Translations
of
M&THEMATICAL MONOGRAPHS
Volume 186
Number
Fermat’s
Theory
Dream
1
Kazuya Kato Nobushige Kurokawa Takeshi Saito
Translated by Masato Kuwata
lallalllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
FUDAN BOO12090492443 B '!$
American
Mathematical
Society
Providence,
Rhode
Ilsand
Contents
Preface Preface to the English Edition Objectives Notation Chapter 0. Introduction
Fermat and Number Theory ~
ix xi
x111
and Outline
of these Books
. ..
xv
0.1. Before Fermat 0.2. Prime numbers and the sum of two squares 0.3. p = x2 + 2y2, p = x2 + 3y2,. . . 0.4. Pell’s equations 0.5. Triangular numbers, quadrangular numbers, pentagonal 8 numbers 10 0.6. Triangular numbers, squares, cubes 11 0.7. Right triangles and elliptic curves 12 0.8. Fermat’s Last Theorem 14 Exercises Chapter 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1. Rational Points on Elliptic Curves Fermat and elliptic curves Group structure of an elliptic curve Mordell’s theorem Summary Exercises 2. Conies and padic Numbers Conies Congruence Conies and quadratic residue symbols padic number fields
vii
17 17 25 30 43 43 45 45 49 53 58
Chapter 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4.
“Ill
CONTENTS
2.5. 2.6.
Multiplicative structure of the padic Rational points on tonics Summary Exercises 3. < Three wonders of the values Values at positive integers Values at negative integers Summary Exercises
number
field
69 74 78 78 81 81 84 89 99 100 103 104 113 124 127 132 132 135 135 136 139 145 153
Chapter 3.1. 3.2. 3.3.
of the < function
Chapter 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4.
4. Algebraic Number Theory Method of algebraic number theory The heart of algebraic number theory The class number formula for imaginary quadratic fields Fermat’s Last Theorem and Kummer Summary Exercises A. Rudiments on Dedekind domains Definition of a Dedekind domain Fractional ideal to Questions to Exercises
Appendix A.l. A.2. Answers Answers Index
On July 10 he proved that any natural number can be expressed as a sum of at most three triangular numbers (see 50.. A hundred years later. in 1896. Andre Weil. A discovery in one epoch induces a more profound discovery by the following generation. Gauss was in his late teens at the time. three. we would like to describe in this book the intricate world of numbers that modern
. It is said that there is no unexplored place on the earth any longer. two. On March 30 he discovered a method of construction of a regular 17gon. All these contributions are discussed in these volumes.2 in this volume). Wandering naively in the wonderland of numbers. as naive as it is. who had examined Gauss’s result of October 1. which was a very fruitful year for the great Gauss.Preface
This book was written in 1996. the quadratic reciprocity law had grown into the class field theory. which had a great impact on mathematics in later eras. the prime number theorem was proved. The brilliance of the gems polished by Gauss has increased through the efforts of the mathematicians of following generations.5). who made many fundamental contributions to modern number theory. On April 8 he proved the quadratic reciprocity law (see $2. . Number Theory 1. the world of numbers encompasses many wonders that fascinated young Gauss. One. two hundred years after 1796. After 150 years. On October 1 he obtained a result on the number of solutions for an equation with coefficients in a finite field. which he himself called a gem. That makes us think of the profoundness and richness of nature. After some 120 years. 3. On May 31 he conjectured what would later be called “the prime number theorem” concerning the distribution of prime numbers. but the world of numbers is still full of mysteries. These conjectures influenced a great deal of algebraic geometry in the twentieth century. 2. four. proposed the socalled Weil conjectures.
x
PREFACE
number theory has discoverd. Takeshi Saito
. Kazuya Kato. Nobushige Kurokawa. We will be very happy if the reader discovers the wonders of numbers and the grandeur of nature.
Our special thanks are due to Dr.Preface
to the English
Edition
The authors hope that the readers enjoy the wonderful world of modern number theory through the book. Masato Kuwata.
xi
. who not only translated the Japanese edition into English but also suggested many improvements on the text so that the present English edition is more readable than the original Japanese edition.
We tried to include today’s developments in number theory. The starting point of number theory is astonishment at the wonders of numbers. The reader should not hesitate to skip parts that are difficult to understand. 2. We first discuss the work of Fermat on number theory in the introduction to Number Theory 1. For example. The work of Fermat. The reader will learn how mathematicians of later eras little by little found a fascinating world behind each fact discovered by Fermat.
. the Cfunction (Chapter 3)) and number fields (Chapter 4). before coming back to elliptic curves once again. In Number Theory 3 we explain Iwasawa theory and the theory of modular forms. Iwasawa theory. to which we did not find an introduction elsewhere. We also study the <function once again.. padic numbers (Chapter 2). Number Theory 1. illustrates very well the wonder of numbers. and Iwasawa theory. In Number Theory 1 we study some important topics in modern number theory. Chapters 2 and 3 may be easier to read than Chapter 1. such as class field theory. who is considered to be a founding father of modern number theory. Number Theory 2 is devoted to class field theory. which is part of arithmetic algebraic geometry.Objectives
and
Outline
of these
Books
In thses books. we introduce core theories in modern number theory. such as the arithemetic theory of elliptic curves. The structure of this book is as follows. These chapters are more or less independent. etc. we included some important theories developed in recent years. These books are part of the series Fundamentals of Modern Mathematics. but we were not satisfied with the introduction of fundamentals. such as elliptic curves (Chapter l). the theory of modular forms. the material in the earlier chapters is not necessary to understand each succeeding chapter. We hope that we convey the best of modern number theory. 3. Xl.
We advise you to take an interest in the history of mathematics.
. We regret that we could not mention Diophantine approximations and transcendental number theory. Also. both of which are seeing new developments in recent years. but we had to omit many of them due to the limitation on the number of pages. which teaches us interesting lessons. Just as astronomical observations are indispensable to the study of astronomy. The wonders are there to be discovered. it is indispensable to observe the numbers in order to study number theory. The reader is advised to write down simple and easy examples on scratch paper. rings and fields. In Number Theory 2 we recommend that the reader be familiar with Galois theory.xiv
OBJECTIVES
AND
OUTLINE
OF
THESE
BOOKS
We wanted to include more topics. number theory has a long history. Prerequisites to Number Theory 1 are the fundamentals of groups.
AX denotes the group of invertible elements of A.
. In particular. and a homomorphism of rings is assumed to send 1 to 1. If A is a ring. if A is a field. AX is the multiplicative group consisting of all the nonzero elements of A.Notation
Throughout the book we use the following all all all all integers rational numbers real numbers complex numbers symbols:
Z the set of Q the set of lR the set of C the set of
A ring is always assumed to have an identity element (written l).
the proof has not been discovered. We introduce our treatment of Fermat’s work in this book from a modern viewpoint.1. Fermat replaced the power of the equation by 3.5. no
“For n greater than or equal to 3. and see how his work has been developed and extended in later eras.Fermat and Number Theory
which
In September states:
1994 Andrew
Wiles
proved
Fermat’s
Last Theorem. but this margin is too narrow to write it down. y. who is considered to be a “founder of modern number theory”.4. It was on the page where the positive integral solutions of the equation x2 + y2 = z2 were discussed. Fermat (160165) wrote his “Last Theorem” around 1630 in the margin of a book he owned. an ancient Greek mathematician. such as 32 + 42 = 52.z2.” In spite of the efforts of many people. z satisfying the equation xn + yn = Zn. 52 + 122 = 132. Fermat also left a phrase (‘1 found a remarkable proof for this fact. There are many positive integral solutions to x2 + y2 = .
0. .”
Fermat’s Last Theorem had resisted a proof for more than 350 years.CHAPTER
0
Introduction
. . In this chapter we focus on Fermat. Before
Fermat
Fermat wrote down his “Last Theorem” in the margin of his copy of Arithmetica by Diophantus. 82 + 152 = 172
. We review his work on number theory. . . there exist natural numbers x.
FIGURE 0. and Pythagoras (572492 B. We are capable of seeing it through the method known as “proof”.1. but he agonized over the interpretation of this fact. such a solution corresponds to the three sides of a right triangle as we see in Figure 0. and he invented a musical scale. This fact cannot be seen by the naked eye. Some people consider Pythagoras to be the originator of number theory. Pythagoras was astonished by the proved existence of an irrational number. (Pythagoras thought that the existence
. y and In ancient Greece many superb mathematicians emerged. INTRODUCTION
5 / 4Lll
4 13 3 5’ Z. Rational numbers. which was invented by the ancient Greeks.) is among them. In the middle of this century archaeologists succeeded in deciphering the writings on a plate found at an ancient Babylonian site of 4000 years ago. Pythagorean Theorem
\D
12 17 15 /
a
(see92. The author of this plate apparently knew how to find such x.2
0. As a result. but he is considered to be the first one to find the existence of irrational numbers. He proved it by himself. but there are numbers such as & which are not rational numbers.1). which can be expressed as the ratio of two integers. namely numbers which cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers.” Pythagoras found that two chords whose length have an integer ratio give a beautiful harmony. The theorem is named for Pythagoras because he is considered to be the first to prove it. such as 11g2 + 1202 = 16g2. and he said “Everything is a number. seemto be tightly packed in the line formed by real numbers. He attached great importance to integer ratios. He was fascinated by the mystery of numbers. this equation has been studied since ancient times. By the Pythagorean Theorem. On it were inscribed many solutions to z2 + y2 = z2.1.C.
the theory of real numbers developed in the nineteenth century did not put to rest the question posed by the ancient Greeks: Around a hundred years ago. They form a quite different world from the world of real numbers.
. Knowing the existence of irrational numbers.. and Elements discusses it a great deal. but they turn out to be as natural and as important as the world of real numbers. Pythagoras agonized over this question. a world of numbers called “$adic numbers” was established for each prime number p out of rational numbers. and it discusses greatest common divisors and least common multiples (volumes 7 and 9 in the thirteen volumes of Elements). the development of number theory slowed down until Fermat. Legend has it that a disciple broke the ban. It was only in the nineteenth century that a complete answer was given (see $2. Fermat was stimulated by Arithmetica and began to study number theory. The Renaissance revived the free spirits of the ancient Greece. Elements treats the question “How can we give a foundation for real numbers based on rational numbers?“. He was the greatest mathematician of the first half of the seventeenth century.C. Fermat was a lawyer in Toulouse in France. and it develops an excellent theory of real numbers (Elements. which discusses rational solutions to algebraic equations. expressing an ellipse by the equation $ + $ = 1) independent of Descartes. {padic numbers} > {rational numbers} c {real numbers)
Diophantus was a mathematician of the third century. He founded a method of describing a geometric figure by an equation (for example.1. volume 5). He also did some important work on number theory.) Euclid’s Elements.
BEFORE
FERMAT
3
of an irrational number was an error of the gods. It includes a proof of the existence of infinitely many prime numbers.4 in this volume).0. He wrote the book Arithmetica. Later this work served as a clue to the discovery of calculus. After Diophantus. using a “What are the numbers?” method similar to the construction of real numbers out of rational numbers. he prohibited his disciples from telling this fact to anyone else. and then lost his life in a shipwreck because of the anger of the gods. However. is a compilation of ancient Greek mathematics. He obtained maxima and minima of a function using a method similar to calculus. and he was a descendant of the ancient Greek school of mathematicians. and Arithmetica was republished. which was written in the third century B. So.
g.1. no such triangle exists for any prime number congruent to 3 modulo 4 3.
0.) The seventh comment is related the following propositions obtained by Fermat. Then there exists a right triangle with integer such that the length of tile hypotenuse is p. for example. Fermat was the first to discover such relations between prime numbers and right triangles. The socalled “Last Theorem” is the second among these comments.. even though 21 is congruent to 1 modulo 4. Fermat himself seldom wrote down a proof.
to 1 module
.
PROPOSITION
4. and they began the epoch of modern number theory.1 the prime numbers 5.g. his contemporaries had a tendency to think that way.
Notice that in Figure 0. Weil.13.. Conversely. right triangles whose sides are integers have been studied since ancient times. These comments were published after the death of Fermat by his son. However. It can be shown. (See. these theorems are the tip of the iceberg of deep mathematics.4
0. It appears as if they are just a compilation of bits of facts on different equations. however. 5.
PROPOSITION
ulo 4 sides right (e.2. who had a deep affection for these propositions. Number Theory by A.
0. Indeed.13. that there is no right triangle having 21 (which is not a prime) as its hypotenuse. Each of them surpassed the level of ancient mathematics.11). As we mentioned earlier. These propositions concern integral or rational solutions to algebraic equations.2.17). but mathematicians of later eras made efforts to give a proof to each of these propositions. As it turned out. Prime numbers and the sum of two squares
Fermat left fortyeight comments in the margin of his copy of Arithmetica about his work related to the text. understood intuitively that the study of integral or rational solutions to equations leads us to a profound part of mathematics.7. we believe that Fermat. then there
0. If p is a prime number congruent exist natural numbers x and y satisfying p=x2+y2. However. Let p be a prime number congruent to 1 mod(e.17 are hypotenuses of right triangles. INTRODUCTION
In the following sections we introduce some propositions Fermat claimed to have proved.
we can interpret Proposition 0.0.2 are reflections of the fact that as we extend the notion of numbers from Z to Zbi]. Propositions 0. The numbers such as 2 + i.4i) = 32 + 42. We can also prove Proposition 0.
. . A prime number p congruent to 1 modulo 4 loses its irreducibility as a prime number in the ring Z[i]={a+bi/ and it factors a.1 and 0.bEZ} into the product (Z is the ring of all integers) of two numbers. for a prime number p congruent not exist rational numbers x and y satisfying
to 3 module 4 there p = x2 + y2. A prime number congruent to 1 modulo 4 is the product of two prime elements in Z[i].2i)2 = (5 + 12i)(5 .12i) = 52 + 122.2. such as
5 = 22 + l2 = (2 + i)(2 .i). This is the idea behind Proposition 0. 2 .1 and 0. any nonzero element of Z[i] can be factored into the product of prime elements up to a multiple of fl or fi.
PRIME
NUMBERS
AND
THE
SUM
OF
TWO
SQUARES
5
For example.2i). Just as any nonzero integer can be uniquely factored into the product of prime numbers up to a multiple of fl. and Fermat’s
.
we have
Conversely. We will discuss class field theory in Volume 2.
do
Propositions 0.i).2 were “preludes” to class field theory.nd 3 + 2i that appear in the above factorizations are “prime elements” in Z[i] which correspond to prime numbers in Z. Using the complex number i = a. the factorization of a prime number in Z[i] is determined by its residue modulo 4. which is one of the greatest theories of twentieth century mathematics. while a prime number congruent to 3 modulo 4 is a prime element in Z[i]. One of the main themes of class field theory is the factorization of prime numbers when we extend the world of numbers.
17 = 42 + l2 = (4 + i)(4 .8i) = 152 + 82. 13 = 32 + 22 = (3 + 2i)(3 .2 as follows.2.iy = (15 + 8i)(15
Therefore. as we see 52 = (2 + i)2(2 132 = (3 + 2i)2(3 172 = (4 + i)2(4 .i)2 = (3 + 4i)(3 . .1 using the idea of “prime factorization in Z[i]“.i a.
23 = 52 . 17=32+2x22.3. .. we have 7=22+3x12. for a prime number p congruent to 3 or 5 modulo 8 there do not exist rational numbers x and y satisfying p = x2 . p = x2 + 2y2. 13=12+3x22.
PROPOSITION 0. Conversely. If p is a prime number congruent to 1 or 3 modulo 8.2 x 12.1 and 0.
7 = 32 . .
.3. We will come back to class field theory once again in $0.2. for a prime number p congruent not exist rational numbers x and y satisfying
PROPOSITION 0.6
0. to 2 module 3 there do p = x2 + 3y2. Consider the identities 3 = l2 + 2 x l2 = (1+ G)(l 7 = 22 + 3 x l2 = (2 + Q)(2 . . then there exist natural numbers x and y satisfying
p=x2+2y? For example.Jz). 19=42+3x12.4. Fermat also discovered the following fact. We will give a proof of these propositions in Chapter 4.2 x 12. Through the eyes of modern mathematics.5. If p is a prime number congruent ulo 3. for a prime number p congruent to 5 or 7 module 8 there do not exist rational numbers x and y satisfying p = x2 + 2y2.J2). together with a proof of Propositions 0.2y2. 11=32+2x12. Conversely. then there exist natural numbers x and y satisfying
to 1 mod
p=x2+3y? For example.2 x l2 = (3 + Jz)(3 .2 x 22.1 and 0. Conversely. p = x2 + 3y2. 17 = 52 . we have 3=12+2x12. then there exist natural numbers x and y satisfying
p=xa2y2.
PROPOSITION 0. we have 7 = 32 .3.2 may be called the “prelude to class field theory”. If p is a prime number congruent to 1 or 7 module 8.a). all these propositions may be regarded as preludes to class field theory. For example. 0. INTRODUCTION
Propositions 0.
2 x 22 = 1.
An equation cf the form x2 .1. 9g2 . Then the equation x2 . Also. We will discuss it in Chapter 2. such as x2 + y2 = 5.6. Let N be a natural number natural number.5 are reflections of how prime numbers are factorized in Q(n) = {u + b&2 1 a. Class field theory is one of the summits attained by Teiji Takagi around 1920 after contributions by Fermat. Weber. Kummer.4 and 0. we summarize the factorization of prime numbers in Table 0. 0.2 x 122 = 1. b. Gauss. which is not a
PROPOSITION
of another
has injinitely
many natural number
For example.2. Q(a). 172 .Ny’ = 1 solutions. c are rational numbers). b E Q} (where Q is the set of all rational numbers). PELL'S TABLE
EQUATIONS
7
0. Fermat
square
Pell’s
equations
also declared that he proved the following. it tells us the correspondence between the extensions Q( Jr) and Q(a) and the factorization of prime elements of Q(&i) and Q(a). Class field theory tells us the correspondence between the extensions of the rational number field Q and the factorization of prime numbers. the equation x2 . Hilbert .3. See Chapter 4 for details.Ny2 = 1 is called a Pell’s
. there is an interesting theory on the existence of rational solutions to equations of the type a~’ + by2 = c (a. 0.4.1
~ primes congruent to 1 or 3 modulo 8
acm
I
primes congruent
to 1 or 7 modulo 8
We see that Propositions 0.0.
equation.
0. x2 + 2y2 = 7. respectively. and others. Furthermore.2 x 702 = 1.2y2 = 1 has infinitely many natural number solutions such as 32 . Together with Proposition 0. and Q(d).4.
Pythagoras and his disciples showed great interest in these numbers. Let n be a natural number..
0.Ny2 = 1.6 using Dirichlet’s unit theorem.7 was related to many profound mysteries in number theory and that he intended to write a book about them.2.7. any natural number can be expressed as the sum of less than or equal to n ngonal numbers. are triangular numbers.7. In $4. the proof will be given in 56. Quadrangular numbers are nothing but squares. b E Z}. it can be seen that the set of units of Z[Jz] is the set {f(l + a)” j n E Z}. 1. and the fact that iZ[fi] h as infinitely many units is the reason why the equation x2 .8. since we have the relation (x + yv%)(z . quadrangular pentagonal numbers of Fermat
numbers. an ngonal number is the number of dots when you draw a regular ngon in such a way as in Figure 0.10 .3. Fermat said that Proposition 0. If integers z and y satisfy 2’ .2. Unfortunately. whose set of units is the finite set (51. however.5.2 we will prove Proposition 0. where we introduce “Dirichlet’s unit theorem” (see 54. rti}. The situation is significantly different with the ring Z[i].yfi) = 1. y. then x + yfl is a unit of the ring Z[&V] ( an element that has an inverse in %[&I).2y2 = 1 has infinitely many solutions in natural numbers.
Then. If we extract the part about the quadrangular numbers from Proposition 0.
The eighteenth comment is the following proposition. x.6 may be regarded as a statement about the ring Z[&V] = {a+bfl ( a.6.. We will study such sets of units in Chapter 4.
there
exist
. z and u satisfying
n=x2+y2+z2+u2. For example.
Here.7.
PROPOSITION
integers
0. In the place where he wrote down Proposition 0. the book was never written.. INTRODUCTION
Through the eyes of modern mathematics Proposition 0.
in the margin of Arithmetica
PROPOSITION 0.8
0. If n > 3. we have the following.2). For example. which can be expressed as iz(x + 1) with a natural number z.
Triangular
numbers.
5=22+12+02+02. was quite impressed by Fermat’s Proposition 0. we have 7=22+12+12+12. the greatest mathematician of the eighteenth century.22).8 was given in 1772 by Lagrange. who took over Euler’s effort. Euler. y. It is said that Euler struggled greatly when he attempted to prove Proposition 0.2. U) that
. We will present Jacobi’s proof in Chapter 9 on automorphic forms in Volume 3 (Theorem 9.5. ngonal numbers For example.
TRIANGULAR.8 using automorphic forms.8. 15 = 32 + 22 + 12 + 12.0. He became the successor to Fermat in number theory by giving proofs to many of the statements Fermat made.
QUADRANGULAR. A proof of Proposition 0.
PENTAGONAL
NUMBERS
9
. In 1882 Jacobi gave a new proof of Proposition 0. and was disappointed that Fermat had not written the proof. z.7. Jacobi’s method of proof is so strong that it gives the number a(n) of quadruples (5.. OQtsl
FIGURE 0.
A natural number that is the cube of another natural number is called a cubic number. Triangular numbers. Rewriting the equations y2 + 2 = x3 and y2 + 4 = x3 as
(y + d=)(y
.10
0. The only caseswhere a square number added a cubic number are 22 + 4 = 23 and 112 + 4 = 53.9. all the work of Fermat we introduced concerns squares of numbers.10. In $4.
y2+4=23.1 we will prove Propositions 0. The arithmetic of quadratic forms grew out of these questions.J2)
= x3
and
(y + 2a)(y
. squares. 0. He stated the following. Fermat compared cubic numbers to triangular numbers.10.
to 2 becomes to 4 becomes
The only case where a cubic number is 52 + 2 = 33. dinerent a square from
1 is not a
added
PROPOSITION 0.
. We now consider cubes of numbers.10. 0. cubes
Until now.
It is very difficult to prove these propositions (as well as Propositions 0.6. Jacobi’s method uses the fact that the series
g a(n)Fnz n=O is an automorphic form.9.
y2+2=x3.
number
PROPOSITION 0. In attempting to prove these propositions we are naturally led to profound mathematics.11.11 concern natural number solutions
to
iY(Y
+ 1) = x3. A triangular number
cubic number. and it is a typical example of applications of automorphic forms to the arithmetic of quadratic forms.10 and 0. PROPOSITION 0.8 solve some of the problems of representing integers or rational numbers by quadratic forms such as x2 + y2 and x2 + y2 + z2 + u2. INTRODUCTION
satisfy n = x2 + y2 + z2 + u2 for each integer n > 0.11 by methods of algebraic number theory. Propositons 0. and cubic numbers to square numbers. Propositions 0.2&i)
= x3.8) by hand without using any significant tools.10 and 0.
0.11 as solving the equations of the form (0.3). Fermat studied elliptic curves a great deal. From here on all the work of Fermat we discuss will be related to elliptic curves.1) y2 = (polynomial of degree 3). and his fortyfifth comment is Proposition 0.13.11 using the arithmetic of iZ[J“i] and Z[&i].
.3.7. The elliptic curve y2 = x3 . and we obtain an equation of the form (0.14.9 we can rewrite iy(y+ 1) = x3 as (2y+ 1)2 = (2~)~ + 1.
where the cubic polynomial on the righthand side has no multiple root.1) by replacing 2~ + 1 by Y.7. respectively.0. we can prove Propositions 0. He also mentions Proposition 0.2
respectively.
RIGHT
TRIANGLES
AND
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
11
FIGURE
0.) A curve defined by an equation of the form (0. We can view Propositions 0. Elliptic curves are rich mathematical objects.1) is called an elliptic curme (see Figure 0. An elliptic curve is not an ellipse. Right triangles and elliptic curves
Fermat’s twentythird comment in the margin of Arithmetica is Proposition 0. it is so named due to the fact that it is related to the length of the perimeter of an ellipse. although he did not realize it consciously. We will discuss elliptic curves in Chapter 1 and in Volume 3.10 and 0.12.90. (In Proposition 0.
Math.13.13 and 0.O) (which we will show in the case d = 1 in §1.13 and 0. On the conjecture of Birch and SwinnertonDyer. by multiplying all three sides by a suitable integer. has been proposed to provide a method of determining whether or not an equation of an elliptic curve with rational coefficients has a rational solution (see $12. y) = (O. Given a triangle
length.3). called the Birch and SwinnertonDyer conjecture.O).12 states that if y2 = x3 . (fd.O).
. If such a triangle existed.4. then it has infinitely many rational solutions. PROPOSITION
triangle whose sides are
triangle whose sides are
0. It is known that Fermat had a complete proof for the case n = 4 (i.O). Thus.. whereas Proposition 0. As we will show in §l.12
0. 1. Wiles. 0). The area of a right integers is not a square. (fd. started his career by studying the Birch and SwinnertonDyer conjecture (3.8. Coats and A. Fermat’s Last Theorem remained unproved. however. Proposition 0. A very important conjecture. and Fermat explained a method to obtain the triangle (&. a triangle whose sides are integers and whose area is a square or twice a square. we would be able to obtain. 0).14 state that the equation y2 = x3 . INTRODUCTION PROPOSITION
0. y.
whose sides have rational with rational sides that
For example. (fd.
PROPOSITION 0. 39 (1977). respectively.5 is 6. 2233251).14.d2x other than (x. finding a right triangle whose sides are rational numbers and whose area is a positive rational number d is essentially the sameas finding a rational solution to the equation y2 = x3 . Invent. nonexistence of nontrivial solutions to the equation x4+y4 = z4). The area of a right
a square. the area of the triangle whose sides are 3.
0.1(e) in Volume 3).d2x for d = 1. who proved Fermat’s Last Theorem. this is currently an active field of research.
integers
is not twice
Propositions 0. and thus was called the “Last Theorem”.d2x has a rational solution other than (O. there exist infinitely many triangles have the same area as the given triangle. Wiles. y) = (O.e.2 does not have a rational solution except for (x.12. Fermat’s Last Theorem
Statements made by Fermat have been proved by the efforts of mathematicians of later eras. w) that has the same area 6.14 say that there does not exist a triangle whose sides are rational numbers and whose area is 1 or 2.
1). a. Considering how hard it was to prove the Last Theorem for the mathematicians of later eras.
where cn is the nth If the ring
q&l = (a0 +
a1Cn
+
.0. Some attempts to prove Fermat’s Last Theorem by mathematicians of later eras brought advancements in mathematics.GLY) . . the property that “any nonzero element can be factored uniquely into the product of prime elements” just as in Z). .c. and he managed to prove Fermat’s Last Theorem for many n (94.e.(~
1r 2
0. Among those are the work of Kummer and of Wiles.2. Considering what he wrote about those results and the outline of the proofs in the letters.
.. Unfortunately. The proof of Proposition 0. (2 . In the course of his work Kummer came close to discovering the notion of padic numbers. he also mentioned the case n = 3 of the Last Theorem as his important discovery. His discovery pioneered algebraic number theory (the study of rings such as Z[&]). . and he discovered a mysterious relation
.“‘YL primitive root of unity cos(27r/n) + isin(2r/n). . ‘. . Z[<J does not have a unique factorization property like Z or the ring Z[i] that appeared in 30.8. Fermat never discussed the Last Theorem in the case where n is greater than or equal to 5 except in t.
FERMAT’S
LAST
THEOREM
13
Fermat seldom wrote a proof of his results.13 in the margin of Arithmetica.2) which replaces the unique factorization into prime numbers. n .he margin of Arithmetica.1). it is believed that Fermat thought wrongly that he had a proof for the Last Theorem.13 gives a proof of the Last Theorem for the case n = 4 as a byproduct (see 31. Kummer did the following. However. we guess that Fermat had a proof or something closer to a proof for those results.
~0.4). Kummer discovered that in Z[&] there is a law called the unique factorization into prime ideals (see 34. Later in life. 1.Y)(Z . Fermat told his acquaintances about the results mentioned in this chapter over and over again except for the Last Theorem. for most n..
+
a. we can prove Fermat’s Last Theorem by factoring z and z .
E Z}
has the unique factorization property (i. but he actually wrote down a proof of Proposition 0.<ky (Ic = 0. Fermat ‘s equation xn + y” = zn can be rewritten
Xn
in the product
form
= (2 .
3.
0. We have seen the relation between the work of Fermat and modern mathematics. INTRODUCTION
among three objects: the < function
the arithmetic
of Z[&]. noticed the depth of the world of numbers. 37. and studied the arithmetic of elliptic curves very deeply in order to prove Fermat’s Last Theorem.” We think that the reason for the depth of the world of numbers fascinated Pythagoras. Therefore.2. Fermat. Kummer’s work grew into Iwasawa theory in the twentieth century.
0. used the theory of automorphic forms (see Chapter 9 in Volume 3).” Explain this fact using prime factorization in Z[i] as in $0.
and
which was discovered by Euler in eighteenth century (see Chapter 3). Express 29. Diophantus states “65 = 5 x 13 is the product of 5 and 13.2. Fermat and many others is that it is a reflection of the depth of the universe. 65 can be the length of the hypotenuse of two different right triangles with rational sides as we have 652 = 632 + 162 = 562 + 332.
. We will also explain the highlights of his proof in 512. We will discuss Iwasawa theory (see Chapter 10 in Volume 3). 0. Show that the nth root of 5 is an irrational number for n greater than 1.4. As number theory has been developed during the 350 years since Fermat’s era. a deeper part of number theory has been found to be tied up with a deeper part of theoretical physics as if it makes a harmony with the philosophy of Pythagoras that “everything is a number.2 in Volume 3. both of which can be the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with rational sides.
padic numbers. 41. Details of the proof given by Wiles will be discussed in the book Fermat’s Last Theorem in the Iwanami series The Development of Modern Mathematics.1.14
0. we have discovered the enormous depth of the world of numbers.
Exercises 0. y integers). Show that fi
+ fi
is an irrational number. Wiles extended Iwasawa theory. and 53 in the form x2 +y2 (x. Recently. who was the founder of modern number theory.
are si
. 0.41421.5. . we obtain a rational number very close to fi = 1. Show that there are infinitely many integers which multaneously both a triangular number and a square. If we form the fraction z/y from a natural number solution to x2 .2 x 702 = 1.2 x 122 = 1 and 9g2 . 12 .. as we have 17 = 1416 “‘> 99 .6.2y2 = 1. such as 172 .EXERCISES
15
0. Explain why. . 70 = 1.41428..
z.
PROPOSITION 1.1. Proposition 0.2 as follows. Thus. As we will see later in (c). is no solution
(cc.
1. we see (by moving that they satisfy y4 to the other side and then multiplying by z2/y”)
(Ye). Fermat wrote down a proof of the fact that exist a right triangle whose sides are integers and square”(Proposition 0.y)
The only rational = (0.
(z.1. which the equation contradicts
($)3Y.2. Proposition 1.13 is equivalent to Proposition 1. z) to x4 + y4 = z4
In modern language.13) in the margin of his copy His proof implies the following proposition. PROPOSITION 1. y..2. Fermat’s proof of Proposition 0. As $0. If there exist natural numbers 5.2.x has a solution satisfyProposition 1.2 below.O) and
solutions (kl.= This implies that ing y # 0. y and z satisfying x*+y4=z4. y2 = x3 .1 is a consequence of Proposition 1. Fermat
and elliptic
curves
we explained in “there does not whose area is a of Arithmetica.O).
(a) x4 + y4 = z4 and elliptic curves.13 can be considered a study of the elliptic curve y2 = z3 .
to y2 = x3 x
are
We can see that Proposition 1.7. we see that
17
. which plays an important role in the arithmetic of elliptic curves.1 is also a consequence of Proposition 1.CHAPTER
1
Rational
Points
on Elliptic
Curves
The aim of this chapter is to introduce elliptic curves and the main part of the proof of Mordell’s theorem. There
satisfying xyz # 0.
RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
FIGURE
1. (b) Elliptic curves. b. We also said that Fermat stated that the only natural number solutions to y2 = x3 . If K is a field of characteristic different from 2.
y2
= 23 .ll). In this section we consider only elliptic curves over Q.1. An elliptic curve over Q is a curve given by an equation following form:
y2 = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d (a. d E Q by a. The curves defined by
y2
zz 53
and
y2 = x2 (z + 1)
. a#O). y) = (2.4 of the
are shown in Figure 1.13 written in the margin of Arithmetica. c.b.4 are (z.d~Q!. c.2) and (5.2 in (d). The graphs of the elliptic curves y2 = x3 . Our proof is a translation of Fermat’s proof of Proposition 0.c. (*I where the cubic polynomial of the righthand side does not have a multiple root.1.2. Elliptic
curves
Proposition 1.1 follows from Proposition 1. We will give a proof of Proposition 1. y2 = x3 + 1.18
1. d E K in (*). In the Introduction we explained that Fermat’s statement “No triangular number different from 1 is the cube of a natural number” can be interpreted as a statement about the integer solutions to the equation y ’ = z3 + 1. and we omit the definition of elliptic curves over a field of characteristic 2.5. b. then we define an elliptic curve over K by replacing a.
1 are the points marked by the dots .1.and ycoordinates are both integers) of each elliptic curve.) In general. This suggests that the geometrical difference is related to the arithmetical difference. In Figure 1.1)) (n E Z) are integral points of y2 = x2(x + 1). and (n2 . and as we will explain in the book. n2) (n E Z) are integral points of y2 = z3. this statement contains Proposition 0. all the rational points of y2 = x3 x are the points indicated by the dots . it is known that an elliptic curve over Q has only a finite number of integral points (Mordell.1 the points indicated by . .11 will be given in $4.1. an elliptic curve over Q may have a finite or infinite number of rational points. and all the rational points of y2 = x3 + 1 are also the points indicated
. A point whose x.and ycoordinates are rational numbers is called a rational point.11. On the other hand. This can be seen in Figure 1. A proof of Proposition 0.2). it leads us to a profound part of mathematics.
FERMAT
AND
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
19
FIGURE
1. are integral points (points whose z. (For y2 = x3 + 1. Indeed.O).9. Siegel). Since y2 = x3 and y2 = x2(x+1) are not elliptic curves. they may have infinitely integral points. The only integral points of elliptic curve in Figure 1.1.1.2. n(n2 . In Figure 1.4. (Proposition 1. For y2 = x3 . Studying integral and rational points on a elliptic curve was Fermat’s favorite theme.1. this statement corresponds to Proposition 0. (n3. Curves
that are not elliptic
curves
are not elliptic curves since the cubic polynomials on the righthand side have a multiple root.2 as they are graphically different from elliptic curveseach of them has a singular point at (0.
respectively. which concerns rational points on elliptic curves.O) and (fd.d2x other than (x.3.3 follows from Lemma 1.2. The question “For which d does there exist a sequence of three squares of rational numbers that forms an arithmetic progression of difference d?” (which is equivalent to the question “Which numbers d can be the area of a right triangle whose sides are rational numbers” by Lemma 1. (Around that time ancient Greek mathematics was forgotten in Europe.
.
number. Studying rational points on an elliptic curve is still an active area of research where many studies are being done around the conjecture of Birch and SwinnertonDyer and other conjectures.
conditions (i) (ii) (iii)
Let d be a positive rational (i) through (iii) are equivalent. we can find a reference in Arabian mathematics more than one thousand years ago. In 51. Europeans reintroduced Arabic mathematics. This equivalence Lemma 1. (f)‘. such as (7. There exists a rational solution to y2 = x3 . The sequence (f)‘. since conditions (i).3 we will introduce Mordell’s theorem. Bd and cd in Lemma 1.
LEMMA 1. but it was imported to the Arabic culture where it grew steadily. (ii) and (iii) in Lemma 1.
The following
There exists a triangle whose three sides are rational numbers and whose area is d.4.” This statement is equivalent to Proposition 1.13 is equivalent to the statement “There is no triangle whose sides are rational numbers and whose area is 1. the area of the right triangle having sides 3. . there exit infinitely many rational points on y2 = x3 . are not empty when K = Q.4 below. 4. There exist three squares of rational numbers that form an arithmetic progression of difference d. 9). Fermat’s Proposition 0.3. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
by the dots . 0). However.
(c) Right triangles and elliptic curves.z. In fact. which concerns the elliptic curve follows from the case d = 1 in Y 2 = x3 .4.
For example. During the Renaissance.3) has drawn a great deal of attention for long time. y) = (0.) Lemma 1.20
1. 5 is 6. (g)” is an arithmetic progression of difference 6.3 imply that the sets Ad.
a)2 . and let a. (3..xy Bd={(u. Let K be a field of characteristic different from 2.y) C = {(x. 01. (b. and c be distinct elements in K.b)). b. . u.(b .b)(c .
Ad and Bd we have two maps (x.c))) by h(u.b)(x .g) with
to each other.13) E A30 corresponds to
. &(x is a map h : B + 6’ given
.5) E A6
and these maps are inverse corresponds to metic progression (i. Bd and Cd as ~0110~s: = d). w + 21. and ($)’ .1.d2x. y.w)~KxKxK(u~+a=v~+b=w~+c}.+ (w . w) = (u2+a.b)(x . y # O}.. u.Yl)
There exist mutually given by
inverse
maps
f :B
+ C and g : C + B + u)).
For d E K define
Let K be a field of characteristic different the sets Ad.u.a)(c
&((x (2) There
.y. w) y. C?= {(x.(g)’ is an arithdifference 6. 0)).z)++ (u.
Ad = {(x. Define B. (q)” is an arithmetic progression (S.{(a.
LEMMA 1.
$((x
.v. (y)’ with difference 30.(a .5.b)2 .(%)‘.1.(a . y # 0)
= 6’ . Bd + Ad.
any two of Ad. and Cd. b = 0. uvw). (5.5.$. Bd. .
=
(u + v)(u + w)(w a)). Cd = {(x. 7) E B3o.
dX. c = d in Lemma 1. Then there Indeed.
between Ad+Bd. C and C by
B={(u.
.
FERMAT
AND
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
21
LEMMA
1. au).y) E K x K 1 y2 = (x .c)(b .4.
v.u. Then (1) f(u. w) = (u2 + a + u21+ VW + wu. 01. For example.c)}. y) E K x K ) y2 = x3 . y.4.w)EKxKxKIu2+d=u2.12.a)(x .a)(x E K x K / y2 = (x . (c.
from
2.c).c)~ . exist bijections between
v2+d=w2}. and (f)“. The fact that there is a onetoone correspondence between Bd and Cd follows from the case a = d. z) E K x K x K ) x2 + y2 = z2.
E BG.
0). (If a = b.22
1. 0.x are (0.2).
Suppose there is a rational solution to y2 = x3 .
and we leave it to the
REMARK 1. The strategy of the proof is to show that we can construct another rational solution to y 2 = x3 . Fermat often used this method of construction of a “smaller solution” to the same equation. For example. H(O)=1 since O=i. We now have seen that Proposition equivalent. we define max(u. b) i.s defined as the smaller of a and b. The composition of two maps in Lemma 1. (i) Show that we may assumexc > 1. (0.1.u)(x . and denote it by (xo.x other than (0. is a map called the multiplicationby2 map of the elliptic curve y2 = (x . (fl. We show that each of xc . Let a be a rational number and write a = z as a fraction in lowest terms. min(u.1)X0(X0 + 1) is a square of a rational number.13 and Proposition 1.2. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
The proof of Lemma 1.5.b)(x . and if a = b. (ii) Letxe>l. we have H(g) ~8. We will now prove that the only rational solutions to y2 = x3 .x different from (0.) Also.5 is straightforward. where max(a. xa.c).O) and (kl. b) is defined as a (and thus b).a)(x . xc and x0 + 1 is the square of a rational number. Ch oose one of the solutions such that the height of the xcoordinate is the smallest possible. He called it the method of “infinite descent”. min(u. Sincewehave(xcl)xc(xe+l)=x$xe=yg.b)(x .O). reader. From the definition of h we see that the image of h o g (which coincides with the image of h since g is surjective) is
{(x. (x0 . 0) such that the height of xcoordinate is smaller than that of xc. Define the height H(a) to be max(lm).2 are xb. ye). b) = a = b.y) E K x K 1 y2 = (x .c) (see 51. H(S) =7.6. 5 c are squares in K}
(d) Proof of Proposition 1. hog : C + C. In/). The proof consists of the following three steps.O) and (fl. We will use this fact later.
. b) indicates the greater of a and b.
y) E Q x Q ) y2 = x3 . 20 and 50 + 1 are all squares.n) + (m + n) and 2n = (m + n) . Since we have mn(m .yl) E C such that h o g(zi. and thus it must be 2.n).
This contradicts the minimality of H(Q).1. Since m . Let us move on to the step (ii). m > n > 0. 0). we may assumex0 > 0. and the other is odd since m and n are relatively prime.n) (m + n) is the square of an integer.1. y) E Q x Q 1 y2 = x3 .6 that there exists a point (zi.
QUESTION 1.1
(mn)/2
Then (zb. 3) is another solution.n)(m + n) (20 .2.
Since ze . But a common factor of these two divides both 2m = (m . and thus 50 > 1. If (z. We then show H(zi) < H(Q).(m . yi) = (ze.” an integer Prove this a is the fact. a = 1. it follows that mn(m . y) is a rational solution to y2 = x3 .5 and consider the map in that lemma h 0 g : c = {(XT. We first show that one of m and n is an even number. Here we used the fact. then (i. n.1)2) is another solution to y2 = x3 .5. If ~0 > 0. Thus one of m and n is even. “If rational number.
FERMAT
AND
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
23
(iii)
Consider the case K = Q. Let us show first that we may assumezo > 1.
.n and m + n are both odd.n and m + n may not be relatively prime. c = 1 in Lemma 1. it follows from Remark 1. and let
xb = * = cm + n)P
20 . Thus. we have m+n mn < max(m.22). and write 20 = z. then we have (20 . 2 is not a common factor either.1. square of a
Next we show that any two of m. as a fraction in lowest terms. mn and m+n are relatively prime. Since both y and “2” are positive integers. and we have H(z) = H (i). Suppose ~0 > 1. 2yo/(sc . The only thing we worry is that m . y # 0) + c = { (2.l)zo(ze + 1) = yi > 0.l)so(zo + 1) = n4 is the square of a rational number. a is the square of an integer.II: different from (0. b = 0. Suppose both m and n are odd numbers. ye).n) = H(Q).
be pairwise relatively prime natural numbers such that the product al . y) in y2 = x3 . both r2 and s2 are congruent to 1 modulo 4.
we have
+ s2)2 s2) '
Here the greatest common divisor of the numerator and the denominator is at most 4.2) and the notion of “height”.7. We show H(zi) < H(sc).$.5. Prove Lemma 1.
that
all
LEMMA 1.ze=z.n. . .. This completes the proof of Proposition 1. Thus. .Xl). Writing xi = i as a fraction in lowest
(r2 xo = 4rs(r2
terms. In terms of
Q=P+(O.) Hence.
. . By the definition of h o g we have (XT + 1)” x” = 4(X? . a. . a. we used the multiplicationby2 map in step (iii). as we see from Remark 1.7 below ofm.O).7. 2. (Reason: It is easy to show that the common prime factor of the numerator and the denominator is at most 2. r. QUESTION prime numbers). A). and r2 + s2 is congruent to 2 modulo 4. both r and s must be odd.O)
R=P+(l. (Hint: Factor each a.scl=y and 20 + 1 = 9 are all squares of rational numbers.x that is described in the outline of the proof.24
1. Let k be a natural number and let al. . Then ai is the kth power of a natural number for each i = 1. yi) be the solution to y2 = 23 .6. In fact. ( 3. If r2 + s2 is even. 3) they correspond and and R to structure.mnandm+naresquares. IsI) = ff(zl). 1~1)~ >
m=4rl. Thus. &l. into the product of
Next we move on to step (iii).
Here the last > follows from the fact H(xi) 2 2 since xi # 0. Let (si. This proof uses the group structure of an elliptic curve (which will be defined in $1. . This implies that (r” + s2)2 is not divisible by 8. we have 23(x0) 2 a(r2 + s2)2 2: a max(lrl. is the kth power of a natural number.2. . we considered the group two points Q (. given a point P(z. In steps (i) and (ii). and thus the greatest common divisor is a power of 2. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
It now follows from the case Ic = 2 in Lemma 1.
(a) Definition
of the group structure
different
on an elliptic
curve.) Let E(K) be the set of points in E defined over K together with a point 0. y). a # 0. P # 0. y). consider K = Qp and the elliptic curve y2 = x3 . If P = (2. we obtain the point (5. yi) and
. Consider the elliptic curve y2 = z3 .Q E E(K). If we draw a tangent line to this elliptic curve at the rational point (2. Q # 0 and the coordinates of P are (xi. Let us define the sum of P + Q in E(K) more precisely. and R(z. 9).2.) We define using the following a group structure on E(K) (wri tt en additively) principles (i)(iii) (i) 0 is the identity element. and the coordinates of P are (5.y).e. The third point of intersection between the elliptic curve and the line passing through (2. This process is possible because an elliptic curve has a group structure. (iii) If P E E(K).1. d E K. and the cubic polynomial of the righthand side does not have a multiple root. 0).2 is this group structure on an elliptic curve.
the equa
Let K be a field of characteristic tion
from 2. . (Here. Suppose P # 0. (The precise meaning of 0 will be discussed later. For example. Consider
y2 = ax3 + bz2 + cx + d of an elliptic curve E over K..
E(K)
= {(x. then the inverse element of P is (5.2. Q = (5. there is a way to obtain another rational point.
Group
structure
of an elliptic
curve
Given a rational point in an elliptic curve. i. IfP=O.
Note that 0 is not the point (0.3). (ii) If P.ifQ=O.4 in Figure 1. The above principle does not define P + Q when P and Q coincide.ll). The theme of 51.4. then the point (2.2). we assume a. b. Q # 0.1.
GROUP
STRUCTURE
OF
AN
ELLIPTIC
CURVE
25
1. y) is the third point of intersection between the elliptic curve and the line passing through P and Q. then P + Q = (y.2) and (5.thendefineO+Q=Q. but it is an added point outside the plane.y)
E K x K / y2 = ax3 + bz2 + cz + d} u (0). c.thendefineP+O= P.ll) as the other point of intersection between the elliptic curve and the tangent line.2). y) E E(K) is P + Q (see Figure 1. P # 0. 11) is the rational point (y.
t E K.x1)(2 . and yi # y/2.x2) and it factors as
qx3 +rx2 + sx+t = q(xx1)(x x2)(x x3)
(x3
E w. Then the line passing through P and Q is given by the equation
(1.
. ys) is P + Q. Then we have P = Q. Suppose x1 = x2. we have (14
x3 y3 = = 1 a _ ~2 ~ ( x2 53 52 YI Xl > + Y2Xl 2
x122.Yl
x251 . RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
R P u
p+Y
<
FIGURE
1. 9 # 0).
qx3 + rx2 +
Since x = x1 and x = x2 are solutions to this equation.3
the coordinates of Q are (52.
Substitute x = x3 in (1. and we have a cubic equation of the form 4x3 + TX2 + sx + t = 0 (4. which is given by
(1.
a 511x2
b
92 . r.1) in y2 = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d. ~2). sx + t is divisible by (x .
In order to find the intersection points. substitute (1.
+ 2bxl + c
2Yl
(x Xl) + Yl.1) and solve for y.y4) is the third point of intersection. and (x3. If yi = y2. define P + Q = 0. First we assume 51 # x2.1)
y =
S(x

Xl)
+ y1. s. Denote the solution by y4 and set ya = y4. and yi # 0.26
1. In this case the line joining P and Q in (ii) must be interpreted as the tangent line to the elliptic curve at P. x1 Next. consider the case xi = x2.3)
Y=
3ax. Explicitly. Then (xs.
1.2.
GROUP
STRUCTURE
OF
AN
ELLIPTIC
CURVE
27
In order to find the points of intersection, substitute (1.3) in y2 = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d, and we have a cubic equation of the form 4x3 + ?x2 + sx + t = 0 (q,T,S,t E K, 4 # 0).
Since (1.3) is a tangent line, x = x1 is a double root of this equation, and thus the cubic factors to 9x3 + TX2 + sx + t = q(x  x1)2(x  53)
(23 E K).
Substitute x = x3 in (1.3) and solve for y. Denote the solution by ~4, and set y3 = y4. We define P + Q(= P + P = 2P) as (x3, ~3). Explicitly, we have (1.4) L(a2xf x3 =4ayf 4 y3 =8ayf  2acxf  8adxl + c2  4bd), a3xy + 2a2bxT + 5a2cxt
+ 20a2dxT + (20abd  5ac2)xT + (8b2d  2bc2  4acd)xl + (4bcd  8ad2  c”)). elliptic curve y2 = x3  4.
For example, consider K = Q and the If P = (2,2), then we have 2P = (5, 11). We have defined P + Q. It is possible abelian group under this addition. (The to prove. We can prove the associativity geometry, but we do not discuss it here.)
QUESTION 3. Show that the set {P E E(K) nonzero elements of E(K) whose ycoordinates algebraically closed field, we have an isomorphism {P E E(K) 1 2P = 0) E Z/22
to prove that E(K) is an associative law is difficult elegantly using algebraic
1 2P = 0) consists of 0 and are 0. Show that if K is an of groups @ Z/22.
Let K be a field of characteristic different from 2, and a, b, c distinct elements in K. Consider the elliptic curve defined by y2 = (x  a)(x  b)(x  c). We have {P E E(K) 1 2P = 0) = (0, (a,O), (b,O), (c,O)} tion 3). The map in Lemma 1.5 h o g: C = E(K)  (0, (a, 0), (b, 0), (c, 0)) + c = E(K) (see Ques (0)
is nothing but the multiplicationby2 map. This can be seen by comparing the definition of h o g and the formula (1.4), which gives the multiplicationby2 map.
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 11111 lllll lllll l~llllll~lllll
F(,lDAN BOO12090492443 B km
28
1. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
(b) The meaning of 0. We now consider the meaning of 0. If K is the field Iw of real numbers, then 0 is geometrically interpreted as the point at infinity. This can be seen as follows. If K = iw, then { (2, y) E R x lR 1 y2 = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d} is the graph of the elliptic curve. 0 can be thought of as the limit point as we go higher and higher. It is also considered to be the limit as we go lower and lower. This is consistent with the definition of P + Q. As an example, consider the elliptic curve y2 = x3  4 (see Figure 1.1). The sum of the points (2,2) and (2, 2) is 0 by definition. Let P be the point (2,2) and Q a point on the curve very close to but different from the point (2, 2). If Q approaches to (2, 2) from below, the sum P + Q goes higher and higher to infinity. If Q approaches to (2, 2) from above, then P + Q goes lower and lower. Therefore, it is natural to think that the limit to the upper direction and the limit to the lower direction should coincide, and the elliptic curve is connected at the point 0. Also, this interpretation is consistent with the fact P + 0 = P. When a point Q on the elliptic curve goes up or down to infinity, P + Q approaches P. Let K be any field of characteristic different from 2. Let us consider the meaning of 0 in this case. Identify E(K) with the set X = {ratio(x : y : Z) 1 z,y, z E K, (5, y, Z) # (O,O,O)
y2z = ax3 + bx2z + cxz2 + dz3} as follows. Identify (2, y) E K x K that satisfies y2 = az”+bx2+cx+d with the ratio (CC : y : 1) E X, and identify 0 E E(K) with (0 : 1 : 0) E X. Here, we consider the ratio (x : y : 2) and the ratio (2’ : y’ : z’) to be the same if and only if there is a nonzero element c in K such that x’ = cx, y’ = cy, Z’ = cz. In X the point 0 acquires the same legitimacy as the points in E(K). (X is a subset of the projective plane consisting of all the ratios (x : y : z). For more detail on projective spaces, see, for example, J. H. Silverman and J. Tate, Rational Points on Elliptic Curves, Appendix A, and the references listed therein.) If K = Iw, we give a natural topology to X. When the point (x, y) on the elliptic curve goes higher and higher, or goes lower and lower, the point point (x, y) = ratio(x : y : 1) = ratio (f : 1 : $) converges to the 0 = (0 : 1 : 0).
1.2. GROUP
STRUCTURE
OF
AN
ELLIPTIC
CURVE
29
FIGURE
1.4. y2 =x3
+1
(c) of E(Q)
Examples. Let us see some examples of the group structure of an elliptic curve over Q.
EXAMPLE 1.8. If E is y2 = zr3  5, then each element of the set E(a) = (0, (O,O), (&l,O)} satisfies 2P = 0 (see Question 3). Thus, as a group we have
E(Q)
= z/az
a? z/az.
EXAMPLE 1.9. If E is y2 = x3 + 1, let P = (2,3) and we see that 2P = (0, I), 3P = (l,O), 4P = (0, l), 5P = (2, 3), 6P = 0 (see Figure 1.4). It can be proven that E(Q) consists of only these points, and thus
E(Q)
g Z/6Z.
EXAMPLE 1.10. If E is y2 = 5s  4, let P = (2,2) and we see that 2P = (5, ll), 3P = (7, v). We do not prove it in this book, but it can be proved that we have
Z%E(Q);wmP.
EXAMPLE 1.11. If E is y2 = IC’  2, let P = (3,5) and we have 2P = (#,$$). W e d o not prove it in this book, but it can be proved that we have
zrE(Q);nHnP.
z) E Ad to this point (for example. Mordell’s (a) Statement of Mordell’s following theorem in 1922.11). &.12 (Mordell’s theorem). Let E be an elliptic curve over Q. If (x. The xcoordinate of 2P is $$. For example. (The idea of the proof given by Mordell was probably influenced by Fermat . and it will be the key point to the proof of Mordell’s theorem in the next section. z) E Ad.
By the fundamental theorem on abelian groups. y. +)) by2 map of y2 = x3 d2x passing through the identification Ad g cd in Lemma 1. a finitely generated abelian group is isomorphic to (1. 22 ’ 2(y2 .1) of the xcoordinate of 2P is usually much greater than that of P (see Example 1. is nothing but the multiplicationit maps (3.5) Z@’ @finite abelian group (r 2 01. then so is y2 .
where Z@’ denotes the direct sum of r copies of Z.1. Fermat wrote that he had found a method to construct infinitely many right triangles whose sides are rational numbers and whose area is the same as that of a given right triangle with rational sides.30
1. the rank of elliptic
.4. For example. He essentially found the fact that can be stated as follows using the notation in Lemma 1.4. theorem theorem.x2)z > The map Ad + Ad that sends (x. The multiplicationby2 map yielded very strong results for Fermat because the height (H(x) in $1. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
(d) Fermat’s method.z y2 52’
THEOREM 1.4. even though he did not realize that an elliptic curve has a group structure. and its height is 785 since the numerator and the denominator are relatively prime.1. Mordell proved the 2xy. Then the group E(Q) is a finitely generated abelian group. As in the proof of Proposition 1.5) to (y.12).2 at the end of 51.x2 z4 + 4xzyz E Ad. y. Let d be a positive rational number. Fermat made the most out of the multiplicationby2 map. As we mentioned in $0. consider the point P = (5. This number r is called the rank of the elliptic curve.3.ll) on the curve y2 = x3 .7 (Proposition 0.2 in $1. This phenomenon appeared in the proof of Proposition 1.4.) 1.
g
= x3 _ 2
are. occurs as the elliptic curve of Mordell’s 3. (II) The properties of heights of the rational points on E(Q). In $1.) In this section we give the main part of the proof theorem.
(I) The weak Mordell theorem. We use the following two facts about the height. and we define H (0) = 1. (IIB) There exists a positive two conditions: real number C satisfying the following
(1) For any P E E(Q). y2 = x3 + 1. Here we discuss (II). For a rational point P on an elliptic curve E over Q we define the height H(P) as the height of the xcoordinate of P if P # 0. @ Z/2& where n = 2. On the other hand. theorem is proved using the following two facts. the set {x E Q 1 H(x) 5 C} is finite. Mordell’s
(It is known that each of the groups in the above list subgroup of all the elements of finite order of some over Q. which states that the quotient group E(Q)/2E(Q) is finite.81.1 (see Examples 1. must be one of the groups in the following list: (1) Z/n& (2) Z/nZ where 1 5 n 5 10 or n = 12. (IIA) For any positive real number C the set I H(P) I C>
{P E E(Q) is a finite set. but this is an unsolved problem at present. that is. We will explain (I) later.1 we defined the height H(x) of x by max()ml. H(2P) > H(P)4.
.
This follows from the trivial fact that for any real number C. Inl) if we write z = E in lowest terms. y2 = 53 . the subgroup of E(Q) consisting of all the elements of finite order.1.2). It is generally believed that the rank of an elliptic curve over Q can be arbitrarily large. The rest of the proof will be given in Volume (b) Outline of the proof of Mordell’s theorem. 1.6.11 in $1.8.4.4. O. C.2. Mazur proved in 1977 that the finite abelian group part of (1.5). respectively.O.
MORDELL’S
THEOREM
31
curves y2 = x3 .3.
iijies the properties (1) and (2) H(Ql).13. Q E E(Q). Let Q1. . Mordell’s theorem cannot be derived solely from the weak Mordell theorem. For this i.
at the end of 51.32
1. we have of H(Po) implies that PI belongs ff(Pl) < H(h). {Qz mod 2E(Q) 1i = Suppose a positive number C satin (IIB). we obtain Hi < H(Po)4. from (I).Q)). Let M be the largest of E(a) is generated by the finite set I H(P) 5 Ml.Qi belong to 2E(a). Let A be an abelian group. Thus.H(R)
5 M2WPo). > n} equals E(Q)/2E(U3)). . we prove
PROPOSITION 1. Show that A/2A is a finite group if A is finitely generated. Let R be the one of these whose height is smaller. On the other hand. (IIA) and
(1) formulates the phenomenon we mentioned namely. PO also belongs to the subgroup generated by {P E E(Q) 1 H(P) 5 hl}.H(R) ff(Po)ff(Qi)
< M. Let PO be such an element whose height is the smallest. This proves Proposition 1. we have I C. Let us prove that Mordell’s theorem follows (IIB). . PO + Qi and PO . H(P)H(Q) L min(H(P
+
Q). H(P .
Since H(Po) > M. but we need the notion of height.2. and let PI E E(a) be an element satisfying R = 2Pl.) and C. Clearly.)
. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
(2)
For any P. C. Since PO equals either 2Pl + Qz or 2Pl . .
{P E E(Q)
PROOF. show that A is not necessarily finitely generated even if A/2A is a finite group. Suppose there exist elements of E(Q) outside the subgroup of E(a) generated by the set {P E E(Q) 1 H(P) 5 M}. Th en
.
< C. (Thus. 1 . . H(Q. “H(2P) is much larger than H(P)".
ffpq4
I M3w%).. which is a contradiction.13. 0
QUESTION 4.Qi. we have H(Po) > M. By (1) of (IIB) we have
Hi
By (2) of (IIB) we have H(R) Thus. of the elements of E(Q)/2E(Q). More precisely. Th e minimality to the subgroup generated by {P E E(Q) 1 H(P) < Ad}. Qn E E(Q) be representatives (That is. The image of PO in E(Q)/2E(Q) coincides with Qi for some i.
Indeed.a. 1) Then cb. ifP=(a. (2) The kernel ofa is 2E(Q). we have
(Here . 01. Proposition 1. c . (a. if P = (b. the weak Mordell theorem follows easily from Proposition 1.3. Cc. c are distinct
rational
numbers).c. Then the image of d is
contained in G x G x G. b . (3) Let G be the subgroup of Qx/(Qx)” generated by the prime factors of a .b. for elliptic curves given by the the proof of Mordell’s theorem will be completed The general case will be treated later in Volume 3.c) (cu.O).14.14.
1. and c be distinct curve E defined by y2 = (xu)(xb)(xc). the firsttime reader is it and go directly to Chapter 2.means mod(Qx)2. follows is rather complicated. Let a. ac) ~~__ (b .14 shows that E(Q)/2E(Q) is embedded in the finite group G x G x G by the homomorphism d. xb. (b .
If P # 0.O).)
(1) The map i3 is a group homomorphism. The proof that advised to skip
Consider
(a.14. Thus. b . O>> (h 01.1. b.
of part (IIB). (ca)(cb))
ZfP # 0. ab. in this section.
MORDELL’S
THEOREM
33
(c) Main part of the proof of Mordell’s theorem.O). b. ifP=O. map
we denote
the xcoordinate
of P simply
by x. ifP=(c.
For those elliptic curves treated in Proposition 1.
. I (Ll. Let us prove Proposition 1.c). The remaining portion of this section is dedicated to the main part of the proof of the weak Mordell theorem for elliptic curves of the form y/“=(xa)(xb)(xc) and the proof above equation.
Define
the
8: E(Q) by d(P) = (xa.a and 1.
PROPOSITION
the elliptic
rational numbers.14.a)(b .
+ Q”/(Qx)2
x Q”/W)”
x Qx/Wx)2
xc)
((ub)(ac).
b. (ii) For any nonzero rational numbers ord. each of ord.ord. It suffices to show (aa)(22 a)(23 a) E (@y2.
t satisfy ord.(s .
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 1.(st) = ord. 0). where u and v are not divisible by p. m E Z.
.a and (51 .
be
Letting
x = a. and (~3.
Proposition 1.
This completes
the proof.14(3). then (xu)(xb)(xc)(Xx+p)2=0 is the equation for the xcoordinates of the points of intersection tween the line and the elliptic curve. Let p be a prime number that does not divide either the denominator or the numerator of any of a .(t). yl) be the coordinates of P. Thus.14(2) follows from Remark 1. P + Q equals 0 or (a. 0). For a prime number p and a nonzero rational number t. the proof is simpler and it is left to the reader. and P + Q are not 0 or (a. then ord.(s). Q.
0 1.14( 1). (The same argument holds for the second and third components. we define the padic valuation of t.u) represent the same element in Cjx/(a”)2.
(i) ord. We show that the first component of d is a homomorphism from E(a) to Qx/(a”)2.(s If s and 
s and t
t) 2 min(ord. Q.(t).(t).) If y = AZ + /L is the equation of the line passing through P and Q.c. (If one of P.) Let (~1.Q E E(Q) and P. Then the following properties (i) and (ii) hold.14(3).(s).) Suppose P.6 in 51. It suffices to show that for a rational solution (x.~~) those of Q.34
1.15.u)(m
. and c .(xa).c) (Xx +p)2 = (xx1)(xx2)(x 23).y) of y2 = (zu)(xb)(zc) satisfying y # 0. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 1. we have
(x u)(x b)(x . We need some preparation before proving Proposition
DEFINITION 1.u) = (Au + p)2 E (uyy2. we have (x1 .(t)).t) = min(ord.u)(x3 . (22.
(For this implies that 23 . as the number m in the factorization t = pmu/v.1.U)(XZ . ~3) those of P + Q.(s) # ord.a. b . ordp(t)). denoted by ord.(s) + ord.
(x .c) is negative.H(2P) 2 H(P)* for any P E E(Q) such that 2P # 0.c is 0 implies that any two of ord.u) .(x .a).c)
It follows is even. ord. or ord.(x .(x . As we will see later.(x .
MORDELL’S
THEOREM
35
ord. (x .b). (x . For. then C’ .4bd). We may omit P E E(Q) such that 2P = 0.c) is an even number. y2 = (x .a) + ord.16.a. Suppose one of ord. it follows from (1. there is no polynomial of positive degree dividing both).(x .1.c) and (i) that (*I ord. Therefore. it suffices to show Lemma 1. y) are the coordinates of P E E(Q) such that 2P # 0. .(x . H(2P) 2 H(P)4 holds for any P E E(Q). of the difference of any two of x .
from
Suppose one of ord. ord.
LEMMA 1.(x .8adT + c2 .u) = ordP(x . Since the proof is complicated. Define polynomials f(T) and g(T) by f(T) = uT3 + bT2 f CT + d.a).(x .b) . of the difference of any two of x .b) and ord.(x .(x ..b). ord.c is 0 implies that ord.c) are all even.b) and ord. it suffices to find a positive real number C satisfying C.(x .2acT2 . Letf(T) and g(T) be relatively prime polynomials with Q coeficients. Using property (ii).b and x .e. ord. ord.b) and ord.(x . the outline first.b)(x . 0 Next we prove (IIB).b.(x .3. x . f(T) and g(T) are relatively prime as polynomials (i.16 below.c) are 0.6) +.c).a.c) is positive.a). the fact that ord.c) are all even.(x . Let E be an elliptic curve over Q with equation y2 = ax3 + bz2 + cz + d. In this case. if C’ is a number greater than both C and H(P)4 for all P E E(Q) satisfying 2P = 0 (there are at most 4 such P’s). From (*) we see that ord. That is. which has nothing to do with elliptic curves.u)(x . (x . (x .4) that the xcoordinate of 2P is given by #. and ord.ordP(x . Outline of proof of (IIB) (1).(x .b) = ord.a). ord. we describe
g(T) = &(a2T4
If (x.(x . Let d be the greater of the degrees of f(T) and
. we see in this case that the fact that ord. x . and x . From this and (*) we see that ord.
