coefficient p § 12. There is no longer a calcu lated p factor between the minimum and maximum value s.3.rample 15 Redunda ncy Factor p §12. 4. and the higher p factor may apply as otherwise required).3.3. Th e calculation is in some ways simpler.10-1 (note that this does not apply to forces transferred through a diaphragm. p is taken as 1. 2000 and 2003 1BC. such as due to an out-of-plane offs et in the seismic load resisting system. 6. splices and their connections for which the load combinations with overstrength factor of §12.4.2 are used.0 when either of the conditions listed below is met.

For shear wall systems the number of bays is calculated as the length of shear wall divided by the story height (two times the length of shear wall divided by the story height for light-framed construction).0.2(a) Configurations in which the removal of one element (as described below in the summary of Table 12.2(b) Configurations with no plan irregularities at any level and with sufficient perimeter braced frames.§12. moment frames. Loss of moment resistance at the base connections of any single cantilever column (cantilever column systems). 3.1 will be analyzed. allowing p to be taken as 1. Summary of Table 12.3. Loss of moment resistance at the beam-to-column connections at both ends of a single beam (moment frames).4. the structure shown in Figure 15.3.3-1). or shearwalls. Wall F Stiffness Kf WaliA Stiffness Ko Walle Stiffness x. Vol .3.4 Example 15 II Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p Condition I 12.4. WailS Stiffness Kn WaliD Stiffness K! Wall G Stiffness Kg Wall H Stiffness x.3-3 Removal of one element is defined as: 1. EXAMPLE To illustrate the application of the method for establishing the redundancy factor. 4. I . Condition II 12. no prescriptive requirements are given.0 (shear wall systems). Wall E Stiffness K. Figure 15-1 70 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. 2. 5. such as seismically isolated structures. Sufficient perimeter bracing is defined as at least two bays of seismic force-resisting perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal direction. The removal of a brace (braced frames). Removal of a shear wall or wall pier with a height-to-length ratio greater than 1.3-3) will not result in an increase of more than 33-percent reduction in story shear strength or in an extreme torsional irregularity (as defined in Table 12. For other systems.

Because there are two bays of shear wall on each of the perimeter lines of resistance and the building is completely regular.5%. Vol. Such an analysis of the structure with all four bays present shows that the seismic forces in each line of resistance (including the effects of accidental torsion) are 52. I ) I I I I I 2006 IBC Strucrural/S eismic Design Manual. In a more typical system. The configuration will therefore be analyzed using the method outlined in §12. this distribution is shown in Figure 15. the effect on story drift is assessed to be a decrease in capacity of 100% .4. and thus the configuration does not automatically qualify for a redundancy factor of 1.25-percent. The length of each shear wall is 15 feet.4-3 to determine the horizontal seismic load effect.5% = 37. Because of the symmetry of the system.5%.1 apply.62. a separate check would need to be performed for several (or even all) of the walls. with each bay on each line resisting 26. and thus §12.6 = 62. None of the conditions listed in §12.6.2(b) might allow a factor of 1. the number of bays as defined by §12.4. Using this method. §12. this distribution is shown in Figure 15. R" The story height is 18 feet.2 must be used to determine whether is 1.4.3. name ly.3. and thus the configuration would not qualify for a p factor of 1.3.2(a). the design seismic forces change to 42-percent resisted on the weaker line and on the stronger line.0.3. then.0.4 Given information: SDCD One story. the removal of one wall covers the cases of the remova l of each of the other walls. The most conventional way to calculate the modified story shear strength is based on the modified elastic distribution of forces and the capacity of the most heavily stressed wall.2(a).4. the redundancy factor must be determined and used in Equation 12.25% = 1.3.0. For purposes of the required strength of the walls. concrete shearwall building All walls have the same nominal shear strength .Example 15 " Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p §12 .2(b) is less than two. by removing a wall and assessing the effect on story shear strength and on building torsion . Thus the increase in the force on the most heavily loaded bay is 42%/26.5-percent of the base shear. and the reduced force level causing yielding of that wall is 1/1. In this example Wall C will be removed. I 71 . If the stiffness of one line of resistance is reduced by half. The effect on story shear strength can be considered in at least two ways. However.3.4.0 or 1.3. the length of each shear-wall bay is less than the story height.2(b).

75% t 2. again. which in this case is only the accidental torsion). which in this case is substantial.5% 6.§12.3(b). e. This is the method envisioned by the committee that authored the redundancy provision. considering strength and limit states.5% ~ 26. this method is not required. = 32.0. Ru = 32.5% R. (b) 72 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.5% R. ~ Ru = 32. and it is more consistent with the principles of seismic design (i.3(a). Vol. This interpretation of the story shear capacity has been endorsed by the SEAOC Seismology Committee.5% 23.75% 1 1 2. ~ -$- R.e. A more direct method of establishing story shear capacity is to utilize a plastic mechanism analysis. where R n denotes the capacity of the wall.5% R. the story shear capacity before removal of a wall is the sum of the capacities of the 4 walls resisting the seismic force in the direction under consideration (provided that the orthogonal walls have sufficient strength to resist the torsion. the story shear capacity is the sum of the capacities of the 3 remaining walls resisting the seismic force in the direction under consideration. R. I . R.5% ~ -$- 26. R.25% 31% 1 -$- 23.. This is shown in Figure 15.> 5% R.5% t R.5% 2. Thus the reduction in capacity is only 25percent. R. rather than elastic design).5% ~ 42 % (a) Figure 15-2 (b) While this is an acceptable method of demonstrating compliance with the conditions justifying a factor p of 1. In this method of analysis. The resulting building torsional forces must be resisted by the frames in the orthogonal direction.25% 31% t 6.5% 6. ~j n. If one wall is removed. ~ R. = 50/ Rtf a n. ~ -$- ~ n. the orthogonal walls must be checked for the forces resulting from building torsion.3. Ru = 32. t R u = 5% ~ R.5% t 6. This is shown in Figure l5.4 Example 15 • Reliability/Redundancy Coefficient p 2. = 5% R. (a) Figure 15-3 e.

For the example. I 73 .4 I 1 To qualify for a factor of 1.3-1. using the plastic mechanism analysis. Vol. the configuration qualifies for a p factor of 1.1Kn• The additional deflection at each perimeter line due to rotation is 0. the deflection in the direction ofloa ding is R.3. Thus.1 before an extreme torsional irregularity is deemed to exist.325RnlKn• This is less than the 40-percent maximum that is allowed by Table 12.3.0.0. ) 2006 IBC Strucr ural/S eismic D esign Ma nual. the system with one wall removed must also be checked for an extreme torsional irregularity as defined in Table 12..Examp le 15 • Reliab ility/Re dundancy Coefficient p §12.

xample 16 P.§12.L VI = = = W = 8643 kips 3850 kips / / " " " " T hi = 20' " V = 0. Seismic Use Group I Seismic Design Category D R =8 Cc/ = 5.00311 1 = 0.-d Ita ERects §12.7 Ex ample 16 • P-delta Effec ts . The following informa tion is given. [!J Initial design story drift l:!.D l:. I . Vol. thereby causing additional secondary column and girder moments. in first story ~ P-delta criteria for the building ~ Check the first story for P-delta requirements ~ Final design story drift and story shear in first story ~ Check for story drift compliance in first story 74 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. = 20 ft Deflection at level x = I due to seismic base shear V (without P-delta effects) Ol e = 0.7 In high-rise building design.5 1 = 1.8. A IS-story building has a steel specia l moment frame (SMF). 'important secondary moments and addi tional story drifts can be developed in the lateral-force-resisting system by P-delta effec ts.042W = 363. ~= 0. l:. The purpose of this example is to illustrate the procedure that must be used to check the overall stabili ty of the frame system for such effects.72 in Determ ine the following.8.0 kips. P-delta effects are the result of the axial load P in a column being mov ed laterally by horizontal displacements.80 h.0 At the first story .

.96 in I 1.7 J P-delta effects must be considered whenever the ratio of secondary momen ts to primary moments exceeds 10 percent.8.15) Th is value is termed initial because it may need to be increased by the incremental factor Gd = 1. v.8.8.del ta Effects §12 .I0 200 6 IBC Structural/S eismic D esign Manual.6 where b) = Cdb'r = 5. I 75 .96 (Eq 12. the preliminary desig n story drift is §12 .2-1 (given = 5.0 is required) P-. in first story At story x = I.5) C: P-delta effects must be considered when 6> o. This ratio is defined as stability coefficient 6 6= where (Eq 12.Example 16 • P. !:J.72) = 3.< = = height of story x deflection ampl ification factor in Table 12.0/(1-6) as determined in Part []] of this example.5(0.I6) I I I I I I 6 = = stability coefficient for story x total design vertica l load on all colum ns in story x (Note: no factor above 1. Vol.7 .8. ~ P-delta criteria for the building §12 . = seismic shear force in story x lis.B. = initial design story drift in story x occurring simultaneously with CdT!.0 Now: !:J. = 3.Calculations and Discussion Code Reference OJ Initial desig n story drift !:J.

h"C d (363.0)(20 ft)(l2)(5 .80 (Eq 12.\15 1-0.96) = 4.L and snow load S above the first story..D plus floor live J:. 7 Ex ample 16 • P·delta Effects I §12.415 in The final design story shear is VI = adVI = (1. 1 =adI'J.7 Check P-de lta requi rements for the first story 1 Section 12.\15)(363.8.96) = 0.7 requires that the total vertical load P l at the first story be considered the total dead J:. 8 .\15)(3. I I J Using S = 0 for the building site. Vol. = ?.8. Check for 8 :'0 8max using the given 8 lII ax ~= 0.5 (0.7 When 8 > 0.8.8-17) I I I = 0.100 V.5 = ~Cd 0.I'J.8.5) : . These loads are unfactored for determination of P-delta effects. 103 > 0. o.0) = 404.§ 12 . PI = 8643 + 3850 = 12.7 kips I I I I I I I I I 76 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic Design Manual.k. 1136 0.5) = 0..0 = 1. = (1.1136 . P-delta effects must be considered.493 kips For story x = I.103 The final design story drift in the first story is I'J.103 < 0. Final design story drift and story shear in first story §12. = (8643 + 3850)(3.80)(5 .10. I . the initial design story drift and design story shear must be augmented by the incremental factor ad related to P-deita effects ad= ~= 1-8 \.

.415 < 4.0110'" = 0. the fina l drifts should be found by a new analysis with the added lateral loads equal to (ad .8.8.. leading to another increment of story drift. The provisions in §§ 12..80 in /:. need s to comply with the drift limitations of §12 . I I 2.6 and 12. is equal to. which would lead to yet another increment. the initial story shears in these stories are increased by the ad factor. compute the corresponding incremental factor relating to P -delta effects ad = 1/( I .. Thus both the drift and the shear in the story would be increased by a factor equal to the series of I + 8 + 8 2 + 8 3 + ---. Therefore the new story . drifts in the stories below would be inc reased not only by their own ad but by the added lateral load effect from the stories above. need to be multiplied by the factor ad to represent the total final P-delta effect. or greater than 0.12.0". .7 the P-delta effects on the design story drift and the design story shear are evaluated by the follow ing procedure: I. leading to another story drift. In each story requiring consideration of P-delta effects the initial story shears are increased to ad V" . For each story where 8.. However." and story shear V.I) V" along with the initi al lateral loads on the frame..8.. Given the initial design story drift /:.B. Commentary In § 12.020(20 ft)( 12) = 4. This is equivalent to an added latera l load equal to (a d-I) V applied to each story level having 8 > 0.8.drift compliance in the first story §12. The structural elements must be designed to resist the resulting final story shears.).8) = ad.. The engineer should verify that the total gravity load employed and the method used in these programs will provide results that are essentially equivalent to the augmented story shear method described above.110'" = 0.80 in . in a multi-story building having 8 > 0. . thus . This factor accounts for the multiplier effect due to the initial story drift /:. which converges to 1(1 .7 for the evaluation of the final story drifts state that the final story drift shall be ad times the initial drift IJ..8.1. 2006 la c Structural/S eism ic Design Manual. overturning moments and element actions. I 77 . .020 hi /:.Example 16 • P-delta Effects §12. As a resu lt the initial story drift /:. ... = 4.k. 3." = 0. 8. The fina l resulting story drift IJ. o. Vol.':= I I I Some computer programs for frame analysis state that P-delta effects are incl uded directly in the analysis.7 T 12.. ~ = ad IJ.16.7 Check for story. etc.10.1 in more than one story.1 at story x: compute for each story x the stability coefficient 8x given by Equation 12.12-1 1 Allowable story drift /:.

45g SOl = 0.2. 1.'-.8.28g J = 1.8.1 Example 17 • Seis mic Bas e Shear 1 ] §12.'-.e ismic Base Shear Find the design base shear for a 5-story steel special moment-resisting frame building shown below .45) = 0 0561 s (R) J (8) . is the smaller value of §12.'-- I I I To solve this example.'-.0 (Eq 12.1 C = S os = (0..1 The appropriate fundamental period To is to be used. The following information is given.8-7) ~ Determine the seismic response coefficient Cs The design value of C. Seismic Design Category D S DS = ] 0.035(60)~ = 0.. [L] Determine the structure period ~ Determine the seismic response coefficient ~ Determine seismic base shear Calculations and Discussion c.035.8. T.8. = 0.0 60' R =8 W = 1626 kips 11" = 60 feet .. Vol.1 ii~ample 1 7 S. Cr for steel moment-resisting frames is 0. = C :.. follow these steps.8-2) 78 200 6 IBC Structural/ Se ismic Design Manual.§12.D75 sec rUd (Eq 12. I I I I I I I I I . Code Reference [I] Determine the structure period §12..

5 1 sec 44' ~ Masonry shear wall building 29' 29' ~ TYP' 60' I~~f" < 45' IE Front wall elevation Back wall elevation For this structure. x = 0.Example 18 D Approximate Fundamental Period §12. h« = 33 feet Setback k--J 33' -'- . I 81 .- CT = 0.'.0 16(33)°·9 = 0. for the "all other buildings" category C T = 0. However. there is a vertical geometric irregularity (Table 12.Y = 0.37 sec [!J Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF) EBF structures use the C.016 .2. Vol.- _ L. and this is used to determine per iod.75.'- - L- _ L.030(44)°·75 = 0.020 and x may be taken as 0.1 ~ Concrete special moment frame (SMF) structure Height of the tallest part of the building is 33 feet. if the setback represents more than a 130-percent change in the lateral force system dimension. Taller structu res. the values for "all other buil dings" To = CT(h.75 T = CT(hn}T: = 0.25 sec 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.020(29)°·75 = 0.9 To = CT(hnY = 0.3-2). CT may be taken as 0. more than five stories or 65 fee t in height. Roof pentho uses are generally not considered in determining hi!> but heights of setbacks are included. require dynamic analysis for this type of irregularity. x = 0.030 .8..

1 Exa mple 18 • Approximate Fu nd am en tal P eriod ~ Tilt-up building Consider a tilt-up building 150 feet by 200 feet in plan that has a panelized wood roof and the typical wall elevation shown below. for use in determining design base shear. Thus .2. I E 4t"" . . the period computed above is not a good estimate of the rea l fundamental period of this type of building. 15'typ ~ .2. X = 0.020(20)°·75 = 0.~'" Typical wall elevation H ) zo' ' " ) I CT = 0. The fundamental period T of the building may also be established by analytical procedures with the limitation given in §12. 1 '. Vol. The code formula for period does not take into consideration the fact that the real period of the building is highly dependent on the roof diaphragm construction. comm'fmtaf)'.020.§12. It is acceptable.. 8.8. however.19 sec This type of structural system has relatively rigid walls and a flexible roof diaphragm. I I I . I I I I I ) 82 2006 la c Structural/Seismic Design Man ual. 20'I ~I • 4 - .75 I I T = CT(hn )' = 0.

2006 lBC Structural/Se ismic Des ign Manual.14.1.Example 19 II Simplified Alternative Structural Des ign Procedure §12.1 Light-framed cons truction not more than three stories. 150 kips 300 kips 300 kips 12' To solve this examp le. or other buildings with bearing walls or building frame systems not more than three stories. The following information is given.0 R 6X Level T f I( 20' W = 750 kips + 20' ~ 1 12' 12' Effective Seismic Weight. I 83 . follow these steps.14 Exam Ie 19 Simplified I ernettve Structura l Design Procedure § 12. can use the simplified alternat ive method when general conditions are satisfied. Occupancy Category I S DS = = 1. [}J Check applicability of simplified alternative method ~ Determine seismic base shear ~ Determine seismic lateral forces at each level Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [}J Check applicability of simplified alternative method §12. Vol.14 Determine the seismic base shear and the seismic lateral forces for a three-story wood structural panel wall buildin g using the simplified alternative structural design procedure. w.

5) = 27.7.7.4 kips 750 I I F2 = ~~~ 750 (138.8 The follo wing is a comparison of simplified base shear with standard design base shear.5) = 55.5 kips @J Determine seismic lateral forces at each level §12.§12.5) = 55.8-1) (Eq 12.V " x W W (Eq 12. The standard method of determining the seismic base shear is v=csw wher e (Eq 12. Vol. I .14.2 F =.14 Ex ampl e 19 • Simplified Alterna tive Structu ra l Des ign Pro c edu r e ~ Determine seis mic base shear §12.4 kips F 3 = ISO (138.7 kips Commen tary §12.14-10) I I FI = 300 (138.0)(750 kips) ] 6X = 138. 14-9) 1.14.2(1.1 (Eq 12.8-2) I I I I I I I I I 84 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.

278 0.2 % Difference 72 108 216 120 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2 25. Fju '.4 138. U'.7.6 115. may be taken as I percent of the story height.h.7 kips 55.6 115.5 second or less.0 for structures having a period of 0.400 kip-It 7 .4 55.Example 19 • Simplified Alrernative Structural Design Procedu re §12.333 0.5. Comparison of Simplified VS Standard Level x 3 2 Total Lateral Force F. i.4 kips 5 1.. Standard Simplified 27.200 3.093 The seismic base shear Vand lateral forces F" at each level except the roof are all less than the simplified method . Vol.4 kips 51. w.5 38.8-11) where (IBe Eq 16-42) 2: w .h.444 0.222 L ~ F. I 85 .r 3 2 I h.185 0. The principal advantage of the simplified method is that period T need not be calculated and design story drift ().14 1 The distribution of seismic forces over the height of the structure is 1 Fx = C.4 0.14. "'xlix }: wi"i 0. I 36 fl 24 12 150 kips 300 300 5 .200 38.600 L II'. 1 n 1 Note: distribution exponent k = 1. §12.~V (Eq 12. Level . 16. see table below .2 25.".

0 Special steel moment frame R = 8.1.1 cannot be used. determine the required R coefficient. Table 12. This example illustrates use of the requirements of §12. the exception for a two-stage analysis in § 12.5 P = 1.0 C« = 5. the bottom part of the structure may be a rigid frame and the top part may be a braced frame or shear wall. factor.3.0.3.0 and the largest no = 3. For the three systems shown below.1 In structural engineering practice.0 P = 1.2. Therefore.2.0 no= 3. and related design base shear requirements. Recall that lithe floor and roof diaphragms could be considered to be flexible. Cd .3.§12. per footnote g.2.5.3.1 to determine the applicable response modification coefficient R system overstrength factor no and deflection amplification factor Cd values for combined vertical systems. For example. 86 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1 Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical !~ample 20 'Combina tion of Structural Systems: Vertical '12.2. no factor.0 This combined system falls under vertical combinations of § 12. I . the structure in this direction must use the lowest R = 6.2.Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Steel Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF) over steel special moment frame (SMF) Seismic Design Category C Ordinary steel concentrically braced frame R =6.3. Because the rigid framing system is above the flexible framing system.0 nu = 2. Vol. n u would be 2.2-1.0 Cd = 5. it is sometimes necessary to design buildings that have a vertical combination of different lateral-force-resisting systems.

