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HANDBOOK

FOR CONTROL

VALVE SIZING

p

vc

p

v

p

1

p

2

I

p

2

II

p

2

III

p

2

IV

2 L 2 v

F , C

1 L 1 v

F , C

F F

L L 1 2

>

C C

v v 1 2

=

(

)

(

)

∆

p

F

p

F

L

F

p

v

m

a

x

1

1 2

1

=

−

(

)

(

)

∆

p

F

p

F

L

F

p

v

m

a

x

2

2 2

1

=

−

- 1 -

*

PARC O L

HANDBOOK

FOR CONTROL

VALVE SIZING

CONTENTS

NOMENCLATURE

VALVE SIZING AND SELECTION

1 PROCESS DATA

2 VALVE SPECIFICATION

3 FLOW COEFFICIENT

3.1 K

V

coefficient

3.2 C

v

coefficient

3.3 Standard test conditions

4 SIZING EQUATIONS

4.1 Sizing equations for incompressible flu-

ids (turbulent flow)

4.2 Sizing equations for compressible fluids

(turbulent flow)

4.3 Sizing equations for two-phase fluids

4.4 Sizing equations for non turbulent flow

5 PARAMETERS OF SIZING EQUATIONS

5.1 Recovery factor F

L

5.2 Coefficient of incipient cavitation x

FZ

and

coefficient of constant cavitation K

c

5.3 Piping geometry factor F

p

5.4 Combined liquid pressure recovery fac-

tor and piping geometry factor of a con-

trol valve with attached fittings F

LP

5.5 Liquid critical pressure ratio factor F

F

5.6 Expansion factor Y

5.7 Pressure differential ratio factor x

T

5.8 Pressure differential ratio factor for a

valve with attached fittings x

TP

5.9 Reynolds number factor F

R

*

PARC O L

- 2 -

Note - Unless otherwise specified

Symbols Description Units (note)

C

d

Specific flow coefficient = C

v

/d

2 various

C

v

Flow coefficient U.S. gallons/min

d Nominal valve size mm

D Internal diameter of piping mm

F

d

Valve style modifier dimensionless

F

F

Liquid critical pressure ratio factor dimensionless

F

L

Liquid pressure recovery factor for a control valve without attached

fittings

dimensionless

F

LP

Combined liquid pressure recovery factor and piping geometry factor

of a control valve with attached fittings

dimensionless

F

P

Piping geometry factor dimensionless

F

R

Reynolds number factor dimensionless

F

γ

Specific heat ratio factor = γ/1.4 dimensionless

K

B1

and K

B2

Bernoulli coefficients for inlet and outlet of a valve with attached

reducers

dimensionless

K

c

Coefficient of constant cavitation dimensionless

K

v

Flow coefficient

m

3

/h

K

1

and K

2

Upstream and downstream resistance coefficients dimensionless

M Molecular mass of the flowing fluid kg/kmole

p

c

Absolute thermodynamic critical pressure bar

p

v

Absolute vapour pressure of the liquid at inlet temperature bar

p

vc

Vena contracta absolute pressure bar

p

1

Inlet absolute pressure measured at upstream pressure tap bar

p

2

Outlet absolute pressure measured at downstream pressure tap bar

∆p Pressure differential between upstream and downstream pressures bar

∆p

max

Maximum allowable pressure differential for control valve sizing

purposes for incompressible fluids

bar

q

m

Mass flow rate kg/h

q

v

Volumetric flow rate

m

3

/h

q

m(max)

Maximum mass flow rate in choked condition kg/h

q

v(max)

Maximum volumetric flow rate in choked condition

m

3

/h

Re

v

Valve Reynolds number dimensionless

T

1

Inlet absolute temperature K

u Average fluid velocity m/s

- 3 -

*

PARC O L

Symbols Description Units

v Specific volume

m

3

/kg

x Ratio of pressure differential to inlet absolute pressure dimensionless

x

cr

Ratio of pressure differential to inlet absolute pressure in critical

conditions (∆p/p

1

)

cr

dimensionless

x

FZ

Coefficient of incipient cavitation dimensionless

x

T

Pressure differential ratio factor in choked flow condition for a valve

without attached fittings

dimensionless

x

TP

Value of x

T

for valve/fitting assembly dimensionless

Y Expansion factor dimensionless

Z Compressibility factor - ratio of ideal to actual inlet specific mass dimensionless

γ Specific heat ratio dimensionless

ρ

ο

Specific mass of water at 15.5°C i.e. 999 kg/m

3

kg/m

3

ρ

1

Specific mass of fluid at p

1

and T

1

kg/m

3

ρ

r

Ratio of specific mass of fluid in upstream condition to specific mass of

water at 15.5°C (ρ

1

/ρ

ο

- for liquids is indicated as ρ/ρ

ο

)

dimensionless

ν Kinematic viscosity (ν = µ/ρ)

Centistoke = 10

-6

m

2

/s

µ Dynamic viscosity

Centipoise = 10

-3

Pa ⋅ s

*

PARC O L

- 4 -

SIZING AND SELECTION OF CONTROL

VALVES

The correct sizing and selection of a control valve

must be based on the full knowledge of the proc-

ess.

1 - PROCESS DATA

The following data should at least be known:

a - Type of fluid and its chemical-physical and

thermodynamic characteristics, such as pres-

sure “p”, temperature “T”, vapour pressure

“p

v

”, thermodynamic critical pressure “p

c

”,

specific mass “ρ”, kinematic viscosity “ν” or

dynamic viscosity “µ”, specific heat at con-

stant pressure “C

p

”, specific heat at constant

volume “C

v

”, specific heat ratio “γ”, molecu-

lar mass “M”, compressibility factor “Z”, ratio

of vapour to its liquid, presence of solid parti-

cles, inflammability, toxicity.

b - Maximum operating range of flow rate related

to pressure and temperature of fluid at valve

inlet and to ∆p across the valve.

c - Operating conditions (nor mal, max., min.

etc.).

d - Ratio of pressure differential available across

the valve to total head loss along the

process line at various operating conditions.

e - Operational data, such as:

- maximum differential pressure with closed

valve

- stroking time

- plug position in case of supply failure

- maximum allowable leakage of valve in

closed position

- fire resistance

- max. outwards leakage

- noise limitations

f - Interface information, such as:

- sizing of downstream safety valves

- accessibility of the valve

- materials and type of piping connections

- overall dimensions, including the necessary

space for disassembling and maintenance

- design pressure and temperature

- available supplies and their characteristics

2 - VALVE SPECIFICATION

On the ground of the above data it is possible to

finalise the detailed specification of the valve

(data sheet), i.e. to select:

- valve rating

- body and valve type

- body size, after having calculated the maxi-

mum flow coefficient C

v

with the appropriate

sizing equations

- type of trim

- materials trim of different trim parts

- leakage class

- inherent flow characteristic

- packing type

- type and size of actuator

- accessories

3 - FLOW COEFFICIENT

3.1 - FLOW COEFFICIENT “K

v

”

The flow coefficient Kv, is the standard flow rate

which flows through a valve at a given opening,

i.e. referred to the following conditions:

- static pressure drop (∆p

(Kv)

) across the valve

of 1 bar (10

5

Pa)

- flowing fluid: water at a temperature from 5 to

40°C

- volumetric flow rate in m

3

/h

The value of K

v

can be determined from tests

using the following formula:

( )

K q

p

p

v v

Kv

· ⋅

∆

∆

ρ

ρ

ο

(1)

where:

∆p

(Kv)

is the static pressure drop of 10

5

Pa

∆p is the static pressure drop from upstream to

downstream in Pa

ρ is the specific mass of fluid in kg/m

3

ρ

o

is the specific mass of water in kg/m

3

The equation (1) is valid at standard conditions

(see point 3.3).

3.2 - FLOW COEFFICIENT “C

v

”

The flow coefficient C

v

, is the standard flow rate

which flows through a valve at a given opening,

- 5 -

*

PARC O L

i.e. referred to the following conditions:

- static pressure drop (∆p

(Cv)

) across the valve

of 1 psi (6895 Pa)

- flowing fluid: water at a temperature from 40

to 100°F (5 ÷ 40°C)

- volumetric flow rate: expressed in gpm

The value of C

v

can be determined from tests

using the following formula:

( )

C q

p

p

v v

Cv

· ⋅ ⋅

∆

∆

ρ

ρ

ο

(2)

where:

∆p

(Cv)

is the static pressure drop of 1 psi (see

above)

∆p is the static pressure drop from upstream to

downstream expressed in psi.

ρ is the specific mass of the fluid expressed in

Ib/ft

3

ρ

o

is the specific mass of the water expressed in

Ib/ft

3

Also the above equation (2) is valid at standard

conditions as specified under point 3.3.

3.3 - STANDARD TEST CONDITIONS

The standard conditions referred to in definitions

of flow coefficients (K

v

, C

v

) are the following:

- flow in turbulent condition

- no cavitation and vaporisation phenomena

- valve diameter equal to pipe diameter

- static pressure drop measured between up-

stream and downstream pressure taps located

as in Fig. 1

- straight pipe lengths upstream and down-

stream the valve as per Fig. 1

- Newtonian fluid

Note: Though the flow coefficients were defined

as liquid (water) flow rates nevertheless they are

used for control valve sizing both for incompres-

sible and compressible fluids.

4 - SIZING EQUATIONS

Sizing equations allow to calculate a value of

the flow coefficient starting from different oper-

ating conditions (type of fluid, pressure drop, flow

rate, type of flow and installation) and making

them mutually comparable as well as with the

standard one.

The equations outlined in sub-clauses 4.1 and

4.2 are in accordance with the standard IEC

534-2-1

4.1 - SIZING EQUATIONS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE

FLUIDS (TURBULENT FLOW)

In general actual flow rate of a incompressible

fluid through a valve is plotted in Fig. 2 versus

the square root of the pressure differential ( ∆p )

under constant upstream conditions.

The cur ve can be splitted into three regions:

- a first normal flow region (not critical), where

the flow rate is exactly proportional to ∆p .

This not critical flow condition takes place un-

til p

vc

> p

v

.

- a second semi-critical flow region, where the

flow rate still rises when the pressure drop is

increased, but less than proportionally to

∆p

.

In this region the capability of the valve to con-

vert the pressure drop increase into flow rate

is reduced, due to the fluid vaporisation and

the subsequent cavitation.