17. Q. H(P)4
for all P E E(Q). H(P)‘H(Q)’ holds for P. Q # 0. respectively. T) and h(S. Write the xcoordinate of P. Suppose P. Case (i) is clear.t) f (% t) ’
of two variables where f (5 T). t = x152. P + Q = 0 or P . P + Q and P .17 below. greater number
1. s(S. and t’ = x+x. we need to show that there exists a positive real number C such that H(2P) < c . the relation between the xcoordinate C onsidering of P and that of 2P. x2. x+. For rational numbers u and u define the height H(u. P # 0.Q = 0. H(P . Q in each of the following cases: (i) P.Q as xl. Q # 0.36
1. P=OorQ=O.
LEMMA
cients. Let f(T) and g(T) be polynomials with Q coefiSuppose that the degree off(T) and that of g(T) are both no than a given natural number d. (iii) P. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
g(T).Q # 0. T) are polynomials with Q coefficients whose total degree with respect to S and T is 2. s’ = x+ +x. Iqxy (f(x) >
f(x) # 0. which has nothing to do with elliptic curves. Then there is a positive real C such that
jg& 5 c . Q E E(Q).QEE(Q). As for case (ii). and x.
We will prove this lemma later. Then we will later show that s’ and t’ can be expressed as sI _ ds. consider case (iii). It suffices to show that there is a positive real number C such that H(P + Q) . t) f (% t) ’ t’ = h(s. P . and P . it suffices to show Lemma 1.Q) 5 C. P # 0. Define s = xi + x2. V) of the pair
. (ii) P.Q # 0.
holds for any x satisfying
Finally.
Then
there is a positive
real number
C such that
holds for
all x satisfying
f(x)
# 0. Q E E(Q). The outline of (IIB)(Z). Q E E(Q) . P + Q # 0. P + Q # 0.
18(l)) it suffices
for the real number C appearing in Lemma to replace C by 4C to prove the case (iii). H(s. Id. t’) I 2c. T) is no greater than a given natural number d. UV) 5 2H(u)H(v). For we have which has nothing
H(z+)H(z)
5 2H(s’. g(S.1.18(2)) 1.
1. u) as follows.t) ( f(s. First. Write u = z and v = r$ and define
H(wv) = max(l4.t)’
h(s. t)2 < 4c. T)
be polynomials in two variables with Q coeficients. (1) F or any rational .3. Then there is a positive real number C such that
jg
ds.t) >
< 
c.
MORDELL’S
THEOREM
37
(u. T) and h(S.t) f(s. H(x#H(Llg
(by Lemma (by Lemma (by Lemma 1. 14)
Then the question to do with elliptic is reduced to Lemma 1. Now we discuss the details of the proof of (IIB). and let n be the greatest common divisor of the denominators.
LEMMA 1.
Thus.
We will prove Lemmas 1. In the outline of proof of (IIB)(2)
.
H(s ’
qd
holds for any rational
numbers
s and t satisfying
f (s. in the outline of the proof of (IIB)(l) the fact that f(T) and g(T) are relatively prime follows from the fact that g(T) = if’(T)” ( 2T + $ 1 f(T)
(where f’(T) = 3aT2 + 2bT + c is a derivative of f(T)) and the fact that f(T) and f’(T) are relatively prime as polynomials.17 and 1. T) and h(S. since f(T) does not have a multiple root.H(U)f(v)
numbers
u and v we have
< H(u + v.18 below. respectively. s(S. T). curves. Write u and ‘u as a fraction in lowest terms.18(2). t) # 0.18. T).18 later.18(l)) 1. Suppose that the total degree with respect to S and T of each off (S.
(2) Let f(S.
then it divides m’n since it divides mn’ + m’n. and thus 1 divides either m or m’. Inn’/). we have H(u + 21.16. and thus it divides n’.16 is the hardest. T) as follows: f(S. This shows that the greatest common divisor is 1.T) = S2 . We may assume mn’ # 0. Im’nl.4T. We prove them in order of increasing difficulty. it remains to prove Lemmas 1. T) and h(S. If 1 divides m.38
1. we need to show that
i I mdll
holds for all real numbers
+ 4.(2aST h(S.UV) 5 2H(u)H(v). UZI). 1. Consequently. Writeuandvasu= in lowest terms.18(l). To show @?(u)H(v) 5 H(u + U. H(u)H(v) + m’nl. and nn’.
g(S.
. respectively.4bd). mm’. but the others are relatively easy. and 7272’is 1. Inn’/)
On the other hand. We have
u+w=
zandw
= 5
mn’ + m’n mm’ lLw=. (The proof of Lemma 1. 1 divides nn’. and setting y = 2 and y = 5.
It follows easily from these that H(u + V. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
case (iii) it suffices to define f(S. nn’ ’ nn’ We show that the greatest common divisor of mn’ + m/n. Suppose 1 is a common prime factor of mn’ + m’n. Imm’l. + 2cS + 4bT + 4d).4adS + c2 . Since m and n are relatively prime.bI. lmm’l. Then 1 divides mm’. we have lmn’l. g(S. On the other hand. T) = $(a2T2
This can be seen from the addition formula (1. Dividing by mn’. 1 divides m’.
Ivl)
z and y.)
PROOFOF LEMMA 1.2acT . In order to complete the proof of (IIB). mm’. (7272’1). it suffices to show that i lmn’l and ilrn’nl are less than or equal to max(lmn’ + m’nl. This contradicts the fact that m’ and n’ are relatively prime.17 and 1.
= max()mm’l.2) for the points on an elliptic curve. T). T) = .UW) = max(lmn’ by definition of the height.18. . Consider ilrnn’l (the proof for ilrn’nl is similar).
Z>j h(S. j) runs through all the pairs satisfying i > 0. i=o f(x) # 0 as a fraction z in
and write a rational number x satisfying lowest terms. T) = C aijSiT’. then we have
g(x) i$obimi. we have
PROOFOF LEMMA 1.(i) 2 > 0
PROOF OF LEMMA 1. T) and h(S. By multiplying f(T) and g(T) by a common nonzero integer if necessary.1. T).S”TJ. For rational numbers s and t satisfying f(s.T) g(S. Let C be d + 1 times the largest of the absolute value of all the coefficients of f(T) and g(T). By multiplying f(S.
11+xyl
2 1 . i=o g(T) = k biTi. If we define
f(T) = gaiTi. id = &SiT3. i+j < d. g(S.
Therefore. T) = c bi. we may assume that the coefficients of f(T) and g(T) are integers. Define
f (S.18(2).= fCx) z$o aimindi. T) by a common nonzero integer if necessary. t) # 0.di . and IyI < i. j 2 0. let n be the least common multiple of the denominators of s and t when we write them
. i>j
where (i. Let C be i (d + 1) (d + 2) times the largest of the absolute value of the coefficients of these polynomials.3.17. we may assume that the coefficients of these polynomials are integers.
MORDELL’S
THEOREM
39
This follows from the fact that the inequality i holds when 1x1 < $.
I c . we show that Hi lowest terms. t)
ZJ
h(s. We will show that there exist a nonzero integer R.pn~(m')~?zdiJ .3. and polynomials cI(T) (j = 1. t)d.4) with integer coefficients such that the degree of cl (T) is no greater than e for any j. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
in lowest
terms. For any rational number II: satisfying f(x) # 0.
Hence we have
< max
C aijrn’(n~‘)jn~~~ i>j
. H(s.
Let C be 2(e + 1) times the largest of the absolute values of all the coefficients of c3 (T) (j = 1.40
1.2.3. we may assume that the coefficients of these polynomials are integers.6)
cl (VP(T)
c3(T)f(T)
+ c2V)dT)
+ c4(T)g(T)
= R
= RTd+“. Set
d d
5 C.
g(T) = c
i=O
biTi. and let s = T and
t
= $.j u.4).2. By multiplying f(T) and g(T) by a common nonzero integer if necessary. a=0
.i d% ___t) =
f(S.jmz(mf)jndi.
~1
(T) = C CijT’. and
(1. Write x = E in
e
f(T)
= c
i=O
aiTi.>’
5 i.
Then we have
& b. H
.16.
PROOFOF LEMMA 1. a nonnegative integer e 2 0..t)
fo =
c Cymym’)~ndz~ .
7) we obtain the following inequality:
R. from the expression of cJ(x)ne in lowest terms we have lc3(x)nel < 2I C.8) that # > R‘max(lf(x)ndl.10) H(xjd I CRl max(lf(x)ndl. ~(xYm~(lf(xb4. we have (1.8) will not cancel each other (1. Thus.
From (1. and thus it divides R since m and n are relatively prime.
MORDELL’S
THEOREM
41
Then d f(x)nd = jy aimindz. H(s)“. and thus H M stays large.9) very much. ( > (This is the key point of the proof. z=o
are all integers.1.
ldx)d)
From (1. It follows from (1.3. Hi+”
H
= Rmax(lmld+e.10) we have
.6) we have (1.
ldx)ndl). and by (1.9) and (1. by (1. lg(x)ndl).) ( > On the other hand.
In other words. Inld+e)
5 C.7) we see that the greatest common divisor of f (x)nd and g(x)nd divides both Rndte and Rmdte. it showsthat the denominator and the numerator of righthand side of (1.7)
(cl(x)ne)(f(x)nd) + (cz(x)n”)(g(x)nd) = Rndfe
i (c3(x)ne)(f(x)nd)
+ (c4(x)n”)(g(x)nd)
= Rmdte.
i=O cj (x)ne = 2 cijminee2 a=0 g(z)nd = c bimzndei.
REMARK
with
integer coefficients
of 0
log(H(2nP))/4n
1. and 212 . (W
Q) . P) > 0. for P. (P.42
1.3.h(P) .6). we define h(P) = Jim & log(H(2”P)).
~~(5‘3 = Ru2(T). and we can show that the pairing ( . For a point P in E(Q). and they satisfy (1.
For any P. we show the existence of e. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
Finally. Since f(T) and g(T) are relatively prime. P). R and q(T) (j = 1. R). (T) Rwi(T) (i = 1. ) has properties of an “inner product”. there exist polynomials VI(T) and 212(T) with Q coefficients satisfying
Let e be an integer greater than the degrees of ~1 (T). and let R be a nonzero integer such that all of Rui (T) . and (P.19.
We have h(P) = (P. P). Define cl(T) = Rw(T). q(T). R E E(Q) we have (9 (P. (4 V’. So.2. uz(T).6). Q) + (P.4) are polynomials degree at least e.Q E E(tJ). Q. P) = 0 if and only if P is a point of finite order.3.
.h(Q)). Q + R) = P.
define +
Q) = . it can be shown that converges when n tends to infinity. Q) = (Q.2.2) have integer coefficients.4) satisfying (1. (iii) (P.
Then cI)(T) (j = 1. there exist polynomials ~1 (7’) and IQ(T) with Q coefficients satisfying
Also from the fact that f(T) and g(T) are relatively prime we see easily that f ($) Td and g ($) Td are relatively prime polynomials with Q coefficients. Namely. Therefore.
points
Using this fact. it is important to use properties of the height of a rational point. Y = {(x. Let K be a field of characteristic Take k E KX.3. z # 01.1. In order to study rational points on an elliptic curve. H(zcoordinate of 2P) 2 H(zcoordinate of P)4. The set of points definied over K of an elliptic curve over K.f.
X = {(x. y) E K x K ) x3 + y3 = k}. Find the set I3P = 0).3. Using this fact. forms a finitely generated abelian group (Mordell’s theorem).4 is given by E.2. If the zcoordinate of a rational point P of y2 = x3 .2.
{P E E(C)
1. show that 144. together with 0.4.
.y) E K x K 1 y’ = 7x3 . the xcoordinate of 2P is given by $>~~$))~. 1. forms an abelian group. together with the point 0. and set
many rational
different
from 2 and 3. Let E be the elliptic curve y2 = x3 + 1. 1.
Show that there is a map from X to Y given by
and that it is a bijection.
Exercises 1. The set of rational points of an elliptic curve defined over Q. An elliptic curve is a curve given by an equation of the form: y2 = (polynomial of degree 3 in z without a multiple root). show that there exist infinitely in y 2=x34. 1.
1.EXERCISES
43
Summary 1.1.
Let E’ be the elliptic curve over K defined by y2 = x3 . Y = {(x.y)~KxKIy~=x~+k}. RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
ELLIPTIC
CURVES
1.andset X={(x.O). find all the rational points on the following elliptic curves: (i) y2 = x3 +4x. Using Exercises 1. or P = 0.4kx.O).4kx. let E be the elliptic curve over K defined by y2 = x3 + kx. y) # (O. (iii) y2 = x4 + 4
.2.4 and 1.4.. 1. (X.2.. Show that there are two maps f : E(K) + E’(K) and g : E’(K) + E(K) given by
f(P) = o i
g(P) =
(x+. (1+ $)) if P ( if P { 0 Show that g of : E(K) f E(K) and f the multiplicationby2 maps.4x(x2 +Y)).O).4 sends C&Y) to (X24Y).Y(l$))
if P = (2. Y) # (O. Show that X + Y c E’(K)
3 E(K)
obtained by the composition with the map in Exercise 1.
Show that there is a map from X to Y given by x + y. = (x.
different
from 2. = (O. o g: E’(K) the map + E’(K) are
2 . y) E K x K 1y2 = x3 .Y) +x2 and that it is a bijection.1.1. +y). (ii) y2 = x4 . For k E KX.
if P = (O. Take
(x.O)}. y) # (O. Let K be a field of characteristic different from 2.6.5. or P = 0.5 and Proposition 1. Let K be a field of characteristic kEKX.
1.O).
since we have (z)’ + (y)” = 1. 2.CHAPTER
2
Conies
and padic
Numbers
In the previous chapter we studied rational points on elliptic curves.1 and 2. g).1.2 that the right one does not have any rational points while the left one has infinitely many? I suspect not. how many rational points does the circle x2 + y2 = 1 have? It turns out that it has infinitely many rational points. such as quadratic residues and padic numbers. 3’ + 4’ = 5’ determines the rational point (g. and under this
45
. In these figures rational numbers are hidden completely by real numbers. arise in order to answer the question of the existence of a rational point on a conic. Even though they are “simpler” than elliptic curves. Let us consider another circle x2 + y2 = 3. In addition. and 5’ + 122 = 13’ determines the point (&. The main goal of this chapter is to determine whether or not a given conic has a rational point.he circle x2 + y2 = 1. Then. An integral solution of the
x2 + y2 = z2 with z # 0 determines a rational point on the circle x2 + y2 = 1. In this chapter we study rational points on tonics. The fact is that this circle does not have any rational point at all. another goal of this chapter is to introduce padic numbers. which are simpler objects than elliptic curves.z2 satisfying z # 0 by clearing the denominators. if a rational point on the circle x2 + y2 = 1 is given. F or example. as we explain below. and if it does. Can you tell by looking at Figures 2. Human vision cannot distinguish such a thing. (a) equation Rational points on Conies tonics. $) on t. we obtain an integer solution of x2 + y2 = . Conversely. some interesting theories. to describe all the rational points.
1 we prove that if the conic (2. Rational numbers must be seen under different lights.46
2. namely. we can write down all the rational points explicitly. we know that x2 + y2 = 1 does not have a rational point since it does not have a solution in the world of real numbers. it has infinitely many of them. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
FIGURE
2.
FIGURE
2. b and c.2.3). On the other hand.
circumstance it is very difficult to tell something about rational numbers. we can understand rational points on a conic if we consider it not only in the world of real numbers but also in the world of padic numbers for each prime number p.1.3 implies that the true feature about rational numbers emergesfrom obscurity if we seethem under “the lights of prime numbers”. for any prime number p.1) has a rational point (see Theorem 2.1) has one rational point (as is the case for x2 + y2 = l). In this chapter we consider the conic (2. under “the lights of prime numbers” (see Figure 2. together with the light of real numbers.3 in 52. In s2. For example. It turns out that. it requires a deeper argument to determine whether or not the conic (2. In short. Theorem 2.3). there exists “a world of padic numbers” analogous to the world of real numbers (see $2. but it can be seen by looking at it under the light of the prime number 2 or 3 since it has a solution
. The fact that x2 + y2 = 3 does not have a rational point cannot be seen under the light of real numbers.4). Moreover.1)
ax2 + by2 = c
for nonzero rational numbers a.
2.1.
CONICS
47
A the lights of 2 T/prime numbers+
1” t., ,,” n:‘”
5 2~ the light of fr 7, real numbers V (supplements each other) ‘/
thz/Zght
$
s +
the light of 3
& T
,/ 2 the light 3 of 5 a the light 5 / C’. ’ ‘” 3 of 7 3” .( )..“3 2 thelight 2 _.nj of 11 =? ._. 4 9
FIGURE 2.3. The light of real numbers of prime numbers neither in the world of 2adic numbers numbers. We will discuss this in $2.5.
and the lights
nor in the world
of 3adic
(b) The case of x2 + y 2 = 1. Let us consider rational points on x2 + y2 = 1 (see Figure 2.4). If (x, y) is a rational point on the circle x2 t y2 = 1 and if (x, y) # (l,O), the slope of the line joining (x, y) and (1,O) is the rational number $. Conversely, for a given rational number t, the points of intersection between the circle and the line of slope t passing through The latter is of course a rational (1,O) are (1,O) and (&$, &). point.
FIGURE
2.4. Rational points of x2 + y” = 1
48
2. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
For example,
if we replace
t by i, i, i, i, $ successively,
we obtain
If we let t = A,
we obtain
(#,
z)
Clearing
the denominators
of
(E)’ + (s)’ = 1, we obtain the identity 11g2 + 1202 = 16g2 of the ancient Babylonian plate mentioned in the introduction. To sum up, we have the following onetoone correspondence: rational different points on x2 + y2 = 1 from ( 1,O) (GY) r {rational &? numbers},
1  t2 2t 1+ t2 ’ 1+ t2 >
(c) nonzero Conies rational that have a rational numbers. If the conic

t.
point. Let a, b and c be
ax2 + by2 = c has at least one rational point, by the same method as above. have the correspondence
{(x,Y)
we can obtain all the rational points If Q(xe, ye) is its rational point, we
I X,Y
E Q, ax2 + by2 = cl r Q U {co}  {at most 2 elements)
by associating a rational point P on ax2 + by2 = c to the slope of the line joining Q and P (called the line QP). When P = Q, we interpret the line QP as the tangent line to the conic at Q. Further, if the line QP is parallel to the yaxis, we interpret the slope as 00. The meaning of “at most 2 elements” is that we remove km from Q U {co} if a/b is th e sq uare of a rational number, and we do not remove anything from Q U {oo} otherwise. When a/b is the square of a rational number, the curve ax2 + by2 = c is a hyperbola, and km are the slopes of its asymptotes. The reason for the existence of the onetoone correspondence is the same as in the case x2 + y 2 = 1. If the slope of a line passing through Q is in (IJ U {co}, and it is different from *Jalb, the line intersects the conic in another point P, and P is a rational point. The problem of finding the points of intersection amounts to solving a quadratic equation in rational coefficients, and Q gives one of the
2.2.
CONGRUENCE
49
two roots. Since it is a rational root, we see that the other root is also rational in view of the relations between the roots and the coefficients of the equation. That is why P is a rational point. We can avoid the exceptions, i.e., the part “at most 2 elements”, in the above onetoone correspondence in the following way. We put X = { ratio (3~ : y : z) ( 5, y, z E Q, (2, y, z) # (O,O, O), ax2 + by2 = cz2}. As we did in $1.2 (b), we identify a solution (z, y) E Q x Q to ax2 + by2 = c with the ratio (z : y : 1) E X. Then the above onetoone correspondence can be extended to the correspondence
If u/b is the square of a rational number T, we associate r E Q to the element (1 : T : 0) in X. The fact that we can describe all the rational points on a conic as soon as it has one point can be generalized to the case where the conic is defined over any field K of characteristic different from 2. Let a, b, c E KX and suppose there is an (z, y) E K x K satisfying ax2 + by2 = c. Then we obtain similarly the onetoone correspondence X = { ratio (x : y : 75) ( z,y, z E K, (5, y, z) # (O,O, 0), ax2 + by2 = cz”} ‘;T’“Ub+
QUESTION ztl). 1. Find a rational point on x2 + y2 = 5 other than (3~1, k2), and
(k2,
QUESTION 2. In the ancient Babylonian identity 119’ + 120’ = 169’, which we mentioned in the Introduction, the ratio s of two sides of the corresponding right triangle is very close to 1. (The Babylonian who wrote the plate sorted the solutions of x2 + y2 = *2 according to the ratio of I and y, and thus the above solution is found at the top of the list.) Find a solution whose ratio of z and y is closer to 1.
2.2.
Congruence
If a conic ax2 + by2 = c with ra,tional coefficients has one rational point, we can find all the rational points, as we have seen in the previous section. On the contrary, it is a deeper question to determine whether or not a conic has a rational point. This question is related
2. Z/6Z consists of six elements 0.3) (2. a E b mod a E b mod m implies b E a mod m. 22 E 0. The properties (2. On the other hand. Taking (2. and it is a ring by the operations such as 3 + 4 = 7 = 1 and 2 x 3 = 6 = 0. 4 and 5. and 32 E 1 mod 4. 28 ~3 mod
(We say “a is congruent 35O mod5.3) and (2.
means that a .50
2. here and proved in
m and b z c mod
a E c mod
m. we obtain a ring Z/mZ by identifying integers a and b satisfying a E b mod m.
In order to explain why congruences are useful when we study integral or rational solutions to an equation.) For example. y) if a is an integer satisfying a E 3 mod 4. we abuse the notation to simply write a instead of a mod pm.
notation
Let m be
and a.
properties. First. we have 0’ = 0. 1. (2.
and quadratic
residues.2) (2.5) a E a mod m. b two integers.
arbmodmandcrdmodmimplya+c~b+dmodm and ac E bd mod m.2). Then we have x2 + y2 E 3 mod 4.b is a multiple modulo m” .
PROPOSITION 2. Let m be a natural
(1) Z/mZ is a field
number.
In this
section
we
(a) Congruence
a natural number
and its fundamental
The ab modm of m. We assume that the reader is familiar with this fact.
if and only if m is a prime
. The equation x2 + y2 = a does not have an integral solution (z. m imply
of the congruence.5) into account. 3. The proof of the following proposition will be left to the reader. Suppose there exist such integers x and y.1.4) (2. number. l2 E 1.4) show that the relation “ = mod m” is an equivalence relation.
to b
We review here briefly the basic properties The quadratic reciprocity law will be introduced Chapter 5 in Volume 2. we immediately see the following: (2. For example. Often. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
to congruence equations explain congruence. and thus x2 + y2 = 3 mod 4 cannot be satisfied no matter how we choose x and y. For a E Z we write a mod pm to indicate the class of a in Z/pZ. 5. we present a simple example.
2. if an integer ai is given for each i = 1.2. we have b E b’ mod m (the injectivity of the map). and if there is no such x.1. The image of a in Z/mZ is an invertible element in Z?/mZ if and only if a is relatively prime to m. since we have 22 = 4 z 1 mod 5. are distinct prime numbers.. x Z/pFrZ. r. there exists an integer b satisfying b E ai mod p&’
(i=
l. there exists an integer x satisfying z2 E a mod p).X/(F.p. has a square root of 1 if and only if p z 1 mod 4. . 22 s 32 E 4 mod 5. is a cyclic group of order p .. (b) Quadratic reciprocity law. . By contrast. ( We assumepl. The field iF5 has a square root of 1. In fact. we see that (k) = (f!) = 1. define (E) = 1.. define (E) = 1. Let p be an odd prime and a an integer prime to p. F. 2 is a square root of 1 in Fs. The quadratic residue symbol (%) E {f 1) is defined as follows. Indeed. For which prime numbers does there exist a square root of 5 in IF.1(2). . instead of iZ/pZ. for any integers a and
.
CONGRUENCE
51
(2) Let p be a prime number.. (In this case we often use the notation F. and if b’ is another integer satisfying the same equations. (4) (Chinese Remainder Theorem) Let m = pyl . l2 = 42 E 1. (i. . (g) = (X) = 1.p:r be the prime factorization of m.) The group IF: consisting of the nonzero elements of F. If there exists a square root of a in IF. the quotient group H. if p is an odd prime number. (3) Let a be an integer. .e. Hence. We introduce first the quadratic residue symbols. For example. since we have O2E 0.) Then there is a natural isomorphism Z/miZ+Z/p~‘Z x . (The map from left to right is given by regarding an integer mod m as an integer modpz” for each i.
From Proposition 2.X)2 2 {fl}.. .X)2 is isomorphic to the multiplicative group {&l} of order 2.? How about a square root of 3? The answers to these questions are given by the quadratic reciprocity law proved by Gauss in 1796. we can verify that iF7 does not have a square root of 1.) In other words.. The symbol (E) E {fl} is nothing but the image of the class of a under the isomorphism of groups F. . . . . .X/(!F.r)
(the surjectivity of the map from left to right).
Then we see from
(F) = (l.
Let p be an odd prime
number. we have
THEOREM
2. Let m be an 2m. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
b prime
to p. We can see this from
(. number dif
(1)
(Quadratic reciprocity law) ferent from p.
= I. let us consider a prime number p different from 2 and 5.
(3)
(Second
The proof using a cyclotomic field will be given in Chapter 5 in Volume 2.52
2.e.
number different from only if p = 1 mod 3.+y)
= (g)
that a square root of 5 exists in IF. mod4. As an example of (l). if p’
integer and p a prime number that does not of a square root of m in lFP can be determined is a prime number which does not divide 2m and “there exists a
satisfies p z p’ mod 41ml. If p is a prime number different from 2 and 3. if and only if p E 1 or 4 mod 5 (we have already determined (T)).2.
.) = (l)w+
and the facts
QUESTION
square root of 3
(i) = ($+
(5)
(i)
3. if and only if p G 1 or 11 mod 12.. Show that the existence
by p mod 41ml (i. a square root of 3 exists in F. 2 and 3.. we have
If q is an odd prime
(2)
(First
supplementary 1 (1 P = (p supplementary
law) 1 1 law) Zfp=l ifpz3 mod4. The law (2) tells us the existence or nonexistence of a square root of 1 inIF. then we have the equivalence root of m in FP H there exists a square root of m in F+“). Show that a
p be a prime in FP if and
divide only which square
QUESTION 4.
Let exists
(2) = 1.
Note first that it suffices to consider the case c = 1 since we can divide both sides of the equation by c.3.bb=
We see immediately that
if a > 0 or b > 0. b). we need some define a subring Zc. The symbol (a.
(b) Definition and fore stating the definition number p.3. Let a. b). b)= E {kl}. )(x1 but also “the light of a prime number” ( . (a. for every p is necessary to determine whether or not there exists a rational solution. Let a.b E Q”. b)m = 1 and (a. Not only “the light of reals” ( . There exist rational numbers x and y satisfying ax2 + by2 = 1 if and only if we have (a. To be precise. Beof the Hilbert symbol (a.
CONICS
AND
QUADRATIC
RESIDUE
SYMBOLS
53
2. b)co tells us if this is the case.
THEOREM 2. b.6. )P.3. for a prime preliminaries. The proof of this theorem will be given in 52. will be defined later using the quadratic residue symbol (p). We define
(a.
Conies
and
quadratic
residue
symbols
(a) Existence of a rational point on a conic. In this section we state Theorem 2.) of Q
z
properties of the Hilbert symbol. that is not sufficient to determine the existence of a rational solution. b E Q”. = 1 for all prime numbers p. For a prime number p we by by p}
(PI
=
{ f / a. c E Q”). We will define (a. which gives a criterion for the existence of a rational point on the conic ax2 + by2 = c (a. b). Of course.
If there exist rational numbers x and y satisfying ax2 + by2 = 1. b). b E Z. E {fl} for each prime number p and (a. The symbol (a. if a < 0 and b < 0.3. ).
there
exist
real numbers
II: and y such that
ax2 + by2 = 1.2. we will prove the following theorem after we finish defining ( . b is not divisible
. that means there exist real numbers satisfying ax2 + by2 = 1.b)v (ZJ is a prime or co) is called the Hilbert symbol.
= 1. 1 . u E (Zc.
Here we used the fact that b mod pn is invertible in Z/pniZ.
For an element 2 in Zc.) /pnZc. Write
a = piu.)) “).bc).). bL = (ha).~~)) is the set x. The natural homomorphism Z/p% + Z(.
and put r = (l)i3a3b” If p # 2.
= (1)‘ju3Ci
E (ZC~))~. b)P as follows. (l)q. Ifa # 1. b E Z. we define
(a.. For a. the natural homomorphism Z + Z/pnZ (obtained by considering an integer modulo p”) is extended to the ring homomorphism a mod pn H bmodp”
a
b
(a. b is not divisible by p).
= 1.
. For a prime number p and a.b)2 = (I)+
. Any nonzero rational number can be written uniquely as pmzl (m E Z. b). = (T). b E Z.54
2.. b E Q” .Y).
where the righthand side is the quadratic residue symbol. %V E (q.b).) is an isomorphism. (3) (a. Let v be a prime
we have the following. the exponents of 1 in the righthand side are elements of Z(z).
Here. we define
(a.
number
or 0~7. (1) (a.a). CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
For n 2 1. a. { % 1 a.4. b =pjv (i.j E z. b are not divisible by p }.(a. b E Q”
(2) (a.). but we regard them as elements of iZ/2iZ via the homomorphism
ZC2) + z/22. = (a. If p = 2. The set of all the units in iZ(. its image in Z/pnZ will be written 2 mod pn.
PROPOSITION 2.c). we define the Hilbert symbol (a.. and the above homomorphism is nothing but the composition %) ) zb)lp”zb)
5 Z/p”Z. a).w. This homomorphism can also be understood in the following way. then (a. denoted by (77.
5. a = 1. b)V is equal to 1 except for a finite number of v follows from the fact that a. b E Z?y2. (4l) (a. (42) (a. b E (FE(. b)V is equal
to 1 except
where
v runs
through
all the prime
numbers
and oo.4(4l). ifa~1mod8ora~12bmod8. In order to show that the product for all the V’S is 1. (2) and (3).5. which requires that we verify the condition (a.
then we have
(5) If a. and b = 1 or 2. b E Q”.b)2 = { i.))’ for all but a finite number of primes p and Proposition 2.4(l). and b = 1 or 2. it suffices to show since we have to prove it only for it in the following cases (i)(iii).
.3. then (5l) ifalmod4orbElmod4.2. a is an odd prime number. The fact that (a. b)V = 1 for all but one v in order to use Theorem 2.
THEOREM
symbols. Let a.
(i) (ii) (iii)
a and b are two distinct odd prime numbers.pb). (c) Product formula for Hilbert theorem is a translation of the quadratic plementary laws using Hilbert symbols.6. and we leave it to the reader.1
The proof of this proposition follows easily from the Hilbert symbols.
(a. Then number of ‘vu. PROOF OF THEOREM 2. b)V = 1 for all ZI. By this theorem we only have to check the condition (a.. CONICS
AND
QUADRATIC
RESIDUE
SYMBOLS
55
(4)
If p is an odd prime the following.3. each prime factor of a and b and for 1 thanks to Proposition 2. the definition of
(52) (a. 2b)z
1 ={ ~ . = 1.))x. The following reciprocity law and the sup
for a finite
2.
ifaEb=1mod4. otherwise. b E (Zt. = (T)
number
and a. and we have
(a.
REMARK 2. b).
b)v = 1 is in this case nothing mentary laws (Theorem 2.
0
b a a 0b
(q+k$
ifv=a.
if ‘u = a. b)v = 1 is in this case nothing reciprocity law (Theorem 2. the fact n.2(2) and (3)). for other v. for other v.2). (a. l)v = . the fact n. Once we translate into the form of Theorem 2. for all v. if u = 2. = 1
if z1 is 2 or 03. l)v =
ifv=a. ifv=2. otherwise.
q REMARK 2.2.5 (which realize that the quadratic reciprocity “the light of real numbers” and “the
the quadratic reciprocity law was done first by Hilbert).2(l)). we law expresses the harmony of lights of prime numbers”.(a. it follows from Proposition 2. ifw=2. In case (ii).’
(1. for other U.7.