3 Stiffness upper portion = 175 kip-in T upper = 0.Example 20 If CombInation of Structural Systems: Vertical §12.0 Th is combined system falls under vertical combinations of § 12. Under § 12.0 Cd = 5. I 87 .00 = 2.3. R = 5.2-1 ).0 Special reinforced concrete moment frame R = 8.0 .0.0 C« = 5. a two-stage static analysi s may be used.0. Because the rigid portio n is above the flexible portion.0 .3.2. Also note that ordinary rein forced concre te shear wall systems are not permitted above 35 feet in SOC 0 .3.55 sec T eoll/billed = 0. [!J Concrete SRCMF over a concrete building frame system ~ Applicable criteria.1.00 = 3.5 P = 1.5 P = 1. provi ded the structures conform to the following four requirements.00 = 3. Therefore.2.1 ~ Ordinary reinforced concrete shear wall (ORCSW) over special reinforce d concrete moment frame (SRC MF) Seismic Design Category C Ord inary reinforced concrete shear wall (non. . Seism ic Design Catego ry B Concrete specia l reinforced conc rete mome nt-frame R =8. E. and the largest. Vol.2.5 Cd = 4. or F (Table 12.56 sec Shear walls 2006 IBC Structu r al/Se is mic Design Manual. T his is a vertical combination of a flexibl e system over a more rigid system. 1.5 P = 1.00 = 3. a two-stage analysis cannot be used.bearing) R =5 . the structure in this direction must use the lowest.

o.. see Table 12.000 kip-in rlo"er = 0. Reactions from the upper structure shall be determined from analysis of the upper structure amplified by the ratio of Rip of the upper structure over Rip of the lower structure. This ratio shall not be less than 1. 1 I Check requirements of § 12. Flexible upper portion supported on the rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using appropriate values of Rand p.2. Vol.l times the period of upper structure considered a separate structure fixed at the base. For multi-story upper or lower portions .k.3.2.0 no=2.5 Cd =5 P = 1. I I I I I I I I I I I I 88 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.0 Stiffness = 10.61 sec .55) = 0. b. Period of entire structure is not greater than l.1 for a two-stage analysis a. the stiffness should be the stiffness of the first mode.56 sec < 1. 0.2-1. J ..1 Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical J Special reinforced concrete shear wall R =6.1 (. c. . d.3.§12. Rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate structure using appropriate values of Rand p. 10. . The stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the stiffness of the upper portion.000 kip-in > 10(175) = 1750 kip-in .03 sec 1 J Also note R is different for bearing wall systems versus building frame systems for special reinforced concrete shear walls. o.0.k.

VIrum.. I 89 . Q = 2. r Design lower portion of the building frame system for the combined effects of amplified reactions from the upper portion and lateral forces due to the base shear for the lower portion of the structure (using R = 6.Example 20 • Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical §12. Amplified Vllil m • =. 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.3 Vllilme =1.2.-. Note that for the basic seismic load combinations the factor p must still be applied to forces corresponding to V lower..5.0 for the lower portion).03 Vllilme 6..0 The reactions from the upper portion shall be determined from the analysis of the upper portion amplified by the ratio of (Rip) for the upper portion over (Rip) of the lower portion. Vol.3.0. and p = 1.1 ~ Design procedures for upper and lower structures Design upper SRCMF using R n p =8.0 /1.0 =3.- 8..0 = 1.3 .0/1...

. Floors are concrete slab. a three-story building has concrete shear walls in one direction and concrete moment frames in the other. and the building is SDC D and Occupancy Category I..e. 2. directions) ofthc building. I I I I I I I I I I I I . system over strength factor QQ.2. Q" = 2. Thi s example illustrates the determination of response modification coefficient R. and deflection amplification factor Cd values for a building that has different seismic framing systems along different axes (i. and 3 are special reinforced concret e moment frames R =8.5. In this example.2 Example 21 • Co mbination of Fram ing Systems in Different Dir ections I J §12. I 1 Determine the R.Shear wall ---G Typ ical floor Plan Lines A and D are special reinforced concrete shear walls (bearing wall system) R = 5. QQ= 3.5 Table 12. Table 12.2-1 (C5) !TI Determine the R value for each direction 90 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic Design Manual.2 J Exam p l e 21 gombina tion of F !"aming Systems in Differ~nt Directions ") : ' . and Q " values for each direction. Cd = 5. Vol. Cd. I I _ .0. Cd= 5.§12.2.0.2-1 (AI) Lines I.

Vol.Calculations and Discussion . ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls are not permitted.. .5 for the east-west direction.5.0. Y Code Reference The provisions of § 12. I ~'.2.Example 21 • Combination of Framing Systems in Different Directions §12 . Commentary Note that since this is SDC D. Use R = 5. and Cd = 5. 2006 IBC Str uctural/Seismic D esign Ma nual. system overstrength factor Q o' and deflection ampl ification factor Cd for each system shall be used.. and R = 8.0.2 .2 require that where different seismic-foree-resisting systems are used along the two orthogonal axes of the structure.2.0. I 91 . Q o = 2. and Cs = 5 for the north-south direction. the appropriate response modification coefficient R. Q o = 3.

I ..3. This example shows how the response modification coefficient R value is determined in such a situation. Vol .2 Example 22 " Combination of Structural Systems: Along the Same Axis .3. to qualify as a flex ible diaphragm. However. long the Same Axis §12.0 [!J Determine the R value for the N/S direction Calculations and Discussion Code Reference When a combination of structural systems is used in the same direction.§12. Use R = 3. see definition in § 12. Commentgl'Y An exception is given for light frame .2. -' Roof Plan Lines 1 and 4 are ordinary steel moment frames: R = 3.2 Occasionally.1. the lateral deformation of the diaphragm must be more than two times the average story drift of the associated story.3.2.3.. EX~mple22 . The structure is assigned to Seismic Use Group 1. flexible diaphragm buildings of Occupancy Category I or Il two stories or less in height.5 for entire structure. §12.5 Lines 2 and 3 are special steel concentrically braced frames: R = 6.. : . ''- -. it is necessary or convenient to have different structural systems in the same direction.3.2 requires that (except for dual systems and shear wall-frame interactive systems) the value of R used shall not be greater than the least value of any system utilized in that direction. ~ COmbination of Structural Systems: .2. A one-story steel frame structure has the roof plan shown below. 92 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.

R z-: (Eq 12. Vol.01 (Eq 12.2I g.8-3) (Eq 12.6g.W = = (Eq 12. C.0467 for T S. Cs > .8. Design value of C.28) _ R ~ (0. shall not be less than C = 0.8-4) • but shall not be less than C.B.5S. value of 0. value of 0. If the S. = 0.1 and C Example 17 • Seismic Base Shear § 12.8-6) I : . TL (Eq 12. then the lower bound on C.8-5) In addition. is equal to or greater than 0.8-1) 0.8-6) 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic D esign Manual. I 79 .l . = 0.0 0.9 kips I I I I ComtnimtcJry The So.1 v =C. is 0.--i)-() SOl / _ (0.28g given in this example is based on an S.75) 1. value were to have been equal or greater than 0.0467(1626 kips) 75. for structu res located where S.6g. s (~) (Eq 12.5/S.0467 ~ Determine seismic base shear The seismic base shear is given by §12.

028(96)°·8 = 1.2. §12. as a dynamic vibrator.- 96' Supe rslructu re C r = 0.§12. 80 2006 IBC Structuraf/Seismic Design Manual. x = 0. [!J Steel special moment frame (SMF) structure Concrete special moment frame (SMF) structure Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF) [!J @J ~ ~ Masonry shear wall building Tilt-up building Calculatipns and Discussion Code Reference [!J Steel special moment frame (SMF) structure Height of the structure above its base is 96 feet. I .8.8-7) The coefficient CT and the exponent x are dependent on the type of structural system used. ample 18 Appro~imate Fundamental Period § 12. or the level at which the structure.08 sec .8.2.1 Example 18 • Approximate Fundame ntal Period '.1 -. base is defmed as the level at which earthq uake motions are considered to be imparted.1 Determine the period for each of the structures shown below usi ng the appropriate fundament al period formula (Eq 12. Vol . For this structure the solution is the same. is supported.8.2.028. 22' _L Basemenl Note : In the SEAOC Blue Book. The additional 22-foot depth of the basement is not considered in determining 11" for period calculation. 8 Grad e To = Cr (I1"r = 0.

0 T = 1. = 0. It is determined as follows v = C.-ference §12..8-1 [!J Determine V I This is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of the structure. Vol.062 (376zk) = 233.062 R = 8.8 kips (Eq 12.. Find the vertical distribution oflatera l forces F x • The following information IS given. 5 5 54k 12' 4 22k '2' I 3 4 22k ' 2' 2 440k ' 2' 4 65k 20' // " 1' / / 1' / ~ / / /I' / '/ Total 3762 kips I I I I I To solve this example. [!J ~ Determine V Find Fx at each level ~ Find the distribution exponent k ~ Determine vertical force distribution :Ca/culations and Discussion Code R.Example 23 • Vertica l Distributio n of Seismic Forc e §12.8. I 93 .0 Q" level 9 I ?f T I I I ( 27' 0) EO 27' ): Story weight 2 14k 4 OSk 12' 8 7 1 = 3.3 A nine-story building has a moment-resisting steel frame for a lateral-force-resisting system.0 = 1. IV = 0.3 1 Exampl e 23 · Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force § 12 . IV = 3762 kips C.smlc Design Man ual.06 sec ' 2' 4 QSk 4 O~ ' 2' ' 2' 6 . follow these steps.B.8-1) 2006 IBC Structura l/Se.

at each level (Eq 12. hi i.5 o o 0.06 1.I n lVxhl (Eq 12. .5 I I I I I I I I J Exponent. k 94 2006 IBC Struc tural/S eism ic Design Manu al.0 2.3 Ex ample 23 • Ver tic al Dis tr ibu tion of Seis mic Force ~ Find r. 8. 11 = 9 Thus: F = 233.l1.8-12) I ] Since there are nine levels above the ground.I . Thus: 2.5 seconds." e 0~ 1.8w.11 ) I I ] The vertica l distribution of seismic forces is determined as where c = I'X 2: IV.0 0. For intermediate value of the building period.5 1. I I .28 'C 1.0 for buildings having a period of T s 0. and is equal to 2.0 .5..§12. I §12. x • ~ LJ lV /Ii i. k is determined by linear interpo lation.5 2.8.0 for buildings having a period oi T>: 2.0 1..5 1.8. Vol.5 2.3 Find the distribution exponent k The distribution exponent k is equal to 1.

/I. Vol. Table 12.0 + (1.064 0. = Su 0.3 32. 1 37.5 Use: k @J Equation 12.2 233.960 21.2 15.06 sec = 1.5 10. When checking building drift.8 kips and k = 1.648 73. p = 1. provided that.28 I ) 2.0 (§12. when stre ss check ing the individual mem bers of the lateral-foree-resisting system. the horizontal forces at each floor level are increased when p is greater than 1.28 "• .Examp le 23 • Verti cal Distribution of Seismic Force §12 . The horizontal forces need not be increase d at each floor level whe n p is greater than 1.565 129. Redundancy requ irements must also be evaluated once the type oflateral-force-resisting system to be used is specified.079 0.~ (kips) kip-It 93.0. because this may require modification of the building framing system and vertical distribution of horizontal forces as a result of changes in building period T. 161 0.I lists the minimum allowable analysis procedures for seismic design .710 132.8 6.• wxhx • C~ . = .04 6 0.094 0.027 1.5 -0.3.024 0.390 ~ = 806.06 _ 0. I 95 .127 0.4.067 0.594 36. 116 0. = C••V (kips) F/ w.169 0.8-12 is solved in the table below given V= 233.3 I Now: for T k = 1.6 21.0.037 0.013 I I I I I I I I I 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 116 ft 104 92 80 68 56 44 439 382 326 273 222 173 127 84 46 214 405 405 405 584 422 32 20 422 440 465 ~ =3762 0.3 44. Often.006 53.946 154. the seismic forces are factored by p. 192 0.8 38.6. Th is is done to simplify the analysis of the framing members.5) ( = 1.B.1 II 0.09 1 0.030 110.2 Commelltary Note that certain types of vertical irregularity can result in a dynamic response hav ing a load distribution significantly different from that given in this section .050 0.28 = 1. ( ft) U'.289 LW/l i F. 2006 la c Stru ctur al/Seismic Design Manual.004 27.f Level X ii. 137 0.I W.1) shall be used.

and it is rarely necessary to manually perform the calculations shown above . 2. and S" = r <pSa from a modal analysis.6-1. Most structural analysis programs used today perform this calculation. However. it is recommended that these calculations be performe d to confirm the computer analysis and to gain insight to structural behavio r.§ 12. Note that ( So )max is approximately twice C . The configuration and final design of this structure must be checked for these irregularities. 3 Exampl e 23 • Vertica l Distr ibution of Se ism ic Forc e Structu res that have a vertical irregularity of Type Ia. or 3 in Table 12. I I I I I I I I r I I I I I I 96 2006 IBC Structural/S eism ic Des ign Man ual. or plan irregular ities of Type l a or Ib in Tab le 12. Structures exceeding 240 feet in height shall require dynamic analysis. Ib. Vol. and having a height exceeding five stories or 65 feet may have significantly different force distributions. 8.6-1. I I I .

I 97 . the weight of the walls should be included in the determ ination of the center-of-mass (CM). and in this example.4 A single-story building has a rigid roof diaphragm. Vol. the weight of the walls is neglected.Example 24 • HOlizontal Distribution of Shear §12. Design base shear: V = 100 kips in north-south direction Wall rigidi ties: RA = 300 kip/in RB = 100 kip/in Rc = RD = 200 kip/in Center-of-mass: X m= 40 ft.8.BA 1 EKa mp!e 2 4 :Horizontal Distribution of Shear §12. Lateral forces in both directions are resisted by shear walls.' XR ~. The mass of the roof can be consid ered to be uniformly distributed.. " • • Roof diaphragm YR X ) c BO' IE Roof plan )1 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. particularly with concrete shear walls. r -. The following information is given. A 40' y 0 Shear wall below . In actu al pract ice. Ym = 20 ft Ana lyze for seismic forces in north -south direc tion. See appendix to this example for a proc edure for the distribution of lateral forces in structures with rigid diaphragms and cross walls and/or frames of any orientation .

§1 2.4. 98 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.B. With the requirements for accidental eccentricity es«.20 = 20 ft Torsional rigidity abo ut the center of rigidity is de termine d as J = RA (20) 2 + RB (60/ + Rc (20)2 + RD(20)2 = 300 (20i + 100 (60)2 + 200 (20)2 + 200 (20i = 64 x 104 (kip /in) fe I I I I I I I I I I I The seismic force V app lied at the CM is equivalent to having Vapplied at the CR together with a counter-clockwise torsion T. 1 .XR = 40 .8. OJ [3J [I] ~ ~ Eccentricity and rigidity properties Direct shear in walls A and B Plan irregularity requirements Torsional shear in walls A and B Total shear in walls A and B Calculations and Discussion ~ode Reference I I I OJ Eccentricity and rigidity properties The rigidity of the structure in the direction of applied force is the sum of the rig idities of walls parallel to this force . R §12 . the total shear on walls A and B can be found by the addition of the direct and torsional load cases .1 = RA + RB = 300 + 100 = 400 kip/in Th e centers ofrigidity (CR) along the x and y axes are eccentricity e = X m .4 Example 24 • H or/z ontal Dist ribution of Shear I Determine the following. Vol.

0 kips 300 + 100 V D. V' and corresponding story drifts (so as to produce the lowest value of the average story drift) will result from the large st ecce ntrici ty e + eacc • Thes e are v' T. Vol ..A = V (e+e"cJ(xR)(R A ) j = 100(20 + 4) (20)(300 ) = 22. the initial most severe tors ional shears. a A CR 20' 20' • V ..n = RA + Rn X (V) = @J Plan irregularity requirements Th e determination of torsional irreg ularity. requires the evaluation of the story drifts in walls A and B.C T= V(e:: eecc) fa / / / ~ C C Direct shear contribution Torsional shear contribution ~ Direct shear in walls A and B R A RA + RB RD V 0.O VT.11 = X (V) = 300 .3-1.0 ft For the determination of torsional irregularity.20' 60' A l ~ CR~ VT.05 (80 ft) = 4.5 ki s j 64 x 1O~ P 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.S VT. .A 4 D / VT.0 kips 300 + 100 100 x 100 = 25. 8A VO.Ex amp le 24 • Horizontal Distribu tion of Sh ear §1 2.B = V(e+e acJ(8 0 -x R)( R B ) = 100(20+4)(60)(100) = 22.A D / r rr: / / VO.. x 100 = 75. I 99 . Items la and lb in Table 12.5 ki s 64 x 10~ P ~' T. eacc + 0. This evaluation must include accidental torsion caused by an eccentricity of 5 percent of the building dimension.

cc. 100 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.47 < 3.B + \~.A .5 = 0.48 = 0.2(0. The resulting displacem ents b'..0 .B V. as accidental eccentricity here is used to reduce the force).4. it is not recalculated with amplified torsion).7.5 = 52.3. ~ Torsional shears in walls A and B To account for the effects of torsional irregularity. Extreme Torsional Irregularity Type Ib exists. 18 in V~ RB = 47.3.49 = 1.2.V.8. Vol.4 Example 24 • Hor izo ntal Distribution of Sh ear I The initial total shears are V~ = VD.45 > 1. = 0.4 0.33 in 2 = b~ = 0. = 25. 1.22.5 kips = VD." 1.4.48 in b"4' b.3. structural modeling must include 3 dimensions per §12.2 requires that the accidental torsional moment.1 8 + 0. 1 .33 I I I I :.4.0 + 22.5 = 47.. §12.e.3 requires the evaluation and application of the torsional amplification factor A. Section 12.48 in 100 = 0.§12.. and diaphragm shear transfer forces to collectors must be increased 25 percent per §12. which for this single-story building are also the story drift values. are b' = ) ) RA = V~ = 52.48 ) ' = 1.. = ( b"4' )' = ( 0.33) (IBC Eq 16-44) I I I I Note: the factor Ax is not calculated iteratively (i.8. be multiplied by the torsional amplification factor Ax.0 .A = 75. (See Example 26) Assum ing SDC D..8.5 kips (NOTE: Th is is not the design force for Wall A. Ve.5 300 = 0.

It restores the requirements of the 1997 UBC and 1999 Blue Book.8 kips 25.13. 2. Where the torsional shear has the opposite sense to that of the direct shear and is to be subtracted.2 = 61. I I I I I I The §12.1.0 ..B = = 24 3 k' .B = r I I COmmentary Section 12.{. and the "most severe" condition is as follows.47 x 4]60(100 kip/in) " 64 x 10 (kip/injft ' = 13.24 kips V T.4 The most severe total shears result from the use of V [e .8.4.4. 64 ' 100 kips[(20 + 1.3 kips VB = V D . = V D_. the torsion al shear must be based on the actua l eccentricity minus the accidental eccentricity to give the smallest subtractive shear.8.A . IpS ~ Total sh ear in walls A and B Total shear in each wall is the algebraic sum ofthc direct and torsiona l shear components v:. Vol.47 x 4]20( = 100 kips[(20 x 104 (kip/in jft~00 kip/in) . I.3 = 49.A = 75. I 101 .ed CC ] for VT.3 requirement to multiply only the accidental torsion al moment by Ax differs significantly from the 2000 !Be.0 + 24. This load combination involves the direct and torsional shears.2 requires that the most severe load combination for each element shall be considered for design .eacc ] for VT•B V T. Where the torsional shear has the same sense.A and V [e + A. 2006 IBC Str uct ural/Seismic D esign Manual.Example 24 • Horizontal Distrib ution of She ar §12.VT. .B. the torsional shear shall be calculated using actual eccentricity plus the accidental eccentricity to give the largest additive torsional shear.B + V T. and is therefore added to the direct shear.

8. f f f 4 @J20'=80' A ®.§12.0 80. I .3 Example 25 • Amplification of Accidental Tors i on § 12 .\" F. and accidental eccentricity eacc for each Level x are given below. it is assumed for simplicity that the location of the centerof-mass CAtf. Vol. 1 23. Shear walls resist lateral forces in both directions.0 80.0 ft 80. In this example.8. 5 4 3 2 I 110.8 24.e is congruent with the center of rigidity at the level in question .0 ft ±4.0 X es «: =0. structure dimensions. 80.0 ±4. resulting in zero inherent at torsion. 102 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.3 3 1. at the centers of mass and the ±O. Level.r ± 4.g II b N @-M 0 @ IN Floor plan at Level x The lateral seismic forces Fein the north-south direction.0 I .0 ±4.8 30.4.0 80.1 42. The structure is a five-story reinforced concrete building frame system.0 kips 82.05Lx displacements as required by §12.2.5 65. for the given lateral seismic forces F. A three-dimensional rigid diaphragm model has been formu lated for the evaluation of element actions and deformations due to prescrib ed loading conditions.05L. L.0 ±4 .4.2 ft 25. Separate values are given for the application of the forces F. a computer analysis provides the following results for the second story.4.8.3 This example illustrates how to include the effects of accidental eccentricity in the lateral force analysis of a multi-story building.0 In addition. 1 27.

56 0.1 8 174. I 103 .0 kips 104.44 For the second story.~ Wall shear 1'" Wall shear V. r X r~ + 00 e.62 0 ..-.0 kips Check if torsional irregularity exists The building may have a torsional irregularity Type I (Table 12.85 1.0 kips 126..68 0. in this example it is assumed that accidenta l eccentricity is the only source of torsional mome nt at this floor level.0 kips 0.33 2 = 0. it is determined that I I I I I I I VA VB = = 196.37 in 0.0 kips 0.80 1. inherent torsion (center of mass not being congruent with center of rigidity) and the contribution due to accidental torsion. [L] ~ Maximum force in shear walls A and 8 Check if torsiona l irregularity exists Determine the amplification factor Ax New accidental torsion eccentricity @J ~ Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Maximum force in shear walls A and 8 The maximum force in each shear wall is a result of direct shear. Story drift II. ~lJla:c = = 0. From the above table.. Story drift II.75 1.51 in 2006 IB C St ructur al/S eismic Design Ma nual.35 in 0.4.0 kips 0.: Level 2 displacement 0" Level 2 displacement 5 8 185.e.68 in 0.33 in 0.3-1). X rl .31 196.3 Force F~ Position I x . The following is a check of the story drifts.0 kips 115. Vol.. As mentioned above.68 + 0.0 kips 126.Example 25 II Amplification of A ccidental Torsion §12. find the following.8.

