# BASICS ON AUTOMATIC A.F.C.S.

(AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM)

FLIGHT

Thisdocument ISa training aid. It cannot replace manufacturer's technical documentation.

Issue: september 1991

Geurocopter

PURPOSE OF A.F.C.S.
The Automatic Flight Control System makes easier the pilot tasks and gives him longer to monitor the flight. The automatic flight has two purposes:

S TAB I LIZ A T ION

and

G U I D A NC E

1 STABILIZATION
This function allows to stabilize and monitor all mouvements around the center of gravity.

2

GUIDANCE
Guidance allows to make and monitor displacement of the gravity center in the space.

SASICS

ON

STABiLIZATION

Oeurocopter

DEFINITION OF ANGLES
Helicopter transversa! axis or PITCH axis he angle between the horizontal plane and the longitudinal cis of the helocopter is called theta ( e ). Helicopter longitudinal axis or ROLL axis The angle between the horizontal plane and the lateral axis of the helicopter si called phi ( 4> ).

Axis pitch

Angle

Control Cyclic stick: - up - down

Axis Roll

Angle

Control Cyclic stick: - left - right

8

ip

Helicopter gyro axis or Yaw axis 1e angle between the helicoter axis and the flight path is 311ed ( >!r ). psi

Vertical axis up and down. or Collective axis The change in blade pitch angle allows to make the helicoter go up or down.

W

helicopter

horizontal

I

plane

horizontal

plane

Axis Yaw

Angle

Control Pedals: - left - right

Axis collective

Angle i : blade pitch angle

Control collectif lever

*

p ~ -:: I

r

<;

n

~J

C; T .A PI!

I 7 t:. Tin

~i

OFFSET flight controls D A. the memory of the system instantaeously helicopter and considers it as the reference attitude.P. power components S A. that is to say: E =: S and so B = 0 The transfer function B/(E-S) called piloting law caracterizes the AFCS.SICS ON STABILI2ATIO~1 .P.S) The helicopter will be stabilized around the reference attitude when the system will be well balanced. transmit them (S) to the computer where they are compared with the reference value of the memory (E).P. The elaborated order is equal to: B = f(E .P.control unit ~~ _J and display When the pilot engages the AFCS . acquires the present attitude of the Then the sensors permanentely detect and measure any offset (D). E"-. Computer units B E memory A. sensors A.4teurocopter 2 2.1 PilOTING LAW GENERAL The piloting law is the relation-ship between an helicopter offset and the order necessary to bring it back to its initial attitude.

k1.dA is also nil and the blade pitch angle i1 is maintained at its reference value ( i.The blade pitch angle i2 is greater than io. But due to the processing delay and the helicopter inertie.e) Due to inertia. .0 {15~ Ao A~ i5<~ -----k1.O .} ~! .. the aircraft tends to oscillate around its reference attitude. The action is opposite to that on b) step. The attitude offset dA and the resulting AP order are greater than O. The attitude offset dA and the resulting AP order are greater than. the AP computer orders counter it.are parametres which depend on the helicopter characteristics 2. helicopter attitude blade pitch angle · b) The helicopter draws aside from its reference attitude: The present attutude Alt) is different than the reference attitude Ao.i2c~~ EO --' i2>io <r : -c • -------_.. T I . Ao Ik1. The present blade pitch angle i4 is equal to io i4=iO~ Ao ~ .rapidite fiabilite and on the aircraft velocity and • the rate of change: • the integral of the offset value The coefficients altitude.1 Direct term or proportional (Kl. the helicopter goes beyond its reference attitude The preent attitude A(t) is lower than the reference attitude Ao.dA) As soon as the offset is detected. So the attitude offset dA is nil.dA dAj dt precision stabilite. The present blade pitch angle 15 is lower than iO..--------~..2 PILOTING LAW DESCRIPTION: The piloting law takes three terms into account: 4 the offset value: k2 k. k"k2. AO~._eurocopter 2.dA=O _ . ~-- · c) The helicopter comes back towards its reference attitude: A The present attitude Alt) is still different than the reference attitudeAo. The attitude offset dA and the resulting AP order are less than O.dA>O . The order Kl. Ao A .kJ. I ~-k1.o)..2. The attitude offset dA and the resulting AP order are nil. B t: :: I C S 0 r<1 S T A 8 I LIZ f. . The blade pitch angle i2 is greater than io.dA<O . i1=io~ a) Stabilized flight: The present attitude A(t) is equal to the reference attitude Ao.dA>O · d) The helicopter reaches its reference attitude: The present attitude A(t) is equal to the reference attitude Ao.

iO"_·.pitch angle 16 is. B!-oSICS ou STA8ILIZAT:·. The present blade pitch angle i7 is equal to iO (i7 = iO). The present attitude A(t) is equal to the reference attitude Ao.dA being positive. i 1 [l I ~ ~.. t If K 1 is high. Due to the inertia the helicopter goes beyond the reference attitude. . Ao~_ ---~----"~~ k1. The phenomenon is the same as seen on b) step. To simutaneously have high accuracy and high damping. one way consists of using the derivative of the attitude variation dA which is negative when the helicopter goes back to its reference attitude.ffThe helicopter comes back towards its reference attitude: Ao The present attitude A(t) is stil! lower than the reference attitude Ao.dA .--"""t'----~..OeUlDcopter io .0). blade.dA ". The following diagram shows the attitude variation of the helicopter.. it is necessary to cancel the flight control order before reaching the reference attitude. i7=io~ A~ .):~ . greater than..dA".. The attitude offset dA and the resulting AP order are nil (K1. If K 1 is low. The attitude offset dA and the resulting AP order are still less than O. attitude offset flight control order kl . then the accuracy is low but the oscillation amplitudes are small (too high damping). k1. 0 . The present.dA<O ri6~ i5<i6<io . -. then the accuracy is good but the oscillation amplitudes are large (too low damping). The order K 1. ·9) The helicopter reaches its reference attitude.

dA/dt < 0 io · e)Due to inetia. Ao io ri6~ is <i6<io The present attitude Att) is still lower than the reference attitude Ao.dA ~ _ a + K2.. The attitude offset dA is still less than but the derevative term dAI dt is greater than O.dA/dt<0 · f) THe helicopter comes back towards its reference attitude. The attitude offset dA and the derivative term dA/dt rae less than O. The attitude offset dA is equal to but the derivative term is less than O.dA/dt) · a] Stabilized flight.2 Derivative term or damping (K2.. The present blade pitch angle i5 is less than io. ---------~. A The present attitude A(t] is defferent than the referene attitude Ao: The attitude offset dA and the derivative term dA/dt are greater than O._eurocopter 2.. Ao ti5~ i5<io k1.dA/dt==0 · b) The helicopter draws aside from its reference attitude. k1.dA/dt:> or <0 i4<io~ · d)The helicopter reaches its reference attitude..dA/dt:> 0 · c) The helicopter comes back towards its reference attitude The present attitude A(t] is still different than the reference attitude Ao.----~~- k 1 . The helicopter returns slowly to its reference attitude. a A~ . The movement of helicopter is lowered. Ao 1 ~ k 1 . The present blade pitch angle i6 is greater than io.2. THe action is opposite to than on b) step. -=. The present blade pitch angle i3 is greater than io but the movement of the helicopter is lowered. i2:>i3>io a k1. The present attitude A(t) is lower than the reference attitude Ao.dA + K2. So the attitude offset dA is nil. Ao 10 -- . ~~ --i2:>io I + -. --' . The present blade pitch angle i4 is less than io.dAJdt:> R A S'C '3 O~! S T A 8 I LIZ" T I " ': ..dA + K2.dA/dt is also nil and the blade pitch angle 11 maintained at its reference value io. The attitude offset dA is greater than but thethe derivative term dA/dt is less than O.dA + K2..dA + K2. Ao ~ .-::. i3 ' iO~-----~.dA K2. '--------~ " or <0 k1.dA + K2.---4.. ~" ----::::--_ . The blade pitch angle i2 is greater than iO. The order K 1.. the helicopter goes beyond its reference attitude. The present attitude A(t] is equal to the reference attitude AO. Any motion of the helicoter beyond its reference attitude will immediately be countered. The present attitude A(tf is equal to the reference attitude Ao.