(a. b)v =
1
but the quadratic Thus. if v = b. a calculation shows that
(1. =
(Q1)+ 1
Thus. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
In case (i).
i
(r)+
2 0 (a.
. As for case (iii).4 that
1 (1
(a. but the supple
2).
y. y E Q satisfying ax2 + by2 = c. and (p. (a) + (b) is trivial.2. 13)13 = (6). c a1 1 t ing the square of each element of Z/132.10 or12mod13.p.O). If z = 0. b. A s we have already calculated in the proof of Theorem 2. = 1 for all prime numbers v = p and co.1.
. and we have a = c ($)’ . 5).4. Let us determine the existence of a rational point for some explicit examples using Theorem 2. (p. As a preliminary. y.
= c. c E Q”. (b) There exist 5.Y.
(X. andp=1.6.9. 5)~ = (l)q if p # 2. and thus it has a rational point satisfying 21# 0. cu a we see that (fi) = 1 if a s 1.b(z)‘.
we have a (z)” + b (z)’
Let p be a prime
number. We also have (p. we have (p.3. (a) There exist 2. the following conditions are equivalent. Also. X. By Remark 2.Y. Proof of (2). Proof of (1). 5)s = (E) if p # 5.p.12 mod 13 and (&) = 1 if cl a E 2. and (p. y E Q satisfying p = x2 + 5y2 if and only if pal or9mod20. 26)~ = 1 if p E 1 or 3 mod 8. y E Q satisfying p = x2 +y2 if and only if p E 1 mod4 orp=2. = 1 if v # 2. CONICS
AND
QUADRATIC
RESIDUE
SYMBOLS
57
(d) Examples.
(1) There exist x. we see that the conic a = cu2 . satisfying ax2 + by2 = cz2.3. we have (p. and (p.8. z E Q. we do not have to check the case v = p. Rewriting pz” = x2 + ay2 as x2 = pz2 ay2 and using the equivalence of (a) and (b) above.4(4l).Z)
# (O. If a. Let a E Q”.5.4. 0).p. we have (p.Z E Q. By Proposition 2. Using th e results of 31. Conversely.
PROPOSITION 2.8.
IfzfO. Proof of (3). suppose
ax2 + by2 = cz2.O. Now (2) follows from these. Then (1) follows from these facts.4(4l) we have (p.bv2 has infinitely many rational points.5.7. Now (3) follows from these. z) # (O. y E Q satisfying p = x2+ay2 is equivalent to (p.3.10. 26)2 = 1 if p E 5 or 7mod 8. (3) There exist x. orp=5. we see that the existence of x. l)V = 1 if v # 2.9. By Proposition 2. y E Q satisfying p = x2 + 26y2 if and only if pal or3mod8.13. If p # 13. Hence we have a (i) 2 + b ($) 2 = c.5. 1)~ = (l)q if p # 2.
PROOF.11 mod 13. then x # 0. It suffices to put z = 1.6.O. 26). (2) There exist x. = 1 if v # 2. we note the following.3. a). (x.
Q. there exist 5. The mathematical scenery is completely different. How about integral solutions? As Fermat says (see Chapter 0. or the real number field R. and for a. for each p. This is the same as the condition for the existence of a rational solution. 3 = ($) 2 + 26 (i)“. b)P in the same manner.
x. solution rational theory. for each p there is an extension Q” we have (a.3(b) in
5. The difference between the solution and an integral solution is related to and we will discuss it in Chapter 5. the conditions for the existence of a rational solution and that of an integral solution are the same. y E Z satisfying p = x2 + y2 if and only if p E 1 mod 4 or p = 2. there is one U&. is to W.
2. y E Iw satisfying
ax2 + by2 = 1. there exists a rational solution to 3 = x2 + 26y2 by Proposition 2. For the equation p = x2 + 5y2. which emits “the light of real numbers” during the day. The padic numbers were originally introduced by Hensel around 1900. What each star is to the sun is what each Q.
15x236 =
QUESTION
y2 does not have
In Arithmetzca Diophantus says that the equation a rational solution. b)co = 1 ++
x. Just as we can see space objects better at
. In the long history of mathematics a number meant a real number.
For each prime number p we can interpret Namely. )oo is that for a. Just as there are countless stars in the night sky. It is as if those who had seen the sky only during the day are marvelling at the night sky.8(3). Verify this using Theorem 2. In this section we introduce the padic number fields. there to 3 = x2 + 26~~. field Qp of Q. b E ax2 + by2 = 1. however.) Clearly. §0. and its elements are called padic numbers. emits “the light of prime number p” in the night sky as if it were a star that we could not see because of the sun. The we have meaning
padic
number symbol
fields ( . (For example. As for p = x2 + 26y2.4. b E Q”
of the Hilbert th ere exist
(a. and it is only relatively recently that we realized that there is a world of padic numbers.3.
is no integral existence of a the class field Volume 2. y E U& satisfying
Qp is called the pudic number field. §5.2). b)P = 1 _ th ere exist
(a.8 we looked for rational solutions to a quadratic equation.58
2. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
In Proposition 2. which are very important objects in number theory.
. and so on.’ The distance in Q. 6 and 51 are all in the same room modulo 5. approaches 0 rapidly.
different ways in with it according
(a) padic sense of distance. one for the numbers congruent to 0 modulo 5. 31
FIGURE
2. comes from the congruence modulo p in the following sense. one for the numbers congruent to 1 modulo 5. We feel that the integers that enter the same room are close. We thus think that 6 is closer to 1 than 4 is to 1. For example. classifying the integers into the classes module 5 is analogous to putting them in five different rooms. The numbers 1. for example. While 6 and 1 enter different small rooms.4. but 51 is even closer to 1 (see Figure 2. p is close to 0 and the sequence p2 p” p4 . In Q.2. one for the numbers congruent to 1 modulo 25. is divided into five smaller rooms. we began to see the profound mathematical the padic numbers. We then divide the members of each room into the classes modulo 25. The sense of distance in the world of U&.5. is completely different from that of R. one for the numbers congruent to 11 modulo 25. and so on. We introduce the padic number fields in three (b). We explain here this “feeling” of d&&e. 51 and 1 still share the same small room.
. the room for the numbers congruent to 1 modulo 5.5).
pADIC
NUMBER
FIELDS
59
1 26
a00
@(zj
51
.
Classification
by mod
5” universe through
night. Cc) and (d). W e would like you to get acquainted to your taste. one for the numbers congruent to 6 modulo 25. .
. for a # 0 we write a=p “2 u (m E Z. .
CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
Pushing this analogy further. For a rational number a we define the padic valuation ord. As in Definition 1. .
and we define ord. cx+n = n+cc = co.
+ b) > min(ord. ord. Among the distances coming from congruences.15. we feel two integers a.(b)). In other words. p:r (pi.(a) in the following way. ‘u are not divisible by p).(a+b) = min(ord.60
2. . we consider only the congruence mod pn (p prime) for the following reason.7) (2.(a) = ord.5).(O) = co.(a ord. disFor integers a.b) is large. b are very close to each other when we have a = b mod pn for a large number R. and the sense of distance mod pn is fundamental. We say that a sequence of rational numbers (z~)~~I converges to a rational number a padically if we have ord. At present we know two different senses of distance in numbers: the sense coming from the real line and the sense coming from congruence.(z. ord. In the case of congruence. . 03 2 00. Both of them are compatible with addition and multiplication. r. U.u) + cc as n f 00. the sense of distance “mod m” is a composition of the distances “mod pn”. We also set ord. a s b mod m is equivalent to a E b mod p:’ for all i = 1. and 03 2 n for any integer n. .(b)).(a) = m. . We generalize the padic distance to the rational numbers. Th us.6) (2.(a). Let m be a natural number and m = py’ .(a) indicates exactly which power of p divides a. the congruence tinct) be its prime factorization. the compatibility is nothing but the property (2. # ord. ord. This is a consequence of the Chinese Remainder Theorem (Proposition 2. ord.(ab) ord. We call this sense of distance the padic sense of distance. and we consider two rational numbers a and b to be “padically close” if ord.
.8) ord. We have the following: (2.(a). If we push this to the limit. Let p be a prime number.(b) implies
Here we used the conventions oo+cc = co. the padic number field emerges.(a . p.1(4)). b. .(a) + ordp(b).
i)
=ordi((l)i’“+‘)
=n+l+m.
if we let
2
n = 1 .2. if we put zrL = CFzo
c’ = cz. in the ordinary ifl<x<l formula
it is as if we mistakenly 2x’=& z=o
in the world of real numbers. + (5)“l is the inverse in Z/5nZ.4.
sequence
(z.9)
is correct
in the sense
number..
Replacing
a by 5. convergence ferent from convergence in ordinary (xn)+l converges to i by
(2.
we have 6
Thus. we have
an+l 1+a+a”+. Indeed. If we express the fact that
As this example shows. of 5adic convergence.9) can be interpreted in the following way. but we can show that it converges 5adically to i. Let p be a prime
but formula
(2.53 +. have
. .
c a rational
number.5 + 52 . the
&
(padically). in the padic sense is quite difsense. general.9)
2(B)” i=o
= f put x = 5
(5adically)..5 + 52 . we have ordg(x. it says that 1 . For n 2 1.+al’A=
la’ 1 (l)n5n+l 6 .
pADIC
NUMBER
FIELDS
61
For example.
QUESTION 1..
and
ordp(c)
2
g i.e. we 6 x 21 = 126 EE 1 mod 125. + (5)“.. . for a rational number a # 1.
each of 6 of 6. 1 .5 + 5’ = 21 is the inverse of 6. For example.>
1 converges
padically
to
&
Formula (2.). in Z/252. Show that 6..
X71 as n + 00. of In
the sequence (x~)~>I diverges in the ordinary sense in the world real numbers.. 1 .5 = 4 is the inverse while in Z/1252..
62
2. CONICS QUESTION 7. Using of 6 in Z/5nZ. (2.9),
AND explain
PADIC why
NUMBERS 1  5 + 5’  ‘.. + (5)n1 is the
inverse
QUESTION
8.
Find
the inverse
of 4 in Z/34jz.
The padic convergence defined above can be considered to be convergence in a metric space. For a rational number a we define the padic absolute value /alp by
if a # 0 and For example,
101, = 0. Thus
lalp is the size of a in the padic
sense.
Ii,.=;>
The padic absolute value converges to 0. (All the replace the definition of 0 < T < 1. However, it choice, as we will explain From properties (2.6)
IP21p=$.
expresses well that the sequence p, p2, p3, . . . arguments in this section work well if we Ialp by lalp = T”‘~P(~) for any T satisfying turns out that T = b is the most natural at the end of subsection (c).) and (2.7) of ord, we see that
(2.10) I4
(2.11) If we define
= MP . I%
lblP) (In particular, d,(a, b) by (a+ bl, i Ialp + IblP). the padic metric
la+ bl, 5 max(lal,,
&(a, b) = la  bl,,
then d, satisfies d,(a, d,(a, b) 2 0, d,(a, 6) = 0 if and only if a = b; b) = d,(b, a); b) + d,(b, 4.
(2.12) (2.13)
(2.14) &,(a, 4 5 &(a,
Thus Q is a metric space with respect to d, (see Introduction to Geometry 2 in the series Introduction to Modern Mathematics). A sequence (x~)Q~ of rational numbers converges padically to a if and only if &(Zn,a) + 0 (n + oo), but this is the same as saying that (~~)+l converges to a with respect to the padic metric d,.
2.4.
pADIC
NUMBER
FIELDS
63
(b) QP as a completion of Q. In the world of real numbers a sequence of rational numbers may converge to a number which is not a rational number, as the following example shows: 1.4,1.41,1.414,1.4142,. + fi @ Q.
The world of rational numbers is an incomplete world where sequences such as the one above may not have a limit even if it “should converge”. From this point of view lR is an extension of Q where all the sequences that “should converge” in the ordinary sense do converge. (We will lat,er define the meaning of “should converge” precisely.) With respect to padic convergence, the world of rational numbers is also incomplete, where some sequences that “should converge” may not have a limit. Q, is an extension of Q constructed so that all the sequences that “should converge” do converge with respect to padic convergence. In this regard both Iw and Q, are extensions introduced with the same motivation. We first review the precise definition of R, and then we introduce the definition of Q,. As we stated in the Introduction, 50.1, ancient Greek mathematicians agonized over the problem “What are the real numbers with (“How should we define the real respect to the rational numbers?” numbers precisely based on the rational numbers?“), and it is only in the nineteenth century that this problem was finally solved. Here, we introduce the definition of the real numbers as the limits of sequences that “should converge”. This definition is due to Cantor at the end of the nineteenth century. A sequence of rational numbers (xn)+i that “should converge” is defined to be a sequence satisfying condition (C) below. Such a sequence is called a Cauchy sequence. (C) For any given rational number N such that m,n 2 N number E, we can choose a natural IX,  2,1 < E.
implies
In the world of rational numbers, a sequence that converges to a rational number (in the ordinary sense) is a Cauchy sequence, but there are Cauchy sequences such as 1.4,1.41,1.414,1.4142,. . . that do not converge to a rational number. In the world of real numbers, however, a sequence is a Cauchy sequence if and only if it converges. Cantor’s idea is to reverse the direction and define a real number to be “the Cauchy sequences that converge to that number”. To be precise, let S be the set of all the Cauchy sequences of rational numbers,
64
2.
CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
and define an equivalence relation on S by saying (~~)~>i are equivalent if “for any rational number a natural number N such that n>N implies Ix,  ynl < 2’.
that (x,),21 and E, we can choose
We define R to be the quotient of S by this equivalence relation. (That two sequences are equivalent means that they converge to the same real number.) We can define addition and multiplication in lR by class of (x~)~z~ class of (z,),>i + class of (yn)n>i . class of (yn)+r = class of (2, + yn)+i, = class of (z,y/,),>i,
and we can prove that lR is a field with respect to these operations. We now define Q,. We call a sequence of rational numbers (x~)~z~ a padic Cauchy sequence (a sequence that “should converge” with respect to padic convergence) if it satisfies the following condition (C,): (C,) For any given rational number N accordingly m,n>N number E, we can choose such that 15,  Ic& < E. a natural
implies
Let S, be the set of all padic Cauchy sequences, and define an equivalence relation on S, by saying that (x~)~z~ and (yn)+i are equivalent if “for any rational number E, we can choose a natural number N such that n>N implies 15,  ylnlp < E”.
We define Q, as the quotient of S, by this equivalence relation. As in the case of R, we can define addition and multiplication in Q,, and QP becomes a field with respect to these operations. The method of obtaining lR or QP from Q is known in general as completion of a metric space. IR is the completion of the metric space Q under the ordinary metric, and QP is the completion of Q under the padic metric. We identify a rational number a with the element of Q, given by “the sequence identically equal to a” (which is a padic Cauchy sequence). This identification gives us an embedding of Q in QP. We extend the padic valuation ordp, padic absolute value I IP, For an element a in QP we define and padic metric dp to Q,. ord,(a) E zU{m} in the following way. If a = 0, we put ord,(a) = co. Suppose a # 0. If we choose a padic Cauchy sequence of rational
.6)(2. Define > O}. ordr. Then ordp.8). We can prove that ord.. We define ord.14) for all a. the sequence (s.(a) Z. The series Cr=. I7 (c) Qp as an inverse limit.e.9.) tends to cc as n tends to CQ). I lP. comes from the fact that we have Iz+y[. (2. we do not have Ix + y// 5 max(lzl. In this subsection (c) we explain that we “inverse limit” and that we can introduce Q. converges in Qp (i. b) = (a .
Z. a.).6) and (2.).
ZU
is a subring of QP.(z. (n 2 1). and d.~>~ converges if and only if (s. (s~). 1. is called a padic can think of Z.. each element of U&. pADIC NUMBER
FIELDS
65
numbers (z. For an element a in U& we define /alp = 0 if a = 0.(a) to be this constant.7)... as an in a different manner.e.4..>i satisfies condition (C. Indeed. x:=1 i does not converge even though n + 03. / t 0 when The difference IyIP) in QP. but
PROOF OF LEMMA 2.).) An element integer. = Cz=“=..>i of Q. is the limit of a certain sequence in Q). b E QP. then (%. defined this way in Q. ai. converges if and only if (z. b E Q. if we put s.>l converges) if and only if lulLIp tends to 0 in Iw as n tends to 03 (i. if (x. We define &(a.>I converges to a if and only if (zr. A sequence (z. 5 max(lzl.6)(2. we can prove that ord. and lalp = pP or’1p(a) if a # 0.). satisfy (2. In R.).. In QP the condition for the convergence of an infinite series is somewhat easier than in R.9. We regard QP as a metric space with respect to d.). As we have already seen. LEMMA 2.(a.>r whose class is a.). = {a E QP / ord.) is constant for sufficiently large n using (2.. The latter can be seen equivalent to the condition (u~~(~ + 0 using the properties (2. lyl) in R.>i is a Cauchy sequence and its class is a. Q is dense in Qip (i. (This follows from the {oo} satisfies (2.11). for a. Let alL E Q.21 is a sequence of rational numbers and a is an element in Q.8) (readers should check this).bj.10) and (2. : Qp + of Z. fact that ord.10)(2..).(a) defined in this way depends only on a and not on the choice of the padic Cauchy sequence (x~)~>I. and thus the situation is more complicated.).>i satisfies the condition (C.).e.2.
Then all x. + X.Z/p”Z of the sequence . u3 corresponds to one of them. In Definition 2..2. they belong to u2 if n > 2.Z/p”Z + Z.Z/p”Z is to choose one of the small rooms in a room. jection from Z/p n+lZ to Z/p”& @. = x. ) and
are given. defined by {(G)QI E &Xn I .. they belong to us if n > 3. First we give the map l@. for all n L 1)
is called the inverse limit and is denoted l&. belong to the room al. /x. . Indeed.3. Thus (x~)~Z~ is a padic Cauchy sequence.(x. . by sending the element (un)~21 E l@.Z/p”Z. .. such that the image of x.Z/pnZ to the limit of the padic Cauchy sequence (GLQI in z. + z/p4z + z/p3z = Z/pnZ and fn the natural proand we consider the inverse limit 3 z/p% * z/pz. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
DEFINITION
maps fn : Xn+i
2. . . When we divide the set of all integers and put them into p rooms following their values modulo p.. mod pN (i.Z/p”Z has the following meaning. then one of the tiny rooms in the small room.e. and so on.66
2.X.. As a matter of fact. (n = 1.2. When we divide the room of al into p small rooms mod p2. To give an element of l@.10.
. us is an element of Z/p2Z satisfying fi (us) = al. l@.) 2 0 for all n.fn(an+l) = a.. Since ord. Let (a. If a sequence of sets X. )
(n = 1.10 we let X.).
An element (un)+i of l@. and so on. in Z/p”Z is a. us is an element of Z/p”Z satisfying f2 (~3) = ~2.X. We thus obtain a map l@. we have x.. When we divide the room of u2 into p tiny rooms mod p3.. us corresponds to one of them. . This makes us feei that “(xn)n>i converges to something”.. al E Z/pZ is in one of the rooms. and it converges in Q. n 2 A..
.x.Z/p”Z + Z.Z/p”Z is isomorphic to Z.3. ....21 E l&. the limit belongs to Z. the subset of n.1 < $) if m. For each n > 1 we choose an integer x.
11. we define addition and multiplication of (GJ~~I and b&l by (a. In U& we have Q (4) For all integers m 2 0 z/pmz : Z&p?& of Z&J
n Z. Let us prove the second isomorphism of (4). we prove the following lemma. The proofs of (l).
We will prove this lemma later. We can prove that Z.)/P”~(. as l@ JZ/p”Z. There exists 5 E Q satisfying ord.wehavea=z+(az)E
.). It follows from (2) and (3) that YE(. so defined is an integral domain. Thus. respectively. This definition is based on the idea that looking at an integer modulo pn for various n.
% z. in Z/p”Z
PrnZ.4. we finally arrive at the world of Q.
in Qp. using the inverse limit.
The map
defined
as above is a bijection. Qp is the one defined in (b) as the completion of Q. = ?A(. Hence. by letting n tend to infinity in Z/P’~Z.=Zc.a E pm&.)np “z. if all the X. In the statement. (2).. and Z.
LEMMA
(2)
2.
is written a mod
PROOF. (n > 1) are rings and all the fn are homomorphisms of rings. Take a E Z.
(3) Z(. It is also the closure of Z
(5) Z.). We first define Z. is the closure in Qp.(a) > m} .12. In this definition we obtain Z. If m is an integer.(a) 2 0) in Qp defined in (c). (1) Z. Before giving a proof of Lemma 2.(a: .) c 27.).. and we leave them to the reader. + bn)+l and (anbnJnkl.2. is the subset {u E Q 1 ord.) ) WP”% is injective. We now explain the definition of Q.
The image of a E Z. Since x .. pADIC LEMMA
NUMBER
FIELDS
67
2.11. we can define a structure of ring on l&rnXn. (3) and the first isomorphism of (4) are easy.10./pmz$../pmZ. m 2 0 and a E Z.. then we have
pmZp
= {u E Qp 1ord.
2 Z.a) > m since Q is dense in Qp. In Definition 2. We define QP as the quotient field of Z. weseethatsEQnZ. ~(. = p"z(.. is both open and closed in U&.
Conversely. in Q. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NURlBEKS
Z(. Thus we have a map Z.pn converges in Qp as defined in subsection (b) (Lemma 2. a H (a.12(4)). and we should think of the size of pZ./p”Z. by $. E (0. let a. as $ the size of Z.. the length of the interval al = {uz / 5 E I} is (a(.E{0. c. 2. . + l&Z/p”“Z. + Z. If m E Z and c...p . of the map in Lemma 2... is a subgroup of iz.) + p”Z.e in passing that the definition of the padic absolute value / lp is a “natural” one. = For example. .)/p’“Z&) f Z. be the
2 Z/p”Z
It is easy to see that this map is the inverse
We not. This means that the homothety of scaling factor p reduces the size of Z.9)) and thus the sum is an element of Q.) are dense in Z.pTL (m E Z. 1. Thus this map is surjective. In other words.. In this section we of lplp = i has a natural meaning as the scaling We will discuss this scaling factor.c.+3~1+4~5+2~5”+4~5”+1x5”+~~~.1)) in a unique way. in Volume 2. the definition factor of a homothety.68
2. the scaling factor of the homothety R + R. the scaling factor of the homothety Q$ + Qp given by n: H us is the padic absolute value Ialp. expansion.. 0 But. image of a under the map Z. . For an element (Lemma a in Z. In this way. PROOF OF LEMMA 2. (d) Definition of QP by padic explain that Qp may be defined by Q.. m+ 1. c. 2 H az is the absolute value \a\. or “module”.)
. this follows from (2) and (4). of index p. In the real field R.“=. For example.
pl} 2 GLPn mEZ.).. pZ. E Z (n = m.. On the other hand. ). 1.“=. which shows that the map Z~. if 1 is an interval of length 1.11.. To show (5). c. we can prove that any element of Qp can be expressed in the form c. the series c. it suffices to show that Z and Zc.>~. 1 we define an element of Qs to be something
1 like
2~. .11.. m+2. (We call it the padic expansion of an element of Qp./p”Z.1. { 1L=VJ. sends z to a.
REMARK 2. .) Then the same argument shows that any element of Q. 1. log(t) group tl t. c.5.+r E (0.
(m E Z.pmc. can be written
2 cnpn 71=?7l in a unique manner.’
./pZ.. In particular. we have ord.
Multiplicative
structure
of the
padic
number
field
The real number field Iw has exponential and logarithmic functions.. Repeating this process.) Is there anything similar in Q.pm+l~m+l) 2 m + 2. . 1. we can choose a prime number p. coincides with that of pnLa.p .c.5. we can choose any natural number N > 2.. we see that the padic is unique since each c. E (0.p . . . e is the base of the natural logarithm log. (The set (0.16 and 2.? In this section we introduce the exponential and logathe structure of the mulrithmic functions in Qp.(a) > m. and such that its image
m satisfying ord. since
5 Z. Then pPrna is an there exists an integer c. . E S)
QUESTION 9. Instead of 10.2. ..) 2 m+ 1. is a bijection. + i&/pZ.(a pmc. What is the difference between the pary expansion of a real number in this sense and the padic expansion of a padic number?
2. . Since pema . is uniquely determined. and they give an isomorphism between the additive group Iw and the multiplicative group formed by the positive real numbers additive group Iw cz multiplicative x H ex. An element a in Iwx is a square in IF?.(a . such that the composition 5’ + Z.ICATIVE
STRUCTURE
OF
THE
pADIC
NUMBER
FIELD
69
Take an integer element of Z. is an isomorphism. we obtain the expansion
Examining expansion
the argument given above carefully.13. the map Z/pZ belongs to pZ.
MULTIPI. Let S be a subset of Z. A real number has a decimal expansion as we use it in everyday life.l} in Z..17)..” of nonzero padic numbers using these functions (Propositions 2. and we determine tiplicative group Q. and we can have an Nary expansion of a real number. 1.1) is an example of such a subset./pZ.
(Here.l} such that ord.p . .. {t E R 1 t > 0}. . The same argument shows that there exists an integer c..
. 2 5 n=O (written The series exp(z))
PROPOSITION
converges
if and only converges if and only means the exponential
if x E pZ. as compared to the case o. 2.
.11 < 1. the algebraic structure of lR or Qp is simpler than that of Q. Just as in Rx. (1) Let IC E Q.18 gives an answer to this question. and 1.
(4)
Weletm>lifp#2. elements close to squares are also squares.f Iw or C.
We consider
an analog in Q. and it if x E 422 in the case p = 2.)
2 (1Y1
n
n=l
(t .. If x1 and 22 are in the domain of convergence if tl and t2 are in the domain of convergence we have
+ x2) = exp(xl) ew(x2). (In this sense.. % multiplicative
and they are inverse
Thenexpand to each other:
group
1 + p”Z. Which elements in Q$ are squares? Proposition 2. log(tlt2) = log(tl)
of exp(z). which are 5adically close to the square 1. in the case p # 2. which is close to the square 4. are squares.70
2. ‘Yl
exp(z)) and when It . In R or
(also written (where the righthand side always converges).14.
log(t) = c
n=l
(t . For example. (That function in Q.1)”
(written
log(t))
(3)
converges if and only if t . then
exp(xl
+
log(t2).
additive group pmZ.1 E pZ.}.. is also a square. and of log(t).andm>2ifp=2.1)“.
log are isomorphisms.
= { 1 + pma 1 a E Z. in Q)5” numbers such as 6 and 11..) (a) Exponential @ we have and logarithmic functions in Q. does not converge on all of Q. CONIC3
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
if and only if a > 0.
~
1 >
+ ~.ord. we have nc . (2) Let c be a real number.ord.2.
LEMMA
2. We leave the proof of (1) to the reader. If log.
Pl
n Also. Letting n = pm.(n)
since ord.ord. we have
2.(n!)
2 nc .(n) >
nc
.ord.ord.2
i=l
s 2 nc
. we have ord.“=. we have nc .15. The righthand side tends to 03 if and only if c > 0.(n!) .(n) = pmc .epmz
i=l
= pm (c .
MULTIPLICATIVE
STRUCTURE
OF
THE
pADIC
NUMBER
FIELD
71
In order to prove Proposition lemma first. It follows from (1) that
nc
. The righthand side tends to cc if c > 0.ord.(n!) < C.(n!) = pmc .log.(n) is the logarithm of n with base p in the real number field.(n!) = e
is1
[1
F .(n) 5 logp(n).m.
Pl
Pl
The righthand side tends to 00 if and only if c > &. Let us prove (2).(n!) The condition c > 0.(n!) 2 c. n=pm. Let us prove (3).ord.
0
. 5 = & and an integer smaller than * is no greater than 2.c 2 (n 
l. nc . Hence.
f co
nc 
PROOF. then for any n > 1 we have nc .(n) f cc as n + m is equivalent to (3) If c > &. (1) For any integer ord. if we put 1
The righthand side tends to m as n + 00 if c > &. The condition as n f co is equivalent to c > &.&)
20.(c.5.(n!) 5 3.14 we need to show the following
n > 0. it follows from (1) that nc . ord. largest integer less than or equal to x.
where [x] is the “Gauss symbol” of z. Since ord.
which signifies the nc .
1).15(3). (2) Let G = {x E Zp” ( xpr = l}.(t . and if t E l+p”Z$.(n).
‘Q. u E Z.. ( (l)+‘v > _ > m for 72 2 1.ord. PROPOSITION 2. Q..) The proof of (3) is similar to the case of IR or (4). + Z. pnu.16. we have 1+4& EC&. Next we show exp(x) E l+p’“Z.14. the multiplicative group 1t 222 is the direct product of the subgroup {fl} and the subgroup 1 + 422. is isomorphic to Z. (Note that & < 1 if p # 2.
where ZF is the multiplicative group consisting of all the units in Z..
PROPOSITION 2. Q.. 2.ord.(x) .” E Z @Z/(p .“..
E pm&. By Lemma 2. if x E pm&.72
2.9 to find the conditions for the convergence of the following: = nerd.15(2).” + Z) and ord.. In order to show (1) and (2). it suffices by Lemma 2. (1) 1fp # 2... t = exp(log(t)) for x and t in these domains of convergence in just the same way as the case of Iw or @. is a bijection./pZ.u) t+pnu. First.“) in a unique of Q$ can be written manner. Then the composition G + Zc + IF. (2) Ifp=2. then (3) follows from the
.
We can prove log(exp(x)) = x.
(1)1 k$t)
But they are given and 5 = 1 if p = c. In other words. th e multiplicative If p = 2. and Zc is the direct product of G and 1 + pZ. = nord.
zez. (1) Any element
(n E Z.1) . from the fact that Z?i = Ker(ord. we have since ord.” “Z@Z/2Z@Z~.
PROOF. and let Zp” + Fp” be the group homomorphism induced by the map Z. If p # 2. we have log(t)
by Lemma 2. Moreover. (1) fo11 ows easily. : Q. (5) > m for n > 1.(p) = 1. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 2.. This proposition follows from the following proposition and the fact F. = IF.(n!). (3) UP # 2. since ord. group 1 +pZ.1)Z (Proposition 2.. g Z/(p .1)Z CE Z.17.
(n. q
(b) Structure of Q.
E pZ. in ‘Ft. 1 + 822 = exp(8Z2) = exp(2. let a E “p” and let u E Z.2 5. proved. since G = (1). u mod p. is a.17. (ii) If p # 2. Then exp(log(uPI)) = upl. in Zc.)
2. We now prove that G + lFi is surjective. we have
= w$W. and the fact that iz2 ” 422. equal to a. via exp and log.) = {exdp~p))2.. since IF. MULI’IPLICATIVE
STRUCTURE
OF
THE
pADIC
NUMBER
FIELD
73
fact that 1 + pZ. be an element whose image in IF.17( I)). is a square If p = 2. Let us prove (2). If p # 2. This is trivial if p = 2. the image of w in ‘Fc is cl
PROPOSITION 2.Z. it suffices to show that the composition map G + IF: is a bijection. given by a H pa is an isomorphism. Since up’ = 1. because we have up’ = Since v E 1 +pZ. Since we have the case p = 2 is also 0
and thus an element of 1 + 822 is a square Zc /(l + 8Z2) E (Z/8Z)x E Z/2Z C$ Z/22. is a square Zc/(l +pZ.. 5 log(uPl) >
we have w E G. does not have any element of finite order except for the identity.” if and only in Z:.X = (1).) 2 “c.
if
and thus an element of 1 + pZ. + pZ.. we have upl E 1 +pz. u E 1 mod 822. and the fact that the map Z. Since the kernel of izz + IF: is 1 + pZ. Put u = exp ( and w = uuI.) = { 1). If p # 2. By Proposition n is even and u is a square
1 + PZ. u E Zc ) (Proposition 8. = exp(pZ. a is a square in 0.” if and only if the following two conditions are satisfied. E Z.
(i) 72 is even.42~)
in Et. If p # 2. For injectivity.
. If p = 2. This is trivial if p = 2.
PROOF. then (3) follows from the fact that 1 + 4& ” 422 via exp and log. we have = {exp(4Z2)}2. a is a square in Q. it follows from the fact that 1 + pZ.18. the case p # 2 is proved. it suffices to show that G n (1 + pZ. If we express an element a in Q: aspnu (n E Z. (c) Squares in Qp. Since we have If p = 2.
) We then
ax2 + by2 = 1.
PROPOSITION
proposition 2.4: If a.
quadratic
ex
2.
and if p = 2.18. y E Qp such that 2. b E 0.
satisfying a = zkl mod 5.
(2) Q2”/(Q.