5 1 1 I I . as shown below. a second analysis for torsion must be performed using the new accidental eccentricity.8. In this example.1liao'g is larger than 1.4.8-14) Where: the average story displacement is computed as = 1.Note: if li ma. then torsional irregu larity Type 1b exists.e.75 = 1. Ax (Eq 12.44+0. . Torsional irregularity Type la exists .§ 12. I .10 in 2 1.8.76 ft 10 4 2006 IBC Structural/S eismic De sign Manual.4. Vol.3 Example 2S • Amp lification of Accidenta l Torsion J li"".3 requires that the second story torsional moment be ampli fied by the following factor. the amplification factor will be used to calculate a new and increased accidental eccentricity . Ax for the second story) is greater than unity..2)(1. «. §12.4...33 > 1. = 0.19 in I I I = ' ~ New accidental torsion eccentricity Since Az (i. e"cc = (1.68 = 1.0 ft) = 4.44 ((1 . beca use the only source of torsion is the accidental eccentricity.19)(4. ~ Determine the amplification factor A x Because a torsiona l irregularity exists.10) )= 1.2 0.

need not be amplified by Ax where accidental torsional effects are included in the dynamic analysis model. all the requirements of horizontal shear distribution.4. The results of the first analysis with the use ofA.8. Vol. I 105 . a second torsional analysis must be performed using the new accidental eccentricities.9 is used. §12. However.8. Also note that Ax is not required to exceed 3. Only the accidental torsion is required to be amplified if torsional irregularity exists .9. it is 110/ required to find the resulting new Ax values and repeat the process a second or third time (until the Ax converges to a constant or reaches the limit of 3. However.0).9 gmmentary Example 25 • Amplification ct Accidental Torsion §12. While this example involves wall shear evaluation. the same procedure applies to the determination of the most severe element actions for any other lateral-foree-resisting system having rigid diaphragms. given in §12. When the dynamic analysis method of §12.4. If torsional irregularity exists and Ax is greater than 1. are sufficient for design purposes.1 and §12.2) also apply .8. In practice..1 .3 Example calculati ons were given for the second story. including torsion calculations that may be accounted for by displacing the calculated centers of mass of each level (§12. I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. each story requi res an evaluation of the most severe element actions and a check for the torsional irregularity condition.8.0.4.5 states that amplification of accidental torsion.0 at any level (or levels) .4.

5 on L Axial loads on column C D = 40 kips L = 20 kips QE = 100 kips 12' § 12.. [!J Required strength ~ Detailing requirements 106 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.5 T 12.---------.4.3 L~.3.3 Example 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems ain~/e26 lements Supporting Discontinuous Systems A reinforced concrete building has the lateral-foree-resisting system shown below.. ~ Shear wall 12' Column C 24" x 24" f c =4000 12' psi Determine the following for column C..f 12' 4 . Vol.. E.10 Ordinary reinforced> concrete shear wall (ORCSW) building frame system : R = 5 and Q o = 2. Office building live load: use factor of 0...3.2-1 Note: ORCSW not permitted in SDC D. I ..§12. The following information is given. Seismic Design Category C S DS= 1.2. . Shear walls at the first-floor level are discontinuous between lines A and Band lines C and D. or F...----...

Exam plo 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §12. Required strength Because of the discontinuous configuration of the shear wall at the first story.2( 1.0. Because of symmetry.4.3 (Comb.2 Pu = 1.9D + 1.5L + 1. the first story columns on lines A and D must support the wall elements above this level.4. I Section 12.2 (Comb.4.3 .2 (40) + 0.9 (40) . 5) § 12.0.5 (20) + 259 = 317 kips co mpression I I I I I I and P" = 0.0. live.3 requires that the column shall have a design strength to resi st special seismic load combination of § 12.2( 1. 7) E.5( 100) .3 (Comb.J.10)(40) = 24 1 kips 1 Substituting the values of dead.3.10)(40) = 259 kips or § 12.2 (Comb.5 (241) = -205 kips tension · 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Seis mic Design Manual.0Em where § 12.3. the column on line A would have identica l requirements.2.2 S DS D = 2.2D + 0.3..4.2 .0Em P" = 0.5( 100) + 0.2 SDS D = 2..3. 7) E.J. Vol. Column C on line D is treat ed in this example. and seismic loads I P" = 1. I 107 . 5) § 12.4. = Q" QE+ 0. = Q" QE .J • Calculations and Discussion Code Reference This examp le demonstrates the loading criteria and detail ing required for elements supporting discontinued or offset elements of a seismic-force-resisting system .

3.3. The load requirements of § 12.14"_ _. 1.§12.3.3. Discontinuous shear wall. 1.3 Examp l e 2 6 ff Elements Supporting Discon tinuous Systems Cotpmentary To transfer the shears from walls A-B and C-D to the first-story wall B-C. DDD Transfer girder DDD 108 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. The wall at left has a Type 4 vertical structural irregularity.10. Vol. These would have to be designed according to the requirements of § 12. collector beams A-B and C-D are required at Levell . Th is frame has a Type 4 vertica l structural irregularity. Note that only the column needs to resist the special load combi nations since it supports the shear wa ll.2. I .r t --Column 2. Discontinuous column.3 and relat ed sections of the relevant materials chapters apply to the following vertical irregularities and vertical elements.

and §12. Note that the transfer diaphragm and the offset shear wall are subject to the p factor. The wall on Line A at the first story is discontinuous.3. This structure has a Type 4 plan structural irregularity. Vol.Example 26 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §12.4.3 applies to the supporting columns.3.. Out-of-plane offset.2 Equations 5 and 7 need not exceed the maximum force that can be transferred to the element by the lateral-foree-resisting system. The portion of the diaphragm transferring shear (i.3 3. the load demand Em of § 12. Oisconllnued wall It should be noted that for any of the supporting columns shown above. but not to the special load combinations.4.3.3. I 109 . 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. transfer diaphragm) to the offset wall must be designed per the requirements of §12.3.3.3.e.

§12.3.3.3

Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls or Frames

1

fI" '-:-rt:

-

r

·& r'!'! .". le 2 7 amp ~~/emen ts Supporting Discontinuous Walls

1
orFrames
§12.3.3.3

1

This example illustrates the application of the requirements of § 12.3.3.3 for the allowable stress design of elements that support a discont inuous lateral-foree-resisting system. In this example, a light-framed bearing-wall building with plywood shear panels has a Type 4 vertical structural irregularity in one of its shear walls, as shown below. The following information is given. Seismic Design Category C S DS = l.IO R =6.5 no = 3.0 Cd =4 /I = 0.5 Axial loads on the timber column under the discontinuous portion of the shear wall are Dead D = 6.0 kips Live L = 3.0 kips Seismic Q£ = ±7.0 kips Determine the following.

I I

I
Ughl framed wall
with plywood
sheathing

J

I
Timber column

[!J

Applicable load combinations

~ Required column design strength
CalclJlations and Discussion Code Reference

[1J

Applicable load combinations
For vertical irregularity Type 4, § 12.3.3.3 requires that the timber column have the design strength to resist the special seismic load combinations of § 12.4.3.2 . This is required for both allowable stress design and strength design. For strength design the applicable load combinations for allowable strength design are

7. (0.9 - 0.2S DS)D + QoE
Appl icable load combinations for allowable strength design are:

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Example 27 • Ele ments Supp or ting Discontinu ous Waifs or Fram es

§ 12.3 .3 .3

5. (1.0 + 0.105 80S) D + 0.525 + QoQE + 0.75L 6. (0.8 - 0.14 80s) D + 0.7 QuQE

1
Required column desig n streng th (strength design) In this shear wall, the timber column carries only axial loads. The appropriate dead, live, and seismic loads are determined as
D = 6.0 kips L

= 3.0 kips

Em = n, QE + 0.2 80S D = 3.0(7.0)+ 0.2 (1.10) (6.0) = 22.3 kips
J

or

Em = Q o QE- 0.2 80S D = 3.0(7.0) - 0.2 (!.IO) (6.0) = 19.7 kips

For the required strength design -strength check, both load combinations must be checked.

P

=

1.2D + L + Em

I I I I I I I I
I

P = 1.2 (6.0) + 0.5 (3.0) + 22.3 = 31.0 kips . . . (compression) P
=

0.9D - 1.0Em

P = 0.9 (6.0) - 1.0 (19.7) =-14.3 kips .. . (tension)
The load factor on L in combination 5 is permi tted to equal 0.5 for all occupancies in whic h L; is less than or equal to 100 psf, with the exception of garages or areas occupied as places of public assembly.
Commentary

For strength design, the tim ber column must be checked for a compression load of31.0 kips and a tension load of 14.3 kips. In making an allowable stress design check, § 12.4.3.3 permits use of an allowable stress increase of 1.2. The 1.2 stress increase may be combined with the duration ofload increase described in the NO S. The resulting design strength = (1.2)(1.0)( 1.33) (allowable stress desig n). This also applies to the mechanical hold-down element required to resist the tension load.

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§12.3.3.3

Example 27 • Elements Supporting Discontinuous Walls

or Frames

The purpose of the design-strength check is to confirm the ability of the column to carry higher and more realistic loads required by the discontinuity in the shear wall at the first floor. This is done by increasing the normal seismic load in the column QE by the factor Q o = 3.0 to calculate the maximum seismic load effect Em (§ 12.4.3).

I
1

I I I
I I

I I I I I

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E::ample 28 • Soil Pr es s ur e At Foundation

§§2A; 12.13 .4

le2 oil Pressure At Foundations
III

§§2.4; 12.13.

Geotechnical investiga tion reports usua lly prov ide soil-bearing pressures on an allowable stress design basis while seismic forces in ASCE /SEI 7-05 and most concrete design (ACI/318-05, § 15.2.2 and R 15.2), are on a strength design basis. The purpose of this exam ple is to illustrate footing design in this situation. A spread footing supports a reinforced concrete column. The soil classification at the site is sand (SW). The following information is given . Seismic Design Category C SDS = 1.0, / = 1.0 P = 1.0 for structural system PD = 50 kips PD includes the footing and imposed soil weight) PL = 30 kips P E = ± 40 kips, VE = 25 kips, (these are the QE loads due to base shear V) Snow load S = 0 Wind load W < QE /1.4 The seismic loads are from an equivalent lateral analysis. The loads given above follow the sign convention shown in the figure. Perform the followi ng tasks.

r
)J

Grade

4'

I}J

Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure

~ Determine footing size ~ Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of the footing
section

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11 3

I) Per § 12. (Eq 12. Therefore . 12.1..4. the allowable gross foun dati on pressure pa from a site-specific geotechnical investigation recommendation is p a = 2.13.7£ D + 0. I .75)£ + L] (Comb. +£.4.I reduces to (Eq 12. 5) (Comb.20 ksf for trans ient loads. 7) 0. crit eria for determining footing size are also on this basis.75[0.4-3) For the san d class of material and footing depth of 4 feet. such as seismic. The earthquake loads to be resisted are specified in §12.6D + 0. 114 2006 IB C S tr u c tu r al /Se ism i c Des ig n Manual. 5) (Comb.13 .75 (0.7E) D + 0.6D + 0.7£ + L ) (Comb.§§2. for the soil pres sure the seism ic effe ct is reduced D + 0.7(0.75(0. D + 0.4 .4.4 permits reduction of overturning effects at the foundation-soil interface by 25 percent (if an equivalent lateral for ce analysis is used) or 10 percent (if modal analysis is used ).2.7£ Section 12.75)£ Because foundation investigation reports for bu ild ings typically specify bearing pre ssures on an allowable stress design basis. 6) (Comb.4.7(0. £ 1' = 0 for determ ining soil p ressure. Vol.4 Example 28 • Soil Pressure At Foundation :Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §2..40 ksf for sustained loa ds and pa = 3. 7) 0.4 . However. Equation 12.2. 6) (Comb .2 by £=£.4 [L] Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure The seismic-force reactions on the footing are based on strength design. allowable stress design may be used for sizing the foundation using the load combinations given in §2.

Example 28 • Soli Pres sure At Foundation

§§ 2.4; 12.13.4

[3J

Determine foot ing size

1
1

P

=

D + 0.75(0.7E) = 50 + 0.75(0.7)(40) = 56 kips

(Comb. 5) (Comb. 6)

P = D + 0.75[0.7(0.75)£ + L]

= 50 + 0.75[0.7(0.75)40 + 30) = 88 kips

P = 0.6D + 0.7(0.75)£
= 0.6(50) + 0.7(0.75)(-40) = 9 kips

(Comb. 7)

Equation 6 governs. The requ ired footing size is 88 kips/3.20 ksf = 27.5 sf Use 5 ft, 3-in-square footing. A = 27.6 sf

~ Determine soil pressure reactions for strength design of footing
For the design of the concrete elements, strength design is used. The reduction in overturning does not apply, and the vertical seismic load effec t is included
P

= I.3D + 0.5L + E
=

§2.3.2 (Comb. 5)

1.2(50) + 0.5(30) + 40 + 0.2( 1.0)(50) = 11 5k

I I I I I
I

A uniform pressure of 115k/27.6 sf = 4.17 ksf should be used to determine the internal forces of the footing. (Note that if the footing also resisted moments, the pressure would not be uniform.) The other seismic load combination is

P =0.9D +£
= 0.9(50) - 40 + 0.2(1.0)50 = -5k

§2.3.2 (Comb. 7)

Note that this indicates uplift will occur. ASCE/SEI 7-05 does not require that foundation stability be maintained using strength-level seismic forces. This combination is only used here to determine internal forces of concrete elements of the foundat ion. As it results in no internal forces, it may be neglected.

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11 5

§12.8.6

Example 29 • Drift

Example 29 Drift

§12"B.6

A four-story special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) building has the typical floor plan as shown below. The typical elevation of Lines A through D is also shown, and the structure does not have horizontal irregularity Types 1a or lb. The following information is given .

Occupancy Importance Category I Seismic Design Category 0 1 = 1.0 Cd = 5.5 T = 0.60 sec

Seism ic force

Typical fluor plan

Level

4

3

2

DDD DDD DDD
Ty pical Elevati on

12'

12'

12'

12'

The following are the deflections (computed from static analysis - effects of P-delta have been checked) bxe at the center-of-mass of each floor level. These values include both translational and torsional (with accidental eccentricity) effects. As required by § 12.8.6.2, b.~c has been determined in accordance with design forces based on the computed fundamental perio d without the upper limit (CI/Ta ) of § 12.8.2.

11 6

20 06 IBC Structura l/Se IsmIc Design Man ua l, Vol . I

1
Level

Example 29 • Drift

§ 12.B.6

0"
1.51 in 1.03

1
[L]

4

3 2

.63 .30

For each floor-level center-of-mass, determine the following. Maximum inelastic response deflection 05.

~ Design story drift ~ in story 3 ~ Check story 3 for story-drift limit
Calculations and Discussion
Code Reference

[!J

Maximum inelastic response deflection Ox These are determined using the O values and the Cd factor se

§12.B

o = CA, I
.r

= 5.56" = 5.50
1.0

se

C 12.8-15) Eq

The refore:
Level

0.(1'
1.51 in 1.03 0.63 0.30

6,
8.31 in 5.67 3.47 1.65

I I I I I I
1

4 3
2

1

~ Design story drift ~ in story 3 due to Ox
Story 3 is located between Levels 2 and 3. Thu s:
~J =

5.67 - 3.47 = 2.20 in

I

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117

§12.8.6

Example 29 • Drift

I
§12.12.1

@J

Check story 3 for story-drift limit

1
1
J

For this fou r-story building with Occupancy Importance Category I, § 12.12.1, Table 12.12-1 requires that the design story drift /1 shall not exceed 0.025 times the story height.

For story 3
/1J
=

2.20 in

]

Story-drift limit = 0.025 (144) = 3.60 in > 2.20 in :. Story drift is within the limit.

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)

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I I I I

5 12' 2 1. The limits are based on the design earthquake displacement or deflection O and not x the elastic response deflections ex corresponding to the design lateral forces of § 12.36 12' Cd 0.91 1 = 1. I 1 19 .8. using a static. the code places limits on the design story drifts.12 For the design of new buildings.3 16' 0 Determine the foll ow ing.. These have been determined x according to § 12. elastic analysis.0 tr = 5.5c5. Occupancy Category I Seismic Design Category D 12' Level 4 ~ f ~ D Deflected shape ' 6.79 P = 1.6 The design earthquake deflections O are determined from the following x = Cd° .! Drift Limitations §12 .rr 1 (E q 12. a four-story steel special mo ment-res isting frame (SMF) structure has the design force deflections o t! as shown.Example 3 0 • Stor.8.1 2 lEJralnple 30 Story Drift Limitations *12.8.44 In 3 1. /). e 2.50 of ! t 2006 IB C St ructural/SeIsmi c Des ign Manual. t! In the example give n below.15) = 5. [}J Design earthquake deflections Ox ~ Compare design story drifts with the limit value Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [}J Design earthquake deflections ax §12 .8.0 = 5. Vol . 1.

3. I . Determination of story drift from the difference of the combined mode deflections may produce erroneous results because differences in the combined modal displacements can be less than the corresponding combined modal story drift.12 Example 30 a Story Drift Limitations @J Compare story drifts with the limit value For this four-story building in Occupancy Category I." 2.k.. Whenever the dynamic analysis procedure of § 12._I.0251111.68 Status o. E. . = Cl.Cl. story drift should be determined as the modal combination of the story-drift value for each mode.43 in 8. 2.76 2. . § 12.12.1.24 3.51 in 2.76 2.92 6.13 0.59 D.76 in !1 S.3 = 0.019211 = 0. Note that use of the drift limit of 0.0192 (16 ft x 12 in/ft) = 3. 120 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.68 in For b.k.§12. this limit is reduced by §12. and F.019211 Levell = 0.12-1 .12 are satisfied.68 2.025 time s the story height. For SMF in SDC D.65 O x 11. Vol . check actual design story drifts against limits Level x 4 3 2 1 C .12 p per §12. o.12. Therefore: The story drift limits of § 12.k.9 is used. 0.1: !1alp = 0.62 1.76 3. and 2 !1 S.59 Limit 2.02511 requires interior and exterior wall systems to be detail to accommodate this drift per Table 12.2-1 requires that the calculated design story drift shall not exceed 0. Table 12.k.0192 (12 ft x 12 in/ft) = 2. 0.08 in 1. o.019211 Determine drift limit at each level Levels 4 .65 3.. o.

2 Find the vertical seismic load effect.2.0) D =.4. E.4.0 Find the following for strength design.2(1. The follow ing information is given. Vol .4-4) =0 - 0.4-2) (Eq 12. Seismic Design Category D Beam unit we ight = 200 plf SDS= 1.4.4-3) E" = 0.2SDsD QE = 0 for verti cal load. 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismi c D esig n Manual. [!J Upward seismic forces on beam ~ Beam end reactions Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Upward seismic forces on beam For SOC 0 .0.2.2D where the negative sign is for an upward action.2 §12.2.2 E = E" + E\O (Eq 12. The governing load combination including E as defined in §12.-.4. the design of hori zonta l cantilever beams must consider 1.2 Exal te 31 Vertical Seismic Load Effect §12. on the non-prestressed canti lever beam shown below. I 121 .4-1) (Eq 12.Example 31 • Vertical Sei smi c Load Effect §12. giving E (Eq 12.

0E + L + 0. A minimum net upward seismic force.4D = 1..2.1.4 (200 pit) = 280 plf downward :.0.§12.2(200) = .9D + (.4. (7) is qe = 0.2 Example 31 • Vertical Seismic Load Effect I 1 The governing load combination including the upward seismic effect from §2.2. I . The governing load combination including the downward seismic effect from §2.0)D + 0 + 0 =l.9D + 1.3. no net upward load.40 plf J §12.7D 1 = 0.7(200 plf) = 140 plf downward :.2 I I 122 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2D + 1.2D) =0.2. this is the maximum downward load on the beam. The terminology of "net upward seismic force" is intended to specify that gravity load effects cannot be considered to reduce the effects of the vertical seismi c forces and that the beam must have the strength to resist the actions caused by this net upward force without consideration of any dead loads. This force is computed as 0. I I I I I I I J 2.0.28 = 1.0(0.2D + 1.0E = 0.2 times the dead load qs = .2)(1. Vol.2. (5) is qe = 1.3.2WD = .0.

2 Beam end reactions for upward force of 40 plf v. = 40~0)2 = J 2000 lb/ft The beam must have strengths .J = qEl! = 40 plf(lO ft) = 400 lb M. and the actions due to the applicable gravity load combinations.pll.J 123 .2. and .1 J J EKample J 1 " Vertical Seismic Load Effect §12. Vol.pM.4= qe .4. to resist these actions. I I I I I I I 20061BC Structural/Seismic Design Manual..