One path branches into a circuit that senses the rate at which the aircraft is pitching. the amplitude of which represents the amount of pitch displacement from a level attitude. The phase of the signal. CHAPTER: PAGE: DATE: 22 5 15.senses amount and direction of helicopter pitch (displacement). represents the direction of displacement.SIKORSKY S-61N INSTRURBJONSMANUAL 41------------------------------------OPERATIONAL DESCRIPTION AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM The synchro in the vertical gyro develops a 400 Hz signal. (Figure 2) Displace- Out 0 FWD rotor tilt 400Hz In0 Aft rotor tilt Modulated gyro output showing displacement curve out phase (nose up) Figure 2A Figure 2B The vertical gyro signal is applied to the AFCS amplifier through two paths (Figure 3).10. The second path .90 . with respect to the excitation voltage.

computer unit _-. Moreover the deflection of the power components (called series actuators) of the flight controls.__ .TION .. This minimizes the delay between the offset detection and appropriate correction .2..4 Integrated term or AUTO TRIM. called integrated term or AUTO TRIM._._.P. This percentage (sometimes expressed in millimeters) of deflection is limited at about 10% of the full deflection is called the A. parallel I' actuator e'SICS ON STABILIZ"\.-.Gr:I~'ftrue'forsmattattitude offset. authority. allows high accuracy (high K 1) due to the direct term As seen previously adding the two signals (direct and derivative) and high stability (high K2) due to the derivative one. .-._ _.3 Stabilization term. For large attitude offset the gains K 1 and K2 are too high and so a clipping circuit limits the order amplitude of the direct term._ . a special corrective circuit.2.._ __ _ _.-._ ._ A. This avoids to have too large blade pitch motion. but it will have full authority 2._. The aerodynamic loop depends on the response time of each helicopter . (100% of the flight controls deflection). The AUTO TRIM circuit drives a power component This actuator will never be a fast component called parallel or TRIM actuator._ .5PHoting law preparation.2.i. The corrective orders sent to the circuit are either delayed or applied when they are greater than a threshold value.P...s.Seurocopter 2. integrated i UTOTRIM~'term ._ . 2.. is used. rate lane position feedback sensor direct lane series actuator . When large blade pitch motion or permanent change of attitude are required.But this.

II E:'SICS ON STABILIZAT:C'N . (/~.P. main servo control ( series actuator) III).:?J ~""". computer orders drives the flight controls.P. A.1 ELECTRIC The actuator fed by the A. POWER COMPONENTS 1 SERIES ACTUATORS The series actuators allow to counter movements of high frequencies and small amplitude using the stabilization term seen previously. It can be either electric or hydraulic. Hydraulic actuators are called servo-valves.P. Electric actuators are called series actuators or piloting actuators. . they are supplied by the AP Hydraulic Power unit. computer G t..' The cyclic stick should be anchored when series actuator acts on the flight controls in order to ensure full transmission of the AP orders to the main servo control.tDeurocopter A. This fast actuator has a limited authority (about 10%). This anchorage can be realized by a friction or a specific system.

The servo-valve fed by the computer allows to hydraulically move the actuator which is directly linked to. the flight. A.I Z 4TI 0 '! . _ : C SON ST . computer I I ---_.2 HYDRAULIC The A.A. computer sends electrical orders to one or two servo-valves depending on the direction of the order to be transmitted to the flight controls._-.~ 1 w-" b~ T anchoring system 2.P. AP I hydraulic pressure ! I W Ij\return ~j."'w . 8 I '..P.. controls.Oeurocopter 1 . i' I . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I AP hvdrau IC pressure return -.

SICS ON STABILIZA. Because the trim actuator is connected in parallel to the flight controls.iON .1 ELECTRIC In this case. This actuator has full authority. 2. electric parallel actuator moves the series. ctuatorwherractinqon a point is given by the electrical motor.. the flight controls. The parallel actuators can be electric or hydraulic. So the anchoring point required by the series actuator is fitted in the trim actuator when one is used by the AP. it allows full deflection of the flight controts.P. it makes the cyclic stick move when it is acting. The anchoring A. the.Geurocopter 2 PARALLEL ACTUATORS The parallel or trim actuator is used to counter permanent or large change of attitude according to the integrated term or Auto Trim order. computer ----~~----I main servo control j Bi'. This involves that the cyclic stick should be free of movement.

_> return AP hydraulic pressure re t urn ._eurocopter 2.2 HYDRAULIC The actuator is fed by the A.SiCS ON STABILIZATI':'\ . orders to one or two beeper-valves depending The hydraulic trim actuator in the helicopter.P.P. computer I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ./ '1\ 8A. piston ~b~ AP hydraulic pressure : i {> Ij'. does not moves the series actuator. I I I I I AP hydraulic pressure return. this one being part of the hydraulic unit which is fixed A.P.fl {> . hydraulic system which gives the anchoring point for the flight controls.. on the direction of the order to be The A.:JiCfv\· ' II . ! ~d~W..return --=iW~ ~ __ .~ '. computer sends electrical transmitted to the flight controls.

)N ..---~ I I I G Vn~-·- ~\ main servo control motor ~ o 1 BASICS ON STABILIZ.torsion systems. ._eurocopter 3 EFFORT DETECTOR . At any time the pilot should be able to recover active control of the helicopter without modification of the anchoring point.1 TORSION SYSTEM A. Two systems are commonly used: .compression systems.P..ARTIFICIAL FEEL LOADS SYSTEM. 3. The artificial fee! loads system is always located inside the parallel actuator..!T:.. computer ------... An effort detector detects the pilot action and transmits it to the AP. An artificial feel loads system allows to move the flight controls without changing the anchoring point. The effort detector can be located inside the trim actuator or outside (force link).

2 COMPRESSION SYSTEM A.Seurocopter 3.. I I I .'-::_iCS on STA8IL!Z6T1r. I I AP hydraulic I I I I I AP hydraulic pressure main servo control 8. . ~--1 I I I I I I I I I I .... computer ~-~~.P.__---- I I I I I I I I .

to be applied. the pilot detects the offsets and elaborates the corrections cannot have enough accuracy nor reliability.T:CN ._eurocopter THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STABILIZATION 1 MANUAL STABILIZATION main servo controls By himself. it elaborates orders to be applied to the series and parra lei flight controls. This kind of piloting "with its pants» 2 AUTOMATIC STABILIZATION As soon as the AFCS is engaged. The pilot only monitors the AFCS functioning. This kind of piloting has a good reliability. aerodynamic loop control unit and displays computer main servo controls series actuators BASICS ON STABILIZ:.

This is performed hV the effort detectors. fitted in the fly. • units control unit and displays main servo controls computer series actuators ! I pa rallels actuators artificial feel loads R f.ingcontrols. SIC SON S TAB I LIZ AT' (1 ~! ._eurocopter 3 FLY-THROUGH HANDLING Fly-through handling allows the pilot to override the orders delivered by the AFCS without any change of reference nor disengagement.

____' term parallel actuator A switch the rest contact the stabilization : this switch corresponds state. to the synchronization state. A. computer GYROSCOPE unit rate lane direct lane actuator memory : integration TRIM A UTOJ-'. in order to constantaneously have the contain of the memory equal to the attitude delivered by the sensors.P. 2ASICS ON STABILIZATION . It must be permanently done. ~ parallel actuator 2 STABILIZATION As soon as the AFCS is engaged.Any change of attitude with respect this reference will immediately be corrected by orders sent to the power components.._eurocopter e BASIC FUNCTIONS OF THE AUTOPILOT 1 SYNCHRONIZATION This function of synchronization is fundamental. This avoids any jerk when the AFCS will be engaged. engagement UI integrated term TRIM AUTO . whereas the work contact corresponds to B switch sends or not the AFCS orders to the power components. GYROSCOPE ( ! stabilization term • .~ ~ series actuator A. this function (Automatic Stabilization Equipment] maintain the helicopter on the present attitude which is acquired by the AFCS as reference attitude.P.

E-D· 1 PITCH AND ROLL AXIS DECLVTCHING OF THE ARTIFICIAL FEELLOADS This training function allow the pilot to have bettedeeling It is also called: with the-helicopter: STICK RELEASE. S \ C SON S TAB I L I ::: :.1 Oeurocopter AVAILABLE FUNCTIONS OF A. DISENGAG.. .: artificial feel loads release +)--e This function is performed by declutching (momentarily of the AFCS.. GYROSCOPE series 6 I actuator PILOT CONTROLS I i~.• 1.P. I integrated 'TRIM AUTO: term manuel TRIM i .. 8 f. . the pedestal. iI I . or the AFCS control unit depending on the kind of helicopter. The permanent control (CYCUC TRIM RELEASE] is located on the overhead panel. -r- I C r! .. TRIM RELEASE or CYCLIC TRIM RELEASE.. or permanently) the feel loads and synchronizing the memory As soon as the pilot stops using this function the artificial loads immediately The temporary control is on the cyclic stick (TRIM RELEASE) engages. pitch parallel actuator : .

2 MANUEL BEEP This function allows the pilot to slowly modify the attitude of the helicopter in one particular way (up. engagement) permanent stick releasy - TRIM AUTO term manuel TRIM + >--tt ~--.P.. roll ' _i ~ : artificial feel 2 COLLECTIVE AND YAW AXIS There is no function available for collective and yaw axis when the autopilot is disengaged...~ .. 1 temporary stick release [ . . •• The four way trim switch located on the cyclic stick performs this function.. left.._ _ _ .-i--1~"" series actuator integrated A. or right)..P.: ._ ._. ~ pitch parallel actuator artificial feel loads (. .---'---' ] : .._eurocopter 1..• ~. down.. L•.----. ... A.~:~~.""\ + >---~-. .0-._..y l~r T direct lane memory 1 ~~ _ ) ra_t_e_la_n_e )~-------------I ~ stabilization term f---._. SASICS ON STABILIZATION .: PILOT CONTROLS ======~t~-.. computer GYROSCOPE unit rk ~' ~ 1--'. '.. Nota: on ground one can see that the cyclic stick regularly moves as long as the pilot acts on the four way trim switch.-. ~~..~t~~ _ parallel . r .