- In the third limit flow or saturation region the

flow rate remains constant, in spite of further

increments of

∆p

.

This means that the flow conditions in vena

contracta have reached the maximum evapo-

ration rate (which depends on the upstream

flow conditions) and the mean velocity is close

to the sound velocity, as in a compressible fluid.

The standard sizing equations ignore the

hatched area of the diagram shown in Fig. 2,

thus neglecting the semi-critical flow region. This

2D 6D

10D (*)

20D (*)

L

p

1

p

2

(*) Straight pipe lengths upstream and

downstream the valve

D =Nominal pipe and valve diameter

L =Valve dimension

p1,p2 = Pressure taps

Fig. 1 - Standard test set up

*

PARC O L

- 6 -

q

m

IEC normal flow

normal flow

2%

approximation of IEC

equations

semi-critical flow

noise and vibration

limit flow or "choked flow"

IEC limit flow

∆p

( )

v 2

p p

<

( ) ∆p K p p f

c

v

· −

1

Fig.2 -Flow rate diagram of an incompressible fluid flowing through a valve plotted versus downstream

pressure under constant upstream conditions.

v F 1 L max

p F p F p ⋅ − · ∆

beginning of cavitation

flow rate affected by cavitation

flashing

( )

v 1 FZ

p p x p − · ∆

approximation is justified by simplicity purposes

and by the fact that it is not practically important

to predict the exact flow rate in the hatched area;

on the other hand such an area should be

avoided, when possible, as it always involves

vibration and noise problems as well as mechani-

cal problems due to cavitation.

Basic equation

Valid for standard test conditions only.

q K

p

v v

· ⋅

∆

ρ ρο /

q C

p

v v

· ⋅

∆

ρ ρο /

Note: Si mpl e conversi on operati ons

among the different units give the

following relationship: C

v

= 1.16 K

v

Normal flow (not critical)

It is individuated by the relationship:

( ) ∆ ∆ p p

F

F

p F p

LP

p

v F

< ·

¸

¸

_

,

⋅ − ⋅

max

2

1

with q

v

in m

3

/s

∆p in bar (10

5

Pa)

with q

v

in gpm

∆p in psi

C

V

=

q

F p

m

R r

865⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ∆ ρ

C

V

=

1 16 . ⋅

⋅

q

F

p

v

R

r

∆

ρ

p

p

- 7 -

*

PARC O L

4.2 - SIZING EQUATIONS FOR COMPRESSIBLE

FLUIDS (TURBULENT FLOW)

The Fig. 3 shows the flow rate diagram of a com-

pressible fluid flowing through a valve when

changing the downstream pressure under con-

stant upstream conditions. The flow rate is no

longer proportional to the square root of the pres-

sure differential

∆p

as in the case of incom-

pressible fluids. This deviation from linearity is

due to the variation of fluid density (expansion)

from the valve inlet up to the vena contracta.

Due to this density reduction the gas must be

accelerated up to a higher velocity than the one

reached by an equivalent liquid mass flow. Un-

der the same ∆p the mass flow rate of a com-

pressible fluid must therefore be lower than the

one of an incompressible fluid.

Such an effect is taken into account by means

of the expansion coefficient Y (see 5.6), whose

value can change between 1 and 0.667.

Normal flow

It is individuated by the relationship

x < F

γ

⋅ x

T

or 2/3 < Y ≤ 1

Fig.3 - Flow rate diagram of a

compressi bl e fl ui d

flowing through a valve

plotted versus differen-

ti al pressure under

constant upstream

conditions.

vena contracta expansion effect

limit flow

limit flow

density variation effect

sound velocity in vena contracta

Limit flow

It is individuated by the relationship:

( ) ∆ ∆ p p

F

F

p F p

LP

p

F v

≥ ·

¸

¸

_

,

⋅ − ⋅

max

2

1

If the valve is without reducers F

P

= 1 and F

LP

= F

L

( )

( )

r v F 1 LP

max m

v

p F p F 865

q

C

ρ − ⋅ ⋅

·

( )

( )

r

v F 1

LP

max v

v

p F p

F

q 16 . 1

C

ρ

−

⋅

⋅

·

P

_

2

1 p x Y F 3 . 27

q

C

1 p

m

v

ρ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

·

x

Z T M

Y p F 2120

q

C

1

1 p

v

v

⋅ ⋅

⋅

⋅ ⋅ ⋅

·

*

PARC O L

- 8 -

4.3 - SIZING EQUATIONS FOR TWO-PHASE

FLOWS

No standard formulas presently exist for the cal-

culation of two-phase flow rates through orifices

or control valves.

4.3.1- LIQUID/GAS MIXTURES

A first easy physical model for the calculation

roughly considers separately the flows of the two

phases through the valve orifice without mutual

energy exchange.

Therefore:

liq v g v v

C C C + ·

i.e. the flow coefficient is calculated as the sum

of the one required for the gaseous phase and

the other required for the liquid phase.

This method assumes that the mean velocities

of the two phases in the vena contracta are con-

siderably different.

Limit flow

It is individuated by the relationship

x ≥ F

γ

⋅ x

TP

and/or Y = 2/3 = 0.667

( )

1 1 TP p

max m

v

p x F F 2 . 18

q

C

ρ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

·

γ

( )

TP

1

1 p

max v

v

x F

Z T M

p F 1414

q

C

⋅

⋅ ⋅

⋅

⋅ ⋅

·

γ

where: q

v

is expressed in Nm

3

/h

If valve is without reducers F

p

= 1

and x

TP

becomes x

T

A second physical model overcomes this limita-

tion assuming that the two phases cross the vena

contracta at the same velocity.

The mass flow rate of a gas (see above) is pro-

portional to:

Y x Y

x

V

x V

g

eg

⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ · ρ

1

1

/

where V

eg

is the actual specific volume of the

gas i.e.

V Y

g1

2

/

In other terms this means to assume that the

mass flow of a gas with specific volume V

g1

is

equivalent to the mass flow of a liquid with spe-

cific volume V

eg

under the same operating con-

ditions.

Assuming :

1 liq liq

2

gl

g e

V f

Y

V

f V ⋅ + ·

where f

g

and f

liq

are respectively the gaseous

and the liquid mass fraction of the mixture, the

sizing equation becomes:

e

1

v p m

V

p x

C F 3 . 27 q

⋅

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·

When the mass fraction f

g

is very small (under

about 5%) better accuracy is reached using the

first method.

For higher amounts of gas the second method

is to be used.

4.3.2- LIQUID/VAPOUR MIXTURES

The calculation of the flow rate of a liquid mixed

with its own vapour through a valve is very com-

plex because of mass and energy transfer be-

tween the two phases.

No formula is presently available to calculate with

sufficient accuracy the flow capacity of a valve

in these conditions.

Such calculation problems are due to the follow-

ing reasons:

- 9 -

*

PARC O L

- difficulties in assessing the actual quality of the

mixture (i.e. the vapour mass percentage) at

valve inlet. This is mostly true and important at

low qualities, where small errors in quality

evaluation involve significant errors in the cal-

culation of the specific volume of the mixture

(e.g. if p

1

= 5 bar, when the quality varies from

0.01 to 0.02 the mean specific volume of the

mixture increases of 7.7%).

While the global transformation from upstream

to downstream (practically isoenthalpic) always

involves a quality increase, the isoenthropic

transformation of the mixture in thermodynamic

balance between valve inlet and vena contracta

may involve quality increase or decrease, de-

pending on quality and pressure values (see dia-

gram T/S at Fig. 4).

- some experimental data point out the fact that

the process is not always in thermodynamic

equilibrium (stratifications of metastable liquid

and overheated steam).

- experimental data are available on liquid-va-

pour mixtures flowing through orifices at flow

rates 10÷12 times higher than the ones result-

ing from calculation when considering the fluid

as compressible with a specific mass equal to

the one at the valve inlet.

The most reliable explanation of such results is

that the two phases flow at quite different veloci-

ties, though mutually exchanging mass and

energy.

On the ground of the above considerations it is

possible to state that:

- for low vapour quality (less than about three

percent vapour by mass) at valve inlet the most

suitable equation is the one obtained from the

sum of the flow capacities of the two phases

(at different flow velocities).

- for high vapour quality at valve inlet the most

suitable equation is the one obtained from the

hypothesis of equal velocities of the two

phases, i.e. of the equivalent specific volume.

T

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

Vc

Vc

Fig. 4 - Thermodynamic trans-

formations of a water / vapour

mixture inside a valve.

In the transformation shown at left side

of the diagram (isoenthropic between

inlet and vena contracta Vc) the vapour

quality increases.

In the transformation at right side the

quality decreases, moving from 1 to Vc.

In both cases the point 2 are on the

same isoenthalpic curve passing

through the point 1, but with a higher

quality.

2

1

2

1

Enthropy S

vap v liq v v

C C C + ·

e

1

p

m

v

V

p x

F 3 . 27

q

C

⋅

⋅ ⋅

·

*

PARC O L

- 10 -

4.4 - SIZING EQUATIONS FOR NON TURBULENT

FLOW

Sizing equations of subclauses 4.1 and 4.2 are

applicable in turbulent flow conditions, i.e. when

the Reynolds number calculated inside the valve

is higher than about 30,000.

The well-known Reynolds number:

Re =

is the dimensionless ratio between mass forces

and viscous forces. When the first prevails the

flow is turbulent; otherwise it is laminar.

Should the fluid be very viscous or the flow rate

very low, or the valve very small, or a combination

of the above conditions, a laminar type flow (or

transitional flow) takes place in the valve and the

Cv coefficient calculated in turbulent flow

condition must be corrected by F

R

coefficient.

Due to that above, factor F

R

becomes a

fundamental parameter to properly size the low

flow control valves i.e. the valves having flow

coefficients C

v

from approximately 1.0 down to

the microflows range.

In such valves non turbulent flow conditions do

commonly exist with conventional fluids too (air,

water, steam etc.) and standard sizing equations

become unsuitable if proper coefficients are not

used.

The currently used equations are the following:

incompressible fluid

compressible fluid

The above equations are the same outlined in

subclauses 4.1 and 4.2 for non limit flow condition

and modified with the correction factor F

R

.

The choked flow condition was ignored not being

consistent with laminar flow.

Note the absence of piping factors Fp and Y

which were defined in turbulent regime.