4. arc calculated as I I I ---"".§11.esign Response Spectrum I I Determine the general design response spectrum for a site where the followi ng spectra l response acceleration parameters have been evaluated accordin g to the general procedure of §11 .5 Exam p l e 32 .4. '!. Vol.28) 0. To and T.5 Examp le 32 • Desig n Response Spe ctrum I §11. and T > T.28g TL = 8 sec I J [!J Determine design response spectrum 'Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Section I J .45 124 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic Design Man ual. ".45g SOl = 0. I I I I I I I I I .4. S DS= 0. = S DI S DS = 0.4.62 sec 0.2(0.28 = 0.I2 sec T.= 0.5 provides the equations for the 5-percent damped accele ration response spectrum Sa for the period T intervals of os T::: To.45 = O.

0 T(sec) TL = 8 sec .4-1.6 = SD T+ OASDS S T" (Eq 11 . in ASCE/SEI 7-05 So 0. Vol . 1 Elastic response spectrum 2006 IBC Structur al/S eis mi c Des ign Manual.- T nsc Eq 16-2 1) 4.4(OA5g) 0. Sa = SDS = 0.5 The spectral accelerations are calculated as 1. Figure 33..4-5) g (0.1. For r. For To < T :::: r.28g _ T 0.25T + 0.28g _ _ __ : ~ I L I ~0.~ From this information the elastic design response spectrum for the site can be drawn as shown in Figure 33.Examp le 32 " Des ign Response Spectrum §11.1 below. .4.SDI - TL _ 2. 125 .12 [2.62 s ec 1. per Figure 11.4 - To =0.6 = 0. For the interval 0:::: T:::: To Sa = 0.SOl _ 0.. < T:::: TL T .1. For T~ TL sa .18g '--_--'- .24 g T2 .28 .18]g 2.12 sec Ts =0.45 ) T + 0.45g I I ! 0..45g 3.----.--g Sa .-_ .

5. I 1 J I. example 33 II Dual Systems I 1 § 12.§12.0 Design Base Shear V = 400 kips QE = MQE = 53. I .8 has been used to determine the seismic demand QE at point A in the dual system of the building shown below. the frame element design loads for a dual system are usually a result of a computer analysis of the combined frame-shear wall system.2.5.1 .0 J = 1.5.2.1 prescribes the following features for a dual system .1 This example illustrates the determination of design lateral forces for the two basic elements of a dual system. In this example. [!J [!J Design criteria Seismic design moment at A = M'QE I I I I I I I I I I I I 126 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. The following information is given. Resistance to lateral load is provided by the combination of the moment frames and by shear walls or braced frames. Recall that the moment-resisting frames provided must be able to resist at least 25 percent of the design forces. Vol. In present practice. Seismic Design Category D p = 1.0 kip-ft ~ Moment frame Point A V=400kips From the results of the computer analysis LV shear walls = 355 kips L V columns = 45 = 400 kips Total design base shear Determine the following for the moment frame system. The two systems are designed to resist the total design base shear in proportion to their relative rigidities. §12. Shear wall This is the beam moment MQE . the Equivalent Lateral-Foree-Procedure of § 12. 2.2.

2. J may be found by factoring the combined frame-shear wall system Q~ value such that Q~ corresponds to the action that would occur if the portion of the base shear resisted by the moment frame VF were to be at least equal to 25 percent of the design base shear V. ~ Seismic Design Moment at A = M'QE It is elected to use the factored QE (option b) listed above. because this procedure includes the interaction effects between the frame and the shear wall From the combined frame-shear wall analysis with forces due to the design base shear V = 400 kips. or the Q~ value resulting from at least 25 percent of the design forces.shear wall system.1 . ~ Q~ ~ Q~ may be found by an equivalent lateral-force analysis of the independent moment frame using 25 percent of the design base shear V. For this example. the moment frame must be designed for the greater value of either the Q E value due to the design base shear V loading on the combined frame . assume that The required values QEcorresponding to a frame base shear resistance equal to 25 percent of V is given by and the seismic design moment at A is M~E = O.0) = 117. the portion VFofthe base shear resisted by the moment-frame is equal to the sum of the first story frame column shears in the direction ofl oading.8 kip-ft 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. Th is 25-percent requirement may be interpreted in two ways. Vol. :Calculations and Discussion - CodeReference OJ Design criteria According to the two listed requirements.1 1 J Example 33 • Du al Sys tems § 12.5.2~~400) (53. I 127 .

the code permits use of a larger R value for the primary system than would be permitted without the 25-percent frame system . omrriel1Jary C Use of a dual system has the advantage of providing the structure with an independent vertical load-carrying system capable of resisting 25 percent of the design base shear. ie large aclions wou ld be muIlip I' db y .§ 12 . . while at the same time the primary system.25V . and excessively large moment frame design actions would result from the use of Design Criterion Ib. Design Criterion la involving the design of the moment frame independent from the shear wall or bracing system for 25 percent of the design base shear should be considered for highrise buildings . I ) . Vol. For this configuration.5.VF I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 128 2006 1BC Strucrural/Selsmic Design Manual. where these O. carries its proportio nal share of the design base shear. . The slender configuration of the shear walls or bracing systems can actua lly load the moment frame at the upper levels of the combined model. 1 Example 33 • Du al Sy st em s I . either shear wall or braced frame.2 .

Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One.1. assuming a uniformly distributed out-of-plane loading.Story Wall Pan els §12. Vol. I 129 . the design lateral loading is determ ined using §12 .2.Og Panel thickness = 8 inches Normal weight con crete ( 150 pe t) Till-Up panel 20' Determ ine the followi ng. T he fo llow ing information is given. the force must be taken as no less than 400 lb/ft SDsI.0 SDS= l.1 1 Ie 34 eteret orees for'Olle-Star xa all Panels 12. Note that the panel is a bearing wall and shear wall.40 SDsI wp ~ 0.1 wp where wp is the we ight of the wal l. Ground [!J Out-of-plane force for wall panel design ~ Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design ~ Loading.11 This example illustrates the determi nation of the total design lateral seismic force on a tilt-up wall panel supported at its base and at the roof diaphragm level. Per § 12. This is usually done for a representative 1-foot width of the wall length.1 1. For the tilt-up wall panel shown bel ow. Seismic Design Category D Top of parapet 4' Roof I = 1. nor less than 280 Iblft 2006 IB C Str uctu ral/S eis mic D esig n Manual. determine the out-of-plane sei smi c forces required for the design of the wall section. I 1.11 Fp = 0. shear and moment diagrams for para pet design :Calculafions and Discussion Code Reference [!J Out-o f-pl ane fo rce for wall panel design Under § 12.

0)(1. and moment diagrams are determ ined for a unit width of panel.(p. but this must be uniformly distributed between the base and the.0 and J = 1. See step 3. 1 requ ires the anchorage force (but not the wall force) to be incre ased.0)w = O AOw The weight of the panel between the base and the top of the parapet is w\\' = L~) (150) (24) = 2400 lb per foot of width Fp = 0040 (2400) = 950 Ib/ft F p > 400 lb/ft SD = 400( 1)(1) = 400 lb/ft sI Fp > 280 lb/ft The force F p is the total force on the panel.0 plf/ft uniform loading is also applied to the parapet. the loading. For the given SDS = 1. The 40.11 Ex ample 34 :I Lat eral Forc es for One-Story Wall Panels Note that if the diaphragm is flexible . the wall panel seismi c force is F p = OAO(1.0 P lflft ~ Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design Using the uniformly distributed load. The force Fp is considered to be applied at the mid-height (centroid) of the panel.top of parapet. 40. Vol. It acts at the centroid. F p must be expressed as a distributed load.2.§12. For design of the panel for out-of-plane forces. below.0.(p r JP = 960 Ib/ft 24 ft = 40. shear.0 plllft 4' RR ·3 20 20' 184 3 Rs 384 Loading Shear (Ib/ft) Moment Ib-ftIft 130 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I .l1. §12. for the parapet design load.

Vol. o.3-1) F= p 0. 2006 la c Struct ural/Seismic Design Manual.3-3) and > 0. see rsc §1620.11 When the uniform load is also applied to the parapet.5-1 values of ap = 2. I 131 .5 and Rp = 2.0)(1.Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One· Stoi"y Wall Pane ls §12.3-1 with the Table 13.3-2) (Eq 13.576 = 385 lb/ft The shears and moments are the QE load actions for strength design. The parapet is considered an elem ent with an attachment elevation at the rooflevel T 13. o. Note that the reaction at the roof RR is not necessarily the face used for wall-to-roof anchorage design.k. the total force on the panel is 40 . .3.1 I This section requ ires that the design force for parapets (note that parapets are classified as architectural components) be determined by Equation 13.3 SD slpWp .1. . shear and moment diagrams for parapet design §13.0 plf/ft (24 ft) = 960 lb ft The reaction at the roof and base are calculated as RR= 960(12) 20 = 576 Ib/ft RR = 960 . . ~ Loading.2Wp = 1.6 SD sIpW = 640 lb/f] .4 (2.2 (400) = 480 lb/ft < 1. . p (Eq 13.0) 2.2.5-1 z=h The weight of the parapet is I I I I I Wp = (1~)(150)(4) = 400 lb per foot of width The concentrated force applied at the mid-height (centroid) of the parapet is (Eq 13.5 for the unbraced cantilever parapet portion of the wall panel.k.5 (1 + 2 20)w 20 p F p = 1.5)(1.

and Florida) the minimum wind forces may govern over the seismic forces. Georgia.. . Vol. 'I Note that for a large portion ofthe lower south-east region of the USA (Texas. 132 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. . Alabama. I .. Mississippi. Arkansas..§12... Louisiana..11 Example 34 • Lateral Forces for One-Story Wall Panels The equivalent uniform seismic force is h = 480 4 = 120 plf/ft for parapet design 120 plrJft 4' 480 -960 Shear (Ib/ft) Loading Moment (lb-fUft) ••f I .

11. Seismic Design Category D S DS 2' Wall J = = 1. Th e ro of consists of 1-1/2inch. A typical solid panel (no door or window openings) is assume d.2 psf 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual.2 This example illustrates determination of out-of-plane seis mic forces for the design of the two-story tilt-up wall pane l shown below.1. I 133 . The typica l wall panel in this building has no pilasters and the tilt-up wall s are bearing walls.0 1. 2: 0. Vol. The seco nd floor consists of I-inch.11. = OAO( 113) ( = I 45 .0)11'".0)( 1. 20-gage metal deck ing on open web steel joists and has been determ ined to be a flexible diaph ragm.1 and 12. = = 0040 Soslw.111'".1 1. T his is considered a rig id diaphr agm . = OAOw".0 = panel 20' Wall weight WI/' = 113 psf 38' 16' Wan section I I I I I Determ ine the fo llowing .Exampl e 35 • Out-of-Plan e Seismic Forces for Two-Story Wall Pan el §12.11.1 §12.1 r. I S-gage compo site decking with a 2II2-inch ligh tweight conc rete topp ing. Th e followi ng information is given. OA O 1.7 Code Reference §12.2 Example 35 Out-of-Plane Seismic !Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel §12_11. [L] Out-of-plane forces for wall panel design Out-of-plane forces for wall anchorage design [3J [L] Calculations and Discussion Out-of-plane forces for wall panel design Requirements for out-of-p lane seismic forces are speci fied in § 1620. Wa lls span from floor to floor to roof.

.~ [( 2~ ft) + 2ft](1 13 psf) ~ 1356 pl f Fp = 0...0)( 1.2) ~ 814 Ib Note that the 2-foot-high parapet must be des igned for the seismic force F p specified in § 13. 11...5 and Rp = 2.. 134 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.8 8 s/wl\' D (Eq 12.2 Examp l e 35 " Out-of-Plan e Seismic Forces for Tw o-Story Wall Panel For a repre sentative 1-foot-wide strip of wall length.1 [!.2.11-1) where Ww is the we ight of the wall tributary to the anchor w..11.)}'. Gp = 2.8( 1. ~ ~ 16' ~ .. Fp is appl ied as a uniform load ~ 2' ~ r .1 §1 2. I . For the purpose of wall design. Vol. .1. /p = Fp( I ft) = 45.§12. the required shears and moments may be evaluated by using reaction va lues base d on the tributary area for the l-ft strip 16 ft ) 1" R 1( .2) = 362 1 b R.0)(1356) = 1085 plf Th e design forc e per anchor is Fp times the anchor spacing.] Anchorage force for the flexible roof diaphragm r.2 plf ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 20' ~ ~ ~ ~ . [C:) (2..5 ~ Out-at-plane torces tor wall anchorage design §12. 11. = 0. with height z at parapet centroid 37 ft. the anchor mus t be designed for (10 85) (4 ft) = 4340 lb.' ~ + 18(45..2-YP= 8(45... For example if the spacing is at 4 feet.3.

§12.11.0) [I + 2 p ) = 2.302Wp = 0.2 1 b. The force set forth in §12. A force of 400 SD (pit). sI c.11.E1Camp/~ 35 " Out·of·Plane Solsmic Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel §12. I 135 . 2 ~ Anchorage force for the rigid second floor diaphragm . 280 (pit) of wall.302(2034) 615 plf I I 1 I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. and Wp is the weight of the wall tributary to the anchor 6 2 [(2~ ft) + C fl )](113 pst) = 2034 plf ft Wp = F = 0. z = 16 = the height of the anchorage of the rigid diaphragm attachment.5 (.!i)] 36 = IV p 0.0)(1.0)(1. For the case of rigid diaphragms the anchorage force is given by the greater of the following: a.1 §12.11. Vol.4(1.1.11.

11.11.2 and for SDCs C.1.2 Example 35 • Out-at-Plane Seismic Forces for Two·Story Wall Panel 1 Commentary For flexible or rigid diaphr agms for all seismic design categories (SDCs). the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.11.§12.11. I I I I I I I I I I I I 136 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Vol.2. §12. For rigid diaphragms of SDCs C. the seismic out-ofplane forces for the design of the wall are not dependent on the height of the wall in relati onship to the total height of the building. the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12. I I I . D.2.11. and F. For rigid diaphragms of SDCs A and B. the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12.2. D.11 . E.1 §12. the seismic anchorage forces are given in §12. E. For flexible diaphragms of SDCs A and B. and F.11.

Vol.1 = 1. that "attach" the equipment to the structure.1 Thi s example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments of rigid equipment (see commentary).. means those components. bracing. Att achment. and support mountings. The three-story building structure shown below has rigid electrical equipment supported on nond uctile porcelain insulators that provide anchorage to the structure. [!J Design criteria ~ Design lateral seismic force at base ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof Ca/cu/~t(ons and Discussion Code Reference §13.3-1 [!J Design criteria Th e total des ign lateral seismic component force to be transferred to the structure is determined from (Eq 13. I 137 . 12' 12' Ip Wp = 10 kips 2 12' Find the follow ing.Example 36 • RIgid Equipment § 13.. including anchorage.3. Identical equipment is located at the base and at the roof of the building.0 r-----.3-1) 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manua l. as used in the code. ~ NOndUCljle allachmenls- Seismic Design Category D 5 DS Wp Level Roof ~ shallow expansion anchors = 1. 3. 1 Example 36 Rigid Equipmen §13.-~-- .

5.3 .0) 36 Section 13. item of equipment) is given in § 11. 1) (1.6 (1.1 Ex amp l e 36 • Rig id Equipment Values of Q p and Rp are given in Table 13.3. 138 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. anchorages.3 kips .3-1 =0 F p = 0.3.0) 10 = 17.93 ki (1.6-1 ~ Design lateral seismic force at base Zx §13.3-2) :. and support mountings) that has a period less than or equal to 0. Rigid equipment (including its attachments. I . Fp = 8. Equation 13. s 0. = 36 ft s P Wp F p = 0. .g.6 S DS Ip Wp = 1. .3 (1.0)(1.3-3 governs ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof Zx = h.4.6 SDS Jp Check Fp S 1.0) 36 s P Also § 13.8 kips .1) (1. Vol.3 SDs l p W p = 0.3 Check S DS Jp W p r.3-3) : .8 ki (1.4(1 .06 seconds..0)(1.4(1.2..3 kips (Eq 13. Equation 16-67 governs.1 states that Fp need not exceed 1.5/1. Fp = 3. see §13. pommentary The definition of a rigid component (e. .1)(1 0 kips ) [1 + 2 (~)] = 2. T 13. bracing.§13.0) 10 = 3.1)(1 0 kips) [1+ 2 (36)] = 8.6 kips (Eq 13.2. Also note that for shallow expansion anchors Rp = 1.6-1. 1 has a requi rementthat Fp be not less than 0.5/1.

e. I 139 . Vol. (see § 13.2 (Eq 13. Testing should comply with ICC-ES AC I56. Where equipment. Generally . which can be either flexible or rigid.2.1.1.0 (lp = 1.5) for the following .3 ..Exa mple 36 • Rigid Equipm ent §13. Section 13.3 requires a component importance factor greate r than 1.5 for shallow anchors. the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of § 13.6-1) Where: g = acceleration of gravity in inches/sec/ Kp = stiffness of resilient support system Tp = component fundamental period IV = component operating weight p The component anchorage design force Fp (i. comes mounted on a supporting frame that is part of the manufactured unit. Note that § 13. only equipment such as anchorage or attachmen ts or components need be designed for seismic forces. This is discussed in § 13.5 allows testing as an alternative to the analytical methods of § 13.2).1 The fundamental period Tp for mechanical and electrical equipment shall be determined by the formula given in § 13.6. I • I I I I I I • • Life safety component required to function after an earthquake Components of hazardous materials Occupancy Category IV component s needed for continued operation of the facility 2006 IBC Structural/Seis mic Design Manual. where Rp = 1.4.4. the force in the connected part) is a function of l/Rp .

and support mountings. Level Roof ~ '/DUClileall achmenls Seismic Design Category D 12' SDS= Ip W. / / / / / Find the following.1 This example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments of flexible equipment.3. Identical equipment is located at the base and at the roof of the building. Anchor bolts in the floor slab meet the embedment length requirements. that "attach" the equipment to the structure. I = 1.§ 13. including anchorage.3-1) 140 2006 IBC Str u c t ura l/Seis m i c Des ig n Manua l. I . bracing.3.1 Ex am p l e 37 " Flexible Equipment § 13.3. The three-story building structure shown below has flexible air-handling equipment supp orted by a ductile anchorage system. see commentary. Vo l . Attachment as used in the code means those components. [!J Design criteria ~ Design lateral seismic force at base ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof 'Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §13 .0 = 10 kips 2 12' 1 '~ wp / / / .1 [!J Design criteria The tota l design lateral seismic component force to be transferred to the structure is determined from CEq 13. 1.

1 has a requirement that Fp be not less than 0.2 ki 36 5 p Sect ion 13.3 kips : .1)(10 kips) [I + 2~] = 4.0) [I + 2 36] = 13.1 governs .3( 1.6-1 1 ~ Design lateral seismic force at base z =0 F p = 0.3. Vol. Sin ce the equ ipment is flexible and has limited defonnability elements and attachm ents ap = 2.1 states that Fp nee d not exceed 1.Exampl e 37 • Flexib le Equip ment § 13. F p = 13.1)( 1.3-1 governs.5)(1. 20061BC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual. Rp = 2. ~ Design lateral seismic force at roof z = h = 36 ft I I I I I I I F p = 0.3.4 kips .2) Fp :s 1.5/1.6-1.0) 36 s p Section 13..3-3) r.0)( 10) = 3.3 SvslpWp Chec k (Eq 13.1)(1 0 kip s) (2..5.6 kips : .1)(10) = 17.4(2. ~ 0. / 14 1 .3.6 Sos JpWp Ch eck CEq 13.3.5/1.4 ki (2. 1 Values of ap and Rp are given in Tabl e 13.3 SvslpWp = 0. Eq 13. .6 SvsWp = 1.5 T 13.6( 1. Eq 13.. Fp = 4 .4(2.3.5)(1.2 kips .

only equipment anchorage or components need be designed for seismic forces. Flexible equipment (including its attachments anchorages. • • • Life safety component required to function after an earthquake Components of hazardous materials Occupancy Category IV components needed for continued operation of the facility 142 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. as defined in §13.06 second .2. and electrical components supports and attachments shall comply with the sections referenced in Table 13.1 Example 37 • Flexible Equipment 1 I I I I I I 'commentary The definition of flexible equipment is given in § 11 . is a function of l/Rp . I I I I I I I I I I A component importance factor greater than 1. and electrical systems and their components that are part of a designated seismic system.4. Generally. where anchorage of any kind is shallow (see § 13. bracing. which can be either flexible or rigid.§13. Vol ." Those architectural. Where the equipment. A certificate of compliance shall be submitted to both the registered design professional in responsible charge of the design of the designated seismic system and the building official for review and approval. and support mountings). comes mounted on a supporting frame that is part of the manufactured unit.2).1 requires that. It should be noted that the component anchorage design force.. "Architectural. ICC ES has published Acceptance Criteria (AC 156) that addresses the qualification test to satisfy the referenced code requirements.2. then the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of §13. I . Fp (i.5) is required for the following. the force in the connected part).3. has a period greater than 0.2-1.1.2. mechanical.3.0 (Ip = 1. Also note that §13.e. mechanical. shall be qualified by either test or calculation.