In flight. This could be done slowly or rapidly._ . 1 PITCH AND ROLLAXIS 1.1 STABIUZATlON (ALITOMATlC STABILIZATION EQUIPEMEND As soon as the AFCS is engaged. computer GYRO\$COP~ unit g . I IB . r parallel actuator . TRIM AUTO term i . __ c '_'_'.. B switch 8. with respect this reference will immediately be corrected by orders sent to the power A.' .._'_. this switch sends or not the AFCS orders to the power components.P. on one or several axis at a time. Any change of attitude components.~. __ ._ •• r" •• _ •••• . ENGAGED. stabilization term . this function (ASE) maintain the helicopter on the present attitude which is acquired by the AFCS as reference attitude.ASICS ON STABILI::~TION . r series actuator integration A. engagement '- . the pilot may at any moment modify the attitude of its helicopter._ •••• .._eurocopter AVAILABLE FUNCTIONS OF A. temporarly or permanently (by synchronizing or not the AP memory). •• ' •• ' ~. whereas the work contact corresponds to the stabilization state. • • _" ·_.P.. •••••• __ ._._.P... with the AFCS engaged. A switch the rest contact corresponds to the synchronization state..'.

-.-.c •••• c· . TRIM RELEASE or CVCLlC TRIM RELEASE.. i artificial fee I loads ...P... c _ ••••• c •••••• __ . The permanent control (CYCLIC TRIM RELEASE) is located on the overhead panel._. or the AFCS control unit depending on the kind of helicopter... _._eurocopter 1.. of its helicopter on the pitch or roll axis. roll parallel actuator c ! • !. ··_·_· . c_ c -_ _..: L_._.-._. The temporary the artificial loads immediately engages and the new attitude becomes the control is on the cyclic stick (TRIM RELEASE)..._.._. by declutching (momentarily or permanently) the feel loads and synchronizing the memory As soon as the pilot stop using this function reference attitude. the pedestal. . A. ..._. ! . computer GYROSCOPE unit rate lane direct lane memory PILOT CONTROLS series actuator integrated TRIM AUTO pitch parallel term manuel TRIM actuator artificial feel loads temporary stick release +~ .2 DECLUTCHING OF THE ARTIFICIAL FEELLOADS This function allows the pilot to rapidly change the attitude STICKRELEASE. It is also called..._. .... ) l : \._ This function is performed of the AFCS..._ _...~.

There is an offset between the change of reference into the memory and the calculation of the rate term. As long as the pilot uses the four way trim switch the rate lane delivers an order opposite to the pilot order. GYROSCOPE rate lane I direct lane memory B ~ \Xr. This phenomenon is due to the opening of the aerodynamic loop. Nota: on ground one can see that the cyclic stick does not regularly moves up to the cyclic stops.._eurocopter e 1..3 BEEPTRIM This function allows the pilot to slowly modify the attitude of its helicopter in one particular way (up. right.:. As soon as the pilot stops using this function the AFCS stabilizes the flight around the new reference attitude. down.. Thus precontrol signal inhibits the rate lane functioning. so a delay (called T on the diagram)is introduced before to apply the the preset control signal.r---r----i I 1 stabilization term r---JIoi series actuator PILOT CONTROLS term permanent pitch parallel stick ~I~IJ-t--'----' artificial feel loads temporary + >- stick rele'as~ roll parallel _I-'-__J loads The four way trim switch located on the cvctic stick performs this function by slowly changing the contain of the AFCS memory according to the direction of the pressure. BASICS ON STABILIZATION . J.. or lett].

_eurocopter
1,4 FLY-TI-lROUGHHANDLING
Fly-through handling allows the pilot to override the orders delivered by the AFCS without disengagement. This is performed by the effort detection sensorsfitted in the flight controls. any change of reference nor

••

A.P. computer unit
GYROSCOPE

rate lane direct lane memory series actuator

pitch parallel actuator permanent stick releas:.----artificial feel loads
r- -,_

+ >---

e--j___,_----,

temporary stick releas~
L......_...... ~ ; _

._'_T"T-··_··-~·~~l

roll parallel actuator
,

~.-.-.-.-.-..... .... -.- ... ..

i

!
i

~

Movement inhibited

of the stick against the feel loads activates the feel loads detection

switch;

as a result trim movement is

Even if the stick deviations are large the signal does not reach saturation. Indeed, as the proportional lane is clipped at a value below the authority of the lane, the rate signal will continue to control flight within the remaining limits. The values of the direct and the derivative terms, delivered by the computer unit are calculated so that to obtain an optimal damping effect.

BASICS

ON

ST"'=!Ll?ATION

Oeurocopter
1.5 BEEP PLUS STICK
This function allows the pilot to modify the attitude of the helicopter in a particular way (up, down, left. or right) in two steps: first step: fast attitude variation in a particular way against artificial feel loads with the cyclic stick second step : acquisition of this new attitude by acting on the 4-way manual trim switch in order to slowly synchronize the memory with the new reference. This counteracts the efforts on the stick by moving the anchorage point of the artificial feel loads.

.

A.P. computer unit GYROSCOPE rate lane

J

6
I

direct lane

~
memory

)

PILOT CONTROLS A.P. engagement permanent stick
~I~

~1
B ..4

(X}----.:!.r-.,---I

stabilization; term

.. series ,.. actuator

...
I

J

r;-J ,

~

1~

integrated TRIM AUTO~_-I~I>! term manual TRIM
1-.

i

.r
-::.
F--

pitch parallel actuator artificial feel loads
••
_TT."_ .. C" •• __ """",:

I

r------i

I
I

f

temporary stick release~

b':~
fly through handling beep plus stick

+>--

-

roll 1 parallel

1

i

~
,

II =r=

T ·1 •

···t..·-·--~

.. .~~~.~.~t~~j _
artificial feel

" !.?~~~;

J

l__ .....

Nota: This fonction is effective only if the pilot moves the stick first and then the beep trim switch.

Bf.SICS

ON

STABILIZATION

Oeurocopter
1,6 S.A.S (STABIUZATION AUTOMATIC SYSTEM)
This function allows the use of the AFCS in permanent damper mode on the pitch and roll axis.

e"'-"