The effect of fittings attached to the valve is

probably negligible in laminar flow condition and

it is presently unknown.

In equations applicable to compressible fluid the

correcting factor p

1

+p

2

/2 was introduced to

account for the fluid density change.

5 - PARAMETERS OF SIZING EQUATIONS

In addition to the flow coefficient some other

parameters occur in sizing equations with the

purpose to identify the different flow types (nor-

mal, semi-critical, critical, limit); such parameters

only depend on the flow pattern inside the valve

body. In many cases such parameters are of pri-

mary importance for the selection of the right

valve for a given ser vice. It is therefore neces-

sary to know the values of such parameters for

the different valve types at full opening as well

as at other stroke percentages.

Such parameters are:

F

L

- liquid pressure recovery factor for incom-

pressible fluids

K

c

- coefficient of constant cavitation

F

p

- piping factor

F

LP

- combined coefficient of F

L

with F

p

F

F

- liquid critical pressure ratio factor

Y - expansion factor

x

FZ

- coefficient of incipient cavitation

x

T

- pressure differential ratio factor in choked

condition

x

TP

- combined coefficient of F

p

with x

T

F

R

- Reynolds number factor

5.1 - RECOVERY FACTOR F

L

The recovery factor of a valve only depends on

the shape of the body and the trim. It shows the

valve capability to transform the kinetic energy

of the fluid in the vena contracta into pressure

energy; it is so defined:

F

p p

p p

L

vc

·

−

−

1 2

1

Since p

vc

(pressure in vena contracta) is always

lower than p

2

, it is always F

L

≤ 1. Moreover it is

important to remark that the lower is this coeffi-

cient the higher is the valve capability to trans-

form the kinetic energy into pressure energy

(high recovery valve).

The higher this coefficient is (close to 1) the

higher is the valve attitude to dissipate energy

by friction rather than in vortices, with conse-

ρ ⋅ u ⋅ d

µ

C

V

=

q

F p

m

R r

865⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ∆ ρ

C

V

=

1 16 . ⋅

⋅

q

F

p

v

R

r

∆

ρ

C

V

=

q

F

T

p p p M

m

R

67

1

1 2

⋅

⋅

⋅ + ⋅ ∆ ( )

C

V

=

q

F

M T

p p p

v

R

1500

1

1 2

⋅

⋅

⋅

⋅ + ∆ ( )

- 11 -

*

PARC O L

quently lower reconversion of kinetic energy into

pressure energy (low recovery valve). In prac-

tice the sizing equations simply refer to the pres-

sure drop (p

1

-p

2

) between valve inlet and outlet

and until the pressure p

vc

in vena contracta is

higher than the saturation pressure p

v

of the fluid

at valve inlet, then the influence of the recovery

factor is practically negligible and it does not

matter whether the valve dissipates pressures

energy by friction rather than in whirlpools.

The F

L

coefficient is crucial when approaching

to cavitation, which can be avoided selecting a

lower recovery valve.

a - Determination of F

L

Since it is not easy to measure the pressure in

the vena contracta with the necessary accuracy,

the recovery factor is determined in critical con-

ditions:

( )

v 1 v

max v

L

p 96 . 0 p C

q 16 . 1

F

− ⋅

·

Critical conditions are reached with a relatively

high inlet pressure and reducing the outlet pres-

sure p

2

until the flow rate does not increase any

longer and this flow rate is assumed as q

v(max)

.

F

L

can be determined measuring only the pres-

sure p

1

and q

v(max)

.

b - Accuracy in determination of F

L

It is relatively easier determining the critical flow

rate q

v(max)

for high recovery valves (low F

L

) than

for low recovery valves (high F

L

). The accuracy

in the determination of F

L

for values higher than

0.9 is not so impor tant for the calculation of the

flow capacity as to enable to correctly predict

the cavitation phenomenon for services with high

differential pressure.

c - Variation of F

L

versus valve opening and flow

direction

The recovery factor depends on the profile of

velocities which takes place inside the valve body.

Since this last changes with the valve opening,

the F

L

coefficient considerably varies along the

stroke and, for the same reason, is often strongly

affected by the flow direction. The Fig. 6 shows

the values of the recovery factor versus the plug

stroke for different valve types and the two flow

directions.

Fig. 5 - Comparison be-

tween two valves with

equal flow coefficient but

with different recovery fac-

tor, under the same inlet

fluid condition, when vary-

ing the downstream pres-

sure. At the same values

of Cv, p1 and p2 valves

with higher F

L

can accept

higher flow rates of fluid.

p

vc

p

v

C

v1

F

L1

C

v2

F

L2

p

1

p

2

I

p

2

II

p

2

III

p

2

IV

(

)

(

)

∆

p

F

p

F

L

F

p

v

m

a

x

1

1

2

1

·

−

(

)

(

)

∆

p

F

p

F

L

F

p

v

m

a

x

2

2 2

1

·

−

2 L 2 v

F , C

1 L 1 v

F , C

F F

L L 1 2

>

C C

v v 1 2

·

*

PARC O L

- 12 -

5.2 - COEFFICIENT OF INCIPIENT CAVITATION

X

FZ

AND COEFFICIENT OF CONSTANT CAVI-

TATION K

c

When in the vena contracta a pressure lower than

the saturation pressure is reached then the liq-

uid evaporates, forming vapour bubbles. If, due

to pressure recovery, the downstream pressure

(which only depends on the downstream piping

layout) is higher than the critical pressure in the

vena contracta, then vapour bubbles totally or

partially implode, instantly collapsing. This phe-

nomenon is called cavitation and causes well

known damages due to high local pressures

generated by the vapour bubble implosion. Metal

surface damaged by the cavitation show a typi-

cal pitted look with many micro- and macro-pits.

The higher is the number of imploding bubbles,

the higher are damaging speed and magnitude;

these depend on the elasticity of the media where

the implosion takes place (i.e. on the fluid tem-

perature) as well as on the hardness of the metal

surface (see table at Fig. 7).

Fig. 6 - Typical F

L

values versus % value C

v

and flow direction for different PARCOL valve types.

Fig. 7 - Cavi tati on resi stance of some metal l i c

materials referred to stainless steels AISI 304/

316. Values between brackets only for qualita-

tive comparison.

2

6

7

3

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

1

0.6

10 100 50

6

5

7

3

1

2, 4

1

5

4

1 - seggio doppio - V-port double seat - V-port 1-8110

2 - seggio singolo - fusso apre single seat - flow to open 1-6911

3 - seggio singolo - flusso chiude single seat - flow to close 1-6911

4 - seggio singolo a gabbia - flusso apre single seat cage - flow to open 1-6933

5 - rotativa eccentrica - flusso apre eccentric plug - flow to open 1-6600

6 - farfalla a disco eccentrico eccentric disk 1-2471

7 - seggio doppio - parabolico double seat - parabolic 1-8110

% del C

v

max

% of rated C

v

C

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

e

d

i

r

e

c

u

p

e

r

o

F

L

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

r

e

c

o

v

e

r

y

f

a

c

t

o

r

F

L

Index of resistance to cavitation

stellite gr. 6 20

chrome plating (5)

17-4-PH H900 2

AISI 316/304 1

monel 400 (0.8)

gray cast iron 0.75

chrome-molybdenum alloyed steels (5% chrome) 0.67

carbon steels (WCB) 0.38

bronze (B16) 0.08

nickel plating (0.07)

pure aluminium 0.006

- 13 -

*

PARC O L

Critical conditions are obviously reached gradu-

ally. Moreover the velocity profile in the vena

contracta is not completely uniform, hence may

be that a part only of the flow reaches the va-

porization pressure. The F

L

recovery factor is

determined in proximity of fully critical conditions,

so it is not suitable to predict an absolute ab-

sence of vaporization. In order to detect the be-

ginning of the constant bubble formation, i.e. the

constant cavitation, the coefficient K

c

was de-

fined. This coefficient is defined as the ratio ∆p/

(p

1

- p

v

) at which cavitation begins to appear in

a water flow through the valve with such an in-

tensity that, under constant upstream conditions,

the flow rate deviation from the linearity versus

∆p exceeds 2%. Usually the beginning of cavi-

tation is identified by the coefficient of incipient

cavitation x

FZ

. The x

FZ

coefficient can be deter-

mined by test using sound level meters or accel-

erometers connected to the pipe and relating

noise and vibration increase with the beginning

of bubble formation. Some informations on this

regard are given by standard IEC 534-8-2 “Labo-

ratory measurement of the noise generated by a

liquid flow through a control valve”, which the Fig.

8 was drawn from. A simple calculation rule uses

the formula Kc = 0.8 F

L

2

. Such a simplification

is however only acceptable when the diagram of

the actual flow rate versus ∆p , under constant

upstream conditions, shows a sharp break point

between the linear/proportional zone and the

horizontal one. If on the contrary the break point

radius is larger (i.e. if the ∆p at which the devia-

tion from the linearity takes place is different from

the ∆p at which the limit flow rate is reached)

then the coefficient of proportionality between

K

c

and F

L

2

can come down to 0.65. Since the

coefficient of constant cavitation changes with

the valve opening, it is usually referred to a 75%

opening.

5.3 - PIPING FACTOR F

p

As already explained characteristic coefficients

of a given valve type are determined in standard

conditions of installation. The actual piping ge-

ometry will obviously differ from the standard one.

The coefficient F

p

takes into account the way

that a reducer, an expander, a Y or T branch, a

bend or a shut-off valve affect the value of C

v

of

a control valve. A calculation can only be carried

out for pressure and velocity changes caused

by reducers and expanders directly connected

to the valve. Other effects, such as the ones

caused by a change in velocity profile at valve

inlet due to reducers or other fittings like a short

radius bend close to the valve, can only be evalu-

ated by specific tests. Moreover such per turba-

tions could involve undesired effects, such as

plug instability due to asymmetrical and unbal-

ancing fluidodynamic forces. When the flow co-

efficient must be determined within ± 5 % toler-

ance the F

p

coefficient must be determined by

test. When estimated values are permissible the

following equation may be used:

2

2

v

p

d

C

00214 . 0

K

1

1

F

,

_

¸

¸

Σ

+

·

being: ΣK K K K K

B B

· + + −

1 2 1 2

Where C

v

is the selected flow coefficient, K

1

and

K

2

are resistance coefficient which take into ac-

count head losses due to turbulences and

frictions at valve inlet and outlet, K

B1

and/or

K

B2

= 1 - (d / D)

4

are the so called Bernoulli

coefficients, which account for the pressure

changes due to velocity changes due to reduc-

ers or expanders.