Deflected Determi ne the following : -Y. s. shape ~ Story drift to be considered ~ Induced moment and shear in frame Calculations and Discussion Code Reference ~ Story drift to be considered Sec tion 13. Dp = bxA . Vol.by A = 1. Seismic Design Category D Occupancy Category II.94 in Governs (Eq 13.3.3. (}xAe = Level I. C d = w bxAe= 1..2 requires that equipment attachments be designed for effects induc ed by Dp (re lative seismic disp lacement).0 5.3-5) whe re b xA = b x.5 3 12' 2 12' = O.08 in C d = 5.72 in 12' 4 by Ae R = = Cd 6 aA 8.2 Section 13.2 requires that the design of equipment attachments in buildings have the effects of the relative displacement of attachment points considered in the lateral force design . The follo wing information is given ..98 in 5..50 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.3. This example illustrates appl ication ofthis requ irement.2 Exa o11J Ie 38 e a i ve otion 0 S uipment ttachments 13.3. A unique control panel fram e is attached to the floor framing at Levels 2 and 3 of the special steel moment frame building show n below. I 143 . This is determined as follows..015hx .Example 38 II Relative Mo tion of Eq uipment Attachments §13.~ r"". Level v Panel frame: EI = lOx 104 kip-in' 12' 1 .OR in 0.

98) .48 = (432 . should follow the applicable requirements of § 13.3. Vol . It should be noted that attachment by adhesive is not the same as anchor bolts set in a drilled hole with an epoxy type adhesive.72 in Cd = 5.26 432 (Eq 13..50 Note that Dp is not required to be taken as greater than = (x .- 4 M~(~_ : I I v 0795 ki .5. 144 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.288) = 2.g.._ 57. I .3-6) where x y !1 a :l = hsx 36 ft x 12 = 432 in =24ftxI2=288in = 0.§13.1'..t.0 15 h« = 0. if the anchorage is provided by shallow anchor bolts. D p l<--tf M _ 6EIDp _ 6(10 x 10 )(1. including the body and anchorage of connectors. Adhesive is a "glued" attachment (e.3.y ) ---E.H2 (144)2 . For example. ipS H M H 72 v . attachment of pedestal legs for a raised computer floor).5792 ki .1('= 0.2 Example 38 • Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments 6.2 ~ Induced moment and shear in frame A liberal estimate of the moment and shear can be made using the following equations.4.29 .2M . ~ M=--P 2 H I 6EID v=- 2M H The attachment details. When anchorage is constructed of nonductile materials..L !1 hn 6. then Rp = 1.98 in §13.015 (432) = 6. Rp = 1.. Ip-m .48 in = 36 ft x 12 = 432 in Thus : D p = 1. .0.. One example of a nonductile anchorage is the use of adhesive .

m ic Design Categories 0 . 4 . [!J ~ Moment in ordinary column Detailing requirements for ordinary column 145 .25 ff ? 'SRCMF 5 r:l l J"jV Elevation L10e E 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual.1:iia mple 39 Deformation Compatibility for : Seis. and F § 12. 0. I ~ I I Find the follo wing. 12. 12. Vol. E.~~= fffff Plan at second level 0- I I I \ The foll owing information is given .1 J Example 39 • D eformation Compatibility for Seismic D esign Cat eg or i es D.fram e (SRCMF) located on each side of the stru cture. §12.4 A two-level concrete parking struct ure has the space frame shown be low .".0 Cd = 5. The designated lateral-force-resisting system con sists of a tw o-bay speci al rein forced concrete mom ent.. E.5 Column section = 12 in x 12 in Column clear heig ht = 12 ft Concre te E. and F . Seismic Design Ca tegory D lixc = 0.57 in R = 8. = 3 x 10J ksi 1 = 1. The secondlevel gravity load-beari ng sy stem is a pos t-ten sione d flat plate slab supported on ordinary rein forced concrete columns.

alcula.2 or §2 1. Vol.25 = 2.11. I I J = ei l " = 5. JJ of ACI 318-05 specifies requirements for frame members that are not part of the designated lateral forc e-resisting system.a common approach is to use one half of the gross section properties.12. I .51 in (Eq 12. = 864 In4 2 M eol = 6(3 x 10 )(864 )(2.3. fall under these requirements and must be checked for the moments induced by the maximum inelastic response displacement.11.. E.8-15) The moment induced in the ordinary column due to the maximum inelastic response x displacement O on line E mu st be determined.5(0. a fixed-fixed condition is used for simplicity.57 ) I 1.4 ~ . column moment is usually determined from a frame analysis. 1 I I h = 12 ft x = bd 3 12 inches = 144 in 12 (12) 3 = 1728 in 4 12 I = 12 The cracked sec tion moment of inertia Ie can be appro ximated as 50 percent of the gross section 19 . Section 2 1. This requirement also applies to elements that are not part of the lateral-foree-resisting system.1 of ACI 31 8-05 requires that frame members. In actual applications. that are assumed not to be part of the late ral-foree-resisting sys tem must be det ailed according to ACI §2 1.1 1 of ACI 31 8-05 impl ies that the stiffness of elements that are part of the lateral-foree-resisting system shall be reduced . an d F 1 §12. 11. = . For purposes of this example.t ons and Discussion t ! Code Reference [!J Moment in ordinary column Section 2 1.51) (144)2 3 = 1883 kip-in Detailing requirements for ordinary column. Section 21.. 146 200 6 IBC Stru c tura l/ Se is mi c Des ig n Man ual . and the interior flat plate/column system. I I I I I I I I I I . such as the column. The ordinary columns located in the perimeter frames. depending on the magnitude of the moments induced by ox. the columns on line E wi ll be evaluated.s.§ 12. 12. For this example.4 Exam ple 39 • D efor mation Comp a tib ility for Seismic De sign Cat eg or i es D. .

1 2006 (BC Structural/Seismic D esign Man ual./ 147 . an d F §12. Vo/. In this configuration. ACI requirements for this configuration stress that the non-duc tile interior column must resist the structure lateral deformation by strength alone. E.E~ample 39 " Deformation Com p atibility i or Seismic Design Categories D.by combining the ductile SRCMRF with ductile interio r columns. if interior concrete columns are detailed according to the requirements of ACI 3 I8 §21.3.11.that is to combine a ductile SRCMRF with an ordinary.4 Gommentary 1 In actual applications. the code also permits an altern ative way to configure this structure . interior column. However.12. the flat plate slab must be checked for flexure and punchin g shear due to gravity loads and the frame analysis actions induced by o x. or non-ductile. then design moments resulting from lateral structure seismic displacements need not be calculated for that column at all. Note that this example problem shows only one way to configure this structure .

7. I . = 854 in4 Determin e the following .4 The infi ll wall.4. which is not required by the desig n to be part of the latera l-force-resisting system. was computed according to the procedure given in §12. 7. [::LJ I I Code Reference Deformation compatibility criteria ~ Approximate column shear Calculations and Discussion [::LJ Deformation compatibility criteria §12.§ 12.6.or lateralload-resis ting ability of the SRCMF columns.5 in Column properties f: = 3000 psi E.5 inches whi le being simultaneously restrained by the 6-foot-high infill walls.8.7. displacement of 2. I I I I I I 148 20 06 IBC St r uc tur al/ Se is mic D esign Ma n ual. Seismic Design Category D t. Under § 12. I f = 2.4 EXllmp le 40 • Adj oining Rig id El em ent s 1 §12. Vol .7. Ac = 3 x 10 = 144 3 Inrlll wall ksi Typ ical elevation in 4 t. Thus. The infill is solid mas onry and has no prov ision for an expansion jo int at the column faces. in this case the masonry infill wall. the columns must be checked for ability to withsta nd the t. The des ign story drift t. it must be shown that the adjo ining rigid element. is an adjo ining rigid element. must not impair the vertical.4 Example 40 A dj oining !}ligid Elements The concrete special reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame (SRCMF) shown below is restrained by the partial height infill wall that is not considered to be a part ofthe seismic force-res isting system.

such as a building torsional irregularity . The induced column shear stress is '1.5) = 205.7.4 [f] Approximate co lumn sh ear Column shear will be determined from the frame design story drift.Commentary It is also possib le that the restraint of the infill walls could cause an irregularity. I:>.3-JJ:. 2006 IBC Struc tural/S eismic Design Manual.. t 149 .Example 40 • Adjoining Rigid Elements §1'. has been determined by neglecting the stiffness of the rigid masonry./2 = 1. IpS.9 ki s P 1 Column clear height = 72 in Because the SRCMF is the primary lateral-foree-resisting system. Therefore. .25 in. and correspon ds to a column shear stress of approximately 3..5) (144) = 25 . it would be necessary to either design the column for the induced shears and moments caused by the infill wall. with resulting column shear I . 7 ki ThiIS IS one-erg ht ofthe restrame d coIumn . If this were provided. it is far easier (and more reliable) to provide a gap sufficie ntly wide to accommodate 1:>. the column clear height would be 144 inches. = 12(3 x 10 11 3 3)(854)(2 (72)3 . the gap should be greater than or equal to 1:>..I c" = 12(3 x 10 3)(854 3 )(2. a gap must be provided betwee n the column faces and the infill walls. or demonstrate that the wall will fail before the column is damaged.Ill. For this example. 1:>. For purposes of the example. Also note the restrained column height is 6 ft or 72 inches. the expression for shear due to a fixed-fixed condition will be used for simplicity. = 1447 psi. Vol.. This should be evaluated if such restraints are present. v col = l2E. This is approximately 26ff: Ac and would result in column shear failure. V. Alternately.. Generally. I I I I I I shear of205 kips. h . with the restraining wall height equal to one half the column height.

150 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.5. This can be taken as the average of the two ~} values at z equal to ZL and z" .3 Th is example illustrates the determinat ion of the design lateral se ism ic forc e Fp on an ext erior element of a building .3 Exa mp le 4 1 • Exter io r Elements : Wa ll Panel §13. ' Th e intent of the code is to pro vide a val ue of F p that represents the average of the acc eleration inputs from the tw o attachment locations. in this case an exterior wall panel.4 kips p S DS= 12' Ty pical exlerior panel 3 12' 2 12' 12' Find the following. I . A five-story moment frame building is shown below.3-4.3 For design of ext erior elements. [!J Design criteria Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story Design latera l seismi c force on a panel at the first story [I] @J Cijlculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Design criteria §13.5. Seismic Design Category D 12' Level 5 4 I = 1. Th e panels are attached at the two elevations ZL and z.§13. The cladding on the exterior of the bu ilding consists of precast reinforced concrete wall panels. design lateral seismic forc es are determined from Equation 13.. that are attached to the building at two levels.0 1.0 Panel size: I I ft 11 in by 19 ft 11 in Panel thickness: 6in Panel weight: W = 14.5. such as the wall panels on a building. The following informa tion is given. Vol.

3( 1. .357 W: 2.0)(1. .5 p P [I 2 60 I Fp~ = Fpu + FpL 2 = (0.4(1.0) [I + 2(47)] 2. o.S. slpW Rp 11 1.3 O.0.0)(1.3-3) (Eq 13.4nPSOS IJ' [1 + 2'::-] ~. Rp = 2.1 ~ Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story Assuming connections are I foot above and below the nominal 12-foot panel height Z" =47 ft = ZL 37 ft 11 = ft 1 F pL = 0.4 11W P = 0.5 (Eq 13.0)(1.0) + (37)] W = 0. = 1.3-1) = T 13. Z" =Ilft =0 ZL h = 60 ft 2006 IBC Structu r al/S eism ic Design Manual. .3 SDslpH' p Check: Fp4 ~ = 0.3Wp .0)Wp = 1.357) w 2 p I I I I I Fp~ = 0.6Wp .5.6(1.5 60 11' p = 0.53 kips Check: Fp4 > 0.384)(14.4 (1. (Eq 13. .0)(1. I 151 .411 + 0. o.4) = 5.6 SD slpWp ~ Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the first story The following are known. Vol.k.k.0)(1. > 0.384Wp = (0.0)(1.3 SD .1 = Example 41 • Exterior Elements: Wall Panel § 13.0)Wp = 0.3-2) 1.

3 SvsIpWp Fpu = 0.21 9 if': p p 1 1 1 Check that Fpu is greater than 0.5 60 pu = 0.32 kips 2 I I ~ " . I I I I 152 2006 IBC Structural/Seism i c Design Manual.30 TVp : . and installation . .k. use FpL = Fpu= O.3(1.0)Wp = 0.30Wp . transportation. 'f 'h "- (:ommentary Note that the design of the panel may be controlled by non-seismic load conditions of the fabrication process. 30 TVp 1 J Fpl = Fp u + FpL = 0. Vol.4) = 4.2. I .5 2.3.30Wp = (0. Also note that the forces induced by disp lacement Dp from Equation 13.5 .4( 1.1.3-5 need to be checked per § 13. Also FpL < Fpu < 0.30)(14. . not o.0) [I + 2 (~)]W 2.0)(1.0)(1.§13.3 Example 41 • Exter ior Elemen ts: Wall Pan el F = 0.0)(1.

3 Th is example illustrates the det ermination of the total design seismic lateral force for the design of the conne ctions of an exterior wa ll pan el to a building.0 per §12. [!.Ex ample 42 Q Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elements: Precast Panel § 13.5. I 153 .5 Height to roof. Th e panel is supported vertically from these bracket s. Seismic Design Category 0 S DS = 1.J Strength design load combinations For desi gn of the panel connections to the building. The panel support system is shown below.0 = fi fp 1. The lower pair of rod connections pro vides res istance to only the out-o f-pl ane forces. L = 0 = 12' Find the following. where the pair of upper brackets must prov ide resistance to out-of-plane wind and seismic forces and in-plane vertical and horizontal forces.4 kips P = 1.4. h = 60 ft Panel weight = 14. Panel live load.3. An exterior nonb earing panel is located at the fourth story of a five-story moment fram e bu ilding.5.1(3).J Strength design load combinations ~ Lateral seismic force at center-of-mass C of panel ~ Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and connections @J Design forces for the brackets ~ Design forces for the rods ' C~!~ulations and Dis _cussifJn Code Re(~relJce [!. Vol.3. the app licable strength design load combinations are §2.3 xample42 Exterior ons ruc turei all Elements: reces Panel §13.0 0.2 2006 IB C Structural/Se ismic Des ign Manual.

0Q£ (Comb. this load combination is satisfied by lAD + Q£ for Q£ and D with the same signs. the equation reduces to l. This combination need not be considered because the rod connections resist only the Q£ axial load. 7) with E = pQ£ . This combination need not be considered since it is less than lAD + Q£.5.0g. c) 0.lD + Q£ .2 SsoD (Eq 12A-2) As SDS = LOg. 7) (Eq 12A-I ) b) 0. with E = pQ£+ 0.0E + )1" L = I.2(1. the equati on reduc es to 0.2D As S DS = 1. and the bracket connections have shear resistance capacity independent of the direction of the Q£ shear load: for example.§1J.0£ with E = pQ£ + 0. I I I I I I I I I I I I .0g.3. for Q£ and D with same signs. Q£ is the load action on the connection due to the lateral load Fp applied either in-plane or out-o f-plane at the panel center-of-mass per § 13. the equation reduces to lAD + Q£ .2D 1 J As Sos = 1.2 SsoD = Q£ +0. 154 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. for Q£ and D with same signs and type of load action. Therefore.0. 5) (Eq 12A-I) a) 1.0)D Q£ +0 . I (Comb.0Q£ = I J + 0.9D + 1.J Example 42 • Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elem ents : Precast Panel J (Comb. In the seismic load combinations.2 SDSD = 1.9D + 1. Vol .0E where.2D + 1. upward resistan ce is equal to downward resistance.70D + Q£.2D + 1. for Q£ and D with opposite signs.

IV p n.3Wp Op (Eq 13. The values of Rp and o p are given in Table 13.k.1 for the body and fastene rs of the connection elements. 2: 0. requires that the connection seismic load actions be determined by the force Fp given by §13.0)( 1.0) [1 + 2 (37)] If' 2. this average Fp would be essentially equal to the Fp value using Z = z. 11 p r.5-1 1 IV = weigh t panel = 14. ZL.3 IV p • • • o. this use of elevations z = Zc may not be valid for the lower story levels because of the limitation of (Eq 13.4 kips p I I I I I I At upper bracket connection level = Zu = 47 ft F pU = 0.0 (Eq 13. z.3(1..0 and Rp = 2. However.I Example 42 • Exteri or Nonstructural Wa ll Elements: Precasl Panel §13 .3. To represen t the average seismic acceleration on the panel.. For the higher story levels of the building. Vol .3 1 ~ Lateral seismic force at cen te r-o f-mass C of panel Section 13. I . 5.4(1. o.3 SosIpWp = 0.4(1.5.4o pSDs l p ( 1+ 2.. and Ip = 1.3-3) = 1.4 11 Wp > 0.0)IVp = 0..3-3) With the given values of Sos = 1.5.5 60 p = 0.3-1) z) F = O. Fp will be determined as the avera ge of the Fp values for the upper bracket elevation level. = At lower rod connect ion level z =ZL = 37 ft = 0.357 Wp > 0. . for body of connection T 13.3 Wp .0) [I + 2 (47)] IV 2.3 SosIpIVp = 0.5.0.1 applied to the center-of-mass of the wall panel. Item d.k.5 60 p 0. 155 2006 IB C Structural/Seis mic Design Manu al.3. at the panel center-of-mass elevation. and for the lower rod elevation elevati ons.

_ ••_ •• -J 5' ...4 (14. I I I I I I I I I I I I I 156 2006 IBC S tr uctur al/S eismi c D esig n Ma n ual. _ _- f.4Wp = 1..•_ . is the controlling load combina tion. and vertical seismic for ces Panel connec tion reactions due to factored dead load.. I . In this examp le.....•.5. _ .2. ~ Dea d load. Fp Fp u + Fp L = (0.53 = 1.5 3 kips f. _ .3 Ex ampl e 42 • Ex terior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Pane l 1 J The required average..357) 2 2 w I' = 0.2Wp = 1. I~ .. .2 I There are two seismic load conditions to be considered: out-of-plane and in-plane .- g' .- 0~ Fp = 5. . seismic out-of-plane. out-of-plane seismic forces..3.§13. I.384(14. .38 kips 4 4 where Pe is the bracket force and P R is the rod force..53 kips This force is applied at the panel centroid C and acts horizontally in either the out-ofplane or the in-plane direction.384Wp = 0. t - 1.4) =20 . These are shown below as concentrated forces . .5.. _ _ _._.2D + QE. Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and co nnections §13.. .. and vertical seismic forces are calculated as follows: g' . Combination 5 of §2. Vol.411 + 0. _ .It I 5' .16 kips Each bracket and rod connection takes the following axial load due to the out-of-plane force Fp at center-of-mass Ps + PR = Fp = 5.) = 5. 1..2Wp + O.

/ F.53) .53 ki = =2.16 .= 20.-5(Fp ) - 18 - 5(5. has no in-plane.5. Vol. I 157 .Examplo 42 IR Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elements : Precast Panel §13.± I .= 10. = 5. and vertical seismic forces Panel connection reactions due to factored dead load.4Wp 2 20. dead. and vertical seismic forces are calculated as 9' 9' 5' 5' c .- I AWp 2 20.08 kips 2 Note that each rod. 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.53 kips 1. ~ Dead load. in-plane seismic forces .3 1 Each bracket takes the following downward in-plane shear force due to vertical loads VB = . 2 5.08 kips 2 Under the in-plane seismic loading .77 IpS 2 I I I I I Each bracket takes the following upward or downward shear force due to the reversible lateral seism ic load FB -. or seismic loading. = ... = .54 ki IpS 18 Each bracket takes the following downward force due to vertical loads: RB = 1.= 10. seismic in-plane.16 kips Each bracket takes the following in-plane horizontal shear force due to lateral seismic load H B =- r.4W. each rod carries no force. because it carries only axial forces.16 .

3 Example 42 • Exterior Nonstructural Wall Elem ents : Precast Pan el 1 @J Design forces for the brackets ~ Body of connection Up I Under §13.31 kips axial load together with VB and = 10.5.38 axial load together with VB = 10.1.125FB+ RB = 3. Item d. The bracket must be designed to resist the following sets of load actions.125(1.125) P B= 3.1 the body of the connection must be designed for = 1.0 and R p = 2.0 and Rp = 2.08 = 14.0 and Rp = 2.77) = 8.125(1.08 kips downward shear 3.08 = 11. These are the up and Rp values used for the determination of Fp .125HB= 3. Thus.0. it is necessary to multiply the Fp load actions by ( 1.62 kips downward shear ~ Fasteners Under § 13.5.125(2.5.§13.08 kips downward shear and H B = ± 2. Fasteners must be designed to resist I J (3..25 and Rp = 1.54 + 10.5.25)(2. I I PB = ± 1.38) = 4. I I I I I I I I . Therefore.5. there is no need to change the load actions due to this force.5 P R = 1.89 kips downward shear ~ Design forces f or t he rods ~ Body of connection The body of the connection must be designed to resist a force based on ap = 1.3 and Tab le 13.54) + 10.5) = 3.5. and Table 13.77 kips horizontal shear together with FB+ RB= 1.39 kips axia l load 1 58 20 06 IBC S tru ctural/Seismic Design Manua'.3.125 because these values were based on ap = 1.66 kips horizontal shear together with 3.5. fasteners must be designed for u p = 1. Vol .