E q
(a.3.6.20.4 holds if
For this symbol ( .j E z.“/(Q. { z!~l}.19. Rational
We begin of 52. Q.x).
.
E z/az
@? z/22 63z/22.= (yq. b)p = 1 _ (This is contained Theorem 2.
and p is a prime there
(a. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
The following Proposition 2.74
2.“)”
there QUESTION 10. Show that
Let a be an integer root of a in Qs Show that there exists
a square
root
of 1
in U& if and only
ifp=l
QUESTION tensions of U&
12. u.) ) ’ by Zc. there exist exactly three all three quadratic extensions of Q5. )p : Q: we replace (Zc.
exist
II:.b). Proposition 2.
b =ph
(i.u E Z.b)2 = (I)+ x QG + (l)++. The Hilbert
Q” + (51) can b e extended for a. exists a square QUESTION mod4. define (a.
follows
from either
Proposition
2.16 or
(1)
Ifp
#
2.
use it to prove
in Proposition
(a) Conies defined over Qp.“)2
S! Z/2Z CB Z/2Z. Indeed. 11. b E Q” this section
points on tonics
the statement at the beginning
by proving number. we write a = p’u. and we put T = (1)qgbi If p # 2. define = (1)i&3212 naturally to Qt
symbol ( . )p : Q” x x Q: + {fl}. Show Determine
that if p # 2.
y E U& such that ax2 + by2 = 1. and we show (a. By If P # 2. l2 = 1.b mod 822.18).4(52) holds for the Hilbert symbol extended to Q$ x Qc . bEp.y E Q. for (i) we have
(abK1.bEZ.ax2 ). b).X.
b E p. 1 . z E Qp such that ab‘x2
3 x. (a.b).UZ~)~. = 1 Proposition 2. there exists t E Q. Z$ and the case
Hence. First we suppose that there exist z. b)P = 1. O2 = 1. such that (by)2 = ax2 + bz2
and (2.
(Proposition 2. indeed.“/(Q):)“. y. In both cases we have (a. b E Q.“)2.“. and we have (ax2. such that ab‘x2 M w u
a. Y.18. means that a mod p E “c is a square. by2)p = (ax’. and if y = 0. that a and b are both elements of Zc U pZc. (a. If a E 1 .z) # (0. b)P . b)P = 1. and we have a (i)’ + b.2. b)P and for (ii) we have 32. y E QP such that ax2 + by2 = 1. If z = 0. PROOF. then a E (Q. y. Next we suppose (a. and we have at2 + b.18). since Proposition 2.X.4(3)). z) # (0. there exists t E Qc such that t2 = a (Proposition 2. b E 0. it suffices to consider the case a E Zt.X)“. y # 0.Z.) If a E 1 mod 8&. 1 .” in Q.Y. For a. If both a and b are in pZF.4(3) still holds for ( . RATIONAL
POINTS
ON
CONICS
75
PROPOSITION 2.&O)
3x. satisfying ax2 + by2 = 1. (b. y E Q. then b E (Q.20.X. Thus.” such that t2 = a. If p = 2. = 1.
+ by2 = 1 + by2 = z2 and (x. Conditions (i) and (ii) depend only on the image of a. we may assume. O2= 1. b)P = (ax2.” 4 (51). b)P = 1 means that “a E 1 mod 822 orazlbmod822”. (ii) There exist x. ).&O)
3 z. b)P = 1 and show the existence of 5. (i) (a. : Q$ x Q.X)“. by multiplying a and b by a suitable element in (Q.
.” such that t2 = e (Proposition 2. the following two conditions are equivalent. y E Qp satisfying ax2 + by2 = 1. Suppose II: # 0. (This is because Proposition 2. and we have a (i) 2 + b . we may replace a by ab‘. b)P = (a.6.
(a) ThecaseaEZ. there exists t E Q. Then (a. b)P = (a. = 1. z E Q.
So. we may assume that a and b are squarefree integers. O2 + b ($)” = 1. By Proposition 2... b)2 = 1. denote by a. If we multiply a and b by the square of a rational number.by2 mod pZ.18. (i). there exists t E Qg such that t2 = e by Proposition 2. b E Q”. by Proposi
tion 2. b E Zp”.” Clearly. say. such that ax2 z 1 . a = 1 mod 422 mod 422 is similar).76
2. If x = 0 mod pZ. Now suppose p = 2.3 in the following form.& the images of a. Then the condition (a. lb\).” such that t2 a z (the a E = a 1 mod 422 case b G 1 5 mod 822... We prove the statement by induction on max(lal.b).20.) has cardinality q.18. and we have at2+b+22=1. b in IF. We need to prove that it has a solution in Q. This implies that there exist E Z. O2 = 1.heir intersection is nonempty. and suppose ax2 + by2 = 1 has a solution in Qv for all primes u and u = co. there
exists t E Q.b E QX.} and {I . Thus. Here. Hence. Suppose. Theorem 2. (ii) ax2 + by 2 = 1 has a solution QV in for all primes 21 = m. Hence. If x $ 0 mod pZ.. If either a or b is 1. and t. Suppose p # 2. = 1 always holds. thus we must show that ax2 + by2 = 1 has a solution in U&. all we need to prove is that u and of Theorem 2. y
(b) The case a. there exists t E Q.3. and we have at2 + by2 = 1. and we have a (f)” + b. If a = 5 mod 822.46 mod 822.bv2 ( v E IF. Then we have a = 1 mod 822 or If a = 1 mod 822. (i) ux2 + by” = 1 has a solution in Q.
(ii) implies
. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
and We {au2 thus 2. we write Qoc for R. ux2 + by” = 1 clearly has a solution in Q.” such that t 2 . Let u. 0 (b) Proof can be rewritten “Let lent. then 1 = by2 mod pZ. and we have a. (i) implies (ii). then 4b G 4 mod 822 and thus we have a F 1 . Each of the two subsets / u E IF. we have or b = 1 mod 422. there exists t E Q. Since (a.18.e by Proposition 2. it does not affect the existence of a solution in Q to ax2 + by2 = 1. The following conditions (i) and (ii) are equiva
a.18.” such that t2 = b by Proposition 2.
O. and we have (u.2. (x.z. we have a > 0 or b > 0. 0)). z) E K x K x K I ax* + cy” = z2. If not. since /c( < Ibl. lbl) = 1. 0)}. Hence. g : Y + X by y.
Y. If Ial < lbl.
Define f(x. y.
c E z.
~1 = (rx . a.) = . of X and Y.21. we can reduce to the case Ial < lbl.) By Lemma 2.b). If Ial = lbl. Y = {(x. z) = (rx + z. a mod p is not a square in F. Let us prove that a mod b is a square in Z/bZ. lb]) > 1. We have
(The last inequality is due to the fact that Ibl > 2. = (.
PROOF. respec0
and verify that tively. Since b is square free. z) E K x K x K I ax2 + by* = z2. we may assumeO<r< 
@J. Let K be a field. so we may assume Ial < lb/. O2 = 1. which there is a solution in Q.
f : X + Y. y. y. This means we have a = 1 or b = 1. y. Suppose c # 0. (2.
and r2 a
=
X = {(x. by. 0
LEMMA
bc.) Then p # 2. We thus have an integer r such that r2 E a mod b. means that
If c = 0.
g o f and f o g are the identities
. a mod b is a square in Z/biZ. The statement is symmetric with respect to a.
ax + rz). This implies that uz2 + by2 = 1 does not have a solution in Qp. ax + rz). z) # (O.21 below. we have a = r2 and a (b)” + b. dx. b.
EtA’I’IONAL
POINTS
ON
CONICS
77
If max(luj. and it has a solution in Q. lb1 is a product of distinct prime numbers. which is a contradiction. Put 2
r‘J 
a = bc.6.1. z) # (O. since we assumed that the equation has a solution in Iw. Then
2.
CY. (This follows from the Chinese Remainder Theorem. b. Suppose max([al. c E KX. we can use the inductive hypothesis (since ICI < lbl). there is a bijection between two sets
r E K. Since any element of Z/bZ has a representative in y 5 n 5 T. all we need to consider is the case ax* + cy* = 1.O. for some prime factor p of b.
If a conic defined over the rational tional point. but the properties of convergence are quite different from those in the real number field. then use Proposi
.3. “Horn (Z[i]/Z.1.
Exercises
2. A conic defined over the rational number field has a rational point if and only if its equation has a solution in the real number field and in the Q. For each prime number p there is an extension field of the rational number field called the padic number field.2. can be determined by the Hilbert symbol.) number field has a rapoints. (Hint: number field to get 4” . the main not this. it has infinitely many rational scribe them explicitly.
2. The existence of a solution in Q. 2. which is related to the quadratic residue symbol.1) (n E Z).Z [l/p] /Z. Define
and define a ring structure on the from Z [l/p] /Z to itself. 2.2. for all prime numbers p. Each padic number field is considered to be as important as the real number field. The padic number field has a notion of convergence as does the real number field. Find ords(4n . Z [l/p] /Z).1. Also find an example of a sequence of rational numbers which converges to 1 in Q3 and which converges to 0 in Qz. of rings z[~]/z) .78
2. denoted by defining the sum of f and g by z E . log in the 3adic . and the product off Show that there is an isomorphism Z. but 2. (However.
Use exp.3. and we can detheme of the chapter is
2. Find an example of a sequence of rational numbers which converges to 1 in Iw and which converges to 0 in Qz.2 and 2.1. CONICS
AND
PADIC
NUMBERS
Summary
2. (f + g)(z) = f(z) + g(z) for all and g by the composition fog.3 below.14(4).
set of all group homomorphisms by Horn (Z [l/p] /Z.1 = exp(nlog(4)) tion 2.
(1) (2) (3)
Let p be a prime number. x2 +y2 = 2 has a solution in QP u p # 2.3 mod 8.EXERCISES
79
2. Show the following: x2 = 2 has a solution in QP w p E 1. x2 + y2 + 22 = 2 has a solution in QP for any p.4.
.
It is said t.he
is called Leibniz’s formula.hat he decided t.++. Leibniz’s formula.h Euler’s formula
(3. Madhava. had been discovered by Gregory shortly before Leibniz.CHAPTER. however.= “iT 3&’
7r3
. and he felt that he found t. The formula
1735.ogether wit..e fact that. and he was quit. 1..+
Xl
=E’ .5)
1$+&$+&&+. He discovered it in 1673. in order to pursue mat.
3
In this chapter zeta function).. around 1400. 1Ie had attempted to determine side for many years.hematician.hematics because of this discovery. . The (3.4) (3.o t.he mystery of Nature. These formulas t. the sum is related t.o quit being a lawyer and diplomat.1.
we introduce
an important
!illlction
called
< (the
3.1)
Three formula
wonders
of the
values
of the
< function
was discovered by Euler around the infinite sum of the lefthand pleased to find the mysterious number 7r. and also by an Indian mat.
Here.82 and Dirichlet’s (3.2) and (3. A homomorphism from (Z/NZ) ’ to the multiplicative group of nonzero complex numbers Cx x : (Z/NZ)X is called a Dirichlet character (modulo + Cx N)..he 19th century.x) = 2 9
n=l
This is called the Dirichlet L function (with respect to x). The formulas (3. Define
This function c(s) is called the Riemann C function. In this section we introduce < functions and three interesting properties on the values of < functions. We define
L(s.+~+L~iL+~ +.
. Let N be a natural number and (Z/NZ)x be the multiplicative group of units in the ring Z/NZ. named after Riemann who made important contributions to the study of this function in t. xc) = : and L(3. = 5
3. c
(k signs repeat log(1 + v5)
every 8 terms)
are the formulas on the values of a class of functions called < functions.6) formula l~. x(n) is defined as x(n mod N) if n and N are relatively prime. and thus they may be regarded as formulas for the values of the Riemann < function C(s). x) = g.3) may be expressed as c(2) = $ and C(4) = $. The formulas (3.4) may be expressed respectively using the Dirichlet L functions as L(l. and 0 otherwise..
respectively. These formulas reveal their secrets as we study them more and more.1) and (3.
3mod8. x) L(l.x) with the Dirichlet x: (Z/8Z)x character
= +2 log(1 + J2) x given by
= (1 mod8. as a formula for the value of
~:(2/42)~
x(1 mod 4) = 1.x) with the Dirichlet x: character (Z/SZ)’
= !I3&i> x given by x(2 mod 3) = 1. <(r)rPT is a rational number as mentioned above.1)(3.1. Euler proved the formula
The second mystery of < functions is that their values at s = integers are related to the world of padic numbers in a quite unexpected way.
The formula (3.
THREE
WONDERS
OF
THE
VALUES
OF
THE
C FUNCTION
83
where the character
x is given by ={1mod4.6).2mod3}+(GX. x(3 mod 8) = x(5 mod 8) = 1. x(3 mod 4) = 1.9). if T is a positive c(r) = (rational number) x 7rr
even integer.6) may be regarded Dirichlet L function L(s. Corollary 3.2. The first mystery of the values of C functions is that there exist unexpected formulas such as (3.I
3. x) are examples of the class of functions called < functions. if T is a positive even integer. at s = integer
x (the power of 7r or something For example. For example. x(1 mod 8) = x(7 mod 8) = 1. c functions are so important in number theory that some people even claim that number theory is the study of < functions.
x(1 mod 3) = 1.7mod8}+~X. Many formulas of the following type have been known: the value of a C function = (rational number) similar to log(1 + A)).5) may be regarded Dirichlet L function L(s. as a formula for the value of
={1mod3.3mod4}+@X.5mod8. x) L(l. where one side of the identities is quite different in nature from the other side.
These c(s) and L(s. ($3.
The formula (3. and this rational number has
.
The third mystery of < functions is that some values of < functions have subtle arithmetic meanings.
C(2) = g .1)(3.3. This can be explained by the class number formula (see $4.2 we discuss the first mystery about the values of c(s) and L(s. see Exercise 3.x) at s = positive integers. an effort to understand the meanings of values of < functions more deeply than the class number formula turned into a theory called “Iwasawa theory”. as we will see in 54.3.) In $3.1. We mention the second and third mysteries at the end of $3.x. Bourbaki. $2.
THEOREM 3. for the sine function
PROOF. Values at positive integers Euler gave to the fol
(a) C(2).7)
formula
sin(7rz) =fi(l$). We first g’ive one of the proofs lowing theorem of Euler.6). We compare the Taylor expansion of
. Complex Analysis.3 we introduce the analytic continuation of these < functions to the entire complex plane. (For the proof of (3.5). We named this chapter “<” instead of “I functions”. which was discovered by Dirichlet in the nineteenth century. Chapter VI $2. We use the product
(3. We dropped the word “functions” because we feel more and more as we study < functions that C functions are something more than just functions. Fonctions dine variable re’elle.
TX n=l
which was also discovered by Euler (see N. Leibniz’s formula (3. It was first studied by Kummer in the nineteenth century.3. and Chapter 7 on < function in Volume 2). and we prove (3.3. For example. It seems as if the homeland where < functions originally come from is an unknown world which governs both the world of real numbers and the world of padic numbers. Theorem 2. In the late twentieth century. Chapter 5. c
some padic properties.2
3. or L. Ahlfors. We will further discuss these two mysteries in Chapter 10 in Volume 3. 3.3). and we discuss the first mystery of the values of < functions at s = negative integers. and Kubota and Leopoldt clarified it around 1964.2. In $3.2) tells us that Z[i] is a principal ideal domain.
Theorems 3.2.(t) (r = 1. .. the Taylor
+ terms
of degree
4 or higher.7) a t z = 0. L
.
t + 49 + t”
(1 
For example
(3.4 and and L(s. VALUES
AT POSITIVE
INTEGERS
85
both
sides of (3.t) ’
r1 (hl (t)) (r >
1).7) x2 + terms of degree 4 or higher
Therefore.3.7) = 1 .2..T
T2 side of (3.2. [ 1t 1
.31x2 hand.
we have &1
(b) Values at a general 3. )
X9
of sin(z)..8 concern the values of c(s)
DEFINITION
positive integer.5
+ $
.
For any integer
to 1 we have
h7.7) gives righthand
expansion
of the righthand
side of (3. functions h. x) at positive integers..3.8)
b(t)
= (1 ” t)2 > b(t)
T greater than
= (1 _ tj3>
or equal
t + t”
b(t) =
ty
.)
with
rational
3.
sin(x) we have lefthand
= z . Define rational coefficients by
hi(t) = JLiL
2(1 .(t) E Q t. By the Taylor
3 27
expansion + sr .. side of
On the other (3.
>nEZ (r (x :c
cot(7rx) = &c nEZ & + Jxn
PROOF.
. nEz
(2) If r 2 2. and (3. x a Dirichlet character modulo N.4. and we have .86 PROPOSITION (1)
3. (3.
w=f&.2).7).8. Suppose x(l) = (1)‘.4). If we put CN = e2xi/N.5) in 53.
which proves Proposition 3.4 and 3.9)
Since cot(y) = a sin(y) = we see that
i(eXSi cot(7rx) =
and we have
eYi eYi eYi + 2 eY2 7
2i
’
COS(Y)
=
+ _
e~Zi) em2
eTxi
= 2ihl(t)
(t = e2rzs).
to 0
THEOREM 3.3 we deduce Theorems 3. Let N be a natural number greater than 1. c 3.(t) (&Tc =l)!. then
h. Applying (t$)r1 = (&)rl both sides of the above formula.3.4 we deduce the formulas (3. and r a natural number. x $! Z and t = e2Tix. Let x E @.3(2).1. >
(3.(&+J). then we have
Prom Theorem 3.
Take $& log( ) of both sides of (3. Prom Proposition 3. we obtain Proposition 3.3(l).
8.8)) 3 1
z.6.2.(+$) =.
a rational
number.3))
1. 2’ \ 1
= (r T l)! 3.. c(r)
Let r be a positive . even integer. .
=&
( >
2Ti
3 1
. b1).. lr 3.
zz
EXAMPLE
+$().. VALUES EXAMPLE
AT
POSITIVE
INTEGERS
87
3. . l. 5.h&.
4
(h&)

h3(i3))
=~. .( 1) at 1 is a rational number.7. then rY<(r) is We have
27ri (3 4 3.27ri 3
1
i
n3&’
2
A=
3.+.3..
(4 >
27G
.1) and (3. We deduce the formulas (3.9. (a~ri)’ .5.3) from Theorem 3. (hi(i)
.. and thus its value h.(3&2L) 0
2?ri 4 1 ‘?=4.(~)“+.+L+.
This is because h. (q = g.(t) is a rational function with rational coefficients.+i+.
=&.8. 1
2
THEOREM
(from(3. .
COROLLARY
If r is a positive
even integer.
=
EXAMPLE
(I.
.+..
jectured that c(5).’ =
n

1 2 0 and we have
zzzN’
By Proposition 3.Z) x
Using Proposition 3..12 Theorem
PROOF OF THEOREM 3.
(&4J.
sum C y(~)h.4. c(9).’
PROOF OF THEOREM 3. we rewrite the in th e righthand side. But these conjectures have not been proved.4 take N = 2 and let y : (Z/2Z)” f Cx.8))
72 6
EXAMPLE
C(4) = &y irJ 90 .. C(7). Then.
3. we put
n. . we have
If n < 0. If n 2 0. Apkry proved that C(3) is an irrational number C(5). c(7).((~~.? . It is cori. .l
(from
(3. 1‘(g). . are also irrational numbers.8))
REMARK 3.) at(Z/R.8. l’.(from
(3.11
ii. and if r is an odd integer at least 3.3 we obtain
c
x(m) m’.: in 1978. C(r) cannot be expressed as the product or sum of rational numbers and 7r unlike the case where T is even. x be the trivial homomorphism
In
Theorem 3.8 does not say anything about c(3).
. 3. for a
.3.
13.(1). This function respect to a mod N. belong to the same world as c(2) = $. C(s) and L(s. Using Proposition 3..3.15. If we consider s to be a complex variable.1)2
These formulas are not about thezvalues of ( functions.
3.x) can be extended beyond the domain of convergence of the original infinite series.
Theorem
3.
By letting
z = i in Proposition
3.1
QUESTION
the previous
2.L\LUES
AT
NEGATIVE
INTEGERS
positive
even integer L(r.3(2) question.
DEFINITION
3. I = i and the formula . 2 h.8 follows
from
this. Values at negative
integers
(a) Analytic continuation.3.. and it has a flavor
but they of <.
over all natural is called partial
numbers Riemann
72 satisfying < function
n E with
.he sum is taken a mod N.3.27T .
in
•t 2n2e2” (e 2n . show
the formula
2x + 1 .
V. it is convenient to introduce the partial Riemann < function and Hurwitz < function. and we can consider their values at negative integers as we see in Proposition 3. show the formula $e4T
with
r = 2. In order to study the properties of the values at negative integers.x)
r we have 27ri = (1: we have ( 2 1 T 1 .
I
On the other
hand.
For a natural
number
N and an integer
a de
fine
where t.
0
QUESTION
1.3.
l)C(s. as> 1) = C(s).x) =go
real number z define (. x) is holomorphic
in the entire complex
plane.90 For example.: + . x) converge (the sum is taken in the order n = 1.>
liil (s .10)
La(l)W = I(s). 2. .> = N” .. ) for s satisfying Re(s) > 0.12) < (s. CC) have analytic continuation to the entire complex plane. and it is a holomorphic function in this domain. L(s. and
we have liil (s . 3. For such a x L(s.x)
= 1. C&~)(S) (N is a natural number and a is an integer) and C(s.
(3) If the image of x : (Z/NZ)X + Cx is not {l}.
.l)C(s) = 1. (3.
3. the defining series of L(s. &(N)(S) and <(s.. L(s.il (s l)&(N)(S)
= . From the definitions we have the following properties. The functions c(s). .15. . x) (x is a positive real number) all converge absolutely for s satisfying Re(s) > 1. . we have
3. and they are meromorphic functions.11)
a=1
(define x(a) = 0 for a that is not prime to N).
+ &
+ $
+ ‘.:. For a natural number N and an integer a satisfying 1 <.14.
For x a Dirichlet character mod N N (3.a 5 N (3. x). and they
(2) are holomorphic in this domain. . L(N)(S).i
This is called the Hurwitz
zeta function
We note that the notation &N)(S) is our own and it is not generally used. For a positive C(s.x) (x is a Dirichlet character). c
&(4)(S) DEFINITION
= 1 + . (1) The defining series of C(s).
PROPOSITION 3. They are holomorphic in s # 1..
. Bl(s) =x. (n = 0.... The Bernoulli is defined by the formula
number B.17. 3. The Bernoulli 3.
x . .(z) (n = 0.(z) B3(x) = 1. x2 1 2 .
= x4 2x3+x2$. 1. 2.1 x+$+$+. polynomial B.. 1 6
3 = x3 . ) is defined by
B..13) we have (3.. .‘s are all rational numbers. B8 = $ In particular. and they can be expressed in terms of Bernoulli numbers and Bernoulli polynomials..3.. =I( we see that (3.. Theorem 3. we see that for n an integer greater than or equal to 3.
2 2
1 = I+%+$+..p2 + $x..15) B.
.15 at the end of this section.
= 2 (:) i=o
BiFi.14) B1 = . = 1.3.
B... even function (3.(z) where (1) = &. s+y+*
. 2.16. B”=.
From (3. invariant under J: H x).+g+.... )
Prom the formula ~ = ez . = 0
DEFINITION 3.1 + 5 is an (i.
DEFINITION 3... 66 2730 6 B.e. .
VALUES
AT
NEGATIVE
INTEGERS
91
We give a proof of Proposition
3. Blz = ’ B14 = . 1. B4 = &.13) B..
>
+
(
5 691 7 BIO = . Since & .
(b) Values at negative integers and Bernoulli nwnbers and Bernoulli polynomials.18 shows that the Riemann < function has rational values at nonpositive integers.. By B2(2) =x2 x+.. ..
have
R.
(1) F or a natural number r and a positive
real
number x we have <(l . x(a) = 0 (see Question 3). Let N be a natural integer. Let N be a natural number.(x) (2) For natural numbers 1 5 a 5 N we have
r
and N.19.18.
In particular.x) = r&.. From Theorem 3.
= &
= &
COROLLARY 3.92
3.
and we
THEOREM
3.(iv)(m) E Q.Jp. we have C(m) E Q for any nonpositive integer m.
coefficients.21. = <@+l)
&q2)
+ .20.20 and the fact ~~=“=..7. Let G be a finite group and x: G ) Cx a homomorphism whose image is different from (1). x) = kc
a=1
ax(a). then we have
L(0. Then.(O)
in rational = B. + . . Show that CcAtc x(a) = 0.
a an integer..(z)
is a polynomial B..15) we see
L a(N)(O) .18 (2) and (3. we have
number. .
and
CE .
and an integer
a satisfying
COROLLARY m a nonpositive
3.
This can be seen from Theorem 3.
+ .
QUESTION 3. If the image of a Dirichlet character x : (Z/NZ) ’ + Cx is diflerent from {l}.18(2)
EXAMPLE
3.
.
This follows from Example 3. c
In particular.
Z) = f&(x) is very natural.1)2 = .
1 ns

In other words. We now explain briefly why (3.16) holds.16) For example. property in view of the nature of the Hurwitz < function and Bernoulli polynomials. the Hurwitz < function appears. while we consider it when k is negative.x)
x we have
+ C(s). + (x .18(2) follows from Theorem 3. W e see from the theory of Taylor pansion that the linear operator eD = c. This fact makes us feel that the formula ((1 .8.3.1) = :(X2 ..Es2 + ix >
On the other
hand. Bernoulli polynomials appear.3. Before giving a proof of Theorem 3.18(l) and the relation (3. when we consider the formula of the sum of I. $$ satisfies eD(f(4) = f(x + 1) ex
.
the Hurwitz
< function
satisfies
by definition
C(%X+ 1) .18( 1) at the end of this section. 1+ 2” + 32 +
c 72l n=o we have
= g?(x)
.12) between the Hurwitz < function and partial Riemann < function..
VALIJES
A’l’
NEGATIVE
INTEGERS
93
Theorem 3.th powers when Ic is positive.18(l) is a natural . ( x3 .>
and therefore (3. Let us consider the linear operator
D: Wd + @bl.“=.).T.
. we have a formula
Xl
(3. The Bernoulli polynomials first appeared in the formula for the sum of kth power. 1+2+3+. f(x) H &XI
on the polynomial ring @[xl. we explain first why Theorem 3.17) for any natural
X1 c n=l
number
= <(. For natural numbers T and 5.C(%X) = .5. + (x .
and thus we have ((1 . = 0 for an odd integer r less than or equal to 3. (If we let r 2 = f in this formula. n=O
Operate (3.94
3.
QUESTION 4. we obtain c(O) = $..r) = fB.r) = 0. the lefthand side does not make sense.19) rx r1 = B. we have
for any natural number 2.(l)
for a natural number r. we have c(m) = 0.. we have
D = (8 . we have <(l .
(2) If r is a natural number greater than or equal to 2.5.18)
E @[xl .18(2) we have ((1 r) = iB. If we tend s 1 in (3. 0
. but it seems like the sum of i from 1 to ?j.14) we have B.19) that B.(l) = BT(0) = B. c
for all f(x) (3.)
COROLLARY
3. Find the righthand side when z = 5/2.17).16) follows easily from this.BT(z)
The formula (3.1) 2 $I. From (3. From the definition
of B.22.) n=O BnsFn = BT(x).(z + 1) .
PROOF. (1) C(0) = $.18) on zT and use the formula
F $D’“(x’) n=O = 2 (r. it follows from (3.. If r 2 2.
and we obtain
(3. Since B1 (x) = z . (3) If m is a negative even number.
From Theorem 3.
they converge uniformly in the domain Re(s) > c. As a preliminary.
(c) Proof
PROOF OF
of Proposition
PROPOSITION
3.
“.. We denote this extended function by I’(s) also. Since the limit of a uniformly convergent sequence of holomorphic functions 0 is again holomorphic. we introduce the I function. for any c > 1. l?(s) has an analytic continuation to a meromorphic function on the entire plane. we have
5. Proposition 3.18(l). x).15(2) it is sufficient to prove it for ((s. We prove this for the funcwork for &N)(s) and <(s! z). = 
Prom ((1)
3.
n J
12l
&dz.15 and Theorem
3...13) = A. (Similar proofs let Re( s) = g > 1.22 and (3. For a complex number s satisfying Re(s) > 0 define
r(s)
=
f.l)!. 9 converge absolutely.“=.18(l).15( 1). VALUES EXAMPLE
AT
NEGATIVE
INTEGERS
95
3. IXe“p
If s is a natural number. = .. and.3.18.3. x)..
and thus ~$.
PROOF OF PROPOSITIONS 3.
tion L(s.~=$dz=l+& n=l This shows that the series C.23.15(2) AND 3. we hzve I’(s) = (s .15(l) is proved. Then it is known
. we have
3. To prove Proposition 3.) If we
x(n)
ll ns If n > 2. ((7) <(11) = = ((3) l 24X3X5) 691 23X32X5X7X13’ = l 23X3X5’
((0) ((5)
l 22 x 32 x 7’ l 22 x 3 x 11’
<(9)=C(13)
= A. We prove it together with Proposition 3.
1. du we have f(s. where p(s.
> 1. we have
x==e(s+n)uUs *u We =J’ n=o c 0
=r In other was.
J’
()_ f(s. For m > 0 we have &Em(s Now. We divide words.u)
let u = ~ L7C+n’ >
t
4 = JX
0
= &u
Sl
.1’ By the definition of
x Kc(s) CTU 77=0 Therefore
. where it has a pole of order 1. 2. u)du.
the integral
into two parts: = /’ o f(s.. u)du. =. u)du + lx f(s. Consider
0 rapidly as u tends to infinity. . (z) we have on s.u)du. r(s) is holomorphic except for s = 0. eCsu Gus. 3. u)du
J’
Since the function ePszL approaches the integral s. (.. u )d u converges it is holomorphic B.” f( s . f(s. and J.that I’(s) has the following properties. if Re(s) + m)r(s) = (1)“.e” . for any complex number s. . uexu 12. I’(s) does not have a 0.
In the following ISI . for any real numbers C and C’. where it has a pole of order 1. For an integer n > 0 we have
sJ~n(s + 71.. 2.3. we have C. and it is holomorphic except at. x) = fo (s) + Cz= (3.5) = ~ Bn (xl
n
PROOF
OF
PROPOSITION
3.3. VALUES
AT
NEGA'I'IVE
INTEGERS
97
This has an analytic continuation to a meromorphic function s in the entire complex plane. ) where it has a pole of order 1.l)(r(s)((s... 2. 0. and it is holomorphic except at s = 1.l)r(s)
n.
If we let 72 = 0 and take the fact l?(l) lii (s .l.20). (s) .20) shows that the series X:=1 fnL(s) converge uniformly in the domain {s E @ 1 IsI < C. = 1.(s thus we have {(l
+ 12 .l)<(s.1.. Therefore. (1 + &)
we prove
es
The inequality (3. 3.15(3). It is holomorphic except at s = 1.. Since the image of x : (Z/NE) ’ + @’ is not {l}. C(s. define
We have L( s. r(s)(‘( s.“=.fm(s)l 77?=1 I N.. .
For
s satisfying
Re(s)
>
0
and m 2 0. s = 1. .z) has an analytic continuation to the whole complex plane. = (l)“’ . Let us prove (3. Re( s) > C’}. 3.20) 5 I. and thus the sum is holomorphic when Re(s) > 0.
we have
.1. and we have
If R > 1. 0. .z)
x)) = y
= 1 into = &(z)
.
1 fr. A. (1)” account.
x(n)
= 0 ( see Question
3). to a meromorphic function on the Thus. Hence. we have lim.x ) is extended whole complex plane. where it has a pole of order 1. . . .
ISI2 & I N.
(1)
If m is a nonpositive then me have
satisfying
.2 in Volume 2 we will explain the fact that.fm(s)l N. m $ 1 mod (p . for r = 2 we have
<(1) (see Example = 2 x 1x & 3.) . 5
m=l
m=l
(d) Functional equation.
PROPOSITION
3. In Chapter 7. c
We write
and thus. we have <(l .x‘) called th e f uric t’zonal equation.98
3.x) and L(1 s.24. For example.23). xs+l 0 for Re(s). when x : (i%/NZ) x + cx is a Dirichlet character and xl : (Z/NZ)X f cx is a Dirichlet character defined by x‘(a) = ~(a)i.l)! x & for the Riemann < function. The second mystery was proved by Kummer in the nineteenth century and part (2) of the following proposition is called “Kummer’s congruence”. we have
Therefore. We now discuss the second and third mysteries of the values of the < function.
if we write
mN+n s (@$+n)‘&=mN s
dx.l). ISI. x a4
=
2
x&
7r2 X=6
1
12
(e) The second and third mysteries.r) = 2 x (r . th ere is a relation between L(s. It follows from the functional equation that we have the property that for an even number r no less than 2.(1 + .