A.P. computer unit GYROSCOPE rate lane direct lane memory PILOT CONTROLS A.P. engagement) permanent stick
~~~~--,

J
1

T:jJ·· ~
~

B

..

stabilization term

l

..

series actuator

....

i
"

~

--... Q

1

integrated TRIM AUTO term l---"'--.J

_r
..
:

pitch parallel actuator artificial feel loads
r-·-·-············~·-·..... ~
".

mTaRnluMal;-

~~ I

.1------1

temporary stick

roll
parallel
----t--'-_.J

+ >--e

releas~

\ actuator

H---~rJl~
fly through handling beep plus stick

T
j

+_._ .......,:
-++~ __~

.L._L_._._ ... L...... '._._ ... ~. .,:,

artificial feel

i

,

J~--------------------------+-r---------------~

I

l~-----1

~r-

~
•• __ .. _

~
s _ iii-

s..a.s

to th e roII synchronization

This function is performed on the helicopter.

by acting on ASE/SAS switch located on the AFCS control unit or on the pedestal depending

With this mode it is necessary

to inhibit the TRIM AUTO and to synchronize

the memory.

2ASICS

ON

STABILIZATION

- -.. ..~. ._..... .....'-f--'-~ :r.....~_. Depending on the type of helicopter.._.. engagement} permanent stick ~I~I-+-'---' !'l' C Il.J _ _._.-----------~---7--+t----------J-.P. --.._.to series actuator A.7 AUTO-TRIM..>-iX)-~___'r--i PILOT CONTROLS ... . l I.-: L.____......-____ _...• Oeurocopter 1...-.-_. computer unit GYROSCOPE rate lane ) 6 I direct lane memory 1~ r-------.to the roll synchronization II s .s '-a_u_to_tr_im _ __ J-:-_----..-. BASICS ON STABILIZATION ..·r····-····-~ : : artificial ! feel . . • H .. This function is performed by acting on the concerned AUTO TRIM switch located on the AFCS control unit or on the pedestal depending on the helicopter. A.a.~--j-j-f--=r= r integrated TRIM AUTO 1 1-:'---'" j- term manual TRIM pitch parallel Wt--a_ct_u_a_to_r-j artificial \~-1'~~~'-~1~-~~._ ) _ fly through 11-+ .___ ---.?~~._ .s..··.__._..P._ . This safety function allows to disconnect a failed trim (pitch or roll) without disengaging the AFCS._-.. .-. _.-_-----_-...l handling J beep plus stick . T 1 B stabilization term I"""":"-~ 1 . J . -. . using this switch synchronizes the memory and thus the AFCS works in damper mode on the relevant axis.__f_e_el~ loads roll paraliel actuator temporary slick release ~--~-~-------~r------r---~~---r~~ + >----:._.

.•• -. ~. j ________________________________________ J This function is engaged by pushing the button located on the pedestal or the overhead panel depending on the helicopter.: + ~ roll ~ parallel i actuator ..•. 1 :· ~ fly through handling beep plus stick artificial feel loads . ~ 1.'.w-"'""T-_.. -.8 TACTIC This function allows to synchronise loads anchorage point.-._..'. TRIM .s ..-.••••••• _.~ to the roll synchronization ( auto trim tao 1 . ~ 1 • .._. stabilization. " l!J * I B >-\X}----.lfS ON STA8i' IZATION .. GYROSCOPE ¢ PILOT CONTROLS A.- •.~ ••• _ ••••••• ... RAC:. . This function is mainly used when the pilot wants to aim a target for instance.•••••••.. loads /-_ _ ~~ temporary stick releas~ . ..P.-j._ ..P. . ~.-. actuator 0 II I I rT:~:~TOi I integrated I :l-a_p:_ti~_:_I~e_~r-1 artificial .••••••• ..•••••• -~._.._.._ _\ +>b'~> . engagement permanent stick Ie .. the AP computer when the pilot flies through handling and change the artificial feel • •••••.. .. rio T .• "j • •.. computer unit rate lane ! J 1 t. . A.~..Geurocopter 1..-. series term t-+--t~. l__ . . direct lane memory ~ ---... ~ .--_f_e_el___.-.-.a..l 1 J ~~ - -_I i" s....

_eurocopter 2 2. be corrected by orders sent to the serie power The yaw stabilization function only uses the serie actuator.ebi~~2etten term . BASICS ON STABILIZATION . _l eete lane GYROSCOPE J YAW series -t} 8 L direct lane J -j~ H '<.P."' .1 YAW AXIS The yaw channel processes the heading offset (dlJl)detected by the gyromagnetic compass.. The parallel piloting is realized by the mechanical system called "open loco" ..1- PILOT CONTROLS [ ef'lg8(lement A. this function maintains the helicopter on the present heading which is acquired by the AFCS memory as reference heading ..Y tI~. STABILIZATION As soon as the AFCS is engaged.. ALP _ computer urtit ) Any change of heading with respect to this reference will immediately component. . ~ actuator memory )-.

_.. .._... 2. the AP memory synchronizes and trim (if there is) is inhibited.2 YAW ANGULAR SPEED UMITATlON When the pilot stops moving the rudder pedals._._._ _.. ._._...2 1URNING WITH THE PEDALS Turning with the pedals allows the pilot to make a flat turn..._..._~. S ! C SON S T ..: :: I LIZ A T I 0 I\J . ._.._ structure of the ~L_..- .P.._" . 1 J When the pilot moves the rudder pedals the yaw rod is activated. in order to reduce the strength on the intermediate helicopter.__ _. GYROSCOPE YAW \$~abiliz._.--_.--....P...... "._._-... _. 8 t-.ation direct lane term series actuator memory PILOT CONTROLS turn rate X re f A._... ... The movement damping is performed through the rate lane.' This is achieved by comparing the actual angular speed delivered by the rate lane and a threshold value..._ ... the synchronization continues until the yaw angular speed becomes less than 1.._._ c_.. ....... . . _. enoaoement ) ) pedal._- _ _.5 0/5 ._ _ _'..Geurocopter 2...5° Is . ....__ ...._. _.... r ate lane GYROSCOPE l J YAW series -t} 0 '< i B direct lane ) stabiftl'ation term ~ actuator L____f memQty PILOT CONTROLS ( ( A.. computer unit 1..

'<. the result is used to warn the pilot if necessary.. _.~ L- COLL and engaged mode . So there is no stabilization on the collective axis . integrated AUTO TRIM term . processor I----~~~~~-----------'~ Signalization: visual: power audio: headset limit A_P computer unit r BASICS ON 5T..-'----------1 . AlIi. .BILIZATION .... - --_ _ "" _ " _ _---. l rete lane J direct lane I J~* . _. .Alt...biH:z ericn term .. Moreover the collective channel processes data from engine (torque.. The collective channnel only works when a guidance mode is engaged.. et . NG.' T'NTf64ue J' .Geurocopter 3 COLLECTIVE AXIS The collective channel is not a stabilization function as those defined for pitch and roll channels._ . T4).. Consequently..-- . Aceel. this collective channel allows to maintain a acquired height or altitude by acting on the collective pitch angle. COLL TRIM actuator [. r COLL series actuator PILOT CONTROLS ~ memory ~ . sensors BARAN Rad.

2 TURBULENCE MODE In order to minimize the effect of transverse turbulences on helicopter stability a yaw-roll precontrol is installed..fteurocopter COORDINATED MOVEMENTS 1 COORDINATED TURN (ANTI SLIP FUNCTION) The coordinated turn consists of countering eventual sideslips occurinq during inclinated turn. The lateral accelerometer detects the eventual sideslips. '---~--------~~--~i A.5 to 5° depending on the helicopter).P.2ILIZATION ..-. . sideslip error .the airspeed is greater than a threshold value (40 to 60 Kts depending on the helicopter).. If> > If> ref. WIND ~ BASICS ON S-. computer unit T . YAW series actuator lateral accelerometer note: the use of this function may be full automatic or decided by the pilot._. This function is effective only if: .the roll inclination is greater than a threshold value (3.

This latter modulates collective lever.tiom0 ._----~>------..--------------- I C> ~ ----1 pitch serie actuator 1 I + 4: 4 [1 \ : rate lane ~itch trim ac~uator 0" / 1 I 1 --+a: I I -..1 COLLECTIVE LINK PRECONTROl COLLECTIVE-CYCLIC PRECONTROL At high speed there is a natural cross coupling between the axes which is symptomized and roll when the collective lever is varied. The ccrnputercocnters this effect by activating "a·orecontrotstqnat by large scale evolutions in pitch Which moves the pitch and roll controls.s i i : 1-..T i1 I I roll trim actuator : [ call LINK ]1--+ ----.. box. are grouped into a box called anticipater only at airspeeds above 40 Kts. SIC S 0 ~~ S T A 8 I LIZ A T ION .. • only at airspeeds above a threshold value (40 Kts for Dauphin and Super Puma for instance).· is effective this precontrol may be mechanically realised (Super Frelon). et poten.J).. 3 3. AFCS computer. The potentiometers This precontrol note: the collective lever is equipped with potentiometers which gives the pitch variation to the the instruction sent to the cvclic controls according to the position and the rate of variation of the .:.--~---- ----- --. The corrective The· correction signal is modulated is effective according to the helicopter speed. : . ..._----1L___r_at_e_la_n_e---.--.[) I 1 pitch serie actuator 2 1 Air Data module 1--~-----~A~iS~>~4~O~K~t~s- To perform this precontrol. e .Geurocopter A signal which is a function of the angular yaw speed and the roll angle is injected into the roll channel and the gain of the direct lane of the yaw channel is divided by two. .--..-_ --.J. .. .'" :' \ I I :/ ..