5.0 (3.125(1.3 1 [!J F asteners Fasteners in the connecting system must be des igned to resist a force based on ap = 1.1 1 Exampl e 42 s Exter ior Nonst ructura l Wall Elements: Precast P anel §13. I 25)PR = 3.38) = 4. I 159 . Vol.25 and Rp = 1.31 kips axial load r I J I I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic D esign Manual.

1.3 . The requirement is to ensure that important parts of a structure are "tied together.3 Th is example illustrates use of the beam inter-connection requirement of §12.3.133 SDSW p or F p = 0. Vol. given by the greater value of Fp = 0. it is required to determine the "tie force" for design of the horizontal tie interconnecting the two simply supported beams.1. 1. For this particular example. I .0 p~~~~~~~ k" Pin support "p" Dead Load D = 6 kip/ft Live Load L = 4 kip/ft [!J Determine tie force ~ Determine horizontal support force at "P" Calculations and Discussion Cod~ Reference [!J Determine tie force Requirements for ties and continuity are specified in §12.3 Example 43 • Beam Horizontal Tie Force EXa m p le 43 'Bea m H orizonta l Tie Force §12. This force is designated as Fp .05H'p where wp is the weight of the smaller (shorter) beam Wp = 40 ft (D) = 40(6) = 240 kips 160 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. The following information is given.§12." Find the minimum required tie capacity for the connection between the two simple beams shown in the example below. Seismic Design Category D SDS = 1.1.

I 161 .1. Given a sliding bearing at the left support of the 40-foot beam.0.3 1 ~ For S DS = 1.133( 1.05(6 klf +4 kIf) (~O) = 10 kips I I I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. the controll ing tie force is Fp = 0.9 kips Determine horizontal support force at "P" Section 12. Vol.Example 43 • Beam Hori zontal Tie Force §12 .0)(240) = 31.4 requires a horizontal support force for each beam equal to 5 percent of the dead plus live load reaction.1. the required design force at the pin support "P" is I I H=0.

2 Collectors "collect" forces and carry them to vertical shear-resisting elements.4.3. Tributary roof area --l-_-u--Colleclor R =5. Special seismic load of §12.. Vol.2 at tie to wall 162 2006 IBC Structural/SeIsmic Design Manual. In the example below. A collector is necessary to "collect" the diaphragm loads tributary to Line 2 and bring them to the shear wall.0 8 DS = 1. Collectors are sometimes called drag struts. Occupancy Category I 50' 50' for cctec tor 2 100' 3 Seismic Design Category D RP=. not shown .5 no = 2..5 1 = 1. a tilt-up building. Elevation Section A-A [!J Collector unfactored force at tie to wall ~. except collector.10. Base shear = V= DS W = 0. I ..§12 . Equation 12... The purpose of this example is to show the determination of the maximum seismic force for design of collector elements.===ir:====r===u.2 Example 44 • Collector Elemen ts §12. By inspection.10. The following information is given .8-2 will govern.8-2) W= Interior shear wall 50' Collector Determine the following. has a partial interior shear wall on Line 2.2 l 8W R structure weight above one half hi S (Eq 12. for the one-story shear wall build ing.20 Roof dead load = 15 psf Wall height = 30 ft.. no parapet Wall weight = 113 psf lI=j::============!l Roofplan k""Shear walls Nole: Roof framing. with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized wood roof.

10-1 used for diaphragm design. Seism ic forces for collector design are determined from Equat ion 12. Vol . The paneli zed wood roof has been determined to be flexible .15 Sp. and 2) the tributary roof diaphragm force.2 at tie to wall §12. Note: This force corresponds to the diaphragm design forces calcu lated using §12.5 kips 2 Wp l = : . including the shea r strength of connection between the diaphragm and collector.1.10.3 .218(244.10. = 0.4.2 S p.10.30Wpx Fp l min = 0.1 Calculations and Discussion Example 44 • Collector Elements §12.5) = 53.lWpx = T O. I I Spec ial seismic load of §12.2 C!. These forces are compared to the diaphragm shear strength .3 Sp. The design of the collector and its connections requires that the axial forces be amplified as shown below.J Collector unfactored force at tie to wall The seismic forc e in the collector is made up of two parts : I) the tribut ary out-of-plane wall forces. thus the tribut ary roof area is taken as the IOO-foot by 50-foot area shown on the roof plan above. I 163 .2 Code Reference §12.218Wp l Wpl = tributary roof and out-of-plane wall weight 15 psf(lOO)(50) + 113 psf (3 0) (100) = 75. F.10.15Wp T p = 1.000 + 169. Fp1 = 0.2 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Man ual. R W x = V = = design force at roof weight tributary to the collector element = structure wei ght above one half hi = W giving: Fp 1 = -Wpl = V I I I I I W 0.lW .3 kips.500 = 244. =-w. WI P Fp l max = 0. This equat ion reduces to the following for a sing le story structure.

25 kips axial tension and compression load and vertica l downward load equal to 1.3) = 133.5(750) = 3525 lb which is applied as a uniform distributed load w = 3525/50 ft = 70. Q£ is the horizontal collector desig n force Fpl = 53. 5) where (Eq 12.3.2D + 0. splices . For example. and I J n oQ£ = 2.2.5(53.4-7 need not exceed the maximum force that can be delivered by the lateral-force-resisting system as determined by rational analysis . .2( 1.5 L I I with D = (50 ft + 50 ft)(50 ft)(l5 psf) = 2250 Ib L = (50 ft + 50 ft)(50 ft) (0.3 kips.2 D + 0. and their connections to resisting clements shall have the design strength to resist the earthquake loads as defi ned in the Specia l Load Combinations of §12.1 0.5 plf on the 50-foot length of the collector element.4(2250) + 0. I I I I I 1 64 200 6 IBC St ru ctural/Seismic Desig n Manu al.3) = 133.10-1.5(53. The governing load combination is 1.3.2 SDsD = 0. n "Q£ = 2.4.§12. the collector elements.5)(10 psf) = 750 Ib The resultin g total factored vertical load is 1.5L + 0.4 D + 0.1 specifies that the term noQ£ in Equation 12.4. :'l Commentary Note that §12. the overturning moment capacity of the shear wall can limit the required strength of the collector and its connection to the shear wall.25 kips axial tension and compressio n load 0.3.0)D = 0. / .4-5) Here. Vol..5L + Em I 1 §2.2 D = 1.2 Ex amp le 44 • Coll ec tor El em ents 1 J Given the force Fpl specified by Equation 12.2 (Comb .2D vertical load The strength design of the collector and its connections must resist the following load components.

the code requires that the force used to desig n wall anchorage to flexible diaphragms be greater than that given in §12...11.1 for the desig n of the wall panel sections .2. 2006 IBC St ruc tural/S eis mic DesIgn Manual.1 Because of the frequent failure of wall/roof ties in past earthquakes. The following equation is to be used to determine anchor design forces. with minimum limit given in § 12. [!J Design criteria ~ Wall anchorage force Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Design criteria §12.2. 11.0 SDS = 1. n: l• +---+ Roof J = 1. 11.11-1) 2:: 400 8Ds/ lblft 2:: 280 lb/ ft of wall where WI\' is the weight ofa I-foot width of wa ll that is tributary to the anch or..2. 1 am le45 Out-of. 11. The following information is given. Vol. Assumed pin support 20' ~ ~ Ground Determine the following.1 For the tilt-up wall panel shown below. I 1 65 . I 1.2 and 12.0 Panel thickness = 8 in Normal weight concrete CI50 pet) . Fp = 0.11.2.2 § 12. the seismic force required for the design of the wall anchorage to the flexible roo f diaphragm is to be determined.Example 45 Out-at-Plene Wall Anch orage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to FlexIble Dia phragms §12. 4' Top of parapet Occu pancy Importance Category I Seismic Design Category D F.2.11.8 SDS!ElVl\' CEq 12. This will be done for a representative I-foot width of wa ll.Plane Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls to Flexible Diaphragms §12.

o. > 280 Ib/ft ." = Fp = I 120 Ib/ft This is the QE load in the seismic load combinations.0)wp = 1. o..0) = 400 Ib/ft .2. Equation 12.0 .k.. 1 Ex am ple 4 5 • Out-ot-Pten e Wall Anchorage of Concrete or Ma so nry Walls to Fl exible Diaphragm s I ) ~ Wall anchorage force The tributary wall weight is one-half of the weight between the roof and base p lus all the weight above the roof.0)(1. I .2wp = 0.11. .0 and 1= 1. . 11-) gives Fp = 0. :. 11 . .0)( 1. Vol.k. ) I I I I I I I I I 166 2006 IBC Struc tural/Seismic Design Manua l. F"".8(1400 ) = 1120 Ib/ft > 400 (1. IV w = 150C~)(4 ft + 10 ft)(I ft) = 1400 lb/ft I ) For the given values of Sos = 1.8( 1.2 §12.§12.

1 ample 4 6 all nchorage to Flexible iap ragms §12. Wall panel Wall-roof tic detail Determine the strength' design requirement s for the followi ng. [IJ Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element ~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [IJ Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element.11.1 as Fonch = 1680 lb/ft..2.1 Th is example illustrates use of the allowable stress design proced ure for the design of stee l and wood elements of the wall anchorage system in a building with a flexible roof diaphragm. The steel hold-down elements of the anchorage system resist only the axial anchorage load and there are no dead or live load effects. The wall anchorage connections to the roof are to be provided at 4 feet on center.2. The manufacturer's catalog provides allowable capacity values for earthquake loading for a given type and size of hold-down element. one on each side of the subpurlin .2.11. 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual. hold-downs) that connect the tilt-up wall pan el to the wood subpurlins of the roof diaphragm. The anchorage force has been calculated per § 12. The ancho rage consists of two hold-down elements .Example 46 • Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §12 .11. Vol . The task is to desig n the steel anchorage elements (i.e. I 167 . Th e drawing below shows a tilt-up wall panel that is connected near its top to a flexible roof diaphragm.

I I I I I I I .§12.4. where the applicable seismic load combinations permi t 0.2. I I ~ Design force for wood subpurlin tie element The strength design axial load on the wood element of the wall anchorage system is I I PE = (1680)(4) = ± 6720 lb Using the seismic load combinations of §2.7(6720) = 4800 lb applied at the anchored end. Whenever hold-downs are used in pairs.e. select the wood element such that the allowable capacity of the element. 16 8 2006 IB C S tr uctural/Seismic Design Man ual.1 1.4. The allowabl e stress design axial load requirement for each pair of hold-down elements is 0. select a hold-down element having a capacity of at least ] J 4800 lb = 2400 Ib 2 The hold-down detail must provide both tensile and compress ive resistance for this load. the strength design axial load is E = QE = PE = Faae" (4) = (1680)(4) = ± 6720 Ib This example.7(6720) = ± 4800 lb From the manufacturer's catalog . double hold-downs are preferred. uses the ASD load combinations of §2.7PE 0. for the combined bend ing and axial stress including dead and live load effects. Vol . can support a ± axial load of 0.1 Example 46 • Wall An ch orage to Flexib le D i aph ragms J J For the 4-foot spacing. the throug h-bol ts in the subpurlin must be checked for double shear bearing.7£ to be resisted with an increase in allowable stress based on duration (i. these must consider the effects of eccentricity. as shown in the wall-roof tie detail above. but single-sided hold-downs are often used with all eccentricities fully considered. the paired anchorage embedment in the wall is likely to involve an overlapping pull-out cone condition in the concrete : refer to ACI 3 I8 Append ix D for design requirements. Also. Generally.7£ = 0.7PE = 0. the Cd duration factor for wood) . When single-sided hold-downs are used..

I 169 .0 to permit comparison.6 Wood 0.8 SoslW N/A Steel 1. the forces acting on wood.78 SoslW) I I I I I I I 2006 IB C Structu ra l/S eismic Design Manual. the load is divided by the dura tion fac tor Cd of 1.2. and steel elements are shown below. Vol.4(0.4 per §12.2.11. the load is increased by 1. co ncrete. Material ASD 0.8SDsIW 1.12 SoslW (0 .35 SoslW) I I Concrete 0.1 1 1- Commentary For comparison .11.Example 46 l:f Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diap hragms §12.5 SoslW (0.2. For wood. For stee l.8 SoslW) = 1.

This type of roof construction can generally be shown to behave per flexible diaphragm assumptions. Occupancy Importance Category I Seismi c Design Category 0 Roof plan J 1. for the design of the roof diaphragm of a single-story building.0 S DS = 1. A single-story tilt-up bui lding with special reinforced concrete shear walls and a panelized wood roof is shown below. Vol. 1.1. 10.'10.0 Diaphragm weight = 15 psf Wall weig ht = 80 psf = Roof diaphragm Elevation through building Find the following.1 Ex ample 4 7 Q De term i nation of Diaphragm Force Fp ::: Lowrise ~ mple 4 7 !# ermination of Diaphragm Force f px : Lowrise §12.10-1.1 This exampl e illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force Fpx of Equation 12.0 R =5. cp b o r 200 ' Normal wall The following information is given .§12. [!J 170 Diaphragm design force at the roof 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. I .0 P = 1.

t < 0.'px n lV j 2: F.10.t:::: 0. o.0 and 1 = 1.10.2wp. 1 Calculations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Diaphragm design force at the roof §12.1 §12.t •.t = 0. .0 I I I I I I I I I are For a short period single story building..1 requires that the design seismic force for diaphragms be determined by 1 Fp:r = ~= l t.t :::: Fp. which for S DS = 1.0 11'p.k. 2: i-. I 17 1 . Equation 12. for a l-foot-w ide strip Wpl = weight of diaphragm = + weight of one-half height of normal walls IOO( 15) + 2( I0)(80) = 3100 Ib/ft (1.0)(1.t n (Eq 12.1.2 SDs/Wp.0) 5.10. Vol.0.10-1 becomes (see commentary below for derivation) with the given val ues of SDS = 1. R = 5.Examp le 47 • Det ermin ation of Diaphragm Forc e F px: Lowrise §12.1) with limits of 0. 2006 IBC Structura l/Seismic Design Manua l.4 SDs/Wp.2wp ) < O.0 and.2 Wpl F pl = = 0.2(3 100) = 620 lb/ft Check limits: 0.1. Note that the redundancy factor of p is to be applied to the Q£ load actions due to Fp l (such as chord forces and diaphragm shear loads in the diaphrag m).10.1.4wp.

(• n w. 2. includ es the weight of the diaphragm plu s the tributary weight of elem ents nonnal to the diaphragm that are one-half story height belo w and above the diaphragm level. x = 1. The we ight W p.. = and Equation 12.. in the direction of the force.§12.J. Vol. V= V I I 1 172 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Des ign Manual. w. (Eq 12.8.10. }\'. and W 11 = I I I I 2: i. Fps = ~wpx •• (Eq 12. Walls parallel to the direction of the seismic forces are usually not considered in the.1. I I I I . 1 1 ..5 sec (k = J . i = I I . m 2: F.lz.10-1) 2: Wi I I I F X = CIX V = v • 2: W/l: i.I 11'.8-12) For a single-story building.0) ._ = . The sing le-story building version of Equation 16-65 is derived as follows .detennination of the tributary roof weight because these walls do not obta in support.8-11 ) where C.11 gives F) = W /I.r for short period of < 0. 1 Example 47 • Determ ination of Diaphragm Force Fpx: Lo wrise 1 ] Commentary I. (Eq 12.h. from the roof diaphragm.

I 17 3 . Vol. 1 1 I V= C W = 50 S ! IV 5 R (Eq 12. IV 11' 1'1 = - V IV lV 1'1 50 = .10-1 is F P1 = - 1 I I I F. Equation 12.1 where Examp le 47 ~ Determ ination of Diaphragm Forc e Fpx: Lowrise §12. 1.11' s! R 1'1 \ I 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual.. 10.8-1 and 12.8-2) Finally. for the single story building.

.06 sec V = CW= 233.1 This example illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force Fpx of Equation 12.De termina tion of Diaphragm Force Fp x : Highrise t- §12.079 0.024 0.06215 8Ds = 1.762 kips C.8-12 .1 for a representative floor of a multi-story building. = 0. Vol.013 0.167 0.144 0. I . 10.134 0.1 Example 48 D Determ ination of Diaphragm Force F px : H ighrise ample 48 .183 0.3 I = 1.10. The nine-story moment frame bui lding shown below has the tabulated design seismic forces P.0 P = 1.005 174 2006 IB C St r uctural/S eismic Des ig n Man ua l.233 0.r:.0 T = 1.024 0.rV 35.8 IV 32 20 13456 10816 8464 6400 4624 3136 1936 1024 400 214 405 405 405 584 422 422 440 465 3. kips 214 Story 12 12' 12' 12' 12' 9 8 7 6 405 405 405 584 422 5 4 3 2 1 422 440 465 20 ' / / ' // / //// // / / / ' / k C = Level x 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I Totals: h (ft) 11 6 104 92 80 68 56 44 h 2 I\' kips II'h 2879584 4380480 3427920 2592000 2700416 1323392 816992 450560 186000 18.h. The following information is given.8 kips k = 2 for Eq 12.757.138 0.8 54.§12.3 33.8-12 Level 1 < 27' * '1 27':J 1 Weight.344 vr WJ l" t L I\'.058 0.8 32.3 5.3 233. Seismic Design Category 0 W = 3.6 10.153 0. 0.044 0.8-11 and 12.071 0.039 0. the design base shear.6 2.4 42.762 0. I 0.106 0.7 16.010 FI Fx =Cl·. These were determined from Equations 12.

Example 48 • Delerminallon of Diaphragm Forc e FpK: Highrise

§ 1Z. 10. 1

1
1 1

~Calqulations and iiiscus~ion

Code Reference

[I]

Diaphragm force at Level 7

§12.10-1

Seismic forces on the floor and roof diaphragm are specified in § 12.10-1. The following equation is used to determine the diaphragm force Fpx at Level x

(Eq 12.10-1)

Section 12.10.1.1 also has the following limits on F px

For Level 7, x = 7
F

J

p7

= (42.8 + 54.4 + 35.8)(405) = (0.130)(405) = 52.6 ki
(405 + 405 + 214)

s

P

Check limits:

0.2 SD px sIw

=

0.2wpx
0.2(405) = 81.1 kips > 52.6 kips ... not o.k.

=

I ,

0.4 SD sIwpx

= =

O.4wpx
0.4(405) = 121.5 kips > 52.6 kips . . . o.k.

I I I I I

:. Fp7 = 81.1 kips...minimum value (0.2 SDsIwpx) governs.
Note that the redundancy factor, in this example p = 1.3, is to be applied to the load Q£ due to F P.f (such as chord forces and floor-to-frame shear connections). Also note that Equation 12.10-1 will always govern for the design of the diaphragm versus Equation 12.8-12.

2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic Design Manual, Vol. I

175

§12.12.3

Example 49 • Building Separations

i#.a.~ple 49
SUilding Separations

..

§12.12.3

Building separations are necessary to prevent or reduce the possibility of two adjacent structures impacting during an earthquake. Requirements for building separations are due to the prescribed given in §12.12.3. In this example, the static displacements lateral forces of § 12.8 and information about each structure are given below. Note that the displacements given are at the plan view edges of the building.

oxe

--.-----r-1~ ~aralion ""'~
.

3

II

Structure J

Structure 2

Levelr

0..
1.38 in. 1.00

2

2
I

0.47

o
o
Structure 1

o
R= 6 C,/ =5

0.75 in 0.35 0

Structure 2

Find the required separations for the following situations.

[!J
[!J

Separations within the same building Separation from an adjacent building on the same property

~ Separation from an adjacent building on another property
Calculatiqns and Discussion

Code Reference
§12.12.3

[!J

Separation within the same building

Expansion joints are often used to break a large building or an irregular building into two or more parts above the foundation level. This effectively creates separate structures within the same building. The code requires that the structures be separated by the amount OMf where

OMI =

maximum inelastic displacement of Structure 1
~aximum

0,"12 =

inelastic displacement of Structure 2

176

2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol . I

J
where

Example 49 ., Bu ild ing Separ<Jtlo ns

§ 12.12.J

U/d-

s _« )
Ux

max - -

_

CJ 6,n.
/-

(Eq 12.8-1)

The required separation is determined in the following two steps.

