Finally. Acceptance by those companies outside the SIG will hold back the implementation of Bluetooth in all devices in the future. the implementation issues of Bluetooth technology are observed.
Bluetooth has to receive an overwhelming support of all the digital and computerized manufacturers to become a basic unit in a production process. Such devices can form a quick ad-hoc secure “piconet” and communicate among the connected devices. The possibilities for new applications are very exciting with this versatile technology. This technology creates many useful mobile usage models because the connections can occur while mobile devices are being carried in packets and briefcases (therefore.ABSTRACT:
Blue tooth is a standard developed by a group of electronics manufacturers that allows any sort of electronic equipment – from computers to cell phones and keyboards to headphones – to make its own connections without wires. low-power. The Bluetooth specification is definitely real and is being widely adopted by industry leaders.
Bluetooth is a radio system designed for connecting a variety of mobile devices in a secure ad-hoc fashion.
. cables or any direct action from the user. features and benefits. This paper provides a brief introduction of Bluetooth technology and its working. The technology encompasses a simple low-cost. there are no line-of-sight restrictions). global radio system for integration into mobile devices. It also gives some insights of applications.
low-cost. Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices like personal digital assistants (PDAs). The name Bluetooth was born from the 10th century king of Denmark. as long as they are within up to 100 meters of each other. Bluetooth lets these devices talk to each other when they come in range. printers and digital cameras via a secure. mobile phones.5 mW–4 dBm Class 3N1 mW ~10 meters
0 dBm~10cm (1 meter max)
. PCs. even if they are not in the same room. globally available short range radio frequency. The inventors of the Bluetooth technology thought this a fitting name for their technology which allowed different devices to talk to each other Bluetooth is a radio standard primarily designed for low power consumption. 100 meters) and with a lowcost transceiver microchip in each device. dependent on the power class of the product. 10 meters. Products are available in one of three power classes: Power (__) Power (___) Range (approximate)
Class 1N100 mW–20 dBm–~100 meters Class 2N2. with a short range (power class dependent: 10 centimeters.INTRODUCTION
Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). laptops. King Harold Bluetooth who engaged in diplomacy which led warring parties to negotiate with each other.
The Ericsson Company originally started Bluetooth as a project. Bluetooth was aimed at unifying the telecom and computing industries. radio technologies for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data any where in the world.e. OR Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low cost. Similarly. in the beginning of the Bluetooth technology era. telephones etc. low power. Blatand translates into Bluetooth in English. This Bluetooth is also a cable replacement technology i.
THE REASON WE CAME TO BLUETOOTH…
Let us take an example of telephones for cables where as mobiles are wireless.WHAT IS BLUETOOTH?
Bluetooth is a name given to the novel technology that uses short range. Because of the problem of interference over cabling we came to Bluetooth technology.
THE NAME BLUETOOTH COMES FROM…
Bluetooth is named for Harald Blatand. cameras.
. Such as mobile phones. printers. wireless. short range. coffee makers. radio link. notebook computers. intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed communicating devices. the king of Denmark who united Denmark and Norway. desktops.
The Bluetooth SIG includes promoter companies 3Com. 1600 times/sec. Nokia and Toshiba. It is full-duplex. Low power. Bluetooth uses 1600 times/sec frequency hopping to avoid interference. and more than 2000 Adopter/Associate member companies.e. Intel. royalty-free This group also defines a certification program for Bluetooth products to specification. Bandwidth is wide enough to carry voice and data signals. Devices automatically switch to power saving mode.
Universal short-range (up to 100 mts) radio communication standard. Lucent.
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) This group worked together to define and promote an open.BLUETOOTH IS WIRELESS…
Blue tooth uses omni-directional radio waves which even operate in the unlicensed ISM band at 2. IBM. which is near microwave frequency. Ericsson. Microsoft. Transfers data at 721 Kbps (Kilo Bits Per Second).4GHz band. ensure product compatibility across manufacturers.4GHZ that can be transmitted through walls and non-metal barriers. 32-100mA during sustained data transmissions between devices. Performs fast frequency hopping between 79 points to avoid interference i..
. Runs at 2. which is 3 – 8 times the average speed of parallel and serial ports respectively. Motorola.
Activating a station from parked state means that an active station should be moved to parked state. 300 – 400 Kbps real data rate.
The communication between master & slaves can be of • • One-to-one One-to-many (or) single point-to-point –(or) multipoint
. An indefinite number of parked devices remains synchronized with the Piconet but is not active. A slave in the parked state is synchronized with the master but cannot take place in communication until it moves from parked state to active state. ♦ Piconet ♦ Scatternet
It is a small subset of Bluetooth devices that share the same physical channel in an ad-hoc fashion.
Bluetooth defines two types of networks. Piconet comprises of eight stations in which only one serves as master & the rest as slaves. All the slave stations synchronize their clocks & hopping sequence with the master.
Slave M M
A group of two or more partially overlapping Piconet connected through gateways.
M M – Master S – Slave S S M/S S
. In Scatternet the slave of one Piconet can be a master to another Piconet. (Or) A Scatternet is a group of Piconet linked via a slave device in one Piconet. which plays master role in other Piconet. The connection between master and slaves is same as in Piconet.M – Master
. This layer uses 2. To transform bits to a signal a sophisticated version of FSK called GFSK (FSK with Gaussian Band Width Filtering) is used.In this layer a method called Frequency hopping spread spectrum is used in order to avoid interference from other devices or other networks. It deals with Band.BLUETOOTH LAYERS
Link Manager I
RADIO LAYER: The radio layer coordinates the functions required to transmit bit stream over a medium.4GHz ISM band divided into 79 channels of 1MHz each . FHSS & Modulation.