The rod DC is driven by the rudder pedals and rod connected to point B drives the tail rotor control. to the right .. The rod connected to point B moves up.2 precontrol counters this effect and maintains the matching between the two forces.. making the bellcrank and the crank lever rotate. the rod DC moves up. the two forces are no longer balanced.' _eurocopter COLLECTIVE-YAW PRECONTROL In normal flight there is a natural cross coupling between the thrust and the force developped by the anti-torque rotor. making the crank lever rotate.pitch. 3. This precontrol can be achieved mechanically or electronically depending on the helicopter. 3.1 Mechanical precontrol The collective shaft is driven by the collective lever.is'reduced': The collective-yaw ..2. This results in yawiAg. collective shaft • A 8 o Acting on the rudder pedals When acting on the rudder pedals. When the pilot varies the collective lever. collective ----_ c o .when the colleGtive. collective shaft c o Acting on the collective lever When acting on the collective lever. the collective shaft rotates. Point A being a fixed point the rod connected to point B moves up too.

. This signal is modulated as a function of the helicopter airspeed.Seurocopter 3.. 1 I I I [COLLLINK}-1-.2 Electronic precontrol A signal based on the collective pitch variation is applied to the yaw channel.~~~---------------------------: 1 L JI EASICS on STABILIZATION ...----. This precontroHs..1·------:.2.eHectiveonlyin-Hightand·is1nhibited '85' soorrastheheltcopter lands.:t:... ~ yaw trim actuator 1 1 1 • ·.. potentiometers r~---------------~~--~~------------------~~----l 1 1 1 rate lane rate lane Air Data module 1 1 o I f------..~~~.~.

(SIC) .SPO) . (AS or lAS). (H. it is said that the mode is coupled to this axis.S) . A) .R) . Consequently no more than one mode can be coupled to an axis. (NAV) .R modes: Transition Down Transition Up Stationnaries modes . When guidance orders coming from an engaged mode are applied to an axis._eurocopter GENERAL ON GUIDANCE The guidance function can be breakdown into four group of modes: .R.HT) .O. (G/A) .S. (T. Roll. Holll.HT) . So with a guiding system along three (two) axis no more than three (two) modes can be simultaneously engaged.localizer . The Yaw axis is never used for guidance purpose.basics modes: Air-speed Altitude Heading . (Alt) .other modes: Go-around Vertical speed .O. BASICS C1\ GUIDANCE . (CR.L. (l.navigation: Navigation Cruise height Ground speed . Collective) or on two axis (Pitch.CAB) .UP) . hover height . (GIS).radio-navigation modes: (V. (HOV) . (G. Visual Omni Range Visual Omni Range Approach Instrument Landing System .glide-slope .SONAR modes: Cable height Position cable (LOC). (POS. (HOG) . (H. Engaging a mode. (T.DWN). automatically disengages the previous one engaged on the same axis.A. Guidance can be performed on three axes (Pitch. (V.back course . hover .CAB) . (ViS) .

s:J ~ . heading. J..::. he holds and stabilizes the attitude of the aircraft around the reference. the pilot elaborates the orders required to acquire the new attitude of the helicopter (airspeed. -. When this new reference is captured.Geurocopter THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF GUIDANCE 1 MANUAL GUIDANCE By himself. altitude.. main servo controls 2 AUTOMATIC GUIDANCE ~ t.I if(bd"-- control unit and displays guidance computer units main servo controls stabilization computer series actuators ~ A5 IC5 0 ~I G I_I IDA NeE .. etc . VOR.

a roll order is first elaborated and superimposed to the roll attitude angle delivered by the vertical gyro. this order is superimposed to the attitude data delivered by the sensors to the AFCS computer.the helicopter returns to the-previous reference attitude.J L.. The latter processes the error.. When the actual heading corresponds to the selected one..so. So the compound signal is different than the one in memory.thar. At this moment. and elaborates a corrective order applied to the actuators in order to modify the attitude of the helicopter._eurocopter A guidance computer (which could be or not included in the AFCS assembly) elaborates the guidance order. As example to make the helicopter turn and acquire a new heading.. When the corrected attitude matches the guidance order.' . As a result the helicopter turns.. so an opposite attitude error is etected and processes by the AFCS computes. the helicopter attitude is stabilized until the change of trajectory is achieved. it is said that the engaged mode is coupled to the axis.. In automatic guidance.. in these cases fly-through works as explained in stabilization mode.. the guidance order becomes nil. 3 FLY-THROUGH HANDLING On some guidance modes fly-through is authorized. Note: in automatic guidance. The AFCS elaborates a new roll order to return to the roll reference attitude. So an attitude error is artificially introduced in the AFCS computer.-~ BASICS C'N GUIDANCE . The AFCS elaborates roll order and modifies the roll attitude. control unit and displays guidance! computer :-+ main servo controls __ . the roll order becomes nil.

I main servo controls series actuators parallels actuators U artificial feel loads ~ 5 AUTOMATIC GUIDANCE MONITORING When in automatic guidance. A. In this case the guidance is full automatic but the outputs of the stabilization computer are picked and sent to the cues of the ADI or PFD. it is possible to show the cues in order to monitor the A.Oeurocopter 4 GUIDANCE USING THE FLIGHT DIRECTORS When the flight directors (F/D) mode is engaged.I I ~~~ldiSla~ control unit and _. JI guidance computer I main servo controls computer f j-i- BASICS GUjOA~lCE . • In Note: in guidance using flight director. it is said that the engaged mode is coupled to the flight director. They are sent to the cues of the Attitude Director Indicator or the Primary Flight Display. the guidance order are no longer applied to the AFCS computer.P. A. The guidance of the helicopter is ensured by the pilot who acts on the flight controls according to the informations shown by the cues.D.D. 'In this case thetrirrractuator is nolonqer supplietJ-and the AFCSis synchronization mode. functioning.

..J i integrated TRIM AUTO term . - Pitch/Col parallel actuator .. .......P.. "I • ~c •• ._ . '. BASICS ON GUIDANCE ..... memory " .. :to_'{ 01 ~<=>' : : . -----------------~---~-~----I .._.. .. ' . Pitch/Col series actuator -'_'-. ~ --_ ..... _..OCT_ .. The error is sent to the collective or pitch channel to counter the offset._ ...... ···· __ .... For a three axis guidance system the AL T mode is coupled with the collective axis with a monitoring of the airspeed along the pitch axis (A/S mode engaged).- /'"): Vertical gyro c? '<. ._ .. Guidance computer unit Before engagement the altitude memory is permanently equal to the altitude delivered by the Air Data module... 1f A/S mode is not engaged the AL T mode is automatically coupled with the pitch axis as tor a two axis guidance system.. _.. After engagement the memory contains the reference altitude which is permanently compared with the present altitude..... ~'._...... *~ ! 6! . \._ ••••• _ •• . . . The pilot is warned in case of excessive deviations around the reference altitude... stabilization term ...... ...... 1 memory Air Z Z Data z z Module :·1~ J ~l ....J air speed control logic Vertical accel.._ ..... rl ~ rate lane dlrect lane ) ) J ~:-J ~..._..... Stab._ .. ._..... computer unit Pitch/Col A._. __ " .. they are mutually exclusive. I. ----~-..... . ....._._ .. .....Oeurocopter ALl MODE For a two axis guidance system the AL T mode is coupled with the pitch axis and so AL T mode and A/S mode cannot be simultaneously engaged. ... H •• ALT engagement J.... engagement : ......

Guidance computer unit ..... _...•• _•. _ j Before engagement the airspeed memory is permanently equal to the airspeed value delivered by the Air Data module. _. ._ _..._.P.. A/S engagement "'k beep speed ~ ~----------I..•_-_ _ _ _ ._ integrated TRIM AUTO term Pitch r-'._ . .. .. ._ •. _ . _~ . •....• _ •. compared with the present BAS ICS O~._.._ D_a_t_a_zJl-----------------------------~~ Modulez Vertic~ accel.---. G U I DAN CE . Vertical gyro ._ .•._ ...... In this case the preselected speed is displayed.•..._.._ _._._..._ _ ~ Stab.. ..._.••.•...._ _ _.. J A/S indicator __ _ _ •. engagement Pitch series actuator stabilization term <u>« I-r-t->_._...••. On some helicopter a two way switch called «beep speed» allows the pilot to modify the reference airspeed after engagement.._._.._. computer unit Pitch A._.. .••.••.. _ .• _.___m_e_m_o_ry:._.__-' 'f Air .. After engagement the memory contains the reference airspeed which is permanently airspeed.._ _ _ _. 1- <=>z I-r--..4Deurocopter -AIRSPEED MODE _ The AP computer unit controls longitudinal attitude to maintain airspeed equal to the engaged speed. ·'-'-1 ....1 _. air speed __ c_o. The pilot is warned in case of excessive deviations around the reference airspeed.._.n_tr_o_I~r----------------__ ~--~ ~ e ~ 'I" .._-_... The error is sent to the pitch channel to counter the offset.'__"" parallel actuator ._.