Fig. 8 - Determination of the coefficient of incipient cavitation

by means of phonometric analysis.

(Drawn from IEC Standard 534-8-2)

where ∆p

tr

is the value of ∆p at

which the transition takes place

from not cavitating to cavitating

flow.

∆p/(p

1

-p

v

)

X

FZ

s

o

u

n

d

p

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

l

e

v

e

l

(

d

B

)

x

p

p p

FZ

t r

v

·

−

∆

1

*

PARC O L

- 14 -

In case of reducers:

2

2

1

D

d

1 5 . 0 K

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

In case of expanders:

2

2

2

D

d

1 0 . 1 K

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

In case of the same ratio d/D for reducers and

expanders:

2

2

2 1

D

d

1 5 . 1 K K

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

− · +

5.4 - RECOVERY FACTOR WITH REDUCERS F

LP

Reducers, expanders, fittings and, generally

speaking, any installation not according to the

standard test manifold not only affect the stand-

ard coefficient (changing the actual inlet and

outlet pressures), but also modify the transition

point between normal and choked flow, so that

∆p

max

is no longer equal to ( )

v F 1

2

L

p F p F − , but

it becomes:

( )

F

F

p F p

Lp

p

F v

¸

¸

_

,

−

2

1

It is determined by test, like for the recovery fac-

tor F

L

(see point 5.1).

( )

v 1 v

LP max v

LP

p 96 . 0 p C

q 16 . 1

F

− ⋅

⋅

·

When F

L

is known it also can be determined by

the following relationship:

( )

2

2

v

1

2

L

L

LP

d

C

K

00214 . 0

F

1

F

F

,

_

¸

¸

Σ +

·

Where: (ΣK)

1

= K

1

+K

B1

5.5 - LIQUID CRITICAL PRESSURE RATIO

FACTOR F

F

The coefficient F

F

is the ratio between the ap-

parent pressure in vena contracta in choked con-

Fig. 9 - Effect of reducers on the diagram of q versus

∆p

when varying the downstream pressure at constant upstream pressure.

∆p F p F p

L

F v

max · −

1

q F

L

C

v

max ≡

q F

LP

C

v

max ≡

q

∝

C

v

q

∝

F

p

C

v

∆p

q

∆p

F

F

p F p

LP

p

F v

max · −

1

(see Fig. 9)

- 15 -

*

PARC O L

dition and the vapour pressure of the liquid at

inlet temperature:

F p p

F vc v

· /

When the flow is at limit conditions (saturation)

the flow rate equation must no longer be ex-

pressed as a function of ∆p = p

1

-p

2,

but of ∆p

vc

= p

1

-p

vc

(differential pressure in vena contracta).

Starting from the basic equation (at point 4.1):

r

2 1

v v

p p

C q

ρ

−

⋅ ·

and from:

F

p p

p p

L

vc

·

−

−

1 2

1

the following equation is obtained:

r

vc 1

v L v

p p

C F q

ρ

−

⋅ ⋅ ·

Since p

vc

depends on the vapour pressure

p

vc

= F

F

⋅ p

v

therefore:

c

v

v L v

p

p

C F q ⋅ ⋅ ·

Supposing that at saturation conditions the fluid

is a homogeneous mixture of liquid and its va-

pour with the two phases at the same velocity

and in thermodynamic equilibrium, the following

equation may be used:

c

v

F

p

p

28 . 0 96 . 0 F − ·

where p

c

is the critical thermodynamic pressure.

5.6 - EXPANSION FACTOR Y

This coefficient allows to use for compressible

fluids the same equation structure valid for in-

compressible fluids. It has the same nature of

the expansion factor utilized in the equations of

the throttling type devices (orifices, nozzles or

Venturi) for the measure of the flow rate. The Y’ s

equation is obtained from the theory on the ba-

sis of the following hypothesis (experimentally

confirmed):

- Y is a linear function of x = ∆p/p

1

- Y is a function of the fluid type, namely the

exponent of the adiabatic transformation

γ = c

p

/c

v

- Y is function of the geometry (i.e. type) of the

valve

From the first hypothesis: Y = 1 - ax, therefore:

x Y q

m

∞

A mathematic procedure allows to calculate the

value of Y which makes maximum the above

function (that means finding the point where the

rate dq

m

/ dx becomes zero.

( )

3

m

x a x x ax 1 q − · − ∞

By setting

0

2

x a 3

x 2

1

d

dq

x

m

· − ·

x a 3

x

1

·

hence:

a 3

1

x ·

i.e.:

3

2

a

a 3

1

1 Y · ⋅ − ·

As Y = 1 when x = 0 and Y = 2 /3, when the flow

rate is maximum (i.e. x = x

T

) the equation of Y

becomes the following:

T

x 3

x

1 Y − ·

thus taking into account also the third hypoth-

esis. As a matter of fact x

T

is an experimental

value to be determined for each valve type. Fi-

nally the second hypothesis will be taken into

account with an appropriate correction factor:

F

γ

= γ /1.4, which is the ratio between the expo-

nent of the adiabatic transformation for the ac-

tual gas and the one for air.

The final equation becomes:

T y

x F 3

x

1 Y − ·

*

PARC O L

- 16 -

0.96

0 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

Pv

Pc

F

F

Fig. 13 -Expansion factor Y.

The diagram is valid for a given of Fγ value.

1

Y

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.667

0.6

0.2 0.4 1.0 0.6 0.8

x

p

p

·

∆

1

Fig. 10 - Values of F

LP

for valves with short type reducer at the inlet with abrupt section variation

Fig. 11 -Liquid critical pressure ratio factor

p

v

= Vapour pressure (bar abs.)

p

c

= Critical pressure (bar abs.)

C v/ d

2

( d in mm)

15 x 10

- 3

20 x 10

- 3

25 x 10

- 3

30 x 10

- 3

35 x 10

- 3

40 x 10

- 3

F

L

.5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9

d / D F

LP

F

LP

F

LP

F

LP

F

LP

F

LP

.25 .49 .58 .67 .77 .85 .48 .57 .66 .74 .81 .47 .56 .64 .71 .78 .47 .54 .61 .68 .74 .45 .53 .59 .65 .70 .44 .51 .57 .62 .66

.33 .49 .58 .68 .76 .85 .48 .57 .66 .74 .82 .48 .56 .64 .71 .78 .47 .54 .62 .68 .74 .46 .53 .59 .65 .70 .44 .51 .57 .62 .66

.40 .49 .58 .68 .77 .85 .48 .57 .66 .74 .82 .48 .56 .64 .72 .78 .47 .55 .62 .69 .75 .46 .53 .60 .66 .71 .45 .51 .57 .62 .67

.50 .49 .59 .68 .77 .86 .49 .58 .66 .75 .83 .48 .56 .65 .72 .79 .47 .55 .62 .69 .76 .46 .54 .60 .66 .72 .45 .52 .58 .63 .68

.66 .49 .59 .68 .77 .86 .49 .58 .67 .76 .84 .48 .57 .66 .74 .81 .48 .56 .64 .71 .78 .47 .55 .62 .69 .74 .46 .53 .60 .66 .71

.75 .49 .59 .69 .78 .87 .49 .58 .68 .76 .85 .49 .58 .66 .75 .83 .48 .57 .65 .73 .80 .47 .56 .63 .70 .77 .47 .54 .62 .68 .74

c

v

F

p

p

28 . 0 96 . 0 F − ·

p

v

= Vapour pressure (bar abs.)

Fig. 12 -Critical pressure ratio factor for water

0,95

0,90

0,85

0,80

0,75

0,70

0,65

0,60

0 50 100 150 200 p

c

250

F

F

1

0,96

0,68

2

2

1

.

2

1

2 . 221

p

28 . 0 96 . 0 F

v

F

− ·

XT

in

c

re

a

s

in

g

- 17 -

*

PARC O L

If the downstream pressure p

2

is further reduced,

the flow rate still increases, as, due to the spe-

cific internal geometry of the valve, the section

of the vena contracta widens transversally (it is

not physically confined into solid walls). A con-

fined vena contracta can be got for instance in a

Venturi meter to measure flow rate: for such a

geometry, once the sound velocity is reached

for a given value of p

2

the relevant flow rate re-

mains constant, even reducing further p

2

. Nev-

ertheless the flow rate does not unlimitedly in-

crease, but only up to a given value of ∆p/p

1

(to

be determined by test), the so called pressure

differential ratio factor in choked flow condition,

x

T

.

5.8 - PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL RATIO FACTOR

IN CHOKED FLOW CONDITION FOR A VALVE

WITH REDUCERS X

TP

x

TP

is the same coefficients x

T

however deter-

mined on valves supplied with reducers or in-

stalled not in according to the standard set up.

( )

( )

2

2

v 1 B 1 T

2

p

T

TP

d

C

0024 . 0

K K x

1

1

F

x

x

,

_

¸

¸

⋅

+

+

⋅ ·

Therefore the maximum flow rate is reached

when x = F

γ

. x

T

(or Fγ ⋅ x

TP

if the valve is sup-

plied with reducers) ; correspondently the expan-

sion factor reaches the minimum value of 0.667.

5.7 - PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL RATIO FACTOR

IN CHOKED FLOW CONDITION x

T

As already seen the recovery factor does not oc-

cur in sizing equations for compressible fluids.

Its use is unsuitable for gas and vapours because

of the following physical phenomenon.

Let us suppose that in a given section of the

valve, under a given value of the downstream

pressure p

2

, the sound velocity is reached. The

critical differential ratio

cr

1

cr

p

p

x

,

_

¸

¸

∆

·

is reached as well, being

1

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ γ

− ·

−1 y

y

2

L cr

1

2

1 F x

Fig. 14 -Calculated values of x

TP

and F

p

for valves installed between two commercial concentric reducers (with abrupt section variation)

C

d

= C

v

/ d

2

(d expressed in inches).

Example: For a 2" valve is: C

v

= 80 and x

T

= 0.65

The valve is installed in a 3" pipe between two short type reducers.