~

I

Determine ine lastic displacements of each structure To determine the min imum separation between parts of the same building that are separated by an expansion joint, the maximum inelastic floor disp lacements 6" must be determined for each structure. These are at level, x= 2 For Structure I
s, -

§I2.8.6

C~2J _ 5.5(1.0) - 5 5 .
/- -

U '\(I -

1.0

- . in

(Eq 12.8-15)

For Structure 2

6M2 = CJ/6 22 = 5.0(0.75) = 3.75 in
1.0

(Eq 12.8- 15)

~

Dete rmine t he required sep aration The requi red separation is determin ed from the individual maximum inelastic disp lacements of each structure as

§I 2.I2.3

I
I
I
~

6MT

= 6,\11 + 6M2 = 5.5 + 3.75 = 9.25 in

Separation from an adjacent building on the same property
If Structures I and 2 above are adjacent, individual buildings on the same property, the solution is the same as that shown above in Step I . The code makes no distinction betw een an "internal" separation in the sam e building and the separation required betw een two adjacent buildings on the same property.

I

I I

6U T

=

9.25 in

2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. I

177

912.12.3

Example 4 9 • Building Separations

J
§12.12.3

~ Separation from an adjacent building on another property

If Struc ture I is a building under design and Structure 2 is an existing bu ilding on an adjoining property, we would ge nera lly not have information about the seismic displacem ents of Structu re 2. Often even basic information about the struc tura l sys tem of Struc ture 2 may no t be known. In this case, separa tion must be based on ly on info rmation about Struc ture I. The larges t elastic displ acement of Struc ture I is 0)<= 1.38 inch es and occurs at the roof (Level 3). Th e maximum inelastic displacement is calculated as 0 ,/ = CdO J , = 5.5(1.38) = 7.59 in r I 1.0 (Eq 12.8-15)

J

Structure I must be set back 7.59 inches from the property line, unless a sma ller separation is justifie d by a rati onal analys is ba sed on maximum ground motion s. Such an analys is is difficul t to perform, and is ge nerally not requ ired except in very special cases.

I

J

I
I

178

2006 IBC Structural/Seismic D esign Manual, Vol. I

I I I I I I I

SD/ = 0.4.. = 1.= 2n k /f n 150 kips/(386 kip/in/sec") 8.65 The stiffness of the supporti ng tower is 8.2. Vol. S. 1 36 sec Because the period is greater than .5-1 S.70.06 second.4.65 SDS = 1. Seismic Design Category D Weight of towe r and maximum normal operating co ntents = 150 kips Occupancy Category III Site Class D I = 1. [TI Period of vibration ~ Design base shear ~ Vertical distribution of seismic forces ~ Overturning moment at base .20. the vessel does not qual ify as a rigi d nonbuilding structu re and thus is considered flexible. See § 15.30 kip/in Determ ine the following. 5 Example 50 Flexible onbuildiJ1Jg' TUC UTe §15. The period must be determined by § 15. 2006 IBC St ructura l/Se ism ic D esig n Man ual. = 0. For calculation purposes. The tower sits on symmetrically braced legs The following information is given.calculations and Discussion Code Reference [TI Period of vibration. I 17 9 .25 per Table 11.30 kip/in =.4. the mass is assum ed to be located at the top of the tower.Ex ample 50 • Fl exible Nonbuilding Structure § 1 5. T = 2n .5 A tall steel bin tower is supporte d by a con crete found ation.

8. I . T.8. = R /I SDS = 0.4 of the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book for further discussion. should not be calculated using any of the approximate methods in §12.20 1.5 Example 50 • Flexible Nonbuildlng Str ucture It should be noted that the value of the period.§15.25 SDS = 15.4-2 15.5-1 The value of C.8. I I ] ~ Design base shear The des ign base shear for nonbuilding structures is calculated from the same expressions as for buildings.8-2) T T T T 1.0 I = 1. I v = C.199 C t!)T R (Eq 12.8-5) I I I I I I I where SDS= I = 1. 12.36 sec I I I I But C. nor is it intended to be subject to the limitations presented in §12.01 (Eq 12. W= 0.217 (150 kips) = 32. = 0. Refe r to Section CI 09.4-2 11.4-2 15.8-2 need not exceed C s = S DI =0.0 CD = 2. must also sat isfy the requirements of §15. These are given in §12.1.1.25 T = 1.5.0 Q o = 2. In addit ion. This is because the approximate method presented is intend ed for buildings and is not applicable to structural systems that differ significantly from typical building configurations and characteristics.50 (Eq 12. computed in accordance with Eq.25 180 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual. nonbuilding structures. Vol.2.55 kip s where C .5 I = 1. 1.65 R = 3.8-2) where SOl = 0.2. shall not be taken less than C.2 R = 3. such as the vessel.

65 R = 3. Vol.5S. shall not be taken as less than c. it would be assigned to SDC E (§11.8-6) SI =0. 5 No te that for this tower.second period S" equal to or great er than 0. the value of the seismic response coefficient C.4-2. (S. (RI l) = 0.0 [ = 1.75g.25 Thus: C. Thu s.199 governs Also note that if this tower (Occupancy Category 11) were located on a site with mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response accele ration at I. ~ 0.1 Example 50 • Fl ex ible Nonbu ilding Stru cture § 15. I I I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Seism ic D esign Manual.135 (Eq 12. the height would be limited to 100 ft per Tabl e 15. I 181 .6). because the I-second spectral response SI is equal to 0. = where 0. = 0.60g ).65.

4.C~/culations and Discussion Code Reference [!J Design base shear.0) 1(1 . (i. _ .4 and § 15.0 Site Class D 2.0 S DS = 1.33 SOl = 1.8... 30' [!J Design base shear ~ Vertical distribution of seismic forces .0) (Eq 12.. Determine the following.4. = S DS = (R I I) (1.4. see § 15.1) where C. SI = 1.xaniple 51 Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure . E.00 T = 2.5. Weights U~ and W2 include the maximum normal op erating weights of the storage bins and contents as well as the tributary frame weight.e.1 and Table 11. 1 The follow ing information is given.0 Example 51 • Lateral Force on Nonbui/ding Structure I. Sf = 2. and the structu re is similar to a building. Note that an interm ediate reinforced concrete moment frame (lRCMF) building structure is not permitted for SDC D.5. the period T > 0.1. The total base shear in a given direction is determined from V= CsW (Eq 12.4.4 must be used. 1. or F per Tab le 15.§15. Also note that the value for R is 8 for normal design of an SRCMF.166 (8.0 sec TV = 300 kips S MS= 15' Level 2 F. I . see § 15.0 S Ail = 1.-- §15. §15. See § 15.0 A nonbuilding structure with a special reinforced concrete mom ent frame (SRCMF) supports some rigid aggregate storage bins.8-2) 182 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. Occupancy Importance Category 1" 1 = 1.2.33) = 0. 1) the general expressio ns for design base shear given in § 12.06 sec.0. Vol.4 Because this is a flexible structure..

I 183 .8-1) V = C. = c. = (0..0) = 0. F 22-16) I where C = 0. Vol. shall not be taken less than (Region 1.8-6 govern..8-3 and 12.0 T =2 . = 1.5)(1 . = SOl = (1. 2: 0.0)2.0 R =8 I = 1.0 J where 5DS = 1.8-6) 5.!-) 1. V= C.0 Note 5.8-2 I I I r.0 Check T'S TL = > TL = 12.063 x (R I I) (.5S.0 R = 8. Lat er al F or ce on NOll buJldi ng Structure §15. §12 .063 (R II)T (8/ 1.33 R =8 I = 1.0 (Eq 12.0 The value of C.0) for T :::J L = 0..063)(300) = 18.8-2 need not exceed J where C.0 I = 1.0 sec The value of C.rV= (0.6g I \ Thus: C.9 kips) (Eq 16-41) 2006 lac Structural/Se ismic Design Manual. (Eq 12. computed in accordance with Equation 12.8-3) 5D/ = 1.0 (Eq 12.Exa mple 51 .~ ( 18.9 kips Vertical distribution of seismic forces The design base shear must be distributed over the height of the structu re in the same manner as that for a building struc ture. = 0.0 T =2.063 Equat ions 12.

0 for T 2: 2.01--_ _ - I I 1.75 2.5) = 1.§15.50 sec k = interpolate between 1 and 2. = n CEq 12. I .0 sec k = 1.0 for T ~ 0.0 Example 51 • Lat eral Force on Nonbulldlng Structure I ] J where C".0 -0.5 o o .0 ( 2.0 2.5-0.5 T Now for T = 2..0 + 1.50 sec k = 2.0 2. Vol.8-11) LI " j- ' " W il l J where k = 1.5 sec ] J J and and Thu s: K 2.0 1.5 I I I I I I 184 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.

9 18. in feet W.f I C.83 194825. (18.45 38455.56 I W. = C.197 1.t 781.85 384 .73 V. I 185 .9) .17 18.00 F.17 3. Vol.Jl.28 F.1 Example 51 • Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure §15.28 J Note: k = 1.0 1 Sto ry Shears (k = 1. " rep Sa effective story acceleration I I I I I 2006 IBC Structural/Se ismic Design Manual.75) Story Force Story Shear Height Weight J Level 2 1 Iz:r 45 30 !t . = Sa = F.T / W. 200 100 300 W.9 Sa 0 . 15.. c.h. 15. in kips 194825.037 156369. = W / .·x 0.75 It.803 0.076 0.

V = C.3 (1..§ 15.399W os (Eq 15.'x (119.2 V = O.7 kips) 186 2006 IBC Str uctural/S eismic Design Manual. In this example.33 I = = T 1.399 (100 + 200) = 119. §15.8-1 1) Fx = C.4 . Equation 15.02 sec 100 kips W SUPPORT = 200 kips W EQUlPAfENT = 30' 20' Grade Determine the following . rigid ore crushing equipment is supported by a massive concrete pedestal and seismic design forces are to be determined.3 I I I I I (Eq 12.33) (1.2 ) The code has special requi rements for the determination of seismic forces for design of rigid nonbuilding structures.0 0. SOS = 1.0) W= 0.7 kips Vertical distribution of seismic forces The force shall be distributed with height in accordance with § 12. The following information is given.4-5 is used to determine design base shear. [!J Des ign base shear Vert ical distribution of seismic forces [3J I J Design base shear For rigid nonbuilding structures.2 Example 52. I I I I I .4.. Vol. Rigid NonbuiJding Structure 1 '~ample 52 '''igid Nonbuilding_ Structure §15.4-5) = 0.8.4.3S I W= 0.

51. v. .571 1.c De sign Manual.Jlx 3000 4000 7000 k e ll. Vol.45 I I I Note: 11. 4.lz k Sa = Fx / fV.25 68.8-12) Height Level Iz x Weight Story Force Story Shear h. 100 200 300 W .t k W.516 0.429 0. 1 x -rr.7 Sa 0.1 Example 52 • Rigid Nonbuildin g Structure §15.00 51.2 (Eq 12.7 kips) ~ c. in feet Wx in kips k = WxlzJ fx= c. nPSa = effective story acceleration 2006 IBC StructuraUSe. I 187 .342 2 1 30 20 30 20 0.35 119.sm. F.>.. (1 19.7 119..

000 Ib/20 = 6000 plf = 0. ~ample 53 .6 Example 53 • Tank with S up p or t ed Bottom .7.2.000 (0. SDS= 1. The period may be computed by other rational methods.0 w = W/L = 120.50 inch = Slab Grade I3J 'C~/c. I . Vol .50/12) t 188 2006 IBC Struc tu r al/S ei smi c D es ig n Manua l.6 and Discussion Code Reference [!J The tank is a nonbu ilding structure.7. The following informati on is given.20 20' I W = 1.440.50 in I 6000(10) wd 1.yla tions Find the design base shear §15.6. similar to Example 51 where = 20 ft L D = 10ft LID = 20/10 = 2. This secti on requires that seismic forces be determined using the procedures of §15.§15. The tank does not contain toxic or explosive substances.6 A small liquid storage tank is supported on a concrete slab. and seismic requirements for tanks with supported bottoms are given in §15.4.7.0 Weight of tank and max imum normal operating contents = 120 kips = 0.7.!In With Supported Bottom §15.

0367 sec < 0.65 X 10-6 (2.00 W = 120 kips The design lateral seismic force is to be applied at the center-of-mass of the tank and its contents.. 7.36W = (Eq 15.20 S= I = 1.4. Vol. I I I I I I 2006 lac Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2 The lateral force shall be obtai ned as follows V =0. I 189 . 6 7. § 15.36 ( 120) = 43.1 Now: T = Example 53 • Tank With Supported Bottom §15. .440 . rigid nonbuilding structure. Note that the center-of-mass of the contents and of the tank do not normally coincide.2 kips where SD 1." or American Petroleum Institute Standard 650. rigid 1 Thu s.8. For large diameter tanks . The distribution of forces vertically shall be in accordance with § 12. Refer to American Wate r Works Association Standard ANSI! AWWA D100 "Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage.06 .4-5) 0.0)2 (1. the effects of sloshing must be considered.000) = 0.3SD sIW=0. "Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage" for more detailed guidance. Commentary The procedures above are intend ed for tanks that have relati vely small diameters (less than 20 feet) and where the forces generated by fluid-sloshing modes are small.3.

1 A two-story masonry bearing wall structure has a pile foundation. [!J Interconnection requirements ~ Interconnection force between pile caps 3 and 10 [!J 190 Required "tie" restraint between pile caps 3 and 10 2006 IBC Stru c tu r al/Seism ic D esign Ma n ua l. Piles are located around the perimeter of the building.2.23.2. I .IBC §180B.1 Example 54 • Pile Interconn ections ample 54 Pile Interconnections IBC'§1808. The foundation plan of the building is shown below.a '" @) C o 6 9 o 10 o 11 Foundation plan Determ ine the following. 2'·0" 2'· 0" Section A-A: Typi cal pile cap Pile Cap Dead Load 46 kips 58 Reduced Live Load 16 kips 16 Seismic QE N/S E/W 14 kips 14 0 0 3 10 ~ A t a <0 II N f f f 4 11iI 2S' = 100 ' :=lA 0 2 0 0 r 5 3 A 4 ®.0 Pile cap size: 3 feet square by 2 feet deep Grade beam: I foot 6 inches by 2 feet Allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf per foot of depth below natural grade. Original grade Seismic Design Category 0 J = 1. Vol. for the very dense granular soil at the site. The following information is given.0 SDS = 1.23.

I 1 91 .1.Example 54 § Pilc Interconnections IBC §1BOB. This is specified in § 1808. and seismic loads on the pile cap. Interconnect ion force between pile caps 3 and 10 Maximum loads on each pile cap under E/W seismic forces are Pile cap 3 = 46 + 16 + 0 = 62 kips Pile cap 10 = 58 + 16 + 0 = 74 kips Minimum horizontal tie force Sos II 0 = 0.2. reduced live.10 times the largest column vertical load P = 0.2.23. 7400lbs Required length = = 6. no grade beam between pile caps 3 and 10 (or similar caps) is required.23. Code Reference [!J Intercon nection requirements IBC §1808.. in this example. but pile cap and a tributary length ofN/S grade beam on either side of the pile cap may be designed to resist tie forces using the passive pressure. [2(200) + 4(200)] Passive press ure = (2 ft) = 1200 plf 2 . Vol.1 allows use of "equivalent restraint" which .1 Calculations and Discussion .23.. the passive pressure resistance is . The column vertical load is to be considered the dead. An exception to §1808.2 ft 1200 plf This is greater than 3'-0" pile cap wid th. or to try to use passive pressure restraint on the pile cap in lieu of a grade beam.2.1.2.2 I The code requires that individual pile caps of every structure subject to seismic forces be interconnected with ties.e. This system is shown below and . tie beam ) connecting pile caps 3 and 10.10 (74) = 7. For the allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf per foot of depth below natural grade.40 kips I I I I I I I [!J Req uired "tie" restraint between pile caps 3 and 10 The choices are to add a grade beam (i. 2006 IB C Stru ctural/S eismic Design Manual. The latter is considered an "equivalent restraint" (by soil confinement or bearing pressure) under the exception to rae §1808. is provided by the confinement of very dense granular soil at the site. if this is properly designed . The ties must be capable of resisting in tension and compression a minimum horizontal tie force equal to 10 percent of the larger column vertical load.23.

Ties are also necessary when the site soil conditions are so poor that lateral movements.200 plf -.. and the project specifications should call for the back-fill and compaction methods necessary to provide required passive pressure resistance. Ties are essential in tall buildings. buildings on pile foundations are required to have interconnecting ties between pile caps.and two-story buildings.1 Example 54 • Pile Interconnections 1.23. In the design of relatively lightweight one.. . 23 . Vol.- •.2' 800 psflf! Equivalent restraint system in plan Section 8-8: Grade beam Normally. or geotechnical hazards. 192 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.1 may permit a more economical foundation design. However. 6.~::::: ::::~ --'<~--4 E--------. 2. such as liquefaction.. a geotechnical engineer should confirm the appropriateness of this decision. are possible.. This is particularly true in the case of high-rise buildings and buildings with heavy vertical loads on individual pile caps... I .. the exception to the interconnecting tie requirement of § 1808.IBC §1808. ::::~:::: 2'·0" ~:::::::::::~ ::::..2. when interconnecting ties are omitted..

0 Structure: The structure is an X-braced steel frame with evenly distributed braces on all four exterior walls. Dimensions : 100 ft wide by 120 ft long by 25 ft high (2 stories .5) x. Minnesota .6 Enclosure: §6-2 Topography: Height of adjacent hills is less than 60 feet . Suburban office park surrounded by trees and typical suburban construction on all sides . The building has no unusual openings in the envelope.90 mph zone .Therefore the building category in Table I-I is Category II. Exposure: §6.5.5. Vol. I 193 . F 6-1 I Wind Speed: Located in Minneapolis.13 ft and 12 ft). The roof is metal roof deck on steel joists on steel joist girders. = 1. (§6.4 The following is an example of the simplified wind load procedure of ASCE/SEI 7-05.Wind speed-up effects not a concern. I I I I I I Design Method: To utilize ASCE/SEI 7-05 Simplified Procedure (Method 1) all ofthe following criteria must be met.Classify as Enclosed. Importance: The facility is an office building with no special functions . nor is it in a hurricane region.1 ~l Example 55 D Simplified Wind Loads on 2 aStory BUildings §6.4 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. The second floor is concrete slab on metal form deck on steel floor beams.7. Calculate the wind loads on the following building.1. 1) With no breaks in the roof or floor (structural separations) the diaphragms are simple. as defined in §6-2 2) The building height is less than 60 feet and least horizontal dimensions 3) The building is enclosed and not prone to wind-borne debris 4) The building is regular shaped 5) The building is rigid with a period less than I second 6) The site is not subject to wind speed-up effects 7) The building is symmetrical 8) For a building with well distributed MWFRS torsional load case in note 5 of Figure 6-10 will not govern the design. Therefore design by Method 1 §6. so no concerns for wind-borne debris .Therefore the exposure category is B.

§6. the Top ographic Factor K=I from §6. the Edge Strip Width. Vol . and by the Importance Factor J from Tabl e 6. ~ Calculate the MWFRS End Zone Width End Zone = 2a. so first calcu late a. [!J ~ ~ Main wind force MWFRS end zone width MWFRS design wind pressures ~ Components and cladding ~ Edge Strip ~ Design wind pressure on components [1J Main Wind-Force Resisting System-MWFRS (Lateral Load Structural Frame) Using Method 1 §6.5.4 Example 55 • Simplified Wind Loads on 2·Story Buf/dings 25' Determine the following.2.7. The equation for ps is shown in §6. the simplified design wind pressure ps is the product of the base simpl ified design pressure ps30 taken from Figure 6-2 and multiplied by the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor A from Figure 6-2.1. I . I Eq 6-1. 194 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.4.4.

00 A 1.4 psf A 1. No interpolation is required because the flat roof angle falls in the row of "O to 5.00 .8 psf No Roof Projection for Flat Roofs A 1. Design Pressure Type Zone Surface Wall Roof Wall Roof Wind Lee Wind Lee Label A B P 130 Base A HI. Factor Factor F G H Lee A 1.5 -15..15.00 I A 1.04 x 100 ft = 4 ft • 3ft Therefore : a = 10ft. = A Kjp.00 1.4 -8.00 A 1.00 .0 rt p.8 -10 .00 -10.00 A 1. Factor K:1 Topographic 1 Import.00 A 1.00 I A 1. Height 25.00 A 1. Height 25.00 A 1. E xposure B.8 psf 1.0.00 -8.7 psf A 1. K= = 1. & Exp.00 A 1.00 A 1.7.00 A 1. the Importance Factor I = 1. Press.8 8.4 Edge Strip = a = Lesser of: 1 But not less than: • 10% of the least horizontal dimension = 0.00 A A A 1.10 x 100 ft = 10ft · 40% of the eave height = 0040 x 25 ft = lOft ·4% of the least horizontal dimension = 0.7 psf A 1.00 I )" 1.00 A 1.00 . I 195 .0.7 -6. A 1.7 -6.4 -8.5 psf Nn Roof Proiection for Flat Roofs A 1.8 psf No Roof Projection in Lonaitudi nal Direction A 1.8 A HI.00 A 1.8 psf Lon gitudinal M W FRS . & Exp.8 8.00 1.I.8 psf x = = - 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual. topography.90 mph.90 mph .00 A 1.00 ." With the mean roof height of 25 feet and the exposure being "B".00 I ~ 8. Topographic 1 Import.00 A 1.-15.12. End 12. Since the building site r is level from §6. Vol.5 ·15.00 A 1.00 A 1.5 psf No Roof Pro 'ecticn in Lonzitudinal Direction ).00 . - J Tran svers e MWFRS . Design Pressure Type Zone Surface Label P IJ O End Horiz Int End Ven Int W all Roof Wall Roof Wind Lee Wind A B C D E Roof Angle 0'" to 5'" 12.4 psf x 1.3o Look up the base pressures P.00 = -10.00 -6. Exposure B. so the End Zone = 2a = 2 x 10 ft = 20 ft ~ Calculate the MWFRS design wind pressure Using Equation 6-1: p.Ex ampl e 55 • Simp lifi ed Wind Loa ds on 2·Story Building s §6 .00 IA 1.8 psf A 1.00 8.00 A 1. the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor A from Figure 6-2 = 1.8 Horiz Int End Vert Int C D E F G H Factor Factor Factor A 1.00 1. For a building Category II as defined in Table I. exposure.00 ·6.0.0 rt p.30 from Figure 6-2 then modify for height.5.-8.12. x. and importance factor.8 -10.