-._--..-"'_ __ ~ TRIM AUTO integrated term j--'. ._: : d1jl < 2.----..--- i--.--. .--.:L _ --~ 1 )..-...-.-_ ----~--- --.-.- and on the yaw _ -.---.·..l""".-..·. A/S i roll angle ' Iprocessing unit ._ _. .o Stab. _.: parallel actuator Yaw ~---~-~~-~-~~----------~--~--~~---------------~-------- BASICS ON GUIDANCE .·· @ :~ HSI ® I ! I GMJvv\}lateral accelerometer . --_._.._-_ . unit position feedback term .-.·~t.---- ) .. computer unit euroc 0pte r HEADING MODE This mode acquires and holds a selected heading by acting on the roll axis for guidance (acquisition) axis for stabilization (hold).:..--fI'I J Roll parallel actuator [:l I--~-I-Gyro CQ mp855 rate lane stabilization term 1--:----1'" Yaw '1''-l ~ i r direct lane memory series actuator Guidance computer unit <=> Air Z Z Data 2 Modulez z I-i--'-----+------.- ---. stabilization term Roll series actuator rate lane I ~ Vertical gyro I dl ) Irect Iane ):--+. '------ memory _...-..- -.-_"'i TRIM ----------------l processing .50 i ------------ integrated' TRIM AUTO -.

When the heading error angle becomes lower than 2.50 the computer trim actuator. The relation ship between 2° arid-the air5peed'·gfeaterthan controls the heading directly 40 'Kt5 the AP computer commands a is calculated as a function of airspeed._eurocopter When the heading error angle. is lower than 20 the AP computer through the yaw channel. the roll angle never exceeds 22 0. the computer commands a null roll attitude and controls the heading directly through the yaw trim actuator. This allows to limit the overshoot of the heading acquisition. The maximum roll angle commanded approximately 30 per second. delivered by the HSI. commands a null roll attitude. starts controlling the heading through the yaw When the heading error angle becomes close to zero. There is no excessive roll deviation alarm in "HOG» mode. r··Wherrthe headrrrg-'errorangle fS"llreaterthan coordinated turn onto the selected heading. note: when the heading mode is engaged the computer EASICS C~ GUIDANCE . to obtain a constant rate of turn of the roll angle and the airspeed is given by the formula: IAS/1 0 + IAS/20 = Ip However.

r. integrated TRIM AUTO term Roll parallel actuator Guidance computer unit Ip Hi----.n nn_n : TRIM n-iproce~sing 1-----.~ urut I __ nnn n_ TRIM power amplifier : F~~~~~_~e~~~~~~ _ VO::.160 : Electronic Trim unit MAIVV\}-n--'lateral· accelerometer· • • --.'ILS MODES . computer unit stabilization term Roll series actuator l rate lane ~ Vertical gyro . Stab.---------+ A/S.n . roll angle processing unit armed I captured logic VOR receiver dev < 0._eurocopter VOR MODE The VOR mode captures and tracks a selected EnRoute or NAVIGATION VOR radial by acting on the roll axis for guidance and yaw axis for tracking.

. greater than 450 is guided towards the VOR As.::: ...---:.::.Oeurocopter Depending on the angle of interception . Then the mode goes into the TRACKING phase.. When the VOR deviation falls below O. When the VOR deviation falls below 3. iation isgrea-ter than 3.------ ___ -...330 or the angle of interception becomes equal to 450• The orders are elaborated from VOR deviation information..4 0.. For VORdeviationexceeding O.-.l6ng as theV0Ade . flight is again controlled through the roll axis. _-- VOR beacon - --- roU guidance yaw trim guidance / VOR/ILS MODES .:::.co"-------- ------ _- ----. The orders are elaborated from HSI heading error angle data.4P the computer controls the roll attitude.16~ -:- _ --_. 160 the computer commands a null roll attitude and controls flight directly through the yaw trim actuator. CRS O.30 the mode enters the CAPTURE phase and the helicopter is guided towards the VOR radial through the roll axis until the deviation angle falls below 1. ------.angle of interception of the VOR radial the mode is engaged differently.. If the VOR deviation again becomes greater than 0..3 o·the modeiscARMED~ifrid the helicopter radial through the roll axis.

. a null roll attitude.::~~~::=~::~:-:. -ass zone If the rate of change of the deviation angle becomes greater than a threshold value the guidance cannot be completed and so the pilot is warned and the computer flies the helicopter with a nul VOR deviation angle until the rate of change returns to a value lower than the threshold...'.-. less note: when the VOR mode is engaged the computer commands The radial should normally be captured more than 10 Nm from the VOR beacon and with an angle of interception than 900• VO?/ILS MODES . ~-:. ass ass ass zone eRS _~ .::-:~~~~~=::'[=:_=:~_-_________ -". the CAPTURE is done for a deviation phase is entered directly when the mode is CAPTURED. and at the end of the period the helicopterwil! turn onto the new selected VOR radial..ln this zone a new VOR radial can be selected..angle of interception less than 45 ° angle of 1.-----=-::.==~i!~I~~~~~ < __ delta dey ..33° nand so TRACKING If the angle of interception is less than 450.-=--~~-..-_-=-1. This period plus 45 seconds is called the (Over Station Sensing) zone. j ===_~-------------------_:-~:..4°) in «VOR" mode.~VOR ~e_acon aircraft trajector~ The pilot is warned in case of excessive VOR deviation (0..4teurocopter .

as the VOR/A is only used for approaching an airport before landing.. / . low altitude manoeuvres..25° instead of 45° for interception angle. --~--------:-~~i~~~/~~~~i~>:_=~:~O=~:_:.">~".: ~. . VOR/ILS MODES . less The radial should normally be captured more than 6 Nm from the VOR beacon and with an angle of interception than 90°.._eurocopter VORIA MODE VOR/A mode is functionally similar to VOR mode but the threshold values and flight control laws are optimized for low speed. 10° instead of 3.> "'.30 for capture VOR deviation..0 1 ... radial selected ./ .' =: VOR beacon The treshold values are: .::-capture 'i'R -/-.

-.T.50 above the horizontal.- _.I'\fW\}---~nn---nn-----iproCe~Sing lateral accelerometer ---._..marker function which gives information about the helicopter distance from the approach-end of the runway._ I captured logic -_ i I TRIM M._eurocopter ILS MODES The ILS (Instrument Landing System) comprises three functions: .P._.. Electronic Trim Unit ._ _'.-..k J VQR/ILS MODES . integrated AUTO term '__-'---i~ ROIIIII para e actuator Guidance computerunit qJ roll angle ~ U~a-r-m~e-d-/-" I ~-L-O-C-~d_e_v_. .. .-- . _.glide slope function which allows helicopter guidance along an approach line slanted by 2._-i r _.-. computer unit stabilization term f---'----iI>! Roll series actuator c? Vertical rate lane gyro I )-r"i""___'--ITRIM . ._ .- .._._ __ ._.. __ .-.P.. .-------- _~~~!!~~!~~<!~a_c. _ - ._ .localizer function which allows helicopter guidance along the runway center line. receiver :._.. computer only uses two informations: the localizer and glide slope data.._. A. : unit ! __ •..--~~~"' nn_n n power amplifier TRIM Yaw parallel actuator f- :-._-_._---_ _ _.- ~---- . 1 LOe MODE The LOC mode captures and tracks an ILS localizer path by acting on the roll axis for guidance. For flying the helicopter towards the approach-end of the runway._. the A.._._.

In both cases the lateral accelerometer The pilot is warned and counters them through the yaw trim actuator.~. •• _c ••• \: ••••• capture .angle of interception of the lOC beam axis the mode is engaged differently. detects heading deviations in TRACKING If the angle of interception phase. This mode is only available in USA. the mode is engaged directly '..~. After a certain delay or if the LOC deviation falls below 0. • . a null roll attitude.. The orders are elaborated from LOC deviation information.. The orders are elaborated from HSI heading error informations.4°1 in «LOC» mode. • greater than 250 As long as the LOC deviation is greater than 2..5° the mode is ARMED and the helicopter is guided . The computer controls the roll attitude to follow the localizer beam axis down to the runway .angle of interception less than 25° is lees than 250 there is no CAPTURE phase..towar-ds··tMe·LOC beam through the roll' axis. note: when the LOC mode is engaged the computer commands 2 BACK COURSE MODE The Back Course (B/C) mode is similar to the LOC mode but with a heading of 180° axis.5° the mode enters the CAPTURE phase and the helicopter is guided towards the LOC beam through the roll axis in order to intercept the beam axis through an angle of 25°. from the ODM of the LOC beam VOS-/llS MODES . When the lOC deviation falls below 2.330 the mode goes into the TRACKING phase. in case of excessive lOC deviation (0.Seurocopter Depending on the angle of interception .