C

d

= C

v

/ d

2

= 20 d / D = 2/3 = 0.67

A linear interpolation between x

T

= 0.6 and x

T

= 0.7 results in x

TP

= 0.63

C d 10 15 20 25 30

x

T

.40 .50 .60 .70 .80 .40 .50 .60 .70 .80 .40 .50 .60 .70 .20 .30 .40 .50 .15 .20 .25

d / D x

TP

F

p

x

TP

F

p

x

TP

F

p

x

TP

F

p

x

TP

F

p

.80 .40 .49 .59 .69 .78 .99 .40 .49 .58 .67 .75 .98 .39 .48 .56 .64 .96 .21 .30 .39 .47 .94 .17 .21 .26 .91

.75 .40 .50 .59 .69 .78 .98 .40 .49 .58 .67 .75 .97 .40 .49 .57 .65 .94 .22 .31 .40 .48 .91 .18 .23 .27 .88

.67 .40 .50 .60 .69 .78 .98 .41 .50 .59 .68 .76 .95 .42 .51 .59 .67 .91 .24 .33 .43 .51 .87 .19 .25 .30 .83

.60 .41 .51 .60 .70 .79 .97 .42 .52 .61 .69 .78 .93 .43 .53 .61 .69 .89 .25 .36 .45 .54 .84 .21 .27 .32 .79

.50 .41 .52 .61 .70 .80 .96 .44 .53 .63 .71 .79 .91 .46 .55 .64 .72 .85 .28 .39 .49 .58 .79 .24 .30 .36 .73

.40 .42 .52 .62 .71 .80 .95 .44 .55 .65 .74 .82 .89 .49 .58 .67 .75 .82 .30 .42 .53 .62 .76 .26 .33 .40 .70

.33 .43 .53 .62 .72 .81 .94 .46 .56 .66 .75 .83 .88 .50 .60 .69 .78 .81 .31 .44 .55 .64 .74 .27 .34 .40 .69

.25 .44 .53 .63 .73 .83 .93 .48 .58 .67 .76 .85 .87 .52 .62 .71 .79 .79 .33 .46 .57 .67 .72 .27 .37 .44 .65

- 19 -

*

PARC O L

This data sheet was derived from IEC 60534-7 with some improvements not affecting the numbering of the original items.

1120047 Studio Trevisan - Gallarate - 1000 - 03/01 - ACA 0101

PARCOL S.p.A. Via Isonzo, 2 - 20010 CANEGRATE (MI) - ITALY

C.C.I.A.A. 554316 - Fiscal code & VAT no. (IT) 00688330158

Telephone: +39 0331 413 111 - Fax: +39 0331 404 215

e-mail: sales@parcol.com - http://www.parcol.com

* PARCOL

**HANDBOOK FOR CONTROL VALVE SIZING
**

CONTENTS

NOMENCLATURE VALVE SIZING AND SELECTION 1 2 3 PROCESS DATA VALVE SPECIFICATION FLOW COEFFICIENT

3.1 KV coefficient 3.2 Cv coefficient 3.3 Standard test conditions

4

SIZING EQUATIONS

4.1 Sizing equations for incompressible fluids (turbulent flow) 4.2 Sizing equations for compressible fluids (turbulent flow) 4.3 Sizing equations for two-phase fluids 4.4 Sizing equations for non turbulent flow

5

**PARAMETERS OF SIZING EQUATIONS
**

5.1 Recovery factor FL 5.2 Coefficient of incipient cavitation xFZ and coefficient of constant cavitation Kc 5.3 Piping geometry factor Fp 5.4 Combined liquid pressure recovery factor and piping geometry factor of a control valve with attached fittings FLP 5.5 Liquid critical pressure ratio factor FF 5.6 Expansion factor Y 5.7 Pressure differential ratio factor xT 5.8 Pressure differential ratio factor for a valve with attached fittings xTP 5.9 Reynolds number factor FR

-1-

S.4 Bernoulli coefficients for inlet and outlet of a valve with attached reducers Coefficient of constant cavitation Flow coefficient Upstream and downstream resistance coefficients Molecular mass of the flowing fluid Absolute thermodynamic critical pressure Absolute vapour pressure of the liquid at inlet temperature Vena contracta absolute pressure Inlet absolute pressure measured at upstream pressure tap Outlet absolute pressure measured at downstream pressure tap Pressure differential between upstream and downstream pressures Maximum allowable pressure differential for control valve sizing purposes for incompressible fluids Mass flow rate Volumetric flow rate Maximum mass flow rate in choked condition Maximum volumetric flow rate in choked condition Valve Reynolds number Inlet absolute temperature Average fluid velocity Units (note) various U.Unless otherwise specified -2- .* PARCOL Symbols Cd Cv d D Fd FF FL FLP FP FR Fγ KB1 and KB2 Kc Kv K1 and K2 M pc pv pvc p1 p2 ∆p ∆p max qm qv qm(max) qv(max) Rev T1 u Description Specific flow coefficient = Cv/ d2 Flow coefficient Nominal valve size Internal diameter of piping Valve style modifier Liquid critical pressure ratio factor Liquid pressure recovery factor for a control valve without attached fittings Combined liquid pressure recovery factor and piping geometry factor of a control valve with attached fittings Piping geometry factor Reynolds number factor Specific heat ratio factor = γ/1. gallons/min mm mm dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless m 3/h dimensionless kg/kmole bar bar bar bar bar bar bar kg/h m 3/h kg/h m 3/h dimensionless K m/s Note .

999 kg/m 3 Units m 3/kg dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless kg/m 3 Specific mass of fluid at p1 and T1 kg/m 3 Ratio of specific mass of fluid in upstream condition to specific mass of dimensionless water at 15.5°C (ρ1/ρο .5°C i.ratio of ideal to actual inlet specific mass Specific heat ratio Specific mass of water at 15.* PARCOL Symbols v x xcr xFZ xT xTP Y Z γ ρο ρ1 ρr ν µ Description Specific volume Ratio of pressure differential to inlet absolute pressure Ratio of pressure differential to inlet absolute pressure in critical conditions (∆ p/p1)cr Coefficient of incipient cavitation Pressure differential ratio factor in choked flow condition for a valve without attached fittings Value of x T for valve/fitting assembly Expansion factor Compressibility factor .for liquids is indicated as ρ/ρο) Kinematic viscosity (ν = µ /ρ) Dynamic viscosity Centistoke = 10 -6 m 2/s Centipoise = 10 -3 Pa ⋅ s -3- .e.

ratio of vapour to its liquid. outwards leakage .* PARCOL SIZING AND SELECTION OF CONTROL VALVES The correct sizing and selection of a control valve must be based on the full knowledge of the process.fire resistance .inherent flow characteristic .Maximum operating range of flow rate related to pressure and temperature of fluid at valve inlet and to ∆p across the valve.leakage class .body size. vapour pressure “pv”. 3.VALVE SPECIFICATION On the ground of the above data it is possible to finalise the detailed specification of the valve (data sheet). such as pressure “p”.accessories 1 . c . presence of solid particles. is the standard flow rate which flows through a valve at a given opening. max.3).PROCESS DATA The following data should at least be known: a . i.plug position in case of supply failure .FLOW COEFFICIENT 3.maximum allowable leakage of valve in closed position . after having calculated the maximum flow coefficient Cv with the appropriate sizing equations . including the necessary space for disassembling and maintenance . specific mass “ρ”. temperature “T”.max.2 . b . etc. specific heat at constant pressure “Cp”.e.materials trim of different trim parts .type and size of actuator . kinematic viscosity “ν” or dynamic viscosity “µ”. min.valve rating .flowing fluid: water at a temperature from 5 to 40° C .1 .maximum differential pressure with closed valve . inflammability. toxicity. compressibility factor “Z”.available supplies and their characteristics 3 . is the standard flow rate which flows through a valve at a given opening. molecular mass “M”. specific heat ratio “γ”.e.FLOW COEFFICIENT “Cv” The flow coefficient Cv .Operating conditions (nor mal.FLOW COEFFICIENT “Kv” The flow coefficient Kv.noise limitations f . specific heat at constant volume “Cv ”.static pressure drop (∆p(Kv) ) across the valve of 1 bar (105 Pa) .Interface information.body and valve type .Operational data.). 2 .. referred to the following conditions: .stroking time .Type of fluid and its chemical-physical and thermodynamic characteristics.packing type . thermodynamic critical pressure “pc”. such as: . such as: sizing of downstream safety valves accessibility of the valve materials and type of piping connections overall dimensions. d .type of trim .Ratio of pressure differential available across the valve to total head loss along the process line at various operating conditions. i. to select: . e .volumetric flow rate in m3 /h The value of Kv can be determined from tests using the following formula: K v = qv where: ∆p( Kv ) ρ ⋅ ∆p ρ ο (1) ∆p(Kv) is the static pressure drop of 105 Pa ∆p is the static pressure drop from upstream to downstream in Pa ρ is the specific mass of fluid in kg/m3 ρo is the specific mass of water in kg/m3 The equation (1) is valid at standard conditions (see point 3. -4- .design pressure and temperature .