1 . the minimum load case from §6.4. Vol. 196 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.4 Example 55 • Simp lified Wind Loads on 2-Story Buildings App ly the pressure s to the building as described in Figure 6-2. it is classifie d as "Longitudinal. do not combine with the case from §6.] In addition. In other words . the loading diagram becomes the same in each direction. create a load case with all horizontal zones equal to 10 psf. and thus has no ridge line. Th e designations of "Transverse" and "Longitudinal" are keyed to the direction of the MWFRS being evaluated. usin g Eq 6. I . its direction is classified as "Transverse.4.2. App ly a load of 10 psf on the buildin g projection on a vertica l plane normal to the wind.1. Design wind pressures p.§6. Check this load case as an independent case. The loading diagrams shown should be mirrored about each axis of the building until each of the four comers has been the "reference comer" as shown for each load case. It should be applied in each direction as well. as shown in the following diagram.2." When it is parallel to the ridge . and all vertical zones equal to O. When the resisting system being designed is perpendicular to the ridge line of the gable or hip roof." When the roof is flat (slope ~5 · ) .1 must also be checked.

and all components and cladding" must be designed for wind loads. Eq 6-2.5. For buildings such as this that qualify under §6.00. then modify for Height.4. Therefo re. Corner L Being Evacuated I I I I I I I I ~ Components and Cladding (Everything except the Lateral Load Structural Frame) Accordi ng to §6. the C&C can be designed using §6. a Previously ca lculated in the MWFRS calcu lations. Topography and Importance Category.1.7. and for a Building Category II . all "bu ildings . I 197 .1. K. should be designed as Components and Cladding (C&C) . With the mean roof height of25 feet and the exposure being "B.4. 4 <: i I 1 Minimu m design wind loadi ng ~f"'enc.. ~ Calculate the Edge Strip.1 1 EYsmple 55 Q Simp lified Wind Loads on 2-Sr ory Buil din gs §6. a = lOft ~ Calculate the design wind pressure on several components using Equation 6·2 pnel =A. .2.0. the Importance Factor f lO' = 1.2. KztlP nel30 Look up the base pressures directly from Figure 6-3. 2006 IBC Struc tural/S eismic D esign Manual. Since the building is a leve l site from §6. Vol. all parts of the exterior building envelope and any load paths. Exposu re.00. = 1.1." the Height and Exposure Adjustment Factor from Figure 6-3 = 1. that are not part of the main wind-force-resisting system (lateral frame).2..

00 x 1. Ex posu re B.& + 14.00 x 1.& -23.6 -1 9. 6 • Note.00 x 1.ngs ] C & C . > 100 sf < 10 sf Positive Neg ative Positive Negative Positive Negati ve Positive Nega tive Pos itiv e Negative I ) None Required None Required None Required None Required 10 s f I 20 sf 12 sf -24.2.00 x 1.4.& +5.6 -15.15.00 x 1.00 x 1.& .5 1 Positive Int ( I) 12 sf Negative Joist Deck '".00 x 1.00 x 1.9· -24.00 x 1.7* -15.0 0 x 1.7 -15.5 +4 .0 ft Direction Interpolation Pnl:tJO x HI. Negative Positive Neg ative None Required None Required 10 s f 20 sf 17.15.8 +5.00 x 1.8 + 14.00 x 1.14.00 x 1.5 +4 . 6 x 1.00 x 1.3 < 10 sf Stud Siding 17.& +5.§6.4' +5 . 1 .& +5 .3 sf < 10 sf ::: -.19.00 x 1.00 x 1. A minimum pressur of 10 psf 15 required per§6.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 +5 .3 sf .6 +5.9 -36 .00 x 1.00 x 1.5 +14.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.& 14. I .2.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.5 No ne Req uired +5.00 x 1.14. P JJO 1 Design Pressure Area Deck Press Factor x 1.& -23.6 +5. & · .5 ) > 100 sf None Required +4.1 -15.5 .90 mph.00 x 1.0 0 x 1.15.00 x 1.00 Factor x 1.7· .& I 20 sf -30.4 Example 55 • Simplifi ed Win d Loads oh 2· Story Bu ild.& · -35 .& 14.00 x 1.00 x 1.9 + 14.5 12 sf -35.9· -36.00 x 1.00 x 1. Vol.1&.00 x 1.00 x 1.3 sf (4) 17.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1. 1 .00 Factor Positive < 10 sf Ne gative Screw Roof Dec k None Required Non e Required 20 sf 12 sf 10 sf +5.00 x 1.9 +5.6 + 13.00 x 1.00 x 1.15.7 -15.00 x 1. Heigh t Type Zo ne Item EfT Wind = 25.& · -23.00 x 1.& -35.1 e 198 2006 IBC StructurallSelsmlc Design Manual.6 +5.9· -14.5 +4 .00 x 1.3 +5.9 -24 .9 +4 .00 x 1.00 x 1..2 .3 sf Posi tive Int + 14.7· -13.00 x 1.18.00 x 1.15.3 sf 10 s f 20 sf Negative .& -14.00 x 1.9 + 14.00 x 1.00 x 1.7 -1 3.00 x 1. & 10sf 20 sf 12 sf .3 + 14. Ku Topo. 1 .15.6 + 13.6 .00 x 1.14.1& .3 + 14.6 .00 x 1.4 +5.1 .9 -14.6 -1 9.00 x 1.00 x 1. Base I Imp ort.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.14.2 -1 &.00 x 1.00 x 1. & Exp. 1 10 s f 20 sf 17.5 +14.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.9 +4.00 x 1.3 sf + 14.00 x 1.9 No ne Required •0 s 0 0 Screw Roof Deck Joist Deck "~ Edge (2) 12 sf > 100 sf None Required None Requ ired Screw Roof Deck JOiSl Siding Int (4) < 10 sf Positive Comer (3) 12 s f Negative Posi tive Negati ve Posi tive Negat ive Positive None Required None Required 10 sf -36.00 x 1.00 x 1.3 +5.00 x 1.4 I -2 1.1 Stud 17.00 x 1.6 None Required None Required None Required 20 sf 10 sf 17.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.

Roofs.. I 199 . Vol. O Q Interior Zones Roofs.4 The component and cladding pressures should be applied as described in Figure 6-3 and as shown in the diagram below.Zone 21Walls .Zone 5 Comer Zones Roofs.Zone 4 End Zones '..Zone 1f\Nalis.1 Examp / a 55 • Si mplified Win d Load s o n 2· S tory B uil din gs § 6.Zone 3 I 1 1 I 2006 IBC StructuraUSeismic Design Manual.

wind loads can be determined using simplified provisions.4 Example 56 • Simplifi ed Wind Loads on Low R ise Buildings Per §6. The following information is given .4. 1.1 .situated on fiat ground b (0 3 - PLAN Flexible Diaphragm Typ /' 10 WaII mu II" ns spaced 5 ~eel typ ) 1/ Longitudinal Elevation T ra nsve rse Eleva tion Determin e the following. [}J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A ~ Wind loads on second-story wall mullion 200 20D6 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.§6. Vol. I . for conform ing low-rise bui ldings. A B c 1 - / Main windforce-res isting system 2 Typ I 1< 100' 3-story office build ing located in urban/subu rban area ofNW Texas .

1Check applicability of simplified provisions 1 I . Heig ht and exposure adjustment 'A.2 §6. Regular shape 5. Simple diaphragm building (See definition under "building. = 1.2 §6. See §6.I Ex amp l e 56 g Simp lified Win d L oa ds on Low Ri s e Buildings §6A 1 [!J Wind loads on MWFRS at Grid A 1 a.10 Therefore.2 Yes Yes Yes §6.3 sec N = Number of Stories 6. Flat.05 Topographic factor F 6-la F 6-2 K.1 .4.6 for exposure category definitions Examp le bu ilding in urban/suburban area is considered exposure B Mean roof height (h) = 35 ft (see defin ition §6. No special wind characteristics 7.0 §6. Vol. simp le diaphragm") 2.I(3)=0.1 §6. 8 = 1. F 6.2 I I I I I I I I 8. Building enclosed 4.5 .5.7 2006 IBC Stru ctural/Se ismic Design Ma nual. gabled or hipped roof Yes Yes Yes Yes §6. J 201 . Not flexible (II) > l hz) (T < I sec) T=O.I N=0.2) (8 < 10") Adjustment factor from Fig ure 6-2. Torsiona l irregularities not a concern Note 5.2 Yes §6. Low rise building (Mean roof height < 60 ft and building widt h) 3. simp lified provisions are app lica ble Determine basic parameters NW Texas basic wind speed = 90 mph The desig n professional should contact the local building department to confirm design wind speed .

05)(1.6" 13. 2.1.3D Horizontal load at wall : In end zone [A] = (1.0)(9. Zone E F G H WW LW WW LW Roof Roof Roof Roof -15.1Obtain tabulated load s Simplified Design Wind Pressure P. 1 pst) = 9.5 11. 1 = {I0 psf* 25 ft)*35 ft = 8.6" -6.6.4 ft or ~3ft Note 10.4. Zone A 8 C D Wall Roof Wall Roof 12.4. .8 17. Governs or = 0.1 does not govern 202 2006 IB C S tr uc tural/ Seismic D esign Ma nual.05)(1.4 Exam ple 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings ] T 6-1 Importance Factor J = 1. F 6-2 I I I I I I I I End Zone 2a = 12 ft F 6-2 1 e.8.7 = 7.8 -6.. Roof Angle Horizontal Loads End Zone Int.8 -15.1) I 1 1 c. roof angle = arctan 10 7.7 pst) = 14.4. Vol.4 -8.0)(1.7 .4 -9.4 psf*12 ft + 9.1 .7 -7. I I I .75 kips < 10. J P.04 (60) = 2.8 (use 0) .4 (use 0) 9. 6.1 -10.1. 1 Interpolating: For examp le.dO (p sf) F 6-2 V 90 mph Load Dir.6 psf*(25-12))*35 ft = 10.0 (Category II Build ing from Table 1.7 -4. check 10 psf minimum over projected area of vertical plane §6.7 .6 psf Per §6.0 -2. .1 I I I I I I Check minimum requirement: Horizontal load Eq 6-1 = (14.4 -10.42 : .7 .42 kips Min load §6.7 8.9 -4.§6.0)(13.0)(1.15.40 (35) = 14 ft but not less than ~ 0.1.3.4 psf In interior zone [C] = (1.4.10.10 (60) = 6 ft .8 -10.6 o to Transverse 5" 20" Vertical Loads End Zone lnt.0 11d·1 Determine end zone dimensions Edge Strip a = 0.1Determine load on MWFRS at Grid A Forces determined using Eq 6-1 ps = A K.1.

05)( 1. Alternatively.49 k V3 = z.0)(-9. 10 ft/2 = 5 It 10 ft/2 + 10 ft/2 = 10 n V2 = 3.34 kif VR = 1. 0. 1 psf) = -9 . the forces could be distribu ted to gr ids A and C by ap plying the loads as a simple span beam.In end zone [E] = (1.0)( 1.0)(-15.se' k > > ) Trib.2 psf In interior zone [G] = (1.12) = 210 plf = .7 psf) = -11.35 psf)(25 .6 psfl'(25 ft .6 psfl'(25 ft .2 £1» 10 ft = 2976 Ib 2 nd Floor Load (12 .0)(-10.34 kif uplift Leeward: (11.5 ft Elevation 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2 psf)( 12 ft) + (9.4 Hori zonta l point loads to frame : Roof Load (5 ft tributary ht) VR=(14.2 psf)(12 ft) + (7.4 pst) = -16.05)( 1.0)(-7 .Ex ample 56 8 Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Bu ildings §6. Vol.56 psf In interi or zon e [H] = ( 1. Vertical load at roof: Win dward Roof .72 10 ft/2 + 15 ft/2 = 12. HI.0 psf) = -7.05)( 1.5 ft tributary ht) V2= (14.21 kif uplift Note : Forces applied to Grid A are sho wn as a distri buted loa d along the frame length .6 psfl'( 25 ft .0)( 1.4 psf" 12 ft + 9.4 ps f" 12 ft + 9.56 psf)(25 .0)( 1. and 3. 05)( 1.35 psf Vertical uniform loads to frame : Win dward: (16 . 2.0)( 1.5 ft = 3720 Ib Note: Forces to Grid A are shown based on a tributary basis that is conservative for the analysis of Grid A .I n end zone [F] = (1.2 psf Leew ard Roof.4 ps f" 12 ft + 9.2 ft» 5 ft = 1488 Ib cd 3 Floor Load (10 ft tributary ht) V3 = (14. I 203 . A more detai led analysis of for ces based on roof frami ng would include a sm aller distributed load and upli ft point loa ds at locations where beams frame into the grid A moment frame at grids I.12) = 340 plf= .2 ft) 12.

3 pSfnegalive)(5 ft tributary) = 75 plf F 6-3 p.1 .2 .05)(1..1 Plan [!J Wind loads on second story wall mullion ~ Determine zone of mullion Interior of wall area .2.0)(1.0)(1.4.0 pSfposilive)(5 ft tributary) = 68.3 psfnegative (suction) = (1../ = 75 plf or 68.6 psI x Trib HIS 14./ . lJ 204 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manua l.4.0)(-14.0 psfpositive = -14.5 plf = (1.5 plf ( 2nd floor . I .Zone 4 Effective wind area = 5 ft (10 ft) = 50 sq ft Wind Loads pne130 ps F 6-3 = AK ztl Pnel30 §6.1 10 psI x Trib HI §6.05)(1.2 .4 Example 56 • Simplified Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings 0-r Load Cases: cr C( cr :JD r l 5 9.2 (Eq 6-2) = 13.§6. Vol..4..0)(13. ps r~ ( = 3'· floor .4 psI x Trib HI §6.

Texas 3" 12' 12' Elevation Determ ine: [TI Wind loads on MWFRS Icai~ulationsJ!n(f Discussion [TI Wind loads on MWFRS Chapter 6 I 1 1 1 a. Vol. I 205 .W.5 I 2006 IB C Structural/S eismic Design Manual. 50' 4 1 ~I 12' 12' 12' 12' 12' 12' Office build ing 50 ft by 50 ft in plan with MWFRS at exterior. Floor Vibrations A 9-sto ry building has a moment-resisting frame for a lateral force-resisting system. Find the latera l forces on the frame due to wind. Located in an urban/suburban area ofN.Ex ample 58 .1 Determine basic wind speed Ut ilize ASC E/ SEI 7-05 §6 Use meth od 2 analytical procedure §6.

5.3 and §2.2 §6.85 206 2006 IBC S tr uct ur al/S eism i c Design Ma nual.6.8 §9.1 I I I I I I I I .5.03 • 1. T 6-1 §6.3 §6.7 §6.5 Example 57 • Wind Loads .00 (Structural Category II. T6-4 §6. Table 1-1) Exposure Category B Velocity pressure coeff K= (Case 2) §6.04 By Interpolation Topographic factor K Z1 = I (example building on flat land.5.85 0.5.93 0.6.1 Hz > 1.5. I §6. or does not have a site locatio n for which channeling effects or buffet ing in wake of upwind obstructions warrant special conditions §6.66 0. F 6-1 1 l b1 i · I I I Determine velocity pressure Wind directionality factor Kd = 0.96 0.76 0.5.2-la) §6.1(9) = 0.5.5.4.99 1.5.4.5.62 0.4.9 Therefore: Rigid structure G= 0. T 6-3 I I 0· 15 fl 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 11 6 120 " Exposure 8 Case 2 0. instability due to galloping or flutter .Analytical Proce dure Confirm building is regular shaped and not subject to across wind loading.5.1 Design procedure Basic wind speed V = 90 mph §6.70 0.5.0 0. vortex shedding.8.3. Vol.5.81 0.5.2 (Eq 9.57 0.5.89 0.85 (applies when using load combina tions in ASCE/SEI 7-05 §2.3.§6.6 §6.4) Importance factor I = 1. no nearby hills) Gust effect factor G 9-story building Natural period = 0.9 sec 1 Natural frequency = .= 1.

11.5. Vol.4 18.11.7 16.2.0 15.0)(0.3 13.00256K=( 1.4 14.9 11.11 §6. F 6-6 L Plan (Note: Internal pressures must be added to or subtracted from external pressures typical L Elevation 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.GCpi GCpi = ±0.6 12. 10 Eq 6.15 0.5.Cp For example building.00256K2 K2kKdV / = 2 §6.0) 0-15 ft 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 116 10.00256K=KrK2 V 2/ = O.18 Case 1: Internal Pressure Inward Case 2: Internal Pressure Ou tward External pressure coefficients .1.5. I 207 .9 §6.1 Determine pressure and force coefficients Internal pressure coefficients .85)(90)2( 1. F 6-5 §6.0 psf 10.2 11 c.Examp le 58 a Floor Vibra tions Enclosure Classification Example building enclosed Velo city Pressure q== O. monoslope roof'B = 0 §6.9 17.5.4 16.5.3 15.

0.1.7) = -1 0.3 x 0.2 (0.GC = n .7 11. = . 12.5 Example 5 7 • Wind Lo ads .72 10.0.8 12. I .80 7.12 §6.2 (0.8 II 0· 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 116 .3 > 1.5) = -7.0.85)(.85)(.5 11.85)(xI.41 7.l 2.74 psf Side walls I I I I I I I I I I I I I I c.8 (Area Reduction Factor) = 1.2 psf q"GCp = 18.= 1 ---> C = . = 0.5.2 psf(0.5 50 p B L ll 6 fi F6-6 q" = q " ' = 18.§6.7 F 6-6 q"GCp = 18.4 I I Leeward wall 50 = .36 9. Vol .04) = x 16.04 F 6-6 q"GCp = 18.89 8.11 9.5.2.8) 6.Analytical Procedure I F 6-6 Windward wall C.2 §6.2 10.85)(0 .8 psf 11 6 = =2.1 208 2006 IBC Structura l/Seismic Design Man ual.5. 1 psf lid·1Design wind loads Main wind-force-resisting system Rigid building §6.2 11.0 L 50 h c. (0 . Roof - =-0.

12.18) = .18. 18) =3.1 8) = .19.4 .4 psf 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.2(-0. I 209 . I psf Roof = -1 6.7 Case 1 15. Floor Vibra:ions C 6-17) Eq Windward wall qh(GCp i ) = (18.4 .5 14.2(-0.2(+0.18) = -I 1.5 psf p = .5 Case 1 shown 0-15 ft 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 116 14.Q1J(GCp .Example 58.1 Case 2 Leeward wall p = q"GCp .7.4. Vol.) 10.74 -1 8.18) = 15.7.14.qh (GCp i ) p = .28 psf(±) Ii p = CJ=GCp .2(0.18.2 11. 1 10.1B.7 11.8 / Sample Calculation 15 I P = 12.0 psf Case 1 Case 2 Side walls = -10.4 13.0 14.18) = .2(0.18) =9.2)(0.7 .2(0.0 13.6 12.1 -18.74 -1 8.8 .

----:J-f---'--L---L.1 psf Plan Wind -----.o.§6.4.0 psI Case 2 14.Analytical Procedure 11 e.1 + 11.k. .7 psI Case 2 9.1 To obtain frame loads.graphically r--r--r---r---....5 Example 57 a Wind Loads .. . I . Vol.---l-~ Wind ~I--~ 11.4 ps f Cas e 1 15.1 Design wind loads .0 = 21. 19. multiply pressures by tributary width = 50/2 = 25 ft or perform Rigid Diaphragm Analysis 210 2006 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual.0 psf 4.5 psf Case 1 11..1. §6.1> 10 psf.) Elevation Case 1: Internal Pressure Inwa rd Case 2: Internal Pressu re Outward Verify projected load is greater than 10 psf 10.1 psI .

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