TDD is a kind of half duplex communication. • MULTIPLE SLAVE COMMUNICATIO If the Piconet consists more than one slave then the master uses the even numbered slots. but a slave sends in the next odd numbered slot if the packet in the previous slot was addressed to it. The communication for each direction uses different hops.
In TDMA access method communication is of two types: • SINGLE SLAVE COMMUNICATIO If the Piconet has only one slave then the master uses even numbered slots and the slave uses odd numbered slots to communicate with one another in half duplex method. PHYSICAL LINKS: The types of links between master and slave are SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) link ACL (Asynchronous Connection Less) link • SCO:
. This layer deals with access method TDD-TDMA (Time Division Duplexing–Time Division Multiple Access). It deals with access method TDMA & Physical links.BASE BAND LAYER: Base band layer governs the operation of the access method.
a physical link is created between a master and slave by reserving specific slots at regular intervals. SCO is used for real. HCI (Host Controller Interface) It is provided to ease the partition of the Bluetooth Stack across to processors. which sends from one device to another. Some systems will implement the Baseband and link manager on the Bluetooth device and higher levels on the host processor. HCI Driver & Host Controller Transport Layer HCI Firmware & HCI Controllers are communicated through Host Controller Transport Layer. The HCI is provided as command interface between these parts. This HCI is functionally broken up into three parts. LMP (Link Manager Protocol)
This layer is responsible for setting up the link between two Bluetooth radios (Security aspects and control issues on Baseband packet sizes).In SCO. HCI Firmware. So. A slave can create up to three SCO links with the master • ACL: An Asynchronous connectionless link is used when data integrity is more important than avoiding latency. if a packet is damaged it is never retransmitted.time audio.A synchronous connection oriented link is used when avoiding Latency (delay in data delivery) is more important than integrity (Error-free delivery). In SCO. Furthermore. ACL can achieve a data rate up to 721 Kbps. Link manager uses the services of link controller to perform its services. and connection states of Bluetooth unit in a Piconet. It essentially consists of number of protocol data units.
. it controls the power modes and duty cycles of Bluetooth radio services.
L2CAP LAYER: L2CAP is the acronym for Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol. home networking. if the devices are not Bluetooth enabled. Devices can take advantage of several wireless technologies. Cordless telephone. ad-hoc networking and some like in medical or industrial organizations. they will communicate without wires. Bluetooth included. There are several questions that need to be addressed before any two devices can communicate with one another Will the devices communicate via wires or through the air? Obviously. Points
. by using various transmitters to send information over the airwaves.
Bluetooth devices are required where cable replacement needed and at data and voice access points. then they have the option of communicating either with or without wires. However.
How Bluetooth Technology Works ?
Connecting Devices In order to understand how Bluetooth technology works we must first take a look at how electronic devices (Bluetooth or not) connect and communicate with one another. if the devices are using Bluetooth. L2CAP adapts upper layer protocols over the Baseband and resides in the data link layer. etc. L2CAP permits higher-level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64KB of length. headsets
o Data and Voice Access E-mail. o Cable Replacement PCs &peripherals. web access.
vending machines. etc. multi-layer Games.o Ad-hoc Networking o Medical o Industrial
Business card exchange.
¤ Relatively low transfer rate(721Kbps)
. so that it could be easily integrated in chipsets and energy constrained
¤ Only applicable to short range (up to 100 mts) ¤ Bluetooth technology is of high cost when compared to other
technologies. Monitoring devices Inventory management systems
chip Blue tooth devices are wireless Allows transmission range of up to 100 meters Robustness: This is capable of operating in an environment strongly Low Complexity: This is suitable for devices with low memory and low Low Power: This is suitable for small devices that are battery powered Low Cost: Very large scale production can be implemented on a single
interfered by other technologies using the same radio spectrum cpu capacity. white goods.
SECURITY MANAGEMENT three Security Modes There are
∗ Security Mode 1
No security procedures and any Bluetooth device can initiate a connection
Security Mode 2
Security is enforced after the connection has been
established. Security Mode 3
methods. Bluetooth wireless technology not built for secure e-commerce
The other WLAN technology is
Only a device is authenticated. not its user.
Security is enforced during set-up. Can allow greater flexibility to work with application
requirements. Bluetooth security not intended to replace other software security Network security still needed to control access to LANs.
The core IEEE The SIG or “promoter” group.Microsoft .Nokia and Toshiba. Up to 100 metres range becomes more main stream. for mobile internet browsing Background Syncs between PC & PDA. Phone. Portable phone (fixed line charge). go ahead and take it As Bluetooth technology for a whirl and Uses Wired Equivalenthands-free environment.car) Intercom (no charge).000 member organizations. enjoy a cable less and Privacy
Headset 3 in 1 Phone Hands free cell phone (road. This ability to establish peaceful communication between differing peoples is a metaphor for the ability to connect devices from differing
.Intel.Today over 1.Thus there is an urgent need for all the other 11 Mbps companies to understand the importance of Bluetooth and implement it to acquire more Multiple clients per access point fruitful results.Ericsson. office . advantages and applications of Bluetooth technology . PC Digital camera send to cell phone Exchange Business Cards & Data in meetings Peripherals connect to your PC or LAN w/o wires
This paper is intended to explain the working.IBM .Lucent Office or campus LAN . 802.technologies.000 international electronics manufacturers belong to Bluetooth special interest group or SIG. in the SIG is composed of 3com.11b today consists of more than 2. Cellular in Office LAN Internet Bridge Automatic Synchronizer Instant Postcard Interactive Conference Wireless Workplace Network access point. Motorola.