This (*) Straight pipe lengths upstream and downstream the valve D = Nominal pipe and valve diameter L = Valve dimension p1. Cv) are the following: flow in turbulent condition no cavitation and vaporisation phenomena valve diameter equal to pipe diameter static pressure drop measured between upstream and downstream pressure taps located as in Fig.* PARCOL i. where the flow rate still rises when the pressure drop is increased. In this region the capability of the valve to convert the pressure drop increase into flow rate is reduced. . 2.static pressure drop (∆p(Cv)) across the valve of 1 psi (6895 Pa) . The standard sizing equations ignore the hatched area of the diagram shown in Fig. flow rate.1 . in spite of further increments of ∆p .e. type of flow and installation) and making them mutually comparable as well as with the standard one. due to the fluid vaporisation and the subsequent cavitation. 2D p1 p2 6D 20D (*) L 10D (*) Fig.a first normal flow region (not critical).Standard test set up -5- . This not critical flow condition takes place until pvc > pv . ρ is the specific mass of the fluid expressed in Ib/ft3 ρo is the specific mass of the water expressed in Ib/ft3 Also the above equation (2) is valid at standard conditions as specified under point 3.1 and 4.p2 = Pressure taps The standard conditions referred to in definitions of flow coefficients (Kv . 3.SIZING EQUATIONS Sizing equations allow to calculate a value of the flow coefficient starting from different operating conditions (type of fluid.volumetric flow rate: expressed in gpm The value of Cv can be determined from tests using the following formula: 4 .SIZING EQUATIONS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS (TURBULENT FLOW) ∆p(Cv) is the static pressure drop of 1 psi (see above) ∆p is the static pressure drop from upstream to downstream expressed in psi.3 . pressure drop. referred to the following conditions: . as in a compressible fluid.a second semi-critical flow region.flowing fluid: water at a temperature from 40 to 100° F (5 ÷ 40° C) . 1 . This means that the flow conditions in vena contracta have reached the maximum evaporation rate (which depends on the upstream flow conditions) and the mean velocity is close to the sound velocity. where the flow rate is exactly proportional to ∆p . 2 versus the square root of the pressure differential ( ∆p ) under constant upstream conditions.STANDARD TEST CONDITIONS In general actual flow rate of a incompressible fluid through a valve is plotted in Fig. thus neglecting the semi-critical flow region. The cur ve can be splitted into three regions: . The equations outlined in sub-clauses 4.In the third limit flow or saturation region the flow rate remains constant. 1 .2 are in accordance with the standard IEC 534-2-1 C v = qv ⋅ where: ∆p( Cv ) ρ ⋅ ∆p ρ ο (2) 4. but less than proportionally to ∆p . .3. 1 .straight pipe lengths upstream and downstream the valve as per Fig.Newtonian fluid Note: Though the flow coefficients were defined as liquid (water) flow rates nevertheless they are used for control valve sizing both for incompressible and compressible fluids.

as it always involves vibration and noise problems as well as mechanical problems due to cavitation. when possible.* PARCOL approximation is justified by simplicity purposes and by the fact that it is not practically important to predict the exact flow rate in the hatched area. Basic equation Valid for standard test conditions only.16 ⋅ q v Fp ⋅ R ∆p ρr CV = qm ∆p max = FL p1 − FF ⋅ p v IEC normal flow IEC limit flow 2% normal flow approximation of IEC equations semi-critical flow noise and vibration limit flow or "choked flow" flashing (p2 <p v ) ∆p = K c (p1 − pv ) flow rate affected by cavitation f ∆p = x FZ (p1 − p v ) ∆p beginning of cavitation Fig. qv = K v ⋅ ∆p ρ/ ο ρ with qv in m3/s ∆p in bar (105 Pa) qv = Cv ⋅ ∆p ρ /ρο with qv in gpm ∆p in psi Note: Simple conversion operations among the different units give the following relationship : Cv = 1. -6- . on the other hand such an area should be avoided.2 -Flow rate diagram of an incompressible fluid flowing through a valve plotted versus downstream pressure under constant upstream conditions.16 Kv Normal flow (not critical) It is individuated by the relationship: ∆p < F 2 ∆pmax = LP ⋅ Fp (p −F ⋅pv ) 1 F CV = qm 865 ⋅ FR ⋅ ∆p ⋅ ρ r p 1.

2 . This deviation from linearity is due to the variation of fluid density (expansion) from the valve inlet up to the vena contracta. Normal flow It is individuated by the relationship x < F γ ⋅ xT or 2/3 < Y ≤ 1 The Fig.3 . Due to this density reduction the gas must be accelerated up to a higher velocity than the one reached by an equivalent liquid mass flow.* PARCOL Limit flow It is individuated by the relationship: Cv = q m (max ) 865 ⋅ FLP ⋅ FLPP ⋅ (p1 − FF ⋅pv ) ∆p ≥ ∆pmax = F p 2 2 (p1 − FF p v )ρr Cv = 1. 3 shows the flow rate diagram of a compressible fluid flowing through a valve when changing the downstream pressure under constant upstream conditions. whose value can change between 1 and 0.16 ⋅ q v (max ) FLP ⋅ ρr (p1 − FFp v ) If the valve is without reducers F P = 1 and FLP = F L 4. Cv = qm 27.Flow rate diagram of a compressible fluid flowing through a valve plotted versus differential pressure under constant upstream conditions. Under the same ∆p the mass flow rate of a compressible fluid must therefore be lower than the one of an incompressible fluid.SIZING EQUATIONS FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS (TURBULENT FLOW) Such an effect is taken into account by means of the expansion coefficient Y (see 5.3 ⋅ Fp ⋅ Y ⋅ x ⋅ p1 ⋅ ρ1 Cv = qv M ⋅ T1 ⋅ Z ⋅ 2120 ⋅ Fp ⋅ p1 ⋅ Y x limit flow density variation effect limit flow Fig. vena contracta expansion effect sound velocity in vena contracta -7- . The flow rate is no longer proportional to the square root of the pressure differential ∆p as in the case of incompressible fluids.667.6).

3.e. No formula is presently available to calculate with sufficient accuracy the flow capacity of a valve in these conditions.3 .1. 3 ⋅ Fp ⋅ C v ⋅ x ⋅ p1 Ve When the mass fraction f g is very small (under about 5%) better accuracy is reached using the first method. V g1 /Y 2 In other terms this means to assume that the mass flow of a gas with specific volume Vg1 is equivalent to the mass flow of a liquid with specific volume Veg under the same operating conditions.LIQUID/VAPOUR MIXTURES C v = C v g + C v liq i.2.2 ⋅ Fp ⋅ Fγ ⋅ x TP ⋅ p1 ⋅ ρ1 Y ⋅ x ⋅ρ 1 = Y ⋅ x = x/ V eg V g1 Cv = q v (max ) M ⋅ T1 ⋅ Z ⋅ 1414 ⋅ Fp ⋅ p1 Fγ ⋅ x TP where Veg is the actual specific volume of the gas i. 4. Such calculation problems are due to the following reasons: -8- . 4.* PARCOL Limit flow It is individuated by the relationship x ≥ Fγ ⋅ xTP and/or Y = 2/3 = 0.LIQUID/GAS MIXTURES A first easy physical model for the calculation roughly considers separately the flows of the two phases through the valve orifice without mutual energy exchange.e.667 The mass flow rate of a gas (see above) is proportional to: A second physical model overcomes this limitation assuming that the two phases cross the vena contracta at the same velocity. Assuming : where: qv is expressed in Nm3/h If valve is without reducers Fp = 1 and xTP becomes xT Ve = f g 4.SIZING EQ UATIONS FOR TWO-PHASE FLOWS No standard formulas presently exist for the calculation of two-phase flow rates through orifices or control valves. The calculation of the flow rate of a liquid mixed with its own vapour through a valve is very complex because of mass and energy transfer between the two phases.3. Therefore: Vgl Y 2 + f liq ⋅ Vliq1 where fg and fliq are respectively the gaseous and the liquid mass fraction of the mixture. Cv = q m( max ) 18. For higher amounts of gas the second method is to be used. This method assumes that the mean velocities of the two phases in the vena contracta are considerably different. the sizing equation becomes: q m = 27. the flow coefficient is calculated as the sum of the one required for the gaseous phase and the other required for the liquid phase.

but with a higher quality. where small errors in quality evaluation involve significant errors in the calculation of the specific volume of the mixture (e.e. i. .* PARCOL . On the ground of the above considerations it is possible to state that: . the isoenthropic transformation of the mixture in thermodynamic balance between valve inlet and vena contracta may involve quality increase or decrease.some experimental data point out the fact that the process is not always in thermodynamic equilibrium (stratifications of metastable liquid and overheated steam).01 to 0. of the equivalent specific volume. In both cases the point 2 are on the same isoenthalpic curve passing through the point 1. though mutually exchanging mass and energy. 1 Enthropy S -9- . .7%). moving from 1 to Vc.for high vapour quality at valve inlet the most suitable equation is the one obtained from the hypothesis of equal velocities of the two phases. While the global transformation from upstream to downstream (practically isoenthalpic) always involves a quality increase. if p1= 5 bar.3 ⋅ Fp ⋅ x ⋅ p1 Ve T Temperature 1 Fig. Cv = qm 27 . The most reliable explanation of such results is that the two phases flow at quite different velocities.difficulties in assessing the actual quality of the mixture (i. 2 Vc 2 Vc In the transformation at right side the quality decreases. This is mostly true and important at low qualities. when the quality varies from 0.Thermodynamic transformations of a water / vapour mixture inside a valve.g. 4). the vapour mass percentage) at valve inlet. C v = C v liq + C v vap .02 the mean specific volume of the mixture increases of 7.e.experimental data are available on liquid-vapour mixtures flowing through orifices at flow rates 10÷12 times higher than the ones resulting from calculation when considering the fluid as compressible with a specific mass equal to the one at the valve inlet. depending on quality and pressure values (see diagram T/S at Fig. In the transformation shown at left side of the diagram (isoenthropic between inlet and vena contracta Vc) the vapour quality increases.for low vapour quality (less than about three percent vapour by mass) at valve inlet the most suitable equation is the one obtained from the sum of the flow capacities of the two phases (at different flow velocities). 4 .