or Pitch.. the AIS mode must be engaged. .: Ji VO~/ILS MODES .~----------~ engagement rate lane direct lane GYRO memory integrated TRIM AUTO term Cor P parallel actuator GIS engagement C=>z Air Alt ~ H---'---------------111o! --I~ Data ~ : A/S Module z H-_. axtsrrot coupled: axis for For coupling on the collective Col. the collective axis..P.f_G_/S_d_e_v _ receiver Vertical accer. ~--------------------_... the AIS must be disengaged and.Guidance computer unit altitude control logic -)I.._------ Radio altimeter Glide Slope 1 _.Oeurocopter 3 GLIDE SLOPE MODE The Glide Slope (GIS) mode captures and tracks an ILS glide slope path by acting on the pitch or collective guidance.. Stab. computer unit stabilization term )--"'--. Cor P series actuator A... For coupling on the pitch axis.

.. ' 0.. runway V0R/ILS MODES . 0. ...05° the mode is ARMED ...57 .-...GIS mode coupled on the pitch axis As long as the glide slope deviation is greater than 0.. .':4 . .Seurocopter .5..

. rate lane direct lane memory ~l L{ G. vertical speed control logic rg'-- --+----------------------~ Guidance computer unit ..J ~ __ ..... ._"".. All roll modes except HOG are disengaged when G. Pitch series actuator C-=j?:> Vertical gyro --L r-i • . __ ._ _. :I!:?W G s. The Vertical speed is manually controlled using the collective lever...Oeurocopter GO AROUND MODE The Go Around mode acquires and holds a preprogrammed on the pitch and collective axis... engagement Stab. Pitch A.... ~ 500 ft/mn Vertical acce!.. -.... computer unit r- stabilization term . TRIM actuator amplifier : I .P.._. 10 r 75 Kts zh A/S r <==> ~' I control I speed I ! - SERIES actuator amplifier Coil series actuator AI._. airspeed and a preselected pressure vertical speed by acting For coupling on the pitch axis...A mode is only compatible with HOG mode.._ Coil axis engagement GO ROUND MODE . For coupling on the collective and pitch axis. the G.A mode sets an airspeed of 75 Kts using the pitch axis and a vertical speed of 500 ft/mn using the collective axis. _. . z Data z Module Z .-_ ..I 1.A mode sets an airspeed of 75 Kts.._.A mode is engaged...._-_. it ~ ... .._--....... _.. .. the G..A engagement • ._..... The mode is engaged by pressing the engage button on the collective lever.. ___ _""_. ~ ! ALT I ! logic i I ._.0. Coli parallel actuator _ _..T· I integrated TRIM AUTO term ~ Pitch parallel actuator ('jflo . . G...

.......!i I i speed control logic t-----~ TRIM actuator amplifier I Coli parallel actuator Vertical accel.... the A/S mode must be engaged. engagement Pitch series actuator rate lane c? Vertical gyro direct lane memory }(TI i>M: "'~11t I I integrated TRIM AUTO term Pitch parallel actuator 7 VIS engagement VIS adjustment SERIES actuator amplifier Coli saries actuator <:=> Air z .. Guidance computer unit ........ . ALT and GIS modes.u-. For coupling on the collective axis.. Call axis engagement There is no excessive deviation warning in vertical speed mode. The VIS mode is mutually exclusive in relation to the AIS (lAS).P... Pitch Stab.--__....... computer unit stabilization term A.. _ •• u ...Seurocopter VERTICAL SPEED MODE The Vertical Speed (VIS) mode acquires an holds a preselected pressure vertical speed by acting on the pitch or the collective axis. the AIS must be disengaged and the collective axis not coupled.......... VERTICAL SPEED MODE . The V IS mode is mutually exclusive in relation to the Al T and GIS modes.. For coupling on the pitch axis.

: '" 7 . principle except that the contain of altitude is displayed.. or Pitch A.... 1}--+ "1 J J I }---'----+-Z". altitude control logic Vertical accel.. __ Cor P series actuator rl ~ ~ rate lane (. >-._. direct lane '---------' GYROSCOPE ~I~ *:Y' I --. engagement : A.. Col...A mode functionning principle is identical to the ALT mode functionning the memory is preselectable before engagement. MODE .P. ( engagement Selectable altitude reference Air Data Module ALT... integrated TRI~~UTO ~ it .XX .-: v: sil·. _________________________ JI 'L . A ~ ~ memory ) . ... -'-_"~ r i Cor P parallel actuator ~ L-. V.!>...~Hl r'>.P. computer unit r- stabilization ~_ term .A MODE The AL T.• The preselected _eurocopter ALT.."----1---.

--~ Vertical gyro TRIM AUTO Roll parallel term actuator Guidance computer unit w roll angle processing unit n---:----------JIo A/S ! Navigation computer > 2...~-~-~- ..•.._ Stab..- ..-..-..-.... orders from the Track Error angle (TKEI orthe Cross Track error ._ ••••••• . -.. position feedback •• _.. -.440 Wc < 1._. ~ TRIM power amplifier ~------ Yaw parallel actuator .._ _ _./ NAVIGATION MODE .-. Oeurocopter NAVIGATION MODE mode allows the helicopter to manoeuvre along a preprogrammed route by acting on the roll and yaw The Navigation computer elaborates the roll commanded (XTKJ..-. ••••••• _ i •••• _ _ .. __ ••••••••• . -.-.- -. •••• _.~. . .. . ••••••••••••••••••• .-._.... .• The Navigation axes.- ~ -.05° Electronic ! Trim unit TRIM unit Mj\IW\}-------n--------------iproCe~Sing lateral' accelerometer L _ ••••• _-_ n_ ~_~ . _...." •• _.-._T' •••••••••••• __ ••• _ •• . __ •• __ .. Roll series computer unit stabilization term actuator integrated -.

acquisition. NAVIG.. .A.440 and the airspeed is greater than 40 KTs the AP computer commands a coordinated turn. The maximum roll angle is calculated (approximately 3·o. of tum The relation ship between the roll angle and the airspeed is given by the following IASt10 However the roll angle never exceeds 220.050. t If the roll steering command again becomes greater than 2440• flight is again controlled through the roll axis.. to obtain a constant rate. delivered by the navigation computer. This allows to limit the overshoot of the . is greater than 2..TION MOOE . the computer commands a null roll attitude and controls the track directly through the yaw trim actuator. Note: when the NAV mode is engaged the computer commands a null roll attitude.Oeurocopter When the roll steering command (coming from a mixing between XTK and TKE). + IASt20 = phi When the roll steering command falls below 1. There is no excessive roll deviation alarm in NAV mode.· as a function of airspeed..per·second).rack. formula.

Guidance computer unit Collective engagement CR..15 m/si.Oeurocopter CRUISE HEIGHT MODE The Cruise Height mode (CR. height A vertical accelerometer allows the computer to respect limitations for flight comfort and safety (maximum commanded vertical acceleration less than 0. ColI series actuator [ Selectable heiglt reference Radio altimeter 1 ( rnetTIOfY ~ . TRIM actuator amplifier J ! _. Moreover depending on the ground speed. F ColI parallel actuator Vertical accelerometer When the mode is engaged.HT)captures and holds a radio-altimeter reference cruise altitude on collective axis. CRUISE MODES . around the reference height. [ 1 ~__ • vertical Lj-L acceleration t-control logic A _rr-•• . the maximum The pilot is warned in case of excessive deviations rate of climb or rate of descent is limited. l J r- SERIES actuator amplifier _ .HT potentiometer on the control unit (between 100 and 2500 ttl. the computer controls the collective axis to reach and maintain the tadto-altrneter selected on the CR.HT engagement axis .

••. .._T. t integrated TRI~e~UTO--'---cl I "---4-----i ..l.._ __.""'.•• ".. II> II> speed i I control I logic I I I ._c_r_ _··__··_·_··_·__·······__·····_·_·····_····· .._.L·_··_"_'_"~·_T_""_T"""' •• "_'_' '_"" •• " ._ _ _ _.' I r e>M.-.1~ H ~"L.'-" ...._ .._ .. -f-.~~ . ._. . _ •. [adju~:"nt 1 [ Doppler radar ] I I . Pitch series actuator h .._t--......_.... _ _ . "L _'_'T_~'_'_'_""'.<H . ... -.._ _.--i y Roll ._') -..- _..._..._ .-.eurocopter GROUND SPEED MODE The AP computer unit controls the pitch and roll axis to maintain constant longitudinal and lateral doppler speeds.._..•• ..•• ~._ ._. engagement Stab. . Pitch A.~ •• __ ..-r·x I =-. -c · · · -.~ r.. ._.... .~....0._._._'_.__ . engagement i - stabilization term )--i---.of actuator 1 ~IY Vertical gyro -.- ._ _-_ - _ _ __ _. _•• CRUISE MODES .._.._ _...._.. _. -c -._ .. speed! acceleration control logic .._ .SPD engagement . Pitch parallel . • •• _ ••• __ -+ __ . ._._ - _...P."_ .P.! Roll series actuator '.• ._D? ._'_'..._...L' r. t l direct lane )_ j ) :r.. • ... [ adju~t:entj 2 axes cceleromete~ 1 I---------------------------~ GUIdance computer urut .I .----- rate lane 11--+ r .·. *". __.. . _._. -!)J ~ j ~Ih l direct lane rate lane '-.._. G._..._. computer unit ~ stabilization term ~--~ . integrated TRIM AUTOl--'---1r~ term Roll parallel actuator 1 )i--i-------' A.

height • A vertical accelerometer allows the computer to respect limitations for flight comfort and safety (maximum commanded. The pilot is warned in case of excessive deviations around the reference height.l5· m/s2: Moreover depending on the ground speed.HT potentiometer on the control unit (between 100 and 2500 ttl. the computer controls the collective axis to reach and maintain the tadio-altimeter selected on the CR.. vet1icalacceleration-less thanO. the maximum rate ot climb or rate of descent is limited.·eurocopter When the mode is engaged. CRUISE MODES .