Let p be a prime integer
number. $7.
we have
and thus we have
ii: I.
Show by using Proposition 3.23 the numerator of <( 11) has the prime factor 691.23 we have
<(1) = &
E Z(. any prime factor of the denominator of C(m) when we express C(m) as a quotient of relatively prime integers is no greater than 2 .3 we also discuss the arithmetic meaning of the values L(l.). which takes its values in padic numbers (theory of padic L functions of Kubota and Leopoldt). The value of the Riemann C function at a positive even integer r is of the form rational number x 7rT.
As for the third mystery. (For example.23 the prime factors of the denominator of c(11) are 2.
Summary 3. and they do not ceaseto mystify us.5. and its value at a negative integer or 0 is a rational number. and extended to the theory of padic L functions.SUMMARY
99
(2) If m and m’ are negative integers satisfying m c m’ q. The Dirichlet L function is a generalization of the Riemann < function.m.
.l).1 $ 1 mod (p .1.(11) = 13.13.1). By Example 3.4 that some arithmetic information of the field obtained by adjoining a 691st root of unity to the field Q is related to the fact that in Example 3. The values of C functions appear in many areas of mathematics in an unexpected way. In $4. x) for the Dirichlet character satisfying x( 1) = 1. For the second and third mysteries.k 1 mod (p .
EXAMPLE 3. in Example 3.2.). and they are no greater than 2 .7. we will discuss in 54. It has similar (but not exactly the same) properties to the Riemann C function.3.
The above congruence relations mod p satisfied by the values of the Riemann < function at negative integers are generalized to congruence relations mod pn (n > l).x) and L(0.25. The Riemann < function has an analytic continuation to the entire complex plane. For a prime number p different from 2 and 3 we have . then we have C(m) = <Cm’) mod PZ(. see Chapter 10 in Volume 2.
QUESTION 5. 3.24 that if m is a nonpositive integer.
ck be positive
sr . (2) (1) Show that if Re(s) > 1. As a function on s.7
define
S a=
33 = . Let
For a = 1. and it is holomorphic except at 1. show lili. . c
3. .c‘“) c ETlog(l
71=1 n 8 .
Prove
formula
(3.3.4. means .i + . k. real numbers and define
3. .1+~+&+.
.(” Here lim.ss .. . 1 converges whenever (1) The series c 7x1. .. sums:
(2) (l+~++)+(i51.” . (We will see later that it is related to the padic numbers and the ideal class group defined in Chapter 4. .i + f ... prove the following more general situation. we have (1 .3.)
Exercises 3.) Comparing to the proofs of Proposition 3.1. Using log(2) = 1 .2. it has an analytic continuation to a meromorphic function on the entire complex plane.l)<(s) = 1.6) by calculation .2l“)<(s) l~+~&t~&+. 1 from the right on the =
s approaches
3... Find the following (1) (l+~~+)+(~+&~~)+.18..15(2) and Theorem 3..2.i + i ..5.%>O (z+clnl+.sg + ~7.+cknk)” Re(s) > k.
(This is called the multiple Hurwitz < function..r+e real line.cr. The value at an integer of such a function called the < function has some mysterious arithmetical properties.
3.100
3.. Let x.3..
ck. .. ck) becomes a polynomial in
Z.Cl.. .. <(m. 2.. By multiplying by the product cl .EXERCISES
101
(2)
Let m be a negative integer or 0.. cl. ck in ($ coefficients. . . .
.
which is not a rational number. Kummer had hoped that.1) are in a product form.
103
. Kummer obtained a significant results to Fermat’s Last Theorem (see §4. Even if a question is posed within the rational number field. and it was later developed by Dedekind and Kronecker. which is originally a question within the rational number field. by using his new theory. y. z satisfying xyz # 0. the equation x7%+ yn = zn does not have an integral solution x. the formulas contain the number &.CHAPTER
4
Algebraic
Number
Theory
Algebraic number theory was founded by Kummer in the middle of the nineteenth century. Algebraic number theory is a subject which studies how the unique factorization property for the natural numbers can be generalized (in a modified way. We can rewrite the equation x” + y* = zn as
(4. it may not be answered within the rational number field. For example. Both sides of (4. A finite extension of the rational number field Q is called an algebraic number field. and (k is the Icth power of &. and we are tempted to apply the law of unique factorization to both sides of the equation.) is an algebraic number field. Q(<.4). and thus Kummer was obliged to examine whether or not the law of unique factorization holds in the world of numbers containing such numbers as Cn. In this chapter we will discuss the method and important results of algebraic number theory. However. As a matter of fact.1)
k=O
where & is the primitive nth root of unity cos (%) + isin (s). if necessary). he could prove Fermat’s Last Theorem: If n is no less than 3. and it is often necessary to go to the world of algebraic number fields in order to answer the question.
. below. In 54. the method that enlarges the world of numbers. An integral domain that has the property (*) is called a unique factorization domain.then a or b is divisible by CE.~~~isaprimeelementofA). We show the propositions in the title by enlarging the world of numbers from Z to the rings such as Z[i] = {a+& 1 a. Namely. then we have T = s. and Z[&] are unique factorization domains.2
.
(r 2 1.ion using the method of algebraic number theory. b E A and ub E aA.. 0.b~ Z}.e. . If a. . i.. Z[J2]. then a can be in A).
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 0. b E Z}. . a prime element in Z is a number of the form &prime number. then A has the following property: (*) If an element factored into a in A is nonzero the form and not a unit. (Y: suitably. .
Method
of algebraic
number
theory
In this section we will prove some of Fermat’s statements which we mentioned in the introduct. Rings such are integral domains (see Appendix A.. (~1. (a) Proof of Propositions 0. are prime is unique
elements
and this factorization
in the sense explained
The definition of a “prime element” is as follows. Z[Jz]. we have c(A = oiA (i. c~~.10. where aA = {OX 1 x E A}.. (Y.. . 0: = CQ x unit) for i = 1..2. ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
‘THEORY
4..ab(s>l. An element (Y in an integral domain A is a prime element if the following conditions (i) and (ii) are satisfied: (i) (ii) Q is nonzero and not a unit.
a = a!1 “‘Q.3 we will verify by using < functions that the rings Z[i].Z[&] = {u+b& 1u.10 and 0. In the proofs below we will use the fact that these rings have the unique prime factorization property. Z[J2] = {a+bn j a. We also give a proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem in the case n = 3. Z[&]. Z[J2]. and if we renumber a!.
is the following:
The statement
of Proposition
0.11.104
4. (Condition (ii) says that if ub is divisible by CY. if A is one of the following rings Z[i]. §A.T.e.1.u=~~. 1 for as Z[i] and Z[J2] the definition of an integral domain)..)
For example.b~ Z}.5. The meaning of the uniqueness is that if we have another factorizationofu.Z[fi] = {u+b&I u.b~ Z}. then a E cuA or b E aA. ..
s ince p is not a prime element. then p (2)UP’ prime element in Z[i]. Since a is a prime element. Suppose &Z[i] = ZZ[i]. a
3 = 1 (Theorem 2. p have p2=a!yp.i) E pZ[i]. number congruent modulo 4.B. (Y would be a unit. then there is a prime element Q in Z[i] such p = ~5 (5 is also a prime element ofZ[i]). &[i] nZ[i].4.1. y E Z) of Z[i] (where cu is the complex conjugate of a). We
we see that p is not a prime element in Z[i]. as a P’rzme number congruent to 3 modulo 4. Take the complex conjugates of these elements and use the fact
. (5) The set of units of Z[i] is {fl. p2. namely 1. If CVG = 1. it follows from the prime in Z[i] that there exists a prime element Q in Z[i] p = a!p. then .
PROPOSITION 4. the statement (1) follows from the following Proposition 4.i E aZ[i].
METHOD
OF
ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
105
(1) If p is a prime number congruent to 1 modulo exist 2. then
there there
We have already proved (2) as part of Proposition 2.i) = a2 + 1 E pZ[i]. we have either a + i E (YZ[i] or a . and 1 + z are prime elments in whereas i is a unit in Z[i].??are natural numbers.1(l). Write is not a unit.
a .8. On the p is not a unit in Z[i]. cvcv must be one of the divisors of p2. p E Z[i]. and we deduce a contradiction.i $J pZ[i].
and since both a~ and . If a6 = p2.B would be a unit since /3p = 1. we have p = CUCU. (3) 2 = (1 + i)2 x (i). then 4. (1)
Since we have such that
Let p be a prime
number
congruent there
to 1 modulo an integer
4. Since we have a~ = x2 + y2 for an element o = II: + yi (x.pp. Since we have . Thus. since factorization of p dividing p. y E Z satisfying p = x2 + y2. and it is a contradiction. y E Z satisfying p = x2 + y2. Moreover. &}. other hand. ( P > a2 E 1 mod p. p.cYyp=cyG.
exists
(a + i)(a
a + i $! pZ[i].1. (4) Any prime element ofZ[i] is of the form (prime element peared in (1) (2) and (3)) x (unit). (1) If p is a prime
to 1 that # is a Z[i].
4.2(2)). Take an integer a E Z such that (u + i)(a . (2) If p is a prime number congruent to 3 modulo do not exist x. up
PROOF. which expresses the law of unique prime factorization.
i) E &Z[i]. Therefore. *l). where o is a prime element in Z[i].106
4. ]y]. (4) Let cr be a prime element in Z[i]. it is easy to see that the equation 22 = x2 + y2 does not have a solution satisfying x # 0. we have p2 = a~ ’ pp. Then 1 = /3p. . The integer solutions of this equation are (x. y) = (fl. If we set a: = x + yyi. i. /3p=l. Then. a contradiction.8p = 1. /3p. Ifweseto2=x+yi(x. we have x2 + y2 = 1. and p. Let cy be a prime element in Z[i] dividing 1 + i. and let p2 = x2 + y2 (IL. we set /3r = 1 (y E Z[i]). Hence p = (Y/? is a prime element. (2) Let p be a prime number congruent to 3 modulo 4. or * i ). Considering the prime factorization of the natural number a~. (5) If 0 is a unit in Z[i]. y E Z). we have a?%= 2. and thus . Since we have 2i = (a + i) . If we write p = z + yi(z. p is a prime element in Z[i]. and p is a unit. and set 1 + i = ~$3. Hence.
This contradicts the uniqueness of the prime factorization in Z[i]. If we show x # 0.. This implies x=Oory=O. we see that p is the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle whose three sides are 1x1. we have /3 E {fl. It follows that 1 is in &Z[i] and a is a unit. We set p = a$ (. and let (1~be a prime element in Z[i] dividing p. By Proposition 4.b E Z[i]).O). we see that (Y divides a prime number. 1 + i.Dp = 1. Let p be a prime number congruent to 3 modulo 4. It follows from the uniqueness of factorization that Q = p x (kl. 0
. Proposition 0. Since we have a~ # 1 and we cannot write p = x2 + y2 (x.wehavep2=(r2~2=x2+y2.y E Z).1( 1) p can be written as p = a~. (0. and thus there exists an integer m such that a=mp. 1 + i}. Let p be a prime number congruent to 1 modulo 4. and therefore /3 is a unit.y E Z).1.yEZ). the argument of cr is a multiple of 7r/4. Then we have 2 = (1+ i)(l i) = a3 .p E aZ[i]. y # 0. 0
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 0. wehavec@%=p2. and we see that both a + i and a . Hence 1 + i = cup is a prime element.1(2). By Proposition 4.
wherep
E (1.1 is about a prime number that can be the hypotenuse of a right triangle with rational sides.i belong to crZ[i]. which is not equal to 1. (3) We show that 1 + i is a prime element. we see p # as. as before. 77. If x = 0 or y = 0.(u . then we have p2 = a~%. Next. y # 0. +A}. ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
oZ[i] = &Z[i]. Since cucU# 1. we have 2.
0i in A and a unit ui. we have 3a2 = 3. We use the following Lemma 4. p be nonzero elements of A. /3. 12. y) = (2. Let A be one of Z[i]. e 2 1.
Expanding
(4.b3 = (3a2 .
03 = Cr.2i = (1 .
This lemma can be proved by counting how many times each prime element appears in the prime factorization of 01. just as the proof of Lemma 1. (5. METHOD PROOF OF PROPOSITION
OF
ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
107
only solutions to the equation We rewrite the equation as
x3
0. and thus y ._ /
//’
= 3a2b .2 for the remaining part of the proof. y E Z) implies that y + 2i. and a1 “‘cl. Since y divides (y + 2i) .3). if i # j. 1 . we have y . we have y = (1 + i) x (unit).i = (i) x (1+ i).2i is a cube.
LEMMA 4.(y ./
\.3. b) = (fl. 1.1.2).
Ql(Y2Q3 =X3. .1. Z[<a].
Therefore. (Y element of iZ[i] not dividing 1+ i.ll). Furthermore...
.2) that y = 2 or 5. and thus b equals one of kl. Let y be a prime element of Z[i] dividing both y + 2i and y . We will later show by using the unique factorization properties of Z[i] that each of y + 2i and y .
(y + 2i)(y 2i).
It follows from this and (4. If we rerespectively. place b = 1.2i) (x. 1) or (fl.7 in $1.2i.11 states that the y2 = x3 . b is a divisor of 2.3)
the righthand
2
side and comparing
I both side& we have . cq can be written as cq = u& with an element . 2). Let cq. y . Thus (a. suppose oi and a3 are prime to each other. Hence.2i is a cube in Z[i]. and Z[v!?]. 2 in (4.11. Then for each i.2.4.
= y2 + 4 =
Notice that the product of y + 2i and y . . We now show that the equation x3 = (y + Zi)(y .4 are (x.2i = (unit) x (1 + i)%. b E Z).2) y + 2i = (a + bi)3
(a.b2)b. Proposition 0. and we obtain 2 by substituting y in the equation y2 = x3 .4. k a natural number.5.. Writing y + 2i = (1 + i)e~.. Z[a].i)“??.2i) = 4i = i( 1 + i)“. 1.2i are cubes in Z[i]. (Y.2. . . Thus we have r
(4.. Q.
(~1 = (unit)
x (1t i)2e.
~2 = Q. = /3”.
and thus there do not exist
.2 is (x. b) = (fl.
the imaginary parts.~)s = 1. Proposition 0.2b3 = (3a2 . the prime element Z[J2] appears in the proof. This can be done by replacing Z[i] by Z[v’Z] in the proof of Proposition 0. let p = 1. For an element o = x + yfl (z.
b is a divisor
of 1. then we have (3.2 all of al. fi in Z[i] are all cubes. we have
1 = 3a2b .8). Z[J. zti.4. (Here we replace Z[i] by Instead of the prime element 1+ i in Z[i]. By Lemma 4.108
4.y E Z satisfying p = x2 + 2y2. Thus. we can show that both y + &2 and y . then (2. Proposition 0.10. Next.n are cubes in as in the proof of Proposition 0. and 0s are of the form (unit) x (cube in Z[i]). Therefore.
Therefore. If p s 2 mod 3. x = 3.2 and using
the fact ( 2 > = 1.5). We also use the fact that the Z[Jare fl instead of the fact that the units of Z[i] are We have y+J2=(a+bdq3 Expanding both sides and comparing Z[ J.4 is about the equation p = x2 + 3y2 (p prime) and the residue of p modulo 3. ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
Any two of al. there do no exist rational numbers 5 and y satisfying p = x2 + 2y2 (see the pr of of L Proposition 2.
It follows
that
and we obtain
y = 55. fl in units of ztl.)
(a.~)s = 1. 0
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 0. and a3 do not have a common prime factor.11. It follows from this that e is a multiple of 3. and thus b = fl. (a. Thus. Rewriting the equation as x3=(Y+J2)(yvq. y + 2i = (1 + i)“o is of the form (unit) x (cube in Z[i]). But the units fl. We prove that there exist z.3 mod 8. Hence y + 2i is a cube in Z[i].2b2)b. (~2. it suffices to show the existence of Q E Z[Jsatisfying p = CUZ. 0
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 0. I).7 mod 8. b E Z). y) = (3. CQ. Proposition 0. y E Z) in Z[J2] we have CG = x2 + 2y2.
0
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 0.10 states that the only solution in natural numbers to the equation y2 = x3 . If p f 5.3 is about the quation p = z2 + 2y2 (p is a prime number) and the residue of p dulo 8.3.
We give a proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem in the case 11 = 3. ( P > we can show the existence of . First.1.2.
METHOD
OF
ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
109
rational numbers z. y.2y2 (pprime number) and the residue of p congruent modulo 8. z # 0. z satisfying x3 + y” = z3 those we choose x. y) = (1. *@}.11 are
factorization
do
solutions
(x. then there exists cy = x + yfi E Z[Jz] (x.
we set /? = (1 + a)~:
1.
integral solution
0
to y2 =
(z. The strategy of the proof is to use the method we used to find integer solutions to the equation y2 = x3 . If p = 1. Next. Our proof is essentially the same as the proof given by Euler.5 is similar to that of Proposition 0.6 E ?!?[<a] satisfying p = pp.2 in $1. Therefore.2y2). show that and (15. b E Z}. Suppose we have integers x # 0. y) = (3. QUESTION main.8). &<s. For an element o in Z[i] we considered the element (Y.0@‘. 0
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 0. we have 05 = x2 + 3y2.O)
2. We show the existence of 2.5. The proof of Proposition 0.
QUESTION x3 .
Using the only
the fact that integral
Z [W]
is a unique of y2 = x3 . If we set ck = up E Z[a]. let p = 1 mod 3. Proposition 0. which we used to prove Proposition 1. it is easy to show that any element of Z[&] belongs to Z[a] after multiplying one of 51. Using the fa 3 = 1 and replacing Z[i] by Z’[&] in the proof of Proposition 0. &58). u E {*I. show the existence of (Y E Z[&?] satisfying p = cr~r. For an element (Y = x + yfi(x.1. then we have p = pp = CUZ. z such
. &<i (these are all of the units of Z[&?]). we give an outline without giving any detail in order to help understand the proof better. y # 0.yfi. y E Z) in Z[Jz] we consider the element o’ = x .
and PROOF. *<s.4 and the method of “infinite descent”.7 mod 8. . f4)
(b) x3 + y3 = z’. Among x.4. On the ? other hand.1. y satisfying p = z2 + 3y” (see the proof of Proposition 2.5 is about the equation p = x2 . If p = cyo’. y E Z satisfying p = x2 + 3y2. Show that
and obtain
is the only
p = . y E Z) such that
p = 3xm’ = *(x2 . y. For an element o = z + y&3 in Z[a] = it suffices to {a+bfl / a.
. (3) z .
IY’I. and 2b . then there exist c E Z and Q E Z[&] such that (1) z .
we have (x’)” + (Y’)~ = (z’)~.33Y).2i are cubes in Z[i].b3. it follows from (ii2) (2) that we have
~=a”6u2b+3ub2+b3.
Comparing
Hence we have zy = (a+b)(2ub)(2ba). and 2b .b)(2b . z’ # 0. ]z]) is the smallest. it follows from (iil)(2)
y=u33ub2+b3. (ii) Rewrite x3 + y3 = z3 as
x3 = (2 . each of a + b. 0. ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
that max(]z]. We then induce a contradiction by showing that there is another solution x’.14).
(Notice that <. and we obtain the following.y = 9.b. then there exist c E Z and o E Z[&] such that (1) z . 2u .y = 92.a = (Y’)~
(d. we have
c3 = (a + b)(2u . z=u3+3u2b6ub2+b3. VI) < max(l4.T3)$.<3y = <37x3. (iiil) If x is not divisible by 3.C3Y = (1 . (i) First we show that we may assume that y.
2b . y’ # 0.
(2) z .
We can show that any two of a + b.
(ii2) If z is a multiple of 3.a).) Use the same argument as the one we used to show that x3 = (y + 2i)(y . Therefore.
(2) z .3Y = T3a3. Setting a + b =
(z’)~. y’.b = (x’)~.C3)03>
(3) z .2i) implies both y + 2i and y .
1~1.bEZ). The
outline of the proof is as follows.110
4. 2u .” = c3.
(iii2) If x is a multiple of 3. y’. 2u . 14.Y)(Z . (iil) If x is not divisible by 3. Iz’l) < max(l4. x’ # 0.c3y = (1 . z’ E Z). max(l4.
2’ # 0.
Ivl. z’ #
IY’I.b.a are relatively prime.
that
z = u3 + 3a2b .a is the cube of an integer. z are odd without loss of generality. (iii) Seta=a+b&(a. z’ such that
madx’l.C3Y)(Z . Y’ # 0. ]y]. this with (iil)(l).
(3) x (unit). say. The cases where o divides zy and z . y. Comparing
this with
c3 = ab(a . and a . f) is another integer solutiontoz3+y3=z3. iC3. zy and z&y. Setting a = (z’)“. It follows from (b) that only one of 2.4. and the image of ztc3 is the class of 1+<3. z .
To complete the details of (i). Replacing (x. if CYdivides. max(b’I. we obtain (z’)” + (Y’)~ (z’)3. (iii). About (iil). z’ # 0. Since 01 also divides z .
METHOD
OF
ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
111
Thus.b = (1~‘)~(d. In fact. we need the fo> / mg (a) 1 . it divides the third because of the relation x3 + y3 = z3.y.1. and 1 + <a. Hence.b are relatively prime.b). z are pairwise relatively prime. (We can prove this by the same method as the proof of 1 + i being a prime element in Z[i]. (ii).
max(l4. divides two of x. zt&. and it contradicts to the minimality of
max(lxl. (7. y. IY’I. preliminaries (a) through (d). y. o divides both y and z. IYI. (4 The ring ~[CY]/~Z[C 3 1consists of four elements 0.y.
(c) If a prime element (Y of Z[&] divides two of z . the image of i<3 is the class of <3. C. z) by (y.~l.T3y.<3)2 x (T3). 7. b. we have zy (ii2)(l). 14) / “. or z .cay/. z.. z’ E Z). if a prime 1 (b) IC.c3y are not divisible bv a common mime element in Zlt. and z .y. The set of units in Z[&] consists of 3~1. a .2 that
. and a . y.~) or (z.<sy.) 3 = (1 .(3) x ( unit). each of a. By (a). z) if necessary.b). About (i). (c) and the fact that z is not a multiple of 3 we see that any two of z .<a y. We can show that any two of a. y. then o divides (zy)(z&y) = (1&)y. b = ‘)3. In fact. The image of Ifrl in Z[&]/2Z[<3] is the class of 1. and thus cy divides y unless cy is of the form (1 .<3y and z .(3 is a prime element in Z[&]. and z . b.c3y are similar. then o = (1 . which contradicts the fact that y and z are relatively prime. we may assume that both y and z are odd. 2. 1. 14. lyl.h is the cube of an integer. z is even. Y’ # 0. Thus. 1~1). y’. z . It follows from Lemma 4. Thus any nonzero element in this ring is a third root of unity. 2’ # 0. we have
= 9ab(a .
mod 2Z[&]. we see that z .y) implies 6m = 2n + 1 + 1.<.&y E 1 .b. Thus.&y.y) = R. and thus w = &l. z . We consider it modulo 2Z[&]. and no two of r. and thus x. we have z .(2~ .&)iZ[&]. the equation x3 = (z .y) (z . By factoring into prime elements.&y)(z . we have n 2 2. since if z . we conclude v = *t3. cp. Setting zy
and z .b) and 3b = 2(u + b) .&y) (z .y = 9r.b). both z and y are divisible by 3.y is the cube of an integer. Hence. and (r E z.y)” = up”T$” = (L@)“. If we set orda(5) = m and ords(z . 1 divides
.(3. Hence. which is the product of these three numbers.] o E Z[(. p E Z[(s]). We have x3 = (z .2 that each of r. we have u E 1 mod 2iZ[c3]. we have wa3 E z . First.y = 9c3 (c E Z) and z . But 1 divides zy.
Therefore.&y = ucy3 (U is a unit in Z[&.
Therefore (Z . Hence 1 # 3 by hypothesis.<. Thus. and z . It follows from these and Lemma 4. W e h ave (.y)(z . and $5 is the product of a unit and a cube in Z[<s]. 1 divides 3a = (u + b) + (au .&y = w(l .t3y mod (1 . and a .y G z .y) and z .
z <3Y = (1 C3)P.]). It suffices to show ‘u = +c3.(3 E <. About (ii2). cp E W31).112
4.&.2b are pairwise prime. and by the expression of y and z in terms of a and b. ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
each of 2 .c3y is divisible by 1 . we set _____j\___ z .)” (p are divisible by a common factor in Z[&]. 1 divides a and b. About (iiil).Cay $ 32[&] = (1 . Therefore.&)(Y3 ( v is a unit in Z[<3]. Next.c3y is the product of a cube and a unit = up3 (U is a unit in Z[&].Cay E 32[&]. iJ . 2 is divisible by 1 . contradiction to (b). z &y. We have z .&)‘Z[&]. we have
Since the cube of any nonzero element in Z[C3]/2Z[&] equals 1. 2a . we have z . cp.&y E z . we have to show that a + b. If 1 divides two of these elements. Since 5 is divisible by 3. each of zy.
From this and the fact that the cube of any nonzero eleme in z[&]/2z[<3] becomes 1 (by (d)) we see that u = c3 mo 1 %I. Since y E z E 1 mod 2. in Z[&].y. By taking modulo 2Z[&]. It suffices to show that u = fl. Therefore 1 divides x3.y)” is the cube of an integer. Q E Z[(3]). we have (z .3Y = (IC3)P
= rcpq.
E:[n].4. 2) by (y.. the finiteness of class number and Dirichlet’s unit theorem.
.
The
heart
of algebraic
number
theory
We will discuss the central facts in algebraic number theory. (a) The ring of integers of an algebraic number field.a.
‘I’HE
HEART
OF
ALGERHAIC
NUMl%ER
‘I’HEOHY
11:1
both
y and (iii2)
Z...l) . z=o 1T
10. When we replaced (2.2. ]z’]) < max(]z].. Y’ # 0. Fermat’s Last Theorem in the case n = 3 is equivalent to the fact E(Q) = (0.
and we leave it to the reader.Z[i]. i. CC) in the proof above. (O.
~. Z) or (z.2.
E Z}
./
/’
4. E(Q) z Z/32. and Z[fi] are examples of the ring of integers of an algebraic number field. Q # (0.fl)}. For example.
it is easy to see that tl
2’ # 0..Q. if K = Q(&).. which
contradicts to (iiil)
(b).
is similar
Iz’l) < max(l4. prime factorization. y’.
Iv’l. ly’]. By setting X = &. Just as the rational number field Q contains the ring of integers Z. namely. The last two are the two big theorems of algebraic number theory.e. about the ring of integers of an algebraic number field. Y = z. which means that E(Q) is a group of order 3. 2’ # 0 and max(l4. it corresponds to replacing Q by (0.
This proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem in the case n = 3 is related to elliptic curves. ]y].Q or (0. y. the equation x3 + y” = . 51). We explain the ring of integers of an algebraic number field. then it is known that
OK = z[<n] = { kai<:. Finding (z’. 1) .. Z[&]. . All the rings appeared in the previous section. 2.
Next. Ml 14).z~ is written as
We denote this elliptic curve by E. z’) corresponds to finding P E E(Q) such that Q = 3P. y. each algebraic number field K contains a subring called the “ring of integers of K” (written OK). ]z]) is reflection of the fact that the height of 3P is far greater than that of P. Suppose that we have an elment Q in E(Q) such that Q # 0. The fact max(]5’].
. or an algebraic integer if we want to distinguish it from the usual integers. <n satisfies (<7L)n .+CT. For example. In general. . §A.z . it satisfies
if m E 1 mod 4.v.c. When K is a quadratic field (degree 2 extension of Q).1 for the generalities of “integral closure”..) The ring of integers 0~ of K is isomorphic to iZ@” (n = [K : Q]) as additive group.. j Q~ E OK (n = [K: Q]) such that each element of 0~ can be writ. 0~ is nothing but the “integral closure of Z in K”. ALGEBRAIC TABLE
NUMBER
THEORY
4.114
4. §A. 1 0
for some n 2 1 and cl.. E Z). note that Q(o) is the field consisting of all numbers obtained from Q and cy by four fundamental operations. In other words. where m is a square free integer different from 1. the general theory of integral closure. then it is known that B is a finitely generated
. and B is the integral closure of A in K. F is the quotient field of A.1 = 0... Then we have
We remark that i.. See Appendix A. . + c.. (The point here is that the coefficient of the highest degree (degree n) is 1.N. “integral closure”. If we use the terminology of algebra. E Z. if A is an integrally closed Noetherian domain (see Appendix A. then 0~ is given as follows. We write K = Q(6). and thus it is an integer of Q(&). This can be shown as follows using Clcyl Jr.ten uniquely as .e.... K is a finite separable extension of F.1.) An element in 0~ is called an integer of K.(C1. v
is a solution
of 1~’ .
(See Table 4. c.l). and Z[o] is the set of numbers cv written as a polynomial with Z coefficients.1 Q(a) Q(A)
Algebraic Its ring
number
field
Q
Q( &)
of integers
The definition of OK is as follows: such that Q: satisfies the equation an + Clck n1 +
0~
is the set of elements
0 in K
. there exist (3~1..
For example. Z[JT].4). (1) For elements ~1. a finitely generated abelian group. 3.abEa”).4.e.. Let A be a commutative in A if it satisfies conditions group
ring. However. y E Z). Prove that the ring of integers of a quadratic field is as de
(b) Failure of unique prime factorization.
DEFINITION
is called
an ideal
4. we have 0 E a
EXAMPLE 4. (ii) a E A. Z[n]. we cannot apply Lemma 4. a. .
(c) Decomposition into prime ideals.). . that is. E A} is an ideal of A...1 and the fact that 3 is not a prime element would impliy that 3 = ~3. in the ring of integers Z[J?Z?] = {u + bm / a.bEa =+ a+b. and we denote it by (~1.
scribed QUESTION above. In fact.1) may not hold.4) 3” = (1t
J26)(1 . If a: were a prime element of Z[a] dividing 3. the ring of intergers of algebraic number field has the “decomposition in prime ideals” instead. neither is in 3Z[m]..
a of A
(i) a is a subgroup of the additive and “a. As is explained in the previous paragraph.2 to (4. . If we write Q = IC + y&% (2. + anan / ai. . b E Z} of Q(m). As this argument shows.J26)
and even though the product of 1 + J26 and 1 . and 0~ is a finitely generated Zmodule. the prime factorization law may not hold for the ring of integers of an algebraic number field. A subset (i) and (ii). 1 + &??6 and 1 . cy..2.. In
.
A (i. but it is easy to see that there are not such x and y. It is easy to see that this n is [K : Q]. Z[&]. Thus. Then we have B = 0~. Since 0~ does not have an element of finite order except for 0. a. cy. the law of unique prime factorization (the condition (*) at the beginning of 54. Z[Jz]. In fact. unlike Z. we have (4. In the ring of integers of an algebraic integer field. the fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups implies that there exists an integer n > 0 such that 0~ E Z@“. there is no prime element dividing 3. Let A = Z (and thus F = Q).m are not cubes in Z[m]. . we have 3 = x2 + 26y2. the argument of Proposition 4.4. in A the set {uIcyl + .&!% is in 3i%[q]. Thus 3 is not a prime element in Z[J26]. the prime factorization does not work well with Z[&QG]. We call it the ideal of A generated by ~1.. . THE
HEART
OF
ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
115
Amodule. . b E a implies ab E a.3. . We now explain “ideals” and “prime ideals”.
Z[i].5. (ii) 1 6 A (this is equivalent to p # A)..
.. An ideal of the form (0) is called a principal ideal.. (r 2 0. and 0. DEFINITION 4. is called a principal ideal domain. ab E p. An ideal p in A is a prime ideal if (i) and (ii) hold. b in a commutative ring A define the product ab as the set of elements of the form Cy=“=.8. b.r.p.azbi (n > 1.6.
and this decomposition is unique another decomposition
a=p\.. we have
..