critical.liquid critical pressure ratio factor Y . limit). In such valves non turbulent flow conditions do commonly exist with conventional fluids too (air. factor F R becomes a fundamental parameter to properly size the low flow control valves i. The well-known Reynolds number: Re =ρ ⋅ u ⋅ d µ is the dimensionless ratio between mass forces and viscous forces.SIZING EQUATIONS FOR NON TURBULENT FLOW Sizing equations of subclauses 4. In many cases such parameters are of primary importance for the selection of the right valve for a given ser vice.10 - .16 ⋅ q v FR ⋅ ∆p ρr CV = 5. it is always FL ≤ 1. water.2 are applicable in turbulent flow conditions. The higher this coefficient is (close to 1) the higher is the valve attitude to dissipate energy by friction rather than in vortices. Moreover it is important to remark that the lower is this coefficient the higher is the valve capability to transform the kinetic energy into pressure energy (high recovery valve). when the Reynolds number calculated inside the valve is higher than about 30. The choked flow condition was ignored not being consistent with laminar flow.coefficient of constant cavitation Fp .* PARCOL 4.e. 5 .Reynolds number factor CV = incompressible fluid qm 865 ⋅ FR ⋅ ∆p ⋅ ρ r 1. The currently used equations are the following: The effect of fittings attached to the valve is probably negligible in laminar flow condition and it is presently unknown. In equations applicable to compressible fluid the correcting factor p 1+p 2/2 was introduced to account for the fluid density change.) and standard sizing equations become unsuitable if proper coefficients are not used. a laminar type flow (or transitional flow) takes place in the valve and the Cv coefficient calculated in turbulent flow condition must be corrected by FR coefficient. it is so defined: CV = compressible fluid CV = qm T1 ⋅ 67 ⋅ FR ∆p⋅ ( p 1 + p 2 ) ⋅ M qv M ⋅ T1 ⋅ 1500 ⋅ FR ∆p ⋅ ( p 1 + p 2 ) FL = p1 − p2 p1 − pvc The above equations are the same outlined in subclauses 4. semi-critical. When the first prevails the flow is turbulent.1 and 4.e.liquid pressure recovery factor for incompressible fluids Kc .coefficient of incipient cavitation xT . It shows the valve capability to transform the kinetic energy of the fluid in the vena contracta into pressure energy.pressure differential ratio factor in choked condition xTP .2 for non limit flow condition and modified with the correction factor FR. such parameters only depend on the flow pattern inside the valve body.combined coefficient of Fp with xT FR .combined coefficient of FL with Fp FF . It is therefore necessary to know the values of such parameters for the different valve types at full opening as well as at other stroke percentages.1 . Should the fluid be very viscous or the flow rate very low. i.4 . Such parameters are: FL .piping factor FLP.000. Note the absence of piping factors Fp and Y which were defined in turbulent regime. Due to that above.1 and 4.RECOVERY FACTOR FL The recovery factor of a valve only depends on the shape of the body and the trim.expansion factor xFZ . or a combination of the above conditions. the valves having flow coefficients Cv from approximately 1.PARAMETERS OF SIZING EQUATIONS In addition to the flow coefficient some other parameters occur in sizing equations with the purpose to identify the different flow types (normal. Since pvc (pressure in vena contracta) is always lower than p2 . steam etc. or the valve very small.0 down to the microflows range. with conse- . otherwise it is laminar.

* PARCOL quently lower reconversion of kinetic energy into pressure energy (low recovery valve).Variation of FL versus valve opening and flow direction The recovery factor depends on the profile of velocities which takes place inside the valve body. longer and this flow rate is assumed as q v(max).F L 2 2 L2 1 Fpv ∆pmax (2) = F p1 (p −F ) Fpv L 1 2 1 p2 I p2II Fig.16q v (max ) C v ⋅ p1 − 0 . 5 . the recovery factor is determined in critical conditions: . the FL coefficient considerably varies along the stroke and. In practice the sizing equations simply refer to the pressure drop (p1-p2 ) between valve inlet and outlet and until the pressure pvc in vena contracta is higher than the saturation pressure p v of the fluid at valve inlet. for the same reason.96 p v Critical conditions are reached with a relatively high inlet pressure and reducing the outlet pressure p2 until the flow rate does not increase any C v1 .11 - ∆pm ax (1) = F . p1 and p2 valves with higher F L can accept higher flow rates of fluid. The FL coefficient is crucial when approaching to cavitation. then the influence of the recovery factor is practically negligible and it does not matter whether the valve dissipates pressures energy by friction rather than in whirlpools. is often strongly affected by the flow direction. FL can be determined measuring only the pressure p1 and qv(max) . The accuracy in the determination of FL for values higher than 0. b .Comparison between two valves with equal flow coefficient but with different recovery facIII tor. Since this last changes with the valve opening.Accuracy in determination of FL It is relatively easier determining the critical flow rate qv(max) for high recovery valves (low FL) than for low recovery valves (high FL ). F L 1 (p −F ) FL1 >FL 2 Cv1= Cv 2 C v2 . 6 shows the values of the recovery factor versus the plug stroke for different valve types and the two flow directions. when varyIV ing the downstream presp2 sure. a .Determination of FL c Since it is not easy to measure the pressure in the vena contracta with the necessary accuracy. The Fig. under the same inlet p2 fluid condition. which can be avoided selecting a lower recovery valve.9 is not so impor tant for the calculation of the flow capacity as to enable to correctly predict the cavitation phenomenon for services with high differential pressure. At the same values of Cv. Cv1FL1 Cv2FL2 pv pvc . FL = 1.

Typical FL values versus % value Cv and flow direction for different PARCOL valve types.75 0. on the fluid temperature) as well as on the hardness of the metal surface (see table at Fig.flusso apre rotativa eccentrica .and macro-pits. 4 2 1 Coefficiente di recupero FL Pressure recovery factor FL 7 0.fusso apre seggio singolo .7 7 0. 6 . Values between brackets only for qualitative comparison.V-port single seat .Cavitation resistance of some metallic materials referred to stainless steels AISI 304/ 316.12 - . 7). . Metal surface damaged by the cavitation show a typical pitted look with many micro.38 0.8 5 3 0.flow to open eccentric plug . When in the vena contracta a pressure lower than the saturation pressure is reached then the liquid evaporates. the higher are damaging speed and magnitude.8) 0.COEFFICIENT OF INCIPIENT CAVITATION XFZ AND COEFFICIENT OF CONSTANT CAVITATION Kc Index of resistance to cavitation stellite gr. The higher is the number of imploding bubbles.67 0.75 0.parabolic 1-8110 1-6911 1-6911 1-6933 1-6600 1-2471 1-8110 6 % del Cv max % of rated Cv 100 Fig. instantly collapsing.95 5 4 6 0.85 0.9 2. 5.* PARCOL 1 1 0. This phenomenon is called cavitation and causes well known damages due to high local pressures generated by the vapour bubble implosion.08 (0.parabolico double seat . 7 . forming vapour bubbles.flusso chiude seggio singolo a gabbia .flusso apre farfalla a disco eccentrico seggio doppio .65 3 0.V-port seggio singolo . 6 chrome plating 17-4-PH H900 AISI 316/304 monel 400 gray cast iron chrome-molybdenum alloyed steels (5% chrome) carbon steels (WCB) bronze (B16) nickel plating pure aluminium 20 (5) 2 1 (0.006 Fig.07) 0.2 . these depend on the elasticity of the media where the implosion takes place (i.e.6 10 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 - seggio doppio . due to pressure recovery.flow to open eccentric disk double seat . then vapour bubbles totally or partially implode.flow to open single seat . the downstream pressure (which only depends on the downstream piping layout) is higher than the critical pressure in the vena contracta. If.flow to close single seat cage .

00214 d 2 2 ∆ptr x FZ = p1 − pv where ∆ptr is the value of ∆p at which the transition takes place from not cavitating to cavitating flow. K B1 and/or KB2 = 1 . it is usually referred to a 75% opening. such as the ones caused by a change in velocity profile at valve inlet due to reducers or other fittings like a short radius bend close to the valve. When the flow coefficient must be determined within ± 5 % tolerance the F p coefficient must be determined by test. a Y or T branch. In order to detect the beginning of the constant bubble formation. Moreover the velocity profile in the vena contracta is not completely uniform. (Drawn from IEC Standard 534-8-2) Where C v is the selected flow coefficient. 8 . A simple calculation rule uses the formula Kc = 0. If on the contrary the break point radius is larger (i. When estimated values are permissible the following equation may be used: sound pressure level (dB) ∆p/(p1-pv) XFZ Fp = 1 ΣK C v 1+ 0. can only be evaluated by specific tests. The xFZ coefficient can be determined by test using sound level meters or accelerometers connected to the pipe and relating noise and vibration increase with the beginning of bubble formation.pv ) at which cavitation begins to appear in a water flow through the valve with such an intensity that. Other effects.e.(d / D)4 are the so called Bernoulli coefficients.8 FL2. the coefficient Kc was defined. hence may be that a part only of the flow reaches the vaporization pressure. The actual piping geometry will obviously differ from the standard one. Such a simplification is however only acceptable when the diagram of the actual flow rate versus ∆p . a bend or a shut-off valve affect the value of Cv of a control valve. A calculation can only be carried out for pressure and velocity changes caused by reducers and expanders directly connected to the valve. shows a sharp break point between the linear/proportional zone and the horizontal one. under constant upstream conditions. . if the ∆p at which the deviation from the linearity takes place is different from the ∆p at which the limit flow rate is reached) then the coefficient of proportionality between Kc and FL2 can come down to 0. under constant upstream conditions. an expander. The FL recovery factor is determined in proximity of fully critical conditions. K1 and K2 are resistance coefficient which take into account head losses due to turbulences and frictions at valve inlet and outlet. The coefficient Fp takes into account the way that a reducer.e.13 - . the constant cavitation.65. which account for the pressure changes due to velocity changes due to reducers or expanders.* PARCOL Critical conditions are obviously reached gradually.3 . so it is not suitable to predict an absolute absence of vaporization. the flow rate deviation from the linearity versus ∆p exceeds 2%. Some informations on this regard are given by standard IEC 534-8-2 “Laboratory measurement of the noise generated by a liquid flow through a control valve”. This coefficient is defined as the ratio ∆p/ (p1 . which the Fig.Determination of the coefficient of incipient cavitation by means of phonometric analysis. Moreover such per turbations could involve undesired effects.PIPING FACTOR Fp As already explained characteristic coefficients of a given valve type are determined in standard conditions of installation. i. such as plug instability due to asymmetrical and unbalancing fluidodynamic forces. 5. Since the coefficient of constant cavitation changes with the valve opening. 8 was drawn from. being: ΣK = K 1+ K 2 + K B1− K B2 Fig. Usually the beginning of cavitation is identified by the coefficient of incipient cavitation xFZ.

expanders.14 - .5 . 9 . so that Where: (ΣK)1= K1 +KB1 5.01 − K2 D It is determined by test. like for the recovery factor FL (see point 5.Effect of reducers on the diagram of q versus ∆p when varying the downstream pressure at constant upstream pressure. but FLp F (p1 − FF pv ) p 2 2 (see Fig. fittings and.51 − D 2 When FL is known it also can be determined by the following relationship: FLP = 5. 9) d 2 = 1.* PARCOL In case of reducers: d 2 K1 = 0. . In case of the same ratio d/D for reducers and expanders: FLP = 1. but also modify the transition point between normal and choked flow.LIQUID CRITICAL PRESSURE RATIO FACTOR FF The coefficient FF is the ratio between the apparent pressure in vena contracta in choked con- q ∆p max = FL p1 − FF pv q max ≡ FL Cv q max ≡ FLP Cv ∆p max = q∝ C v FLP Fp p1 − FF pv q∝ F pC v ∆p Fig.5 1 − D In case of expanders: 2 ∆pmax is no longer equal to F L it becomes: 2 (p1 −F F p v ) .00214 d 2 Reducers. generally speaking. any installation not according to the standard test manifold not only affect the standard coefficient (changing the actual inlet and outlet pressures).16 ⋅ q v (max )LP C v ⋅ p1 − 0. 96p v d 2 K1 + K 2 = 1.1).4 RECOVERY FACTOR WITH REDUCERS FLP FL 2 FL (ΣK)1 C2v 1+ 0.