..'_'_.._.. ._._ __ --_-~ _.fjDeurocopter HOVERING MODE The AP computer unit controls the pitch and roll axis to maintain a constant generally equal to zero._ _..... ~ - -..···· -.•._j t····~.."'nt ~ ladJu~.._.T· I~ ---... integrated I TRIM AUTO:-+-tJoi term Pitch parallel actuator Vertical gyro ~IY ~ '----.I "'-.A. computer unit i : r+- stabilization t arm I--i--~ i :~:~~ actuator L . __ . ~ih direct lane rate lane ~ 1 I T ~~ I Y Ron I H __..__ ... (_ _ .P. _ ..'' ••''.....!.ll' I .._..······ ....._._.~ _._.. C~T_'_'_"C''''''''''... ..'''.... __ C_' __ T __ longitudinal and lateral doppler speeds <_..•••• _. rate lane direct lane I~-!) . control logic ' I ~~---------------------~ i( computer unit S E . 1 I j ---I"'~il 1 t speedl --1 ~acceleration ...... __ •••••• _ Pitch A..____.---..._...~..1~ ~._.. engagement Stab. i·i D RES CUE MOD FS .:.T I ..... ._ _.•.-...1.nt 2 axes cceleromete~ ~ Doppler radar [ )1--'-------1 1.__. engagement . _.- HOVER engagement !~: .._.•._ ••••_ ••_ ••••••••••••~.1 ._.__ r.1 r adju~._._ .._..-. - -.... . I l..._..Guidance "'1 speed control: logic : :..'~'....J )-.. R C H P._'_._+._._ _...P._.___ stabilization term I--!i--ir~ series Roll actuator I._ ._ ._ . ~~~ ...• _..'m.._.~1~~._. .. ~(V'0J1H X (..__..--l~----i TRIM AUTO integrated term Roll parallel actuator )!__ -+- A.

7 m/s<. • There is excessive deviation alarm for a Vx or Vy deviations of 8 Kts.Geurocopter After engagement the present longitudinal (Vx) and lateral (Vy) doppler speeds are permanently compared with the preset values. When the beep trim is released the computer restores pure hovering flight. SE. The errors are sent to the pitch or roll channel to counter the offset. the computer respects maximum commanded acceleration values of 0. When the ground speed is less than 15 Kts. A four way switch allows the pilot to trim the reference groundspeed after engagement. the winch operator (if there is] can control flight by operating the winch mini-joystick.' AND RESCUE MODES . In all these flight manoeuvers commanded on the helicopter. The computer controls the ground speeds to obtain the sum of the reference speed selected by the pilot and the winch operator order.'PCf.

•• : acceleration ' control f-.. Moreover depending on the ground speed the maximum rate of climb or rate of descent is limited.. Guidance computer unit Collective axis engagement '----"'1 H.rTI"_"_-l ~l r--'---------IJiI""" ~ t logic TRIM actuator amplifier Coli H---I .HT engagem ent Selectable height reference SERIES ! Coli t-'----j. the computer controls the collective axis to reach and maintain the radio-altimeter height selected on the H.HT potentiometer on the control unit (between 40 and 300 ft). The pilot is warned in case of excessive deviations around the reference height. actuator Doppler radar -~-------------------~ I Vertical accelerometer _~ J I J ! J I I I When the mode is engaged.HT) mode captures and holds a radio-altimeter reference hover height on collective axis. r-~--~ -- actuator amplifier S eries .--_. SEt..'~N= RESCUE MODES .. ~ Jr------------------._eurocopter HOVER HEIGHT MODE The hover height (H.:>CH . actuator [ Radio altimeter ! vertical . parallel . A vertical accelerometer allows the computer to respect limitations for flight comfort and safety (maximum commanded vertical acceleration less than 0..1 5 rn/s").

with simultaneous acquisition of the reference height selected on the control unit and longitudinal doppler hovering. The selected reference height is reached for a longitudinal ground speed of 5 Kts to avoid unnecessary vertical acceleration sensations at the end of the transition.HT 3 2nd phase 4 5 For the collective and pitch axes. this mode is identical to the roll HOV mode._eurocopter TRANSITION DOWN MODE The Transition Down [T.vertical speed of 600 ft/mn (3 mrs) if acting on the collective axis only. . . transition occurs in two phases: • a first phase during which the helicopter captures and tracks a flight gradient of 5° : . from helicopter's present position. SEARCH AND RESCUE MODES . • guided transition down.DWNI mode simultaneously acquires a selected reference height and a longitudinal doppler hovering by acting on the collective and pitch axis and lateral hovering on the roll axis. There are two types of transition down: .DWN HOV H. For the roll axis.independant transition down.a second phase during which the computer synchronizes the helicopter on an optimum trajectory in the allowing it to reach the selected height and longitudinal doppler hovering. xrz plane. IAS=70 Kts Vz = 600 ft/mn 1~ Vz=o Vx=5 Kts ~Y-i~ Y selected final hover height VZ=D Vx=O 2 1st phase ~------------------~-~----------~~~ T.airspeed of 70 Kts (35 rn/s] if acting on the pitch axis only. 1 INDEPENDANT TRANSITION DOWN This mode acquires and holds lateral doppler hovering on the roll axis. on the collective and pitch axes.

_ \). it sends a pulse to the guidance computer to disengage all the active guidance modes on the collective and pitch axis and reversely to engage the T. \ 3 hover \ \ transition ) SEARCH AND RESCUE MODES . NAV mode remains active down to 40 Kts airspeed and is then disengaged for HOV mode on the roll axis. 4fJ '. . .---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Oeurocopter 2 GUIDED TRANSITION DOWN This mode is identical to the previous one in its final result. . a distance synchronization is added to the conventional synchronization of the independant T.. mark point 2.when reaching the hover transition point. • that: .OWN mode.DWN guidance mode is armed (not active).DOWN mode. note: for the ROLL axis.NA V guidance mode is active./ Assuming . LJ . a Mark Hover is input into the navigation computer memory.T.using roll steering commands it guides the helicopter toward this point through the NAV mode. The second phase is then initiated and the guidance is similar to the first phase of the independant T.OWN mode. \ . The guided transition down is performed phases.the navigation computer calculates the location of a hover transition point taking in account the distance to run to reach the objective. / \5 Then the navigation computer associated to the guidance computer will guide the aircraft toward the Mark Hover point in order to perform a stationary flight over this paint. on the pitch axis. The first phase is as follow: in two \. when flying over the desired hover point. . but during this second phase. . 1[ .

direct lane 11--+- -. ......•.•••... i Radio altimeter Vertical accel. •••••••• _+ ...•......oI.•.. [ <==> It_-'----:-~·--U:gU....._f .•••••••• _r.'" ~-- _ _ _...•••...._..•••.•...•. _..Io-~"~I Pitch parallel actuator Trans Down engagementJI---~----------~~-------.._....•._ Vertical gyro ~ J:. --Ai..--...HT select l :....••.___ ~ I H. _ •....(--_-__...._ .....TT •••••• _ •••••••••••• ~. _ -_ ... engagement Stab.~c..- . Z h' J 1 .. TRIM AUTO integrated term ~. \..z~ ~..•.P..._..~ ) ._-.. I r . _. .•. -- j . • __ •••••••••• _._.- •• "._ •• ..•. computer unit r- stabilization term Pitch series actuator rate lane .. .eurocopter Pitch A.~... T __ ~'".•.. 1 1 J '< .._. ...h I J I i"""'T ... height control logic SERIES actuator amplifier P Coli series actuator I' ~ A/S Air Z Data ~ Modulez 75~ speed control logic TRIM actuator amplifier Coli parallel actuator Guidance computer unit SEARCH Aid:: RESCUE MODES . _...

. _. .-__ _ }.······· .. ~------------~I-[-_.. ...----_~. The pilot is warned in case of excessive deviation in speed or height. Pitch A. integrated ~u. ..~~!~" ['-_v_e_rt_ic_a_l~l~~ . ·····1·······························.HT mode except for the vertical climbing speed limitation._=_I~_~_:_~]~-. h ~ [ .._~_a_1 ~ Y. . _...···..._. . computer unit r... but a function of airspeed.···_··. r-'-""" Pitch parallel actuator ._. _. I I I SERIES actuator amplifier : Coli series .--__ TRIM AUTO te_f_m_--..0.. by acting on the pitch and collectives axes..._ _ _ _ ../ " SEARCH ANO RESCUE MODES .stabilization term Pitch series actuator ~ ~ ~~H r1 '--- rate lane direct lane m_e_m_or_y __ 1 -'J I r':'I' r-.....P.rflY -..Icigh. In collective the mode is identical to the CR. When the helicopter reaches an airspeed of 35 Kts the pitch mode is identical to als mode with a reference of 75 Kts... ~ TRIM actuator amplifier '------~ r~z ~ A/S • 75~ Air z z Data z Modulez -"1 1 I con ••ol logic speed l- Coli parallel actuator Guidance computer unit ._. Trans UP engagement 1~-1-----------~-------~ . engagement Stab.'c-r!--~.4teurocopter TRANS UP MODE The transition up allows the pilot to leave the hovering flight with a preprogrammed airspeed in order acquire and hold a preselected radio altimeter height.·~'__--.. which no longer a function of longitudinal doppler speed.~- ..-_-L.... accet.. . .___V_~_~_t. . _ 1 t. control 'oglc !L.__ .._a_ct_u_a_to_r_.