The above decomposition of a is called the prime decomposition of a.. where n is a element of a whose absolute value is the smallest. THEOREM 4. . it is easy to show that a = (n). and by renumbering p:=pz foralli=l. for an elment o in A we have (a) = cuA.. For ideals a. then a E p or b E p. . ..3). We abbreviate (0) = (0) to 0 in what follows.b
are nonzero in the following
prime
ideals
in OK). .. DEFINITION 4. (i) If a. .b E A..pT. Among pi.. pb are nonzero pi. We often abbreviate principal ideal domain to PID. E 6). (1) If A is an integral domain and o is a nonzero element of A. n integer.. An integral domain such that all of its ideals are principal ideals. . ab is an ideal of A. where p is a prime number. Let A be a commutative ring. we regroup the same prime ideals and we
. Z[G] and Z[&] see $4. ui E a.. EXAMPLE 4.7.
then we have r = s. Z[J2]. ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
particular. if a is a nonzero ideal of Z. If a admits
prime ideals in OK).
sense.. Then a can be decomposed into the product of prime ideals of the form
a=pl. pl.. In fact.pb (~20. then we have (cy) is a prime ideal ++ a is a prime element
(2) All the prime ideals of Z are (p). such as Z. (2) All the ideals of Z are principal ideals (n). Z[&] and Z[Jz] are principal ideal domains (for Z[i]. pb suitably.116
4. Let K be an algebraic number field and a an ideal of the ring of integers OK of K.. pi.
we consider it to be~patimmof. and an ideal may not be written as (a). a Dedekind domain is not necessarily a principal ideal domain. (see Appendix A.8 can be generalized to Theorem 4.
(1further. In a Dedekind domain any nonzero ideal admits a unique decomposition into prime ideals (see Appendix A. instead of number theory. a. EXAMPLE 4.
(g > 0.2. principal. Reading. G. and OK. sA. We recommend that the reader look up any booki of ring theory for detail.9.pp
NIJMBEH
THEORY
117
a=pyl. THE HEART OF ALGEBRAIC often write . or Chapter 7 of N. However. Thus.1. We have The ideals
b = (3.1). . The argument goes roughly as follows. 5A.
. the integral closure of a Dedekind domain in a finite extension of its field of fraction is once again a Dedekind domain). Paris. sA.2) An ideal of a Dedekind domain can be written as (~1.. for example. . M. we do not give a proof here. .. as an ideal it are not
a = (3.the general theory of algebra.4. . The ring Z is a principal ideal domain (see Example 4. Introduction to Commutatzwe Algebra. is also a Dedekind domain (see Appendix A. MacDonald. AddisonWesley.1a. pi are distinct nonzero prime ideals of 0~ eZ 2 1). b are prime
(3) = llb. and a principal ideal domain is a Dedekind domain.J26)).1). Bourbaki Algibre Commutatzve. Atiyah and I. Z is a Dedekind domain. . Though it is an important theorem.) with a finite number of elements (~1. Mass. Thus. Thi theorem is a result of the fact that 0~ is a Dedekind domain (see AppL dix A. Consider an ideal GZ) ideals J26) but which = 6”. .12 below. cy. We give a summary of the theory of the Dedekind domain in Appendix A. i.4).
be factored = ((1t J26)(1
(3”) = a”b”
.
Theorem 4. which is a theorem concerning “the decomposition of fractional ideals into prime ideals”.
in 01~ = Z[JZ%]. the integral closure of Z in K.
Both sides decomposes of (4. ‘See. Herman. 1+ J?%).4) as
(1 + J26)
cannot
= 113.. sA. Let K = Q(m).
ai E a. b. around 1863. Kummer introduced the notion of “ideal numbers” instead of ideals.
the fractional ideal is called a principal
DEFINITION 4. but the law of prime decomposition of ideals holds. The notion of ideals.11. main
. ljA. around 1845. defined the ring of integers of an algebraic number field and the notion of ideal. 0~ is given by
= {x E K / xa c OK}
This theorem.11. Let K be an algebraic number field. THEOREM
tional
ideal
4.
an element finitely
c in 0~ generated
such that OKsubmodule
For an elementninKX1Ye denote by (0) @OK.
field. A fractional ideal of the form (cr) (o E KX) fractional ideal. ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
DEFINITION 4. Then a is written as a= Jp. for example. and proved the law of unique prime decomposition for the ideals. ab is a fractional ideal of OK. too.118
4. ep E Z and ep = 0 all fractional ideals of 0~ in Definition 4. Harris.
and a a frac
where p runs all nonzero prime ideals of except for a finite number of p.10. which was born in number theory.2) It was Kummer who first showed. For fractional ideals a. E 6). became quite important in all areas of mathematics such as algebraic geometry (see. SchemesThe Language of Modern Algebraic Geometry). Eisenbud and J. It was Dedekind who. D. Let K be an algebraic number a of K is a fractional ideal of 0~ if one of the following conditions holds.
P
numberfield. aibi (n 2 1. To be precise. b in K we define the product ab as the set of all elements of the form Cy=“_. The set of is a group under the multiplication defined its identity element and the inverse of a is a ’
OK. A subset two equivalent ca is a nonzero of K. that the law of prime factorization fails for the ring Z[&] (n > l). Let K be an algebraic of OK.12. follows from the theory of the Dedekind dosince 0~ is a Dedekind domain (see Appendix A.
3&)(1 + a)“. For example. Let K be an algebraic number field. If K = Q.19fi) = .2. and the factorization is unique in the sense of $4.5) 7=(3+&?)(3Jz)=(5+3Jz)(53Jz) = (27 + 19&)(27 . Then.14 shows that the ideal class group measures the “failure of the prime factorization law”. and Let K be an algebraic (iii) are equivalent. The unit group of K is the group Og. We have (4.4. Cl(Q) group of Q is Zx = {il}..THE
HEART
OF
ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
119
(d) Ideal class the ideal class group braic number theory. Also. 4. The proof is left to the reader.5) are obtained by
. The ideal class group is the cokernel of the homomorphism from Kx to the group of fractional ideals given by cy H (a). condi
LEMMA
tions
(i). EXAMPLE
and the unit
4. Every nonzero element in 0~ can be factored into the product of prime elements. the group that consists all the units in OK..1. consider the prime factorization of 7 in the ring Z[J2].
4.13.
DEFINITION
group and unit’ group. It is considered that is the most impbrtant group appearing in algeand the unit group is the second. 0
PROOF. while the unit group is its kernel. number field. We can say that the ideal class group and the unit group measure the difference between “numbers and ideals”.15.14.10). The integer ring 0~ is a principal ideal domain. many different prime factorizations of 7 shown in (4. The sizes of the kernel and the cokernel indicate how this homomorphism differs from an isomorphism.
We discuss the meaning and importance of the ideal class group and the unit group. (ii) (i)
(ii) (iii)
The ideal class group Cl(K) is reduced to the identity element.
(1)
(2)
The ideal class group of K is the quotient ot the group of fractional ideals of 0~ (Theorem 4.12) by the subgroup consisting of principal fractional ideals (Definition 4. consists of only one element.
As we can see from the identity 3 + &’ = (5 . Lemma 4. We denote it by Cl(K) or C1(0~).
2y2 has infinitely many solutions suchas 7 = 322x12 = 522~32 = 27”2x1g2 = . c =
EXAMPLE 4. the prime multiplying by a unit in a(&) factorization of 7 is unique in the sense of §4. the ideal class group and the unit group play some mysterious roles. the ideal class group and the unit gr of K indicate how the law of prime factorization in 0~ is different r that of Z. The order of the ideal class group of an algefield is called the class number of the algebraic number K = Q(m).2y2 has many solutions”. the situation of prime factorization in Z[fi] seems somewhat different from that of Z.
is a jinite
DEFINITION
4.
4. Thus.17.5). as we can see in (4.4 in Volume 2.3 a = (3.3 not hold). If we understand how different the properties are.
3
Cl(Q(J26)).16 and 4. the 1 w of prime factorization. For this purpose it is important to know the ideal class group and the unit group. we have
a3 = (1+ and we have Z/32 (m. The group. We will see in 54. Proofs of these theorems will be given in Chapter 6. 56. As we will see later. of c)” of real places
H (class of a)nL(class
In order to state Theorem and imaginary places.120
4.
ideal
class
group
of an algebraic
number
number
4. concerning the ideal class group and the unit group.. Theorems 4. but he realized that “the equation 7 = x2 .18. and he began to study Pell’s equation in Proposition 0. But. since there are infinitely many units in Q(a).
THEOREM
field braic field. ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
such as (1 + a)“. Consider that the class number of K (2.21 we define the notion
.l + &%).n) CE Z/2Z
c2 = (2). v’?%?I). Fermat did not arrive at the notion of the ring Z[Jz] or the units thereof. because the equation 1 = x2 . (e) Two main theorems in algebraic number theory. w expect that we can understand K well (even if. as they are related to zeta functions and class field theory.16. is 6.1(*). for example. Here we introduce two important theorems.. which played an essential role in $4.21. Setting pi%).6 As this shows.1.
.
” {*(l
EXAMPLE 4.2. More precisely.ted abelian group. The finite cyclic of unities in K.q5)“. The unit group of an algebraic number field K is a finitely genera.
EXAMPLE
4. formed by all the roots
above is the group
4. r2 is the number of imaginary places and r = r1 + r2 .
. 5 H g(z) as the same place.
o. (2) An imaginary place of K is a homomorphism 0 from K to @ such that u does not satisfy a(K) c R. We know from field theory that there are [K: Q.24. THE
HEAItT
OF
ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
?'HEORY
121
4. Therefore. there is an element E in 0: such that 0. 0.
EXAMPLE
” i%” group
@ (finite
cyclic
group). then we have
.
If K = Q(fi). (1) A real place of K is a homomorphism from K to IR. m a negative integer.21 (Dirichlet’s unit theorem). . r2 = 0.
OKx is a finite
group M K = Q or K is an imaginary quadratic field. if r1 is the number of real places.. Thus.’
0. for a real quadratic field K (a quadratic field Q(Jm) with positive m) we have ri = 2.22. r2 = 0. unit in K.1. We regard 0 and its conjugate a : K + @.
and r2
PROOF.
DEFINITION
PROPOSITION 4.] homomorphisms from K to C. We have ri + r2 . Among those there are r1 homomorphisms whose image is contained in IR. and K does not contain roots of unity except for *l. rz = 1 and
n E Z} rzC3z/2z. in this case we have r1 = 0. For example 1 + fi
Such a unit E is called a fundamental is a fundamental unit in Q(a).1 = 0 only when K = Q or K is a quadratic imaginary field (i. K = Q(Jm).
we have ri = 1.23. and 1 nEZ}“Z@z/22.20.19. Let K be an algebraic number field. r2 = 1).1. we have [K: Q] =rl +27z.
the number of imaginary
Let r1 be the number of real places places.r{f(l+JZ)n
In general.e. = {*En 1 n E 25).
For K = Q(a)
we have ri = 2. and 2~ whose image is not in If& 0
THEOREM 4. Then.
25 and parts of Iwasawa theory.
x+yv%+(x+yv%)(xym)=x”Ny”. and we have Z[Jlvl” Q(Ph) = {&(x0 + yoJNy
xcoordinate is the PA whose ycoordi
1 n E Z}.ent smallest.122
4.
PROOF OF PROPOSITION
4. since both z.27. p& = {(x. Then. 4.22. They are also related to 54.
If K =
EXAMPLE
4. The map
f:Z[v%]+Z. in particular Fermat’s Proposition 0.
will explain below only Example 4.4. then ~1 = 0 and r2 = 3. between the multiplicative group Z[fl] x units in Z[JN] and the set PN.and ycoordinates of (1. Let N be a natural number
PN = {(x.l) E Pi are clearly minimal in Pk.YO) b e an elem.27(2) we see that Z[filx = {k(l + fi)lL 1 n E Z}.Ny2 = H}. We show (1). Let c7 be a primitive Q(<T). us use Dirichlet’s unit theorem to prove a statement related equation (§0.
then we have r1 = 3 and
We 4. E
PN
’
’
PROPOSITION
that
is not
a
Define
1 32 > 1.
7th root of unity.6.26 are Let to Pell’s
square.l).
. Examples 4. (x. (x0.
= ((x0 + y0JN)”
From Proposition 4.27. !/ > 1). yo) is an element of nate is also the smallest.y) H consisting 2 + yfl of all the
(1) There
is a bijection 0: PN + Z[m]‘. of Pf.4). 1 n 2 l}.26.!/) y) E Z x Z ) x2 . If K = Q(cT + C. whose (2) Let (XO.25.ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
EXAMPLE 4.
/mOK)’ is 1.6. We prove (2) using Dirichlet’s unit theorem. First we show that the group Z[&V] x is an infinite group. We have Z[&V] C OK. to the units in Z. y1 natural numbers). fl. elements (z> y) in the subset of P. Thus there exists E E Z[&Vlx such that Z[fi]’ = {ztzn / R E Z}.fi]. y’ E z. yi) is an element in PA whose zcoordiante ycoordinate are minimal./mO. and it contains fl. &ul} = {x + y&v. Thus. cl
.1 belong to mOK. We prove that un E ZIJNlx for a certain n > 1. y’ > y1. Z[fi] ’ is an infinite subgroup of 02 E Z@iZ/2Z. y E Z) preserves multiplication. Therefore. y E Z. x’. y E Z). both n .4.Z[fi]
for any 2. Let K = Q(m).
E Z[filx
(2. x + yv% E I+‘%]’ M
it maps the units we have x2 .27(l) satisfy the equation x2 .)X is a group of finite order. has an element u of infinite order. Therefore.
THE
HEART
OF
ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
123
(z.Ny2 = zkl
in . By Dirchlet’s unit theorem 0. Therfore. and it is easy to see that there exists a natural number m such that mOK c Z[fi]. Since (O. H ence we obtain un E Z[V%]’ . namely. xyyJN. By replacing E by 3~ or fe’ if necessary.Ny2 = 1.2. and ) 0
This means that (21. and both un and uAn belong to . if u # 61. Hence we have @(PA) = ((51 + ylfi)” n 2 l}.
\
Therefore.
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 0. we have f(o”) = f(a)” = (11)2 = 1. one and only one of fu and fu’ belongs to 0(%). Then for n > 2.TJ that corresponds to the infinite set {cy” 1 a E Z[&V]x} through Proposition 4.xy&v).6. there exists n > 1 such that the image of un in (O..x+yJN. we may assume that E E d(Pf. 5’ > Xl.i). Thus. Ifo E Z[v’8]‘. Let E = XI+ ylv’% (21. where f is the map defined above.1 and U~ . Finally. Therefore. (1) follows from this. we prove Fermat’s Proposition 0. we have (Xl + y1 JN)” = 2’ + y’fi. To prove (2) we note that if u = ~7:+ yfi we have {&IL. this equation admits an infinitely many soulutions.
then e(u) = 1. law. it is important to know its class number.
m.
The above definition of x may seem complicated. 1 . then 19(u) = 1 for a E 1. is even. Since K c Q(<N) (<N is a primitive Nth root of unity). mod 4. It is possible to define it in a simpler way using the material in Chapter 5. The character explicitly as follows. The class for imaginary
number quadratic
formula fields
In order to study the arithmetic of an algebraic number field.3 the quadratic character + {il} c Cx m we have mod4.2 of Volume 2 as follows. For an integer a relatively
x can be expressed prime to N we have
x(u mod N) = (n
where 1 runs as follows.
and e(a)
is defined
E 1 mod 4.124
4. Let K be an imaginary quadratic field (a quadratic field that cannot be in R).“‘. ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
4. if m E 3 4 and a E 3 mod 4. we define x using Galois theory as follows: (Z/NZ)X ” Gal(Q(C. We have K = Q(e). where m is a square free integer satisfying m < 0. then 6(u) = 1. In this section we explain how the class number of an imaginary quadratic field is related to a value of a < function.
. then 19(a) = 1. we see that
m
reciprocity
(Z/NZ)X number
m (1 P
p not dividing = x(p mod N)
(4. Define N= i By computing there is a unique ( y using ) Dirichlet x: such that for any prime I. $5.v)/Q) ir) Gal(K/Q) ” {*l}
c
cx. ifmcl if m E 2. and how it can be computed using this relation. otherwise.m mod 8 and = 1. (1) If m (2) If m mod (3) If m 0(u) all odd prime numbers
I
(:))
dividing
O(U). E 3 mod 4 and a E 1 mod 4.6)
(see Question 4 in Chapter 2).3.
WK = 6 if K = Q(&3). This is the entrance to the “third mystery of the C function”.X) Theorem 4. By Corollary
K = Q(a).28.a shows that hK = 1. Show that WK = 4 if K = (@(Jl).3.
WKfi
QUESTION 4.
By Corollary
3. + Cx is given 4.
THE
CLASS
NUMBER
FORMULA
125
(We will explain is the restriction
the first isomorphism of an automorphism
in Chapter 5 in Volume of Q(&) to K. Let K be an imaginary quadratic field and m.29 we have eax(a)
a=1
Then.
EXAMPLE 4. hK = $c
a=1
COROLLARY 4. L(l. we have 4x2 = 7 . Then we have
hK = yL(o.28 will be proved = FL&X).3) = 1. by x(1 mod 4) = 1.
and x : (iZ/4Z)’ 1..29 is called the class number formula for the imaginary quadratic fields.)
2. and UJK = 2 for any other quadratic imaginary field K. Let hK be the class number of K. Let us compute the class number of some examples using the class number formula. N.30. L(l> x) .
hK = FL&X) Therefore. (*)
THEOREM 4. . Leibniz’s formula
L(l.
We have
Theorem 4.
.21 we have Let K.. x) = .x)=l~+::+~lll+. in Chapter 7.5 in Volume 2. x(3 mod 4) =
hK = & Note that using
wKV@
= i(l
.28 or Corollary 4.
and N be as above.4.
Theorem
4. and wK the number of roots of unity contained in h’. m. It seems rather mysterious that Leibniz’s formula is related to the fact that the class number of Q(n) is 1.28. and x as above. we have WK = 4. N = 4. ax(a). 57.29.
the formula L(l. and
. ~. + .2) = 1. 45. L(1.&
QUESTION find the Q(J10). x) is &. Euler’s
L(l.31. 85.
x : (Z/S@’ By Corollary
4.
h =sxa
Thus.x) = 27r formula L(l.
T
L(l. 31. ALGEBRAIC EXAMPLE
NUMBER
'THEORY
and 1. x (624)
number following formula fields:
and thus we have = 6.x) implies = 1 . 7r For.29 we have 2 z 3 &zx(u)
a=1
Then. 37. 5. imaginary Q(JT). 21. . 7r since hK is a natural
1. we calculated (fi) for an integer a relatively prime to 104. 47.
EXAMPLE 4. 5. . 71.x)
and hK = 1 follows from this inequality number.126
4. 3. . 27. K = Q(a).28 once again. Using this. 9. x(2 mod 3) =
hK=
= (l we have 7T
. It follows from this that Cp!i UX(U) = 624. + cx is given 4. 43. Note that even if we do not know that the exact value of L(1.8(3). Using the class class number of the
fields. K = Q(m).y). we may be able to compute hK from together with some the class number formula hK = eL(l. we have WK = 6. 35.. 51. 75. quadratic Q(Jq)
hK = . x) .
Using
Theorem
K
4. 93.
for the Q( J??). we may be able to obtain hK = 1 from the formula hK = @ . N = 3. In the proof of Proposition 2. 15. As we can see from this example. 49. we see that x(u) = 1 if and only if a mod 104 is one of the following:
< !+ < 2. 81. approximate value of L( 1.. < 1
hK = *. 17. +.32. x). 7. 63.x) = &
expresses
the fact that
the
class number of Q(a) is 1. 25. We have WK = 2 and N = 4 x 26 = 104. by x(1 mod 3) = 1.
Qw1.
4. Unlike Q(&). z do not satisfy
xp + yp = 2. Q(v3. but this assertion has not been proved to this date. z is divisible by p (the first case). y. For. We consider the case where n is an odd prime number greater than or equal to 5. (In fact. We proved the case n = 4 in Chapter 1. the is where of Q(6) Proposition we considered in relation to the equation law of unique prime factorization in Q(&. the equation xn + yn = 2” implies xyz = 0 because we (z~)~~ + (y”)” = (z’)~. Let p be a prime number greater than or equal to 5. 51.1. we divide this into two cases: the case where none of x.1 and the case n = 3 in Chapter 4. and the case where one of 5. I.
Gauss conjectured that there are infinitely many real quadratic fields whose class number is 1. Q(m). y. if Fermat’s Last Theorem holds for m and m . $4. If none of x. Q(Jil).) the difficulty lies.) 4. y. Suppose that the class number of Q(&) is not divisible by p. Q(J2). y.
(a) Proof
of the first case. Q(d=%). z is divisible by p (the second case). then x.4. This the class number In the proof of which $4.1.) is not divisible by p. x3 + y3 = z3 in often fails.4. Q(d=@). Q(m).
zyz = 0.33 below we overcome this difficulty
. Kummer proved Fermat’s Last Theorem in the case n = p under the assumption that the class number of Q(&. Fermat’s
In order
Last Theorem
Last Theorem:
and Kummer
to show Fermat’s
If n 2 3 and (z.
PROPOSITION 4.
sufficient to show this assertion when n = 4 and when n is an prime number.
FERMAT’S
LAST
THEOREM
AND
KUMMER
127
Baker and Stark proved in 1967 that the only imaginary quadratic fields whose class number is 1 are the following nine fields: Q(Ji).33. Z) is an integer then it is odd n = have
solution
to x7L + yTL = zn. y.4. z E Z is divisible by p. In the following we discuss Kummer’s proof in the first case. Following Kummer. it is known that is not 1 if p is greater than or equal to 23.
y. Moving y” to righthand side and factoring the equation in A = Z[<]. 2) is 1. which was proved in 54.<) = (1 . if i # j. and b nonzero ideals of OK.36 below). z).1 (lefth an d sz. 4. Furthermore. .35.2. y. and the unit group plays an important role in the proof of Proposition 4.34.0Pl is the prime ideal decomposition of the ideal (p) in A.
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 4. Then we have:
We denote
cP by <. (3) The only roots of unity in Q(c) are of the form *(pth root of unity) . and 6. The following lemma replaces Lemma 4. a prime factor of any two of x.2. We keep the notation < and A of Lemma 4. We suppose (z.e. . We will prove the following Lemma 4. we may assume that the greatest common divisor of (2. (5) For 1 < i 2 p . x. Then for each i there is a nonzero ideal bi in 0~ such that ai = 6:. y. we have
(4.35. y. This is similar to the proofs of Lemmas 1.. where we used the unique prime factorization of numbers.128
4.1.35 in Chapter 6. y. 56. and a3 are relatively prime (i. z are pairwise relatively prime.
LEMMA
Q(c)
(2)
4.ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
by studying the ideal class group and the unit group. and a3 simultaneously).he greatest common divisor of (x. (4) The ideal (1 ... aT = 6”.<“). Let K be an algebraic number field. Let p be a prime number. Thus. there is no prime ideal dividing a.d e is the degree of jield eztension).. ..7)
.7 and al. [Q(c): Q] = p .33 under the form of the “class number”. and (p) = (1 . Because of the equation XP + yp = 9.<) zs a p rzme ideal of A. By dividing by t.3(e) in Volume 2.
This lemma can be proved by considering how many times each prime ideal of OK appears in the prime ideal decomposition of a.. we suppose that a.33 (see Lemma 4. we have (1 . k a natural n. The ideal class group appears in Proposition 4.. a.33. al.umber and al . and
(1) A = WI.1 using the unique prime factorization. by A for simplicity. z divides the third.
LEMMA 4. and we derive a contradiction. 2) is an integer solution of zp+y” = 9 satisfying p { xyz.
8) is proved. S’mce p # 3.8) z <y = u.1) is the pth power of an ideal 6.8) we use the following Lemmas 4. z . we show there exist a unit u in A and an element a in A such that
(4. and t)hus we have x E p. In order to derive a corkradiction from (4. Therefore. and let < und A be the same as in Lemma 4. then we have
AX = pP x BX. We will prove Lemma 4.
LEMMA 4. appear in the righthand side of (4.<y) = ap.
that
To do so. = {CL 1 0 < i < p . the order of Cl(A) does not divide p.4 basis of 2 over IF. ap. zi = x.<J)z E p.<) = p. Then we have the following: (1) . which is a contradiction.1. we have IC E y E Z mod p. a is a principal ideal. and thus we see 2s” E xv mod p by substituting in xp + yP = zP. By (4. and (4. we have (1 .<J)y/.35(5).1 and let p be a nonzero prime ideal that divides both (Z . which relatively prime. Let 2 = {a E A ( ~(01) = 0~). we have p 1 x.CJy E p that (C’ . Let p be an odd prime number. we have cc1 . Thus.37.z) = (1). and thus the only element whose pth power is the identity is the identity itself. It follows from the fact z <“y.34 that the ideal (z<“y) (0 < i 5 p.<J y). Let r : Q(() + Q(c) be the complex conjugution.<). we have (1 . If not. are pairwise Let 0 < i < j 5 p .36 later using Dirichlet’s unit theorem. But.l}. which contradicts the hypothesis p + xyz. By Lemma 4. (<” . Let a be a generator of a.
FERhlA’l”S
L4S’I’
THEOIIE~l
AN13
KU~IIVE:H
129
Using the fact that p does not divide the class number. Before going further. If p. Then we have ~7 + y” = z:.<) is a prime ideal (Lemma 4.37. It follows from Lemma 4.<“y) and (z . aep E AX. the pth power of the class of a in Cl(A) is the identity element. s ince y and z are relat)ively prime: we have (y. we show that we may assume y $ z mod p. Since p n Z = (p).35(4)). If y E z mod p? then we use the substitution xi = 2.l}. It suffices to show that y $ 21 mod p. We denote also by r the automorphzsm of 2 = A/pA mduced by 7.
LEMMA 4.4. in A. we first show that the ideals (Z <‘y) (0 < i < p.7).l).7) we have xP E p. If we set (Z .36 and 4.<y) . we have x 3 0 mod p. and let B = {a E A 1 T(Q) = a}. Then we have (Z .PHY..36.35. Since (1 . 2) c P.<I“) = (1 . is given by {Cl 1 1 ( % 2 p .
.
(c) If I’ # 1. Since 7 sends <” to <“. We divide into cases acthe following we omit “mod PA” for simplicity.36 and 4. of groups f : Ax + AX given by f(a) = Q/~(Q). in which p equals 0. ALGEBRAIC
NUMBER
THEORY
(2) A basis of B ower IF.37. 0 PROOF OF LEMMA 4. By Lemma 4. In E 2 ) cu E A}
by {<’ + CPi 1 1 < i < q}. We first prove Lemma 4.. On the other hand.130
4. we can take {<” 1 1 5 i < p . We now prove Lemmas 4.36 and exist <’ E pp and and from Lemma <‘l (z . First. is given (3) xp = {a” in B. we have y< E B. It suffices to show that the canonical Consider the homomorphism map pup + AX/B x is an isomorphism. Take cy = CrI. we have A” = F. Therefore.<y) mod cording to C’. Therefore. In a ring.. then z .37. which contradicts the assumption. Thus. we have z Cl E B. It follows from Lemma 4. Thus. it suffices to show that the image f(AX)
equals
fbp)
= Pp. the restriction of f to pp is the square map pp + pp.36 and 4. E F. we have finished the proof of Proposition 4..l} is a basis for 2 = A/pA over IF.y E B.37(l) and (2) we have C’ = <<‘l and y z z mod p. Thus. such as A. is an isomorphism onto pp..33. which is a contradiction.y<<‘l E B.37. The kernel of this homomorphism is given by (0 E AX I (u = T(D)} and it equals Bx Thus the image f(AX) is isomorphic t. a. <.36 that there u E BX such that u = <‘u.37(l) and (2) that z E 0 mod p.37(l) and (2) that y = 0 mod p. We have u mod pA E B. we have ap = CTil aL E F. (2) and the fact 1+ < + ‘. (b) If C’ = <. and it.37. if we admit Lemmas 4.35(l). (2) follows easily from (1).
. aici E 3.37 we have ap mod pA E B. it follows from Lemma 4. Since z E B. From Lemma 4. we have pA = uap mod pA E B.. It follows from Lemma 4. then z .o AX /BX.l} as a basis of A over Z. 4. The other assertion is clear.8) induces a contradiction once we admit 4. This also contradicts the assumption. .36. + p1 T 0.37. Let us show Lemmas 4. C’’ . to IF.<y E B.
(a) If <’ = 1. Let us show (3). then z. This shows (1). Thus. {<” 1 1 < i < p.
PROOF OF LEMMA 4. the pth power map preserves addition and multiplication. Cl . and it is contained
is equal
that (4. Since y E B.
The following theorem is called Kummer’s criterion. We compute the rank of AX and of BX using Dirichlet’s unit theorem.3.e.38. i. (ii).1) g IF.+ = f(AX). to p . For any negative odd number m the numerator of ((m) is not divisible by p. the denominator of C(m) is not divisible by p. It suffices to derive a contradiction assuming cy E AX and T(Q) = (Y. the action of 7 on A/(< .1). by Dirichlet’s unit theorem. Th us. “p divides the class number of a(&)“.1.4.(G).
FERMAT’S
LAST
THEOREM
AND
KUMMER
131
First we show that f(AX) is finite. It follows from Lemma 4.35(5) that 7 preserves the ideal (< .
THEOREM
(i). (An T such that ” 2ZBr @ (finite abelian group) is called the rank. Next.1). which relates this question to the values of the < function. This contradicts the fact T(Q) E a~ mod (< .1). For which prime number p does Kummer’s assumption.1) is trivial. We have already seen that pLp c f(AX). consists of roots of unity in Q(&). hold? Kummer proved the following theorem. divide
Then
the conditions number of
The
the class
Q. the rank of AX is &$ . between c(m) and ((1 m) to the following condition shown (iii)‘.4. the image f(AX) It follows from Lemma 4.) Let K = {cl E a$(() I T(Q) = a} = Q!(( + <I).
. by Dirichlet’s unit theorem the rank of BX is also &$ .3.4. 0 (b) Kummer’s criterion. and thus it suffices to show 1 @ f(A”) in order to prove .. First Q(c) does not have a real place and the number of the complex places is $ [Q(C) : Q] = q. in 53.
The ring B is the ring of integers of K. Therefore. Thus the finiteness of f(AX) g Ax/B’ is proved.1. the ranks of AX and BX as finitely generated abelian groups are the same. K does not have a complex place and the number of the real places is[K:Q]=%$. Thus.
Thanks to the relation condition (iii) is equivalent (iii)’
For all positive even numbers f less than or equal the numerator of <(r)r?’ is not divisible by p. Let p be a prime and (iii) are equivalent. prime number p does not
number. (i) (ii) (iii)
4.35(3) that the set of all the roots of unity in Q(c) equals {+$ 1 0 5 i 5 p . For any negative odd number m satisfying Irnl < p . S’mce A/(< . It suffices to show that BX has finite index in AX..
but any ideal may be factored uniquely into the product of prime ideals.
Summary 4. t. Let n be a natural number. (i) There exist integers (ii) p E 1.1. Let p be a prime properties (i) and (ii) are number of Q(n) is 1. There are two important theorems: finiteness of the ideal class group and Dirchlet’s unit theorem. number field is called an theory is a poweful theory
4. Algebraic number that studies algebraic number fields. In 0~ each element may not be factored uniquely into the product of prime elements. AI.
Exercises 4.3. Show that the following two using the fact. “p does not divide the class number of Q(&)“.23. that the class p = x2 + zy + 2y2. the ideal class group and the unit group.
.2. For an algebraic number field two important groups.1. but 691 divides the class number of Q(&i).4 mod 7 or number. equivalent. In this chapter the relation between the ideal class groups of quadratic number fields and C functions (the class group formula for the quadratic number fields) is discussed. A finite extension of the rational algebraic number field.hat. an algebraic number field K contains a ring called the ring of integers of K and it is denoted by 01~.132
4. Show t. (i) There exist integers z and y satisfying n = 2’ + y2.2.
4. 4. we see (iii).wo
z and y satisfying p = 2.per 10 in Volume 3. the following properties (i) and (ii) are equivalent. We discuss Kummer’s criterion at the beginning of Chat. These groups measure the difference between numbers and ideals. The above theorem implies that all the prime numbers p less than or equal to 17 satisfy the condition. Just as we have the ring of integers in the rational number field.GEUI~AI(
NUMBER
THEORY
Using Example 3. 4.7. are defined.2. These groups are related to { functions.4.
14) is natural number solution of y2 = 2” .20.)