therefore: q m∞Y x A mathematic procedure allows to calculate the value of Y which makes maximum the above function (that means finding the point where the rate dqm/ dx becomes zero.4.* PARCOL dition and the vapour pressure of the liquid at inlet temperature: FF = pvc / v p When the flow is at limit conditions (saturation) the flow rate equation must no longer be expressed as a function of ∆p = p1-p2.e.96 − 0. but of ∆pvc = p1 -pvc(differential pressure in vena contracta). As a matter of fact xT is an experimental value to be determined for each valve type.Y is a function of the fluid type. which is the ratio between the exponent of the adiabatic transformation for the actual gas and the one for air.Y is function of the geometry (i. Starting from the basic equation (at point 4. when the flow rate is maximum (i.1): .28 pv pc where pc is the critical thermodynamic pressure. The Y’ s equation is obtained from the theory on the basis of the following hypothesis (experimentally confirmed): . x = xT ) the equation of Y becomes the following: Y =1− x 3x T FF = 0.Y is a linear function of x = ∆p/p1 thus taking into account also the third hypothesis. type) of the valve From the first hypothesis: Y = 1 . nozzles or Venturi) for the measure of the flow rate.15 - .e.e. Finally the second hypothesis will be taken into account with an appropriate correction factor: Fγ = γ /1.ax. 5. It has the same nature of the expansion factor utilized in the equations of the throttling type devices (orifices.6 EXPANSION FACTOR Y This coefficient allows to use for compressible fluids the same equation structure valid for incompressible fluids. the following equation may be used: As Y = 1 when x = 0 and Y = 2 /3. namely the exponent of the adiabatic transformation γ = cp /cv . 3 q m ∞(1 − ax ) x = x − a x qv = Cv ⋅ and from: p1 − p 2 ρr FL = p1 − p2 p1 − pvc By setting the following equation is obtained: q v = FL ⋅ C v ⋅ p1 − p vc ρr dq m 1 3a x = − =0 dx 2 2 x 1 = 3a x x Y = 1− hence: x= 1 3a Since pvc depends on the vapour pressure pvc = FF ⋅ pv therefore: q v = FL ⋅ C v ⋅ pv pc i.: 1 2 ⋅a = 3a 3 Supposing that at saturation conditions the fluid is a homogeneous mixture of liquid and its vapour with the two phases at the same velocity and in thermodynamic equilibrium. The final equation becomes: Y = 1− x 3Fy x T .

65 221.9 FLP .9 FLP .48 .8 .69 .60 .7 0.62 .84 .* PARCOL Cv/d2 (d in mm) FL d/D .69 .96 − 0.46 .49 .80 35 x 10-3 .85 . 11 -Liquid critical pressure ratio factor pv = Vapour pressure (bar abs.71 . 10 .60 .48 .59 .6 .65 .47 .54 .9 FLP .56 .68 .74 .67 .5 .7 .47 .58 .47 .77 .8 XT 0.46 .85 0.72 .67 .7 FF = 0.44 .66 .69 .66 .9 0.69 .66 .63 .47 . 13 -Expansion factor Y.62 .49 .44 .51 .47 .49 .77 .57 .64 .54 .54 .75 .95 0.49 .66 .2 1 Y 0.6 0.68 .Values of FLP for valves with short type reducer at the inlet with abrupt section variation 1 FF 0.74 .5 .75 0.49 .56 .71 .62 .70 .8 .6 .68 .5 .5 0.80 0.8 .49 .53 .64 .40 .49 .77 40 x 10-3 .49 .58 .56 .75 .78 .82 .70 .68 .62 .86 .85 .77 .68 .2 0.54 .) 200 pc 250 Fig.96 − 0.5 .0 x= ∆p p1 .64 .60 .45 .74 .9 0.1 0.25 .55 .48 .76 .28 221.59 .75 15 x 10-3 .48 .57 .78 .48 .667 ing eas incr 0.8 1.67 .76 .74 .65 .74 Fig.9 FLP .5 .66 .58 .59 .78 .4 0.48 .68 .6 .65 .53 .2 1 0.49 .77 .71 .57 .57 .83 30 x 10-3 .48 .8 .47 .55 .78 .45 .56 .53 .58 .62 .49 .5 .74 .9 FLP .72 .71 .85 25 x 10-3 .85 .33 .9 FLP .7 .79 .72 .65 .74 .81 .4 0.56 .74 .8 .9 Pv Pc 1 pv pc Fig.8 .58 .62 .51 .86 .71 .87 20 x 10-3 .96 0.62 .55 .46 .52 . 0.46 .90 0.28 0.58 .7 .66 .68 .48 .47 .6 .70 0.70 .76 .66 .53 .57 .57 .61 .3 0.8 0. 12 -Critical pressure ratio factor for water FF 0.66 .7 .73 .66 .51 .68 pv FF = 0.59 .58 .66 .82 .62 .7 .6 0.6 0.96 Fig.68 .64 .48 .) pc = Critical pressure (bar abs.58 .81 .66 .56 .2 0.57 .47 .6 .78 .7 .75 .45 . The diagram is valid for a given of Fγ value.59 .57 .66 .50 .83 .68 .6 0 0.7 0.) 0.76 .8 0.16 - .6 .63 .60 0 50 100 150 pv = Vapour pressure (bar abs.

43 .27 .95 .40 .40 .37 .58 .82 .78 .27 .25 10 . under a given value of the downstream pressure p2.62 .22 .69 .96 .85 Fp .33 .48 . Nevertheless the flow rate does not unlimitedly increase.60 .48 .46 .89 .52 .667.44 .60 .75 .50 .75 .69 .88 .27 .30 .33 .63 .42 .71 .50 . Let us suppose that in a given section of the valve.87 xTP .69 .40 .65 . the section of the vena contracta widens transversally (it is not physically confined into solid walls). as.55 .30 . 14 -Calculated values of xTP and Fp for valves installed between two commercial concentric reducers (with abrupt section variation) Cd = Cv / d 2 (d expressed in inches). the sound velocity is reached.40 .21 .18 .78 .25 .40 .49 .94 .30 . correspondently the expansion factor reaches the minimum value of 0.69 . but only up to a given value of ∆p/p1 (to be determined by test).34 .57 .23 .64 .68 . the flow rate still increases.67 .58 .40 .65 .79 .49 .95 . Cd = Cv / d2 = 20 d / D = 2/3 = 0.53 .79 xTP .25 . 5. ∆p x cr = p 1 cr is reached as well.40 .69 .59 .21 .80 .67 .96 .76 .71 .98 .51 .71 .54 .83 Fp .40 .42 .55 .43 .8 .39 .24 .58 .76 .65 The valve is installed in a 3" pipe between two short type reducers.78 .49 . 5.* PARCOL Therefore the maximum flow rate is reached when x = Fγ .80 .62 .52 .26 .53 .63 .47 .PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL RATIO FACTOR IN CHOKED FLOW CONDITION FOR A VALVE WITH REDUCERS XTP xTP is the same coefficients xT however determined on valves supplied with reducers or installed not in according to the standard set up.80 15 .19 .64 .17 - .44 .56 .42 .60 .64 .49 .50 .60 .73 .85 .75 .25 xTP .91 .17 .78 . Its use is unsuitable for gas and vapours because of the following physical phenomenon.33 .97 .59 .99 .70 .83 .70 25 .40 .91 .63 .62 .26 . even reducing further p2 .80 20 .79 Fp .15 .91 .69 .39 .79 .33 .28 .67 .97 . The critical differential ratio If the downstream pressure p2 is further reduced.98 .40 .83 .61 .67 .27 .79 .53 .94 .74 .31 .40 .41 .42 .76 .51 .67 A linear interpolation between xT = 0.48 .65 Fig.80 . Example: For a 2" valve is: Cv = 80 and xT = 0.70 .52 .66 .49 .75 .55 .44 .43 .36 .52 .73 .81 . due to the specific internal geometry of the valve.93 .58 .98 .32 .0024 d 1 2 Cd xT d/D . once the sound velocity is reached for a given value of p2 the relevant flow rate remains constant.50 .61 .88 .41 .20 .50 .44 Fp .60 .58 .70 .53 .70 .72 .46 .57 .60 .91 .44 .7 results in xTP = 0. xT (or Fγ ⋅ xTP if the valve is supplied with reducers) .69 .60 .67 Fp .40 .79 .82 .74 .46 .51 .56 .61 .94 .59 .30 .21 . A confined vena contracta can be got for instance in a Venturi meter to measure flow rate: for such a geometry.30 .72 xTP .31 .59 .50 .36 .50 .89 .50 .75 .45 .81 .67 .87 .7 PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL RATIO FACTOR IN CHOKED FLOW CONDITION xT As already seen the recovery factor does not occur in sizing equations for compressible fluids.67 .50 .53 .20 30 .84 .70 .39 .93 xTP .78 . the so called pressure differential ratio factor in choked flow condition.40 .49 .40 .24 .62 . xT . being y 2 y −1 1 − x cr = F γ +1 2 L x TP = xT ⋅ (Fp )2 1+ x T (K1 + K B1 ) C v ⋅ 2 0.6 and xT = 0.41 .72 .

.

* PARCOL This data sheet was derived from IEC 60534-7 with some improvements not affecting the numbering of the original items. .19 - .

com 1120047 Studio Trevisan .A. 554316 .A.20010 CANEGRATE (MI) .ACA 0101 .PARCOL S.com .03/01 .I.p.parcol.http://www. 2 .Gallarate - 1000 .Fiscal code & VAT no.ITALY C.A.C. (IT) 00688330158 Telephone: +39 0331 413 111 . Via Isonzo.Fax: +39 0331 404 215 e-mail: sales@parcol.

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