. and d. domain
4.(n) ulo 4.o 1 modulo 4 and let n be a natural number.5.4. Let a and b be fractiona.
is even for any prime
number
p congruent
to 3 mod
4. Using t. (Here p runs tjhrough all nonzero prime ideals of A: and up and b. are integers that nonzero only for a finitely many p’s) Define cP = max(aZp.he fact Fermat‘s
4. (In 54. a n b and a + b = (2: + y 1 z E a. 9A. 5h.he fact that the class number of Q(a) thus it is not divisible by 3. Show that the prime factorization of fractional ideals of A.3. Suppose a= rJPQ>
P
A
b = npb.4 we used that the class number Q(&) is not divisible by p to prove Last Theorem in the first case.2). hp). Show that there exists a unique triangle with integer sides such that the length of the hypotenuse is p” and the greatest of common divisor of the length of three sides is 1.EXERC‘ISES
1x3
(ii)
ord. Use a similar method. and the only t. . (see Appendix A. Let p be a prime number congruent t.
P
are prime factorizations of a and 6. 4. show that (2.2): is 2.6.y) = (6. = min(ap. Show that the unit group of Q(d) ideals that is {~t(2+&)” of a Dedekind 1 rl E Z}. y E 6) given by
the are bp) t)wo are
P
(see Appendix
A.
APPENDIX
A
Rudiments
In this appendix Dedekind domains. b E A if A is different from (0) and if it satisfies
ab = 0 implies
a = 0 or b = 0. (4) Any submodule of a finitely generated Amodule is again finitely generated. (3) If Q is a nonempty set of ideals of A. A ring A is a domain the condition: for a. conditions: is equivalent to any of the following
chain of ideals of A. (2) A is an integrally closed domain.
number
). A. . E A. an element z in B is said to be integral over A if x satisfies an equation with coefficients in A:
xn + UlX n1 +. This Let us explain the terminology that appears in the above definiA ring A is a Noether ring if A satisfies the following condition: (1) Any condition ideal of A is finitely generated. n is a natural
13 :.
If A is a subring of B. then b = a. then there exists an ideal a in Q satisfying the condition: If b E 9 and b > a.
. tion. is an ascending then there exists N such that aN = aN+i = a&7+2 = . ring. (3) Any nonzero prime ideal of A is maximal.
+ (Jr2= 0
(a. (2) If ai c a2 c a3 c .l. A ring tions:
on Dedekind
domains
we give a summary on the fundamentals on In what follows a ring means a commutative
Definition
of a Dedekind
domain the following condi
A is a Dedekind domain if A satisfies
(1) A is a Noether ring.
2. and K its field of fractions. ThemapKX a homomorphism of groups. then A is said to be integrally closed. If A is a domain. The ideal A is the identity element. ring . then a E a or b E a. b E 6).
A. If for a fractional ideal a of A there exists a fractional ideal b satisfying a.1 (Dedekind domain).The set {X E B 1 J: is integral over A} is a subring of B.
A maximal ideal is a prime ideal.
EXAMPLE A. For fractional ideals a and b of A we define the product a. (a‘) = A. and its kernel equals AX. A be a domain. This is equivalent to (1) and (2) below: (1) If ab E a. A fractional ideal of A is a nonzero finitely generated Asubmodule in the field of fractions K of A. An ideal a in A is a prime ideal if the quotient ring A/a is a domain. (1) A principal domain (see Example 4. The set D(A) consisting of all invertible fractional ideals of A is an abelian group under the multiplication defined above.4) is a Dedekind domain.qml closure of A in B. If the integral closure of A equals A itself. b (a E a. then B is a Dedekind domain.
THEOREM A.4/a is
(2)
1$
a. b as the Asubmodule of K generated by a. Since (a) . the set (a) = {ab 1 b E A} c K is a fractional of A. the integral closure of A in its field of fractions is called the integral closure of A.her A or a.
all nonzero prime
Let A be a Dedekind ideals of A. but the converse does not. Fractional ideal
Let. If L is a finite extension of K and B is the integral closure of A in L. Then
domain
and 5’~ the
set
of
. This subring is called the inte.
(2)
I@ a.2. For a nonzero ideal element a E KX . Such a fractional ideal is called a principal fractional ideal. a is said to be invertible. b = A. This is equivalent to (1) and (2) below: (1) An ideal of A containing a is eit. any principal fractional ideal is invertible. For example. and the inverse of a E D(A) is given by f D(A) given by a H (a) is a‘={bEK/bacA}. (2) Let A be a Dedekind domain. the zero ideal of Z is a prime ideal but not a maximal ideal. hold in general.
An ideal a in A is called a maximal ideal if the quotient a field.
. .R. a c b is equivalent
to the
fact
p we
ep > eb.2.
FRACTIONAI>
InEAL
I37
(1)
(2)
Any fractional ideal of A is in.
For a Dedekind domain A the cokernel of the natural map KX + D(A) is called the ideal class group of A and written Cl(A). We rincipal fractional ideals}.l) be the free abelian group generated
the natural map
by S.vertible.
(eP)PESa
H
n
PESA
p’p
of groups.
Then
Z(““)
is an (3) that isomorphism for any
+ D(A). Let Z(‘. A is a have Cl(A) = {fractional ideals}/{p principal ideal domain if and only if Cl(A) = 0. an.{1 b = n have
For a = n p’p
p”.4.
Let (~. i. is a kth power. ord. (y. 1. y = 0. This implies that a. since ai a.(ar .3 and 52.. power of the prime
number
Chapter
1 T.
Chapter 2. On the other hand. Therefore. The first part we have A/2A = {0}.2. Suppose that a is the square of a rational number prime number p we have ord. {P E E(K) 1 2P = 0} is a group of order 4. Thus.e. The condition 2P = 0 is equivalent to the condition P = P. 1. Then. is easy. take A = Q. Suppose that p is a prime factor of a.4.(a) a (see to indicate which 51.(a. .)..
1.l). Since ord. As for the but A is not finitely second part.y) be the coordinates of the nonzero element P in E(K).) = 0 for all j different from i.) is a multiple of k.1. y).(a. Then.a.(a) ord. Thus. generated. it is equivalent to y = y. circle and the line with slope Th’ is is the 3 passing
2 point of intersection through (2.Answers
In what follows we write p divides the integer
to Questions
ord. The number T is an integer since we have ord.(ur a. Thus. By hypothesis we have ord. For example.(a.4). is the product of integers of the form pkn’ (m is a natural number).1.(a) = 2ord. For any 1 0. we have 2 0 for all
1. Since twice of every element in the group E(K) is 0.(r) prime numbers p. for any prime number p. the coordinates of P are (2. we have ord.(r). g). ord.3. we see that E(K) is isomorphic to Z/22 G? Z/22. If K is an algebraically closed field. and thus u7.) = ord. there are three nonzero elements P in E(K) whose ycoordinate is 0. is a kth power.) is a multiple of k. between the
..(r) 2 0.
61 is the inverse greater cy as ‘I.. Factor and T E {&2”
m as rn = 11 lk .
Nl}. .3 Il=nL
a. If N is a natural number of a real number cy is to express cY= 2 a.T.416’. is equivalent have Crl.2.. > O}. where 11. it suffices to take the line passing through (0.“”
= (5).
(.($)(k)
=G). if rrt is even. then the Nadic expansion
2.4. If n. is very C1...(%>
x
(number
determined
by p mod
8). 2.c’ The equation shows large. we have 2. than 1. 6 x (5)’ c = 1 (5addically).. and we see that 33111’ + 33200’ = 46889’.
3” 
Wehave~=~=13+3233"+3'3~++3". a7&. 1) whose slope is 0. The difference is that in the padic expansion of a real number. =) is & = 0.) = (1’.2. whereas in the padic expansion of a gadic number the terms p” with negative n may
.
on the The ..8. the terms p7’ with negative n may appear infinitely many times and the terms p” with positive n appear only finitely many times. and
(F) =(~). 2.~4>
Similarly.. Thus. $)P = (15.9) we &)
x
(number
determined
by p mod
4).'+ Therefore..9.
numbers
2. of i... 6 x (5)’
> n + 1..&y2 = 1 does not have a rational (g.. the padic expansion of a padic number is of the form c. that (2. ord.3.6. we have T E {fl}.0) and ($$.
2. is odd. (.(C:l.=6133..5. 5” when ?TL is
The latter sufficiently
1 mod
2.415 and to find the other point of intersection with the circle..7.0)
It
suffices to the (&.. while
circle slope the
r2
+ yi line
=
1 that joining line
close and
of the slope
is fi
1 =
0.“=.TTV=.
to find rational &)
a rational point 
point (h55).
On the other hand.
(@ = ($) (. A calculation shows tha...414
of the
joining (1.
(K) to c. lk are odd prime / n. The fact that the circle point can be seen from the fact or p = 3.t the coordinate of the other point of intersection is given by (&cug).
gr’ that
.) =C).~{O. l)P = 1 if p = 2
= ord.)(1. as we have seen in the text..l.
k. and thus Q5 (A).127~iCC 2
.ANSLVERY
‘I‘0
QUES’l’IONS
141
appear infinitely
only finitely many many times.
.” /(Qc)” is 4 (Proposition 2. Let k be the order of the kernel of x.&
. If p # 2. 5 and 10.3. J71 @ K).ec..‘~~~~~~~~~~.. it follows
does not have
from Proposition 2.10. x(a) = x. Q5 (A) and Q. C.19(l)).FE
1
2n > =&~A&
On
the 3.3(l) we have 1
fP i + n
3
h. It follows K of characteristic and
from field theory that any quadratic different from 2 is of the form K(A).‘. different elements in G.:.
times
and
the
terms
P’~ with
from
positive
n appear
2. The image of x is the set of all the nth roots of unity {C:.
K( \/.1 = 3.18
p # 2. By Proposition 3.
of a square root are squares in IF5 from of 1
of a follows
Proposition
2. the correspondence that associates a mod (KX)” (u E K.6) is a onetoone correspondence between the quadratic extensions of K and the elements of KX/(KX)* different from the identity. C. the group Qc /(at )” consists of classes of 1. fi 6 K) to K( . ( fl) are all the quadratic extensions of QR. the number of quadratic extensions of Qj is 4 . For each ‘r satisfying 1 < T < n. Thus.11. Furthermore.18 Fp has and
that root 1 of 1 8 that
a square the fact
If @
p = 2. 1 1 < T < n} for some rt > 2.12. x takes the value <ii on I..
$ 1 mod
2.18 a square root of 1.1. 2. it follows
has a square root
Proposition u
2. then the order of Q. = 0.)
= K(A)
u
ab5 ’ is a square
in K
Thus.
other Use (n2 :
hand.
extension of a field (u E K.
formula 1 = q&p 1 1
i+n +& >
4(i ~ n)”
4i +
3. the 1)”
we have
hr (i)
= . The existence fact that &1 If Q. Thus.2.
Chapter
3.
and the 2.(i)= 1.
Here.
3.wehavep121m.
and
use
a
y+&ii= (Here.4. similar the imaginary parts of both Thus.
of
we obtain
3 (a + $)’ we have
+ 3ab .1.5.l)<(s) = 1 (Proposition
. Hence p 5 2 . 0. By Proposition satisfiesmzlmodp1.b’)b.2.
We
have
Thus. we obtain rest is easy. the are
E Z. ~t2}.bEZ sides.
denominator
of C(m)
Chapter
4.obtain is easy. fact *&ii that 1 = the and only A2.l)C(s)+ 2 + g
3.)
4
and use a similar argument
U.11 to obtain y+i=(a+bi)“. a prime factor of the Sincepldivideslm.24(l).10 to obtain a. Thus. we used and y .m.
common prime factors of y + a Comparing the imaginary parts $ 11 (g)“. lim.142
ANSWERS
7’0
QUESTIONS
3. .&ii both (3a2 sides..b
&ii). 4. b E {fl.
. we have b = 51. Comparing (3~’ .15(2))
to prove
the
last
3. 1 = 3a2b .2b2)b
= 2.b” =
Factor argument
= (y + &ii)(y 0.21og(2).li~22”)c(s4+2+.
we have
c (%g) +c(s))
=. The the equation as z3 as in Proposition (a+b1+y)3.
= !@IG(s
= . we used equality.r(s . From The this rest we. Factor as in Proposition the equation as x3 = (y+i)(yi).
(ii) By (i) it suffices to show the following: For x. Conversely. it suffices to show u 2 mv2=0 mod4 u UEUEO mod2. .29wehavehK
= $(1+357)
.
if m E 1 mod 4.yEZ. This implies that cy belongs to OK. I x.. Summing it all up. Let m be an integer that is not divisible by any square except for 1. If m E 2.2yEZandxyEZ.3. Thus. (iv) To show the equivalence in (ii). we may assume 2x. Since ordz(x) 2 1 and x2 . 2y E Z because of (iii).4. The answers are 1. cn E Z). Thus. cycv’ E Z.. these numbers belong to 0~ n Q = Z.x2my2EZ ifmE2. Since ordl(m) < 1.
ByCorollary4. x(5 mod 8) = x(7 x(a)a mod
8) = 1. we have 2ordl(y) > 1.1(5) we treat + Cx is
Similar
4. it suffices mv2s0
to show mod4 I UEZI mod2
to show.my2 E Z.my” E $ we have ords(m) + 2ords(y) 2 2. we have 2ord2(y) 2 3. Thus we have ordl(y) > 0.3mod4.=. we see that 01’ E OK. (i) First we show that LY E 0~ is equivalent to the fact that the rational numbers 01 + o’ = 2s and cro = x2 . then by replacing (Y by o’ in the equation on + crcrnpl + ‘. ~1. If 1 is an odd prime number.5.my’ E Z that ordi(m) + 2ordl(y) > 0. x2 . = Y&C”. LetK=Q(J\/m) . Therefore.o=z+y&(x. we have 01 + cy’.y~Q) andcr’=zye. are easy
2
4. = 1. the case Q(&2). y E Q 2x. (iii) Show first that if x.z2my2EZ u 2x. it follows from ordl(x) 2 0 and x2 .my2 both belong Z If o E OK. As an example.3 mod 4. 2 and 2. we have ords(y) > 1. if we have cx + CY’. and if m E 1 mod u These 4. we see that 2y E Z. then LY satisfies the equation o2 + crcy + cs = 0 with cl = (o + o’) and c2 = oo’. u E Z). We have WK = 2 and N = 8. eta’ E OK. Since ordn(m) < 1. + cn = 0 (n > 1. Suppose 2x = u and 2y = v (u.and 2z. 2.ANSWERS
TO
QUESTIONS
143
4. respectively. y E Q satisfies 2x. and x : (Z/8Z)’ given by x(1 mod 8) = x(3 mod 8) = 1. to the proof or Proposition 4. then we have 2y E Z.
and b.fi)” = (1)‘“. . numbers
$. to fi
+ 16i) = 63” + 162.
0. so is 5 + 2&. Thus. = an + b.1. Rewrite this equation as (2y + 1)2 .. . Thus. integers e.2.
This shows that z becomes closer
0.
0.h)(a. . then we have
145
. It suffices to show that infinitely many pairs of natural (2.56i) = 33’ + 56”. # 0).pF”“. Combiningfactorizations we have
652 = ((2 + i)(3 + 2i))2((2 = (33 + 56i)(33
. & is a rational number.‘.3. 37 = 1’ + 6’. = n + (even number).
(1+
&)“(l
By expanding (1 + a)“. Thus. distinct primes.psT (~1. 53 = 2’ + 72.. 5 = (2+i)(2i) and 13 = (3+2i)(32i). But we can show that I/% is an irrational number by a similar method as Exercise 0.h) =
= 1.&. we see that a..16i)(63 0. = 1 + (even number) and b. Suppose that the nth root of 5 is a rational number it factors as fpP1 .i)(3 + 2i))”
652 = ((2 + i)(3 . 0. by (1 + fi)”
a: . define a.+dq as y gets bigger.2i))‘((2 = (63 . If & + v’? is a rational number.b. e.5. 1.4.6. 41 = 4’ + 52. We have . 29 = 2’ + 5’.Answers
to Exercises
Chapter
0
0. Taking the nth power. then we have ($a)(. y) satisfy iy(y + 1) = x2.i)(3 . . if we take an even number as n.2(2x)2 For n 2 1.2y2 = 1.2i))”
.~‘2 < &.2b: = (an + b.P. =
If x and y satisfy x2 . we have 5 = py” . contradiction to the uniqueness of prime factorization since n 2
and that satisfying This is a 2. we have 0 < E .
Therefore. if we denote of P E E(C). then p does not divide n (since if it does.Q E E(C). then we have
<3 is aprim
3P = 0 is
xcoordinate
x(P)
for any
= x(Q) u
we have
Q = fP =x(P) Pf 0.(D) = min(ord. (n # 0)
Let
m and
A = l(m3
B = 14(m3
Denote by D the greatest common divisor of the inequality in question.2(2~)~
Chapter 1.4)).(D) = min(ord.&a) and (%C~. we have
= ord. If p is a prime factor of D. itive cube root of unity.(A). equivalent to 2P = P.4n3))
= ord.
p=
3 and
ordy
(D) < 2.
= 1.zt~).(36n3) Hence. (0.
0.(36).146
ANSWERS
TO
EXERCISES
2zien
2bz
=
1 with (2y
a.(m” . P# P in E(C)
0
_
x(2P)
and
For or
any @G.4n”)) . it suffices to show For. indicates how many times p divides the number).
odd
and
b. then p does not divide m (since if p # 2 and p divides m. If p is a prime factor of D and p # 2.4n3)nl.
+ 1)2 .
Answer: The set in question
1
consists of nine points where we see that by x(P) the 0. n)4
B) of
2 % max(m.*g).
= $H(xcoordinate
P)“. We have ord.1.
If we set y =
%$
andx=
3.2(1.(m3 5 ord. In order that D is a divisor of P is given by f
2P) = H
0
A E
= A max(A. then we have ord. NC3
prime and integers and let . to show of 144.2. P # 0. then we have H(xcoordinate of
A and
B. In general.ord.
(@. then p does not divide B). @.
Let p be a prime number.
we have.(B)) (since ord.&l). The method of finding these points: First. p does not divide m. if p is a prime factor of D and p # 2.
point
satisfying
(§1. Thus.
x(2P)
n be relatively + 32n3)ml
2P # 0 we have x(2P) = z~~‘c4pJfzc(l~) = x(P) if and only if x(P) = 0.
P. 3P=
Thus. if that is the case and if the xcoordinate in lowest terms. even. ( (m3 + 32n3). + 32n3) (m3 ord. 1.
. and thus p does not divide m3 + 32n3 and A). ($‘%&.
4. 2P. The inverse is given by (x.x. Hence y = 0 or x = f2. then the zcoordinates of P. (To be more precise. If integers m and n satisfy m $ 0 mod 3 or n $ 0 mod 3. (i) Answer: (x. This can be done by checking all the possibilities of 0 2 m 5 8. ll).3.) 1. y) H (g. we consider ordz(D).) 1.4n” $ 0 mod 9.2 we know that this point is one of (O.5 since each verification as was the case with 1. Then the height of the xcoordinate of P. then we have H(zcoordinate of P) > H(zcoordinate of 2P). 0 5 n 5 8. we can show the following. y) is a rational point on (ii) Answer: (x. (2. then ordz(A) = 0. y) by the map X + Y 4 E(K) given by (x. Reason: If (x. all have different heights. Hence we have ordz(B) = 4. the curve y2 = x4 .O). Since for (z. R eason: If (x. Thus. 4P. Thus we see that D is a divisor of 24 x 3 = 48 and that 48 H(zcoordinate of 2P) 2 H(zcoordinate of P)”
If T > 4.47~‘) = 2 since n is even.O).4. y) = (&l. y) # (0. Therefore. If m is even. $ + :). and thus the inequality in question is proved. Therefore. xy) is a rational point on the curve y2 = x3 . the image of (x.O).1.x. 2) E X for (x. If T > 6. This means there are infinitely many rational points on this elliptic curve. these points are all distinct. If m is odd. . ll). then &r” > T. Thus.5. 4P. Thus.5. y) = (O.3 and 1. z) E Y.3)) is a rational point on the curve y2 = x3 . we have i (1 .4 and 1.$2) = 0. This map is bijective since the map Y + X given by (x. y) H (&.$. (We omit the proof of the fact that we have (5. then ordz(m” .6. i (1 .. we obtain xy = 0. 2) IS t the inverse. f4). y) H (x2.5.
1. We omit the proof of 1. (*l. 8P. 16P. y) E Y and that the compositions X + Y + X and Y + X + Y are both identities.ANSWERS
TO
EXERCISES
147
Next. then m3 . if P = (5. 2P. then we have the inequality &r4 > r.
.
1. is straightforward. Prom Proposition 1. then by considering the case k = 1 in Question 1. This implies that we see the existence of infinitely many rational points as soon as we find one rational point (5. If a rational point P on the elliptic curve in question satisfies H(zcoordinate of P) > 6. D is a divisor of 24 ~3~ = 144. y) = (2 . then by considering the case k = 1 in 1.O) is a rational point on the curve y2 = x3 + 4x. 8P. 0)._
we have (A. are all different. we see that g(z.y) xy (H x+Y E X we have (x + Y)” 4k 3 1 (x+y)3’
2 +$+x2xy+~2=.
*4). to 3k+2Z:3. (2. Thus. nlog(4) belongs Proposition but not to 2.. $& $$ converges
2 to 1 in 88. one of (O.
Chapter 2.14(4) 1 + 9&. Thus. 1c E Z z [ $1 /z)
1~ : lhr+Z/p”Z as follows. For example. n # 0 define k = orda(n). but (since 3” it converges + 0). n
p(f)
= (anJn>l. but not to
. Thus.
/Z
there = U.12).
we have
n
2. y) is a rational point on the curve y2 = z4 + 4.]
a homomorphism Define identities $((a. but to 0 in QZ it converges
The sequence to 1 in Ql. defining
n such
since ( Z [t]
Z [ . From Since 4 belongs to 1 + 3&.
we can
homomorphism + Horn (Z For /Z > E Horn = (Z f. 4’” = exp(nlog(4))
belongs to 3kf1Zs. [b] /z. Thus.
z [t]
/z)
For image ( &Z
any of the
n 2 1 map
of f to is contained
/Z.
z [t ] /z)
!im n~/pn~. zy) equals on the curve y2 = z3 + 42.. with element
multiplicationbyp” ( *Z > /Z becomes /Z of to
5 /Z [I 0 if it is multiplied ($Z) for some /Z. [i] It /z.). we see that if (z:.
/Zofthe > of the subgroup
fn is a homomorphism the multiplicationbya ring homomor
from
(&Z)
it coincides a. we see log(4)
belongs to 323. 2. R eason: Just as (ii).O).~. but not to 1 + 3k+1Z:s.
czrL map phism
Z/p”Z
(z
element
we obtain
cp : Horn Conversely. z:y) is a rational point it follows from (i) that (x2.
[i] find
P.
z [i] a ring
P)
+
l&Z/p”Z.>l /z) that
exists ($) by
a pos/z. z E ( f $Z
[I
b P /z. itive We f(z) integer obtain = a. For the following.Z/p”Z. then (x2.
Hence. but not to 9Za. we denote fn : (*q/z Let
converges
to 1 in Qa
f be an element by fn the + restriction Z [:I map /Z
of Horn
(Z
[t] ( $Z
/z. the Let (an)%>1 that
E l@.2. and
of Z
( since by p”). The > in the kernel every Thus. y) = (0.1.148
ANSWERS
TO
EXERCISES
(iii) Answer: (z.3.ri) of Horn
z [i] to check and
is easy
$ o cp and re
cp o + are spectively.
ANSWERS
TO
EXERCISES
149
1+ 3”+“&. have ords(4” 2.4. prime First, number
Thus 4”  1 belongs  1) = lc + 1. (1) follows from p we have
to 3k+1Zs,
but
not
to 3”+“&.
Hence,
we
Proposition
2.18
and
the
fact
that
for an odd
2
(>
P
=l
u
pz1,3
mod8
Next, the equation x2 + y2 = 2 in (2) can be written as ix’  ay” = 1. The necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of z, y E U& satisfying the equation is (i,  $), = 1 by Proposition 2.20. But, if p # 2, we have ($,f), = 1, (i, i), = 1. In order to show (3), it suffices
to show the existence of elements x, y and z in @ satisfying x2 + y2 + z2 = 2 (since if p # 2, a solution of x2 + y2 = 2 satisfies x2 + y2 +02 = 2). In Q2, 14 is very close to 2, and we have 12+22+32 = 14. Since $!j = 7 E 1 mod 8, it follows Thus, from we have Proposition 2 = 2 2.18 = (i)’ that there exists + (z)‘. a E Q,” such that a2 = 3;. + (p)”
Chapter
3
x(1 (1)
3.1. (1) Consider the Dirichlet character x : (Z/8Z) x + Cx given by mod 8) = x(3 mod 8) = 1 and x(5 mod 8) = x(7 mod 8) = 1. Then is to find L(1, x). Since x(l) = 1, it follows from Theorem 3.4 that L(l,x) = F ; (hl(C8) + hl(&  h(G)  hi(C)) = 5.
x(1 (2)
(2) Consider the Dirichlet character x : (Z/8Z)x + Cx given by mod 8) = x(7 mod 8) = 1, x(3 mod 8) = x(5 mod 8) = 1. Then is to find L(2, x). Since x(l) = 1, it follows from Theorem 3.4 that
L(2,x) 3.2.
‘&+.... 5.3 (1)
=
(
F
2
1 z
(h2(<8)
5
h2(&)

WC3
+
h2CC87))
=
$x2.
>
= c;=, = lim,+l+s  2 c;& &.(l &s & = 1  +s + jk  $ + & & + ‘. ‘) + =
(1  2l.“)<(s)
(2) lim,++r+o(sl)<(s) &log2=1. 3.3. By calculating
sr  ss  s:, + ~7, we have
log where x is the
(l  G)(l  G8’)= (C8 <;  <,j <,7)q1,x), + ( (1<;)(1<,5) >
same character log as the one in Exercise = 2JZULX). 3.1(2). We have ( (1 +1Jz)2)
150
ANSWERS
TO
EXERCISES
Hence,
L(1,
x)
= & log(1
+ a). and we explain the integers. For simplicity, We have 1
3.4. We omit the proof of absolute convergence, analytic continuation and the values at nonpositive we denote the sum over ni, , nk > 0 just by c.
r(s)(‘(s, 2; cl, , ck) =
ett"$ .c J=e(z+cllL1+...+ckn =JC o (1 ."T =JW,plU) (1eck~)us~
0
(x
+ Clnl
+
+ Cknk)’
0
U
Let a > 0. Divide the integral sow = s,” + saw. Since eeZcu approaches very rapidly as u goes to 00, the part s,” can be analytically continued to the entire plane as a holomorphic function in s. Take a small enough that 1  eeCZ” (1 5 i 5 Ic) does not have a zero in 0 < IuI 5 a. Then, in 0 < u 5 a we have
epxu c1 “‘ck (1 eclu). (1  eck”) = u k g AnUn, n=O
where
A, is a polynomial
Q...Ck.
in x, cl,
aw SC
= 0 TX=0
, ck with
Q coefficients.
s+nk
Thus,
we have
A,.
a s+nk’
1,2, continued to the entire , k. If m is a negative
Therefore, [(s, xc; cl,. , ck) may be plane and we see that it is holomorphic integer or 0, then we have cl ck ((m; x, cl, . , ck)
analytically outside
= sml(s) Akm z lim 1.
Chapter 4.1.
Sincex2+Zy+2y2= (i) u ThereexistsatZ[w] argument to the proofs (x+yv)
= z4km(1)” Iml!.
4
(x+yv),wehave suchthat of Propositions 0.2,
~=a%.
0.3 and 0.4 in
Using a similar $4.1, we have The if above
condition
u
p # 2,7.
ANSWERS
TO
EXERCISES
151
4.2. If (ii) is satisfied, then we have n = m2 n,‘=, p,, natural number, r 2 0, and p, is a prime number congruent or p, = 2. We have p, = (Y~??~, crj E Z[&i]. Writing mn5=1 puttingP=z+yi (x,y~Z), wehaven=pp=x2+y2. If (ii) is not satisfied, then there exists a prime number such that ord,(n) is odd. Since (l,n), = (9) = 1, we do not exist Z, y E Q such that n = x2 + y2.
where m is a to 1 modulo 4 oj as /? and p = 3 mod 4 see that there
4.3. Put p = crb (o is a prime element of Z[i]), and put cr2n = z + yi. Then we have pzn = cr2n~2n = x2 + y2. Because of the unique prime factorization property we have x # 0, y # 0. Thus, pn is the hypotenuse of the right triangle formed by x, y and p”. Since c?’ is not divisible p, the greatest common divisor of the three sides is 1. We show that this is the only triangle up to congruence. Suppose that p2” = x2 + y2 with x, y natural numbers. We have p2” = (x + yi) (x  yi) . Consider the prime factorization of both sides, we see that x+yi = CY~&~P, xyi = (Y%~F, T 2 0, s > 0, T + s = 2n, p E {fl, =ti}. If T # 0, s # 0, x + yi is divisible by p, and thus x, y,p” are all divisible by p. If r = 0 or s = 0, we have x + yi = oyznp or x + yi = Eznp. Each gives a triangle equivalent to the one we obtained above. 4.4. Using the notation of Proposition 4.27, we see that (2,l) E 91 is the element in Pj whose ycoordinate is the smallest. The assertion now follows from Proposition 4.27. 4.5. By ideal in A Similarly, and 6, and Theorem contained flp pdp is a + b has A.2 in the the in Appendix A, n,, pep is the largest fractional both a and 6, and a n b has the same property. smallest fractional ideal in A containing both a same property.
4.6. We have < = (y + 2a)(y  2&5). We show that y + 2&5 is a cube in Z[&5]. A prime ideal that contains both (y + 2J5) and (y2) contains the element (y+2)(y2) = 40. Wecan show that the prime factorization of (2) is (2) = a’, where a = (2,1+), and (fl) is a prime ideal. Thus, we have (y + 2J5) = a”(&%)“b, (y  2&%) = am(G)“c, m 2 0, n 2 0,
where a, (v’?), b and c are pairwise relatively prime ideals. Prom (x)” = a2”(fl)2n bc we see that m and n are multiples of 3, and that b and c are cubes. Thus, (y + 2G) is the cube of an idea 0. This means that the cube of a is a principal ideal. But, since the class number is not divisible by 3, b itself is a principal ideal by a similar argument as the one used in s4.4. Put a = (o), cy E Z[J51. Prom (y + a&%) = (03),  see that we y + 2v’3 = *a” = (I&)~. Hence, y + 2fl is a cube in Z[J51; i.e., y + 2J5 = (CL+ h/T)“, a, b E Z[J51.
15ab2 and 2 = 3a2b .56” 52.152
ANSWERS
TO
EXERCISES
Thus.
The
.
=
(3a2

5b’)b. latter
we have y = a3 shows that b = fl. The rest is easy.
Mordell’s 10 ngonal Dedekind Dirichlet Dirichlet Dirichlet’s elliptic factorization factorization domain. 58 number valuation. 50.
90
of quadratic form. 118 functional equation. 116 ideal domain. 125 completion. Theorem. 65 L function. 119 infinite descent. 19 51 inverse Iwasawa Kummer’s metric module. 68 limit. 46 cubic number. 9 number. polynomial. field. height. 30 121
C function. 95 group structure.
character. 52 fractional ideal. L function. 98 fundamental theorem on abelian fundamental groups. 121 padic padic padic padic padic padic padic padic partial Pell’s point prime prime principal principal principal Pythagorean quadratic absolute expansion. number. 52 118 58 89
Fermat’s Last Theorem. 53 C function. 116 2 law. 8 space. 82 unit theorem.
fractional ideal. 62 number. 10 ideal.Index
algebraic analytic arithmetic automorphic Bernoulli Bernoulli number continuation. Riemann equation. conic. 117 82 8. 115 ideal class group.
13 13
integer. 62 30 14 131 Hilbert Hurwitz symbol. 99 metric. 11.
P function. 91 91
Chinese Remainder Theorem. class field theory. at infinity. 68 62 number. 60 7 28 5. 22. 5 class number. 22. congruence. unit. element. 14 First supplementary law. 64 50
theorem. criterion. 120 class number formula. 104 5 ideal. field. value. 3. curve. 109 integral point. into prime ideals. 31
25
reciprocity
153
. 66 theory. 18
in prime elements. 103 90 form.
82 ring homomorphism. 52
INDEX
factorization domain.154 rational number field. 45 Riemann < function. 10 number. 10 law. 104 unit. 7 rational point. 119 weak Mordell 82 theorem. 54 ring of integers. 104 prime factorization property. 31
C function. 8 unit group. 19.
. 113 Second square triangular unique unique supplementary numbers.